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Sample records for rv regional function

  1. Transcriptional analysis of genetic region RvD1 of Mycobacterium bovis

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    Víctor Manuel Tibatá R.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis, shares 99.9% of genomic identity with M. tuberculosis, M. africanum and M. microti. Within this 0.1 % of difference, there are two genetic regions characteristics of M. bovis that are deleted in M. tuberculo­sis H37Rv: RvD1 and RvD2. According to bioinformatic analysis, these regions contain Open Reading Frames (ORFs. With the purpose of determining if the RvD1 region transcribes the ORFs predicted by bioinformatics (ORF1, ORF2 and Rv2024; total RNA was extracted from a culture of M. bovis BCG Pasteur, at different time points along the growth curve. The RNA samples were analyzed by Real Time Reverse Transcription - Poly-merase Chain Reaction (RTq-PCR. The findings show that ORF1, ORF2 and Rv2024, were transcribed consti-tutively, something that has not been reported previously. These results are a first step in order to determine the function of M. bovis RvD1 region, its possible role in pathogenesis and its interaction with both cattle and humans. Key words: Mycobacterium bovis, BCG, RNA, Real Time, RT-PCR, RvD1

  2. Studying of the function of expected ABC transporter Rv1458c-Rv1457c-Rv1456c in mycobacteria; Studium funkcie predpokladaneho ABC transportera Rv1458c-Rv1457c-Rv1456c v mykobakteriach

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    Sarkan, M; Mikusova, K; Kordulakova, J [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra biochemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    The bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis - the originator of tuberculosis in humans - is characterized by a complex cell wall, which is responsible for a high bacteria resistant to adverse external environmental conditions, as well as to the common antibiotics. The structure of the cell wall components and enzymes involved into its biosynthesis are relatively well described, but there is no information on the transfer of intermediate products of its biosynthetic across the plasmatic membrane. Orthologues of genes rv1459c-rv1458c-rv1457c-rv1456c of M. tuberculosis are in the same configuration in genomes of all previously sequenced mycobacterial strains. Rv1459c gene encodes a probable glycosyltransferases and genes rv1458c, rv1457c rv1456c code nucleotide binding and transmembrane subunits of expected ABC transporter. In our work we focused on the study of the function of expected ABC transporter Rv1458c-Rv1457c-Rv1456c, through analysis of phenotypes of strains M. Smegmatis. They have orthologues of genes encoding the transmembrane subunits of this transporter suspended by fragment encoding resistance to kanamycin. (authors)

  3. Strain-encoding cardiovascular magnetic resonance for assessment of right-ventricular regional function

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    Abraham M Roselle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue tagging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is a comprehensive method for the assessment of cardiac regional function. However, imaging the right ventricle (RV using this technique is problematic due to the thin wall of the RV relative to tag spacing which limits assessment of regional function using conventional in-plane tagging. Hypothesis We hypothesize that the use of through-plane tags in the strain-encoding (SENC CMR technique would result in reproducible measurements of the RV regional function due to the high image quality and spatial resolution possible with SENC. Aim To test the intra- and inter-observer variabilities of RV peak systolic strain measurements with SENC CMR for assessment of RV regional function (systolic strain in healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers (n = 21 were imaged using SENC. A four-chamber view was acquired in a single breath-hold. Circumferential strain was measured during systole at six equidistant points along the RV free wall. Peak contraction is defined as the maximum value of circumferential strain averaged from the six points, and regional function is defined as the strain value at each point at the time of peak contraction. Results Mean values for peak circumferential strain (± standard deviation of the basal, mid, and apical regions of the RV free wall were -20.4 ± 2.9%, -18.8 ± 3.9%, and -16.5 ± 5.7%, Altman plots showed good intra- and inter-observer agreements with mean difference of 0.11% and 0.32% and limits of agreement of -4.038 to 4.174 and -4.903 to 5.836, respectively. Conclusion SENC CMR allows for rapid quantification of RV regional function with low intra- and inter-observer variabilities, which could permit accurate quantification of regional strain in patients with RV dysfunction.

  4. Changes in right ventricular function assessed by echocardiography in dog models of mild RV pressure overload.

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    Morita, Tomoya; Nakamura, Kensuke; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Yokoyama, Nozomu; Morishita, Keitaro; Sasaki, Noboru; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-07-01

    The assessment of hemodynamic change by echocardiography is clinically useful in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Recently, mild elevation of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) has been shown to be associated with increased mortality. However, changes in the echocardiographic indices of right ventricular (RV) function are still unknown. The objective of this study was to validate the relationship between echocardiographic indices of RV function and right heart catheterization variables under a mild RV pressure overload condition. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed in dog models of mild RV pressure overload induced by thromboxane A 2 analog (U46619) (n=7). The mean PAP was mildly increased (19.3±1.1 mm Hg), and the cardiac index was decreased. Most echocardiographic indices of RV function were significantly impaired even under a mild RV pressure overload condition. Multivariate analysis revealed that the RV free wall longitudinal strain (RVLS), standard deviation of the time-to-peak longitudinal strain of RV six segments (RV-SD) by speckle-tracking echocardiography, and Tei index were independent echocardiographic predictors of the mean PAP (free wall RVLS, β=-0.60, P<.001; RV-SD, β=0.40, P=.011), pulmonary vascular resistance (free wall RVLS, β=-0.39, P=.020; RV-SD, β=0.47, P=.0086; Tei index, β=0.34, P=.047), and cardiac index (Tei index, β=-0.65, P<.001). Free wall RVLS, RV-SD, and Tei index are useful for assessing the hemodynamic change under a mild RV pressure overload condition. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Rationale and design of the ranolazine PH-RV study: a multicentred randomised and placebo-controlled study of ranolazine to improve RV function in patients with non-group 2 pulmonary hypertension.

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    Han, Yuchi; Forfia, Paul R; Vaidya, Anjali; Mazurek, Jeremy A; Park, Myung H; Ramani, Gautam; Chan, Stephen Y; Waxman, Aaron B

    2018-01-01

    A major determining factor on outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular (RV) function. Ranolazine, which is currently approved for chronic stable angina, has been shown to improve RV function in an animal model and has been shown to be safe in small human studies with PAH. We aim to study the effect of ranolazine on RV function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (non-group 2 patients) and monitor the effect of ranolazine on metabolism using metabolic profiling and changes of microRNA. This study is a longitudinal, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre proof-of-concept study in 24 subjects with pulmonary hypertension and RV dysfunction treated with ranolazine over 6 months. Subjects who meet the protocol definition of RV dysfunction (CMR RV ejection fraction (EF) <45%) will be randomised to ranolazine or placebo with a ratio of 2:1. Enrolled subjects will be assessed for functional class, 6 min walk test and health outcome based on SF-36 tool. Peripheral blood will be obtained for N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide, metabolic profiling, and microRNA at baseline and the conclusion of the treatment period. CMR will be performed at baseline and the conclusion of the treatment period. The primary outcome is change in RVEF. The exploratory outcomes include clinical, other CMR parameters, metabolic and microRNA changes. The trial protocol was approved by Institutional Review Boards. The trial findings will be disseminated in scientific journals and meetings. NCT01839110 and NCT02829034; Pre-results.

  6. Three-dimensional models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins Rv1555, Rv1554 and their docking analyses with sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil drugs, suggest interference with quinol binding likely to affect protein's function.

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    Dash, Pallabini; Bala Divya, M; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Guruprasad, Kunchur

    2018-04-18

    Earlier based on bioinformatics analyses, we had predicted the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554, among the potential new tuberculosis drug targets. According to the 'TB-drugome' the Rv1555 protein is 'druggable' with sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) drugs. In the present work, we intended to understand via computer modeling studies, how the above drugs are likely to inhibit the M.tb protein's function. The three-dimensional computer models for M.tb proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554 constructed on the template of equivalent membrane anchor subunits of the homologous E.coli quinol fumarate reductase respiratory protein complex, followed by drug docking analyses, suggested that the binding of above drugs interferes with quinol binding sites. Also, we experimentally observed the in-vitro growth inhibition of E.coli bacteria containing the homologous M.tb protein sequences with sildenafil and tadalafil drugs. The predicted binding sites of the drugs is likely to affect the above M.tb proteins function as quinol binding is known to be essential for electron transfer function during anaerobic respiration in the homologous E.coli protein complex. Therefore, sildenafil and related drugs currently used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction targeting the human phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme may be evaluated for their plausible role as repurposed drugs to treat human tuberculosis.

  7. A functional role of Rv1738 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence suggested by racemic protein crystallography.

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    Bunker, Richard D; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Bashiri, Ghader; Chaston, Jessica J; Pentelute, Bradley L; Lott, J Shaun; Kent, Stephen B H; Baker, Edward N

    2015-04-07

    Protein 3D structure can be a powerful predictor of function, but it often faces a critical roadblock at the crystallization step. Rv1738, a protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is strongly implicated in the onset of nonreplicating persistence, and thereby latent tuberculosis, resisted extensive attempts at crystallization. Chemical synthesis of the L- and D-enantiomeric forms of Rv1738 enabled facile crystallization of the D/L-racemic mixture. The structure was solved by an ab initio approach that took advantage of the quantized phases characteristic of diffraction by centrosymmetric crystals. The structure, containing L- and D-dimers in a centrosymmetric space group, revealed unexpected homology with bacterial hibernation-promoting factors that bind to ribosomes and suppress translation. This suggests that the functional role of Rv1738 is to contribute to the shutdown of ribosomal protein synthesis during the onset of nonreplicating persistence of M. tuberculosis.

  8. EMTP-RV at a glance

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    Mahseredjian, J.; Dennetiere, S. [IREQ Headquarters, PQ (Canada); Saad, O.; Khodabakhchian, B. [TransEnergie Technologies, PQ (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A new restructured version of an electromagnetic transient program, EMTP-RV, which is a combination of the well-known EMTP and a powerful graphical interface EMTPWorks, is described. EMTP-RV provides a higher level of capabilities in the simulation of large scale electrical networks, making it possible to rapidly design, simulate and view large and complex systems, without the usual large expenditure of engineering and development time, and at the same time allowing more detailed studies on the complex phenomena of power system transients. EMTP-RV has a completely new control system solver, an optional Newton method for finding the simultaneous solution of all control system blocks, and a complex matrix-based steady-state solution, used primarily in automatic initialization of state-variables. The article also describes the highly efficient, intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface EMTPWorks, which has an open architecture for maximized user configurability from basic user-defined model assemblies to more advanced script-based programming. The EMTP-RV package also includes an efficient data acquisition and processing software, named ScopeView and another visualization function called MPLOT. ScopeView offers multi-page and multi-column capabilities, an advanced built-in function editor, and is especially well adapted for the simultaneous viewing and mathematical post-processing of EMTP-RV. MPLOT, a compiled version of a set of m-files, is well suited for waveform viewing and statistical analysis. A one-week seminar and computer workshop on different aspects of transient system studies and analysis with EMTP-RV is provided twice a year by TransEnergie Technologies. 1 fig.

  9. The development of remote controlled linear guide and mast vertical guide of repair robot for RV head CRDM nozzle region in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min

    2006-11-01

    Reactor vessel which is core instrument in NPP must maintains integrity in the high temperature, high pressure and high radiation environment. Therefore RV must be inspected periodically. If there is defect, the RV must be repaired. A remote controlled linear guide and a vertical guide were developed for a welding repair robot of the RV head CRDM nozzle region. During inspection/maintenance, the RV head is placed RV head storage which is a double circled concrete structure. A linear guide was developed to provide a linear motion to the repair robot, which locates the robot under the RV head. The linear guide also provides a strong support to the robot not to overturn when the robot repairs the RV head. The robot needs lifting about 2m to reach the CRDM nozzle, therefore a vertical guide was developed. For easy traveling, the linear guide is designed 4 parts and the vertical guide is designed 3 parts. A control system was developed to remotely control the guide system which is composed of a connecter box, cables, control box, a computer and a control program. A monitoring system was developed to monitor operation of the guide system

  10. The development of remote controlled linear guide and mast vertical guide of repair robot for RV head CRDM nozzle region in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min

    2006-11-15

    Reactor vessel which is core instrument in NPP must maintains integrity in the high temperature, high pressure and high radiation environment. Therefore RV must be inspected periodically. If there is defect, the RV must be repaired. A remote controlled linear guide and a vertical guide were developed for a welding repair robot of the RV head CRDM nozzle region. During inspection/maintenance, the RV head is placed RV head storage which is a double circled concrete structure. A linear guide was developed to provide a linear motion to the repair robot, which locates the robot under the RV head. The linear guide also provides a strong support to the robot not to overturn when the robot repairs the RV head. The robot needs lifting about 2m to reach the CRDM nozzle, therefore a vertical guide was developed. For easy traveling, the linear guide is designed 4 parts and the vertical guide is designed 3 parts. A control system was developed to remotely control the guide system which is composed of a connecter box, cables, control box, a computer and a control program. A monitoring system was developed to monitor operation of the guide system.

  11. Assessment of right ventricular longitudinal strain by 2D speckle tracking imaging compared with RV function and hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension.

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    Li, Yidan; Wang, Yidan; Meng, Xiangli; Zhu, Weiwei; Lu, Xiuzhang

    2017-11-01

    The right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients and its relationship with RV function parameters measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic parameters measured by right heart catheterization was investigated. According to the WHO functional class (FC), 66 PH patients were divided into FC I/II (group 1) and III/IV (group 2). RV function parameters were measured by echocardiographic examinations. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained by right heart catheterization. Patients in group 2 had higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP; P good sensitivity and specificity. Evidence has shown that RVLS measurement can provide the much-needed and reliable information on RV function and hemodynamics. Therefore, this qualifies as a patient-friendly approach for the clinical management of PH patients.

  12. Humoral Responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR Regulon-Encoded Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Individuals with Latent Tuberculosis Infection

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    Simon G. Kimuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI is evidence of immunological control of tuberculosis. Dormancy survival regulator (DosR regulon-encoded proteins may have a role in the maintenance of LTBI. T cell responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were found to be most frequent among household contacts of TB cases from Uganda compared to other DosR proteins, but antibody responses were not described. We characterized antibody responses to these proteins in individuals from Uganda. Antibodies to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were measured in 68 uninfected individuals, 62 with LTBI, and 107 with active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB cases. There were no differences in the concentrations of antibodies to Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins between individuals with LTBI and APTB and those who were uninfected. LTBI was associated with higher concentrations of antibodies to Rv1733c in female participants [adjusted geometric mean ratio: 1.812, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.105 2.973, and p=0.019] but not in males (p value for interaction = 0.060. Antibodies to the four DosR regulon-encoded proteins investigated may not serve as good biomarkers of LTBI in the general population. More of the M.tb proteome needs to be screened to identify proteins that induce strong antibody responses in LTBI.

  13. Machine learning methods enable predictive modeling of antibody feature:function relationships in RV144 vaccinees.

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    Choi, Ickwon; Chung, Amy W; Suscovich, Todd J; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; O'Connell, Robert J; Francis, Donald; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The adaptive immune response to vaccination or infection can lead to the production of specific antibodies to neutralize the pathogen or recruit innate immune effector cells for help. The non-neutralizing role of antibodies in stimulating effector cell responses may have been a key mechanism of the protection observed in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial. In an extensive investigation of a rich set of data collected from RV144 vaccine recipients, we here employ machine learning methods to identify and model associations between antibody features (IgG subclass and antigen specificity) and effector function activities (antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis, cellular cytotoxicity, and cytokine release). We demonstrate via cross-validation that classification and regression approaches can effectively use the antibody features to robustly predict qualitative and quantitative functional outcomes. This integration of antibody feature and function data within a machine learning framework provides a new, objective approach to discovering and assessing multivariate immune correlates.

  14. Machine learning methods enable predictive modeling of antibody feature:function relationships in RV144 vaccinees.

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    Ickwon Choi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response to vaccination or infection can lead to the production of specific antibodies to neutralize the pathogen or recruit innate immune effector cells for help. The non-neutralizing role of antibodies in stimulating effector cell responses may have been a key mechanism of the protection observed in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial. In an extensive investigation of a rich set of data collected from RV144 vaccine recipients, we here employ machine learning methods to identify and model associations between antibody features (IgG subclass and antigen specificity and effector function activities (antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis, cellular cytotoxicity, and cytokine release. We demonstrate via cross-validation that classification and regression approaches can effectively use the antibody features to robustly predict qualitative and quantitative functional outcomes. This integration of antibody feature and function data within a machine learning framework provides a new, objective approach to discovering and assessing multivariate immune correlates.

  15. The Prognostic Impact of the Evolution of RV Function in Idiopathic DCM.

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    Merlo, Marco; Gobbo, Marco; Stolfo, Davide; Losurdo, Pasquale; Ramani, Federica; Barbati, Giulia; Pivetta, Alberto; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Anzini, Marco; Gigli, Marta; Pinamonti, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed the prognostic role of right ventricular systolic function (RVF) longitudinal trends in a large cohort of patients affected by dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). RVF is a known prognostic predictor in DCM; however, whether RVF changes over time to better predict the long-term disease progression has not been investigated. From 1993 to 2008, we analyzed 512 patients with DCM (46 years of age [36 to 55 years of age], left ventricular ejection fraction 32% [25% to 41%]) with a potential follow-up of ≥72 months and available data at baseline and at least 1 pre-specified follow-up evaluation (i.e., 6, 24, 48, or 72 months). RV dysfunction was defined as RV fractional area change model, RVF revaluation over time maintained an independent predictive value (hazard ratio: 2.83; 95% CI: 1.57 to 5.11; p = 0.0006). Patients with DCM frequently present RV dysfunction at first evaluation. However, a complete RVF recovery is largely observed early after optimization of medical therapy and predates subsequent left ventricular reverse remodeling. Systematic revaluation of patients including RVF throughout regular follow-up conferred additive long-term prognostic value to the baseline evaluation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimized R functions for analysis of ecological community data using the R virtual laboratory (RvLab).

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    Varsos, Constantinos; Patkos, Theodore; Oulas, Anastasis; Pavloudi, Christina; Gougousis, Alexandros; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Filiopoulou, Irene; Pattakos, Nikolaos; Vanden Berghe, Edward; Fernández-Guerra, Antonio; Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Pafilis, Evangelos; Bekiari, Chryssoula; Doerr, Martin; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Parallel data manipulation using R has previously been addressed by members of the R community, however most of these studies produce ad hoc solutions that are not readily available to the average R user. Our targeted users, ranging from the expert ecologist/microbiologists to computational biologists, often experience difficulties in finding optimal ways to exploit the full capacity of their computational resources. In addition, improving performance of commonly used R scripts becomes increasingly difficult especially with large datasets. Furthermore, the implementations described here can be of significant interest to expert bioinformaticians or R developers. Therefore, our goals can be summarized as: (i) description of a complete methodology for the analysis of large datasets by combining capabilities of diverse R packages, (ii) presentation of their application through a virtual R laboratory (RvLab) that makes execution of complex functions and visualization of results easy and readily available to the end-user. In this paper, the novelty stems from implementations of parallel methodologies which rely on the processing of data on different levels of abstraction and the availability of these processes through an integrated portal. Parallel implementation R packages, such as the pbdMPI (Programming with Big Data - Interface to MPI) package, are used to implement Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallelization on primitive mathematical operations, allowing for interplay with functions of the vegan package. The dplyr and RPostgreSQL R packages are further integrated offering connections to dataframe like objects (databases) as secondary storage solutions whenever memory demands exceed available RAM resources. The RvLab is running on a PC cluster, using version 3.1.2 (2014-10-31) on a x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit) platform, and offers an intuitive virtual environmet interface enabling users to perform analysis of ecological and microbial communities based on

  17. Altered Immune Cytokine Expression Associated with KoRV B Infection and Season in Captive Koalas

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    Higgins, Damien P.

    2016-01-01

    Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are increasingly vulnerable and one of the main threats is chlamydial infection. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) has been proposed as an underlying cause of the koala’s susceptibility to infection with Chlamydia and high rates of lymphoid neoplasia; however, the regionally ubiquitous, endogenous nature of this virus suggests that KoRV A infection is not sufficient for immune suppression to occur. A recently discovered exogenous variant of KoRV, KoRV B, has several structural elements that cause increased pathogenicity in related retroviruses and was associated with lymphoid neoplasia in one study. The present study assesses whether KoRV B infection is associated with alterations in immune function. Cytokine gene expression by mitogen stimulated lymphocytes of KoRV B positive (n = 5–6) and negative (n = 6–7) captive koalas was evaluated by qPCR four times (April 2014-February 2015) to control for seasonal variation. Key immune genes in the Th1 pathway (IFNγ, TNFα), Th2 pathway (IL 10, IL4, IL6) and Th17 pathway (IL17A), along with CD4:CD8 ratio, were assessed. KoRV B positive koalas showed significantly increased up-regulation of IL17A and IL10 in three out of four sampling periods and IFNγ, IL6, IL4 and TNFα in two out of four. IL17A is an immune marker for chlamydial pathogenesis in the koala; increased expression of IL17A in KoRV B positive koalas, and concurrent immune dysregulation, may explain the differences in susceptibility to chlamydial infection and severity of disease seen between individuals and populations. There was also marked seasonal variation in up-regulation for most of the cytokines and the CD4:CD8 ratio. The up-regulation in both Th1 and Th2 cytokines mirrors changes associated with immune dysregulation in humans and felids as a result of retroviral infections. This is the first report of altered immune expression in koalas infected by an exogenous variant of KoRV and also the first report of

  18. Computer-based assessment of right ventricular regional ejection fraction in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

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    Teo, S.-K.; Wong, S. T.; Tan, M. L.; Su, Y.; Zhong, L.; Tan, Ru-San

    2015-03-01

    After surgical repair for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), most patients experience long-term complications as the right ventricle (RV) undergoes progressive remodeling that eventually affect heart functions. Thus, post-repair surgery is required to prevent further deterioration of RV functions that may result in malignant ventricular arrhythmias and mortality. The timing of such post-repair surgery therefore depends crucially on the quantitative assessment of the RV functions. Current clinical indices for such functional assessment measure global properties such as RV volumes and ejection fraction. However, these indices are less than ideal as regional variations and anomalies are obscured. Therefore, we sought to (i) develop a quantitative method to assess RV regional function using regional ejection fraction (REF) based on a 13-segment model, and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of REF in discriminating 6 repaired TOF patients and 6 normal control based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. We observed that the REF for the individual segments in the patient group is significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05 using a 2-tail student t-test). In addition, we also observed that the aggregated REF at the basal, mid-cavity and apical regions for the patient group is significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.001 using a 2-tail student t-test). The results suggest that REF could potentially be used as a quantitative index for assessing RV regional functions. The computational time per data set is approximately 60 seconds, which demonstrates our method's clinical potential as a real-time cardiac assessment tool.

  19. Which is the better forecasting model? A comparison between HAR-RV and multifractality volatility

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    Ma, Feng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi; Chen, Yixiang

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, by taking the 5-min high frequency data of the Shanghai Composite Index as example, we compare the forecasting performance of HAR-RV and Multifractal volatility, Realized volatility, Realized Bipower Variation and their corresponding short memory model with rolling windows forecasting method and the Model Confidence Set which is proved superior to SPA test. The empirical results show that, for six loss functions, HAR-RV outperforms other models. Moreover, to make the conclusions more precise and robust, we use the MCS test to compare the performance of their logarithms form models, and find that the HAR-log(RV) has a better performance in predicting future volatility. Furthermore, by comparing the two models of HAR-RV and HAR-log(RV), we conclude that, in terms of performance forecasting, the HAR-log(RV) model is the best model among models we have discussed in this paper.

  20. Molecular analysis of Rv0679c and Rv0180c genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical isolates of pulmonary tuberculosis

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    L Rupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Two novel proteins/genes Rv0679c and Rv0180c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB H37Rv were classified as a hypothetical membrane and transmembrane proteins which might have a role in the invasion. Molecular analysis of these genes in human clinical isolates of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients was not well characterised. Aims: To assess the molecular diversity of Rv0679c and Rv0180c genes of MTB from clinical isolates of PTB patients. Settings and Design: DNA from 97 clinical isolates was extracted and subjected to amplification using selective primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The PCR product obtained was sequenced commercially. Patients and Methods: Clinical isolates obtained from tuberculosis patients were investigated for polymorphisms in the Rv0679c and Rv0180c genes by PCR and DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA isolated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method was used for amplification of genes. Results: Rv0679c gene was highly conserved in 61 out of 65 clinical isolates assessed for sequence homology with wild-type H37Rv gene and was identical using ClustalW. Fifty-five out of 78 (70.5% clinical isolates assessed for Rv0180c were positive for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at 258th position where the nucleotide G was replaced with T (G to T. In clinical isolates of untreated cases, the frequency was 54.5% for SNP at 258th position which is low compared to cases undergoing treatment where the frequency was 73.1%. Conclusions: Molecular analysis of Rv0180c in clinical isolates of PTB assessed in this study was the first report, where an SNP at 258th position G to T was identified within the gene. Rv0679c gene was highly conserved (94%, within Indian clinical isolates as compared to reports from other nations.

  1. Cellular and molecular basis of RV hypertrophy in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobazzi, D; Suleiman, M-S; Ghorbel, M; George, S J; Caputo, M; Tulloh, R M

    2016-01-01

    RV hypertrophy (RVH) is one of the triggers of RV failure in congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore, improving our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of this pathology will help in developing strategic therapeutic interventions to enhance patient benefit in the future. This review describes the potential mechanisms that underlie the transition from RVH to RV failure. In particular, it addresses structural and functional remodelling that encompass contractile dysfunction, metabolic changes, shifts in gene expression and extracellular matrix remodelling. Both ischaemic stress and reactive oxygen species production are implicated in triggering these changes and will be discussed. Finally, RV remodelling in response to various CHDs as well as the potential role of biomarkers will be addressed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Kohtujurist Ivo Raudjärv peab etteheiteid maksuametile põhjendatuiks / Ivo Raudjärv ; interv. Edith Kiilmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudjärv, Ivo, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Maksumaksja intervjuu juristibüroo Raudjärv & Ko UÜ juhataja Ivo Raudjärvega. Kommentaarid: Lasse Lehis (TÜ finantsõiguse dotsent, Riigikohtu halduskolleegiumi nõunik) "Ivo Raudjärv - asendamatu asjatundja", Aivar Pau (Maksuameti pressiesindaja) "Maksuameti statistika põhineb jõustunud kohtulahenditel", Jüri Allikalt (Jüri Allikaltþi õigusbüroo jurist-maksukonsultant) "Analüütiline Ivo Raudjärv". Lisatud Ivo Raudjärve CV

  3. 1.55 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rv3902c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Bharat G.; Moates, Derek B. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1025 18th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Kim, Heung-Bok [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Green, Todd J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1025 18th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Kim, Chang-Yub; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); DeLucas, Lawrence J., E-mail: duke2@uab.edu [University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1025 18th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)

    2014-03-25

    The 1.55 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rv3902c from M. tuberculosis reveals a novel fold. The crystallographic structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) protein Rv3902c (176 residues; molecular mass of 19.8 kDa) was determined at 1.55 Å resolution. The function of Rv3902c is unknown, although several TB genes involved in bacterial pathogenesis are expressed from the operon containing the Rv3902c gene. The unique structural fold of Rv3902c contains two domains, each consisting of antiparallel β-sheets and α-helices, creating a hand-like binding motif with a small binding pocket in the palm. Structural homology searches reveal that Rv3902c has an overall structure similar to that of the Salmonella virulence-factor chaperone InvB, with an r.m.s.d. for main-chain atoms of 2.3 Å along an aligned domain.

  4. 1.55 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rv3902c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Bharat G.; Moates, Derek B.; Kim, Heung-Bok; Green, Todd J.; Kim, Chang-Yub; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    The 1.55 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rv3902c from M. tuberculosis reveals a novel fold. The crystallographic structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) protein Rv3902c (176 residues; molecular mass of 19.8 kDa) was determined at 1.55 Å resolution. The function of Rv3902c is unknown, although several TB genes involved in bacterial pathogenesis are expressed from the operon containing the Rv3902c gene. The unique structural fold of Rv3902c contains two domains, each consisting of antiparallel β-sheets and α-helices, creating a hand-like binding motif with a small binding pocket in the palm. Structural homology searches reveal that Rv3902c has an overall structure similar to that of the Salmonella virulence-factor chaperone InvB, with an r.m.s.d. for main-chain atoms of 2.3 Å along an aligned domain

  5. Sequential biventricular pacing improves regional contractility, longitudinal function and dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring Margareta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Biventricular pacing (BiP is an effective treatment in systolic heart failure (HF patients with prolonged QRS. However, approximately 35% of the patients receiving BiP are classified as non-responders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute effects of VV-optimization on systolic heart function. Methods Twenty-one HF patients aged 72 (46-88 years, QRS 154 (120-190 ms, were studied with echocardiography, Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI and 3D-echo the first day after receiving a BiP device. TDI was performed; during simultaneous pacing (LV-lead pacing 4 ms before the RV-lead and during sequential pacing (LV 20 and 40 ms before RV and RV 20 and 40 ms before LV-lead pacing. Systolic heart function was studied by tissue tracking (TT for longitudinal function and systolic maximal velocity (SMV for regional contractility and signs of dyssynchrony assessed by time-delays standard deviation of aortic valve opening to SMV, AVO-SMV/SD and tissue synchronization imaging (TSI. Results The TT mean value preoperatively was 4,2 ± 1,5 and increased at simultaneous pacing to 5,0 ± 1,2 mm (p Conclusions VV-optimization in the acute phase improves systolic heart function more than simultaneous BiP pacing. Long-term effects should be evaluated in prospective randomized trials.

  6. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2714, a representative of a duplicated gene family in Actinobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graña, Martin; Bellinzoni, Marco; Miras, Isabelle; Fiez-Vandal, Cedric; Haouz, Ahmed; Shepard, William; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of Rv2714, a protein of unknown function from M. tuberculosis, has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction methods. The gene Rv2714 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which codes for a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is a representative member of a gene family that is largely confined to the order Actinomycetales of Actinobacteria. Sequence analysis indicates the presence of two paralogous genes in most mycobacterial genomes and suggests that gene duplication was an ancient event in bacterial evolution. The crystal structure of Rv2714 has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution, revealing a trimer in which the topology of the protomer core is similar to that observed in a functionally diverse set of enzymes, including purine nucleoside phosphorylases, some carboxypeptidases, bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases and even the plastidic form of an intron splicing factor. However, some structural elements, such as a β-hairpin insertion involved in protein oligomerization and a C-terminal α-helical domain that serves as a lid to the putative substrate-binding (or ligand-binding) site, are only found in Rv2714 bacterial homologues and represent specific signatures of this protein family

  7. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2714, a representative of a duplicated gene family in Actinobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graña, Martin; Bellinzoni, Marco [Institut Pasteur, Unité de Biochimie Structurale, URA CNRS 2185, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris (France); Miras, Isabelle; Fiez-Vandal, Cedric; Haouz, Ahmed; Shepard, William [Institut Pasteur, Plate-forme de Cristallogenèse et Diffraction des Rayons X, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris (France); Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Alzari, Pedro M., E-mail: alzari@pasteur.fr [Institut Pasteur, Unité de Biochimie Structurale, URA CNRS 2185, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris (France)

    2009-10-01

    The crystal structure of Rv2714, a protein of unknown function from M. tuberculosis, has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction methods. The gene Rv2714 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which codes for a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is a representative member of a gene family that is largely confined to the order Actinomycetales of Actinobacteria. Sequence analysis indicates the presence of two paralogous genes in most mycobacterial genomes and suggests that gene duplication was an ancient event in bacterial evolution. The crystal structure of Rv2714 has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution, revealing a trimer in which the topology of the protomer core is similar to that observed in a functionally diverse set of enzymes, including purine nucleoside phosphorylases, some carboxypeptidases, bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases and even the plastidic form of an intron splicing factor. However, some structural elements, such as a β-hairpin insertion involved in protein oligomerization and a C-terminal α-helical domain that serves as a lid to the putative substrate-binding (or ligand-binding) site, are only found in Rv2714 bacterial homologues and represent specific signatures of this protein family.

  8. Mutation of Rv2887, a marR-like gene, confers Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to an imidazopyridine-based agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Kathryn; Lun, Shichun; Pieroni, Marco; Kozikowski, Alan; Bishai, William

    2015-11-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in Mycobacterium tuberculosis control, and it is critical to identify novel drug targets and new antimycobacterial compounds. We have previously identified an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-4-carbonitrile-based agent, MP-III-71, with strong activity against M. tuberculosis. In this study, we evaluated mechanisms of resistance to MP-III-71. We derived three independent M. tuberculosis mutants resistant to MP-III-71 and conducted whole-genome sequencing of these mutants. Loss-of-function mutations in Rv2887 were common to all three MP-III-71-resistant mutants, and we confirmed the role of Rv2887 as a gene required for MP-III-71 susceptibility using complementation. The Rv2887 protein was previously unannotated, but domain and homology analyses suggested it to be a transcriptional regulator in the MarR (multiple antibiotic resistance repressor) family, a group of proteins first identified in Escherichia coli to negatively regulate efflux pumps and other mechanisms of multidrug resistance. We found that two efflux pump inhibitors, verapamil and chlorpromazine, potentiate the action of MP-III-71 and that mutation of Rv2887 abrogates their activity. We also used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify genes which are differentially expressed in the presence and absence of a functional Rv2887 protein. We found that genes involved in benzoquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis were repressed by functional Rv2887. Thus, inactivating mutations of Rv2887, encoding a putative MarR-like transcriptional regulator, confer resistance to MP-III-71, an effective antimycobacterial compound that shows no cross-resistance to existing antituberculosis drugs. The mechanism of resistance of M. tuberculosis Rv2887 mutants may involve efflux pump upregulation and also drug methylation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Analysis on Dynamic Transmission Accuracy for RV Reducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fengshou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By taking rotate vector (RV reducer as the research object, the factors affecting the transmission accuracy are studied, including the machining errors of the main parts, assembly errors, clearance, micro-displacement, gear mesh stiffness and damping, bearing stiffness. Based on Newton second law, the transmission error mathematical model of RV reducer is set up. Then, the RV reducer transmission error curve is achieved by solving the mathematical model using the Runge-Kutta methods under the combined action of various error factors. Through the analysis of RV reducer transmission test, it can be found that there are similar variation trend and frequency components compared the theoretical research and experimental result. The presented method is useful to the research on dynamic transmission accuracy of RV reducer, and also applies to research the transmission accuracy of other cycloid drive systems.

  10. Stringent DDI-based prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Rezaei, Javad; Hugo, Willy; Gao, Shangzhi; Jin, Jingjing; Fan, Mengyuan; Yong, Chern-Han; Wozniak, Michal; Wong, Limsoon

    2013-01-01

    H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are very important information to illuminate the infection mechanism of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. But current H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data are very scarce. This seriously limits the study of the interaction between this important pathogen and its host H. sapiens. Computational prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs is an important strategy to fill in the gap. Domain-domain interaction (DDI) based prediction is one of the frequently used computational approaches in predicting both intra-species and inter-species PPIs. However, the performance of DDI-based host-pathogen PPI prediction has been rather limited. We develop a stringent DDI-based prediction approach with emphasis on (i) differences between the specific domain sequences on annotated regions of proteins under the same domain ID and (ii) calculation of the interaction strength of predicted PPIs based on the interacting residues in their interaction interfaces. We compare our stringent DDI-based approach to a conventional DDI-based approach for predicting PPIs based on gold standard intra-species PPIs and coherent informative Gene Ontology terms assessment. The assessment results show that our stringent DDI-based approach achieves much better performance in predicting PPIs than the conventional approach. Using our stringent DDI-based approach, we have predicted a small set of reliable H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs which could be very useful for a variety of related studies. We also analyze the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs predicted by our stringent DDI-based approach using cellular compartment distribution analysis, functional category enrichment analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. The analyses support the validity of our prediction result. Also, based on an analysis of the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI network predicted by our stringent DDI-based approach, we have discovered some

  11. Cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of a feast/famine regulatory protein (Rv2779c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhishek; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Rv2779c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a feast/famine regulatory protein. This class of proteins are also known as the leucine-responsive regulatory protein/asparagine synthase C family (Lrp/AsnC) of transcriptional regulators and are known to be involved in various metabolic processes in bacteria and fungi. They contain a RAM (regulator of amino-acid metabolism) domain that is rarely found in humans and acts as the oligomerization domain. Since the oligomeric status is often linked to the particular functional role in these proteins, binding of ligands to the domain can elicit specific functional responses. Full-length Rv2779c corresponding to a molecular mass of 19.8 kDa and 179 residues was cloned and purified to homogeneity following transformation into Escherichia coli C41 (DE3) cells. Crystals were grown by vapour diffusion using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data extending to 2.8 Å resolution were collected from a single crystal that belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.6, b = 146.0, c = 49.9 Å. Matthews coefficient (VM) calculations suggest that four molecules are present in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to a solvent content of ∼46%. Molecular-replacement calculations using the crystal structure of a homologue, Rv3291c, as the search model gave an unambiguous solution corresponding to four subunits in the asymmetric unit.

  12. Forkhead-associated (FHA) Domain Containing ABC Transporter Rv1747 Is Positively Regulated by Ser/Thr Phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Vicky L.; Molle, Virginie; Whalan, Rachael H.; Rodgers, Angela; Leiba, Jade; Stach, Lasse; Walker, K. Barry; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Buxton, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    One major signaling method employed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is through reversible phosphorylation of proteins mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. This study concerns one of these enzymes, the serine/threonine protein kinase PknF, that is encoded in an operon with Rv1747, an ABC transporter that is necessary for growth of M. tuberculosis in vivo and contains two forkhead-associated (FHA) domains. FHA domains are phosphopeptide recognition motifs that specifically recognize phosphothreonine-containing epitopes. Experiments to determine how PknF regulates the function of Rv1747 demonstrated that phosphorylation occurs on two specific threonine residues, Thr-150 and Thr-208. To determine the in vivo consequences of phosphorylation, infection experiments were performed in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in mice using threonine-to-alanine mutants of Rv1747 that prevent specific phosphorylation and revealed that phosphorylation positively modulates Rv1747 function in vivo. The role of the FHA domains in this regulation was further demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry, using peptides containing both phosphothreonine residues. FHA-1 domain mutation resulted in attenuation in macrophages highlighting the critical role of this domain in Rv1747 function. A mutant deleted for pknF did not, however, have a growth phenotype in an infection, suggesting that other kinases can fulfill its role when it is absent. This study provides the first information on the molecular mechanism(s) regulating Rv1747 through PknF-dependent phosphorylation but also indicates that phosphorylation activates Rv1747, which may have important consequences in regulating growth of M. tuberculosis. PMID:21622570

  13. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Giridhar, S.

    2014-04-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  14. Rv2477c is an antibiotic-sensitive manganese-dependent ABC-F ATPase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jaiyanth; Abraham, Liz; Martin, Amanda; Pablo, Xyryl; Reyes, Shelby

    2018-01-01

    The Rv2477c protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily F that contains proteins with tandem nucleotide-binding domains but lacking transmembrane domains. ABC-F subfamily proteins have been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as translation, antibiotic resistance, cell growth and nutrient sensing. In order to investigate the biochemical characteristics of Rv2477c, we expressed it in Escherichia coli, purified it and characterized its enzymatic functions. We show that Rv2477c displays strong ATPase activity (V max  = 45.5 nmol/mg/min; K m  = 90.5 μM) that is sensitive to orthovanadate. The ATPase activity was maximal in the presence of Mn 2+ at pH 5.2. The Rv2477c protein was also able to hydrolyze GTP, TTP and CTP but at lower rates. Glutamate to glutamine substitutions at amino acid residues 185 and 468 in the two Walker B motifs of Rv2477c severely inhibited its ATPase activity. The antibiotics tetracycline and erythromycin, which target protein translation, were able to inhibit the ATPase activity of Rv2477c. We postulate that Rv2477c could be involved in mycobacterial protein translation and in resistance to tetracyclines and macrolides. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of an ABC-F subfamily protein in Mtb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Elasticity Functions Based On 4DCT Images to Predict Tumor and Normal Tissue Response to Radiation for Patients with Lung Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, H; Li, H; Gordon, J; Chetty, I

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiotherapy outcomes by incorporating 4DCT-based physiological and tumor elasticity functions for lung cancer patients. Methods: 4DCT images were acquired from 28 lung SBRT patients before radiation treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) was performed from the end-inhale to the end-exhale using a B-Spline-based algorithm (Elastix, an open source software package). The resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) were used to calculate a relative Jacobian function (RV) for each patient. The computed functions in the lung and tumor regions represent lung ventilation and tumor elasticity properties, respectively. The 28 patients were divided into two groups: 16 with two-year tumor local control (LC) and 12 with local failure (LF). The ventilation and elasticity related RV functions were calculated for each of these patients. Results: The LF patients have larger RV values than the LC patients. The mean RV value in the lung region was 1.15 (±0.67) for the LF patients, higher than 1.06 (±0.59) for the LC patients. In the tumor region, the elasticity-related RV values are 1.2 (±0.97) and 0.86 (±0.64) for the LF and LC patients, respectively. Among the 16 LC patients, 3 have the mean RV values greater than 1.0 in the tumors. These tumors were located near the diaphragm, where the displacements are relatively large.. RV functions calculated in the tumor were better correlated with treatment outcomes than those calculated in the lung. Conclusion: The ventilation and elasticity-related RV functions in the lung and tumor regions were calculated from 4DCT image and the resultant values showed differences between the LC and LF patients. Further investigation of the impact of the displacements on the computed RV is warranted. Results suggest that the RV images might be useful for evaluation of treatment outcome for lung cancer patients

  16. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Elasticity Functions Based On 4DCT Images to Predict Tumor and Normal Tissue Response to Radiation for Patients with Lung Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, H; Li, H; Gordon, J; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate radiotherapy outcomes by incorporating 4DCT-based physiological and tumor elasticity functions for lung cancer patients. Methods: 4DCT images were acquired from 28 lung SBRT patients before radiation treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) was performed from the end-inhale to the end-exhale using a B-Spline-based algorithm (Elastix, an open source software package). The resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) were used to calculate a relative Jacobian function (RV) for each patient. The computed functions in the lung and tumor regions represent lung ventilation and tumor elasticity properties, respectively. The 28 patients were divided into two groups: 16 with two-year tumor local control (LC) and 12 with local failure (LF). The ventilation and elasticity related RV functions were calculated for each of these patients. Results: The LF patients have larger RV values than the LC patients. The mean RV value in the lung region was 1.15 (±0.67) for the LF patients, higher than 1.06 (±0.59) for the LC patients. In the tumor region, the elasticity-related RV values are 1.2 (±0.97) and 0.86 (±0.64) for the LF and LC patients, respectively. Among the 16 LC patients, 3 have the mean RV values greater than 1.0 in the tumors. These tumors were located near the diaphragm, where the displacements are relatively large.. RV functions calculated in the tumor were better correlated with treatment outcomes than those calculated in the lung. Conclusion: The ventilation and elasticity-related RV functions in the lung and tumor regions were calculated from 4DCT image and the resultant values showed differences between the LC and LF patients. Further investigation of the impact of the displacements on the computed RV is warranted. Results suggest that the RV images might be useful for evaluation of treatment outcome for lung cancer patients.

  17. Identification of Rv0222 from RD4 as a novel serodiagnostic target for tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrands, Ida; Aagaard, Claus; Weldingh, Karin

    2008-01-01

    tuberculosis patients and healthy controls led to identification of Rv0222 as the most promising serodiagnostic antigen. Recognition of the Rv0222 was compared with the 38 kDa protein and a fusion protein of the RD1 proteins ESAT-6 and CFP10 in a serum panel from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients from......Forty-seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes from the 'regions of difference' RD2-7, RD9-13 and RD15 were cloned and expressed, and the purified recombinant proteins were screened for their serodiagnostic potential. Evaluation of six selected proteins in serum samples from Danish resident...

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumm, J.; Mi, K; Bilder, P; Sun, M; Lim, J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Basaraba, R; So, M; Zhu, G; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

  19. Infection with koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B), but not KoRV-A, is associated with chlamydial disease in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; King, Andrew; Hobbs, Matthew; Johnson, Rebecca; Timms, Peter

    2017-03-09

    The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppressive effect of KoRV in vitro. Originally thought to be a single endogenous strain, a new, potentially more virulent exogenous variant (KoRV-B) was recently reported. We hypothesized that KoRV-B might significantly alter chlamydial disease outcomes in koalas, presumably via immunosuppression. By studying sub-groups of Chlamydia and KoRV infected koalas in the wild, we found that neither total KoRV load (either viraemia or proviral copies per genome), nor chlamydial infection level or strain type, was significantly associated with chlamydial disease risk. However, PCR positivity with KoRV-B was significantly associated with chlamydial disease in koalas (p = 0.02961). This represents an example of a recently evolved virus variant that may be predisposing its host (the koala) to overt clinical disease when co-infected with an otherwise asymptomatic bacterial pathogen (Chlamydia).

  20. Comparison of systemic right ventricular function in transposition of the great arteries after atrial switch and congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Michael; Kilner, Philip J; Sahn, David J; Litt, Harold I; Valsangiacomo-Buechel, Emanuela R; Sheehan, Florence H

    2017-12-01

    In patients with transposition of the great arteries corrected by interatrial baffle (TGA) and those with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) the right ventricle (RV) is subjected to systemic pressure and fails prematurely. Previous studies have demonstrated RV dysfunction may be more pronounced in patients with TGA. The present study sought to compare patients with TGA and ccTGA using three-dimensional (3D) techniques to comprehensively analyze the shape, volume, global and regional function in the systemic RV. We compared RV size, shape, and regional and global function in 25 patients with TGA, 17 patients with ccTGA, and 9 normal subjects. The RVs were reconstructed from cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images for 3D analyses. Compared to normal, the RV in TGA and ccTGA was dilated, rounded, and reduced in function. Compared to each other, TGA and ccTGA patients had similar RV size and shape. Global RV function was lower in TGA than ccTGA when assessed from ejection fraction (EF) (30 ± 7 vs. 35 ± 7, p = 0.02) and from normalized tricuspid annular systolic plane excursion (TAPSE) (0.10 ± 0.04 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04, p < 0.01). Basilar RV function was poorer in the TGA patients when compared to ccTGA. The systemic RVs in both TGA and ccTGA are dilated, spherical, and poorly functioning. Compared to ccTGA, TGA RVs have reduced TAPSE and worse basilar hypokinesis.

  1. RV-Typer: A Web Server for Typing of Rhinoviruses Using Alignment-Free Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandurang S Kolekar

    Full Text Available Rhinoviruses (RV are increasingly being reported to cause mild to severe infections of respiratory tract in humans. RV are antigenically the most diverse species of the genus Enterovirus and family Picornaviridae. There are three species of RV (RV-A, -B and -C, with 80, 32 and 55 serotypes/types, respectively. Antigenic variation is the main limiting factor for development of a cross-protective vaccine against RV.Serotyping of Rhinoviruses is carried out using cross-neutralization assays in cell culture. However, these assays become laborious and time-consuming for the large number of strains. Alternatively, serotyping of RV is carried out by alignment-based phylogeny of both protein and nucleotide sequences of VP1. However, serotyping of RV based on alignment-based phylogeny is a multi-step process, which needs to be repeated every time a new isolate is sequenced. In view of the growing need for serotyping of RV, an alignment-free method based on "return time distribution" (RTD of amino acid residues in VP1 protein has been developed and implemented in the form of a web server titled RV-Typer. RV-Typer accepts nucleotide or protein sequences as an input and computes return times of di-peptides (k = 2 to assign serotypes. The RV-Typer performs with 100% sensitivity and specificity. It is significantly faster than alignment-based methods. The web server is available at http://bioinfo.net.in/RV-Typer/home.html.

  2. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Edlefsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients. A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro. The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021. In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3 overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1 more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9 (p < 0.0001, suggesting functional and/or structural relevance of the signature sites. Since signature sites were not preferentially restricted to the vaccine immunogens and because most of the associations were insignificant following correction for multiple testing, we predict that few of the genetic differences are strongly linked to the RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure. In addition to presenting results of the first complete-genome analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine

  3. Rotavirus shedding following administration of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Daniel; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2017-08-03

    The RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine aims to provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. A phase IIa safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand between January 2012 and April 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥ 36 weeks gestation) babies, who were 0-5 d old were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 3 doses of oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 d after birth (neonatal schedule), or the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to receive placebo (placebo schedule). Vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) was detected after 3 doses of RV3-BB vaccine in >90% of participants when the first dose was administered in the neonatal and infant schedules. The aim of the current study was to characterize RV3-BB shedding and virus replication following administration of RV3-BB in a neonatal and infant vaccination schedule. Shedding was defined as detection of rotavirus by VP6 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool on days 3-7 after administration of RV3-BB. Shedding of rotavirus was highest following vaccination at 8 weeks of age in both neonatal and infant schedules (19/30 and 17/27, respectively). Rotavirus was detected in stool on days 3-7, after at least one dose of RV3-BB, in 70% (21/30) of neonate, 78% (21/27) of infant and 3% (1/32) placebo participants. In participants who shed RV3-BB, rotavirus was detectable in stool on day 1 following RV3-BB administration and remained positive until day 4-5 after administration. The distinct pattern of RV3-BB stool viral load demonstrated using a NSP3 quantitative qRT-PCR in participants who shed RV3-BB, suggests that detection of RV3-BB at day 3-7 was the result of replication rather than passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. 1993 recreational vehicle (RV) park census in Beatty and Pahrump, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, L.E.; Housel, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the second annual study of seasonal nonpermanent residents in the towns of Beatty and Pahrump in southern Nye County, Nevada, situs county of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The study used a census of recreational vehicle (RV) park managers to enumerate and characterize in demographic terms nonpermanent residents staying in RV parks. The questionnaire sought information from RV park managers which ordinarily would come from a household survey. The main objective was to study open-quotes snowbirdsclose quotes, the households of older couples who stay for a month or more each winter. The findings suggest that snowbirds are a majority of the seasonal influx of nonpermanent residents to RV parks in Pahrump. In contrast, a group called open-quotes seasonal travelersclose quotes, similar demographically but who stay less than a month, dominate the seasonal nonpermanent population in Beatty's RV parks. The study also tentatively identified the seasonality of nonpermanent resident occupancy. Because only RV parks were contacted, the study left unanswered the question of how many snowbirds live in other types of accommodations in Beatty and Pahrump

  5. Radial Velocities of Subgiant Stars and New Astrophysical Insights into RV Jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhn, Jacob; Bastien, Fabienne; Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, the California Planet Search (CPS) has simultaneously monitored precise radial velocities and chromospheric activity levels of stars from Keck observatory to search for exoplanets. This sample provides a useful set of stars to better determine the dependence of RV jitter on flicker (which traces surface gravity) first shown in Bastien et al. (2014). We expand upon this initial work by examining a much larger sample of stars covering a much wider range of stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and activity, among others). For more than 600 stars, there are enough RV measurements to distinguish this astrophysical jitter from accelerations due to orbital companions. To properly isolate RV jitter from these effects, we must first remove the RV signal due to these companions, including several previously unannounced giant planets around subgiant stars. We highlight some new results from our analysis of the CPS data. A more thorough understanding of the various sources of RV jitter and the underlying stellar phenomena that drive these intrinsic RV variations will enable more precise jitter estimates for RV follow-up targets such as those from K2 or the upcoming TESS mission.

  6. TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.; Aldering, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND NON-UNIFORM INTERSTELLAR DUST ABSTRACT We investigate the time variation of the visual extinction, AV, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, resulting from interstellar dust in front of an expanding photospheric disk of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We simulate interstellar dust clouds according to a power law power spectrum and produce extinction maps that either follow a pseudo-Gaussian distribution or a lognormal distribution. The RV maps are produced through a correlation between AV and RV. With maps of AV and RV generated in each case (pseudo-Gaussian and lognormal), we then compute the effective AV and RV for a SN as its photospheric disk expands behind the dust screen. We find for a small percentage of SNe the AV and RV values can vary by a large factor from day to day in the first 40 days after explosion.

  7. Oligomeric stability of Rapana venosa hemocyanin (RvH) and its structural subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina; Schwarz, Heinz; Dolashki, Aleksandar; Stevanovic, Stefan; Fecker, Miriam; Saeed, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-21

    The two structural subunits RvH1 and RvH2 were separated after overnight dialysis of Rapana venosa Hc against 130 mM Gly/NaOH buffer, pH 9.6, on an ion exchange column Hiload 26/10 Sepharose Q using a fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. The reassociation characteristics of these two RvH isoforms and the native molecule were studied in buffers with different pH values and concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Reassociation of mixed RvH subunits was performed over a period of several days using a stabilizing buffer (SB) of pH 7.0 containing different concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. After 2 days of dialysis, an RvH subunit mixture of didecamers and multidecamers was observed in the presence of 100 mM CaCl(2) and MgCl(2), though RvH1 and RvH2 are biochemically and immunologically different and have also different dissociation properties. The reassociation, performed at pH 9.6 with 2 mM CaCl(2) and MgCl(2) at 4 degrees C over a period of one to several weeks, led to the formation of decameric oligomers, while didecamers formed predominantly in the SB at pH 7.0. Higher concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions led to a more rapid reassociation of RvH1 resulting in long stable multidecamers and helical tubules, which were stable and slowly dissociated into shorter multidecamers and decamers at higher pH values. The reassociation of the RvH2 structural subunit in the same buffers processed slowly and yielded didecamers, shorter tubule polymers and long multidecamers which are less stable at higher pH values. The stability of RvH isoforms under varying ionic conditions is compared with the stability of keyhole limpet (KLH, Megathura crenulata) hemocyanin (KLH) and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) isoforms. The process of dissociation and reassociation is connected with changes of the fluorescence intensity at 600 nm, which can be explained by differences in opalescence of the solutions of these two isoforms. The solutions of longer tubule

  8. Prevention of pneumonic plague in mice, rats, guinea pigs and non-human primates with clinical grade rV10, rV10-2 or F1-V vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy A.; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes plague, a disease with high mortality in humans that can be transmitted by fleabite or aerosol. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed plague vaccine is currently not available. Vaccine developers have focused on two subunits of Y. pestis: LcrV, a protein at the tip of type III secretion needles, and F1, the fraction 1 pilus antigen. F1-V, a hybrid generated via translational fusion of both antigens, is being developed for licensure as a plague vaccine. The rV10 vaccine is a non-toxigenic variant of LcrV lacking residues 271–300. Here we developed Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) protocols for rV10. Comparison of clinical grade rV10 with F1-V did not reveal significant differences in plague protection in mice, guinea pigs or cynomolgus macaques. We also developed cGMP protocols for rV10-2, a variant of rV10 with an altered affinity tag. Immunization with rV10-2 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide elicited antibodies against LcrV and conferred pneumonic plague protection in mice, rats, guinea pigs, cynomolgus macaques and African Green monkeys. The data support further development of rV10-2 for FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) authorization review and clinical testing. PMID:21763383

  9. Molecular characterization of tlyA gene product, Rv1694 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A non-conventional hemolysin and a ribosomal RNA methyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Neesar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a virulent bacillus causing tuberculosis, a disease responsible for million deaths each year worldwide. In order to understand its mechanism of pathogenesis in humans and to help control tuberculosis, functions of numerous Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes are being characterized. In this study we report the dual functionality of tlyA gene product of Mycobacterium tuberculosis annotated as Rv1694, a 268 amino acid long basic protein. Results The recombinant purified Rv1694 protein was found to exhibit hemolytic activity in vitro. It showed concentration and time-dependent hemolysis of rabbit and human erythrocytes. Multiple oligomeric forms (dimers to heptamers of this protein were seen on the membranes of the lysed erythrocytes. Like the oligomers of conventional, well-known, pore-forming toxins, the oligomers of Rv1694 were found to be resistant to heat and SDS, but were susceptible to reducing agents like β-mercaptoethanol as it had abolished the hemolytic activity of Rv1694 indicating the role of disulfide bond(s. The Rv1694 generated de novo by in vitro transcription and translation also exhibited unambiguous hemolysis confirming the self assembly and oligomerization properties of this protein. Limited proteolytic digestion of this protein has revealed that the amino terminus is susceptible while in solution but is protected in presence of membrane. Striking feature of Rv1694 is its presence on the cell wall of E. coli as visualized by confocal microscopy. The surface expression is consistent with the contact dependent haemolytic ability of E. coli expressing this protein. Also, immune serum specific to this protein inhibits the contact dependent hemolysis. Moreover, Rv1694 protein binds to and forms stable oligomers on the macrophage phagosomal membranes. In addition to all these properties, E. coli expressing Rv1694 was found to be susceptible to the antibiotic capreomycin as its growth

  10. Novel mechanism of gene regulation: the protein Rv1222 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits transcription by anchoring the RNA polymerase onto DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Paulami; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Banerjee, Rajdeep; Sengupta, Shreya; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2015-07-13

    We propose a novel mechanism of gene regulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis where the protein Rv1222 inhibits transcription by anchoring RNA polymerase (RNAP) onto DNA. In contrast to our existing knowledge that transcriptional repressors function either by binding to DNA at specific sequences or by binding to RNAP, we show that Rv1222-mediated transcription inhibition requires simultaneous binding of the protein to both RNAP and DNA. We demonstrate that the positively charged C-terminus tail of Rv1222 is responsible for anchoring RNAP on DNA, hence the protein slows down the movement of RNAP along the DNA during transcription elongation. The interaction between Rv1222 and DNA is electrostatic, thus the protein could inhibit transcription from any gene. As Rv1222 slows down the RNA synthesis, upon expression of the protein in Mycobacterium smegmatis or Escherichia coli, the growth rate of the bacteria is severely impaired. The protein does not possess any significant affinity for DNA polymerase, thus, is unable to inhibit DNA synthesis. The proposed mechanism by which Rv1222 inhibits transcription reveals a new repertoire of prokaryotic gene regulation. © Crown copyright 2015.

  11. Rv0004 is a new essential member of the mycobacterial DNA replication machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Katherine M; Huang, Deborah L; Hooppaw, Anna J; Logsdon, Michelle M; Richardson, Kirill; Lee, Hark Joon; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Aldridge, Bree B; Stallings, Christina L

    2017-11-01

    DNA replication is fundamental for life, yet a detailed understanding of bacterial DNA replication is limited outside the organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Many bacteria, including mycobacteria, encode no identified homologs of helicase loaders or regulators of the initiator protein DnaA, despite these factors being essential for DNA replication in E. coli and B. subtilis. In this study we discover that a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv0004, from the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for bacterial viability and that depletion of Rv0004 leads to a block in cell cycle progression. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches, we found that Rv0004 has a role in DNA replication, interacts with DNA and the replicative helicase DnaB, and affects DnaB-DnaA complex formation. We also identify a conserved domain in Rv0004 that is predicted to structurally resemble the N-terminal protein-protein interaction domain of DnaA. Mutation of a single conserved tryptophan within Rv0004's DnaA N-terminal-like domain leads to phenotypes similar to those observed upon Rv0004 depletion and can affect the association of Rv0004 with DnaB. In addition, using live cell imaging during depletion of Rv0004, we have uncovered a previously unappreciated role for DNA replication in coordinating mycobacterial cell division and cell size. Together, our data support that Rv0004 encodes a homolog of the recently identified DciA family of proteins found in most bacteria that lack the DnaC-DnaI helicase loaders in E. coli and B. subtilis. Therefore, the mechanisms of Rv0004 elucidated here likely apply to other DciA homologs and reveal insight into the diversity of bacterial strategies in even the most conserved biological processes.

  12. Rv3634c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv encodes an enzyme with UDP-Gal/Glc and UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peehu Pardeshi

    Full Text Available A bioinformatics study revealed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb contains sequence homologs of Campylobacter jejuni protein glycosylation enzymes. The ORF Rv3634c from Mtb was identified as a sequence homolog of C. jejuni UDP-Gal/GalNAc 4-epimerase. This study reports the cloning of Rv3634c and its expression as an N-terminal His-tagged protein. The recombinant protein was shown to have UDP-Gal/Glc 4-epimerase activity by GOD-POD assay and by reverse phase HPLC. This enzyme was shown to have UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase activity also. Residues Ser121, Tyr146 and Lys150 were shown by site-directed mutagenesis to be important for enzyme activity. Mutation of Ser121 and Tyr146 to Ala and Phe, respectively, led to complete loss of activity whereas mutation of Lys150 to Arg led to partial loss of activity. There were no gross changes in the secondary structures of any of these three mutants. These results suggest that Ser121 and Tyr146 are essential for epimerase activity of Rv3634c. UDP-Gal/Glc 4-epimerases from other organisms also have a catalytic triad consisting of Ser, Tyr and Lys. The triad carries out proton transfer from nucleotide sugar to NAD+ and back, thus effecting the epimerization of the substrate. Addition of NAD+ to Lys150 significantly abrogates the loss of activity, suggesting that, as in other epimerases, NAD+ is associated with Rv3634c.

  13. rvær i pædagogisk praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rvær i pædagogisk praksis handler om, hvordan lærere og pædagoger kan arbejde med mindfulness i skole og daginstitution. Målet er at give inspiration til, hvordan man kan skabe et lærings- og udviklingsmiljø, som understøtter en praksis, hvor børn får erfaringer med at være til stede i sig selv......, ligesom de giver eksempler på nærværende kunst- og musikundervisning.   Den røde tråd er ønsket om at bistå barnet i at rumme sig selv og andre og en interesse for de muligheder, som øget nærvær kan give det enkelte barn og fællesskabet....

  14. Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv AldR (Rv2779c), a Regulator of the ald Gene: DNA BINDING AND IDENTIFICATION OF SMALL MOLECULE INHIBITORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhishek; Shree, Sonal; Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2016-06-03

    Here we report the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis AldR (Rv2779c) showing that the N-terminal DNA-binding domains are swapped, forming a dimer, and four dimers are assembled into an octamer through crystal symmetry. The C-terminal domain is involved in oligomeric interactions that stabilize the oligomer, and it contains the effector-binding sites. The latter sites are 30-60% larger compared with homologs like MtbFFRP (Rv3291c) and can consequently accommodate larger molecules. MtbAldR binds to the region upstream to the ald gene that is highly up-regulated in nutrient-starved tuberculosis models and codes for l-alanine dehydrogenase (MtbAld; Rv2780). Further, the MtbAldR-DNA complex is inhibited upon binding of Ala, Tyr, Trp and Asp to the protein. Studies involving a ligand-binding site G131T mutant show that the mutant forms a DNA complex that cannot be inhibited by adding the amino acids. Comparative studies suggest that binding of the amino acids changes the relative spatial disposition of the DNA-binding domains and thereby disrupt the protein-DNA complex. Finally, we identified small molecules, including a tetrahydroquinoline carbonitrile derivative (S010-0261), that inhibit the MtbAldR-DNA complex. The latter molecules represent the very first inhibitors of a feast/famine regulatory protein from any source and set the stage for exploring MtbAldR as a potential anti-tuberculosis target. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. The ABC transporter Rv1272c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances the import of long-chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Daniel, Jaiyanth

    2018-02-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which causes tuberculosis, is capable of accumulating triacylglycerol (TAG) by utilizing fatty acids from host cells. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in transport processes in all organisms. Among the classical ABC transporters in Mtb none have been implicated in fatty acid import. Since the transport of fatty acids from the host cell is important for dormancy-associated TAG synthesis in the pathogen, mycobacterial ABC transporter(s) could potentially be involved in this process. Based on sequence identities with a bacterial ABC transporter that mediates fatty acid import for TAG synthesis, we identified Rv1272c, a hitherto uncharacterized ABC-transporter in Mtb that also shows sequence identities with a plant ABC transporter involved in fatty acid transport. We expressed Rv1272c in E. coli and show that it enhances the import of radiolabeled fatty acids. We also show that Rv1272c causes a significant increase in the metabolic incorporation of radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids into cardiolipin, a tetra-acylated phospholipid, and phosphatidylglycerol in E. coli. This is the first report on the function of Rv1272c showing that it displays a long-chain fatty acid transport function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrochemical data from R/V MIKHAIL LOMONSOV and R/V AKADEMIK VERNADSKIY in the Indian Ocean from 16 May 1966 to 01 October 1981 (NODC Accession 0000277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrochemical data were collected from R/V MIKHAIL LOMONSOV and R/V AKADEMIK VERNADSKIY in the Indian Ocean from 16 May 1966 to 01 October 1981. Data were collected...

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Deok Rim; Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik; Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee; Park, Won Sun; Lee, Min-Goo; Kim, Daejin; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. → Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. → Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4 + T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to secrete IFN-γ in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  19. Physical and chemical data collected by bottle and CTD in the Gulf of Mexico from the R/V Gyre and R/V Pelican, April 2004 - July 2009 to help resolve the dominant oceanographic processes that control the timing, duration, and severity of hypoxia of the region (NODC Accession 0088164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical oceanographic observational data collected by bottle and CTD in the Gulf of Mexico from the R/V Gyre and R/V Pelican, April 2004 - July 2009....

  20. Evidence on How a Conserved Glycine in the Hinge Region of HapR Regulates Its DNA Binding Ability: LESSONS FROM A NATURAL VARIANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Dongre; N Singh; C Dureja; N Peddada; A Solanki; F Ashish; S Raychaudhuri

    2011-12-31

    HapR has been recognized as a quorum-sensing master regulator in Vibrio cholerae. Because it controls a plethora of disparate cellular events, the absence of a functional HapR affects the physiology of V. cholerae to a great extent. In the current study, we pursued an understanding of an observation of a natural protease-deficient non-O1, non-O139 variant V. cholerae strain V2. Intriguingly, a nonfunctional HapR (henceforth designated as HapRV2) harboring a substitution of glycine to aspartate at position 39 of the N-terminal hinge region has been identified. An in vitro gel shift assay clearly suggested the inability of HapRV2 to interact with various cognate promoters. Reinstatement of glycine at position 39 restores DNA binding ability of HapRV2 (HapRV2G), thereby rescuing the protease-negative phenotype of this strain. The elution profile of HapRV2 and HapRV2G proteins in size-exclusion chromatography and their circular dichroism spectra did not reflect any significant differences to explain the functional discrepancies between the two proteins. To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of these two proteins, we acquired small/wide angle x-ray scattering data from samples of the native and G39D mutant. Although Guinier analysis and indirect Fourier transformation of scattering indicated only a slight difference in the shape parameters, structure reconstruction using dummy amino acids concluded that although HapR adopts a 'Y' shape similar to its crystal structure, the G39D mutation in hinge drastically altered the DNA binding domains by bringing them in close proximity. This altered spatial orientation of the helix-turn-helix domains in this natural variant provides the first structural evidence on the functional role of the hinge region in quorum sensing-related DNA-binding regulatory proteins of Vibrio spp.

  1. Stringent homology-based prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Gao, Shangzhi; Nguyen, Nam Ninh; Fan, Mengyuan; Jin, Jingjing; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Liang; Xiong, Geng; Tan, Min; Li, Shijun; Wong, Limsoon

    2014-04-08

    H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are essential for understanding the infection mechanism of the formidable pathogen M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Computational prediction is an important strategy to fill the gap in experimental H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data. Homology-based prediction is frequently used in predicting both intra-species and inter-species PPIs. However, some limitations are not properly resolved in several published works that predict eukaryote-prokaryote inter-species PPIs using intra-species template PPIs. We develop a stringent homology-based prediction approach by taking into account (i) differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins and (ii) differences between inter-species and intra-species PPI interfaces. We compare our stringent homology-based approach to a conventional homology-based approach for predicting host-pathogen PPIs, based on cellular compartment distribution analysis, disease gene list enrichment analysis, pathway enrichment analysis and functional category enrichment analysis. These analyses support the validity of our prediction result, and clearly show that our approach has better performance in predicting H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs. Using our stringent homology-based approach, we have predicted a set of highly plausible H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs which might be useful for many of related studies. Based on our analysis of the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI network predicted by our stringent homology-based approach, we have discovered several interesting properties which are reported here for the first time. We find that both host proteins and pathogen proteins involved in the host-pathogen PPIs tend to be hubs in their own intra-species PPI network. Also, both host and pathogen proteins involved in host-pathogen PPIs tend to have longer primary sequence, tend to have more domains, tend to be more hydrophilic, etc. And the protein domains from both

  2. Ülemiste City kvartal Tallinnas / Mattias Agabus, Eero Endjärv, Illimar Truverk...[jt.] ; fotod: Kaido Haagen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    asendiplaan, 3 korruste plaani, 3 värv. välisvaadet, restorani Mercado sisevaade; projekteerijad: M. Agabus, E. Endjärv, I.Truverk (Agabus, Endjärv & Truverk Arhitektid); hoonete arhitektuurne osa: E. Endjärv; sisearhitektid: K. Lents, H. Kääramees, T. Aunre (restoran Mercado); konstruktorid: Ü. Suvemaa, A. Lehtla, K. Adoberg; maastikuarhitektuur: Ü. Grišakov, M. Agabus, E. Endjärv

  3. Structure of Rv1848 (UreA), the Mycobacterium tuberculosis urease γ subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, Jeff E.; Bursey, Evan H.; Rho, Beom-Seop; Kim, Chang-Yub; Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Park, Min S.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Hung, Li-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Crystal and solution structures of Rv1848 protein and their implications in the biological assembly of Mtb urease is presented. The crystal structure of the urease γ subunit (UreA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv1848, has been determined at 1.8 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contains three copies of Rv1848 arranged into a homotrimer that is similar to the UreA trimer in the structure of urease from Klebsiella aerogenes. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments indicate that the Rv1848 protein also forms trimers in solution. The observed homotrimer and the organization of urease genes within the M. tuberculosis genome suggest that M. tuberculosis urease has the (αβγ) 3 composition observed for other bacterial ureases. The γ subunit may be of primary importance for the formation of the urease quaternary structure

  4. Phase I trial of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine: a human neonatal rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, M; Kirkwood, C D; Lee, K J; Bishop, R F; Watts, E; Justice, F A; Clifford, V; Cowley, D; Buttery, J P; Bines, J E

    2013-05-28

    RV3 is a human neonatal rotavirus strain (G3P[6]) that has been associated with asymptomatic neonatal infection and replicates well in the infant gut. RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine has been developed as a rotavirus vaccine candidate for administration at birth. A single-centre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled Phase I study evaluated the safety and tolerability of a single oral dose of the second generation RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine (8.3×10(6)FFU/mL) in 20 adults, 20 children and 20 infants (10 vaccine and 10 placebo per age cohort). Vaccine take was defined as seroconversion (a 3-fold increase in serum anti-rotavirus IgA or serum neutralising antibody (SNA) from baseline at day 28 post-dose) or evidence of RV3-BB viral replication in the faeces by RT-PCR analysis 3-6 days post-vaccination. RV3-BB presence was confirmed by sequence analysis. The RV3-BB vaccine was well tolerated in all participants, with no pattern of adverse events shown to be associated with the study vaccine. In the infant cohort, vaccine take was demonstrated in 8/9 infants following a single dose of vaccine compared with 2/7 placebo recipients. In the infant vaccine group, 5/9 infants exhibited either IgA or SNA seroconversion and 7/9 infants had evidence of RV3-BB replication on days 3-6, compared with 2/7 infants who seroconverted and 0/10 infants with evidence of replication in the placebo group. Two infants in the placebo group had serological evidence of a rotavirus infection within the 28-day study period: one demonstrated an IgA and the other an SNA response, with wild-type virus replication detected in another infant. A single dose of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine was well tolerated in adults, children and infants. Most infants (8/9) who received RV3-BB demonstrated vaccine take following a single dose. These data support progression of RV3-BB to Phase II immunogenicity and efficacy trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teadlase eetika / Magnus Ilmjärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilmjärv, Magnus, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Vastukaja art.: Valge, Jaak. Pätsi riigipööret ei inspireeritud väljastpoolt // Postimees (2008) 26. apr., lk. 13. President Konstantin Pätsi kohta leitud uutest arhiivimaterjalidest. Raamatu "Hääletu alistumine" autor, ajaloolane Magnus Ilmjärv peab Jaak Valge kriitikat tema suhtes põhjendamatult suureks

  6. Right ventricular systolic function in hypertensive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oketona OA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available OA Oketona,1 MO Balogun,2 AO Akintomide,2 OE Ajayi,2 RA Adebayo,2 TO Mene-Afejuku,3 OT Oketona,1 OJ Bamikole2 1Fort Nelson General Hospital, Fort Nelson, BC, Canada; 2Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA Background: Heart failure (HF is a major cause of cardiovascular admissions and hypertensive heart failure (HHF is the most common cause of HF admissions in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Right ventricular (RV dysfunction is being increasingly recognized in HF and found to be an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in HF. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction in HHF by several echocardiographic parameters.Methodology: One hundred subjects with HHF were recruited consecutively into the study along with 50 age and sex-matched controls. All study participants gave written informed consent, and had a full physical examination, blood investigations, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and transthoracic echocardiography. RV systolic function was assessed in all subjects using different methods based on the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines for echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults. This included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, RV myocardial performance index (MPI, and RV systolic excursion velocity by tissue Doppler (S′.Results: RV systolic dysfunction was found in 53% of subjects with HHF by TAPSE, 56% by RV MPI, and 48% by tissue Doppler systolic excursion S′. RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF in subjects with HHF.Conclusion: A high proportion of subjects with HHF were found to have RV systolic functional abnormalities using TAPSE, RV MPI, and RV S′. Prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction increased with reducing LVEF. Keywords: right ventricle

  7. Conserved hypothetical protein Rv1977 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains contains sequence polymorphisms and might be involved in ongoing immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Haican; Wang, Xuezhi; Li, Guilian; Qiu, Yan; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Host immune pressure and associated parasite immune evasion are key features of host-pathogen co-evolution. A previous study showed that human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are evolutionarily hyperconserved and thus it was deduced that M. tuberculosis lacks antigenic variation and immune evasion. Here, we selected 151 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from China, amplified gene encoding Rv1977 and compared the sequences. The results showed that Rv1977, a conserved hypothetical protein, is not conserved in M. tuberculosis strains and there are polymorphisms existed in the protein. Some mutations, especially one frameshift mutation, occurred in the antigen Rv1977, which is uncommon in M.tb strains and may lead to the protein function altering. Mutations and deletion in the gene all affect one of three T cell epitopes and the changed T cell epitope contained more than one variable position, which may suggest ongoing immune evasion.

  8. Left ventricular regional myocardial motion and twist function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot evaluated by magnetic resonance tissue phase mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Meng-Chu; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Wu, Ming-Ting; Weng, Ken-Pen; Su, Mao-Yuan; Menza, Marius; Huang, Hung-Chieh

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to characterise regional myocardial motion and twist function in the left ventricles (LV) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and preserved LV global function. We recruited 47 rTOF patients and 38 age-matched normal volunteers. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) was performed for evaluating the LV myocardial velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential (Vz, Vr, and VOe) directions in basal, middle, and apical slices. The VOe peak-to-peak (PTP) during systolic phases, the rotation angle of each slice, and VOe inconsistency were computed for evaluating LV twist function and VOe dyssynchrony. As compared to the controls, the rTOF patients presented decreased RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.002) and preserved global LV ejection fraction (LVEF). They also demonstrated decreased systolic and diastolic Vz in several LV segments and higher diastolic Vr in the septum (all p < 0.05). A lower VOe PTP, higher VOe inconsistency, and reduced peak net rotation angle (all p < 0.05) were observed. The aforementioned indices demonstrated an altered LV twist function in rTOF patients in an early disease stage. MR TPM could provide information about early abnormalities of LV regional motion and twist function in rTOF patients with preserved LV global function. (orig.)

  9. Left ventricular regional myocardial motion and twist function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot evaluated by magnetic resonance tissue phase mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Meng-Chu; Peng, Hsu-Hsia [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Weng, Ken-Pen [National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung (China); Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Department of Physical Therapy, Kaohsiung (China); Su, Mao-Yuan [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Menza, Marius [Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Huang, Hung-Chieh [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China)

    2018-01-15

    We aimed to characterise regional myocardial motion and twist function in the left ventricles (LV) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and preserved LV global function. We recruited 47 rTOF patients and 38 age-matched normal volunteers. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) was performed for evaluating the LV myocardial velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential (Vz, Vr, and VOe) directions in basal, middle, and apical slices. The VOe peak-to-peak (PTP) during systolic phases, the rotation angle of each slice, and VOe inconsistency were computed for evaluating LV twist function and VOe dyssynchrony. As compared to the controls, the rTOF patients presented decreased RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.002) and preserved global LV ejection fraction (LVEF). They also demonstrated decreased systolic and diastolic Vz in several LV segments and higher diastolic Vr in the septum (all p < 0.05). A lower VOe PTP, higher VOe inconsistency, and reduced peak net rotation angle (all p < 0.05) were observed. The aforementioned indices demonstrated an altered LV twist function in rTOF patients in an early disease stage. MR TPM could provide information about early abnormalities of LV regional motion and twist function in rTOF patients with preserved LV global function. (orig.)

  10. Colchicine Depolymerizes Microtubules, Increases Junctophilin-2, and Improves Right Ventricular Function in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W; Tian, Lian; Wu, Danchen; Thenappan, Thenappan; Metzger, Joseph M; Archer, Stephen L

    2017-05-31

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease characterized by obstructive pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Although RV function predicts outcomes in PAH, mechanisms of RV dysfunction are poorly understood, and RV-targeted therapies are lacking. We hypothesized that in PAH, abnormal microtubular structure in RV cardiomyocytes impairs RV function by reducing junctophilin-2 (JPH2) expression, resulting in t-tubule derangements. Conversely, we assessed whether colchicine, a microtubule-depolymerizing agent, could increase JPH2 expression and enhance RV function in monocrotaline-induced PAH. Immunoblots, confocal microscopy, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and treadmill testing were used to examine colchicine's (0.5 mg/kg 3 times/week) effects on pulmonary hemodynamics, RV function, and functional capacity. Rats were treated with saline (n=28) or colchicine (n=24) for 3 weeks, beginning 1 week after monocrotaline (60 mg/kg, subcutaneous). In the monocrotaline RV, but not the left ventricle, microtubule density is increased, and JPH2 expression is reduced, with loss of t-tubule localization and t-tubule disarray. Colchicine reduces microtubule density, increases JPH2 expression, and improves t-tubule morphology in RV cardiomyocytes. Colchicine therapy diminishes RV hypertrophy, improves RV function, and enhances RV-pulmonary artery coupling. Colchicine reduces small pulmonary arteriolar thickness and improves pulmonary hemodynamics. Finally, colchicine increases exercise capacity. Monocrotaline-induced PAH causes RV-specific derangement of microtubules marked by reduction in JPH2 and t-tubule disarray. Colchicine reduces microtubule density, increases JPH2 expression, and improves both t-tubule architecture and RV function. Colchicine also reduces adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. These results provide biological plausibility for a clinical trial to repurpose colchicine as a RV-directed therapy for PAH

  11. The Effect of Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of the Right Coronary Artery on Right Ventricular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Nikdoust

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right Ventricular (RV dysfunction has been introduced as a predictor of mortality in acute myocardial infarction. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of right coronary revascularization on systolic and diastolic RV dysfunction. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on unstable angina patients who were candidate for elective Percutaneous Revascularization Intervention (PCI on the right coronary artery. The participants were initially evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging prior to PCI and the RV function parameters were assessed. Echocardiography was repeated two months after PCI and the results were compared with baseline. Paired t-test was used to compare the pre- and post-procedural measurements. Besides, Pearson’s correlation was used to find out the linear association between the RV function parameters and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: This study was conducted on 30 patients (mean age = 60.00 ± 8.44 years; 24 [80%] males. In the pre-procedural echocardiography, 15 patients (50% had normal RV function, 14 patients (46.7% had grade-1 RV dysfunction, and only 1 patient (3.3% had grade-2 RV dysfunction. Following PCI, however, all the patients had normal systolic and diastolic RV functions. Comparison of echocardiographic RV function parameters showed an improvement in both systolic and diastolic functional parameters of the RV. Nonetheless, no significant correlation was observed between these parameters and Left Ventricular (LV function. Conclusions:: A significant improvement was found in RV function, but not LV function, after right coronary PCI. Revascularization of the right coronary artery may be beneficial for the patients who suffer from RV failure due to ischemia

  12. Rv2969c, essential for optimal growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a DsbA-like enzyme that interacts with VKOR-derived peptides and has atypical features of DsbA-like disulfide oxidases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Heras, Begoña; Duprez, Wilko; Walden, Patricia; Halili, Maria; Kurth, Fabian; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The gene product of M. tuberculosis Rv2969c is shown to be a disulfide oxidase enzyme that has a canonical DsbA-like fold with novel structural and functional characteristics. The bacterial disulfide machinery is an attractive molecular target for developing new antibacterials because it is required for the production of multiple virulence factors. The archetypal disulfide oxidase proteins in Escherichia coli (Ec) are DsbA and DsbB, which together form a functional unit: DsbA introduces disulfides into folding proteins and DsbB reoxidizes DsbA to maintain it in the active form. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), no DsbB homologue is encoded but a functionally similar but structurally divergent protein, MtbVKOR, has been identified. Here, the Mtb protein Rv2969c is investigated and it is shown that it is the DsbA-like partner protein of MtbVKOR. It is found that it has the characteristic redox features of a DsbA-like protein: a highly acidic catalytic cysteine, a highly oxidizing potential and a destabilizing active-site disulfide bond. Rv2969c also has peptide-oxidizing activity and recognizes peptide segments derived from the periplasmic loops of MtbVKOR. Unlike the archetypal EcDsbA enzyme, Rv2969c has little or no activity in disulfide-reducing and disulfide-isomerase assays. The crystal structure of Rv2969c reveals a canonical DsbA fold comprising a thioredoxin domain with an embedded helical domain. However, Rv2969c diverges considerably from other DsbAs, including having an additional C-terminal helix (H8) that may restrain the mobility of the catalytic helix H1. The enzyme is also characterized by a very shallow hydrophobic binding surface and a negative electrostatic surface potential surrounding the catalytic cysteine. The structure of Rv2969c was also used to model the structure of a paralogous DsbA-like domain of the Ser/Thr protein kinase PknE. Together, these results show that Rv2969c is a DsbA-like protein with unique properties and a limited

  13. Rv2969c, essential for optimal growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a DsbA-like enzyme that interacts with VKOR-derived peptides and has atypical features of DsbA-like disulfide oxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane, E-mail: p.lakshmanane@imb.uq.edu.au; Heras, Begoña; Duprez, Wilko; Walden, Patricia; Halili, Maria; Kurth, Fabian; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L., E-mail: p.lakshmanane@imb.uq.edu.au [University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4067 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    The gene product of M. tuberculosis Rv2969c is shown to be a disulfide oxidase enzyme that has a canonical DsbA-like fold with novel structural and functional characteristics. The bacterial disulfide machinery is an attractive molecular target for developing new antibacterials because it is required for the production of multiple virulence factors. The archetypal disulfide oxidase proteins in Escherichia coli (Ec) are DsbA and DsbB, which together form a functional unit: DsbA introduces disulfides into folding proteins and DsbB reoxidizes DsbA to maintain it in the active form. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), no DsbB homologue is encoded but a functionally similar but structurally divergent protein, MtbVKOR, has been identified. Here, the Mtb protein Rv2969c is investigated and it is shown that it is the DsbA-like partner protein of MtbVKOR. It is found that it has the characteristic redox features of a DsbA-like protein: a highly acidic catalytic cysteine, a highly oxidizing potential and a destabilizing active-site disulfide bond. Rv2969c also has peptide-oxidizing activity and recognizes peptide segments derived from the periplasmic loops of MtbVKOR. Unlike the archetypal EcDsbA enzyme, Rv2969c has little or no activity in disulfide-reducing and disulfide-isomerase assays. The crystal structure of Rv2969c reveals a canonical DsbA fold comprising a thioredoxin domain with an embedded helical domain. However, Rv2969c diverges considerably from other DsbAs, including having an additional C-terminal helix (H8) that may restrain the mobility of the catalytic helix H1. The enzyme is also characterized by a very shallow hydrophobic binding surface and a negative electrostatic surface potential surrounding the catalytic cysteine. The structure of Rv2969c was also used to model the structure of a paralogous DsbA-like domain of the Ser/Thr protein kinase PknE. Together, these results show that Rv2969c is a DsbA-like protein with unique properties and a limited

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3402c enhances mycobacterial survival within macrophages and modulates the host pro-inflammatory cytokines production via NF-kappa B/ERK/p38 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    Full Text Available Intracellular survival plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a process which depends on an array of virulence factors to colonize and replicate within the host. The M. tuberculosis iron regulated open reading frame (ORF rv3402c, encoding a conserved hypothetical protein, was shown to be up-regulated upon infection in both human and mice macrophages. To explore the function of this ORF, we heterologously expressed the rv3402c gene in the non-pathogenic fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis strain, and demonstrated that Rv3402c, a cell envelope-associated protein, was able to enhance the intracellular survival of recombinant M. smegmatis. Enhanced growth was not found to be the result of an increased resistance to intracellular stresses, as growth of the Rv3402c expressing strain was unaffected by iron depletion, H2O2 exposure, or acidic conditions. Colonization of macrophages by M. smegmatis expressing Rv3402c was associated with substantial cell death and significantly greater amount of TNF-α and IL-1β compared with controls. Rv3402c-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production was found to be mediated by NF-κB, ERK and p38 pathway in macrophages. In summary, our study suggests that Rv3402c delivered in a live M. smegmatis vehicle can modify the cytokines profile of macrophage, promote host cell death and enhance the persistence of mycobacterium within host cells.

  15. Rv2131c gene product: An unconventional enzyme that is both inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Xiaoling; Chen Mao; Shen Hongbo; Jiang Xin; Huang Yishu; Wang Honghai

    2006-01-01

    Inositol monophosphatase is an enzyme in the biosynthesis of myo-inostiol, a crucial substrate for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol, which has been demonstrated to be an essential component of mycobacteria. In this study, the Rv2131c gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned into the pET28a vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain, allowing the expression of the enzyme in fusion with a histidine-rich peptide on the N-terminal. The fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of the lysed cells under native conditions by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The purified Rv2131c gene product showed inositol monophosphatase activity but with substrate specificity that was broader than those of several bacterial and eukaryotic inositol monophosphatases, and it also acted as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. The dimeric enzyme exhibited dual activities of IMPase and FBPase, with K m of 0.22 ± 0.03 mM for inositol-1-phosphate and K m of 0.45 ± 0.05 mM for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. To better understand the relationship between the function and structure of the Rv2131c enzyme, we constructed D40N, L71A, and D94N mutants and purified these corresponding proteins. Mutations of D40N and D94N caused the proteins to almost completely lose both the inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities. However, L71A mutant did not cause loss either of the activities, but the activity toward the inositol was 12-fold more resistant to inhibition by lithium (IC 5 ∼ 60 mM). Based on the substrate specificity and presence of conserved sequence motifs of the M. tuberculosis Rv2131c, we proposed that the enzyme belonged to class IV fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase IV)

  16. Development of Deterministic and Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Analysis Code PROFAS-RV for Reactor Pressure Vessel - Progress of the Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Bong Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a deterministic/probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis program for reactor pressure vessel, PROFAS-RV, is developed. This program can evaluate failure probability of RPV using recent radiation embrittlement model of 10CFR50.61a and stress intensity factor calculation method of RCC-MRx code as well as the required basic functions of PFM program. Applications of some new radiation embrittlement model, material database, calculation method of stress intensity factors, and others which can improve fracture mechanics assessment of RPV are introduced. The purpose of this study is to develop a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis program for RPV considering above modification and application of newly developed models and calculation methods. In this paper, it deals with the development progress of the PFM analysis program for RPV, PROFAS-RV. The PROFAS-RV is being tested with other codes, and it is expected to revise and upgrade by reflecting the latest model and calculation method continuously. These efforts can minimize the uncertainty of the integrity evaluation for the reactor pressure vessel.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a novel esterase Rv0045c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lipeng; Guo, Jiubiao; Zheng, Xiangdong; Wen, Tingyi; Sun, Fei; Liu, Siguo; Pang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    The novel esterase Rv0045c from M. tuberculosis was expressed and purified to homogeneity. The crystals of native and SeMet-labelled Rv0045c protein that were obtained diffracted to resolutions of 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. The Rv0045c protein is predicted to be an esterase that is involved in lipid metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The Rv0045c protein crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.7 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source and belonged to space group P3 1 or P3 2 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.465, c = 48.064 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Purified SeMet-labelled Rv0045c protein was also crystallized and formed crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.0 Å using an in-house X-ray radiation source

  18. Medical Image of the Week: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Severe RV Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickstrom K

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 56-year-old man with history a of alcohol abuse presents with progressive shortness of breath on exertion, bilateral lower extremity swelling and 12-pound weight gain over two weeks. His transthoracic echocardiography (Figure 1 demonstrated severely increased global right ventricle (RV size, severely dilated right atrium (RA, severe pulmonary artery (PA dilation, moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP estimated at 85 + central venous pressure (CVP in the context of severely reduced RV systolic function. Right heart catheterization (RHC showed PA pressure (systolic/diastolic, mean of 94/28, 51 mmHg with a PA occlusion pressure of 12 mmHg. After extensive evaluation, our patient’s presentation of right heart failure seemed to be a manifestation of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Our patient subsequently had cardiac MRI (cMRI with findings shown above (Figure 2. CMRI is a valuable, three-dimensional imaging modality that provides detailed morphology of the cardiac chambers along with accurate …

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Feifei; Gao, Feng; Li, Honglin; Gong, Weimin; Zhou, Lin; Bi, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Rv3705c from M. tuberculosis are described. The conserved protein Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. The Rv3705c crystals exhibited space group P6 1 22 or P6 5 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 198.0, c = 364.1 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Feifei [East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, People’s Republic of (China); Gao, Feng [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People’s Republic of (China); Li, Honglin [East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, People’s Republic of (China); Gong, Weimin [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People’s Republic of (China); Zhou, Lin, E-mail: gdtb-bg@vip.163.com [Center for Tuberculosis Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of (China); Bi, Lijun, E-mail: gdtb-bg@vip.163.com [East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, People’s Republic of (China)

    2014-07-23

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Rv3705c from M. tuberculosis are described. The conserved protein Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. The Rv3705c crystals exhibited space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 198.0, c = 364.1 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å.

  1. The Effect of Milrinone on the Right Ventriclular Function in Patients with Reduced Right Ventricular Function Undergoing Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Oh, Young Jun; Shim, Yon Hee; Hong, Yong Woo; Yi, Gijong

    2006-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effect of continuous milrinone infusion on right ventriclular (RV) function during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery in patients with reduced RV function. Fifty patients scheduled for OPCAB, with thermodilution RV ejection fraction (RVEF) milrinone (0.5 µg/kg/min) or control (saline) group. Hemodynamic variables and RV volumetric data measured by thermodilution method were collected as follows: after anesthesia induction (T1); 10 min after heart displacement for obtuse marginal artery anastomosis (T2); after pericardial closure (T3). Cardiac index and heart rate increased and systemic vascular resistance significantly decreased in milrinone group at T2. Initially lower RVEF of milrinone group was eventually comparable to control group after milrinone infusion. RVEF did not significantly change at T2 and T3 in both groups. RV end-diastolic volume in milrinone group consistently decreased from the baseline at T2 and T3. Continuous infusion of milrinone without a bolus demonstrated potentially beneficial effect on cardiac output and RV afterload in patients with reduced RV function during OPCAB. However, aggressive augmentation of intravascular volume seems to be necessary to maximize the effect of the milrinone in these patients. PMID:17043419

  2. Recovery of right and left ventricular function after acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, F.A., E-mail: f.a.klok@lumc.nl [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Romeih, S. [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, L.J.M.; Westenberg, J.J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Huisman, M.V. [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Roos, A. de [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To evaluate recovery of cardiac function after acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: Routine breath-held computed tomography (CT)-pulmonary angiography was performed in patients with suspected PE to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of PE at initial presentation. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered cardiac CT was performed to assess biventricular function. After 6 months, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. In total, 15 consecutive patients with PE and 10 without were studied. A significant change in ventricular volume was defined as a >15% change in end-diastolic or -systolic volumes (EDV, ESV), and significant ventricular function improvement as a >5% increase in ejection fraction (EF) as based on reported cut-off values. Results: Right and left ventricular (RV and LV) EDV and ESV changed non-significantly (<1.3%) in the patients without PE, indicating good comparability of those values measured by CT and MRI. PE patients with baseline normal RV function (RVEF {>=}47%) revealed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+5.4 {+-} 3.1%) due to a decrease in the RVESV. Patients with baseline abnormal RV function showed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+14 {+-} 15%) due to decreases in both the RVESV and RVEDV. Furthermore, the LVEDV increased in this latter patient group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated an improvement in RV function in the majority of patients with PE, independent of baseline RV function. The degree of RV and LV recovery was dependent on the severity of baseline RV dysfunction.

  3. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P < .05), whereas the 3DE RV ejection fraction was reduced in this group, but with borderline significance. Two-dimensional echocardiographic longitudinal RV and RA strain were significantly reduced in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Cardiac magnetic resonance markers of progressive RV dilation and dysfunction after tetralogy of Fallot repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wald, Rachel M.; Valente, Anne Marie; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V.; Assenza, Gabriele Egidy; Schreier, Jenna; Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Kilner, Philip J.; Koyak, Zeliha; Mulder, Barbara; Powell, Andrew J.; Geva, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are followed serially by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for surveillance of RV dilation and dysfunction. We sought to define the prevalence of progressive RV disease and the optimal time interval between CMR evaluations. Candidates were selected

  5. Perspective on sequence evolution of microsatellite locus (CCGn in Rv0050 gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ruiliang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mycobacterial genome is inclined to polymerase slippage and a high mutation rate in microsatellite regions due to high GC content and absence of a mismatch repair system. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying microsatellite variation have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mutation events in the hyper-variable trinucleotide microsatellite locus MML0050 located in the Rv0050 gene of W-Beijing and non-W-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in order to gain insight into the genomic structure and activity of repeated regions. Results Size analysis indicated the presence of five alleles that differed in length by three base pairs. Moreover, nucleotide gains occurred more frequently than loses in this trinucleotide microsatellite. Mutation frequency was not completely related with the total length, though the relative frequency in the longest allele was remarkably higher than that in the shortest. Sequence analysis was able to detect seven alleles and revealed that point mutations enhanced the level of locus variation. Introduction of an interruptive motif correlated with the total allele length and genetic lineage, rather than the length of the longest stretch of perfect repeats. Finally, the level of locus variation was drastically different between the two genetic lineages. Conclusion The Rv0050 locus encodes the bifunctional penicillin-binding protein ponA1 and is essential to mycobacterial survival. Our investigations of this particularly dynamic genomic region provide insights into the overall mode of microsatellite evolution. Specifically, replication slippage was implicated in the mutational process of this microsatellite and a sequence-based genetic analysis was necessary to determine that point mutation events acted to maintain microsatellite size integrity while providing genomic diversity.

  6. Interdependence of right ventricular systolic function and left ventricular filling and its association with outcome for patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoji, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Yuko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ryo, Keiko; Imanishi, Junichi; Miyoshi, Tatsuya; Sawa, Takuma; Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Emoto, Noriaki; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Although impaired right ventricular (RV) performance has been associated with adverse outcomes for pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients, the relationship between bi-ventricular interdependence and outcomes is not yet fully understood. We studied 96 PH patients. RV systolic function was assessed by means of RV free-wall longitudinal speckle-tracking strain (RV-free), and left ventricular (LV) filling as early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (TMF-E). RV-free ≤19 % and TMF-E functional class IV and brain natriuretic peptide >150 pg/dl (χ(2) = 1.2) was improved by the addition of RV-free (χ(2) = 5.5, p = 0.04) as well as of TMF-E (χ(2) = 11.5, p = 0.01). In conclusions, RV systolic function was shown to correlate significantly with LV filling in PH patients. In addition, not only assessment of RV systolic function, but also of a combined bi-ventricular parameter comprising RV systolic function and LV filling may well have clinical implications for more successful management of PH patients.

  7. The impact of a hyperdynamic left ventricle on right ventricular function measurements in preterm infants with a patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breatnach, Colm R; Franklin, Orla; James, Adam T; McCallion, Naomi; El-Khuffash, Afif

    2017-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) functional assessment in premature infants includes basal longitudinal strain (RV BLS), RV systolic tissue Doppler velocity (RV s'), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and RV fractional area change (FAC). A hyperdynamic left ventricle (LV) may influence RV measures of displacement (TAPSE) and velocity (RV s') but not measures of relative change of length (RV BLS) or area (FAC). We aimed to explore this hypothesis in preterm infants with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We measured LV function (ejection fraction (LV EF); left ventricular output) and RV function (RV BLS; RV s'; TAPSE; FAC) on days 1, 2 and 5-7 in infants function measurements were compared between the groups using two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. 121 infants with a mean (SD) gestation and birth weight of 26.8 (1.4) weeks and 968 (250) g were enrolled. By days 5-7, the PDA remained open in 83 (69%), with evidence of hyperdynamic LV function. There was no difference in RV s' (5.3 (0.9) vs 5.1 (1.0) cm/s, p=0.3) or TAPSE (6.2 (1.3) vs 6.1 (1.2) mm, p=0.7) between infants with and without a PDA, but infants in the PDA group had lower RV FAC (41 (8) vs 47 (10) %, pfunctional parameters must be taken into account when interpreting of RV function using those techniques. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. The incidence and prognostic implications of worsening right ventricular function after surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement: insights from PARTNER IIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Paul C; Zhang, Yiran; Alu, Maria; Rodriguez, L Leonardo; Lindman, Brian R; Zajarias, Alan; Hahn, Rebecca T; Lerakis, Stamatios; Malaisrie, S Chris; Douglas, Pamela S; Pibarot, Philippe; Svensson, Lars G; Leon, Martin B; Jaber, Wael A

    2018-05-08

    In patients randomized to transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement (TAVR, SAVR), we sought to determine whether SAVR is associated with worsening right ventricular (RV) function and whether RV deterioration is associated with mortality. In 1376 patients from PARTNERIIA with paired baseline and 30-day core lab echocardiograms, worsening RV function was defined as decline by at least one grade from baseline to 30 days. Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality from 30 days to 2 years. Among 744 patients with TAVR, 62 (8.3%) had worsening RV function, compared with 156 of 632 patients with SAVR (24.7%) (P < 0.0001). In a multivariable model, SAVR [odds ratio (OR) 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.55-6.44], a dilated RV (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.37-4.14), and more than mild tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.25-5.33) were associated with worsening RV function. There were 169 deaths, and patients with worsening RV function had higher all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, 95% CI 1.40-2.79]. This association remained robust after adjusting for clinical and echocardiographic variables. Among patients with worsening RV function, there was no mortality difference between TAVR and SAVR (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.61-2.18). The development of moderate or severe RV dysfunction from baseline normal RV function conferred the worst prognosis (HR 2.87, 95% CI 1.40-5.89). After aortic valve replacement, worsening RV function is more common in patients with baseline RV dilation, more than mild TR, and in patients treated with SAVR. Worsening RV function and the magnitude of deterioration have important prognostic implications.

  9. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefsen, Paul T; Rolland, Morgane; Hertz, Tomer; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Gartland, Andrew J; deCamp, Allan C; Magaret, Craig A; Ahmed, Hasan; Gottardo, Raphael; Juraska, Michal; McCoy, Connor; Larsen, Brendan B; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Kijak, Gustavo H; Bose, Meera; Arroyo, Miguel A; O'Connell, Robert J; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwong, Peter D; Scheffler, Konrad; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Carlson, Jonathan M; Michael, Nelson L; Schief, William R; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Gilbert, Peter B

    2015-02-01

    The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro). The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021). In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3) overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1) more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9) (p analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine efficacy trials for diverse pathogens.

  10. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of RV144 Vaccine AIDSVAX Clade E Envelope Immunogen Is Enhanced by a gp120 N-Terminal Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Bonsignori, Mattia; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Haiyan; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Bowman, Cindy; Sutherland, Laura; Jeffries, Thomas L.; Kozink, Daniel M.; Stewart, Shelley; Anasti, Kara; Jaeger, Frederick H.; Parks, Robert; Yates, Nicole L.; Overman, R. Glenn; Sinangil, Faruk; Berman, Phillip W.; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Karasavva, Nicos; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Santra, Sampa; Letvin, Norman L.; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    An immune correlates analysis of the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial revealed that antibody responses to the gp120 V1/V2 region correlated inversely with infection risk. The RV144 protein immunogens (A244-rp120 and MN-rgp120) were modified by an N-terminal 11-amino-acid deletion (Δ11) and addition of a herpes simplex virus (HSV) gD protein-derived tag (gD). We investigated the effects of these modifications on gp120 expression, antigenicity, and immunogenicity by comparing unmodified A244 gp120 with both Δ11 deletion and gD tag and with Δ11 only. Analysis of A244 gp120, with or without Δ11 or gD, demonstrated that the Δ11 deletion, without the addition of gD, was sufficient for enhanced antigenicity to gp120 C1 region, conformational V2, and V1/V2 gp120 conformational epitopes. RV144 vaccinee serum IgGs bound more avidly to A244 gp120 Δ11 than to the unmodified gp120, and their binding was blocked by C1, V2, and V1/V2 antibodies. Rhesus macaques immunized with the three different forms of A244 gp120 proteins gave similar levels of gp120 antibody titers, although higher antibody titers developed earlier in A244 Δ11 gp120-immunized animals. Conformational V1/V2 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) gave significantly higher levels of blocking of plasma IgG from A244 Δ11 gp120-immunized animals than IgG from animals immunized with unmodified A244 gp120, thus indicating a qualitative difference in the V1/V2 antibodies induced by A244 Δ11 gp120. These results demonstrate that deletion of N-terminal residues in the RV144 A244 gp120 immunogen improves both envelope antigenicity and immunogenicity. PMID:23175357

  11. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  12. Initial shunt type at the Norwood operation impacts myocardial function in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Hanna K; Pihkala, Jaana; Salminen, Jukka; Hornberger, Lisa K; Sairanen, Heikki; Ojala, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the impact of initial shunt type, a Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt versus a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit (RV-PA) on myocardial function at different stages of surgical palliation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). A population-based cohort of 63 Finnish children with HLHS (BT n  = 23, RV-PA n  = 40) born between 2003 and 2010 were studied retrospectively by echocardiography prior to Stages 1, 2 and 3 palliation and 0.5-3 years after Stage 3. For comparison of systolic myocardial function, we evaluated the RV fractional area change (FAC), strain, strain rate and mechanical synchrony from the apical 4-chamber view by velocity vector imaging. There were no intergroup differences in demographics during the study period. At baseline, no intergroup differences were detected in RV systolic myocardial function. Before Stage 2, RV FAC was higher ( P  = 0.03) in the RV-PA conduit group. At Stage 3, an increase in all systolic myocardial functional parameters was observed in the BT shunt group. After Stage 3, the BT shunt group had better RV systolic function. In multiple regression analysis, the shunt type and the stage of palliation had an impact on myocardial function. Although patients with HLHS initially palliated with a BT shunt demonstrate lower RV FAC after Stage I, RV FAC improves after Stage 2 with better systolic performance after Stage 3 compared with those initially palliated with an RV-PA conduit. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Zeng, Hongchun [First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Ultrasonography, Urumqi (China); Koestenberger, Martin [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  14. Longitudinal and transverse right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension: cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study from the ASPIRE registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Andrew J; Rajaram, Smitha; Capener, Dave; Elliot, Charlie; Condliffe, Robin; Wild, Jim M; Kiely, David G

    2015-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is a strong predictor of outcome in cardiovascular diseases. Two components of RV function, longitudinal and transverse motion, have been investigated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, their individual clinical significance remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with transverse and longitudinal RV motion in patients with PH. In 149 treatment-naive patients with PH and 16 patients with suspected PH found to have mean pulmonary arterial pressure of transverse motion (fractional septum to free wall distance [f-SFD]; P = 0.002). In patients without PH, no significant difference between f-SFD and f-TAAD was identified (P = 0.442). Longitudinal RV motion was singularly associated with RV ejection fraction independent of age, invasive hemodynamics, and cardiac magnetic resonance measurements (P = 0.024). In contrast, transverse RV motion was independently associated with left ventricular eccentricity (P = 0.036) in addition to RV ejection fraction (P = 0.014). In conclusion, RV motion is significantly greater in the longitudinal direction in patients with PH, whereas patients without PH have equal contributions of transverse and longitudinal motion. Longitudinal RV motion is primarily associated with global RV pump function in PH. Transverse RV motion not only reflects global pump function but is independently influenced by ventricular interaction in patients with PH.

  15. Avastatud maa-alune järv võib lõpetada Darfuri kodusõja / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 23. juuli 2007, lk. 6. Teadlaste hinnangul võib Darfuri konflikti lõpetada Darfuris avastatud maa-alune järv, sest kodusõda araablastest karjakasvatajate ja põlluharijatest põliselanike vahel võib tingitud olla veepuudusest. Kaart: Darfuri maa-alune järv. Lisa: Darfuri konflikt

  16. The Norwood procedure: in favor of the RV-PA conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David J

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of the Norwood procedure has culminated in there currently being three treatment strategies available for initial management: the 'classical' Norwood (utilizing a Blalock-Taussig shunt), the Norwood with right-ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit, and the 'hybrid' Norwood procedure utilizing bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting. Each variant has its potential advantages and disadvantages, and this paper looks to examine the evidence in favor of each strategy, with emphasis on the supportive data for the RV-PA conduit. The 'classical' procedure has the benefit of the greatest accumulated surgical experience and avoids any incision into the ventricle. However, the diastolic run-off of the Blalock-Taussig shunt can cause hemodynamic instability and unpredictable coronary steal phenomenon. The RV-PA conduit has the advantage of maintaining diastolic pressure with a more stable postoperative course, but at the cost of a ventriculotomy that may have detrimental long-term sequelae. The 'hybrid' procedure has the advantage of avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass, but does not always secure coronary blood flow and has a high inter-stage morbidity and reintervention rate. The evidence shows that each technique may have its place in future management, and that treatment algorithms could emerge that direct the choice of procedure for specific patient groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The R/V Folger a Floating Laboratory: Teaching Marine Science Skills on Lake Champlain (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, P.; Manley, T.

    2013-12-01

    for other members of the local educational community for the next 30 to 50 years. The R/V Folger hosts significant amount of lab space allowing for on-vessel processing of real time data, enhanced navigational capabilities, smart classroom technology and new instrumentation such as multi-beam and CTD-rosette system. This all aluminum new research vessel, besides providing a new platform for Middlebury College's students, will also be used to enable faculty at other local colleges to provide experiential training in research techniques that would otherwise be unavailable; provide research training to local K-12 teachers; offer outreach to "land-locked" institutions and organizations within our tri-state region (NY, NH and VT); the development of a nautical archaeology program in the Lake Champlain basin; and produce data with environmental benefits to the region.

  18. Radial velocity variations of photometrically quiet, chromospherically inactive Kepler stars: A link between RV jitter and photometric flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wright, Jason T. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Aigrain, Suzanne [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Basri, Gibor [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johnson, John A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Walkowicz, Lucianne M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We compare stellar photometric variability, as measured from Kepler light curves by Basri et al., with measurements of radial velocity (RV) rms variations of all California Planet Search overlap stars. We newly derive rotation periods from the Kepler light curves for all of the stars in our study sample. The RV variations reported herein range from less than 4 to 135 m s{sup –1}, yet the stars all have amplitudes of photometric variability less than 3 mmag, reflecting the preference of the RV program for chromospherically 'quiet' stars. Despite the small size of our sample, we find with high statistical significance that the RV rms manifests strongly in the Fourier power spectrum of the light curve: stars that are noisier in RV have a greater number of frequency components in the light curve. We also find that spot models of the observed light curves systematically underpredict the observed RV variations by factors of ∼2-1000, likely because the low-level photometric variations in our sample are driven by processes not included in simple spot models. The stars best fit by these models tend to have simpler light curves, dominated by a single relatively high-amplitude component of variability. Finally, we demonstrate that the RV rms behavior of our sample can be explained in the context of the photometric variability evolutionary diagram introduced by Bastien et al. We use this diagram to derive the surface gravities of the stars in our sample, revealing many of them to have moved off the main sequence. More generally, we find that the stars with the largest RV rms are those that have evolved onto the 'flicker floor' sequence in that diagram, characterized by relatively low amplitude but highly complex photometric variations which grow as the stars evolve to become subgiants.

  19. Combining computer modelling and cardiac imaging to understand right ventricular pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, John; van Everdingen, Wouter; Cramer, Maarten J; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, Tammo; Lumens, Joost

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a strong predictor of outcome in heart failure and is a key determinant of exercise capacity. Despite these crucial findings, the RV remains understudied in the clinical, experimental, and computer modelling literature. This review outlines how recent advances in using computer modelling and cardiac imaging synergistically help to understand RV function in health and disease. We begin by highlighting the complexity of interactions that make modelling the RV both challenging and necessary, and then summarize the multiscale modelling approaches used to date to simulate RV pump function in the context of these interactions. We go on to demonstrate how these modelling approaches in combination with cardiac imaging have improved understanding of RV pump function in pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dyssynchronous heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and repaired tetralogy of Fallot. We conclude with a perspective on key issues to be addressed by computational models of the RV in the near future. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Archive of Digitized Analog Boomer and Minisparker Seismic Reflection Data Collected from the Alabama-Mississippi-Louisiana Shelf During Cruises Onboard the R/V Carancahua and R/V Gyre, April and July, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Jordan M.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Wiese, Dana S.; Flocks, James G.

    2009-01-01

    In April and July of 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the shallow geologic framework of the Alabama-Mississippi-Louisiana Shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Work was conducted onboard the Texas A&M University R/V Carancahua and the R/V Gyre to develop a geologic understanding of the study area and to locate potential hazards related to offshore oil and gas production. While the R/V Carancahua only collected boomer data, the R/V Gyre used a 400-Joule minisparker, 3.5-kilohertz (kHz) subbottom profiler, 12-kHz precision depth recorder, and two air guns. The authors selected the minisparker data set because, unlike with the boomer data, it provided the most complete record. This report is part of a series to digitally archive the legacy analog data collected from the Mississippi-Alabama SHelf (MASH). The MASH data rescue project is a cooperative effort by the USGS and the Minerals Management Service (MMS). This report serves as an archive of high-resolution scanned Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) images of the original boomer and minisparker paper records, navigation files, trackline maps, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, cruise logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  1. Eco RV RFLP at the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) locus on chromosome 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneid, H; Noguiez, P; Girard, F; Binoux, M; Le Bouc, Y [INSERM U 142, Paris (France)

    1988-09-26

    The human liver IFG I cDNA insert from the {lambda}TG03 (1) was subcloned in PGEM4 (pTG 3906). The 660 bp Eco RI-Bam HI fragment containing the 5{prime} untranslated, the coding and the 3{prime} untranslated region of the IGF IA gene (exons 1, 2, 3 and 5) was used. Eco RV digestion of genomic DNA and hybridization with the IGF I probe reveals invariant fragments of 20; 8, 7 and 5 kb and polymorphic fragments of 13 kb (allele 1) and 11, 5 kb (allele 2). The frequency of alleles was studied in 51 unrelated European Caucasians. Co-dominant segregation was observed in 2 European families (9 individuals). Hind III and Pvu II digestions show previous described RFLP. Allelic frequencies however were: Hind III (5, 2 kb allele = 0, 14 and 4, 9 kb allele = 0, 86) and Pvu II (5 kb allele = 0, 14 and 4, 7 kb allele = 0, 86). Hind III and Pvu II RFLPs are linked. Among the DNA of the 14 individuals, where Eco RV RFLP was found, only one exhibited Hind III and Pvu II RFLPs.

  2. A novel vaccine p846 encoding Rv3615c, Mtb10.4, and Rv2660c elicits robust immune response and alleviates lung injury induced by Mycobacterium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hongmei; Dong, Chunsheng; Xiong, Sidong

    2014-01-01

    Development of effective anti-tuberculosis (TB) vaccines is one of the important steps to improve control of TB. Cell-mediated immune response significantly affects the control of M. tuberculosis infection. Thus, vaccines able to elicit strong cellular immune response hold special advantages against TB. In this study, three well-defined mycobacterial antigens (Rv3615c, Mtb10.4 [Rv0228], and Rv2660c) were engineered as a novel triple-antigen fusion DNA vaccine p846. The p846 vaccine consists of a high density of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell epitopes. Intramuscular immunization of p846 induced robust T cells mediated immune response comparable to that of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination but more effective than that of individual antigen vaccination. After mycobacterial challenge, p846 immunization decreased bacterial burden at least 15-fold compared with individual antigen-based vaccination. Notably, the lungs of mice immunized with p846 exhibited fewer inflammatory cell infiltrates and less damage than those of control group mice. Our data demonstrate that the potential of p846 vaccine to protect against TB and the feasibility of this design strategy for further TB vaccine development.

  3. Imunogenicidade da cepa avirulenta RV194-2 do vírus rábico em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugimar Marcovistz

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O vírus rábico RV194-2, uma variante avirulenta da cepa CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard, produz uma infecção inaparente quando inoculado intracerebralmente em camundongos adultos. Sugerindo que a resposta imunológica do hospedeiro permite a eliminação do vírus do sistema nervoso central. Por esta razão foram estudadas a indução de interferon e a resposta imune humoral em camundongos BALB/c inoculados com vírus RV194-2. Durante a infecção, estes camundongos apresentaram elevados níveis de interferon no plasma e no cérebro com altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes anti-rábicos. A 2-5A sintetase. um marcador da ação dos interferons,foi também analisada no cérebro destes animais. Sua atividade, aumentou, paralelamente, á produção de interferon, demonstrando que este interferon é bioquímicamente ativo. O vírus RV194-2 também induziu, 45 dias após sua inoculação, proteção aos animais quando desafiados com a cepa virulenta CVS. Estes resultados demonstram que a cepa RV194-2possui um alto nível imunogênico.RV194-2 rabies virus, an avirulent mutant of CVS strain, induces an inapparent infection limited to the central nervous system (CNS in adult mice inoculated intracerebrally. This fact suggest that immune response of the host is able to eliminate the virus in CNS. For this reason, we have studied the induction of interferon and the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice after RV194-2 inoculation. These mice presented high levels of interferon in the plasma and in the brain, with elevated levels of neutralizing antirabies antibodies. The 2-5A synthetase, an enzyme marker of interferon action, was analyzed in the brain of inoculated animals. Its enhancement in parallel to the interferon production in the brain, showed biochemical evidence that this interferon is active. Forty five days after RV194-2 virus inoculation, mice were protected against a challenge with the CVS virulent strain. The results presented

  4. Impacts of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation on right ventricular geometry and contractility assessed by tissue-Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; K. Iversen, Kasper; G Vejlstrup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Little is known of the impact of acute right ventricular (RV) volume overload on RV function. We assessed the impact of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on global and regional RV function by applying novel quantitative echocardiographic markers of myocardial performance in an animal...

  5. Impacts of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation on right ventricular geometry and contractility assessed by tissue-Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Iversen, Kasper K; Vejlstrup, Niels G

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of acute right ventricular (RV) volume overload on RV function. We assessed the impact of acute severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on global and regional RV function by applying novel quantitative echocardiographic markers of myocardial performance in an animal model....

  6. Biomechanical and Hemodynamic Measures of Right Ventricular Diastolic Function: Translating Tissue Biomechanics to Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sae; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Avazmohammadi, Reza; Lapshin, Eugene; Bachman, Timothy N; Sacks, Michael; Simon, Marc A

    2017-09-12

    Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function has been associated with outcomes for patients with pulmonary hypertension; however, the relationship between biomechanics and hemodynamics in the right ventricle has not been studied. Rat models of RV pressure overload were obtained via pulmonary artery banding (PAB; control, n=7; PAB, n=5). At 3 weeks after banding, RV hemodynamics were measured using a conductance catheter. Biaxial mechanical properties of the RV free wall myocardium were obtained to extrapolate longitudinal and circumferential elastic modulus in low and high strain regions (E 1 and E 2 , respectively). Hemodynamic analysis revealed significantly increased end-diastolic elastance (E ed ) in PAB (control: 55.1 mm Hg/mL [interquartile range: 44.7-85.4 mm Hg/mL]; PAB: 146.6 mm Hg/mL [interquartile range: 105.8-155.0 mm Hg/mL]; P =0.010). Longitudinal E 1 was increased in PAB (control: 7.2 kPa [interquartile range: 6.7-18.1 kPa]; PAB: 34.2 kPa [interquartile range: 18.1-44.6 kPa]; P =0.018), whereas there were no significant changes in longitudinal E 2 or circumferential E 1 and E 2 . Last, wall stress was calculated from hemodynamic data by modeling the right ventricle as a sphere: stress=Pressure×radius2×thickness. RV pressure overload in PAB rats resulted in an increase in diastolic myocardial stiffness reflected both hemodynamically, by an increase in E ed , and biomechanically, by an increase in longitudinal E 1 . Modest increases in tissue biomechanical stiffness are associated with large increases in E ed . Hemodynamic measurements of RV diastolic function can be used to predict biomechanical changes in the myocardium. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Karakterisasi Klon Rekombinan pGEMT-Rv1984c Sebagai Antigen untuk Imunodiagnostik Tuberkulosis Laten

    OpenAIRE

    Baharaeni, Wa Ode

    2017-01-01

    The research about "Characterization of Recombinant Clones pGEMT-Rv1984c as Antigen for Latent Tuberculosis Immunodiagnostic" has been done. Rv1984c gene is the gene that is owned by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and encodes a protein formation CFP21 which serve as antigen candidate for latent tuberculosis immunodiagnostic through gene cloning. The result of transformation of gene cloning still has the possibility of failure of the process of transformation and ligation, so we need a character...

  8. Identification of novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv using integrated approach of multiple computational algorithms and experimental analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria interacting with eukaryotic host express adhesins on their surface. These adhesins aid in bacterial attachment to the host cell receptors during colonization. A few adhesins such as Heparin binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA, Apa, Malate Synthase of M. tuberculosis have been identified using specific experimental interaction models based on the biological knowledge of the pathogen. In the present work, we carried out computational screening for adhesins of M. tuberculosis. We used an integrated computational approach using SPAAN for predicting adhesins, PSORTb, SubLoc and LocTree for extracellular localization, and BLAST for verifying non-similarity to human proteins. These steps are among the first of reverse vaccinology. Multiple claims and attacks from different algorithms were processed through argumentative approach. Additional filtration criteria included selection for proteins with low molecular weights and absence of literature reports. We examined binding potential of the selected proteins using an image based ELISA. The protein Rv2599 (membrane protein binds to human fibronectin, laminin and collagen. Rv3717 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and Rv0309 (L,D-transpeptidase bind to fibronectin and laminin. We report Rv2599 (membrane protein, Rv0309 and Rv3717 as novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our results expand the number of known adhesins of M. tuberculosis and suggest their regulated expression in different stages.

  9. Assessment of cardiac function and hemodynamics in children and adults with right ventricular pressure overload: role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeih, Soha

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that pressure overload on the right ventricle (RV) leads to RV dysfunction, with considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, appropriate RV evaluation is essential because timely intervention may preserve RV function and prevent irreversible RV damage. Currently,

  10. Resolvin D1 Halts Remote Neuroinflammation and Improves Functional Recovery after Focal Brain Damage Via ALX/FPR2 Receptor-Regulated MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisicchia, Elisa; Sasso, Valeria; Catanzaro, Giuseppina; Leuti, Alessandro; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Chiacchiarini, Martina; Molinari, Marco; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Chiurchiù, Valerio

    2018-01-22

    Remote damage is a secondary phenomenon that usually occurs after a primary brain damage in regions that are distant, yet functionally connected, and that is critical for determining the outcomes of several CNS pathologies, including traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. The understanding of remote damage-associated mechanisms has been mostly achieved in several models of focal brain injury such as the hemicerebellectomy (HCb) experimental paradigm, which helped to identify the involvement of many key players, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy. Currently, few interventions have been shown to successfully limit the progression of secondary damage events and there is still an unmet need for new therapeutic options. Given the emergence of the novel concept of resolution of inflammation, mediated by the newly identified ω3-derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators, such as resolvins, we reported a reduced ability of HCb-injured animals to produce resolvin D1 (RvD1) and an increased expression of its target receptor ALX/FPR2 in remote brain regions. The in vivo administration of RvD1 promoted functional recovery and neuroprotection by reducing the activation of Iba-1+ microglia and GFAP+ astrocytes as well as by impairing inflammatory-induced neuronal cell death in remote regions. These effects were counteracted by intracerebroventricular neutralization of ALX/FPR2, whose activation by RvD1 also down-regulated miR-146b- and miR-219a-1-dependent inflammatory markers. In conclusion, we propose that innovative therapies based on RvD1-ALX/FPR2 axis could be exploited to curtail remote damage and enable neuroprotective effects after acute focal brain damage.

  11. The impact of isolated obesity on right ventricular function in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmen, Abdullah; Sokmen, Gulizar; Acar, Gurkan; Akcay, Ahmet; Koroglu, Sedat; Koleoglu, Murat; Yalcintas, Sila; Aydin, M Naci

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The effects of obesity on left ventricular structure and function have been reported, but relatively little is known regarding right ventricular (RV) function in obesity. To evaluate subclinical RV alterations in obese, but otherwise healthy, young adults by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). In this study, we included 35 normal weight healthy subjects with a body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m² (group III). All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to standard echocardiographic measurements, tricuspid annular peak systolic (Sm), peak early (Em), and late diastolic (Am) velocities, isovolumetric contraction (ICTm), relaxation (IRTm) time, and ejection time (ETm) were obtained by TDI, and RV myocardial performance index (MPIm) was calculated. In group II, RV Em/Am was significantly decreased and IRTm and MPIm were significantly increased compared to group I (p obesity in young normotensive adults was associated with subclinical abnormalities in RV structure and function.

  12. Right heart function in impaired left ventricular diastolic function: 2D speckle tracking echocardiography-based and Doppler tissue imaging-based analysis of right atrial and ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Anna; Bathe, Marny; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Seeland, Ute; Rücke, Mirjam; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Stangl, Karl; Knebel, Fabian; Stangl, Verena; Dreger, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe right atrial (RA) and right ventricular (RV) function, assessed by Doppler tissue imaging and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE), in women with signs of early impaired left ventricular diastolic function (DD). In a cross-sectional trial, standard parameters of diastolic and right heart function were investigated in 438 women of the Berlin Female Risk Evaluation (BEFRI) study. In a subset of women, average peak systolic RA strain (RAS), as well as the average peak systolic RV strain of the free wall (RVS free wall) and of all RV segments (average RV strain; RVS Avg), was analyzed using 2DSTE. Compared to women with normal diastolic function (DD0), RAS, RVS free wall and RVS Avg were significantly reduced in DD (43.1% ± 11.9%, -26.7% ± 5.6%, and -23.3% ± 3.5% in DD0; vs 35.1% ± 10.4%, -23.9% ± 5.5%, and -20.6% ± 3.8% in DD; P right heart function is significantly altered in DD. DTI as well as 2DSTE constitute sensitive echocardiographic tools that enable the diagnosis of impaired right heart mechanics in early-staged DD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Benthic data from bottom grabs from Prince William Sound in support of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project from the R/V DAVIDSON and R/V BIG VALLEY from 03 July 1990 to 25 June of 1991 (NODC Accession 0000447)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic samples and other data were collected from the R/V DAVIDSON and R/V BIG VALLEY from the Prince William Sound from 03 July 1990 to 25 June of 1991 . Data were...

  14. The 22Rv1 prostate cancer cell line carries mixed genetic ancestry: Implications for prostate cancer health disparities research using pre-clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Burnham, Leanne; Basu, Anamika; Cajigas-Du Ross, Christina K; Love, Arthur; Yates, Clayton; De Leon, Marino; Roy, Sourav; Casiano, Carlos A

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how biological factors contribute to prostate cancer (PCa) health disparities requires mechanistic functional analysis of specific genes or pathways in pre-clinical cellular and animal models of this malignancy. The 22Rv1 human prostatic carcinoma cell line was originally derived from the parental CWR22R cell line. Although 22Rv1 has been well characterized and used in numerous mechanistic studies, no racial identifier has ever been disclosed for this cell line. In accordance with the need for racial diversity in cancer biospecimens and recent guidelines by the NIH on authentication of key biological resources, we sought to determine the ancestry of 22RV1 and authenticate previously reported racial identifications for four other PCa cell lines. We used 29 established Ancestry Informative Marker (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to conduct DNA ancestry analysis and assign ancestral proportions to a panel of five PCa cell lines that included 22Rv1, PC3, DU145, MDA-PCa-2b, and RC-77T/E. We found that 22Rv1 carries mixed genetic ancestry. The main ancestry proportions for this cell line were 0.41 West African (AFR) and 0.42 European (EUR). In addition, we verified the previously reported racial identifications for PC3 (0.73 EUR), DU145 (0.63 EUR), MDA-PCa-2b (0.73 AFR), and RC-77T/E (0.74 AFR) cell lines. Considering the mortality disparities associated with PCa, which disproportionately affect African American men, there remains a burden on the scientific community to diversify the availability of biospecimens, including cell lines, for mechanistic studies on potential biological mediators of these disparities. This study is beneficial by identifying another PCa cell line that carries substantial AFR ancestry. This finding may also open the door to new perspectives on previously published studies using this cell line. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Implementation of Rotavirus Surveillance and Vaccine Introduction - World Health Organization African Region, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenda, Jason M; Burke, Rachel M; Shaba, Keith; Mihigo, Richard; Tevi-Benissan, Mable Carole; Mumba, Mutale; Biey, Joseph Nsiari-Muzeyi; Cheikh, Dah; Poy MSc, Alain; Zawaira, Felicitas R; Aliabadi, Negar; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri; Cohen, Adam L; Parashar, Umesh D

    2017-11-03

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe pediatric diarrhea globally, estimated to have caused 120,000 deaths among children aged rotavirus vaccination for all infants worldwide (2). Two rotavirus vaccines are currently licensed globally: the monovalent Rotarix vaccine (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline; 2-dose series) and the pentavalent RotaTeq vaccine (RV5, Merck; 3-dose series). This report describes progress of rotavirus vaccine introduction (3), coverage (using estimates from WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]) (4), and impact on pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations in the WHO African Region. By December 2016, 31 (66%) of 47 countries in the WHO African Region had introduced rotavirus vaccine, including 26 that introduced RV1 and five that introduced RV5. Among these countries, rotavirus vaccination coverage (completed series) was 77%, according to WHO/UNICEF population-weighted estimates. In 12 countries with surveillance data available before and after vaccine introduction, the proportion of pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations that were rotavirus-positive declined 33%, from 39% preintroduction to 26% following rotavirus vaccine introduction. These results support introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the remaining countries in the region and continuation of rotavirus surveillance to monitor impact.

  16. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Relation of Baseline Right Ventricular Function to Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Bax, Jerome J; Vallakati, Ajay; Goel, Sunny; Lavie, Carl J; Kassotis, John; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Einstein, Andrew; Warrier, Nikhil; Lazar, Jason M

    2016-04-15

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves left ventricular (LV) size and function in patients with markedly abnormal electrocardiogram QRS duration. However, relation of baseline RV function with response to CRT has not been well described. In this study, we aim to investigate the relation of baseline RV function with response to CRT as assessed by change in LV ejection fraction (EF). A systematic search of studies published from 1966 to May 31, 2015 was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and the Web of Science databases. Studies were included if they have reported (1) parameters of baseline RV function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE] or RVEF or RV basal strain or RV fractional area change [FAC]) and (2) LVEF before and after CRT. Random-effects metaregression was used to evaluate the effect of baseline RV function parameters and change in LVEF. Sixteen studies (n = 1,764) were selected for final analysis. Random-effects metaregression analysis showed no significant association between the magnitude of the difference in EF before and after CRT with baseline TAPSE (β = 0.005, p = 0.989); baseline RVEF (β = 0.270, p = 0.493); baseline RVFAC (β = -0.367, p = 0.06); baseline basal strain (β = -0.342, p = 0.462) after a mean follow-up period of 10.5 months. In conclusion, baseline RV function as assessed by TAPSE, FAC, basal strain, or RVEF does not determine response to CRT as assessed by change in LVEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrients and physical data from the R/V Thomas Washington and the R/V Oshoru Maru using bottle and CTD casts as part of the Inner Shelf Transport and Recycling (ISHTAR) project from 12 June 1986 to 19 October 1988 (NODC Accession 0000333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and physical data were collected from the R/V THOMAS WASHINGTON and R/V OSHORU MARU from June 12, 1986 to October 19, 1988. Data were submitted by...

  19. Updated and standardized genome-scale reconstruction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, iEK1011, simulates flux states indicative of physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvas, Erol S.; Seif, Yara; Yurkovich, James T.

    2018-01-01

    previous M. tuberculosis H37Rv genome-scale reconstructions. We functionally assess iEK1011 against previous models and show that the model increases correct gene essentiality predictions on two different experimental datasets by 6% (53% to 60%) and 18% (60% to 71%), respectively. We compared simulations...

  20. The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnside Kellie L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication. KSHV ORF59 is antigenic in the infected host and is used as a marker for virus activation and replication. Results We cloned, sequenced and expressed the genes encoding related ORF59 proteins from the RV1 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV from chimpanzee (PtrRV1 and three species of macaques (RFHVMm, RFHVMn and RFHVMf, and have compared them with ORF59 proteins obtained from members of the more distantly-related RV2 rhadinovirus lineage infecting the same non-human primate species (PtrRV2, RRV, MneRV2, and MfaRV2, respectively. We found that ORF59 homologs of the RV1 and RV2 Old World primate rhadinoviruses are highly conserved with distinct phylogenetic clustering of the two rhadinovirus lineages. RV1 and RV2 ORF59 C-terminal domains exhibit a strong lineage-specific conservation. Rabbit antiserum was developed against a C-terminal polypeptide that is highly conserved between the macaque RV2 ORF59 sequences. This anti-serum showed strong reactivity towards ORF59 encoded by the macaque RV2 rhadinoviruses, RRV (rhesus and MneRV2 (pig-tail, with no cross reaction to human or macaque RV1 ORF59 proteins. Using this antiserum and RT-qPCR, we determined that RRV ORF59 is expressed early after permissive infection of both rhesus primary fetal fibroblasts and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero in vitro. RRV- and MneRV2-infected foci showed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 that correlated with production of infectious progeny virus. Immunohistochemical studies of an MneRV2-infected macaque revealed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 in infected cells within the differentiating layer of epidermis corroborating previous observations that differentiated epithelial cells are permissive for replication of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses

  1. Integrity evaluation of Alloy 600 RV head penetration tubes in Korean PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sung Ho; Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee

    1995-01-01

    The structural integrity assessment of Alloy 600 RV head penetration tubes has been an important issue for the economical and reliable operation of power plants. In this paper, an overview of the integrity evaluation program for the RV head penetration tubes in Korean nuclear power plants is presented. Since the crack growth mechanism of the penetration tube is due to the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) which is mainly related to the stress at the tube, the present paper consists of three primary activities: the stress evaluation, the flaw evaluation, and data generation through material and mechanical tests. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Crystal structure of the toxin Msmeg_6760, the structural homolog of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2035, a novel type II toxin involved in the hypoxic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, R. Alexandra; Arbing, Mark A.; Shin, Annie; Cascio, Duilio; Miallau, Linda (UCLA)

    2016-11-19

    The structure of Msmeg_6760, a protein of unknown function, has been determined. Biochemical and bioinformatics analyses determined that Msmeg_6760 interacts with a protein encoded in the same operon, Msmeg_6762, and predicted that the operon is a toxin–antitoxin (TA) system. Structural comparison of Msmeg_6760 with proteins of known function suggests that Msmeg_6760 binds a hydrophobic ligand in a buried cavity lined by large hydrophobic residues. Access to this cavity could be controlled by a gate–latch mechanism. The function of the Msmeg_6760 toxin is unknown, but structure-based predictions revealed that Msmeg_6760 and Msmeg_6762 are homologous to Rv2034 and Rv2035, a predicted novel TA system involved inMycobacterium tuberculosislatency during macrophage infection. The Msmeg_6760 toxin fold has not been previously described for bacterial toxins and its unique structural features suggest that toxin activation is likely to be mediated by a novel mechanism.

  3. A new scintigraphic technique for assessment of right atrial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmor, A.; Biello, D.R.; Sampathkumaran, K.S.; Geltman, E.M.; Siegel, B.A.; Roberts, R.

    1981-01-01

    Gated radionuclide imaging with 99 mTc-labeled red blood cells was employed to assess changes in right atrial (RA) volume in 17 subjects. Studies were repeated within two hours in five of 12 normal subjects and at two and ten days after infarction in five patients. Time-activity curves were generated for the RA and right ventricle (RV) from variable regions of interest defined by automatic edge detection. The RA time-activity curve exhibited four phases: filling, early emptying, equilibration, and late emptying. Repeated measurements of RA early emptying rates correlated closely in normals (r . 0.93). Early RA emptying and RV filling rates corresponded closely (r . 0.89). In four patients with infarction, the RA emptying rate was slowed on the first study but had normalized by 10 days. In a patient with inferior infarction and suspected RV infarction, the RA emptying rate was depressed and remained so for 10 days. Thus, relative changes in right atrial volume can be assessed reproducibly by a radionuclide technique, which is relatively independent of geometric assumptions. This technique offers great promise as a method to assess atrial function in health and disease

  4. Resting right ventricular function is associated with exercise performance in PAH, but not in CTEPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Michaela Beatrice; Howard, Luke S; Christiaens, Luc P; Gill, Dipender; Gibbs, J Simon R; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-02-01

    To assess whether resting right ventricular (RV) function assessed by Global RV longitudinal strain (RVLS) and RV fractional area change (FAC) is associated with exercise performance in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively recruited 46 consecutive patients with PAH and 42 patients with CTEPH who were referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and transthoracic echocardiography. Resting RV systolic function was assessed with RVLS and FAC. CPET parameters analyzed were percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2). Spearman correlation was performed between echocardiographic measurements and CPET measurements. In PAH, spearman correlation found an association between RVLS and VE/VCO2 (coefficient = 0.556, P PAH, resting RV function as assessed by FAC or RVLS is associated with exercise performance and could therefore make a significant contribution to non-invasive assessment in PAH patients. This association is not found in CTEPH, suggesting a disconnection between resting RV function and exercise performance, with implications for the use of exercise measurements as a prognostic marker and clinical/research endpoint in CTEPH. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Mycothiol acetyltransferase (Rv0819) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a potential biomarker for direct diagnosis of tuberculosis using patient serum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Bahey-El-Din, M; Kassem, M A; Aboushleib, H M

    2017-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection constitutes a global threat that results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Efficient and early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is of paramount importance for successful treatment. The aim of the current study is to investigate the mycobacterial mycothiol acetyltransferase Rv0819 as a potential novel biomarker for the diagnosis of active TB infection. The gene encoding Rv0819 was cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Rv0819 was purified using metal affinity chromatography and was used to raise murine polyclonal antibodies against Rv0819. The raised antibodies were employed for direct detection of Rv0819 in patient serum samples using dot blot assay and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum samples were obtained from 68 confirmed new TB patients and 35 healthy volunteers as negative controls. The dot blot assay showed sensitivity of 64·7% and specificity of 100%, whereas the competitive ELISA assay showed lower sensitivity (54·4%) and specificity (88·57%). The overall sensitivity of the combined results of the two tests was found to be 89·7%. Overall, the mycobacterial Rv0819 is a potential TB serum biomarker that can be exploited, in combination with other TB biomarkers, for efficient and reliable diagnosis of active TB infection. The early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis infection is of paramount importance for initiating treatment and avoiding clinical complications. Most current diagnostic tests have poor sensitivity and/or specificity and in many cases they are too expensive for routine diagnostic testing in resource-limited settings. In the current study, we examined a novel mycobacterial serum biomarker, namely mycothiol acetyltransferase Rv0819. The antigen was detectable in serum specimens of a significant number of tuberculosis patients. This article proves the importance of Rv0819 and paves the way towards its future use as a useful

  6. Evaluation of right heart function in a rat model using modified echocardiographic views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Ivan; Wong, James; Wlodek, Mary E; Vlahos, Ross; Soeding, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Echocardiography plays a major role in assessing cardiac function in animal models. We investigated use of a modified parasternal mid right-ventricular (MRV) and right ventricle (RV) outflow (RVOT) view, in assessing RV size and function, and the suitability of advanced 2D-strain analysis. 15 WKY rats were examined using transthoracic echocardiography. The left heart was assessed using standard short and long axis views. For the right ventricle a MRV and RVOT view were used to measure RV chamber and free wall area. 2D-strain analysis was applied to both ventricles using off-line analysis. RV chamber volume was determined by injection of 2% agarose gel, and RV free wall dissected and weighed. Echocardiography measurement was correlated with necropsy findings. The RV mid-ventricular dimension (R1) was 0.42±0.07cm and the right ventricular outflow tract dimension (R2) was 0.34±0.06cm, chamber end-diastolic area measurements were 0.38±0.09cm2 and 0.29±0.08cm2 for MRV and RVOT views respectively. RVOT and MRV chamber area correlated with gel mass. Doppler RV stroke volume was 0.32±0.08ml, cardiac output (CO) 110±27 ml.min-1 and RV free wall contractility assessed using 2D-strain analysis was demonstrated. We have shown that modified MRV and RVOT views can provide detailed assessment of the RV in rodents, with 2D-strain analysis of the RV free wall potentially feasible.

  7. Det Digitale Nærvær

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    Computer-medieret kommunikation (CMC – via intranet- og internet, ”allestedsnærværende computing” mm. ), er grundlaget for det informations- og videnssamfund, der begynder at tage form i disse år. CMC er blevet kolossalt udbredt de seneste 10 – 15 år og har forandret den måde vi udsender og søger...... information, kommunikerer med hinanden både privat og i organisationer, samarbejder, underviser og tilegner os viden. Denne bog går tæt på tre udvalgte områder inden for den computer-medierede kommunikation: · Videndeling i formelle og uformelle organisationer, · Netbaseret samarbejde og læring, · Design af...

  8. Impact of surgical correction of tetralogy of fallot on short-term right and left ventricular function as determined by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuman; Wang, Xinfang; Lv, Qing; Wang, Jing; Yang, YaLi; He, Lin; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Li; Xie, Mingxing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is an important determinant of poor clinical status in repaired patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). The purpose of our study is to assess the impact of surgical repair on short-term RV and LV function by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Sixty-seven patients (median age 12 months) with TOF before and 6 months after repair and 35 healthy subjects were studied. The patients were divided into the younger (age at surgery ≤12 months) and older (age at surgery >12 months) subgroups. RV and LV global longitudinal systolic strain and strain rate (SR), and LV global circumferential and radial systolic strain and SR were measured by STE. After repair, RV longitudinal strain and SR increased in the younger patients, whereas RV longitudinal SR was decreased in the older patients. LV deformation parameters were unchanged in all patients. In the multivariate analysis, patients with better RV and LV deformation parameters preoperatively were identified to have better RV and LV strain and SR postoperatively (P < 0.05 for all). The surgical approach of the pulmonary valve ring was predictive of RV and LV systolic function postoperatively (P < 0.05 for all). After TOF repair, short-term RV function improvement is identified in the younger but not in the older patients, whereas LV function is unchanged in all patients. The preoperative RV and LV deformational indices are the determinant of postoperative biventricular function improvement. STE appears to be a valuable tool for assessment of biventricular function after congenital heart disease surgery. PMID:27495064

  9. 2D-speckle tracking right ventricular strain to assess right ventricular systolic function in systolic heart failure. Analysis of the right ventricular free and posterolateral walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Stéphanie; Ridon, Héléne; Fertin, Marie; Pentiah, Anju Duva; Goémine, Céline; Petyt, Grégory; Lamblin, Nicolas; Coisne, Augustin; Foucher-Hossein, Claude; Montaigne, David; de Groote, Pascal

    2017-10-15

    Right ventricular (RV) systolic function is a powerful prognostic factor in patients with systolic heart failure. The accurate estimation of RV function remains difficult. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 2D-speckle tracking RV strain in patients with systolic heart failure, analyzing both free and posterolateral walls. Seventy-six patients with dilated cardiopathy (left ventricular end-diastolic volume≥75ml/m 2 ) and left ventricular ejection fraction≤45% had an analysis of the RV strain. Feasibility, reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of RV strain were analyzed and compared to other echocardiographic parameters of RV function. RV dysfunction was defined as a RV ejection fraction≤40% measured by radionuclide angiography. RV strain feasibility was 93.9% for the free-wall and 79.8% for the posterolateral wall. RV strain reproducibility was good (intra-observer and inter-observer bias and limits of agreement of 0.16±1.2% [-2.2-2.5] and 0.84±2.4 [-5.5-3.8], respectively). Patients with left heart failure have a RV systolic dysfunction that can be unmasked by advanced echocardiographic imaging: mean RV strain was -21±5.7% in patients without RV dysfunction and -15.8±5.1% in patients with RV dysfunction (p=0.0001). Mean RV strain showed the highest diagnostic accuracy to predict depressed RVEF (area under the curve (AUC) 0.75) with moderate sensitivity (60.5%) but high specificity (87.5%) using a cutoff value of -16%. RV strain seems to be a promising and more efficient measure than previous RV echocardiographic parameters for the diagnosis of RV systolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulating rotavirus-specific T cells have a poor functional profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Miguel; Herrera, Daniel; Jácome, María Fernanda; Mesa, Martha C.; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Guzmán, Carolina; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ + cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2 – unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i – increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α + , CD4 IFN-γ + , and CD8 IFN-γ + cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2. - Highlights: • The quality and magnitude of circulating RV-T cell responses are relatively poor. • Circulating RV-CD4 T cells are enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ+ cells. • Treatment with rIL-2 increased the frequencies of cytokine secreting RV-T cells

  11. Idala: An unnamed Function Peptide Vaccine for Tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate Myt272 protein antigenicity and immunogenicity by trial vaccination in mice and its in silico analysis as a potential peptide vaccine for tuberculosis. Methods: Myt272 gene, which has 100 % identity with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv unknown function gene Rv3424c, was ligated by genomic ...

  12. Genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus outside the 3A region is also responsible for virus replication in bovine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Lu, Zengjun; Bao, Huifang; Bai, Xingwen; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-07-15

    The deletion of residues 93-102 in non-structure protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in bovine cells and attenuated virulence in cattle.Whereas, a previously reported FMDV strain O/HKN/21/70 harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A protein grew equally well in bovine and swine cells. This suggests that changes inFMDV genome sequence, in addition to 93-102 deletion in 3A, may also affectthe viral growth phenotype in bovine cellsduring infection and replication.However, it is nuclear that changes in which region (inside or outside of 3A region) influences FMDV growth phenotype in bovine cells.In this study, to determine the region in FMDV genomeaffecting viral growth phenotype in bovine cells, we constructed chimeric FMDVs, rvGZSB-HKN3A and rvHN-HKN3A, by introducing the 3A coding region of O/HKN/21/70 into the context of O/SEA/Mya-98 strain O/GZSB/2011 and O Cathay topotype strain O/HN/CHA/93, respectively, since O/GZSB/2011 containing full-length 3A protein replicated well in bovine and swine cells, and O/HN/CHA/93 harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A protein grew poorly in bovine cells.The chimeric virusesrvGZSB-HKN3A and rvHN-HKN3A displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus rvGZSB and rv-HN in BHK-21 and primary fetal porcine kidney (FPK) cells. However, rvHN-HKN3A and rv-HN replicated poorly in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells with no visible plaques, and rvGZSB-HKN3A exhibited lower growth rate and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in FBK cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the difference present in FMDV genome sequence outside the 3A coding region also have influence on FMDV replication ability in bovine cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Right Ventricular Pacing and Sensing Function in High Posterior Septal and Apical Lead Placement in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Kristiansen, MD

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The RV-HS lead position demonstrated stable and acceptable long-term pacing and sensing function, with rates of complications comparable to conventional RV-A lead position in CRT. The RV-HS lead position is feasible in CRT-P.

  14. Dosimetry using Gafchromic XR-RV2 radiochromic films in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neocleous, A.; Yakoumakis, E.; Gialousis, G.; Dimitriadis, A.; Yakoumakis, N.; Georgiou, E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient dose measurements of local entrance dose to the skin have been carried out using radiochromic film (Gafchromic XR-RV2) in a sample of interventional procedures. The major aim of the work was to measure patient entrance dose from such examinations using Gafchromic XR-RV2. Forty-five various interventional procedures (including nephrostomies and urinary stenting, biliary stenting and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and aorta stent grafting) were evaluated. Maximum entrance doses were 537±119 mGy in nephrostomies, 943±631 mGy in biliary stenting and PTBD and 2425±569 mGy in aorta stent grafting. Results indicate that all patients undergoing aorta stent grafting received skin dose above 1500 mGy, which means that there is an increasing potential to suffer radiation-induced skin injuries. The film provides dose mapping, the position of the skin area with highest dose and can be used for immediate qualitative and as well as for quantitative assessment of patient skin dose. (authors)

  15. Potential Mechanism of Action of meso-Dihydroguaiaretic Acid on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo F. Clemente-Soto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and characterization of the lignan meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA from Larrea tridentata and its activity against Mycobacterial tuberculosis has been demonstrated, but no information regarding its mechanism of action has been documented. Therefore, in this study we carry out the gene expression from total RNA obtained from M. tuberculosis H37Rv treated with MDGA using microarray technology, which was validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that the alpha subunit of coenzyme A transferase of M. tuberculosis H37Rv is present in both geraniol and 1-and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation pathways, which are targeted by MDGA. This assumption was supported by molecular docking which showed stable interaction between MDGA with the active site of the enzyme. We propose that inhibition of coenzyme A transferase of M. tuberculosis H37Rv results in the accumulation of geraniol and 1-and 2-methylnaphtalene inside bacteria, causing membrane destabilization and death of the pathogen. The natural product MDGA is thus an attractive template to develop new anti-tuberculosis drugs, because its target is different from those of known anti-tubercular agents.

  16. Statistical study of overvoltages by maneuvering in switches in high voltage using EMTP-RV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Herrera, Diego Armando

    2013-01-01

    The transient overvoltages produced by maneuvering of switches are studied in a statistical way and through a variation the sequential closing times of switches in networks larger than 230 kV. This study is performed according to time delays and typical deviation ranges, using the tool EMTP- RV (ElectroMagnetic Trasient Program Restructured Version). A conceptual framework related with the electromagnetic transients by maneuver is developed in triphasic switches installed in nominal voltages higher than 230 kV. The methodology established for the execution of statistical studies of overvoltages by switch maneuver is reviewed and evaluated by simulating two fictitious cases in EMTP-RV [es

  17. Wave Intensity Analysis of Right Ventricular Function during Pulsed Operation of Rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, J Christopher; Park, Jiheum; Valdovinos, John; Bonde, Pramod

    2018-05-29

    Changing the speed of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) cyclically may be useful to restore aortic pulsatility; however, the effects of this pulsation on right ventricular (RV) function are unknown. This study investigates the effects of direct ventricular interaction by quantifying the amount of wave energy created by RV contraction when axial and centrifugal LVADs are used to assist the left ventricle. In 4 anesthetized pigs, pressure and flow were measured in the main pulmonary artery and wave intensity analysis was used to identify and quantify the energy of waves created by the RV. The axial pump depressed the intensity of waves created by RV contraction compared with the centrifugal pump. In both pump designs, there were only minor and variable differences between the continuous and pulsed operation on RV function. The axial pump causes the RV to contract with less energy compared with a centrifugal design. Diminishing the ability of the RV to produce less energy translates to less pressure and flow produced, which may lead to LVAD-induced RV failure. The effects of pulsed LVAD operation on the RV appear to be minimal during acute observation of healthy hearts. Further study is necessary to uncover the effects of other modes of speed modulation with healthy and unhealthy hearts to determine if pulsed operation will benefit patients by reducing LVAD complications.

  18. Dominance of free wall radial motion in global right ventricular function of heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Bálint Károly; Tokodi, Márton; Assabiny, Alexandra; Tősér, Zoltán; Kosztin, Annamária; Doronina, Alexandra; Rácz, Kristóf; Koritsánszky, Kinga Bianka; Berzsenyi, Viktor; Németh, Endre; Sax, Balázs; Kovács, Attila; Merkely, Béla

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function using conventional echocardiography might be inadequate as the radial motion of the RV free wall is often neglected. Our aim was to quantify the longitudinal and the radial components of RV function using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in heart transplant (HTX) recipients. Fifty-one HTX patients in stable cardiovascular condition without history of relevant rejection episode or chronic allograft vasculopathy and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled. RV end-diastolic (EDV) volume and total ejection fraction (TEF) were measured by 3D echocardiography. Furthermore, we quantified longitudinal (LEF) and radial ejection fraction (REF) by decomposing the motion of the RV using the ReVISION method. RV EDV did not differ between groups (HTX vs control; 96 ± 27 vs 97 ± 2 mL). In HTX patients, TEF was lower, however, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) decreased to a greater extent (TEF: 47 ± 7 vs 54 ± 4% [-13%], TAPSE: 11 ± 5 vs 21 ± 4 mm [-48%], P < .0001). In HTX patients, REF/TEF ratio was significantly higher compared to LEF/TEF (REF/TEF vs LEF/TEF: 0.58 ± 0.10 vs 0.27 ± 0.08, P < .0001), while in controls the REF/TEF and LEF/TEF ratio was similar (0.45 ± 0.07 vs 0.47 ± 0.07). Current results confirm the superiority of radial motion in determining RV function in HTX patients. Parameters incorporating the radial motion are recommended to assess RV function in HTX recipients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinical evaluation of right ventricular function using radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yasushi; Tamaki, Nagayoshi; Mukai, Takao; Motohara, Seiichito; Ikekubo, Katsuji.

    1982-01-01

    Essential thing to evaluate the right ventricular (RV) function is its volumetric measurement. However, its geometrical complexity has hampered this even with the contrast ventriculography, unlike left ventricle (LV). Meanwhile, the radionuclide time-activity curve from the first pass of a tracer through RV in the RAO view provides the most reliable data of the RV ejection fraction (RVEF), same data from the multigated equilibrium study in the LAO view is necessitated for a repeated intervention study, but the latter imposes a critical problem to locate ROI separately in the LAO view. Finally, three dimensional location of RV should be mandatory using new method as the dynamic SPECT in the future. (author)

  20. Human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) targets rotavirus from birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobari, Jarir At; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J.; Barnes, Graeme L.; Bachtiar, Novilia S.; Icanervilia, Ajeng Viska; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F.; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Buttery, Jim P.; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-01-01

    Background A birth dose strategy using a neonatal rotavirus vaccine to target early prevention of rotavirus disease may address remaining barriers to global vaccine implementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB administered in a neonatal schedule at 0-5 days, 8 and 14 weeks or infant schedule at 8, 14 and 18 weeks, or placebo. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis was graded using a modified Vesikari score. The primary analysis was efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis from two weeks after all doses to 18 months in the combined vaccine group (neonatal and infant schedule) compared with placebo. Results Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis to 18 months was 63% in the combined vaccine group (95% CI 34, 80; p<0.001), 75% in the neonatal vaccine group (95% confidence interval [CI] 44, 91; p<0.001) and 51% in the infant vaccine group (95% CI 7, 76; p=0.03) in the per protocol analysis, with similar results in the intention-to-treat analysis. Vaccine efficacy to 12 months was 94% in the neonatal vaccine group (95%CI 56, 99; p=0.006). Vaccine take occurred in 78/83 (94%) in the neonatal vaccine group and 83/84 (99%) in the infant vaccine group. The vaccine was well tolerated, with similar incidence of adverse events in vaccine and placebo recipients. Conclusion RV3-BB was efficacious, immunogenic and well-tolerated when administered in a neonatal or infant schedule in Indonesia. PMID:29466164

  1. Overview of errors in the reference sequence and annotation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and variation amongst its isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Köser, Claudio U.

    2012-06-01

    Since its publication in 1998, the genome sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain has acted as the cornerstone for the study of tuberculosis. In this review we address some of the practical aspects that have come to light relating to the use of H37Rv throughout the past decade which are of relevance for the ongoing genomic and laboratory studies of this pathogen. These include errors in the genome reference sequence and its annotation, as well as the recently detected variation amongst isolates of H37Rv from different laboratories. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

  2. Semi-quantitative assessment of right ventricular function in comparison to a 3D volumetric approach: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijveldt, Robin; Germans, Tjeerd; Rossum, Albert C. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); McCann, Gerald P. [University Hospitals Leicester, Department of Cardiology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Beek, Aernout M. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Right ventricular (RV) volume measurements with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the gold standard, but acquisition and analysis remain time-consuming. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the accuracy and performance of a semi-quantitative assessment of RV function in CMR, compared to the standard quantitative approach. Seventy-five subjects with pulmonary hypertension (15), anterior myocardial infarction (15), inferior myocardial infarction (15), Brugada syndrome (15) and normal subjects (15) underwent cine CMR. RV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were determined to calculate RV ejection fraction (EF). Four-chamber cine images were used to measure tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). RV fractional shortening (RVFS) was calculated by dividing TAPSE by the RV end-diastolic length. RV EF correlated significantly with TAPSE (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) and RVFS (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Sensitivity to predict RV dysfunction was comparable between TAPSE and RVFS, with higher specificity for RVFS, but comparable areas under the ROC curve. Intra- and inter-observer variability of RV EF was better than TAPSE (3%/4% versus 7%/15%, respectively). For routine screening in clinical practice, TAPSE and RVFS seem reliable and easy methods to identify patients with RV dysfunction. The 3D volumetric approach is preferred to assess RV function for research purposes or to evaluate treatment response. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of valvar and right ventricular function following transcatheter and surgical pulmonary valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendy F; Pollard, Heidi; Karimi, Mohsen; Asnes, Jeremy D; Hellenbrand, William E; Shabanova, Veronika; Weismann, Constance G

    2018-01-01

    Trans-catheter (TC) pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) has become common practice for patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) and/or pulmonic insufficiency (PI). Our aim was to compare PVR and right ventricular (RV) function of patients who received TC vs surgical PVR. Retrospective review of echocardiograms obtained at three time points: before, immediately after PVR, and most recent. Sixty-two patients (median age 19 years, median follow-up 25 months) following TC (N = 32) or surgical (N = 30) PVR at Yale-New Haven Hospital were included. Pulmonary valve and right ventricular function before, immediately after, and most recently after PVR. At baseline, the TC group had predominant RVOTO (74% vs 10%, P function was good throughout. At last follow-up, the TC group had preserved valve function, but the surgical group did not (moderate RVOTO: 6% vs 41%, P mild PI: 0% vs 24%, P = .003). Patients younger than 17 years at surgical PVR had the highest risk of developing PVR dysfunction, while PVR function in follow-up was similar in adults. Looking at RV size and function, both groups had a decline in RV size following PVR. However, while RV function remained stable in the TC group, there was a transient postoperative decline in the surgical group. TC PVR in patients age function in follow-up compared to surgical valves. There was a transient decline in RV function following surgical but not TC PVR. TC PVR should therefore be the first choice in children who are considered for PVR, whenever possible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. SDSS-III MARVELS Planet Candidate RV Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SIthajan, Sirinrat

    2014-02-01

    Planetary systems, discovered by the radial velocity (RV) surveys, reveal strong correlations between the planet frequency and stellar properties, such as metallicity and mass, and a greater diversity in planets than found in the solar system. However, due to the sample sizes of extant surveys (~100 to a few hundreds of stars) and their heterogeneity, many key questions remained to be addressed: Do metal poor stars obey the same trends for planet occurrence as metal rich stars? What is the distribution of giant planets around intermediate- mass stars and binaries? Is the ``planet desert'' within 0.6 AU in the planet orbital distribution of intermediate-mass stars real? The MARVELS survey has produced the largest homogeneous RV measurements of 3300 V=7.6-12 FGK stars. The latest data pipeline effort at UF has been able to remove long term systematic errors suffered in the earlier data pipeline. 18 high confident giant planet candidates have been identified among newly processed data. We propose to follow up these giant planet candidates with the KPNO EXPERT instrument to confirm the detection and also characterize their orbits. The confirmed planets will be used to measure occurrence rates, distributions and multiplicity of giants planets around F,G,K stars with a broad range of mass (~0.6-2.5 M_⊙) and metallicity ([Fe/H]~-1.5-0.5). The well defined MARVELS survey cadence allows robust determinations of completeness limits for rigorously testing giant planet formation theories and constraining models.

  5. Circulating rotavirus-specific T cells have a poor functional profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Miguel; Herrera, Daniel [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia); Jácome, María Fernanda; Mesa, Martha C. [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Rodríguez, Luz-Stella [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia); Guzmán, Carolina [Departamento de Pediatría, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A. [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ{sup +} cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2 – unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i – increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α{sup +}, CD4 IFN-γ{sup +}, and CD8 IFN-γ{sup +} cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2. - Highlights: • The quality and magnitude of circulating RV-T cell responses are relatively poor. • Circulating RV-CD4 T cells are enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ+ cells. • Treatment with rIL-2 increased the frequencies of cytokine secreting RV-T cells.

  6. Usefulness of scoring right ventricular function for assessment of prognostic factors in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Naoki; Adachi, Shiro; Shimokata, Shigetake; Tajima, Fumitaka; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kondo, Takahisa

    2018-04-27

    Right ventricular (RV) function is associated with prognosis in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This study aimed to establish an RV dysfunction score using RV echocardiographic parameters to clarify the clinical characteristics in patients with CTEPH and to compare RV dysfunction score with parameters such as World Health Organization (WHO) functional class, hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and plasma BNP level. We enrolled 35 inpatients with CTEPH (mean age, 62 ± 15 years, 15 males). We constructed 'an RV dysfunction score' calculated as the summation of each point awarded for the presence of four parameters: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)  0.4, 1 point. TAPSE, S', RVFAC, and RV-MPI was 18.7 ± 4.8 mm, 11.9 ± 3.1 cm/s, 33.5 ± 13.9%, and 0.39 ± 0.2, respectively. The RV dysfunction score was associated with symptom [WHO functional class (p = 0.026)], hemodynamics [mean PAP (p = 0.01), cardiac index (p = 0.009), pulmonary vascular resistance (p = 0.001), and SvO 2 (p = 0.039)], exercise capacity [6-min walk distance (p = 0.046), peakVO 2 (p = 0.016), and VE/VCO 2 slope (p = 0.031)], and plasma BNP level (p = 0.005). This RV dysfunction score using the four RV echocardiographic parameters could be a simple and useful scoring system to evaluate prognostic factors in patients with CTEPH.

  7. Evaluation of right ventricular function by coronary computed tomography angiography using a novel automated 3D right ventricle volume segmentation approach: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghard, Philipp; Plank, Fabian; Beyer, Christoph; Müller, Silvana; Dörler, Jakob; Zaruba, Marc-Michael; Pölzl, Leo; Pölzl, Gerhard; Klauser, Andrea; Rauch, Stefan; Barbieri, Fabian; Langer, Christian-Ekkehardt; Schgoer, Wilfried; Williamson, Eric E; Feuchtner, Gudrun

    2018-06-04

    To evaluate right ventricle (RV) function by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) using a novel automated three-dimensional (3D) RV volume segmentation tool in comparison with clinical reference modalities. Twenty-six patients with severe end-stage heart failure [left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF) right heart invasive catheterisation (IC). Automated 3D RV volume segmentation was successful in 26 (100%) patients. Read-out time was 3 min 33 s (range, 1 min 50s-4 min 33s). RV EF by CTA was stronger correlated with right atrial pressure (RAP) by IC (r = -0.595; p = 0.006) but weaker with TAPSE (r = 0.366, p = 0.94). When comparing TAPSE with RAP by IC (r = -0.317, p = 0.231), a weak-to-moderate non-significant inverse correlation was found. Interobserver correlation was high with r = 0.96 (p right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) was 196.9 ± 75.3 and 217.5 ± 76.1 HU, respectively. Measurement of RV function by CTA using a novel 3D volumetric segmentation tool is fast and reliable by applying a dedicated biphasic injection protocol. The RV EF from CTA is a closer surrogate of RAP than TAPSE by TTE. • Evaluation of RV function by cardiac CTA by using a novel 3D volume segmentation tool is fast and reliable. • A biphasic contrast agent injection protocol ensures homogenous RV contrast attenuation. • Cardiac CT is a valuable alternative modality to CMR for the evaluation of RV function.

  8. Assessment of the right ventricular function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yan; Du Xiangying; Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with changes of the structure and the function of the right ventricle (RV). Therefore, the assessment of right ventricular function and myocardial mass (MM) is clinically important for the evaluation of the severity of COPD, which may provide an objective basis for therapeutic strategy. Purpose: To assess the right ventricular function and RV MM in patients with mild to severe COPD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: We prospectively studied 49 COPD patients determined by the pulmonary function test (PFT). Using the Global Initiative for COPD classification, the COPD patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of the disease: group I = mild (n = 18); group II = moderate (n = 16); and group III = severe (n = 15). The patient groups were compared to a control group consisting of 30 age-matched, healthy, non-smoking subjects. The RV function and RV MM were obtained by 1.5T cardiac MRI in all of the four groups. The results were compared among the four groups using the ANOVA. Pearson's correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and MM with the PFT results in COPD patients. Results: The RVEF was significantly lower in group III than in the other groups (P < 0.01). The RV MM differed significantly among all groups (P < 0.01) and gradually increased with the severity of COPD (P < 0.01). The correlation was significant between the MRI results and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = 0.860 for RVEF, r = -0.838 for RV MM) in COPD patients. Conclusion: The RVEF and RV MM measured by MRI correlate significantly with the severity of disease as determined by PFT in patients with COPD

  9. Assessment of the right ventricular function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yan; Du Xiangying; Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng (Dept. of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)), email: kuncheng.li@gmail.com

    2011-09-15

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with changes of the structure and the function of the right ventricle (RV). Therefore, the assessment of right ventricular function and myocardial mass (MM) is clinically important for the evaluation of the severity of COPD, which may provide an objective basis for therapeutic strategy. Purpose: To assess the right ventricular function and RV MM in patients with mild to severe COPD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: We prospectively studied 49 COPD patients determined by the pulmonary function test (PFT). Using the Global Initiative for COPD classification, the COPD patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of the disease: group I = mild (n = 18); group II = moderate (n = 16); and group III = severe (n = 15). The patient groups were compared to a control group consisting of 30 age-matched, healthy, non-smoking subjects. The RV function and RV MM were obtained by 1.5T cardiac MRI in all of the four groups. The results were compared among the four groups using the ANOVA. Pearson's correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and MM with the PFT results in COPD patients. Results: The RVEF was significantly lower in group III than in the other groups (P < 0.01). The RV MM differed significantly among all groups (P < 0.01) and gradually increased with the severity of COPD (P < 0.01). The correlation was significant between the MRI results and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = 0.860 for RVEF, r = -0.838 for RV MM) in COPD patients. Conclusion: The RVEF and RV MM measured by MRI correlate significantly with the severity of disease as determined by PFT in patients with COPD

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latent Antigen Rv2029c from the Multistage DNA Vaccine A39 Drives TH1 Responses via TLR-mediated Macrophage Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB latent antigens comprises a crucial strategy for the development of alternative tuberculosis (TB vaccine(s that protects against TB reactivation. Here, we generated a multistage DNA vaccine, A39, containing the early antigens Ag85A and Rv3425 as well as the latency-associated protein Rv2029c, which conferred protective immunity in a pre-exposure mouse model. Moreover, administration of the A39 vaccination after MTB exposure inhibited reactivation and resulted in significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and spleen of mice, compared to those in the control population. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of Rv2029c on innate immunity and characterized the molecular details of the interaction of this protein with the host via iTRAQ proteomic and biochemical assay analyses. Rv2029c activated macrophages, triggered the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and promoted toll-like receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (TLR/MAPK-dependent macrophage apoptosis. Furthermore, Rv2029c treatment enhanced the ability of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG-infected macrophages to present antigens to CD4+ T cells in vitro, which correlated with an increase in MHC-II expression. Lastly, Rv2029c-treated macrophages activated T cells, effectively polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-γ and IL-2, and specifically expanded a population of CD44highCD62LlowCD4+/CD8+ effector/memory cells, indicating that Rv2029c, as a specific recall antigen, contributes to Th1 polarization in T cell immunity. These results suggest that Rv2029c and A39 comprise promising targets for the development of next-generation clinical TB therapeutic vaccines.

  11. Measuring mental health in the clinical setting: what is important to service users? The Mini-Service user Recovery Evaluation scale (Mini-SeRvE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Joanna M; Parsons, Helen; Wilson, Carol A; Cook, Christopher C H

    2017-12-01

    Since 2001, a policy of positive mental health recovery has been promoted in the UK, with service user involvement. This has not been easy to implement in the clinical setting. To develop and validate a brief self-report, service user-designed, outcome measure (Mini-SeRvE), for clinical use, including spiritual and religious issues. From the previously developed Service user Recovery Evaluation scale (SeRvE), 15 questions were selected for Mini-SeRvE which was self-completed by 207 people; 100 service users and, for comparison, 107 staff. Results were analysed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Mini-SeRvE is reliable, Cronbach's alpha 0.852. Correlation with another recovery scale, Mental Health Recovery Measure, was high, r = 0.819. Three reliable subscales emerged; existential well-being (EWB), mental ill-being (MIB) and religious well-being (RWB). Scores of the EWB and MIB subscales were higher for staff, consistent with higher mental well-being. Religious well-being scores were higher in service users, who also rated religion as more important to them. Mini-SeRvE is a valid measure of service user recovery. The importance of religion/spiritual belief for our users is highlighted, this being reflected in the subject matter of Mini-SeRvE. Mini-SeRvE assessments could show individual priorities, evaluate therapy and aid clinical decision-making.

  12. Right ventricular load and function during exercise in patients with open and closed atrial septal defect type secundum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter De Meester; Roselien Buys; Werner Budts; Marion Delcroix; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees; Jens-Uwe Voigt; Alexander Van de Bruaene

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This study aimed at evaluating (1) right ventricular (RV) mean power during exercise, (2) the contribution of flow and pressure to RV mean power, and (3) the impact of pulmonary artery pressure on RV function during exercise. Methods: Fifty patients with atrial septal defect (ASD)

  13. Changes and clinical significance of liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with rotavirus enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Ping Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the changes and clinical significance of liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with rotavirus (RV enteritis. Methods: A total of 70 children with RV enteritis who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and served as the observation group. The liver function and myocardial zymogram before and after treatment were detected. The proportion of RV enteritis children with liver and myocardial damage was calculated. The effect of dehydration on the liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with RV enteritis was analyzed. A total of 65 children with non-RV enteritis who were admitted in our hospital at the same stage were served as the control group. Results: The serum ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels, and liver myocardial damage children proportion in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05. The serum ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels in the observation group were significantly elevated with the acceleration of dehydration degree (P<0.05. In the observation group, 45 children had liver and myocardial damage, whose ALT, AST, CK, CKMB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels after treatment were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of liver function and myocardial zymogram can accurately reflect the condition in children with RV enteritis, which can provide an evidence for the formulation of clinical treatment protocol.

  14. Circulating rotavirus-specific T cells have a poor functional profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Miguel; Herrera, Daniel; Jácome, María Fernanda; Mesa, Martha C; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Guzmán, Carolina; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A

    2014-11-01

    Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ(+) cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2--unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i--increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α(+), CD4 IFN-γ(+), and CD8 IFN-γ(+) cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SU-E-T-599: Patient Safety Enhancements Through a Study of R&V System Override Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, K; Vimolchalao, S [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Record and verify (R&V) software systems include safety checks that compare actual machine parameters with prescribed values for a patient’s treatment, such as treatment couch position, linac, energy, and MUs. The therapist is warned of a mismatch with a pop-up and prompted to approve an override in order to continue without changes. Override approval is often legitimate, but the pop-up can also genuinely indicate a problem that would Result in the wrong treatment. When there are numerous pop-up warnings, human nature leads us to approve any override without careful reading, undermining the effectiveness of the safety mechanism. Methods: Override data was collected from our R&V system for all patients treated between October 8 and 29, 2012, on four linacs and entered into a spreadsheet. Additional data collected included treatment technique, disease site, immobilization, time, linac, and whether localization images were obtained. Data were analyzed using spreadsheet tools to reveal trends, patterns and associations that might suggest appropriate process changes that could decrease the total number of overrides. Results: 76 out of 113 patients had overrides. Out of the 944 treatments, 599 override items were generated. The majority were due to couch positions. 74 of the 84 overrides on a linac equipped with a 6D couch were due to the use of the rotational corrections and the fact that the 6D couch control does not communicate with the R&V system; translations required to rotate the couch appear to the R&V system as translations outside the tolerance range. Conclusion: Many findings were interesting but did not suggest a process change. Proposed process changes include creating site-specific instead of just technique-specific tolerance tables for couch shifts. Proposed improvements to the vendor are to facilitate direct communication between the 6D couch and the R&V system to eliminate those override warnings related to lack of communication.

  16. Current meter and other data collected using current meter casts from R/V RESEARCHER and R/V CALANUS in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean as part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean Circulation Study (EPOCS) and Subtropical Atlantic Current Study (STACS), 23 March 1983 - 19 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8700226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter casts from R/V RESEARCHER and R/V CALANUS in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean from March 23, 1983 to...

  17. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  18. Diagnostic and prognostic value of right ventricular strain in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and relatively preserved functional capacity studied with echocardiography and magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Junior, Augusto Alberto; Ota-Arakaki, Jaquelina Sonoe; Ramos, Roberta Pulcheri; Uellendahl, Marly; Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Gil, Manuel Adan; Fischer, Cláudio Henrique; Moises, Valdir Ambrosio; de Camargo Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Campos, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction harbingers adverse prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is limited for RV systolic function quantitation, RV strain can be a useful tool. The diagnostic and prognostic impact of 2DE speckle-tracking RV longitudinal strain was evaluated, including other 2DE systolic indexes, in a group of PAH patients without severe impairment of functional capacity, chronic pulmonary thromboembolism or left ventricular dysfunction. Sixty-six group I PAH patients, 67 % NYHA functional class I or II (none in IV) were studied by 2DE to obtain: RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV myocardial performance index, tissue Doppler tricuspid annulus systolic velocity. Global, free wall (RVFreeWSt) and septal RV longitudinal systolic strain were obtained. RV ejection fraction by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR-RVEF) was also assessed. All patients were followed up to 3.9 years (mean 3.3 years). Combined endpoints were hospitalization for worsening PAH or cardiovascular death. Among all the 2DE indexes of RV systolic function, RVFreeWSt exhibited the best correlation with CMR-RVEF (r = 0.83; p < 0.005). Combined endpoints occurred in 15 (22.7 %) patients (6 hospitalizations and 9 deaths). Multivariate analysis identified RVFreeWSt ≤-14 % as the only 2DE independent variable associated with combined endpoints [HR 4.66 (1.25-17.37); p < 0.05]. We conclude that RVFreeWSt may be a suitable non-geometric 2DE surrogate of CMR-RVEF in PAH patients, constituting a powerful independent predictor of long-term outcome in this cohort with relatively preserved functional capacity.

  19. Perioperative echocardiography-derived right ventricle function parameters and early outcomes after tetralogy of Fallot repair in mid-childhood: a single-center, prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ravi; Puri, Goverdhan Dutt; Jayant, Aveek; Thingnam, Shyam Kumar Singh; Singh, Rana Sandip; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function alterations are invariably present in all patients after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Unlike the developed world where most of the patients with TOF are corrected in infancy, average age of presentation and thus surgery for these patients in the developing world may be higher. We aimed to study the correlation between RV function parameters such as tricuspid annular peak systolic excursion (TAPSE), fractional area change (FAC), and tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (S') with early outcome variables after intracardiac repair for TOF. Fifty patients with a preoperative diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot scheduled for corrective surgery were included in this single-center, prospective observational study. A preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram was performed to measure RV function parameters (FAC0, TAPSE0, S'0). Transthoracic echocardiography was repeated postoperatively to measure FAC1, TAPSE1, S'1 (day 1) and FAC2, TAPSE2, and S'2 (day 3). The relationship between preoperative and postoperative RV function parameters with in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit stay was studied. The median age of patients was 6 years (range 1-14 years). Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis showed RV FAC as best predictor of clinical outcome. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for postoperative RV function parameters, that is, FAC, TAPSE, and S' to predict early or delayed recovery was 0.944, 0.875, and 0.655, respectively. Among the RV function parameters studied, RV FAC best predicted the early outcome variables after TOF repair, followed by TAPSE while lateral tricuspid annular velocity S' being the least predictive. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Phenotyping of left and right ventricular function in mouse models of compensated hypertrophy and heart failure with cardiac MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, van B.J.; Assen, van H.C.; Deel, van E.D.; Niesen, L.B.P.; Duncker, D.J.; Strijkers, G.J.; Nicolay, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function have an important impact on symptom occurrence, disease progression and exercise tolerance in pressure overload-induced heart failure, but particularly RV functional changes are not well described in the relevant aortic banding

  1. PEMBUATAN PROGRAM INTERFACE UNTUK PENGONTROLAN RV-M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Endra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article explores the making of interface of RV-M1 hand robot control that replaced the cosiprog program,a program that is able to help student in Mecatronica-1 Practice, and able to control the hand robot by localnetwork by two user or more. The used methods were literature study, and field study, that is design method. Theresearch result are control of hand robot on X,Y,Z axis and point to point, the use of local network to control thehand robot, save certain position, and use several user to control the robot.Keywords: interface program, robot, local network

  2. Millisele õpetajale kingiksite imerohu? / Karl Martin Sinijärv, Vahur Keller, Kaarel Tarand ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Eesti kirjanike liidu esimees Karl Martin Sinijärv, nuku- ja noorsooteatri lavastaja Vahur Keller, Sirbi peatoimetaja Kaarel Tarand, kirjanik Andrus Kivirähk, ajakirjanik Juhani Püttsepp

  3. Partial LVAD restores ventricular outputs and normalizes LV but not RV stress distributions in the acutely failing heart in silico

    OpenAIRE

    Sack, Kevin L.; Baillargeon, Brian; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Genet, Martin; Rebelo, Nuno; Kuhl, Ellen; Klein, Liviu; Weiselthaler, Georg M.; Burkhoff, Daniel; Franz, Thomas; Guccione, Julius M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Heart failure is a worldwide epidemic that is unlikely to change as the population ages and life expectancy increases. We sought to detail significant recent improvements to the Dassault Systèmes Living Heart Model (LHM) and use the LHM to compute left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myofiber stress distributions under the following 4 conditions: (1) normal cardiac function; (2) acute left heart failure (ALHF); (3) ALHF treated using an LV assist device (LVAD) flow rate o...

  4. Transdiagnostic and diagnosis-specific dynamic functional connectivity anchored in the right anterior insula in major depressive disorder and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajing; Chen, Heng; Wang, Yifeng; Long, Zhiliang; He, Zongling; Zhang, Huangbin; Liao, Wei; Cui, Qian; Chen, Huafu

    2018-07-13

    Dysfunctional and abnormal functional connectivity in the right anterior insula (rAI) may underlie the pathophysiology of depression episode in bipolar disorder (BD) and of major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we examined the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of the rAI of 30 patients with BD, 30 patients with MDD, and 30 healthy controls. In the functional separation of rAI, the right dorsal AI (rdAI) and ventral AI (rvAI) were defined as seed regions. Sliding-window correlation of rAI subregions was implemented to measure the variance of dFC. BD and MDD shared abnormality in dFC, such as the decreased dFC between the rvAI and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Others were disorder-specific and included MDD-related increases in dFC between the rvAI and right precuneus, temporal pole, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This observation is in stark contrast to BD-related increases in the dFC between the rdAI and left inferior parietal lobule and right middle occipital gyrus. The abnormal dFC of rAI shared by BD and MDD supports the importance of rAI in the common pathophysiology of these disorders. Meanwhile, disorder-specific abnormalities that attribute to the dorsal and ventral divisions of rAI can be used as biomarkers to differentiate BD from MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Infection with koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B), but not KoRV-A, is associated with chlamydial disease in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, Courtney A.; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; King, Andrew; Hobbs, Matthew; Johnson, Rebecca; Timms, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppr...

  6. Heat Flow Data Cruise MD72 RV Marion Dufresne over the Mascarene Ridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data were gathered by the R/V Marion Dufresne in May and June of 1992 over the Mascarene Ridge in the Indian Ocean on cruise MD72/MASCAFLUX. Heat flow measurements...

  7. Phenotyping of left and right ventricular function in mouse models of compensated hypertrophy and heart failure with cardiac MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Bastiaan J.; van Assen, Hans C.; van Deel, Elza D.; Niesen, Leonie B. P.; Duncker, Dirk J.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function have an important impact on symptom occurrence, disease progression and exercise tolerance in pressure overload-induced heart failure, but particularly RV functional changes are not well described in the relevant aortic banding mouse model.

  8. Regional myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated branched chain fatty acid during right ventricular pressure overload due to acute pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurford, W.; Lowenstein, E.; Zapol, W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Livni, E.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Strauss, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    To determine whether branched chain fatty acid extraction is reduced during right ventricular (RV) dysfunction due to acute pulmonary artery hypertension, studies were done in 6 anesthetized dogs. Regional branched chain fatty acid extraction was measured by comparing the myocardial uptake of I-125 labeled 15-[p-(iodophenyl)]-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (I-PDA) to myocardial blood flow. Acute pulmonary hypertension was induced by incremental intravenous injection of 100 micron diameter glass beads into six pentobarbital anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres both under baseline conditions and during pulmonary hypertension. Mean RV pressure rose from 12 +- 2 (mean +- SEM) to 30 +-3mmHg resulting in a 225 +- 16% increase in RV stroke work. RV ejection fraction, as assessed by gated blood pool scans fell from 39 +- 2 to 18 +- 2%. Left ventricular (LV) pressures, stroke work and ejection fraction were unchanged. Myocardial blood flow increased 132 + 59% in the RV free wall and 67 +- 22% in the RV septum. LV blood flow was unchanged. Despite increased RV work and myocardial blood flow, no differences were noted in the branched chain fatty acid extraction ratios among LV or RV free walls or septum. The authors conclude that early RV dysfunction associated with pulmonary artery hypertension is not due to inadequate myocardial blood flow or branched chain fatty acid extraction

  9. Clonal analysis of the T-cell response to in vivo expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv2034, using a CD154 expression based T-cell cloning method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Commandeur

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, remains a leading cause of death worldwide. A better understanding of the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which are both important to TB protection, is essential to unravel the mechanisms of protection and to identify the key antigens seen by these T cells. We have recently identified a set of in vivo expressed Mtb genes (IVE-TB which is expressed during in vivo pulmonary infection in mice, and shown that their encoded antigens are potently recognized by polyclonal T cells from tuberculin skin test-positive, in vitro ESAT-6/CFP10-responsive individuals. Here we have cloned T cells specific for one of these newly identified in vivo expressed Mtb (IVE-TB antigens, Rv2034. T cells were enriched based on the expression of CD154 (CD40L, which represents a new method for selecting antigen-specific (low frequency T cells independent of their specific function. An Rv2034-specific CD4+ T-cell clone expressed the Th1 markers T-bet, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and the cytotoxicity related markers granzyme B and CD107a as measured by flow cytometry. The clone specifically recognized Rv2034 protein, Rv2034 peptide p81-100 and Mtb lysate. Remarkably, while the recognition of the dominant p81-100 epitope was HLA-DR restricted, the T-cell clone also recognized a neighboring epitope (p88-107 in an HLA-DR- as well as HLA-DQ1-restricted fashion. Importantly, the T-cell clone was able to inhibit Mtb outgrowth from infected monocytes significantly. The characterization of the polyfunctional and Mtb inhibitory T-cell response to IVE-TB Rv2034 at the clonal level provides detailed further insights into the potential of IVE-TB antigens as new vaccine candidate antigens in TB. Our new approach allowed the identification of T-cell subsets that likely play a significant role in controlling Mtb infection, and can be applied to the analysis of T-cell responses in patient populations.

  10. Age- and gender-specific differences in left and right ventricular cardiac function and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstede, J.; Lipke, C.; Beer, M.; Hofmann, S.; Pabst, T.; Kenn, W.; Hahn, D.; Neubauer, S.

    2000-01-01

    We examined possible age- and gender-specific differences in the function and mass of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles in 36 healthy volunteers using cine gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were divided into four groups (nine men and nine women in each): men aged under 45 years (32 ± 7), women aged under 45 (27 ± 6), men aged over 45 (59 ± 8), and women aged over 45 (57 ± 9). Functional analysis of cardiac volume and mass and of LV wall motion was performed by manual segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial borders of the end-diastolic and end-systolic frame; both absolute and normalized (per square meter body surface area) values were evaluated. With age there was a significant decrease in both absolute and normalized LV and RV chamber volumes (EDV, ESV), while LV and RV masses remained unchanged. Gender-specific differences were found in cardiac mass and volume (for men and women, respectively: LV mass, 155 ± 18 and 110 ± 16 g; LV EDV, 118 ± 27 and 96 ± 21 ml; LV ESV, 40 ± 13 and 29 ± 9 ml; RV mass, 52 ± 10 and 39 ± 5 g; RV EDV, 131 ± 28 and 100 ± 23 ml; RV ESV, 53 ± 17 and 33 ± 15 ml). Normalization to body surface area eliminated differences in LV volumes but not those in LV mass, RV mass, or RV function. Functional parameters such as cardiac output and LV ejection fraction showed nonsignificant or only slight differences and were thus largely independent of age and gender. Intra- and interobserver variability ranged between 1.4 % and 5.9 % for all parameters. Cine magnetic resonance imaging thus shows age- and gender-specific differences in cardiac function, and therefore the evaluation of cardiac function in patients should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  11. Inhibition of apoptosis by Rv2456c through nuclear factor-κB extends the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Jurcic Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an intracellular pathogen with several survival mechanisms aimed at subverting the host immune system. Apoptosis has been shown to be mycobactericidal, to activate CD8+ T cells, and to be modulated by mycobacterial proteins. Since few mycobacterial proteins have so far been directly implicated in the interactions between M. Tuberculosis and host cell apoptosis, we screened M. Tuberculosis H37Rv transposon mutants to identify mutants that fail to inhibit cell death (FID. One of these FID mutants, FID19, had a transposon insertion in Rv2456c and is important for survival in host cells. The lack of the protein resulted in enhanced caspase-3 mediated apoptosis, which is probably due to an inability to activate nuclear factor-κB. Additionally, FID19 infection enhanced polyfunctional CD8+ T cells and induced a higher frequency of interferon-γ secreting immune cells in a murine model. Taken together, our data suggest that Rv2456c is important for the survival of H37Rv by subduing the innate and ultimately adaptive immune responses of its host by preventing apoptosis of the infected cell. Better understanding of the host-mycobacterial interactions may be beneficial to develop novel drug targets and engineer more efficacious vaccine strains against tuberculosis.

  12. Right ventricular function assessed by 2D strain analysis predicts ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in patients after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Valeur, Nana; Søgaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Left ventricular function is a well-established predictor of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, but little is known about the importance of right ventricular (RV) function. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of RV function for prediction of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or...

  13. Severity of structural and functional right ventricular remodeling depends on training load in an experimental model of endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-de la Garza, Maria; Rubies, Cira; Batlle, Montserrat; Bijnens, Bart H; Mont, Lluis; Sitges, Marta; Guasch, Eduard

    2017-09-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) remodeling has been reported in response to regular training, but it remains unclear how exercise intensity affects the presence and extent of such remodeling. We aimed to assess the relationship between RV remodeling and exercise load in a long-term endurance training model. Wistar rats were conditioned to run at moderate (MOD; 45 min, 30 cm/s) or intense (INT; 60 min, 60 cm/s) workloads for 16 wk; sedentary rats served as controls. Cardiac remodeling was assessed with standard echocardiographic and tissue Doppler techniques, sensor-tip pressure catheters, and pressure-volume loop analyses. After MOD training, both ventricles similarly dilated (~16%); the RV apical segment deformation, but not the basal segment deformation, was increased [apical strain rate (SR): -2.9 ± 0.5 vs. -3.3 ± 0.6 s -1 , SED vs. MOD]. INT training prompted marked RV dilatation (~26%) but did not further dilate the left ventricle (LV). A reduction in both RV segments' deformation in INT rats (apical SR: -3.3 ± 0.6 vs. -3.0 ± 0.4 s -1 and basal SR: -3.3 ± 0.7 vs. -2.7 ± 0.6 s -1 , MOD vs. INT) led to decreased global contractile function (maximal rate of rise of LV pressure: 2.53 ± 0.15 vs. 2.17 ± 0.116 mmHg/ms, MOD vs. INT). Echocardiography and hemodynamics consistently pointed to impaired RV diastolic function in INT rats. LV systolic and diastolic functions remained unchanged in all groups. In conclusion, we showed a biphasic, unbalanced RV remodeling response with increasing doses of exercise: physiological adaptation after MOD training turns adverse with INT training, involving disproportionate RV dilatation, decreased contractility, and impaired diastolic function. Our findings support the existence of an exercise load threshold beyond which cardiac remodeling becomes maladaptive. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise promotes left ventricular eccentric hypertrophy with no changes in systolic or diastolic function in healthy rats. Conversely, right

  14. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Rv0577, a Protein Associated with Neutral Red Staining of Virulent Tuberculosis Strains and Homologue of the Streptomyces coelicolor Protein KbpA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Flynn, E. M.; Ng, Ho-Leung; Stephenson, Sam; Kim, Heungbok; Myler, Peter J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Alber, Tom; Kim, Chang Y.

    2017-07-25

    The 261-residue Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv0577 is a prominent antigen in tuberculosis patients, the responsible component for neutral red staining of virulent strains of M. tuberculosis, a putative component in a methylglyoxal detoxification pathway, and an agonist of toll-like receptor 2. It also has 36% sequence identity to AfsK-binding protein A (KbpA), a component in the complex secondary metabolite pathways in the Streptomycetes genus from which many commercial antibiotics are derived. To gain insight into the biological function of Rv0577 and the family of KpbA kinase regulators, the crystal structure for Rv0577 was determined to a resolution of 1.75 Å (3OXH), binding properties with neutral red and deoxyadenosine (Ado) surveyed, backbone dynamics measured, and thermal stability assayed by CD spectroscopy. The protein is composed of four approximate repeats with an topology arranged radially in consecutive pairs to form two continuous eight-strand -sheets capped on both ends with an -helix. The two -sheets intersect in the center at roughly a right angle and form an asymmetric deep “saddle” on both sides of the protein, saddle one (P11 to A129) and saddle two (L143 to A258), that may serve to bind ligands. NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments show that neutral red binds to Rv0577, further cementing the role of Rv0577 in the neutral red staining of virulent strains of M. tuberculosis. Similar experiments show that adenosine also bind to Rv0577, although less tightly, with estimated dissociation constants of 4.1 ± 0.3 mM for saddle one and > 1 M for saddle two. Heteronuclear steady-state {1H}-15N NOE, T1, and T2 values were generally uniform through-out the sequence with only a few modest pockets of differences suggestive of slightly different motion in loops between -strands in saddle 1. Circular dichroism spectroscopy characterization of the thermal stability of Rv0577 indicated irreversible unfolding upon heating with an estimated

  15. Region Sjællands Økologiprofil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Lund Sørensen, Runa Cecilie

    rværende rapport bygger på erfaringer foretaget gennem en kortlægning af Region Sjællands økologiske sektor, som blev lavet i forbindelse med Region Sjællands store fødevareprojekt Grønne Regionale Madoplevelser (GRO) under delprojektet Økologisk Oplevelsesinnovation. Formålet med undersøgelsen...... har været at generere et overblik over Region Sjællands økologiske sektor, både hvad angår antallet og udbredelsen af økologiske landbrugsbedrifter, forarbejdningsvirksomheder, engrosvirksomheder og detailforretninger....

  16. Quantitative computed tomography of pulmonary emphysema and ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu San; Jaw, Fu Shan [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Chen, Jo Yu; Tai, Mei Hwa [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Hsu, Hsao Hsun [Dept. of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2014-12-15

    This study strived to evaluate the relationship between degree of pulmonary emphysema and cardiac ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) using electrocardiographic-gated multidetector computed tomography (CT). Lung transplantation candidates with the diagnosis of COPD and PH were chosen for the study population, and a total of 15 patients were included. The extent of emphysema is defined as the percentage of voxels below -910 Hounsfield units in the lung windows in whole lung CT without intravenous contrast. Heart function parameters were measured by electrocardiographic-gated CT angiography. Linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between percent emphysema and heart function indicators. Significant correlations were found between percent emphysema and right ventricular (RV) measurements, including RV end-diastolic volume (R2 = 0.340, p = 0.023), RV stroke volume (R2 = 0.406, p = 0.011), and RV cardiac output (R2 = 0.382, p = 0.014); the correlations between percent emphysema and left ventricular function indicators were not observed. The study revealed that percent emphysema is correlated with RV dysfunction among COPD patients with PH. Based on our findings, percent emphysema can be considered for use as an indicator to predict the severity of right ventricular dysfunction among COPD patients.

  17. Quantitative computed tomography of pulmonary emphysema and ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Sen; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Chen, Jo-Yu; Tai, Mei-Hwa; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chang, Yeun-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study strived to evaluate the relationship between degree of pulmonary emphysema and cardiac ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) using electrocardiographic-gated multidetector computed tomography (CT). Lung transplantation candidates with the diagnosis of COPD and PH were chosen for the study population, and a total of 15 patients were included. The extent of emphysema is defined as the percentage of voxels below -910 Hounsfield units in the lung windows in whole lung CT without intravenous contrast. Heart function parameters were measured by electrocardiographic-gated CT angiography. Linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between percent emphysema and heart function indicators. Significant correlations were found between percent emphysema and right ventricular (RV) measurements, including RV end-diastolic volume (R(2) = 0.340, p = 0.023), RV stroke volume (R(2) = 0.406, p = 0.011), and RV cardiac output (R(2) = 0.382, p = 0.014); the correlations between percent emphysema and left ventricular function indicators were not observed. The study revealed that percent emphysema is correlated with RV dysfunction among COPD patients with PH. Based on our findings, percent emphysema can be considered for use as an indicator to predict the severity of right ventricular dysfunction among COPD patients.

  18. Quantitative computed tomography of pulmonary emphysema and ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yu San; Jaw, Fu Shan; Chen, Jo Yu; Tai, Mei Hwa; Hsu, Hsao Hsun

    2014-01-01

    This study strived to evaluate the relationship between degree of pulmonary emphysema and cardiac ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) using electrocardiographic-gated multidetector computed tomography (CT). Lung transplantation candidates with the diagnosis of COPD and PH were chosen for the study population, and a total of 15 patients were included. The extent of emphysema is defined as the percentage of voxels below -910 Hounsfield units in the lung windows in whole lung CT without intravenous contrast. Heart function parameters were measured by electrocardiographic-gated CT angiography. Linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between percent emphysema and heart function indicators. Significant correlations were found between percent emphysema and right ventricular (RV) measurements, including RV end-diastolic volume (R2 = 0.340, p = 0.023), RV stroke volume (R2 = 0.406, p = 0.011), and RV cardiac output (R2 = 0.382, p = 0.014); the correlations between percent emphysema and left ventricular function indicators were not observed. The study revealed that percent emphysema is correlated with RV dysfunction among COPD patients with PH. Based on our findings, percent emphysema can be considered for use as an indicator to predict the severity of right ventricular dysfunction among COPD patients.

  19. Der Peipussee/Peipsi järv Fischereiche Ostgrenze der EU / Arne von Maydell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maydell, Arne von

    2012-01-01

    Mööda Peipsi järve kulgeb alates 1. maist 2004 Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa vaheline piir. Suur siseeveekogu on üks suuremaid järvi Euroopas. Järv on väga kalarikas. Nii vene kui eesti kultuuris on Peipsi järvel oma koht

  20. Sedimentary record of heavy metals in Lake Rõuge Liinjärv, southern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepane, Viia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impact on Lake Liinjärv (Rõuge, southern Estonia was studied back to the mid-19th century on the basis of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Hg and geochemical parameters of a short sediment core dated by 210Pb isotopes. The development of the lake and its sediment composition are heavily influenced by the inflow of saturated calcareous waters that cause precipitation of calcium carbonates. The concentrations of most of the metals started to increase at the end of the 1970s. This is most clearly observable for Zn, Cu, and Pb. At the same time the distribution pattern of Mn seems to be controlled mainly by the redox conditions in the hypolimneon. The main sources of pollutants in Lake Liinjärv, due to its large catchment area, are the influence of agricultural activity and atmospheric input. Organic matter is the main factor affecting heavy metal (Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn distribution in lake sediments.

  1. Structure Determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine Protease Hip1 (Rv2224c)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naffin-Olivos, Jacqueline L.; Daab, Andrew; White, Andre; Goldfarb, Nathan E.; Milne, Amy C.; Liu, Dali; Baikovitz, Jacqueline; Dunn, Ben M.; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar

    2017-04-07

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) serine protease Hip1 (hydrolase important for pathogenesis; Rv2224c) promotes tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis by impairing host immune responses through proteolysis of a protein substrate, Mtb GroEL2. The cell surface localization of Hip1 and its immunomodulatory functions make Hip1 a good drug target for new adjunctive immune therapies for TB. Here, we report the crystal structure of Hip1 to a resolution of 2.6 Å and the kinetic studies of the enzyme against model substrates and the protein GroEL2. The structure shows a two-domain protein, one of which contains the catalytic residues that are the signature of a serine protease. Surprisingly, a threonine is located within the active site close enough to hydrogen bond with the catalytic residues Asp463 and His490. Mutation of this residue, Thr466, to alanine established its importance for function. Our studies provide insights into the structure of a member of a novel family of proteases. Knowledge of the Hip1 structure will aid in designing inhibitors that could block Hip1 activity

  2. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  3. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional|segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  4. Conservation in gene encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv2660 and a high predicted population coverage of H56 multistage vaccine in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Angy P; Ong, Edison; Zhang, Lixin; Marrs, Carl F; He, Yongqun; Yang, Zhenhua

    2017-11-01

    H56/AERAS-456+IC31 (H56), composed of two early secretion proteins, Ag85B and ESAT-6, and a latency associated protein, Rv2660, and the IC31 Intercell adjuvant, is a new fusion subunit vaccine candidate designed to induce immunity against both new infection and reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. Efficacy of subunit vaccines may be affected by the diversity of vaccine antigens among clinical strains and the extent of recognition by the diverse HLA molecules in the recipient population. Although a previous study showed the conservative nature of Ag85B- and ESAT-6-encoding genes, genetic diversity of Rv2660c that encodes RV2660 is largely unknown. The population coverage of H56 as a whole yet remains to be assessed. The present study was conducted to address these important knowledge gaps. DNA sequence analysis of Rv2660c found no variation among 83 of the 84 investigated clinical strains belonging to four genetic lineages. H56 was predicted to have as high as 99.6% population coverage in the South Africa population using the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) Population Coverage Tool. Further comparison of H56 population coverage between South African Blacks and Caucasians based on the phenotypic frequencies of binding MHC Class I and Class II supertype alleles found that all of the nine MHC-I and six of eight MHC-II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertype alleles analyzed were significantly differentially expressed between the two subpopulations. This finding suggests the presence of race-specific functional binding motifs of MHC-I and MHC-II HLA alleles, which, in turn, highlights the importance of including diverse populations in vaccine clinical evaluation. In conclusion, H56 vaccine is predicted to have a promising population coverage in South Africa; this study demonstrates the utility of integrating comparative genomics and bioinformatics in bridging animal and clinical studies of novel TB vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Activation of different cerebral functional regions following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To explore the brain function regions characteristics of the acupoint combination, this study observed activity changes in the brain regions of healthy volunteers after acupuncture at both Taixi (KI3) and Taichong (LR3) (KI3 + LR3) and KI3 alone using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI).

  6. Antibodies with High Avidity to the gp120 Envelope Protein in Protection from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Acquisition in an Immunization Regimen That Mimics the RV-144 Thai Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegu, Poonam; Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari; Keele, Brandon F.; Doster, Melvin; Guan, Yongjun; Ferrari, Guido; Pal, Ranajit; Ferrari, Maria Grazia; Whitney, Stephen; Hudacik, Lauren; Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Montefiori, David; Tomaras, Georgia; Alam, S. Munir; Fenizia, Claudio; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Stablein, Donald; Tartaglia, Jim; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome; Venzon, David

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant canarypox vector, ALVAC-HIV, together with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 envelope glycoprotein, has protected 31.2% of Thai individuals from HIV acquisition in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial. This outcome was unexpected, given the limited ability of the vaccine components to induce CD8+ T-cell responses or broadly neutralizing antibodies. We vaccinated macaques with an immunization regimen intended to mimic the RV144 trial and exposed them intrarectally to a dose of the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 that transmits few virus variants, similar to HIV transmission to humans. Vaccination induced anti-envelope antibodies in all vaccinees and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Three of the 11 macaques vaccinated with ALVAC-SIV/gp120 were protected from SIVmac251 acquisition, but the result was not significant. The remaining vaccinees were infected and progressed to disease. The magnitudes of vaccine-induced SIVmac251-specific T-cell responses and binding antibodies were not significantly different between protected and infected animals. However, sera from protected animals had higher avidity antibodies to gp120, recognized the variable envelope regions V1/V2, and reduced SIVmac251 infectivity in cells that express high levels of α4β7 integrins, suggesting a functional role of antibodies to V2. The current results emphasize the utility of determining the titer of repeated mucosal challenge in the preclinical evaluation of HIV vaccines. PMID:23175374

  7. Comparison between radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography for quantification of left ventricular systolic function in rats exposed to doxorubicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de; Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Romano, Minna Moreira Dias; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Simões, Marcus Vinicius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Cardiologia; O' Connell, João Lucas; Pulici, Érica Carolina Campos [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), MG (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV) is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO) in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR) in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7) or receiving DXR (n = 22) in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer) and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05). The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05); however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5%) were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004) in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002) and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001). On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  8. Comparison between radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography for quantification of left ventricular systolic function in rats exposed to doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de; Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Romano, Minna Moreira Dias; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Simões, Marcus Vinicius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV) is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO) in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR) in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7) or receiving DXR (n = 22) in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer) and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05). The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05); however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5%) were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004) in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002) and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001). On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  9. Comparison between Radionuclide Ventriculography and Echocardiography for Quantification of Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Rats Exposed to Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fonseca Lemos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Radionuclide ventriculography (RV is a validated method to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function (LVSF in small rodents. However, no prior study has compared the results of RV with those obtained by other imaging methods in this context. Objectives: To compare the results of LVSF obtained by RV and echocardiography (ECHO in an experimental model of cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin (DXR in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats serving as controls (n = 7 or receiving DXR (n = 22 in accumulated doses of 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg were evaluated with ECHO performed with a Sonos 5500 Philips equipment (12-MHz transducer and RV obtained with an Orbiter-Siemens gamma camera using a pinhole collimator with a 4-mm aperture. Histopathological quantification of myocardial fibrosis was performed after euthanasia. Results: The control animals showed comparable results in the LVSF analysis obtained with ECHO and RV (83.5 ± 5% and 82.8 ± 2.8%, respectively, p > 0.05. The animals that received DXR presented lower LVSF values when compared with controls (p < 0.05; however, the LVSF values obtained by RV (60.6 ± 12.5% were lower than those obtained by ECHO (71.8 ± 10.1%, p = 0.0004 in this group. An analysis of the correlation between the LVSF and myocardial fibrosis showed a moderate correlation when the LVSF was assessed by ECHO (r = -0.69, p = 0.0002 and a stronger correlation when it was assessed by RV (r = -0.79, p < 0.0001. On multiple regression analysis, only RV correlated independently with myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: RV is an alternative method to assess the left ventricular function in small rodents in vivo. When compared with ECHO, RV showed a better correlation with the degree of myocardial injury in a model of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Divya; Anand, Kanchan; Mathur, Deepika; Jagadish, Nirmala; Suri, Anil; Garg, Lalit C.

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Phosphoglucose isomerase is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of d-glucopyranose-6-phosphate to d-fructofuranose-6-phosphate. The present investigation reports the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, which shares 46% sequence identity with that of its human host. The recombinant protein, which was prepared using an Escherichia coli expression system, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 Å and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 109.0, b = 119.8, c = 138.9 Å

  11. ORF73 LANA homologs of RRV and MneRV2 contain an extended RGG/RG-rich nuclear and nucleolar localization signal that interacts directly with importin β1 for non-classical nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kellie; Cherezova, Lidia; DeMaster, Laura K; Rose, Timothy M

    2017-11-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigens (LANA) of KSHV and macaque RFHVMn, members of the RV1 rhadinovirus lineage, are closely related with conservation of complex nuclear localization signals (NLS) containing bipartite KR-rich motifs and RG-rich domains, which interact distinctly with importins α and ß1 for nuclear import via classical and non-classical pathways, respectively. RV1 LANAs are expressed in the nucleus of latently-infected cells where they inhibit replication and establish a dominant RV1 latency. Here we show that LANA homologs of macaque RRV and MneRV2 from the more distantly-related RV2 lineage, lack the KR-rich NLS, and instead have a large RG-rich NLS with multiple RG dipeptides and a conserved RGG motif. The RG-NLS interacts uniquely with importin β1, which mediates nuclear import and accumulation of RV2 LANA in the nucleolus. The alternative nuclear import and localization of RV2 LANA homologs may contribute to the dominant RV2 lytic replication phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Bactericidal impact of Ag, ZnO and mixed AgZnO colloidal nanoparticles on H37Rv Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagocytized by THP-1 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Alireza; Mosavari, Nader; Movahedzadeh, Farahnaz; Nodooshan, Saeedeh Jafari; Safarkar, Roya; Moro, Rossella; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Majidpour, Ali; Boustanshenas, Mina; Mosavi, Tahereh

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research project was to infection of human macrophages (THP-1) cell lines by H 37 Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H 37 RvMTB) and find out the ratio/dilution of mixture silver (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) whose ability to eliminate phagocytized bacteria compared to rifampicin. The colloidal Ag NPs and ZnO NPs were synthesized and their characteristics were evaluated. The THP-1 cell lines were infected with different concentration of H 37 RvMTB. Next, the infected cells were treated with different ratios/dilutions of Ag NPs, ZnO NPs and rifampicin. The THP-1 were lysed and were cultured in Lowenstein-Jensen agar medium, for eight weeks. The TEM and AFM images of NPs and H 37 RvMTB were supplied. It is observed that Ag NPs, 2 Ag :8 ZnO and 8 Ag :2 ZnO did not have any anti-tubercular effects on phagocytized H 37 RvMTB. Conversely, ZnO NPs somehow eliminated 18.7 × 10 4  CFU ml -1 of H 37 RvMTB in concentration of ∼ 0.468 ppm. To compare with 40 ppm of rifampicin, ∼ 0.663 ppm of 5 Ag :5 ZnO had the ability to kill of H 37 RvMTB, too. Based on previous research, ZnO NPs had strong anti-tubercular impact against H 37 RvMTB to in-vitro condition, but it was toxic in concentration of ∼ 0.468 ppm to both of THP-1 and normal lung (MRC-5) cell lines. It also seems that 5 Ag :5 ZnO is justified because in concentration of ∼ 0.663 ppm of 5 Ag :5 ZnO , phagocytized H 37 RvMTB into the THP-1 had died without any toxicity effects against THP-1 and also MRC-5 cell lines. It is obvious that the mixture of colloidal silver and zinc oxide NPs with ratio of 5 Ag :5 ZnO would be trustworthy options as anti-tubercular nano-drugs in future researches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Antibodies with high avidity to the gp120 envelope protein in protection from simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251) acquisition in an immunization regimen that mimics the RV-144 Thai trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegu, Poonam; Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari; Keele, Brandon F; Doster, Melvin; Guan, Yongjun; Ferrari, Guido; Pal, Ranajit; Ferrari, Maria Grazia; Whitney, Stephen; Hudacik, Lauren; Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Montefiori, David; Tomaras, Georgia; Alam, S Munir; Fenizia, Claudio; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Stablein, Donald; Tartaglia, Jim; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome; Venzon, David; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2013-02-01

    The recombinant canarypox vector, ALVAC-HIV, together with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 envelope glycoprotein, has protected 31.2% of Thai individuals from HIV acquisition in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial. This outcome was unexpected, given the limited ability of the vaccine components to induce CD8(+) T-cell responses or broadly neutralizing antibodies. We vaccinated macaques with an immunization regimen intended to mimic the RV144 trial and exposed them intrarectally to a dose of the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251) that transmits few virus variants, similar to HIV transmission to humans. Vaccination induced anti-envelope antibodies in all vaccinees and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. Three of the 11 macaques vaccinated with ALVAC-SIV/gp120 were protected from SIV(mac251) acquisition, but the result was not significant. The remaining vaccinees were infected and progressed to disease. The magnitudes of vaccine-induced SIV(mac251)-specific T-cell responses and binding antibodies were not significantly different between protected and infected animals. However, sera from protected animals had higher avidity antibodies to gp120, recognized the variable envelope regions V1/V2, and reduced SIV(mac251) infectivity in cells that express high levels of α(4)β(7) integrins, suggesting a functional role of antibodies to V2. The current results emphasize the utility of determining the titer of repeated mucosal challenge in the preclinical evaluation of HIV vaccines.

  14. Right ventricular outflow tract systolic function correlates with exercise capacity in patients with severe right ventricle dilatation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuhua; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Dan; Zhou, Yaxin; An, Qi; Chen, Yucheng

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between exercise capacity and right ventricular (RV) components function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot patients with severely dilated right ventricles is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the exercise capacity and its relationship to RV global and components function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot patients with RV end-diastolic volume index  >150 ml/m 2 , a currently accepted threshold for pulmonary valve replacement. The medical records and results of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiopulmonary exercise testing of 25 consecutive eligible patients were reviewed. Twenty age- and gender-matched normal subjects were enrolled as cardiac magnetic resonance control. End-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes, and ejection fraction (EF) were determined for the total RV and its components. Of the 25 patients, 44% maintained normal exercise capacity. RV outlet EF was higher ( P  = 0.02) and RV incisions smaller ( P  = 0.04) in patients with normal exercise capacity than those with subnormal exercise capacity. Predicted peak oxygen consumption correlated better with the RV outflow tract EF than with the EF of other components of the RV or the global EF ( r  = 0.59; P  = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed the RV outflow tract EF to be the only independent predictor of exercise capacity (ß = 0.442; P  = 0.02). Exercise capacity is preserved in some tetralogy of Fallot patients with severe RV dilatation. RV outflow tract EF is independently associated with exercise capacity in such patients, and could be a reliable determinant of intrinsic RV performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Large animal model of acute right ventricular failure with functional tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Marcin; Proudfoot, Alistair G; Eberhart, Lenora; Schubert, Hans; Wodarek, Jeremy; Langholz, David; Rausch, Manuel K; Timek, Tomasz A

    2018-08-01

    Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) commonly arises secondary to conditions affecting the left heart and is associated with right ventricular dysfunction and tricuspid annular dilatation. We set out to establish an animal model of acute RV failure (RVF) with FTR resembling the clinical features. Ten adult sheep had pressure sensors placed in the LV, RV, and right atrium while sonomicrometry crystals were implanted around tricuspid annulus and on the RV. Animals were studied open-chest to assess for RV function and FTR after: (1) volume infusion, (2) pulmonary artery constriction, (3) 5 min posterior descending artery occlusion, and (4) combination of all interventions. Hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and sonomicrometry data were collected at baseline and after every intervention. RV dimensions, RV strain, and annular area, perimeter, and size were calculated from crystal coordinates. The model was validated in six additional sheep studied only before and after combined interventions. Neither volume infusion, pulmonary hypertension, nor ischemia were associated with RVF or clinically significant TR when applied separately but combined resulted in RVF and greater than moderate FTR. In the validation group, maximal RV volume increased (62 ± 14 vs 70 ± 16 ml, p = 0.006), contractility decreased (20 ± 6 vs 12 ± 2%, p = 0.02), and strain increased. FTR increased from 0.4 ± 0.5 to 2.5 ± 0.8 (p < 0.001) and annular area from 652 ± 87 mm 2 to 739 ± 87 mm 2 (p = 0.005). The developed ovine model of acute RVF was associated with significant annular and RV enlargement and FTR. This novel and clinically pertinent research platform offers insight into the acute RVF pathophysiology and can be utilized to evaluate treatment interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased native T1-values at the interventricular insertion regions in precapillary pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Onno A; Vissers, Loek; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; Hofman, Mark B M; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Marcus, J Tim

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of the pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV) of precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients, exhibits late gadolinium enhancement at the interventricular insertion regions, a phenomenon which has been linked to focal fibrosis. Native T1-mapping is an alternative technique to characterize myocardium and has the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast agents. The aim of this study was to characterize the myocardium of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), systemic scleroderma related PH (PAH-Ssc) and chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) patients using native T1-mapping and to see whether native T1-values were related to disease severity. Furthermore, we compared native T1-values between the different precapillary PH categories. Native T1-mapping was performed in 46 IPAH, 14 PAH-SSc and 10 CTEPH patients and 10 control subjects. Native T1-values were assessed using regions of interest at the RV and LV free wall, interventricular septum and interventricular insertion regions. In PH patients, native T1-values of the interventricular insertion regions were significantly higher than the native T1-values of the RV free wall, LV free wall and interventricular septum. Native T1-values at the insertion regions were significantly related to disease severity. Native T1-values were not different between IPAH, PAH-Ssc and CTEPH patients. Native T1-values of the interventricular insertion regions are significantly increased in precapillary PH and are related to disease severity. Native T1-mapping can be developed as an alternative technique for the characterization of the interventricular insertion regions and has the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast agents.

  17. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary vessel muscularization and right ventricular function in an animal model of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Erlend; Berre, Anne Marie; Skjulsvik, Anne Jarstein; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2014-09-28

    Right ventricular dysfunction in COPD is common, even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on right ventricular (RV) function, as well as pulmonary blood vessel remodeling in a mouse model of COPD. 42 female A/JOlaHsd mice were randomized to exposure to either cigarette smoke or air for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks. Mice from both groups were further randomized to sedentariness or HIIT for 4 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and muscularization of pulmonary vessel walls by immunohistochemistry. Smoke exposure induced RV systolic dysfunction demonstrated by reduced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. HIIT in smoke-exposed mice reversed RV dysfunction. There were no significant effects on the left ventricle of neither smoke exposure nor HIIT. Muscularization of the pulmonary vessels was reduced after exercise intervention, but no significant effects on muscularization were observed from smoke exposure. RV function was reduced in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. No Increase in pulmonary vessel muscularization was observed in these mice, implying that other mechanisms caused the RV dysfunction. HIIT attenuated the RV dysfunction in the smoke exposed mice. Reduced muscularization of the pulmonary vessels due to HIIT suggests that exercise training not only affects the heart muscle, but also has important effects on the pulmonary vasculature.

  18. Biventricular function in sickle-cell anemia: radionuclide angiographic and thallium-201 scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, B.V.; Burka, E.R.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, C.S.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Noone, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function were evaluated at rest and during exercise using radionuclide ventriculography in 10 patients, aged 19-53 years, with sickle-cell anemia (SCA). Seven patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I and 3 were in class II. The resting LV ejection fraction (EF) was normal in 9 patients and the resting RVEF was normal in 4. LV dilation and high cardiac output were observed in 6 patients at rest. The LVEF during exercise was normal in all 10 patients, whereas only 2 patients had normal RVEF at rest and during exercise. The LVEF was lower in patients with SCA at rest (54 +/- 4% versus 61 +/- 6%, p less than 0.001) and exercise (66 +/- 4% versus 74 +/- 6%, p less than 0.001) than in 42 age-matched normal subjects. Rest thallium-201 images from 9 patients showed abnormal RV uptake in 8 and normal LV uptake in 8. Thus, in adult patients with SCA, LV function was normal during exercise in all patients and at rest in all but 1 patient. The LVEF, however, was lower than that in age-matched normal subjects. RV function was abnormal in most patients at rest and during exercise. RV thallium-201 uptake suggested pressure or volume overload (or both), most likely due to pulmonary vaso-occlusive complications of the disease

  19. A Study on the Marketing Strategy of RV Travel in China%国内房车旅游营销策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁磊

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of experience economy, RV travel is increasingly welcomed as a fashionable way to travel. At present, the domestic RV tourism development is far behind the developed countries, and there exist such problems as delayed construction of camping and related facilities, the inadequate consumption capacity, the inadequate RV tourism marketing and delayed tourism facilities and services. To solve these problems, this paper puts forward some marketing strategies, including carrying out camp marketing, subdividing RV tourism market, strengthening cooperation among related industries and enterprises, improving ways and means of RV tourism information dissemination, and promoting the construction of RV rental network.%随着体验经济时代的到来,房车旅游作为一种时尚的旅游方式日益受到人们的青睐。当前,国内房车旅游发展远远落后于发达国家,并存在露营地及相关设施建设滞后、居民消费能力不足、房车旅游营销力度不够和房车旅游设施及服务滞后的问题,针对这些问题,提出开展营地营销、细分房车旅游市场、加强房车旅游相关行业企业之间的合作、优化房车旅游信息传播方式和手段、加强房车租赁网络建设的房车旅游具体营销策略。

  20. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Assessment of the right ventricular function in healthy volunteers with one beat full-volume real-time three-dimensional echocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-hong; Zhang, Jin; Tong, Kai; Zhi, Guang; He, Kun-lun

    2012-08-01

    To determine the normal value of right ventricle using one beat full-volume real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) and assess the feasibility of this technique. One beat full volume images were acquired at the apical 4 chamber view in 129 healthy volunteers. The right and left ventricular volumes were examined with the eSie LVA and RVA. The subjects were divided into 2 gender groups (male and female) and 3 age groups (20 - 39 years old, 40 - 59 years old, 60 years old and above). Adequate data were obtained in 129 subjects. The RV-EDV was (92.4 ± 21.3) ml, RV-ESV (34.6 ± 9.2) ml, RV-SV (57.8 ± 13.9) ml, RV-EF (62.5 ± 5.0) ml. EDV, ESV, and EF were significant different while SV was similar between RV and LV (all P Right ventricle function can be measured noninvasively by RT-3DE with high feasibility. This novel method contributes to the detailed study of right heart function in various cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Peculiarities of component interaction in {Gd, Er}-V-Sn Ternary systems at 870 K and crystal structure of RV6Sn6 stannides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaka, L.; Stadnyk, Yu.; Romaka, V.V.; Demchenko, P.; Stadnyshyn, M.; Konyk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → {Gd, Er}-V-Sn ternary systems at 870 K are characterized by formation of stannides with general compositions RV 6 Sn 6 . → Isostructural RV 6 Sn 6 compounds were also found with Y, Dy, Ho, Tm, and Lu. → The crystal structure of RV 6 Sn 6 compounds was determined by powder diffraction method. → Structural analysis showed that RV 6 Sn 6 compounds (R = Gd, Dy-Tm, Lu) are disordered; YV 6 Sn 6 is characterized by structure ordering. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Gd-V-Sn and Er-V-Sn ternary systems were studied at 870 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. Both Gd-V-Sn and Er-V-Sn systems are characterized by formation of one ternary compound at investigated temperature, with stoichiometry RV 6 Sn 6 (SmMn 6 Sn 6 -type, space group P6/mmm, a = 0.55322(3) nm, c = 0.91949(7) nm for Gd, a = 0.55191(2) nm, c = 0.91869(8) nm for Er). Solubility of the third component in the binary compounds was not observed. Compounds with the SmMn 6 Sn 6 -type were also found with Dy, Ho, Tm, and Lu, while YV 6 Sn 6 compound crystallizes in HfFe 6 Ge 6 structure type. All investigated compounds are the first ternary stannides with rare earth elements and vanadium.

  3. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J.; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident. Methods: Rotavirus specific IgG and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) levels in cord blood and IgA levels in colostrum and breast milk samples collected ∼4 weeks, ∼20 weeks and ∼28 weeks after birth were measured. Infants were randomized to receive the first dose of vaccine at 0–5 d (neonatal schedule) or 8 weeks (infant schedule). Breast feeding was with-held for 30 minutes before and after vaccine administration. The relationship between rotavirus specific IgG and SNA levels in cord blood and IgA in colostrum and breast milk at the time of first active dose of RV3-BB vaccine and level of IgA response and stool excretion after 3 doses of vaccine was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Results: Forty infants received 3 doses of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine and were included in the analysis of the neonatal and infant groups. Rotavirus specific IgA in colostrum (neonatal schedule group) and breast milk at 4 weeks (infant schedule group) was identified in 14/21 (67%) and 14/17 (82%) of infants respectively. There was little evidence of an association between IgA in colostrum or breast milk IgA at 4 weeks, or between cord IgG or SNA level, and IgA response or stool excretion after 3 doses of RV3-BB, or after one dose (neonatal schedule) (all p>0.05). Conclusions: The level of IgA in colostrum or breast milk and level of placental Ig

  4. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-05-04

    Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident. Rotavirus specific IgG and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) levels in cord blood and IgA levels in colostrum and breast milk samples collected ∼4 weeks, ∼20 weeks and ∼28 weeks after birth were measured. Infants were randomized to receive the first dose of vaccine at 0-5 d (neonatal schedule) or 8 weeks (infant schedule). Breast feeding was with-held for 30 minutes before and after vaccine administration. The relationship between rotavirus specific IgG and SNA levels in cord blood and IgA in colostrum and breast milk at the time of first active dose of RV3-BB vaccine and level of IgA response and stool excretion after 3 doses of vaccine was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Forty infants received 3 doses of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine and were included in the analysis of the neonatal and infant groups. Rotavirus specific IgA in colostrum (neonatal schedule group) and breast milk at 4 weeks (infant schedule group) was identified in 14/21 (67%) and 14/17 (82%) of infants respectively. There was little evidence of an association between IgA in colostrum or breast milk IgA at 4 weeks, or between cord IgG or SNA level, and IgA response or stool excretion after 3 doses of RV3-BB, or after one dose (neonatal schedule) (all p>0.05). The level of IgA in colostrum or breast milk and level of placental IgG and SNA did not impact on the serum IgA response or

  5. Acute Effects of Hemodialysis on Left and Right Ventricular Function: A Doppler Tissue Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Erol

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Doppler tissue imaging (DTI allows noninvasive assessment of both left ventricular (LV and right ventricular (RV function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hemodialysis (HD on LV and RV function using DTI. Method: Our study group included 30 patients on chronic HD program (mean age 45 15 years. Myocardial (Sm, Em, Am and annular velocities (Ea, Aa were measured in several cardiac territories before and after HD. Results: After HD, Ea significantly reduced from 10.8 3.4 cm/s to 9.6 2.4 cm/s (p = 0.029. Patients exhibited a lower Em following HD in all measured territories. Em/Am ratio was also reduced for each LV wall investigated after HD in all measured territories. At the RV segments, Sm, Em, and Am decreased significantly in all measured territories. Em of the anterior wall was positively related to ultrafiltration volume (r = 0.25, p = 0.006, whereas the decrease of Sm of RV basal segment correlated with a decrease of diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.23, p < 0.01. Conclusion: Our data indicate that a single HD session is associated with acute changes of systolic and diastolic parameters of LV and RV. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 215-222

  6. Schistosomiasis in the Amazon region: is the current diagnostic strategy still appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rodrigo Magalhães de Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the performance of the Kato Katz technique in detecting intestinal schistosomiasis in the State of Pará. METHODS: Of three stool samples provided by each of 380 participants, a total of 16 Kato Katz slides were examined to define the reference value (RV of positives for comparisons. RESULTS: The RV revealed 37 (9.7% infected participants in contrast to 10 (2.6% according to a single slide. CONCLUSIONS: This significant underestimation of the infection rate gives reason to discuss if the current classification of prevalence levels reflects the real situation, principally in low transmission areas, like the Amazon region.

  7. Accuracy and interobserver concordance of echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular size and systolic function: a quality control exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lee Fong; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Rodriguez, Leonardo; Popovic, Zoran; Kwon, Deborah; Marwick, Thomas H

    2012-07-01

    Accurate assessment of right ventricular (RV) size (RVS) and RV systolic function (RVSF) is vital in the management of various conditions, but their assessment is challenging using echocardiography. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and interobserver concordance of qualitative and quantitative RV echocardiography. Fifteen readers evaluated RV function in 12 patients (360 readings) who underwent echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance for RV assessment. Readers qualitatively estimated RVS and RVSF as normal, mild, moderate, or severe and then reassessed quantitatively by adding RV dimensions, fractional area change, S', tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and RV index of myocardial performance. Cardiac magnetic resonance was used as the reference standard for grading RVS and RVSF. Quantitative measurements increased accuracy and interreader agreement compared to qualitative assessment alone, especially in normal categories. Readers' accuracy for diagnosing normal and severe RVS increased from 38% to 78% (P = .001) and from 70% to 97% (P = .018), and readers' accuracy for diagnosing normal and mild RVSF increased from 52% to 84% (P value of 0.40 to 0.77 (fair to good agreement) for RVS and from 0.43 to 0.66 (moderate to good agreement) for RVSF. Visual estimation of RVS and RVSF is inaccurate and has wide interobserver variability. Quantitation improves accuracy and reliability, especially in distinction of normal and abnormal. The reliability of mild and moderate grades remains inadequate, and further guidance is needed for the classification of abnormal categories. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Spatial Semantics and Interactions to Identify Urban Functional Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structures of cities have changed dramatically with rapid socio-economic development in ways that are not well understood. To support urban structural analysis and rational planning, we propose a framework to identify urban functional regions and quantitatively explore the intensity of the interactions between them, thus increasing the understanding of urban structures. A method for the identification of functional regions via spatial semantics is proposed, which involves two steps: (1 the study area is classified into three types of functional regions using taxi origin/destination (O/D flows; and (2 the spatial semantics for the three types of functional regions are demonstrated based on point-of-interest (POI categories. To validate the existence of urban functional regions, we explored the intensity of interactions quantitatively between them. A case study using POI data and taxi trajectory data from Beijing validates the proposed framework. The results show that the proposed framework can be used to identify urban functional regions and promotes an enhanced understanding of urban structures.

  9. Effect of ventricular size and function on exercise performance and the electrocardiogram in repaired tetralogy of Fallot with pure pulmonary regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Shaji C; Kaza, Aditya K; Puchalski, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    In repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), exercise test parameters like peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory efficiency predict mortality. Studies have also suggested cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived right ventricular (RV) size threshold values for pulmonary valve replacement in repaired TOF. However, effects of proposed RV size on exercise capacity and morbidity are not known. The relationship between CMR-derived ventricular size, function, and pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and NYHA class, exercise performance, and electrocardiogram (ECG) was studied in patients of repaired TOF with pure PR in a retrospective review of records. 46 patients (22 females), mean age 14 years (8–30.8), were studied. There was no relationship between CMR-derived ventricular size, function, or PR and exercise test parameters, or NYHA class. RV end systolic and end diastolic volume correlated positively with the degree of PR. QRS duration on ECG correlated positively with RV end-diastolic volume (P < 0.01, r 2 = 0.34) and PR (P < 0.01, r 2 = 0.52). In repaired TOF and pure PR, there is no correlation between ventricular size or function and exercise performance. RV size increases with increasing PR. Timing of pulmonary valve replacement in TOF with pure PR needs further prospective evaluation for its effect on morbidity and mortality

  10. Investigating Cardiac MRI Based Right Ventricular Contractility As A Novel Non-Invasive Metric of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Prahlad G; Adhypak, Srilakshmi M; Williams, Ronald B; Doyle, Mark; Biederman, Robert WW

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND We test the hypothesis that cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging-based indices of four-dimensional (4D) (three dimensions (3D) + time) right ventricle (RV) function have predictive values in ascertaining invasive pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) measurements from right heart catheterization (RHC) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS We studied five patients with idiopathic PAH and two age and sex-matched controls for RV function using a novel contractility index (CI) for amplitude and phase to peak contraction established from analysis of regional shape variation in the RV endocardium over 20 cardiac phases, segmented from CMR images in multiple orientations. RESULTS The amplitude of RV contractility correlated inversely with RV ejection fraction (RVEF; R2 = 0.64, P = 0.03) and PASP (R2 = 0.71, P = 0.02). Phase of peak RV contractility also correlated inversely to RVEF (R2 = 0.499, P = 0.12) and PASP (R2 = 0.66, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS RV contractility analyzed from CMR offers promising non-invasive metrics for classification of PAH, which are congruent with invasive pressure measurements. PMID:25624777

  11. Decreased lung function after preschool wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in children at risk to develop asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Singh, Anne Marie; Danov, Zoran; Evans, Michael D; Jackson, Daniel J; Burton, Ryan; Roberg, Kathy A; Anderson, Elizabeth L; Pappas, Tressa E; Gangnon, Ronald; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Preschool rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses predict an increased risk of childhood asthma; however, it is not clear how specific viral illnesses in early life relate to lung function later on in childhood. To determine the relationship of virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function in a longitudinal cohort of children at risk for asthma. Two hundred thirty-eight children were followed prospectively from birth to 8 years of age. Early life viral wheezing respiratory illnesses were assessed by using standard techniques, and lung function was assessed annually by using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. The relationships of these virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function were assessed by using mixed-effect linear regression. Children with RV wheezing illness demonstrated significantly decreased spirometry values, FEV(1) (P = .001), FEV(0.5) (P Children who wheezed with respiratory syncytial virus or other viral illnesses did not have any significant differences in spirometric or impulse oscillometry indices when compared with children who did not. Children diagnosed with asthma at ages 6 or 8 years had significantly decreased FEF(25-75) (P = .05) compared with children without asthma. Among outpatient viral wheezing illnesses in early childhood, those caused by RV infections are the most significant predictors of decreased lung function up to age 8 years in a high-risk birth cohort. Whether low lung function is a cause and/or effect of RV wheezing illnesses is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical polarimetric and near-infrared photometric study of the RCW95 Galactic H II region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-González, J.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Santos, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.; Santos, J. F. C.; Maia, F. F. S.; Sanmartim, D.

    2018-02-01

    We carried out an optical polarimetric study in the direction of the RCW 95 star-forming region in order to probe the sky-projected magnetic field structure by using the distribution of linear polarization segments which seem to be well aligned with the more extended cloud component. A mean polarization angle of θ = 49.8° ± 7.7°7 was derived. Through the spectral dependence analysis of polarization it was possible to obtain the total-to-selective extinction ratio (RV) by fitting the Serkowski function, resulting in a mean value of RV = 2.93 ± 0.47. The foreground polarization component was estimated and is in agreement with previous studies in this direction of the Galaxy. Further, near-infrared (NIR) images from Vista Variables in the Via Láctea (VVV) survey were collected to improve the study of the stellar population associated with the H II region. The Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis algorithm was employed to derive structural parameters for two clusters in the region, and a set of PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) isochrones was superimposed on the decontaminated colour-magnitude diagrams to estimate an age of about 3 Myr for both clusters. Finally, from the NIR photometry study combined with spectra obtained with the Ohio State Infrared Imager and Spectrometer mounted at the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope we derived the spectral classification of the main ionizing sources in the clusters associated with IRAS 15408-5356 and IRAS 15412-5359, both objects classified as O4V stars.

  13. Quantification of biventricular myocardial function using cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking, endocardial border delineation and echocardiographic speckle tracking in patients with repaired tetralogy of fallot and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Parameters of myocardial deformation have been suggested to be superior to conventional measures of ventricular function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF), but have required non-routine, tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques. We assessed biventricular myocardial function using CMR cine-based feature tracking (FT) and compared it to speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and to simple endocardial border delineation (EBD). In addition, the relation between parameters of myocardial deformation and clinical parameters was assessed. Methods Overall, 28 consecutive adult patients with repaired ToF (age 40.4 ± 13.3 years) underwent standard steady-state-free precession sequence CMR, echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In addition, 25 healthy subjects served as controls. Myocardial deformation was assessed by CMR based FT (TomTec Diogenes software), CMR based EBD (using custom written software) and STE (TomTec Cardiac Performance Analysis software). Results Feature tracking was feasible in all subjects. A close agreement was found between measures of global left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) global strain. Interobserver agreement for FT and STE was similar for longitudinal LV global strain, but FT showed better inter-observer reproducibility than STE for circumferential or radial LV and longitudinal RV global strain. Reproducibility of regional strain on FT was, however, poor. The relative systolic length change of the endocardial border measured by EBD yielded similar results to FT global strain. Clinically, biventricular longitudinal strain on FT was reduced compared to controls (P < 0.0001) and was related to the number of previous cardiac operations. In addition, FT derived RV strain was related to exercise capacity and VE/VCO2-slope. Conclusions Although neither the inter-study reproducibility nor accuracy of FT software were investigated, and its inter-observer reproducibility for regional

  14. Changes in Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Measures of Ventricular Function after Percutaneous Implantation of the Edwards SAPIEN Transcatheter Heart Valve in the Pulmonary Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shahryar M.; Hijazi, Ziyad M.; Rhodes, John F.; Kar, Saibal; Makkar, Raj; Mullen, Michael; Cao, Qi-Ling; Mandinov, Lazar; Buckley, Jason; Pietris, Nicholas P.; Shirali, Girish S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with free pulmonary regurgitation or mixed pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation and severely dilated right ventricles (RV) show little improvement in ventricular function after pulmonary valve replacement when assessed by traditional echocardiographic markers. We evaluated changes in right and left ventricular (LV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography in patients after SAPIEN transcatheter pulmonary valve (TPV) placement. Methods Echocardiograms were evaluated at baseline, discharge, 1 and 6 months after TPV placement in 24 patients from 4 centers. Speckle tracking measures of function included peak longitudinal strain, strain rate, and early diastolic strain rate. RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and left ventricular LV ejection fraction were assessed. Routine Doppler and tissue Doppler velocities were measured. Results At baseline, all patients demonstrated moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation; this improved following TPV placement. No significant changes were detected in conventional measures of RV or LV function at 6 months. RV longitudinal strain (−16.9% vs. −19.6%, P echocardiography may be more sensitive than traditional measures in detecting changes in systolic function after TPV implantation. (Echocardiography 2015;32:461–469) PMID:25047063

  15. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S.; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Oceanographic and Atmospheric Sciences Div.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. Seven of the cruises follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipment and towing of a SeaSoar. Detailed description of ADCP hardware, the AutoADCP data acquisition system, and the collection of navigation and compass data on the Thompson is documented in Section 2. Followed by data collection for each cruise together with a cruise track, Section 3 presents the processing and analysis of velocity and acoustic backscatter intensity data. Section 5 shows results of profile quality diagnosis.

  16. Hydrogen production by co-cultures of Lactobacillus and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Yasuo; Ishimi, Katsuhiro [Department of General Education, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Narashinodai, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Tokumoto, Masaru; Aihara, Yasuyuki; Oku, Masayo; Kohno, Hideki [Department of Applied Molecular Chemistry, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Izumi-cho, Chiba 275-8575 (Japan); Wakayama, Tatsuki; Miyake, Jun [Research Institute for Cell Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nakoji, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Tomiyama, Masamitsu [Genetic Diversity Department, National Institute of Agrobiological Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    Hydrogen production with glucose by using co-immobilized cultures of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC13953, and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV, in agar gels was studied. Glucose was converted to hydrogen gas in a yield of 7.1mol of hydrogen per mole of glucose at a maximum under illuminated conditions. (author)

  17. Utility of Tissue Doppler Imaging in the Echocardiographic Evaluation of Left and Right Ventricular Function in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease with or without Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron Toaldo, M; Poser, H; Menciotti, G; Battaia, S; Contiero, B; Cipone, M; Diana, A; Mazzotta, E; Guglielmini, C

    2016-05-01

    In human medicine, right ventricular (RV) functional parameters represent a tool for risk stratification in patients with congestive heart failure caused by left heart disease. Little is known about RV alterations in dogs with left-sided cardiac disorders. To assess RV and left ventricular (LV) function in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) with or without pulmonary hypertension (PH). One-hundred and fourteen dogs: 28 healthy controls and 86 dogs with MMVD at different stages. Prospective observational study. Animals were classified as healthy or having MMVD at different stages of severity and according to presence or absence of PH. Twenty-eight morphological, echo-Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) variables were measured and comparison among groups and correlations between LV and RV parameters were studied. No differences were found among groups regarding RV echo-Doppler and TDI variables. Sixteen significant correlations were found between RV TDI and left heart echocardiographic variables. Dogs with PH had significantly higher transmitral E wave peak velocity and higher E/e' ratio of septal (sMV) and lateral (pMV) mitral annulus. These 2 variables were found to predict presence of PH with a sensitivity of 84 and 72%, and a specificity of 71 and 80% at cut-off values of 10 and 9.33 for sMV E/e' and pMV E/e', respectively. No association between variables of RV function and different MMVD stage and severity of PH could be detected. Some relationships were found between echocardiographic variables of right and left ventricular function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. The ratio of (18)F-FDG activity uptake between the right and left ventricle in patients with pulmonary hypertension correlates with the right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Chang-Ming; He, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Ni, Xin-Hai; Fang, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2014-05-01

    It is known that patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) can have elevated F-FDG uptake in the right ventricle (RV) on PET imaging. This study was designed to assess possible relationship between FDG uptake of ventricles and the function/hemodynamics of the RV in patients with PH. Thirty-eight patients with PH underwent FDG PET imaging in both fasting and glucose-loading conditions. The standard uptake value (SUVs) corrected for partial volume effect in both RV and left ventricle (LV) were measured. The ratio of FDG uptake between RV to LV (SUVR/L) was calculated. Right heart catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) were performed in all patients within 1 week. The FDG uptake levels by the ventricles were compared with the result form the right heart catheterization and CMR. The SUV of RV (SUVR) and SUV of LV were significantly higher in glucose-loading condition than in fasting condition. In both fasting and glucose-loading conditions, SUVR and SUVR/L showed reverse correlation with right ventricular ejection fraction derived from CMR. In addition, in both fasting and glucose-loading conditions, SUVR and SUVR/L showed positive correlations with pulmonary vascular resistance. However, only SUVR/L in glucose-loading condition could independently predict right ventricular ejection fraction after adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, mean right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance (P = 0.048). The FDG uptake of RV increases with decreased right ventricular function in patients with PH. Increased FDG uptake ratio between RV and LV might be useful to assess the right ventricular function.

  19. Extracellular Sphingomyelinase Rv0888 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Contributes to Pathological Lung Injury of Mycobacterium smegmatis in Mice via Inducing Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Guanghui; Cui, Yingying; Wang, Lei; Li, Tiantian; Cui, Ziyin; Song, Ningning; Chen, Liping; Pang, Hai; Liu, Siguo

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), which mainly causes pulmonary injury and tubercles. Although macrophages are generally considered to harbor the main cells of M. tuberculosis , new evidence suggests that neutrophils are rapidly recruited to the infected lung. M. tuberculosis itself, or its early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6), can induce formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, NETs trap mycobacteria but are unable to kill them. The role of NETs' formation in the pathogenesis of mycobacteria remains unclear. Here, we report a new M. tuberculosis extracellular factor, bifunctional enzyme Rv0888, with both nuclease and sphingomyelinase activities. Rv0888 sphingomyelinase activity can induce NETs' formation in vitro and in the lung of the mice and enhance the colonization ability of Mycobacterium smegmatis in the lungs of mice. Mice infected by M. smegmatis harboring Rv0888 sphingomyelinase induced pathological injury and inflammation of the lung, which was mainly mediated by NETs, induced by Rv0888 sphingomyelinase, associated protein (myeloperoxidase) triggered caspase-3. In summary, the study sheds new light on the pathogenesis of mycobacteria and reveals a novel target for TB treatment.

  20. Cardiac structure and function in Cushing's syndrome: a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenický, Peter; Redheuil, Alban; Roux, Charles; Salenave, Sylvie; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Raissouni, Zainab; Macron, Laurent; Guignat, Laurence; Jublanc, Christel; Azarine, Arshid; Brailly, Sylvie; Young, Jacques; Mousseaux, Elie; Chanson, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome have left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction on echocardiography, but echo-based measurements may have limited accuracy in obese patients. No data are available on right ventricular (RV) and left atrial (LA) size and function in these patients. The objective of the study was to evaluate LV, RV, and LA structure and function in patients with Cushing's syndrome by means of cardiac magnetic resonance, currently the reference modality in assessment of cardiac geometry and function. Eighteen patients with active Cushing's syndrome and 18 volunteers matched for age, sex, and body mass index were studied by cardiac magnetic resonance. The imaging was repeated in the patients 6 months (range 2-12 mo) after the treatment of hypercortisolism. Compared with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome had lower LV, RV, and LA ejection fractions (P Cushing's syndrome is associated with subclinical biventricular and LA systolic dysfunctions that are reversible after treatment. Despite skeletal muscle atrophy, Cushing's syndrome patients have an increased LV mass, reversible upon correction of hypercortisolism.

  1. Overexpression of Adenylyl Cyclase Encoded by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2212 Gene Confers Improved Fitness, Accelerated Recovery from Dormancy and Enhanced Virulence in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita O. Shleeva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Earlier we demonstrated that the adenylyl cyclase (AC encoded by the MSMEG_4279 gene plays a key role in the resuscitation and growth of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis and that overexpression of this gene leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration and prevents the transition of M. smegmatis from active growth to dormancy in an extended stationary phase accompanied by medium acidification. We surmised that the homologous Rv2212 gene of M. tuberculosis (Mtb, the main cAMP producer, plays similar physiological roles by supporting, under these conditions, the active state and reactivation of dormant bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we established Mtb strain overexpressing Rv2212 and compared its in vitro and in vivo growth characteristics with a control strain. In vitro, the AC-overexpressing pMindRv2212 strain demonstrated faster growth in a liquid medium, prolonged capacity to form CFUs and a significant delay or even prevention of transition toward dormancy. AC-overexpressing cells exhibited easier recovery from dormancy. In vivo, AC-overexpressing bacteria demonstrated significantly higher growth rates (virulence in the lungs and spleens of infected mice compared to the control strain, and, unlike the latter, killed mice in the TB-resistant strain before month 8 of infection. Even in the absence of selecting hygromycin B, all pMindRv2212 CFUs retained the Rv2212 insert during in vivo growth, strongly suggesting that AC overexpression is beneficial for bacteria. Taken together, our results indicate that cAMP supports the maintenance of Mtb cells vitality under unfavorable conditions in vitro and their virulence in vivo.

  2. Right ventricular volumes and function in thalassemia major patients in the absence of myocardial iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter John B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We aimed to define reference ranges for right ventricular (RV volumes, ejection fraction (EF in thalassemia major patients (TM without myocardial iron overload. Methods and results RV volumes, EF and mass were measured in 80 TM patients who had no myocardial iron overload (myocardial T2* > 20 ms by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. All patients were receiving deferoxamine chelation and none had evidence of pulmonary hypertension or other cardiovascular comorbidity. Forty age and sex matched healthy non-anemic volunteers acted as controls. The mean RV EF was higher in TM patients than controls (males 66.2 ± 4.1% vs 61.6 ± 6%, p = 0.0009; females 66.3 ± 5.1% vs 62.6 ± 6.4%, p = 0.017, which yielded a raised lower threshold of normality for RV EF in TM patients (males 58.0% vs 50.0% and females 56.4% vs 50.1%. RV end-diastolic volume index was higher in male TM patients (mean 98.1 ± 17.3 mL vs 88.4 ± 11.2 mL/m2, p = 0.027, with a higher upper limit (132 vs 110 mL/m2 but this difference was of borderline significance for females (mean 86.5 ± 13.6 mL vs 80.3 ± 12.8 mL/m2, p = 0.09, with upper limit of 113 vs 105 mL/m2. The cardiac index was raised in TM patients (males 4.8 ± 1.0 L/min vs 3.4 ± 0.7 L/min, p Conclusion The normal ranges for functional RV parameters in TM patients with no evidence of myocardial iron overload differ from healthy non-anemic controls. The new reference RV ranges are important for determining the functional effects of myocardial iron overload in TM patients.

  3. Dehalogenation of Haloalkanes by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Other Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesenská, Andrea; Sedlác̆ek, Ivo; Damborský, Jir̆í

    2000-01-01

    Haloalkane dehalogenases convert haloalkanes to their corresponding alcohols by a hydrolytic mechanism. To date, various haloalkane dehalogenases have been isolated from bacteria colonizing environments that are contaminated with halogenated compounds. A search of current databases with the sequences of these known haloalkane dehalogenases revealed the presence of three different genes encoding putative haloalkane dehalogenases in the genome of the human parasite Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The ability of M. tuberculosis and several other mycobacterial strains to dehalogenate haloaliphatic compounds was therefore studied. Intact cells of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were found to dehalogenate 1-chlorobutane, 1-chlorodecane, 1-bromobutane, and 1,2-dibromoethane. Nine isolates of mycobacteria from clinical material and four strains from a collection of microorganisms were found to be capable of dehalogenating 1,2-dibromoethane. Crude extracts prepared from two of these strains, Mycobacterium avium MU1 and Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 4622, showed broad substrate specificity toward a number of halogenated substrates. Dehalogenase activity in the absence of oxygen and the identification of primary alcohols as the products of the reaction suggest a hydrolytic dehalogenation mechanism. The presence of dehalogenases in bacterial isolates from clinical material, including the species colonizing both animal tissues and free environment, indicates a possible role of parasitic microorganisms in the distribution of degradation genes in the environment. PMID:10618227

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine administered at birth or in infancy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Danchin, Margaret; Jackson, Pamela; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Lee, Katherine J; West, Amanda; Cowley, Daniel; Chen, Mee-Yew; Barnes, Graeme L; Justice, Frances; Buttery, Jim P; Carlin, John B; Bishop, Ruth F; Taylor, Barry; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2015-12-01

    Despite the success of rotavirus vaccines, suboptimal vaccine efficacy in regions with a high burden of disease continues to present a challenge to worldwide implementation. A birth dose strategy with a vaccine developed from an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain has the potential to address this challenge and provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. This phase 2a randomised, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken at a single centre in New Zealand between Jan 13, 2012, and April 17, 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who weighed at least 2500 g, and were 0-5 days old at the time of randomisation were randomly assigned (1:1:1; computer-generated; telephone central allocation) according to a concealed block randomisation schedule to oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), to vaccine with the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to placebo. The primary endpoint was cumulative vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) after three doses. The immunogenicity analysis included all randomised participants with available outcome data. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611001212943. 95 eligible participants were randomised, of whom 89 were included in the primary analysis. A cumulative vaccine take was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 participants in the neonatal schedule group after three doses of RV3-BB vaccine compared with four (13%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·78, 95% CI 0·55-0·88; pvaccine take after three doses compared with eight (25%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·68, 0·44-0·81; pvaccine was not associated with an increased frequency of fever or gastrointestinal symptoms compared with placebo. RV3-BB vaccine was

  5. Assessment of right ventricular function and anatomy using peripheral vein infusion of krypton 81m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugrue, D.D.; Kamal, S.; Deanfield, J.E.; McKenna, W.J.; Myers, M.J.; Watson, I.A.; Oakley, C.M.; Lavender, J.P. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK))

    1983-09-01

    A method for imaging the right side of the heart (atrium, ventricle and main pulmonary artery) and for assessment of RV systolic function (ejection fraction and ejection rate) is described. An ultra-short-lived isotope (/sup 81/Krsup(m)) is continuously eluted in 5% dextrose and infused into an ante-cubital arm vein; standard multigated images are acquired using a gamma camera and commercially available software. Preliminary evaluation of the method in 55 subjects (20 with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, 14 with dilated cardiomyopathy and 21 normal volunteers) showed that the technical success rate was 100%; that RV boundaries free from LV overlap can be clearly visualised due to efficient exhalation of /sup 81/Krsup(m) through the lungs and that /sup 81/Krsup(m) measurements of RVEF are reproducible. The technique offers considerable potential for serial non-invasive assessment of RV function.

  6. Assessment of right ventricular function and anatomy using peripheral vein infusion of krypton 81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugrue, D.D.; Kamal, S.; Deanfield, J.E.; McKenna, W.J.; Myers, M.J.; Watson, I.A.; Oakley, C.M.; Lavender, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    A method for imaging the right side of the heart (atrium, ventricle and main pulmonary artery) and for assessment of RV systolic function (ejection fraction and ejection rate) is described. An ultra-short-lived isotope ( 81 Krsup(m)) is continuously eluted in 5% dextrose and infused into an ante-cubital arm vein; standard multigated images are acquired using a gamma camera and commercially available software. Preliminary evaluation of the method in 55 subjects (20 with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, 14 with dilated cardiomyopathy and 21 normal volunteers) showed that the technical success rate was 100%; that RV boundaries free from LV overlap can be clearly visualised due to efficient exhalation of 81 Krsup(m) through the lungs and that 81 Krsup(m) measurements of RVEF are reproducible. The technique offers considerable potential for serial non-invasive assessment of RV function. (author)

  7. Crystallization Process of Protein Rv0731c from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis for a Successful Atomic Resolution Crystal Structure at 1.2 Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang Cong

    2009-06-08

    Proteins are bio-macromolecules consisting of basic 20 amino acids and have distinct three-dimensional folds. They are essential parts of organisms and participate in every process within cells. Proteins are crucial for human life, and each protein within the body has a specific function, such as antibodies, contractile proteins, enzymes, hormonal proteins, structural proteins, storage proteins and transport proteins. Determining three-dimensional structure of a protein can help researchers discover the remarkable protein folding, binding site, conformation and etc, in order to understand well of protein interaction and aid for possible drug design. The research on protein structure by X-ray protein crystallography carried by Li-Wei Hung's research group in the Physical Bioscience Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is focusing on protein crystallography. The research in this lab is in the process of from crystallizing the proteins to determining the three dimensional crystal structures of proteins. Most protein targets are selected from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. TB (Tuberculosis) is a possible fatal infectious disease. By studying TB target protein can help discover antituberculer drugs, and find treatment for TB. The high-throughput mode of crystallization, crystal harvesting, crystal screening and data collection are applied to the research pipeline (Figure 1). The X-ray diffraction data by protein crystals can be processed and analyzed to result in a three dimensional representation of electron density, producing a detailed model of protein structure. Rv0731c is a conserved hypothetical protein with unknown function from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This paper is going to report the crystallization process and brief structure information of Rv0731c.

  8. Mindfulness og nærværende opmærksomhed i skole og daginstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Herskind, Mia

    Mindfulness og nærværende opmærksomhed i skole og daginstitution Vi præsenterer resultater fra undersøgelser af, hvordan lærere og pædagoger lærer mindfulness og hvordan det får betydning for deres praksis og forholdemåder i pædagogik og undervisning. Undersøgelserne er kvalitative og i...

  9. Right Ventricular Volumes and Systolic Function by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and the Impact of Sex, Age, and Obesity in a Longitudinally Followed Cohort Free of Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Disease: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Murilo; Arora, Garima; Gona, Philimon; Ashrafi, Arman; Salton, Carol J; Yeon, Susan B; Blease, Susan J; Levy, Daniel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Chuang, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance is uniquely well suited for noninvasive imaging of the right ventricle. We sought to define normal cardiac magnetic resonance reference values and to identify the main determinants of right ventricular (RV) volumes and systolic function using a modern imaging sequence in a community-dwelling, longitudinally followed cohort free of clinical cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. The Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort has been followed since 1971. We scanned 1794 Offspring cohort members using steady-state free precession cardiac magnetic resonance and identified a reference group of 1336 adults (64±9 years, 576 men) free of prevalent cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. RV trabeculations and papillary muscles were considered cavity volume. Men had greater RV volumes and cardiac output before and after indexation to body size (all Pheart rate account for most of the variability in RV volumes and function in this community-dwelling population. We report sex-specific normative values for RV measurements among principally middle-aged and older adults. RV ejection fraction is greater in women. RV volumes increase with body size, are greater in men, and are smaller in older people. Body surface area seems to be appropriate for indexation of cardiac magnetic resonance-derived RV volumes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Genomic diversity among Beijing and non-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Stavrum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dominant in countries in East Asia. Genomic polymorphisms are a source of diversity within the M. tuberculosis genome and may account for the variation of virulence among M. tuberculosis isolates. Till date there are no studies that have examined the genomic composition of M. tuberculosis isolates from the high TB-burden country, Myanmar.Twenty-two M. tuberculosis isolates from Myanmar were screened on whole-genome arrays containing genes from M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis CDC1551 and M. bovis AF22197. Screening identified 198 deletions or extra regions in the clinical isolates compared to H37Rv. Twenty-two regions differentiated between Beijing and non-Beijing isolates and were verified by PCR on an additional 40 isolates. Six regions (Rv0071-0074 [RD105], Rv1572-1576c [RD149], Rv1585c-1587c [RD149], MT1798-Rv1755c [RD152], Rv1761c [RD152] and Rv0279c were deleted in Beijing isolates, of which 4 (Rv1572-1576c, Rv1585c-1587c, MT1798-Rv1755c and Rv1761c were variably deleted among ST42 isolates, indicating a closer relationship between the Beijing and ST42 lineages. The TbD1 region, Mb1582-Mb1583 was deleted in Beijing and ST42 isolates. One M. bovis gene of unknown function, Mb3184c was present in all isolates, except 11 of 13 ST42 isolates. The CDC1551 gene, MT1360 coding for a putative adenylate cyclase, was present in all Beijing and ST42 isolates (except 1. The pks15/1 gene, coding for a putative virulence factor, was intact in all Beijing and non-Beijing isolates, except in ST42 and ST53 isolates.This study describes previously unreported deletions/extra regions in Beijing and non-Beijing M. tuberculosis isolates. The modern and highly frequent ST42 lineage showed a closer relationship to the hypervirulent Beijing lineage than to the ancient non-Beijing lineages. The pks15/1 gene was disrupted only in modern non-Beijing isolates. This is the first report of an in-depth analysis on

  11. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (pintelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (pincrease in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  12. Selgusid kirjanduse aastapreemiate saajad / Rein Veidemann ; komment. Karl Martin Sinijärv, Viivi Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veidemann, Rein, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemiad: Kristiina Ehini luulekogu "Kaitseala" ja Jürgen Rooste luulekogu "Ilusaks inimeseks", Piret Raud "Sanna ja salakütid", Merle Karusoo näidend "Misjonärid", Madis Kõivu artiklikogumik "Luhta-minek". Tõlkepreemiad tõlkijatele Anu Saluäär, Heili Einasto, Lembi Loigu, Veronika Kivisilla, Risto Järv. Vabaauhind Käbi Laretei. Artiklipreemia Aare Pilv. Venekeelse autori kirjandusauhind Gohar Markosjan-Käsper, Svetlan Semenenko

  13. Assessment of the right ventricular function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cor pulmonale using cardiac 64-slice spiral CT comparing with 1.7 T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yan; Li Kuncheng; Du Xiangying; Liang Lei; Cao Lizhen; Li Yan; Zhao Shen; Guo Ying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the right ventricular function in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and eor pulmonale using cardiac 64 MSCT comparing with MRI. Methods: Forty-six patients with COPD determined by pulmonary function test (PFT) were prospectively studied. According to the Global Initiative for COPD classification, the COPD patients were divided into three groups depending on the severity of the disease: mild COPD (16 cases), moderate COPD (16 cases) and severe COPD (14 cases). Twenty age-matched subjects were included as the controls. The RV function was assessed by 64-MSCT and 1.5 T cardiac MRI in all four groups. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), myocardial mass (MM) and the PFT results in COPD patients. AP value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), RVEF and MM on MSCT were compared with that on MRI using Pearson correlation analysis. Bland-Airman plot was used to evaluate the correlation between MSCT and MRI. Results: The RVEF was (51.6 ± 5.6)% in mild COPD, (49.8 ± 6.0)% in moderate COPD, (39.4 ± 7.2)% in severe COPD, and (53 ± 5.9)% in controls, respectively. The MM was (44.5 ± 5.4) g in mild COPD, (49.6 ± 5.0) g in moderate COPD, (57.1 ± 3.4) g in severe COPD, and (40.8 ± 3.9) g in controls, respectively. The EDV was (139.9 ± 25.0), (130.2 ± 21.2), (107.6 ± 18.4) and (149.2 ± 27.9) ml, the SV was (72.1 ± 16.1), (64.3 ± 11.0), (42.5 ± 16.5) and (77.0 ± 11.7) ml in four groups, respectively. The values of RVEF and RVEDV were significantly lower in severe COPD than that in mild COPD, moderate COPD and controls (F RVEF =143, F RVEDV =38.07, P RVEF = 1.03, F EDV =3.22, F EFV =0.44, F SV =2.77, P>0.05). The MM of the RV was significantly different between controls and the other three groups (F=66.34, P<0.01). All parameters of the RV

  14. Relation between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac remodeling and function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huaibing; Lu, Minjie; Hou, Cuihong; Chen, Xuhua; Wang, Jing; Yin, Gang; Chu, Jianmin; Zhang, Shu; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pu, Jielin; Zhao, Shihua

    2015-02-01

    Although N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a useful screening test of impaired right ventricular (RV) function in conditions affecting the right-sided cardiac muscle, the role of NT-proBNP remains unclear in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). This study was designed to clarify the relation between the plasma NT-proBNP level and the RV function evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. We selected 56 patients with confirmed ARVC only when their blood specimens for NT-proBNP measurements were collected within 48 hours of a CMR scan. The NT-proBNP level was significantly higher in patients with RV dysfunction than in patients without RV dysfunction (median of 655.3 [interquartile range 556.4 to 870.0] vs 347.0 [interquartile range 308.0 to 456.2] pmol/L, p rights reserved.

  15. Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; At Thobari, Jarir; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J; Barnes, Graeme L; Bachtiar, Novilia S; Viska Icanervilia, Ajeng; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-02-22

    A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB, administered according to a neonatal schedule (0 to 5 days, 8 weeks, and 14 weeks of age) or an infant schedule (8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 18 weeks of age), or placebo. The primary analysis was conducted in the per-protocol population, which included only participants who received all four doses of vaccine or placebo within the visit windows, with secondary analyses performed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all participants who underwent randomization. Among the 1513 participants in the per-protocol population, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred up to the age of 18 months in 5.6% of the participants in the placebo group (28 of 504 babies), in 1.4% in the neonatal-schedule vaccine group (7 of 498), and in 2.7% in the infant-schedule vaccine group (14 of 511). This resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 91) in the neonatal-schedule group (PBill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12612001282875 .).

  16. Renal volume assessed by magnetic resonance imaging volumetry correlates with renal function in living kidney donors pre- and postdonation: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Daniel; Helck, Andreas; Rominger, Axel; Crispin, Alexander; Meiser, Bruno; Werner, Jens; Fischereder, Michael; Stangl, Manfred; Habicht, Antje

    2018-07-01

    Renal function of potential living kidney donors is routinely assessed with scintigraphy. Kidney anatomy is evaluated by imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We evaluated if a MRI-based renal volumetry is a good predictor of kidney function pre- and postdonation. We retrospectively analyzed the renal volume (RV) in a MRI of 100 living kidney donors. RV was correlated with the tubular excretion rate (TER) of MAG3-scintigraphy, a measured creatinine clearance (CrCl), and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by Cockcroft-Gault (CG), CKD-EPI, and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula pre- and postdonation during a follow-up of 3 years. RV correlated significantly with the TER (total: r = 0.6735, P volumetry might be an alternative technique for the evaluation of split renal function and prediction of renal function postdonation in living kidney donors. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Iron stress in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean : evidence from enrichment bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Klaas; van Leeuwe, M.A.; de Jong, J.T.M.; Nolting, R.F.; Witte, H.J; van Ooyen, J; Swagerman, M.J W; Kloosterhuis, H; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of iron on phytoplankton physiology in a scarcely investigated part of the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean was studied during an expedition aboard RV 'Polarstern'. Physiological effects of iron enrichments were studied during short-term bottle experiments (72 h) in high-nutrient,

  18. Medical Image of the Week: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Severe RV Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wickstrom K; Ateeli H; Chaudhary S

    2018-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 56-year-old man with history a of alcohol abuse presents with progressive shortness of breath on exertion, bilateral lower extremity swelling and 12-pound weight gain over two weeks. His transthoracic echocardiography (Figure 1) demonstrated severely increased global right ventricle (RV) size, severely dilated right atrium (RA), severe pulmonary artery (PA) dilation, moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and right ventricular systo...

  19. Research Vessel R/V Sikuliaq: Joining the UNOLS Fleet in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    The global class research vessel R/V Sikuliaq is being constructed on behalf of the NSF to support future scientific studies in high latitude waters. The 261 foot vessel will be capable of breaking 2.5 foot thick ice at 2 knots with an endurance of 45 days at sea and cruising at 11 knots. The R/V Sikuliaq has a beam of 52 feet and a draft of 18.9 feet that will carry 26 scientists and a crew of 20. Berthing accommodations are a combination of single/double rooms with one stateroom and the common areas of the vessel are designed for ADA access and accommodations. The total laboratory space (main, analytical, electronics, wet, upper, and Baltic room are 2100 square feet. The 4360 square foot working deck that is approximately 70 feet in length will accommodate 2-4 vans and multiple science operations. The vessel design strives to have the lowest possible environmental impact, including a low underwater-radiated noise signature. The science systems are prescribed to be state-of-the-art for bottom mapping, over-the-side 'hands free' gear handling, broad band communications and scientific walk-in freezer and environmental chamber. More details and photos of the construction progress are available on the website at www.sfos.uaf.edu/arrv. The vessel was launched in October 2012 and delivery to the University of Alaska Fairbanks is scheduled for November 2013. Scientific operations following testing and science sea trials are planned to start in summer of 2014. Questions about the science systems or vessel capabilities should be directed to Terry Whitledge (terry@ims.uaf.edu).

  20. Characterization of GafChromic XR-RV2 film and comparator strip using a flatbed scanner in reflection mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Moctezuma, A. I.; Aguilar, J. Garcia; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Interventional cardiology procedures are an effective alternative for the reestablishment of correct sanguineous circulation in the heart. However, this kind of procedures exposes to the patients to a relatively high radiation doses. Usually, the surface peak skin dose is evaluated using a visual scale with a comparator strip, nevertheless, even if the comparator strip provides a simple and quick method for estimating the dose it has an uncertainty of ±25%. For this reason, a better evaluation method is needed. The objective of our project is to determine the surface peak skin dose of interventional cardiology procedures using GafChromic XR-RV2 film together with a commercial flatbed scanner in reflection mode. Here we report a protocol to handle GafChromic XR-RV2 film using a commercial flat bed scanner in reflection mode aiming at an uncertainty of ±3%.

  1. Normalization of the collage regions of iterated function systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengbing; Zhang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Fractal graphics, generated with iterated function systems (IFS), have been applied in broad areas. Since the collage regions of different IFS may be different, it is difficult to respectively show the attractors of iterated function systems in a same region on a computer screen using one program without modifying the display parameters. An algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. A set of transforms are repeatedly applied to modify the coefficients of the IFS so that the collage region of the resulted IFS changes toward the unit square. Experimental results demonstrate that the collage region of any IFS can be normalized to the unit square with the proposed method.

  2. On the Existence and Uniqueness of Rv-Generalized Solution for Dirichlet Problem with Singularity on All Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rukavishnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and uniqueness of the Rv-generalized solution for the first boundary value problem and a second order elliptic equation with coordinated and uncoordinated degeneracy of input data and with strong singularity solution on all boundary of a two-dimensional domain are established.

  3. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horwitz

    Full Text Available Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR in the alpha (8Hz and gamma (36Hz bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years. Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01. Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05. In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01. Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  4. Treatment of marine sewage pumpout and RV park pumpout wastewater containing high strength concentrations of formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonich, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' A consortium of companies has developed an integrated 'on-site' wastewater treatment technology that is capable of handling and degrading RV Park and Marine Sewage Pumpout Wastes which contain formaldehyde [35 - 80 mg/L]. Boat and RV owners add formaldehyde to their toilets to eliminate odors. When these materials are pumped out they are high in solids content and have high concentrations of HCHO, which makes them difficult to degrade at POTWs. At the heart of this process is 1. An aeration tank with a Venturi Aerator totally external to the tank and 2. The addition of a blend of cultured bacteria that have selected for their ability to degrade formaldehyde. For a complete 'on-site' treatment system Bioclere Trickling Filters can follow this aeration/bacterial treatment system. This is an ideal system configuration for remote locations (RV Parks) or for fresh water lake Marinas looking to reduce their disposal costs and for groundwater discharge with no adverse effect on water quality. Until the development of the formaldehyde degrading bacteria for an industrial wastewater process there were no cultures commercially available specifically for degrading formaldehyde. The most commonly used bacteria were pseudomonas strains for carbohydrate or hydrocarbon wastewater extracted from activated sludge plants. And since formaldehyde is infinitely soluble in a liquid it is difficult to degrade or mineralize. The process in an activated sludge WWTP plant took over 72 hours. With the newly selected consortia of cultures, HCHO can be degraded in 12-14 hours on a batch basis. This is accomplished in a uniquely configured aeration tank where the 'environment' of the tank is constantly conditioned by a Venturi Aerator which strips carbon dioxide generated by the aerobes to maintain a neutral pH, and provide high levels of DO (>5.0 mg/L) to keep the process aerobic. (author)

  5. Regional zooplankton dispersal provides spatial insurance for ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Celia C; Arnott, Shelley E

    2013-05-01

    Changing environmental conditions are affecting diversity and ecosystem function globally. Theory suggests that dispersal from a regional species pool may buffer against changes in local community diversity and ecosystem function after a disturbance through the establishment of functionally redundant tolerant species. The spatial insurance provided by dispersal may decrease through time after environmental change as the local community monopolizes resources and reduces community invasibility. To test for evidence of the spatial insurance hypothesis and to determine the role dispersal timing plays in this response we conducted a field experiment using crustacean zooplankton communities in a subarctic region that is expected to be highly impacted by climate change - Churchill, Canada. Three experiments were conducted where nutrients, salt, and dispersal were manipulated. The three experiments differed in time-since-disturbance that the dispersers were added. We found that coarse measures of diversity (i.e. species richness, evenness, and Shannon-Weiner diversity) were generally resistant to large magnitude disturbances, and that dispersal had the most impact on diversity when dispersers were added shortly after disturbance. Ecosystem functioning (chl-a) was degraded in disturbed communities, but dispersal recovered ecosystem function to undisturbed levels. This spatial insurance for ecosystem function was mediated through changes in community composition and the relative abundance of functional groups. Results suggest that regional diversity and habitat connectivity will be important in the future to maintain ecosystem function by introducing functionally redundant species to promote compensatory dynamics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from R.V. MADIDIHANG and Other Platforms from 19780722 to 19780726 (NODC Accession 9700129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, temperature, hydrochemical, and other data were collected from bottle and nets casts in the South China Sea from the R/V Madidihang and other platforms...

  7. rvärmning av tilluften med återvunnen värme

    OpenAIRE

    Kader, Aza; Yousif, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Idag är det vanligt för fjärrvärmebolagen att basera sin taxa på effektbehovet för fastigheten. Effekttaxeringsmetod skiljer sig mellan olika fjärrvärmeleverantörer. Dock är toppeffektbehoven för fastigheterna en gemensam nämnare för bolagen när debiteringsunderlag beslutas.I Sverige finns det idag befintlig teknik som sänker effektbehovet genom förvärmning av uteluft, vilket reducerar frostbildning i värmeväxlaren och förbättras dess verkningsgrad. Denna teknik utnyttjar geoenergi som värmek...

  8. Regional, age and respiratory-secretion-specific prevalence of respiratory viruses associated with asthma exacerbation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Xu, Yan-Jun; Guan, Wei-Jie; Lin, Li-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations. We also examined the prevalence of viral infection stratified by age, geographic region, type of respiratory secretion, and detection method. Sixty articles were included in the final analysis. During asthma exacerbations, the mean prevalence of AdV, BoV, CoV, CMV, EnV, HSV, IfV, MpV, PiV, RV and RSV was 3.8%, 6.9%, 8.4%, 7.2%, 10.1%, 12.3%, 10.0%, 5.3%, 5.6%, 42.1% and 13.6%, respectively. EnV, MPV, RV and RSV were more prevalent in children, whereas AdV, BoV, CoV, IfV and PiV were more frequently present in adults. RV was the major virus detected globally, except in Africa. RV could be detected in both the upper and lower airway. Polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive method for detecting viral infection. Our findings indicate the need to develop prophylactic polyvalent or polyvirus (including RV, EnV, IfV and RSV) vaccines that produce herd immunity and reduce the healthcare burden associated with virus-induced asthma exacerbations.

  9. Identification of two proteins that interact with the Erp virulence factor from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using the bacterial two-hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldi Angel A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exported repetitive protein (erp gene encodes a secreted 36-kDa protein with a central domain containing several proline-glycine-leucine-threonine-serine (PGLTS repeats. It has been demonstrated that erp is a virulence-associated factor since the disruption of this gene impairs the growth of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. Results In order to elucidate the function of Erp we searched for Erp-binding proteins from M. tuberculosis by using a bacterial two-hybrid system. Our results indicate that Erp interacts specifically with two putative membrane proteins, Rv1417 and Rv2617c. Further analysis revealed that the latter two interact with each other, indicating that Rv1417, Rv2617c and Erp are connected through multiple interactions. While Rv1417 is disseminated in several Actinomycetales genera, orthologues of Rv2617c are exclusively present in members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC. The central and amino-terminal regions of Erp were determined to be involved in the interaction with Rv1417 and Rv2627c. Erp forms from Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium leprae were not able to interact with Rv2617c in two-hybrid assays. Immunolocalization experiments showed that Rv1417 and Rv2617c are found on the cell membrane and Erp on the bacterial cell wall. Finally, comparative genomics and expression studies revealed a possible role of Rv1417 in riboflavin metabolism. Conclusion We identified interactive partners of Erp, an M. tuberculosis protein involved in virulence, which will be the focus of future investigation to decipher the function of the Erp family protein.

  10. A meta-analysis for the echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular structure and function in ARVC: a Study by the Research and Audit Committee of the British Society of Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ARVC is an inherited pathology that can increase the risk of sudden death. Current task force criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis do not include new, regional assessment tools which may be relevant in a phenotypically diverse disease. We adopted a systematic review and meta-analysis approach to highlight echocardiographic indices that differentiated ARVC patients and healthy controls. Methods: Data was extracted and analysed from prospective trials that employed a case–control design meeting strict inclusion and exclusion as well as a priori quality criteria. Structural indices included proximal RV outflow tract (RVOT1 and RV diastolic area (RVDarea. Functional indices included RV fractional area change (RVFAC, tricuspid annular systolic excursion (TAPSE, peak systolic and early diastolic myocardial velocities (S′ and E′, respectively and myocardial strain. Results: Patients with ARVC had larger RVOT1 (mean ± s.d.; 34 vs 28 mm, P < 0.001 and RVDarea (23 vs 18 cm2, P < 0.001 compared with healthy controls. ARVC patients also had lower RVFAC (38 vs 46%, P < 0.001, TAPSE (17 vs 23 mm, P < 0.001, S′ (9 vs 12 cm/s, P < 0.001, E′ (9 vs 13 cm/s, P < 0.001 and myocardial strain (−17 vs −30%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The data from this meta-analysis support current task force criteria for the diagnosis of ARVC. In addition, other RV measures that reflect the complex geometry and function in ARVC clearly differentiated between ARVC and healthy controls and may provide additional diagnostic and management value. We recommend that future working groups consider this data when proposing new/revised criteria for the echocardiographic diagnosis of ARVC.

  11. Identification of Flood Reactivity Regions via the Functional Clustering of Hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Manuela I.; Viviroli, Daniel; Furrer, Reinhard; Seibert, Jan; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2018-03-01

    Flood hydrograph shapes contain valuable information on the flood-generation mechanisms of a catchment. To make good use of this information, we express flood hydrograph shapes as continuous functions using a functional data approach. We propose a clustering approach based on functional data for flood hydrograph shapes to identify a set of representative hydrograph shapes on a catchment scale and use these catchment-specific sets of representative hydrographs to establish regions of catchments with similar flood reactivity on a regional scale. We applied this approach to flood samples of 163 medium-size Swiss catchments. The results indicate that three representative hydrograph shapes sufficiently describe the hydrograph shape variability within a catchment and therefore can be used as a proxy for the flood behavior of a catchment. These catchment-specific sets of three hydrographs were used to group the catchments into three reactivity regions of similar flood behavior. These regions were not only characterized by similar hydrograph shapes and reactivity but also by event magnitudes and triggering event conditions. We envision these regions to be useful in regionalization studies, regional flood frequency analyses, and to allow for the construction of synthetic design hydrographs in ungauged catchments. The clustering approach based on functional data which establish these regions is very flexible and has the potential to be extended to other geographical regions or toward the use in climate impact studies.

  12. Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: The Role of Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim Corrêa, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Fernanda Brito; Barbosa, Marcia M; Barbosa, Jose Augusto A; Carvalho, Taís Soares; Barreto, Michele Campos; Campos, Frederico Thadeu A F; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure with abnormal right ventricular (RV) pressure overload that may alter left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of RV pressure overload on LV function in PAH patients using two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking strain. The study enrolled 37 group 1 PAH patients and 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. LV longitudinal and radial 2D strains were measured with and without including the ventricular septum. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were also obtained in patients with PAH. The mean age of patients was 46.4 ± 14.8 years, 76% women, and 16 patients (43%) had schistosomiasis. Sixteen patients (43%) were in WHO class III or IV under specific treatment for PAH. The overall 6MWT distance was 441 meters, and the BNP levels were 80 pg/mL. Patients with PAH more commonly presented with LV diastolic dysfunction and impairment of RV function when compared to controls. LV global longitudinal and radial strains were lower in patients than in controls (-17.9 ± 2.8 vs. -20.5 ± 1.9; P < 0.001 and 30.8 ± 10.5 vs. 49.8 ± 15.4; P < 0.001, respectively). After excluding septal values, LV longitudinal and radial strains remained lower in patients than in controls. The independent factors associated with global LV longitudinal strain were LV ejection fraction, RV fractional area change, and tricuspid annular systolic motion. This study showed impaired LV contractility in patients with PAH assessed by speckle tracking strain, irrespective of ventricular septal involvement. Global LV longitudinal strain was associated independently with RV fractional area change and tricuspid annular systolic motion, after adjustment for LV ejection fraction. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, B.; Lindhardt, T.B.; Acampa, W.

    2008-01-01

    radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes...

  14. Multimodal actions of the phytochemical sulforaphane suppress both AR and AR-V7 in 22Rv1 cells: Advocating a potent pharmaceutical combination against castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Namrata; Kim, Hogyoung; Chandra, Partha K; Talwar, Sudha; Sharma, Pankaj; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Sikka, Suresh C; Mondal, Debasis

    2017-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cells expressing full-length androgen receptor (AR-FL) are susceptible to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). However, outgrowth of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) can occur due to the expression of constitutively active (ligand-independent) AR splice variants, particularly AR-V7. We previously demonstrated that sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate phytochemical, can decrease AR-FL levels in the PCa cell lines, LNCaP and C4-2B. Here, we examined the efficacy of SFN in targeting both AR-FL and AR-V7 in the CRPC cell line, CWR22Rv1 (22Rv1). MTT cell viability, wound-heal assay, and colony forming unit (CFU) measurements revealed that 22Rv1 cells are resistant to the anti-androgen, enzalutamide (ENZ). However, co-exposure to SFN sensitized these cells to the potent anticancer effects of ENZ (PAR-FL and AR-V7 levels, and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) depicted decreased AR in both cytoplasm and nucleus with SFN treatment. SFN increased both ubiquitination and proteasomal activity in 22Rv1 cells. Studies using a protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide) or a proteasomal inhibitor (MG132) indicated that SFN increases both ubiquitin-mediated aggregation and subsequent proteasomal-degradation of AR proteins. Previous studies reported that SFN inhibits the chaperone activity of heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and induces the nuclear factor erythroid-2-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor. Therefore, we investigated whether the Hsp90 inhibitor, ganetespib (G) or the Nrf2 activator, bardoxolone methyl (BM) can similarly suppress AR levels in 22Rv1 cells. Low doses of G and BM, alone or in combination, decreased both AR-FL and AR-V7 levels, and combined exposure to G+BM sensitized 22Rv1 cells to ENZ. Therefore, adjunct treatment with the phytochemical SFN or a safe pharmaceutical combination of G+BM may be effective against CRPC cells, especially those expressing AR-V7.

  15. Research Vessel R/V Sikuliaq: A New Asset For The UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    The research vessel R/V Sikuliaq is currently being constructed on behalf of the NSF to support future scientific studies in high latitude waters. The 261 foot global class vessel will be capable of breaking 2.5 foot thick ice at 2 knots with an endurance of 45 days at sea and cruising at 11 knots. The R/V Sikuliaq will have a beam of 52 feet and a draft of 18.9 feet that will carry 26 scientists and a crew of 20. Berthing accommodations are a combination of single/double rooms with one stateroom and the common areas of the vessel are designed for ADA access and accommodations. The total laboratory space (main, analytical, electronics, wet, upper, and Baltic room will be 2100 square feet. The 4360 square foot working deck that is approximately 70 feet in length will accommodate 2-4 vans and multiple science operations. The vessel design strives to have the lowest possible environmental impact, including a low underwater-radiated noise signature. The science systems are prescribed to be state-of-the-art for bottom mapping, over-the-side "hands free" gear handling, broad band communications and scientific walk-in freezer and environmental chamber. More details and photos of the construction progress are available on the website at www.sfos.uaf.edu/arrv. The shipyard schedule has a launch date of October 2012 and delivery to the University of Alaska Fairbanks in July 2013. Scientific operations following trials and testing is planned to start in January 2014. Questions about the science systems or vessel capabilities should be directed to Terry Whitledge (terry@ims.uaf.edu).;

  16. ASIAEX, East China Sea, Cruise Report of the Activities of the R/V Melville, 29 May to 9 June 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahl, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Science teams from APL-UW, MPL-SIO, and URI deployed a constellation of instruments from the R/V Melville to measure acoustic propagation and scattering over a broad frequency range (100 Hz to 20 kHz...

  17. Study of regional lung function with xenon 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, D.; Wagner, R.; Germain, M.; Chardon, G.

    1975-01-01

    Exploration of regional lung function includes study of the closed circuit perfusion and ventilation respectively by injection and inhalation of xenon 133. The radiation is measured across the chest using 4 fixed scintillation counters, placed opposite the subject's back, 2 per lung field. Theoretical regional values using 15 normal young subjects are determined. Three cases justified the practical interest of this method. The percentage of variation for the parameters studied was about 10%. The method proved very useful for the clinician to whom it provides a numerical assessment of regional ventilation and perfusion [fr

  18. Deep down: Isopod biodiversity of the Kuril-Kamchatka abyssal area including a comparison with data of previous expeditions of the RV Vityaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Golovan, Olga A.; Brenke, Nils; Riehl, Torben; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    This study focusses on the isopod biodiversity in the abyssal area southeast of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. The KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition in summer 2012 collected altogether 10,169 isopods from 21 C-EBS hauls at 12 stations, belonging to 19 families, 73 genera and 207 species from the depth range between 4830 and 5780 m. Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae were the most abundant and species-rich families, Eurycope (Munnopsidae) and Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) the most abundant genera. An nMDS plot on the basis of the Cosine similarity index reveals no clear pattern and all hauls to be different from each other. We compared our data with 12 stations from the same depth range sampled by the Russian RV Vityaz about 50 years ago and were able to identify several species collected by the RV Vityaz. The identified isopod species belonged to the families Munnopsidae, Macrostylidae, Haploniscidae, Desmosomatidae, Ischnomesidae and Nannoniscidae. Of the 333 individuals collected by the RV Vityaz, Haploniscidae and Munnopsidae were the most abundant families. Desmosomatidae were only represented by rarefaction curves of both the KuramBio and the Vityaz samples are not approaching an asymptote, indicating that even after repeated sampling just a part of the local fauna has been recorded so far.

  19. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N; Obradovic, Zoran

    2007-05-01

    Identifying relationships between function, amino acid sequence, and protein structure represents a major challenge. In this study, we propose a bioinformatics approach that identifies functional keywords in the Swiss-Prot database that correlate with intrinsic disorder. A statistical evaluation is employed to rank the significance of these correlations. Protein sequence data redundancy and the relationship between protein length and protein structure were taken into consideration to ensure the quality of the statistical inferences. Over 200,000 proteins from the Swiss-Prot database were analyzed using this approach. The predictions of intrinsic disorder were carried out using PONDR VL3E predictor of long disordered regions that achieves an accuracy of above 86%. Overall, out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords that were each associated with at least 20 proteins, 238 were found to be strongly positively correlated with predicted long intrinsically disordered regions, whereas 302 were strongly negatively correlated with such regions. The remaining 170 keywords were ambiguous without strong positive or negative correlation with the disorder predictions. These functions cover a large variety of biological activities and imply that disordered regions are characterized by a wide functional repertoire. Our results agree well with literature findings, as we were able to find at least one illustrative example of functional disorder or order shown experimentally for the vast majority of keywords showing the strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder. This work opens a series of three papers, which enriches the current view of protein structure-function relationships, especially with regards to functionalities of intrinsically disordered proteins, and provides researchers with a novel tool that could be used to improve the understanding of the relationships between protein structure and function. The first paper of the series describes our

  20. One hundred twenty years of koala retrovirus evolution determined from museum skins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Ishida, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Although endogenous retroviruses are common across vertebrate genomes, the koala retrovirus (KoRV) is the only retrovirus known to be currently invading the germ line of its host. KoRV is believed to have first infected koalas in northern Australia less than two centuries ago. We examined Ko......RV in 28 koala museum skins collected in the late 19th and 20th centuries and deep sequenced the complete proviral envelope region from five northern Australian specimens. Strikingly, KoRV env sequences were conserved among koalas collected over the span of a century, and two functional motifs that affect...... viral infectivity were fixed across the museum koala specimens. We detected only 20 env polymorphisms among the koalas, likely representing derived mutations subject to purifying selection. Among northern Australian koalas, KoRV was already ubiquitous by the late 19th century, suggesting that Ko...

  1. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  2. CTD data from R/V Kilo Moana Cruise KM1123 during 2011-08 north of Hawaii (NODC Accession 0125443)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profiles were taken with a Sea-Bird SBE-911 plus CTD from the R/V Kilo Moana on cruise KM1123 2011-08-11 to 2011-08-25 in the vicinity of Station ALOHA, the Hawaii...

  3. Determination of GMPE functional form for an active region with limited strong motion data: application to the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Ketan; Anbazhagan, P.

    2018-01-01

    Advancement in the seismic networks results in formulation of different functional forms for developing any new ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for a region. Till date, various guidelines and tools are available for selecting a suitable GMPE for any seismic study area. However, these methods are efficient in quantifying the GMPE but not for determining a proper functional form and capturing the epistemic uncertainty associated with selection of GMPE. In this study, the compatibility of the recent available functional forms for the active region is tested for distance and magnitude scaling. Analysis is carried out by determining the residuals using the recorded and the predicted spectral acceleration values at different periods. Mixed effect regressions are performed on the calculated residuals for determining the intra- and interevent residuals. Additionally, spatial correlation is used in mixed effect regression by changing its likelihood function. Distance scaling and magnitude scaling are respectively examined by studying the trends of intraevent residuals with distance and the trend of the event term with magnitude. Further, these trends are statistically studied for a respective functional form of a ground motion. Additionally, genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method are used respectively for calculating the hinge point and standard error for magnitude and distance scaling for a newly determined functional form. The whole procedure is applied and tested for the available strong motion data for the Himalayan region. The functional form used for testing are five Himalayan GMPEs, five GMPEs developed under NGA-West 2 project, two from Pan-European, and one from Japan region. It is observed that bilinear functional form with magnitude and distance hinged at 6.5 M w and 300 km respectively is suitable for the Himalayan region. Finally, a new regression coefficient for peak ground acceleration for a suitable functional form that governs the attenuation

  4. Peculiarities of component interaction in {l_brace}Gd, Er{r_brace}-V-Sn Ternary systems at 870 K and crystal structure of RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} stannides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, L., E-mail: romakal@franko.lviv.ua [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Stadnyk, Yu. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, V.V. [Department of Materials Engineering and Applied Physics, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Demchenko, P.; Stadnyshyn, M.; Konyk, M. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-09-08

    Highlights: > {l_brace}Gd, Er{r_brace}-V-Sn ternary systems at 870 K are characterized by formation of stannides with general compositions RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}. > Isostructural RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} compounds were also found with Y, Dy, Ho, Tm, and Lu. > The crystal structure of RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} compounds was determined by powder diffraction method. > Structural analysis showed that RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} compounds (R = Gd, Dy-Tm, Lu) are disordered; YV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} is characterized by structure ordering. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Gd-V-Sn and Er-V-Sn ternary systems were studied at 870 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. Both Gd-V-Sn and Er-V-Sn systems are characterized by formation of one ternary compound at investigated temperature, with stoichiometry RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} (SmMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}-type, space group P6/mmm, a = 0.55322(3) nm, c = 0.91949(7) nm for Gd, a = 0.55191(2) nm, c = 0.91869(8) nm for Er). Solubility of the third component in the binary compounds was not observed. Compounds with the SmMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}-type were also found with Dy, Ho, Tm, and Lu, while YV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} compound crystallizes in HfFe{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} structure type. All investigated compounds are the first ternary stannides with rare earth elements and vanadium.

  5. Impaired right ventricular contractile function in childhood obesity and its association with right and left ventricular changes: a cine DENSE cardiac magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Linyuan; Pulenthiran, Arichanah; Nevius, Christopher D; Mejia-Spiegeler, Abba; Suever, Jonathan D; Wehner, Gregory J; Kirchner, H Lester; Haggerty, Christopher M; Fornwalt, Brandon K

    2017-06-28

    Pediatric obesity is a growing public health problem, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Left ventricular (LV) remodeling (increased myocardial mass and thickness) and contractile dysfunction (impaired longitudinal strain) have been documented in obese children, but little attention has been paid to the right ventricle (RV). We hypothesized that obese/overweight children would have evidence of RV remodeling and contractile dysfunction. One hundred and three children, ages 8-18 years, were prospectively recruited and underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), including both standard cine imaging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) imaging, which allowed for quantification of RV geometry and function/mechanics. RV free wall longitudinal strain was quantified from the end-systolic four-chamber DENSE image. Linear regression was used to quantify correlations of RV strain with LV strain and measurements of body composition (adjusted for sex and height). Analysis of variance was used to study the relationship between RV strain and LV remodeling types (concentric remodeling, eccentric/concentric hypertrophy). The RV was sufficiently visualized with DENSE in 70 (68%) subjects, comprising 36 healthy weight (13.6 ± 2.7 years) and 34 (12.1 ± 2.9 years) obese/overweight children. Obese/overweight children had a 22% larger RV mass index (8.2 ± 0.9 vs 6.7 ± 1.1 g/m 2.7 , p right ventricles in obese/overweight children.

  6. Revisiting host preference in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: experimental infection shows M. tuberculosis H37Rv to be avirulent in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam O Whelan

    Full Text Available Experiments in the late 19th century sought to define the host specificity of the causative agents of tuberculosis in mammals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the human tubercle bacillus, was independently shown by Smith, Koch, and von Behring to be avirulent in cattle. This finding was erroneously used by Koch to argue the converse, namely that Mycobacterium bovis, the agent of bovine tuberculosis, was avirulent for man, a view that was subsequently discredited. However, reports in the literature of M. tuberculosis isolation from cattle with tuberculoid lesions suggests that the virulence of M. tuberculosis for cattle needs to be readdressed. We used an experimental bovine infection model to test the virulence of well-characterized strains of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis in cattle, choosing the genome-sequenced strains M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. bovis 2122/97. Cattle were infected with approximately 10(6 CFU of M. tuberculosis H37Rv or M. bovis 2122/97, and sacrificed 17 weeks post-infection. IFN-gamma and tuberculin skin tests indicated that both M. bovis 2122 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were equally infective and triggered strong cell-mediated immune responses, albeit with some indication of differential antigen-specific responses. Postmortem examination revealed that while M. bovis 2122/97-infected animals all showed clear pathology indicative of bovine tuberculosis, the M. tuberculosis-infected animals showed no pathology. Culturing of infected tissues revealed that M. tuberculosis was able to persist in the majority of animals, albeit at relatively low bacillary loads. In revisiting the early work on host preference across the M. tuberculosis complex, we have shown M. tuberculosis H37Rv is avirulent for cattle, and propose that the immune status of the animal, or genotype of the infecting bacillus, may have significant bearing on the virulence of a strain for cattle. This work will serve as a baseline for future studies into the genetic basis

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE44 (Rv2770c) is involved in response to multiple stresses and promotes the macrophage expression of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 via the p38, ERK, and NF-κB signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaoxiao; Zhang, Chenhui; Zhou, Mingliang; Li, Qiming; Li, Hui; Duan, Wei; Li, Xue; Feng, Yonghong; Xie, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a formidable threat to global public health. The successful intracellular persistence of M. tuberculosis significantly contributes to the intractability of tuberculosis. Proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) are mycobacterial exclusive protein families that widely reported to be involved in the bacterial virulence, physiology and interaction with host. Rv2770c (PPE44), a predicted virulence factor, was up-regulated upon the infected guinea pig lungs. To investigate the role of Rv2770c, we heterologously expressed the PPE44 in the nonpathogenic fast-growing M. smegmatis strain. Subcellular location analysis demonstrated that Rv2770c is a cell wall associated protein, suggestive of a potential candidate involved in host-pathogen interaction. The Rv2770c can enhance M. smegmatis survival within macrophages and under stresses such as H 2 O 2 , SDS, diamide exposure, and low pH condition. M. smegmatis expressing Rv2770c is more virulent as testified by the increased death of macrophages and the increased expression of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and interlukin-12p40 (IL-12p40). Moreover, Rv2770c altered the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12p40 of macrophages via NF-κB, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK axis. Taken together, this study implicated that Rv2770c was a virulent factor actively engaged in the interaction with host macrophage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. [A process of aquatic ecological function regionalization: The dual tree framework and conceptual model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu Hai; Wu, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecological regionalization and aquatic ecological function regionalization are the basis of water environmental management of a river basin and rational utilization of an aquatic ecosystem, and have been studied in China for more than ten years. Regarding the common problems in this field, the relationship between aquatic ecological regionalization and aquatic ecological function regionalization was discussed in this study by systematic analysis of the aquatic ecological zoning and the types of aquatic ecological function. Based on the dual tree structure, we put forward the RFCH process and the diamond conceptual model. Taking Liaohe River basin as an example and referring to the results of existing regionalization studies, we classified the aquatic ecological function regions based on three-class aquatic ecological regionalization. This study provided a process framework for aquatic ecological function regionalization of a river basin.

  9. Molecular and Functional Properties of Regional Astrocytes in the Adult Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Lydie; Chiang, Ming Sum R; Higashimori, Haruki; Shoneye, Temitope; Iyer, Lakshmanan K; Yelick, Julia; Tai, Albert; Yang, Yongjie

    2017-09-06

    The molecular signature and functional properties of astroglial subtypes in the adult CNS remain largely undefined. By using translational ribosome affinity purification followed by RNA-Seq, we profiled astroglial ribosome-associated (presumably translating) mRNAs in major cortical and subcortical brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and hypothalamus) of BAC aldh1l1 -translational ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) mice (both sexes). We found that the expression of astroglial translating mRNAs closely follows the dorsoventral axis, especially from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus posteriorly. This region-specific expression pattern of genes, such as synaptogenic modulator sparc and transcriptional factors ( emx2 , lhx2 , and hopx ), was validated by qRT-PCR and immunostaining in brain sections. Interestingly, cortical or subcortical astrocytes selectively promote neurite growth and synaptic activity of neurons only from the same region in mismatched cocultures, exhibiting region-matched astrocyte to neuron communication. Overall, these results generated new molecular signature of astrocyte types in the adult CNS, providing insights into their origin and functional diversity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We investigated the in vivo molecular and functional heterogeneity of astrocytes inter-regionally from adult brain. Our results showed that the expression pattern of ribosome-associated mRNA profiles in astrocytes closely follows the dorsoventral axis, especially posteriorly from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus. In line with this, our functional results further demonstrated region-selective roles of cortical and subcortical astrocytes in regulating cortical or subcortical neuronal synaptogenesis and maturation. These in vivo studies provide a previously uncharacterized and important molecular atlas for exploring region-specific astroglial functions. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378706-12$15.00/0.

  10. Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular functions in healthy subjects who migrated from the sea level to a moderate altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arısoy, Arif; Topçu, Selim; Demirelli, Selami; Altunkaş, Fatih; Karayakalı, Metin; Çelik, Ataç; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Aksakal, Enbiya; Sevimli, Serdar; Gürlertop, Hanefi Yekta

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate right ventricle (RV) functions using echocardiography in healthy subjects who migrated from the sea level to moderate altitude (1890 m). The prospective observational in this study population consisted of 33 healthy subjects (23 men; mean age 20.4±3.2 years) who migrated from the sea level to a moderate altitude (Erzurum city centre, 1890 m above sea level) for long-term stay. Subjects underwent echocardiographic evaluation within the first 48 h of exposure to the moderate altitude and at the sixth month of arrival. Conventional echocardiographic parameters such as RV sizes and areas, systolic, and diastolic functional indices [fractional area change (FAC), tricuspid flow velocities, myocardial performance index (MPI), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)] were obtained. Systolic (S) and diastolic (E', A') velocities were acquired from the apical fourchamber view using tissue Doppler imaging. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student's t-test, Wilcoxon test, and chi-square test were used in this study. There were no significant changes in RV size, FAC, MPI, TAPSE, inferior inspiratory vena cava collapse, tricuspid E velocity, and tricuspid annulus E' velocity. Compared with the baseline, there was a significant increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (p=0.001); RV end systolic area (p=0.014); right atrial end diastolic area (p=0.021); tricuspid A velocity (p=0.013); tricuspid annulus S and A' velocity (p=0.031 and p=0.006, respectively); and RV free wall S, E', and A' velocity (p=0.007, pa significant decrease in tricuspid E/A ratio (1.61±0.3 vs. 1.45±0.2, p=0.038) and tricuspid annulus E'/A' ratio (1.52±0.5 vs. 1.23±0.4, p=0.002) at the sixth month. Our study revealed that right ventricular diastolic function was altered while the systolic function was preserved in healthy subjects who migrated from the sea level to a moderate altitude.

  11. ESSENCE, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE REGIONAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Milenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific themes of the article is relevant, as in the domestic and foreign economic literature, the term "financial system" does not comply with the fundamental theory of systems in which the system views revealed as a set of interrelated and interacting elements in accordance with the set to achieve the goal. Each of the elements of multi-level financial system has its own organizational structure, consisting of institutions and organizations within the jurisdiction of the entity government. In the article the author's interpretation of the concepts of "institutional framework," "organizational structure" of the regional financial system, defined the task of the financial system was to create rules and regulations of its operation, set out the basic functions of the institutions and organizations of the regional financial system, analyzes the external communication of the financial system, the implementation of which is one of the basic conditions for the effective functioning of the financial system in the region due to its inclusion in the federal and international financial sector. The contribution of the author in the development of the theme of the article is to specify and clarify the concepts of "the financial system", "institutional and organizational structure of the regional financial system," the development of methodological approaches to the formulation and use of methods of solving the institutional and organizational problems of the financial system in the region, the rationalization of the rules and regulations it current operation and future development, the definition of the composition of the basic functions that are adequate specialization and features of the institutes and organizations of the regional financial system.

  12. Evaluation of regional pulmonary function using short-lived radioactive gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitaka, Tsuyoshi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the application of short-lived radioactive gases for the assessment of regional pulmonary function, particularly diffusing capacity, in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial lung disease. Short-lived radioactive gases including C[sup 15]O-O, [sup 11]CO[sub 2], and [sup 11]CO were produced using a baby cyclotron for medical care. Using a [gamma] camera, breath-holding images were taken serially after inhalation of the radioactive gases. The first exponential component of time-activity curve was analyzed to obtain clearance rate, which was expressed as exponential coefficient ([lambda]). Moreover, we created a functional map which was calculated by the clearance rate of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] as a percentage. Regional clearance rates of each gas in normal volunteers revealed higher values in the lower lung field than in the upper lung field. Whole lung clearance rates ([lambda]) of each gas in patients correlated well with D[sub LCO]/V[sub A], which indicates diffusing capacity. The functional map showed decreased regional diffusion closely matched to the perfusion defects seen by [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion images. However, in certain interstitial lung diseases decreased clearance of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] was observed in regions having no evidence of perfusion defects. We concluded the functional map display of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] is useful indicator of the regional diffusing capacity of both the normal and diseased lung, and that it is beneficial to analyze the pathogenic physiology of diseased lungs by making a comparison between the functional map of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] and [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion images. (author).

  13. Budgetary Function Of Parliament In Implementing The Regional Budget Revenue And Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idhamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find and analyze the nature of budgetary functions by the House of Representatives. For find and analyze the implementation of budgetary functions by the Regional Representatives Council. The ideal model of future budgetary functions to achieve the objectives of the research methods of research conducted qualitatively analyze qualitative data were processed and analyzed with empirical normative approach regarding the existing problems of this writing. The results showed Regarding the implementation of the rights of the Budget as well as the limitation of the right budget is essentially located at the focus of the regional council to judge the legitimacy or expediency reasons of public towards the Regional Budget than technical assessment. Thus the Regional Representatives Council focusing on local budgetary strategy appropriate to peoples needs not on the technical budget figures. Implementation of budgetary function by the regional council where the implementation of the budget function must begin with the elaboration of various policies set out in the form of law in the form of work programs of government and development. As a suggestion from the author should importance of Central Sulawesi province put through coordination with regions that have implemented e-budgeting for the management of the Regional Budget of Central Sulawesi using e-budgeting system in order to manage the manufacturing budget.

  14. TRANSFER-FUNCTIONS OF A LINEARIZED MULTI-REGION REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Thomas J.

    1963-09-15

    The development of the transfer functions for a linearized multi-region reactor is studied, and an illustration is made of application of the corresponding theory by a numerical illustrative example. (auth)

  15. NT-pro-BNP levels in patients with acute pulmonary embolism are correlated to right but not left ventricular volume and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Sharif M; Klok, Frederikus A; van der Bijl, Noortje; de Roos, Albert; Kroft, Lucia J M; Huisman, Menno V

    2012-08-01

    N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-pro-BNP) is primarily secreted by left ventricular (LV) stretch and wall tension. Notably, NT-pro-BNP is a prognostic marker in acute pulmonary embolism (PE), which primarily stresses the right ventricle (RV). We sought to evaluate the relative contribution of the RV to NT-pro-BNP levels during PE. A post-hoc analysis of an observational prospective outcome study in 113 consecutive patients with computed tomography (CT)-proven PE and 226 patients in whom PE was clinically suspected but ruled out by CT. In all patients RV and LV function was established by assessing ECG-triggered-CT measured ventricular end-diastolic-volumes and ejection fraction (EF). NT-pro-BNP was assessed in all patients. The correlation between RV and LV end-diastolic-volumes and systolic function was evaluated by multiple linear regression corrected for known confounders. In the PE cohort increased RVEF (β-coefficient (95% confidence interval [CI]) -0.044 (± -0.011); p<0.001) and higher RV end-diastolic-volume (β-coefficient 0.005 (± 0.001); p<0.001) were significantly correlated to NT-pro-BNP, while no correlation was found with LVEF (β-coefficient 0.005 (± 0.010); p=0.587) and LV end-diastolic-volume (β-coefficient -0.003 (± 0.002); p=0.074). In control patients without PE we found a strong correlation between NT-pro-BNP levels and LVEF (β-coefficient -0.027 (± -0.006); p<0.001) although not LV end-diastolic-volume (β-coefficient 0.001 (± 0.001); p=0.418). RVEF (β-coefficient -0.002 (± -0.006); p=0.802) and RV end-diastolic-volume (β-coefficient <0.001 (± 0.001); p=0.730) were not correlated in patients without PE. In PE patients, lower RVEF and higher RV end-diastolic-volume were significantly correlated to NT-pro-BNP levels as compared to control patients without PE. These observations provide pathophysiological ground for the well-known prognostic value of NT-pro-BNP in acute PE.

  16. Overview of errors in the reference sequence and annotation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and variation amongst its isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Kö ser, Claudio U.; Niemann, Stefan; Summers, David K.; Archer, John A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Since its publication in 1998, the genome sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain has acted as the cornerstone for the study of tuberculosis. In this review we address some of the practical aspects that have come to light

  17. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. I. Biological Processes and Functions of Proteins with Long Disordered Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Obradovic, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Identifying relationships between function, amino acid sequence and protein structure represents a major challenge. In this study we propose a bioinformatics approach that identifies functional keywords in the Swiss-Prot database that correlate with intrinsic disorder. A statistical evaluation is employed to rank the significance of these correlations. Protein sequence data redundancy and the relationship between protein length and protein structure were taken into consideration to ensure the quality of the statistical inferences. Over 200,000 proteins from Swiss-Prot database were analyzed using this approach. The predictions of intrinsic disorder were carried out using PONDR VL3E predictor of long disordered regions that achieves an accuracy of above 86%. Overall, out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords that were each associated with at least 20 proteins, 238 were found to be strongly positively correlated with predicted long intrinsically disordered regions, whereas 302 were strongly negatively correlated with such regions. The remaining 170 keywords were ambiguous without strong positive or negative correlation with the disorder predictions. These functions cover a large variety of biological activities and imply that disordered regions are characterized by a wide functional repertoire. Our results agree well with literature findings, as we were able to find at least one illustrative example of functional disorder or order shown experimentally for the vast majority of keywords showing the strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder. This work opens a series of three papers, which enriches the current view of protein structure-function relationships, especially with regards to functionalities of intrinsically disordered proteins and provides researchers with a novel tool that could be used to improve the understanding of the relationships between protein structure and function. The first paper of the series describes our statistical

  18. 2002 EM1002 and EM120 Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise R/V Kilo Moana KM-02-06 - Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM1002 and EM120 multibeam Data were collected in October/November 2002 aboard R/V Kilo Moana between Kauai Island and Lisianski Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  19. RV Fractional Area Change and TAPSE as Predictors of Severe Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Pulmonary Hypertension: A CMR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoette, Susana; Creuzé, Nicolas; Günther, Sven; Montani, David; Savale, Laurent; Jaïs, Xavier; Parent, Florence; Sitbon, Olivier; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Simonneau, Gerald; Humbert, Marc; Souza, Rogerio; Chemla, Denis

    2018-04-01

    The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) is a surrogate marker of right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its measurement is complicated and time consuming. The tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) measures only the longitudinal component of RV contraction while the right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) takes into account both the longitudinal and the transversal components. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between RVEF, RVFAC, and TAPSE according to hemodynamic severity in two groups of patients with PH: pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Fifty-four patients with PAH (n = 15) and CTEPH (n = 39) underwent right heart catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). The ventricular volumes and areas, TAPSE, and eccentricity index were measured. The RVFAC was more strongly correlated with the RVEF (r = 0.81, p good index to estimate RVEF in PH patients; even better than the TAPSE in patients with more severe hemodynamic profile, possibly for including the transversal component of right ventricular function in its measurement. Furthermore, RVFAC performance was similar in the two PH groups (PAH and CTEPH).

  20. Proarrhythmic remodelling of the right ventricle in a porcine model of repaired tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, David; Dubes, Virginie; Roubertie, François; Gilbert, Stephen H; Charron, Sabine; Constantin, Marion; Elbes, Delphine; Vieillot, Delphine; Quesson, Bruno; Cochet, Hubert; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Rooryck, Caroline; Bordachar, Pierre; Thambo, Jean-Benoit; Bernus, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Objective The growing adult population with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is at risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We sought to investigate the contribution of right ventricular (RV) structural and electrophysiological remodelling to arrhythmia generation in a preclinical animal model of repaired TOF (rTOF). Methods and results Pigs mimicking rTOF underwent cardiac MRI functional characterisation and presented with pulmonary regurgitation, RV hypertrophy, dilatation and dysfunction compared with Sham-operated animals (Sham). Optical mapping of rTOF RV-perfused wedges revealed a significant prolongation of RV activation time with slower conduction velocities and regions of conduction slowing well beyond the surgical scar. A reduced protein expression and lateralisation of Connexin-43 were identified in rTOF RVs. A remodelling of extracellular matrix-related gene expression and an increase in collagen content that correlated with prolonged RV activation time were also found in these animals. RV action potential duration (APD) was prolonged in the epicardial anterior region at early and late repolarisation level, thus contributing to a greater APD heterogeneity and to altered transmural and anteroposterior APD gradients in rTOF RVs. APD remodelling involved changes in Kv4.3 and MiRP1 expression. Spontaneous arrhythmias were more frequent in rTOF wedges and more complex in the anterior than in the posterior RV. Conclusion Significant remodelling of RV conduction and repolarisation properties was found in pigs with rTOF. This remodelling generates a proarrhythmic substrate likely to facilitate re-entries and to contribute to sudden cardiac death in patients with rTOF. PMID:28051771

  1. Functional MRI neurofeedback training on connectivity between two regions induces long-lasting changes in intrinsic functional network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda eMegumi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor or perceptual learning is known to influence functional connectivity between brain regions and induce short-term changes in the intrinsic functional networks revealed as correlations in slow blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal fluctuations. However, no cause-and-effect relationship has been elucidated between a specific change in connectivity and a long-term change in global networks. Here, we examine the hypothesis that functional connectivity (i.e. temporal correlation between two regions is increased and preserved for a long time when two regions are simultaneously activated or deactivated. Using the connectivity-neurofeedback training paradigm, subjects successfully learned to increase the correlation of activity between the lateral parietal and primary motor areas, regions that belong to different intrinsic networks and negatively correlated before training under the resting conditions. Furthermore, whole-brain hypothesis-free analysis as well as functional network analyses demonstrated that the correlation in the resting state between these areas as well as the correlation between the intrinsic networks that include the areas increased for at least two months. These findings indicate that the connectivity-neurofeedback training can cause long-term changes in intrinsic connectivity and that intrinsic networks can be shaped by experience-driven modulation of regional correlation.

  2. Regional lung function (133Xe-radiospirometry) in bronchial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arborelius, M.; Kristersson, S.; Lindell, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a prospective study of all patients with bronchial cancer in the city of Malmoe, all patients considered for surgery were examined with regard to overall function (conventional spirometry) and regional lung function (133-Xe-radiospirometry). Out of 116 consecutive cases examined with 133-Xe-radiospirometry before surgery,

  3. Regional specialization within the human striatum for diverse psychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; O'Reilly, Randall C; Yarkoni, Tal; Wager, Tor D

    2016-02-16

    Decades of animal and human neuroimaging research have identified distinct, but overlapping, striatal zones, which are interconnected with separable corticostriatal circuits, and are crucial for the organization of functional systems. Despite continuous efforts to subdivide the human striatum based on anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity, characterizing the different psychological processes related to each zone remains a work in progress. Using an unbiased, data-driven approach, we analyzed large-scale coactivation data from 5,809 human imaging studies. We (i) identified five distinct striatal zones that exhibited discrete patterns of coactivation with cortical brain regions across distinct psychological processes and (ii) identified the different psychological processes associated with each zone. We found that the reported pattern of cortical activation reliably predicted which striatal zone was most strongly activated. Critically, activation in each functional zone could be associated with distinct psychological processes directly, rather than inferred indirectly from psychological functions attributed to associated cortices. Consistent with well-established findings, we found an association of the ventral striatum (VS) with reward processing. Confirming less well-established findings, the VS and adjacent anterior caudate were associated with evaluating the value of rewards and actions, respectively. Furthermore, our results confirmed a sometimes overlooked specialization of the posterior caudate nucleus for executive functions, often considered the exclusive domain of frontoparietal cortical circuits. Our findings provide a precise functional map of regional specialization within the human striatum, both in terms of the differential cortical regions and psychological functions associated with each striatal zone.

  4. Assessment of the Tourism Function in Region Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Zigern-Korn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article represents methodical approaches to estimation of tourism value and function in Russian regions development and contains some results of the carried-out assessment. The reasons about tourism mission for different types of territory exploitation and level of social and economic development, the idea of methods of tourist development of regions space are the core lines of the assessment framework. Selection of model regions due to their development types formed information basis for assessment. We determined specific Indicators and algorithm of an assessment to each model region. Results of the carried-out assessment allow rethinking the category of tourist and recreational potential of the territory from the standpoint of prospects and principles of a sustainable development. The technique of such impact assessment of tourism on regional development opens opportunity for public authorities to adopt correct strategic decisions according to the principles of Smart Development.

  5. Right ventricular reduction for repair of functional tricuspid valve regurgitation: one-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Ahmed; Matschke, Klaus; Ghazy, Tamer; Speiser, Uwe; Alexiou, Konstantin; Tugtekin, Sems-Malte; Schoen, Steffen; Kappert, Utz

    2013-09-01

    The study aim was to assess the impact of reducing the right ventricular (RV) cavity in order to optimize the outcome of tricuspid valve (TV) repair in cases of functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) with dilated right ventricle. Between May 2007 and February 2010, a total of 17 patients (six males, 11 females; mean age 69.5 +/- 10.1 years; mean logistic EuroSCORE 24 +/- 13%) with severe FTR and severe RV dilation were included. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for geometric assessment of the right ventricle. Intraoperatively, the lateral RV free wall was plicated to reduce the RV cavum to approximate the papillary muscles and decrease tethering of the TV; a conventional ring annuloplasty was then performed. Follow up included echocardiography and MRI at one month and one year postoperatively. The mean operative time was 157 +/- 30 min, and the cross-clamp time 63 13 min. Postoperatively, the mean bleeding volume was 486 +/- 455 ml, the rethoracotomy rate 5.9%, intensive therapy unit (ITU) stay 6.0 +/- 4.4 days, and hospital stay 19.0 +/- 8.8 days. In-hospital mortality was 17.6%. The mean follow up was 14.4 +/- 2.4 months. The one-year follow up revealed a survival of 82.3%, a slight decrease in RV ejection fraction (from 33.5 +/- 4.2% to 31.7 +/- 5.7%; p = 0.13), a significant reduction in the RV end-diastolic volume index (from 160 +/- 15.6 to 128 +/- 10 ml/m2; p = 0.0001), a reduction in TV tenting area (from 3.3 +/- 0.9 to 0.9 +/- 0.3 cm2; p = 0.0001), and a significant reduction in the ratio of TR jet to right atrial surface area (from 54.8 +/- 8.2% to 14.1 +/- 3.5%; p = 0.0001). In cases of FTR, RV dilation may be considered as a correctable factor at subvalvular level to optimize the outcome of TV repair.

  6. Plant functional traits and diversity in sand dune ecosystems across different biogeographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, P.; Bergmeier, E.

    2016-07-01

    Plant species of a functional group respond similarly to environmental pressures and may be expected to act similarly on ecosystem processes and habitat properties. However, feasibility and applicability of functional groups in ecosystems across very different climatic regions have not yet been studied. In our approach we specified the functional groups in sand dune ecosystems of the Mediterranean, Hyrcanian and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions. We examined whether functional groups are more influenced by region or rather by habitat characteristics, and identified trait syndromes associated with common habitat types in sand dunes (mobile dunes, stabilized dunes, salt marshes, semi-wet sands, disturbed habitats). A database of 14 traits, 309 species and 314 relevés was examined and trait-species, trait-plot and species-plot matrices were built. Cluster analysis revealed similar plant functional groups in sand dune ecosystems across regions of very different species composition and climate. Specifically, our study showed that plant traits in sand dune ecosystems are grouped reflecting habitat affiliation rather than region and species pool. Environmental factors and constraints such as sand mobility, soil salinity, water availability, nutrient status and disturbance are more important for the occurrence and distribution of plant functional groups than regional belonging. Each habitat is shown to be equipped with specific functional groups and can be described by specific sets of traits. In restoration ecology the completeness of functional groups and traits in a site may serve as a guideline for maintaining or restoring the habitat.

  7. Efficacy and safety of a pentavalent live human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in healthy Chinese infants: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhaojun; Mo, Yi; Li, Mingqiang; Tao, Junhui; Yang, Xu; Kong, Jilian; Wei, Dingkai; Fu, Botao; Liao, Xueyan; Chu, Jianli; Qiu, Yuanzheng; Hille, Darcy A; Nelson, Micki; Kaplan, Susan S

    2017-10-13

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was conducted in healthy Chinese infants to assess the efficacy and safety of a pentavalent live human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq™, RV5) against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). 4040 participants aged 6-12weeks were enrolled and randomly assigned to either 3 oral doses of RV5 (n=2020) or placebo (n=2020), administered ∼4weeks apart. The participants also received OPV and DTaP in a concomitant or staggered fashion. The primary objective was to evaluate vaccine efficacy (VE) against naturally-occurring RVGE at least 14days following the third dose. Key secondary objectives included: VE against naturally-occurring severe RVGE and VE against severe and any-severity RVGE caused by rotavirus serotypes contained in the vaccine, occurring at least 14days after the third dose. All adverse events (AEs) were collected for 30days following each dose. Serious AEs (SAEs) and intussusception cases were collected during the entire study. (ClinicalTrials.gov registry: NCT02062385). VE against RVGE of any-severity caused by any serotype was 69.3% (95% CI: 54.5, 79.7). The secondary efficacy analysis showed an efficacy of: 78.9% (95% CI: 59.1, 90.1) against severe RVGE caused by any serotype; 69.9% (95% CI: 55.2, 80.3) and 78.9% (95% CI: 59.1, 90.1) against any-severity and severe RVGE caused by serotypes contained in the vaccine, respectively. Within 30days following any vaccination, 53.5% (1079/2015) and 53.3% (1077/2019) of participants reported at least one AE, and 5.8% (116/2015) and 5.7% (116/2019) reported SAEs in the vaccine and placebo groups, respectively. No SAEs were considered vaccine-related in recipients of RV5. Two intussusception cases were reported in recipients of RV5 who recovered after receiving treatment. Neither was considered vaccine-related. In Chinese infants, RV5 was efficacious against any-severity and severe RVGE caused by any serotype and generally well

  8. Assessment of intracardiac flow and vorticity in the right heart of patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot by flow-sensitive 4D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtler, Daniel [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology (Heart Center, University of Freiburg), Freiburg (Germany); Garcia, Julio; Barker, Alex J. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Geiger, Julia [University Childrens' Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    To comprehensively and quantitatively analyse flow and vorticity in the right heart of patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) compared with healthy volunteers. Time-resolved flow-sensitive 4D MRI was acquired in 24 rTOF patients and 12 volunteers. Qualitative flow evaluation was based on consensus reading of two observers. Quantitative analysis included segmentation of the right atrium (RA) and ventricle (RV) in a four-chamber view to extract volumes and regional haemodynamic information for computation of regional mean and peak vorticity. Right heart intra-atrial, intraventricular and outflow tract flow patterns differed considerably between rTOF patients and volunteers. Peak RA and mean RV vorticity was significantly higher in patients (p = 0.02/0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between patients' maximum and mean RV and RA vorticity and ventricular volumes (p < 0.05). The main pulmonary artery (MPA) regurgitant flow was associated with higher RA and RV vorticity, which was significant for RA maximum and RV mean vorticity (p = 0.01/0.03). The calculation of vorticity based on 4D flow data is an alternative approach to assess intracardiac flow changes in rTOF patients compared with qualitative flow visualization. Alterations in intracardiac vorticity could be relevant with regard to the development of RV dilation and impaired function. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of intracardiac flow and vorticity in the right heart of patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot by flow-sensitive 4D MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirtler, Daniel; Garcia, Julio; Barker, Alex J.; Geiger, Julia

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively and quantitatively analyse flow and vorticity in the right heart of patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) compared with healthy volunteers. Time-resolved flow-sensitive 4D MRI was acquired in 24 rTOF patients and 12 volunteers. Qualitative flow evaluation was based on consensus reading of two observers. Quantitative analysis included segmentation of the right atrium (RA) and ventricle (RV) in a four-chamber view to extract volumes and regional haemodynamic information for computation of regional mean and peak vorticity. Right heart intra-atrial, intraventricular and outflow tract flow patterns differed considerably between rTOF patients and volunteers. Peak RA and mean RV vorticity was significantly higher in patients (p = 0.02/0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between patients' maximum and mean RV and RA vorticity and ventricular volumes (p < 0.05). The main pulmonary artery (MPA) regurgitant flow was associated with higher RA and RV vorticity, which was significant for RA maximum and RV mean vorticity (p = 0.01/0.03). The calculation of vorticity based on 4D flow data is an alternative approach to assess intracardiac flow changes in rTOF patients compared with qualitative flow visualization. Alterations in intracardiac vorticity could be relevant with regard to the development of RV dilation and impaired function. (orig.)

  10. Defining structural and functional dimensions of the extracellular thyrotropin receptor region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Mueller, Sandra; Jaeschke, Holger; Grzesik, Paul; Neumann, Susanne; Diehl, Anne; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2011-06-24

    The extracellular region of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) can be subdivided into the leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD) and the hinge region. Both the LRRD and the hinge region interact with thyrotropin (TSH) or autoantibodies. Structural data for the TSHR LRRD were previously determined by crystallization (amino acids Glu(30)-Thr(257), 10 repeats), but the structure of the hinge region is still undefined. Of note, the amino acid sequence (Trp(258)-Tyr(279)) following the crystallized LRRD comprises a pattern typical for leucine-rich repeats with conserved hydrophobic side chains stabilizing the repeat fold. Moreover, functional data for amino acids between the LRRD and the transmembrane domain were fragmentary. We therefore investigated systematically these TSHR regions by mutagenesis to reveal insights into their functional contribution and potential structural features. We found that mutations of conserved hydrophobic residues between Thr(257) and Tyr(279) cause TSHR misfold, which supports a structural fold of this peptide, probably as an additional leucine-rich repeat. Furthermore, we identified several new mutations of hydrophilic amino acids in the entire hinge region leading to partial TSHR inactivation, indicating that these positions are important for intramolecular signal transduction. In summary, we provide new information regarding the structural features and functionalities of extracellular TSHR regions. Based on these insights and in context with previous results, we suggest an extracellular activation mechanism that supports an intramolecular agonistic unit as a central switch for activating effects at the extracellular region toward the serpentine domain.

  11. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Mao

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05, and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier

  12. Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography and Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Natalie A; Patel, Ravi; Zimmerman, Josh; Ma, Jianing; Stoddard, Greg; Selzman, Craig; Morrissey, Candice K

    2018-02-15

    To determine whether intraoperative measures of right ventricular (RV) function using transesophageal echocardiography are associated with subsequent RV failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Single tertiary-level, university-affiliated hospital. The study comprised 100 patients with systolic heart failure undergoing elective LVAD implantation. Transesophageal echocardiographic images before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed to quantify RV function using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (S'), fractional area change (FAC), RV global longitudinal strain, and RV free wall strain. A chart review was performed to determine which patients subsequently developed RV failure (right ventricular assist device placement or prolonged inotrope requirement ≥14 days). Nineteen patients (19%) subsequently developed RV failure. Postbypass FAC was the only measure of RV function that distinguished between the RV failure and non-RV failure groups (21.2% v 26.5%; p = 0.04). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of an abnormal RV FAC (failure after LVAD implantation were 84%, 20%, and 0.52, respectively. No other intraoperative measure of RV function was associated with subsequent RV failure. RV failure increased ventilator time, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Intraoperative measures of RV function such as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular systolic velocity, and RV strain were not associated with RV failure after LVAD implantation. Decreased postbypass FAC was significantly associated with RV failure but showed poor discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging measurements of functional single ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (from the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, Renee; Schwartz, Marcy L; Prakash, Ashwin; Wruck, Lisa; Colan, Steven D; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Timothy J; Fogel, Mark A; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Marcus, Edward; Powell, Andrew J; Printz, Beth F; Puchalski, Michael D; Rychik, Jack; Shirali, Girish; Williams, Richard; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Geva, Tal

    2009-08-01

    Assessment of the size and function of a functional single ventricle (FSV) is a key element in the management of patients after the Fontan procedure. Measurement variability of ventricular mass, volume, and ejection fraction (EF) among observers by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and their reproducibility among readers in these patients have not been described. From the 546 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study (mean age 11.9 +/- 3.4 years), 100 echocardiograms and 50 CMR studies were assessed for measurement reproducibility; 124 subjects with paired studies were selected for comparison between modalities. Interobserver agreement for qualitative grading of ventricular function by echocardiography was modest for left ventricular (LV) morphology (kappa = 0.42) and weak for right ventricular (RV) morphology (kappa = 0.12). For quantitative assessment, high intraclass correlation coefficients were found for echocardiographic interobserver agreement (LV 0.87 to 0.92, RV 0.82 to 0.85) of systolic and diastolic volumes, respectively. In contrast, intraclass correlation coefficients for LV and RV mass were moderate (LV 0.78, RV 0.72). The corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients by CMR were high (LV 0.96, RV 0.85). Volumes by echocardiography averaged 70% of CMR values. Interobserver reproducibility for the EF was similar for the 2 modalities. Although the absolute mean difference between modalities for the EF was small (<2%), 95% limits of agreement were wide. In conclusion, agreement between observers of qualitative FSV function by echocardiography is modest. Measurements of FSV volume by 2-dimensional echocardiography underestimate CMR measurements, but their reproducibility is high. Echocardiographic and CMR measurements of FSV EF demonstrate similar interobserver reproducibility, whereas measurements of FSV mass and LV diastolic volume are more reproducible by CMR.

  14. Quantitation of global and regional left ventricular function by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, RJ; Reiber, JHC; Reiber, JHC; VanDerWall, EE

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several imaging strategies for assessing left ventricular function. As a three-dimensional imaging technique, all measurements can be performed without relying on geometrical assumptions. Global and regional function parameters can be derived from

  15. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Mehari

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence in United States (US adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs. However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA.To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system.We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO with wide range of BMI.Functional residual capacity (FRC and expiratory reserve volume (ERV decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV. However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC and residual volume (RV were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients.We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases.

  16. REGIONAL LOGISTICS CENTER: FORMATION AND FUNCTIONING SPESIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tkach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence of the definition of logistics centers is defined, the main provisions concerning the formation of the logistics center are defined. The formation of a logistic hub is analyzed. The structure of the transport-logistic center is proposed. The basic requirements for the location of the regional logistics center and the principles of its operation are determined. The financial and financial mechanism of a typical logistics center and their effective functioning are presented. It is proved that the most important component of the logistics center is transport. Key words: logistics centers, logistics, hub, distribution centers, transport and logistics centers, regional logistic centers, logistics complex, transport, transport-logistic system.

  17. Aerosol Optical Properties Measured Onboard the Ronald H. Brown During ACE Asia as a Function of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Source Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.; Welton, E. J.; Covert, D. S.; Miller, T. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Maria, S.; Russell, L.; Arimoto, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the ACE Asia intensive field campaign conducted in the spring of 2001 aerosol properties were measured onboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown to study the effects of the Asian aerosol on atmospheric chemistry and climate in downwind regions. Aerosol properties measured in the marine boundary layer included chemical composition; number size distribution; and light scattering, hemispheric backscattering, and absorption coefficients. In addition, optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol 180 deg backscatter were measured. Aerosol within the ACE Asia study region was found to be a complex mixture resulting from marine, pollution, volcanic, and dust sources. Presented here as a function of air mass source region are the mass fractions of the dominant aerosol chemical components, the fraction of the scattering measured at the surface due to each component, mass scattering efficiencies of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, Angstrom exponents, optical depth, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. All results except aerosol optical depth and the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are reported at a relative humidity of 55 +/- 5%. An over-determined data set was collected so that measured and calculated aerosol properties could be compared, internal consistency in the data set could be assessed, and sources of uncertainty could be identified. By taking into account non-sphericity of the dust aerosol, calculated and measured aerosol mass and scattering coefficients agreed within overall experimental uncertainties. Differences between measured and calculated aerosol absorption coefficients were not within reasonable uncertainty limits, however, and may indicate the inability of Mie theory and the assumption of internally mixed homogeneous spheres to predict absorption by the ACE Asia aerosol. Mass scattering efficiencies of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol, sea salt, submicron particulate organic

  18. Construction Progress and Science Planning for the New Research Vessel R/V Sikuliaq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    The research vessel R/V Sikuliaq (pronounced [see-KOO-lee-auk]) is currently being constructed on behalf of the NSF to support future scientific studies in high latitude waters. The 261 foot global class vessel will be capable of breaking 2.5 foot thick ice at 2 knots with an endurance of 45 days at sea and cruising at 11 knots. The R/V Sikuliaq will have a beam of 52 feet and a draft of 18.9 feet that will carry 26 scientists and a crew of 20. Berthing accommodations are a combination of single/double rooms with one stateroom and the common areas of the vessel are designed for ADA access and accommodations. The total laboratory space (main, analytical, electronics, wet, upper, and Baltic room will be 2100 square feet. The 4360 square foot working deck that is approximately 70 feet in length will accommodate 2-4 vans and multiple science operations. The vessel design strives to have the lowest possible environmental impact, including a low underwater-radiated noise signature. The science systems are prescribed to be state-of-the-art for bottom mapping, over-the-side "hands free" gear handling, broad band communications and scientific walk-in freezer and environmental chamber. More details and photos of the construction progress are available on the website at www.sfos.uaf.edu/arrv. The tentative shipyard schedule has a launch date of June 2012 and delivery to the University of Alaska Fairbanks in June 2013. Scientific operations following trials and testing is planned to start in January 2014. A Sikuliaq science planning workshop has been arranged for 18-19 February 2012 in Salt Lake City, UT just prior to the 2012 Ocean Sciences meeting. Interested participants should contact Terry Whitledge (terry@ims.uaf.edu).

  19. Gross–Tulub polaron functional in the region of intermediate and strong coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Kashirina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the polaron functional obtained as a result of averaging the Fröhlich Hamiltonian on the translation-invariant function have been investigated. The polaron functional can be represented in two different forms. It has been shown that the functional of translationally invariant Gross–Tulub polaron cannot be applied in the strong coupling region, where the real part of the complex quantity takes negative values. The function coincides in its structure with the dynamic susceptibility of degenerate electron gas. The necessary condition for obtaining correct results is investigation of the region of admissible values of the Gross–Tulub functional depending on properties of the function , variational parameters, and the electron-phonon interaction parameter α (Fröhlich coupling constant. A simple and exact formula for the recoil energy of the translationally invariant polaron has been derived, which makes it possible to extend the range of admissible values of the parameters of the electron-phonon interaction to the region of extremely strong coupling (α > 10, where . Numerical investigation of different forms of polaron functionals obtained using the field theory methods has been carried out.

  20. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. I. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the order of magnitude difference in the frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs inferred by microlensing and radial velocity (RV) surveys, we present a method for comparing the statistical constraints on exoplanet demographics inferred from these methods. We first derive the mapping from the observable parameters of a microlensing-detected planet to those of an analogous planet orbiting an RV-monitored star. Using this mapping, we predict the distribution of RV observables for the planet population inferred from microlensing surveys, taking care to adopt reasonable priors for, and properly marginalize over, the unknown physical parameters of microlensing-detected systems. Finally, we use simple estimates of the detection limits for a fiducial RV survey to predict the number and properties of analogs of the microlensing planet population such an RV survey should detect. We find that RV and microlensing surveys have some overlap, specifically for super-Jupiter mass planets (m p ≳ 1 M Jup ) with periods between ∼3-10 yr. However, the steeply falling planetary mass function inferred from microlensing implies that, in this region of overlap, RV surveys should infer a much smaller frequency than the overall giant planet frequency (m p ≳ 0.1 M Jup ) inferred by microlensing. Our analysis demonstrates that it is possible to statistically compare and synthesize data sets from multiple exoplanet detection techniques in order to infer exoplanet demographics over wider regions of parameter space than are accessible to individual methods. In a companion paper, we apply our methodology to several representative microlensing and RV surveys to derive the frequency of planets around M dwarfs with orbits of ≲ 30 yr.

  1. Underway pCO2 Measurements in Surface Waters and the Atmosphere During the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer 2016 Expeditions (NCEI Accession 0166630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0166630 includes Surface underway data collected from R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer in the South Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Oceans from...

  2. Cross-cultural consistency and diversity in intrinsic functional organization of Broca's Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Fan, Lingzhong; Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Song, Ming; Liu, Cirong; Mo, Yin; Eickhoff, Simon B; Amunts, Katrin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-04-15

    As a core language area, Broca's region was consistently activated in a variety of language studies even across different language systems. Moreover, a high degree of structural and functional heterogeneity in Broca's region has been reported in many studies. This raised the issue of how the intrinsic organization of Broca's region effects by different language experiences in light of its subdivisions. To address this question, we used multi-center resting-state fMRI data to explore the cross-cultural consistency and diversity of Broca's region in terms of its subdivisions, connectivity patterns and modularity organization in Chinese and German speakers. A consistent topological organization of the 13 subdivisions within the extended Broca's region was revealed on the basis of a new in-vivo parcellation map, which corresponded well to the previously reported receptorarchitectonic map. Based on this parcellation map, consistent functional connectivity patterns and modularity organization of these subdivisions were found. Some cultural difference in the functional connectivity patterns was also found, for instance stronger connectivity in Chinese subjects between area 6v2 and the motor hand area, as well as higher correlations between area 45p and middle frontal gyrus. Our study suggests that a generally invariant organization of Broca's region, together with certain regulations of different language experiences on functional connectivity, might exists to support language processing in human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Late deterioration of left ventricular function after right ventricular pacemaker implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, Barbara; Muntean, Bogdan G; Lin, Tina; Gemein, Christopher; Schmitz, Kathrin; Schauerte, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) pacing induces a left bundle branch block pattern on ECG and may promote heart failure. Patients with dual chamber pacemakers (DCPs) who present with progressive reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) secondary to RV pacing are candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This study analyzes whether upgrading DCP to CRT with the additional implantation of a left ventricular (LV) lead improves LV function in patients with reduced LVEF following DCP implantation. Twenty-two patients (13 males) implanted with DCPs and a high RV pacing percentage (>90%) were evaluated in term of new-onset heart failure symptoms. The patients were enrolled in this retrospective single-center study after obvious causes for a reduced LVEF were excluded with echocardiography and coronary angiography. In all patients, DCPs were then upgraded to biventricular devices. LVEF was analyzed with a two-sided t-test. QRS duration and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were analyzed with the unpaired t-test. LVEF declined after DCP implantation from 54±10% to 31±7%, and the mean QRS duration was 161±20 ms during RV pacing. NT-pro BNP levels were elevated (3365±11436 pmol/L). After upgrading to a biventricular device, a biventricular pacing percentage of 98.1±2% was achieved. QRS duration decreased to 108±16 ms and 106±20 ms after 1 and 6 months, respectively. There was a significant increase in LVEF to 38±8% and 41±11% and a decrease in NT-pro BNP levels to 3088±2326 pmol/L and 1860±1838 pmol/L at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Upgrading to CRT may be beneficial in patients with DCPs and heart failure induced by a high RV pacing percentage.

  4. Left and right ventricular dyssynchrony and strains from cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking do not predict deterioration of ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Linyuan; Wehner, Gregory J; Suever, Jonathan D; Charnigo, Richard J; Alhadad, Sudad; Stearns, Evan; Mojsejenko, Dimitri; Haggerty, Christopher M; Hickey, Kelsey; Valente, Anne Marie; Geva, Tal; Powell, Andrew J; Fornwalt, Brandon K

    2016-08-22

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) suffer from progressive ventricular dysfunction decades after their surgical repair. We hypothesized that measures of ventricular strain and dyssynchrony would predict deterioration of ventricular function in patients with rTOF. A database search identified all patients at a single institution with rTOF who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at least twice, >6 months apart, without intervening surgical or catheter procedures. Seven primary predictors were derived from the first CMR using a custom feature tracking algorithm: left (LV), right (RV) and inter-ventricular dyssynchrony, LV and RV peak global circumferential strains, and LV and RV peak global longitudinal strains. Three outcomes were defined, whose changes were assessed over time: RV end-diastolic volume, and RV and LV ejection fraction. Multivariate linear mixed models were fit to investigate relationships of outcomes to predictors and ten potential baseline confounders. One hundred fifty-three patients with rTOF (23 ± 14 years, 50 % male) were included. The mean follow-up duration between the first and last CMR was 2.9 ± 1.3 years. After adjustment for confounders, none of the 7 primary predictors were significantly associated with change over time in the 3 outcome variables. Only 1-17 % of the variability in the change over time in the outcome variables was explained by the baseline predictors and potential confounders. In patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular dyssynchrony and global strain derived from cine CMR were not significantly related to changes in ventricular size and function over time. The ability to predict deterioration in ventricular function in patients with rTOF using current methods is limited.

  5. Changes in regional and overall lung function after bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richez, M.; Ravez, P.; Godart, G.; Halloy, J.L.; Robience, Y.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation compares the effects of unilateral bronchography on classical pulmonary function paramerts (spirometry, CO transfer, flowvolume curve, and arterial blood gases)and radioisotopic measurements by means of 99 sup(m)Tc-labeled microspheres and 81 sup(m)Kr. The regional changes of ventilation and perfusion were quantified by a radioisotopic index, which was established for each zone of interest: explored lung and unexplored lung. The quantitative study of regional perfusion and ventilation reveals significant reduction of ventilation for lung bases, but not for lung apices. The radioisotopic measurements show a reduction of perfusion parallel to the reduction of ventilation. There is no significant correlation between traditional pulmonary function parameters and isotopic indices. Radioisotopy proved a sensitive tool for investigation of unilateral alterations. (orig.) [de

  6. Functional Capacity of Patients with Pacemaker Due to Isolated Congenital Atrioventricular Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Júnior, Roberto Márcio; da Silva, Kátia Regina; Kawauchi, Tatiana Satie; Alves, Lucas Bassolli de Oliveira; Crevelari, Elizabeth Sartori; Martinelli, Martino; Costa, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Isolated congenital atrioventricular block (CAVB) is a rare condition with multiple clinical outcomes. Ventricular remodeling can occur in approximately 10% of the patients after pacemaker (PM) implantation. Objectives To assess the functional capacity of children and young adults with isolated CAVB and chronic pacing of the right ventricle (RV) and evaluate its correlation with predictors of ventricular remodeling. Methods This cross-sectional study used a cohort of patients with isolated CAVB and RV pacing for over a year. The subjects underwent clinical and echocardiographic evaluation. Functional capacity was assessed using the six-minute walk test. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results A total of 61 individuals were evaluated between March 2010 and December 2013, of which 67.2% were women, aged between 7 and 41 years, who were using PMs for 13.5 ± 6.3 years. The percentage of ventricular pacing was 97.9 ± 4.1%, and the duration of the paced QRS complex was 153.7 ± 19.1 ms. Majority of the subjects (95.1%) were asymptomatic and did not use any medication. The mean distance walked was 546.9 ± 76.2 meters and was strongly correlated with the predicted distance (r = 0.907, p = 0.001) but not with risk factors for ventricular remodeling. Conclusions The functional capacity of isolated CAVB patients with chronic RV pacing was satisfactory but did not correlate with risk factors for ventricular remodeling. PMID:25387405

  7. Underway pCO2 Measurements in Surface Waters and the Atmosphere During the R/V Laurence M. Gould 2016 Expeditions (NCEI Accession 0166525)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0166525 includes Surface underway data collected from R/V Laurence M. Gould in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from...

  8. [Function in patients with chronic fibrocavernous tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2008-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, residual volume (RV), R(aw), R(in), R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 62 patients with chronic fibrocavernous tuberculosis. Lung dysfunctions were detected in 96.8% of the patients. Changes in lung volumes and capacities were found in 90.3%, impaired bronchial patency was in 90.3%, and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was in 79.0%. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared as decreased VC and FVC, decreased and increased TLC, TGV, RV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; and increased R(aw), R(in), R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes ranges from slight to significant and drastic with a predominance of considerable and drastic changes in lung volumes and capacities and mild impairments of bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange function.

  9. SigG Does Not Control Gene Expression in Response to DNA Damage in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    Smollett, Katherine L.; Dawson, Lisa F.; Davis, Elaine O.

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigG sigma factor was induced by a variety of DNA-damaging agents, but inactivation of sigG did not affect induction of gene expression or bacterial survival under these conditions. Therefore, SigG does not control the DNA repair response of M. tuberculosis H37Rv.

  10. Theoretical study of a novel refrigeration compressor - Part II: Performance of a rotating discharge valve in the revolving vane (RV) compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Y.L.; Ooi, K.T. [Thermal and Fluids Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, S639798 (Singapore); Djamari, D. Wibowo [Engineering Mechanics Division, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, S639798 (Singapore)

    2009-08-15

    A new refrigeration compressor, named 'Revolving Vane (RV) compressor', has been introduced in Part I of this paper series. For a first time in refrigeration compressors, a rotating discharge valve is employed in the RV compressor mainly due to the rotation of the entire cylinder. This paper presents a theoretical investigation on the dynamic behavior of a reed-type discharge valve undergoing rotatory motion, with the primary objective of elucidating the applicability of such valves in refrigeration compressors. Under the application of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, a mathematical model of the rotating valve is formulated and the transient response of the valve under centrifugal loads in addition to pressure forces is analyzed. Results have shown that under careful design considerations, the performance as well as the reliability of the rotating discharge valve can be enhanced as compared to a non-rotating valve that has been used in all refrigeration compressors currently. (author)

  11. Comparing rainfall patterns between regions in Peninsular Malaysia via a functional data analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Hamdan, Muhammad Fauzee; Wan Zin, Wan Zawiah

    2011-12-01

    SummaryNormally, rainfall data is collected on a daily, monthly or annual basis in the form of discrete observations. The aim of this study is to convert these rainfall values into a smooth curve or function which could be used to represent the continuous rainfall process at each region via a technique known as functional data analysis. Since rainfall data shows a periodic pattern in each region, the Fourier basis is introduced to capture these variations. Eleven basis functions with five harmonics are used to describe the unimodal rainfall pattern for stations in the East while five basis functions which represent two harmonics are needed to describe the rainfall pattern in the West. Based on the fitted smooth curve, the wet and dry periods as well as the maximum and minimum rainfall values could be determined. Different rainfall patterns are observed among the studied regions based on the smooth curve. Using the functional analysis of variance, the test results indicated that there exist significant differences in the functional means between each region. The largest differences in the functional means are found between the East and Northwest regions and these differences may probably be due to the effect of topography and, geographical location and are mostly influenced by the monsoons. Therefore, the same inputs or approaches might not be useful in modeling the hydrological process for different regions.

  12. The period analysis of V418 AQL, SU BOO, RV CVn, CR CAS, GV CYG, V432 PER, and BD+42 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Uhlař, R.

    2014-01-01

    The minimum timings of eclipsing binaries V418 Aql, SU Boo, RV CVn, CR Cas, GV Cyg, V432 Per, and BD+42 2782 were collected and analyzed. Their long-term behavior was studied via period analysis, revealing a periodic term in eclipse times. We derived 576 new times of minimum. Hence, to describe the periodic variation, a third-body hypothesis was proposed and the resulting orbital periods are as follows: 70, 7.4, 53, 37, 27, 53, and 18 yr, respectively. For the system V432 Per an additional 9.5 yr variation was also found. The predicted minimum masses of these distant bodies were calculated and their detectability discussed. The light curves of SU Boo and RV CVn were analyzed using the PHOEBE program, resulting in physical parameters of the components. New variable stars in the field of V418 Aql were discovered.

  13. Quantification of left ventricular regional functions using ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Validation of left ventricular systolic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Takahashi, Naoto; Iwahara, Shin-ichiro; Munakata, Kazuo; Hosoya, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a program to quantify regional left ventricular (LV) function and wall motion synchrony using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). This preliminary study was undertaken to validate the use of this program for estimating regional LV systolic function. Patients were subjected to MPS by 99m Tc-sestamibi at rest. The study included 20 patients who were confirmed to have a low probability of coronary artery disease (LPG; low probability group), 19 heart disease patients who were examined by MPS and equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA) (ERG; ERNA group), and 24 patients who were examined by MPS and 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) (2DEG; 2DE group). The values of the ejection fraction (EF) and peak ejection rate (PER) were estimated. The global functions evaluated by this program were compared with those obtained by ERNA in the ERG. For regional assessment, the reference values of the functional indices were obtained for 17 LV segments in LPG. The Z score, (reference average value of the segment-patient's value of the segment)/reference standard deviation of the segment, was used for the evaluation of regional functions; a score equal to or greater than 2 was defined as abnormal. Semiquantitative visual interpretation of 2DE was used as the standard to assess wall motion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of these criteria and the relationship between 2DE grading and Z scoring were validated in 2DEG. The values of the global EF and PER evaluated by this program correlated with those determined by ERNA (r=0.76 and 0.58, respectively; p -10 ). The potential of this program to quantify the regional systolic function was validated. (author)

  14. Implantación de un Controlador para la Cinemática Inversa del Brazo Robot Mitsubishi RV-2AJ a través de una Tarjeta ARM y MatLab

    OpenAIRE

    Cajamarca Peñafiel, Jorge Andres; Portilla Vargas, Alexis David

    2016-01-01

    The project involves the design and construction of a controller for handling the inverse and forward kinematics of the robot Mitsubishi RV-2AJ arm, it is located in the laboratories of the Salesian University in order to create a direct communication through an external card ARM and MatLab software. This driver allows the user to manipulate the robot arm Mitsubishi RV-2AJ in two categories, by joints and coordinates, with a compact hardware and easy to use interface, the autonomy is given...

  15. Functional and geometrical interference and interdependency between the right and left ventricle in cor pulmonale: an experimental study on simultaneous measurement of biventricular geometry of acute right ventricular pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, H; Onodera, S; Imamoto, T; Obara, A; Tanazawa, S; Takashio, T; Morimoto, H; Inoue, H

    1989-10-01

    To clarify the effects of right ventricular (RV) pressure overload on functional and geometrical interference and interdependency between the right and left ventricle, both ventricular internal diameters were measured by the microcrystal technique during lycopodium induced pulmonary embolization in the dog. By repeated embolization, RV systolic pressure was increased progressively until it reached a peak value of about 60-70 mmHg, then it began to fall. At the same time, the hemodynamics deteriorated progressively resulting in death. During the experiment, gradual leftward displacement of the interventricular septum (IVS) without any change in left ventricular (LV) free wall geometry was observed. In pulmonary embolic shock, which showed a fall in LV pressure to about 60 mmHg and cardiac output to about 40% of control, the leftward displacement of IVS became marked, and the cooperative movement of IVS to LV contraction disappeared. The IVS position during acute RV pressure overload was able to account for the transseptal pressure gradient. The importance of IVS position and motion in cardiac function during acute RV pressure overload was stressed. Furthermore, to establish the theoretical treatment in acute cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ligation of the descending aorta (AoL) or norepinephrine ("N") or isoproterenol ("I") administration were examined in a canine pulmonary embolic shock model. AoL or "N" improved the deteriorated hemodynamics with restoration of biventricular geometry. However, "I" did not restore the biventricular geometry despite the transiently improved hemodynamics, and the experimental animals were unable to survive. These results suggest the importance of the maintainance of systemic pressure for the restoration of failed RV function. Further integrated studies are required to understand biventricular interference and interdependency.

  16. Reference values for paediatric pulmonary function testing: The Utrecht dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Marije; Zanen, Pieter; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Arets, Hubertus G M

    2011-01-01

    Since populations evolve, measurement protocols and equipment improve and analysis techniques progress, there is an ongoing need to reassess reference data for pulmonary function tests. Furthermore, reference values for total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity are scarcely available in children. We aimed to provide updated reference equations for most commonly used pulmonary function indices in Caucasian children. In the 'Utrecht Pulmonary Function Reference Data Study' we collected data in Caucasian children aged 2-18 years. We analyzed them using the 'Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape' (GAMLSS) statistical method. Measurements of interrupter resistance (R(int)) (n = 877), spirometry (n = 1042), body plethysmography (n = 723) and carbon monoxide diffusion/helium dilution (n = 543) were obtained in healthy children. Height (or the natural logarithm of height) and age (or the natural logarithm of age) were both significantly related to most outcome measures. Also sex was a significant determinant, except for RV, RV/TLC, FRC(pleth), Raw(0,5), Raw(tot), R(int) and FEF values. The application of previously published reference equations on the study population resulted in misinterpretation of pulmonary function. These new paediatric reference equations provide accurate estimates of the range of normality for most commonly used pulmonary function indices, resulting in less underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Yan

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the U.S. JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. They are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JGOFS cruise designated TN039. Table 1 lists start and end dates of each cruise with its mission. All but the first cruise have been or will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Each cruise is scheduled for a duration of between two weeks and one month. Seven of the cruises, referred to as process cruises, follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipments and towing of a SeaSoar. ADCP data are collected using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises, named the AutoADCP system. The system is an extension of RD instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with {open_quotes}user-exit{close_quotes} programs. It makes it possible to collect ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and insures constant data coverage and uniform data quality.

  18. Effect of ventricular function and volumes on exercise capacity in adults with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Dłużniewska

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise intolerance in adults with repaired ToF is markedly depressed. The decreased exercise capacity is correlated with impaired RV function and may be associated also with LV dysfunction, which suggests right-to-left ventricular interaction.

  19. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain in repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Kamill Del; Soriano, Brian D; Buddhe, Sujatha

    2016-10-01

    Echocardiogram has limitations in effectively assessing right ventricular (RV) function in children post tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. We evaluated the utility of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE)-based RV global longitudinal strain (GLS) for the assessment of RV systolic function. All patients with repaired TOF who had both echocardiograms and cardiac MRI (CMR) within a 6-month interval were included. RV volumes and ejection fraction (EF) were obtained by CMRs. Traditional echocardiographic function parameters and RV GLS were compared to CMR-derived RV EF. Subjects were divided into two groups based on CMR RV EF (group I: RV EF ≥45%; and group II: RV EF <45%). A total of 57 subjects were included. Mean age was 13.0±3.6 years and 58% were males. Group I had 39 subjects and group II had 18. Only six of the 18 patients (33%) in group II were identified as having at least mild RV dysfunction by echocardiogram. The mean RV GLS was significantly abnormal in group II (-15.3±3.8%) compared to group I (-20.9±3.3%; P<.001). By ROC analysis, an RV GLS cutoff value of -18% had 78% sensitivity and 77% specificity in identifying RV EF <45% (area under curve .87, P<.001). Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of RV GLS were good. RV GLS is a simple and effective tool for the assessment of RV systolic function in patients post TOF repair. This technique would help further refine patient selection for timing of CMR and management. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Robustness of the healthcare utilization results from the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST evaluating the human-bovine (WC3 reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Damme Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial was a placebo-controlled Phase III study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a three-dose pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5 including its effect on healthcare utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE. The per-protocol (PP analyses, which counted events occurring 14 days after dose 3 among infants without protocol violations, have already been published. This paper evaluates the consistency of the healthcare utilization results based on the modified intention to treat (MITT analyses with the PP analyses. The MITT analyses include all infants receiving at least one dose of vaccine or placebo and follow-up begins after dose 1. The paper also explores the consistency of the results for different subgroups of the study population with different types of surveillance. Methods Data on healthcare utilization for acute gastroenteritis were collected via telephone interviews after administration of the first dose. Parents were either contacted every 6 weeks or every 2 weeks depending on the substudy in which they were enrolled. Those contacted every 2 weeks were also asked to complete symptom diaries. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the effect of RV5 on the rates of RVGE-associated healthcare encounters in all of the analyses. Results In the first 2 years after vaccination, RV5 reduced the combined rate of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED visits 88.9% (95% CI: 84.9, 91.9 for all RVGE regardless of serotype in the MITT analysis compared with a 94.5% (95% CI: 91.2, 96.6 reduction based on the G1-G4 PP analysis. By type of surveillance, the rate reductions for the G1-G4 PP analysis were 91.0% (95% CI: 81.7, 95.5 and 95.9% (95% CI: 92.2, 97.8 among parents contacted every 2 weeks (number evaluable = 4,451 and every 6 weeks (number evaluable = 52,683 respectively. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrated that the effect of RV5 on reducing the rate of hospitalizations

  1. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J.; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time o...

  2. Hybridization Capture Reveals Evolution and Conservation across the Entire Koala Retrovirus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Cui, Pin; Vielgrader, Hanna; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2014-01-01

    The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin. PMID:24752422

  3. Hybridization capture reveals evolution and conservation across the entire Koala retrovirus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    Full Text Available The koala retrovirus (KoRV is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin.

  4. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.

    1997-11-01

    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  5. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in the assessment of right ventricular function in children and adolescents after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Parnell, Aimee; Forfia, Paul R; Yang, Wei; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Kawut, Steven M

    2013-11-01

    Assessing right ventricular (RV) performance is essential for patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) against cardiac magnetic resonance imaging measures and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. A retrospective study was performed in 125 outpatients with repaired TOF with available protocol-driven echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and exercise stress testing obtained as part of a cross-sectional study. TAPSE was measured on the two-dimensional apical four-chamber view on echocardiography by two readers. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between TAPSE and measures of RV function and exercise capacity. The mean age was 12.6 ± 3.3 years, 41 patients (33%) were female, and 104 (83%) were white. TAPSE averaged 1.6 ± 0.37 cm, with an interreader intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.78 (n = 18). TAPSE was significantly associated with cardiac magnetic resonance-based RV stroke volume after adjustment for gender and body surface area (β = 13.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.25-25.30; P = .02). TAPSE was not associated with cardiac magnetic resonance-based RV ejection fraction (P = .77). On exercise testing, TAPSE was not associated with peak oxygen consumption, percentage of predicted oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, or the ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide in patients with maximal exercise stress testing (n = 73 [58%]). TAPSE is reproducibly measured by echocardiography in patients with TOF. It is not associated with RV ejection fraction or exercise performance, and its association with RV stroke volume may be confounded by body size. On the basis of these results, TAPSE is not representative of global RV performance in patients with TOF. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative assessment of right ventricular function and pulmonary regurgitation in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot using 256-slice CT: comparison with 3-Tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Yonezawa, Masato; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Higuchi, Ko; Honda, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamura, Kenichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Pediatrics, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Ichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiokawa, Yuichi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare 256-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Thirty-three consecutive patients with repaired TOF underwent retrospective ECG-gated CCT and 3-Tesla CMR. RV and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured using CCT and CMR. PRF-CCT (%) was defined as (RVSV - LVSV)/RVSV. PRF-CMR (%) was measured by the phase-contrast method. Repeated measurements were performed to determine intra- and interobserver variability. CCT measurements, including PRF, correlated highly with the CMR reference (r = 0.71-0.96). CCT overestimated RVEDV (mean difference, 17.1 ± 2.9 ml), RVESV (12.9 ± 2.1 ml) and RVSV (4.2 ± 2.0 ml), and underestimated RVEF (-2.6 ± 1.0 %) and PRF (-9.1 ± 2.0 %) compared with CMR. The limits of agreement between CCT and CMR were in a good range for all measurements. The variability in CCT measurements was lower than those in CMR. The estimated effective radiation dose was 7.6 ± 2.6 mSv. 256-slice CCT can assess RV function and PRF with relatively low dose radiation exposure in patients with repaired TOF, but overestimates RV volume and underestimates PRF. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative assessment of right ventricular function and pulmonary regurgitation in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot using 256-slice CT: comparison with 3-Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Yonezawa, Masato; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Higuchi, Ko; Honda, Hiroshi; Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi; Yamamura, Kenichiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake

    2014-01-01

    To compare 256-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Thirty-three consecutive patients with repaired TOF underwent retrospective ECG-gated CCT and 3-Tesla CMR. RV and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured using CCT and CMR. PRF-CCT (%) was defined as (RVSV - LVSV)/RVSV. PRF-CMR (%) was measured by the phase-contrast method. Repeated measurements were performed to determine intra- and interobserver variability. CCT measurements, including PRF, correlated highly with the CMR reference (r = 0.71-0.96). CCT overestimated RVEDV (mean difference, 17.1 ± 2.9 ml), RVESV (12.9 ± 2.1 ml) and RVSV (4.2 ± 2.0 ml), and underestimated RVEF (-2.6 ± 1.0 %) and PRF (-9.1 ± 2.0 %) compared with CMR. The limits of agreement between CCT and CMR were in a good range for all measurements. The variability in CCT measurements was lower than those in CMR. The estimated effective radiation dose was 7.6 ± 2.6 mSv. 256-slice CCT can assess RV function and PRF with relatively low dose radiation exposure in patients with repaired TOF, but overestimates RV volume and underestimates PRF. (orig.)

  8. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of global and regional magnetic resonance feature tracking derived strain parameters of the left and right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Björn, E-mail: bjoernschmidt1989@gmx.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Dick, Anastasia, E-mail: anastasia-dick@web.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Treutlein, Melanie, E-mail: melanie-treutlein@web.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Schiller, Petra, E-mail: petra.schiller@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Bunck, Alexander C., E-mail: alexander.bunck@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Maintz, David, E-mail: david.maintz@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Baeßler, Bettina, E-mail: bettina.baessler@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Left and right ventricular CMR feature tracking is highly reproducible. • The only exception is radial strain and strain rate. • Sample size estimations are presented as a practical reference for future studies. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the reproducibility of regional and global strain and strain rate (SR) parameters of both ventricles and to determine sample sizes for all investigated strain and SR parameters in order to generate a practical reference for future studies. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with acute myocarditis. Cine sequences in three horizontal long axis views and a stack of short axis views covering the entire left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were retrospectively analysed using a dedicated feature tracking (FT) software algorithm (TOMTEC). For intra-observer analysis, one observer analysed CMR images of all patients and volunteers twice. For inter-observer analysis, three additional blinded observers analysed the same datasets once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested in all patients and controls using Bland-Altman analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility of global LV strain and SR parameters was excellent (range of ICCs: 0.81–1.00), the only exception being global radial SR with a poor reproducibility (ICC 0.23). On a regional level, basal and midventricular strain and SR parameters were more reproducible when compared to apical parameters. Inter-observer reproducibility of all LV parameters was slightly lower than intra-observer reproducibility, yet still good to excellent for all global and regional longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters (range of ICCs: 0.66–0.93). Similar to the LV, all global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters showed an excellent reproducibility, (range of ICCs: 0.75–0

  9. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of global and regional magnetic resonance feature tracking derived strain parameters of the left and right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Björn; Dick, Anastasia; Treutlein, Melanie; Schiller, Petra; Bunck, Alexander C.; Maintz, David; Baeßler, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Left and right ventricular CMR feature tracking is highly reproducible. • The only exception is radial strain and strain rate. • Sample size estimations are presented as a practical reference for future studies. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the reproducibility of regional and global strain and strain rate (SR) parameters of both ventricles and to determine sample sizes for all investigated strain and SR parameters in order to generate a practical reference for future studies. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with acute myocarditis. Cine sequences in three horizontal long axis views and a stack of short axis views covering the entire left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were retrospectively analysed using a dedicated feature tracking (FT) software algorithm (TOMTEC). For intra-observer analysis, one observer analysed CMR images of all patients and volunteers twice. For inter-observer analysis, three additional blinded observers analysed the same datasets once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested in all patients and controls using Bland-Altman analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility of global LV strain and SR parameters was excellent (range of ICCs: 0.81–1.00), the only exception being global radial SR with a poor reproducibility (ICC 0.23). On a regional level, basal and midventricular strain and SR parameters were more reproducible when compared to apical parameters. Inter-observer reproducibility of all LV parameters was slightly lower than intra-observer reproducibility, yet still good to excellent for all global and regional longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters (range of ICCs: 0.66–0.93). Similar to the LV, all global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters showed an excellent reproducibility, (range of ICCs: 0.75–0

  10. Host genetic variation influences gene expression response to rhinovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Çalışkan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus (RV is the most prevalent human respiratory virus and is responsible for at least half of all common colds. RV infections may result in a broad spectrum of effects that range from asymptomatic infections to severe lower respiratory illnesses. The basis for inter-individual variation in the response to RV infection is not well understood. In this study, we explored whether host genetic variation is associated with variation in gene expression response to RV infections between individuals. To do so, we obtained genome-wide genotype and gene expression data in uninfected and RV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 98 individuals. We mapped local and distant genetic variation that is associated with inter-individual differences in gene expression levels (eQTLs in both uninfected and RV-infected cells. We focused specifically on response eQTLs (reQTLs, namely, genetic associations with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV infection. We identified local reQTLs for 38 genes, including genes with known functions in viral response (UBA7, OAS1, IRF5 and genes that have been associated with immune and RV-related diseases (e.g., ITGA2, MSR1, GSTM3. The putative regulatory regions of genes with reQTLs were enriched for binding sites of virus-activated STAT2, highlighting the role of condition-specific transcription factors in genotype-by-environment interactions. Overall, we suggest that the 38 loci associated with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV-infection represent promising candidates for affecting immune and RV-related respiratory diseases.

  11. Host genetic variation influences gene expression response to rhinovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Minal; Baker, Samuel W; Gilad, Yoav; Ober, Carole

    2015-04-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) is the most prevalent human respiratory virus and is responsible for at least half of all common colds. RV infections may result in a broad spectrum of effects that range from asymptomatic infections to severe lower respiratory illnesses. The basis for inter-individual variation in the response to RV infection is not well understood. In this study, we explored whether host genetic variation is associated with variation in gene expression response to RV infections between individuals. To do so, we obtained genome-wide genotype and gene expression data in uninfected and RV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 98 individuals. We mapped local and distant genetic variation that is associated with inter-individual differences in gene expression levels (eQTLs) in both uninfected and RV-infected cells. We focused specifically on response eQTLs (reQTLs), namely, genetic associations with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV infection. We identified local reQTLs for 38 genes, including genes with known functions in viral response (UBA7, OAS1, IRF5) and genes that have been associated with immune and RV-related diseases (e.g., ITGA2, MSR1, GSTM3). The putative regulatory regions of genes with reQTLs were enriched for binding sites of virus-activated STAT2, highlighting the role of condition-specific transcription factors in genotype-by-environment interactions. Overall, we suggest that the 38 loci associated with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV-infection represent promising candidates for affecting immune and RV-related respiratory diseases.

  12. The right ventricular response to ventricular hypofunction in anteroseptal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Sugako

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-seven patients with acute anteroseptal infarction but not significant right coronary artery stenosis were examined by using thallium-201 (Tl-201) myocardial perfusion SPECT to determine how the right ventricular (RV) free wall responded to a severely impaired ventricular septum. The patients were divided into the group in which RV free wall was visualized on Tl-201 myocardial SPECT (n=19, RV(+) Group) and the group in which it was not visualized (n=18, RV(-) Group). The relationship between visualization of RV free wall and both RV and left ventricular (LV) function was evaluated. RV(+) Group had larger extent of anteroseptal necrosis and severer impairment of RV free wall, as compared with RV(-) Group. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower in RV(+) Group than RV(-) Group in both acute and chronic phases. Although RV ejection fraction (RVEF) in acute phase was significantly lower in RV(+) Group than RV(-) Group, it did not differ in chronic phase between the two groups. In RV(+) Group, RV stroke work index (RVSWI), pulmonary artery end diastolic pressure (PAEDP), and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPA) in chronic phase showed a statistically significant increase compared with those in acute phase; these hemodynamic variables in chronic phase were also significantly higher than those in RV(-) Group. RV/LV ratio inversely correlated with LVEF, and both necrotic extent and impairment severity positively correlated with both PAEDP and MPA. RV free wall could be visualized more clearly, corresponding to extremely decreased LV function. These findings suggest that RV free wall may play an important role in maintaining LV and RV function when ventricular septum is severely impaired by anteroseptal infarction. (N.K.)

  13. Functional and structural balances of homologous sensorimotor regions in multiple sclerosis fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cogliati Dezza, I; Zito, G; Tomasevic, L

    2015-01-01

    regions-known to be crucial for sensorimotor networks effectiveness-decrease with MS fatigue increase. Functional connectivity measures at rest and during a simple motor task (weak handgrip of either the right or left hand) were derived from primary sensorimotor areas electroencephalographic recordings......Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly disabling symptom. Among the central mechanisms behind it, an involvement of sensorimotor networks is clearly evident from structural and functional studies. We aimed at assessing whether functional/structural balances of homologous sensorimotor...... in 27 mildly disabled MS patients. Structural MRI-derived inter-hemispheric asymmetries included the cortical thickness of Rolandic regions and the volume of thalami. Fatigue symptoms increased together with the functional inter-hemispheric imbalance of sensorimotor homologous areas activities at rest...

  14. Conductivity, temperature, depth, water quality and pigment data from R/V Bellows cruise BE-1311, 2012-12-12 to 2012-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0159411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains conductivity, temperature, and depth data collected during R/V Bellows cruise BE-1311 of the offshore shelf of the Florida Panhandle Bight at...

  15. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed the importance of urban agglomerations in the regional organization of Serbian space at one side, and on the other side they are taken as carriers of the future integration of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE. In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions. High level of urban centralization is formed under the influence of the population density and functions of the metropolitan area of Belgrade. The problems of unbalanced disposition of population growth and qualitative transformation of urban centers are stressed and analyzed. Based on the role in integration process in the SEE, the metropolitan region of Belgrade is pointed out as its principal carrier and the metropolitan region of Niš as its secondary carrier, as well as the urban centers of importance for the cross-border regional cooperation. As the most suitable instrument of internal regional integration the model of Functional Urban Regions (FURs or Functional Urban Areas (FUAs is proposed, and for external regional integration is proposed the model of Metropolitan European Growth Areas (MEGAs. The coherent short-term and long-term development strategies for Serbian towns and their regions seem absent.

  16. Green's function matching method for adjoining regions having different masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern Horing, Norman J

    2006-01-01

    We present a primer on the method of Green's function matching for the determination of the global Schroedinger Green's function for all space subject to joining conditions at an interface between two (or more) separate parts of the region having different masses. The object of this technique is to determine the full space Schroedinger Green's function in terms of the individual Green's functions of the constituent parts taken as if they were themselves extended to all space. This analytical method has had successful applications in the theory of surface states, and remains of interest for nanostructures

  17. ULTRA-LOW AMPLITUDE VARIABLES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD-CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS, POP. II CEPHEIDS, RV TAU STARS, AND BINARY VARIABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Buchler, J.; Wood, Peter R.; Soszynski, Igor

    2009-01-01

    A search for variable stars with ultra-low amplitudes (ULAs), in the millimagnitude range, has been made in the combined MACHO and OGLE databases in the broad vicinity of the Cepheid instability strip in the HR diagram. A total of 25 singly periodic and 4 multiply periodic ULA objects have been uncovered. Our analysis does not allow us to distinguish between pulsational and ellipsoidal (binary) variabilities, nor between Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and foreground objects. However, the objects are strongly clustered and appear to be associated with the pulsational instability strips of LMC Pop. I and II variables. When combined with the ULA variables of Buchler et al., a total of 20 objects fall close to the classical Cepheid instability strip. However, they appear to fall on parallel period-magnitude (PM) relations that are shifted to slightly higher magnitude which would confer them a different evolutionary status. Low-amplitude RV Tauri and Pop. II Cepheids have been uncovered that do not appear in the MACHO or OGLE catalogs. Interestingly, a set of binaries seem to lie on a PM relation that is essentially parallel to that of the RV Tauri/Pop. II Cepheids.

  18. Pulmonary function and V/Q distribution in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yutaka; Mashima, Yasuoki; Shimada, Takao; Kawakami, Kenji; Tominaga, Shigeru.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary functions of the hyperthyroidisms were evaluated before and after therapy. Kr-81m continuous inhalation and Tc-99m MAA (Macro Agguregated Albumin) perfusion study, spirography (VC, RV, FRC, TLC, CV), Diffusion capacity, and flow volume (V25, V50) study were done before and after therapy of 32 hyperthyroidisms. As a result VC% increased and RV% decreased significantly after the therapy, due to improvement of weakness of respiratory muscle. No significant changes were recognized on FRC, TLC, CV, DLco, V25, V50 after the therapy. Perfusion shifted to the upper lung fields in 21 (91 %) out of 23 hyperthyroidism patients. There was no significant change of ventilatory distribution after the therapy. V/Q ratio in upper lung fields therefore decreased in hyperthyroid state. After the therapy, perfusion in upper lung fields recovered to normal pattern, corresponding to normalization of T4 value. Shift of perfusion to upper lung fields was considered to be one of pathophysiological changes of hemodynamics in the hyperthyroidisms. (author)

  19. Operational flood forecasting system of Umbria Region "Functional Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Ponziani, F.; Viterbo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrometeorological alert office (called "Decentrate Functional Centre" - CFD) of Umbria Region, in central Italy, is the office that provides technical tools able to support decisions when significant flood/landslide events occur, furnishing 24h support for the whole duration of the emergency period, according to the national directive DPCM 27 February 2004 concerning the "Operating concepts for functional management of national and regional alert system during flooding and landslide events for civil protection activities purposes" that designs, within the Italian Civil Defence Emergency Management System, a network of 21 regional Functional Centres coordinated by a central office at the National Civil Protection Department in Rome. Due to its "linking" role between Civil Protection "real time" activities and environmental/planning "deferred time" ones, the Centre is in charge to acquire and collect both real time and quasi-static data: quantitative data from monitoring networks (hydrometeorological stations, meteo radar, ...), meteorological forecasting models output, Earth Observation data, hydraulic and hydrological simulation models, cartographic and thematic GIS data (vectorial and raster type), planning studies related to flooding areas mapping, dam managing plans during flood events, non instrumental information from direct control of "territorial presidium". A detailed procedure for the management of critical events was planned, also in order to define the different role of various authorities and institutions involved. Tiber River catchment, of which Umbria region represents the main upper-medium portion, includes also regional trans-boundary issues very important to cope with, especially for what concerns large dam behavior and management during heavy rainfall. The alert system is referred to 6 different warning areas in which the territory has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels according

  20. Euroopa Sotsiaalfondi vahendid Eesti noortekeskustes - kasutus, tulemused ja mõju noortekeskustele ning ühiskonnale / Heidi Paabort ; kommenteerinud Kerli Kõiv, Tiina Sinijärv, Aire Pruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paabort, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    ESFi programmide tulemusel toimunud muutusi noorsootöös kommenteerivad Rõuge vallavalitsuse noorsootöö spetsialist Kerli Kõiv, Keila ANK ja Keila Noortekeskuse juhataja Tiina Sinijärv ja Nursi noorsootöös osaleja Aire Pruus

  1. Proteome analysis of ofloxacin and moxifloxacin induced mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Manju; Sharma, Divakar; Kumar, Bhavnesh; Deo, Nirmala; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bisht, Deepa; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Ofloxacin (OFX) and moxifloxacin (MOX) are the most promising second line drugs for tuberculosis treatment. Although the primary mechanism of action of OFX and MOX is gyrase inhibition, other possible mechanisms cannot be ruled out. Being the functional moiety of cell, the proteins act as primary targets for developing drugs, diagnostics and therapeutics. In this study we have investigated the proteomic changes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates induced by OFX and MOX by applying comparative proteomic approaches based on two-dinensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) along with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF-MS) and bioinformatic tools. The findings are likely to provide new understanding of OFX and MOX mechanisms that might be helpful in exploring new diagnostics and drug targets. Our study explored eleven proteins (Rv2889c, Rv2623, Rv0952, Rv1827, Rv1932, Rv0054, Rv1080c, Rv3418c, Rv3914, Rv1636 and Rv0009) that were overexpressed in the presence of drugs. Among them, Rv2623, Rv1827 and Rv1636 were identified as proteins with unknown function. InterProScan and molecular docking revealed that the conserved domain of hypothetical proteins interact with OFX and MOX which indicate a probable inhibition/modulation of the functioning of these proteins by both drugs, which might be overexpressed to overcome this effect.

  2. MR imaging of right ventricular function after the Ross procedure for aortic valve replacement: initial experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, Heynric B.; de Roos, Albert; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Schoof, Paul H.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Kroft, Lucia J. M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively assess right ventricular (RV) function after the Ross procedure by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The local ethics committee approved the study and informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to enrollment in the study. Seventeen

  3. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy and lactation leads to impaired right ventricular function in young adult baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Anderson H; Li, Cun; Huber, Hillary F; Schwab, Matthias; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Clarke, Geoffrey D

    2017-07-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and leads to heightened cardiovascular risks later in life. We report right ventricular (RV) filling and ejection abnormalities in IUGR young adult baboons using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Both functional and morphological indicators of poor RV function were seen, many of which were similar to effects of ageing, but also with a few key differences. We observed more pronounced RV changes compared to our previous report of the left ventricle, suggesting there is likely to be a component of isolated RV abnormality in addition to expected haemodynamic sequelae from left ventricular dysfunction. In particular, our findings raise the suspicion of pulmonary hypertension after IUGR. This study establishes that IUGR also leads to impairment of the right ventricle in addition to the left ventricle classically studied. Maternal nutrient restriction induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), increasing later life chronic disease including cardiovascular dysfunction. Our left ventricular (LV) CMRI studies in IUGR baboons (8 M, 8 F, 5.7 years - human equivalent approximately 25 years), control offspring (8 M, 8 F, 5.6 years), and normal elderly (OLD) baboons (6 M, 6 F, mean 15.9 years) revealed long-term LV abnormalities in IUGR offspring. Although it is known that right ventricular (RV) function is dependent on LV health, the IUGR right ventricle remains poorly studied. We examined the right ventricle with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the same cohorts. We observed decreased ejection fraction (49 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 3%, P < 0.001), cardiac index (2.73 ± 0.27 vs. 1.89 ± 0.20 l min -1 m -2 , P < 0.05), early filling rate/body surface area (BSA) (109.2 ± 7.8 vs. 44.6 ± 7.3 ml s -1  m -2 , P < 0.001), wall thickening (61 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 5%, P < 0.05), and longitudinal shortening (26 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2%, P < 0.01) in IUGR animals with increased

  4. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-03-01

    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preparing for Science at Sea - a Chief Scientists Training Cruise on Board the RV Sikuliaq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, B.; Pockalny, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    As part of their education, marine geology and geophysics students spend time at sea, collecting, processing and interpreting data to earn their degrees. While this is a critical component of their preparation, it is an incomplete introduction to the process of doing science at sea. Most students are unfamiliar with the proposal process. Many students spend their time at sea performing assigned tasks without responsibility or participation in cruise planning and execution. In December 2016, we conducted a two-week-long, NSF-funded "Chief Scientist Training Cruise" aboard the R/V Sikuliaq designed to complete their introduction to seagoing science by giving the students the opportunity to plan and execute surveys based hypotheses they formulated. The educational process began with applicants responding to a request for proposals (RFP), which provided a framework for the scientific potential of the cruise. This process continued training through two days of workshops and presentations at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics. The students used existing data to define hypotheses, plan surveys, and collect/analyze data to test their hypothesis. The survey design was subject to the time constraints imposed by the ship schedule and the physical constraints imposed by the ship's equipment. The training and sea time made it possible to address all of steps of the scientific process, including proposal writing. Once underway, the combination of conducting the planned surveys and attending daily presentations helped familiarize the students with at-sea operations, the equipment on board the RV Sikuliaq, and the process of writing proposals to NSF for sea-going science. Questionnaires conducted prior to the cruise and in the final days before arriving in port document the success of this training program for developing the abilities and confidence in identifying significant scientific problems, preparing proposals to secure funding, and planning and directing ship surveys.

  6. Altered Right Ventricular Kinetic Energy Work Density and Viscous Energy Dissipation in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study Using 4D Flow MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Joyce Han

    Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV function has increasingly being recognized as an important predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The increased RV after-load increase RV work in PAH. We used time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI (4D flow MRI to derive RV kinetic energy (KE work density and energy loss in the pulmonary artery (PA to better characterize RV work in PAH patients.4D flow and standard cardiac cine images were obtained in ten functional class I/II patients with PAH and nine healthy subjects. For each individual, we calculated the RV KE work density and the amount of viscous dissipation in the PA.PAH patients had alterations in flow patterns in both the RV and the PA compared to healthy subjects. PAH subjects had significantly higher RV KE work density than healthy subjects (94.7±33.7 mJ/mL vs. 61.7±14.8 mJ/mL, p = 0.007 as well as a much greater percent PA energy loss (21.1±6.4% vs. 2.2±1.3%, p = 0.0001 throughout the cardiac cycle. RV KE work density and percent PA energy loss had mild and moderate correlations with RV ejection fraction.This study has quantified two kinetic energy metrics to assess RV function using 4D flow. RV KE work density and PA viscous energy loss not only distinguished healthy subjects from patients, but also provided distinction amongst PAH patients. These metrics hold promise as imaging markers for RV function.

  7. Altered Right Ventricular Kinetic Energy Work Density and Viscous Energy Dissipation in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study Using 4D Flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Q Joyce; Witschey, Walter R T; Fang-Yen, Christopher M; Arkles, Jeffrey S; Barker, Alex J; Forfia, Paul R; Han, Yuchi

    2015-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function has increasingly being recognized as an important predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The increased RV after-load increase RV work in PAH. We used time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI (4D flow MRI) to derive RV kinetic energy (KE) work density and energy loss in the pulmonary artery (PA) to better characterize RV work in PAH patients. 4D flow and standard cardiac cine images were obtained in ten functional class I/II patients with PAH and nine healthy subjects. For each individual, we calculated the RV KE work density and the amount of viscous dissipation in the PA. PAH patients had alterations in flow patterns in both the RV and the PA compared to healthy subjects. PAH subjects had significantly higher RV KE work density than healthy subjects (94.7±33.7 mJ/mL vs. 61.7±14.8 mJ/mL, p = 0.007) as well as a much greater percent PA energy loss (21.1±6.4% vs. 2.2±1.3%, p = 0.0001) throughout the cardiac cycle. RV KE work density and percent PA energy loss had mild and moderate correlations with RV ejection fraction. This study has quantified two kinetic energy metrics to assess RV function using 4D flow. RV KE work density and PA viscous energy loss not only distinguished healthy subjects from patients, but also provided distinction amongst PAH patients. These metrics hold promise as imaging markers for RV function.

  8. Nonlinear H∞ Optimal Control Scheme for an Underwater Vehicle with Regional Function Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zool H. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A conventional region control technique cannot meet the demands for an accurate tracking performance in view of its inability to accommodate highly nonlinear system dynamics, imprecise hydrodynamic coefficients, and external disturbances. In this paper, a robust technique is presented for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV with region tracking function. Within this control scheme, nonlinear H∞ and region based control schemes are used. A Lyapunov-like function is presented for stability analysis of the proposed control law. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tracking control of the AUV. It is shown that the proposed control law is robust against parameter uncertainties, external disturbances, and nonlinearities and it leads to uniform ultimate boundedness of the region tracking error.

  9. WATER TEMPERATURE, Depth, and SALINITY collected from RV Walton Smith in Gulf of Mexico from 2012-07-01 to 2012-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0156594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 59 CTD casts made from small boats launched by the RV Walton Smith in the northern Gulf of Mexico near DeSoto Canyon in July 2012 as part of the Grand Lagrangian...

  10. Water Temperature, Conductivity, and others collected from RV Walton Smith in Gulf of Mexico from 2012-07-21 to 2012-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0156586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains 43 CTD casts made from the RV Walton Smith in the northern Gulf of Mexico near DeSoto Canyon in July-August 2012 as part of the Grand...

  11. Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesentini Nicoletta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression. Results In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1 upon short (4 h and long (72 h reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV, and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR and the remote region (RR of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb, Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh, Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a, Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz, Beta-glucuronidase (gusb, Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt, TATA binding box protein (tbp, Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs, Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1. According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary. Conclusions This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in

  12. Financial literacy is associated with medial brain region functional connectivity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Fleischman, Debra A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Financial literacy refers to the ability to access and utilize financial information in ways that promote better outcomes. In old age, financial literacy has been associated with a wide range of positive characteristics; however, the neural correlates remain unclear. Recent work has suggested greater co-activity between anterior-posterior medial brain regions is associated with better brain functioning. We hypothesized financial literacy would be associated with this pattern. We assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to a posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed region of interest (ROI) in 138 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Results revealed financial literacy was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and three regions: the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the left postcentral gyrus, and the right precuneus. Results also revealed financial literacy was associated negatively with functional connectivity between the PCC and left caudate. Post hoc analyses showed the PCC-vmPFC relationship accounted for the most variance in a regression model adjusted for all four significant functional connectivity relationships, demographic factors, and global cognition. These findings provide information on the neural mechanisms associated with financial literacy in old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Q2 dependence of the spin structure function in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Li, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we show what we can learn from the CEBAF experiments on spin-structure functions, and the transition from the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule in the real photon limit to the spin-dependent sum rules in deep inelastic scattering, and how the asymmetry A 1 (x,Q 2 ) approaches the scaling limit in the resonance region. The spin structure function in the resonance region alone cannot determine the spin-dependent sum rule due to the kinematic restriction of the resonance region. The integral ∫ 0 1 {A 1 (x,Q 2 )F 2 (x,Q 2 )/2x[1+R(x,Q 2 )]}dx is estimated from Q 2 =0--2.5 GeV 2 . The result shows that there is a region where both contributions from the baryon resonances and the deep inelastic scattering are important; thus it provides important information on the high twist effects on the spin-dependent sum rule

  14. Hydrostatic pressure, water temperature, and others collected from R/V Pelican in Gulf of Mexico from 2012-11-28 to 2012-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0156587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data was collected during the GISR G03 cruise aboard R/V Pelican held from 28 November to 20 December 2012. This data set includes vertical profiles of...

  15. CONDUCTIVITY, WATER TEMPERATURE, and others collected from R/V Weatherbird II in Gulf of Mexico from 2013-06-24 to 2013-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0156593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset reports conductivity, temperature and depth data collected in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during the R/V Weatherbird II cruise WB-1318 from June 24-30th...

  16. Quantitative expression profile of distinct functional regions in the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Kasukawa

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B* project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/ for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems.

  17. Biogenic halocarbons from coastal oceanic upwelling regions as tropospheric halogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kirstin; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Hepach, Helmke; Fiehn, Alina; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the troposphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. Finally, observations from a second Peruvian Upwelling cruise with R/V SONNE during El Nino in October 2015 will be compared to highlight the role of different El Nino Southern Oscillation conditions. This study confirms the importance of coastal oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lowermost atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above coastal ocean upwelling

  18. Effect of successful thrombolytic therapy on right ventricular function in acute inferior wall myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, G.; Hofmann, M.; Schwarz, F.; Mehmel, H.; Manthey, J.; Tillmanns, H.; Hartmann, S.; Kuebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    In 19 patients undergoing intracoronary fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction, the site of coronary obstruction was in the proximal right coronary artery. Time between onset of symptoms and hospitalization was less than 4 hours. These patients were studied prospectively by radionuclide techniques immediately after admission, 48 hours and 4 weeks after AMI. Right and left ventricular (RV and LV) ejection fractions (EF) were calculated from gated blood pool scintigrams and the size of the LV perfusion defect was assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy. Before the intervention, RV performance was significantly lower (RVEF 29 +/- 8%) than normal (53 +/- 7%). The size of the LV perfusion defect was relatively small (less than 25% of LV circumference), and as a consequence, LV pump function was only marginally impaired (LVEF 54 +/- 11%). Recanalization of the infarct artery was achieved in 12 patients (group A); in 7 patients the infarct artery remained occluded (group B). Early after the intervention (48 hours), RV performance in group A recovered significantly (RVEF: 30 +/- 9% vs 39 +/- 7%, p less than 0.01), and further improvement was noted at 4 weeks (RVEF 43 +/- 5%, p less than 0.01)

  19. The right ventricle following prolonged endurance exercise: are we overlooking the more important side of the heart? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Adrian D; La Gerche, Andre

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged endurance exercise is associated with elevated biomarkers associated with myocardial damage and modest evidence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Recent studies have reported more profound effects on right ventricular (RV) function following endurance exercise. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting RV function pre-endurance and postendurance exercise. We performed a search of peer-reviewed studies with the criteria for inclusion in the analysis being (1) healthy adult participants; (2) studies examining RV function following an event of at least 90 min duration; (3) studies reporting RV fractional area change (RVFAC), RV strain (S), RV ejection fraction (RVEF) or tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and (4) studies evaluating RV function immediately (exercise. Fourteen studies were included with 329 participants. A random-effects meta-analysis revealed significant impairments of RV function when assessed by RVFAC (weighted mean difference (WMD) -5.78%, 95% CI -7.09% to -4.46%), S (WMD 3.71%, 95% CI 2.79% to 4.63%), RVEF (WMD -7.05%, 95% CI -12.3% to -1.8%) and TAPSE (WMD -4.77 mm, 95% CI -8.3 to -1.24 mm). Modest RV dilation was evident in studies reporting RV systolic area postexercise (WMD 1.79 cm(2), 95% CI 0.5 to 3.08 cm(2)). In contrast, no postexercise changes in LV systolic function (expressed as LVFAC or LVEF) were observed in the included studies (standardised mean difference 0.03%, 95% CI -0.13% to 0.18%). Intense prolonged exercise is associated with a measurable reduction in RV function while LV function is relatively unaffected. Future studies should examine the potential clinical consequences of repeated prolonged endurance exercise on the right ventricle. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. A functional interaction approach to the definition of meso regions: The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlebach Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of functional meso regions for the territory of the Czech Republic is articulated in this article. Functional regions reflect horizontal interactions in space and are presented as a useful tool for various types of geographical analyses, and also for spatial planning, economic policy designs, etc. This paper attempts to add to the discussion on the need to delineate areal units at different hierarchical levels, and to understand the functional flows and spatial behaviours of the population in a given space. Three agglomerative methods are applied in the paper (the CURDS regionalisation algorithm, Intramax, and cluster analysis, and they have not been used previously in Czech geography for the delineation of functional meso regions. Existing functional regions at the micro-level, based on daily travel-to-work flows from the 2001 census, have served as the building blocks. The analyses have produced five regional systems at the meso level, based on daily labour commuting movements of the population. Basic statistics and a characterisation of these systems are provided in this paper.

  1. Crystal Structure of Full-length Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Glycogen Branching Enzyme; Insights of N-Terminal [beta]-Sandwich in Sustrate Specifity and Enzymatic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kuntal; Kumar, Shiva; Sharma, Shikha; Garg, Saurabh Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Suhail; Xu, H. Eric; Agrawal, Pushpa; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam (NU Sinapore); (Van Andel); (IMT-India)

    2010-07-13

    The open reading frame Rv1326c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv encodes for an {alpha}-1,4-glucan branching enzyme (MtbGlgB, EC 2.4.1.18, Uniprot entry Q10625). This enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13 and catalyzes the branching of a linear glucose chain during glycogenesis by cleaving a 1 {yields} 4 bond and making a new 1 {yields} 6 bond. Here, we show the crystal structure of full-length MtbGlgB (MtbGlgBWT) at 2.33-{angstrom} resolution. MtbGlgBWT contains four domains: N1 {beta}-sandwich, N2 {beta}-sandwich, a central ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} domain that houses the catalytic site, and a C-terminal {beta}-sandwich. We have assayed the amylase activity with amylose and starch as substrates and the glycogen branching activity using amylose as a substrate for MtbGlgBWT and the N1 domain-deleted (the first 108 residues deleted) Mtb{Delta}108GlgB protein. The N1 {beta}-sandwich, which is formed by the first 105 amino acids and superimposes well with the N2 {beta}-sandwich, is shown to have an influence in substrate binding in the amylase assay. Also, we have checked and shown that several GH13 family inhibitors are ineffective against MtbGlgBWT and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB. We propose a two-step reaction mechanism, for the amylase activity (1 {yields} 4 bond breakage) and isomerization (1 {yields} 6 bond formation), which occurs in the same catalytic pocket. The structural and functional properties of MtbGlgB and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB are compared with those of the N-terminal 112-amino acid-deleted Escherichia coli GlgB (EC{Delta}112GlgB).

  2. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... to be densely packed with serotonin transporters (5-hydroxytryptaminic [5-HTT] system). METHODS: A template set for the raphe nuclei, based on their high content of 5-HTT as visualized in parametric (11)C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile PET images, was created for 10...... healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared...

  3. Correlation between right ventricular T1 mapping and right ventricular dysfunction in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellis, Christine L; Yingchoncharoen, Teerapat; Gai, Neville; Kusunose, Kenya; Popović, Zoran B; Flamm, Scott; Kwon, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) fibrosis is increasingly recognized as the underlying pathological substrate in a variety of clinical conditions. We sought to employ cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques of strain imaging and longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ) mapping to better examine the relationship between RV function and structure. Our aim was to initially evaluate the feasibility of these techniques to evaluate the right ventricle. We then sought to explore the relationship between RV function and underlying fibrosis, along with examining the evolution of RV remodeling according to the amount of baseline fibrosis. Echocardiography was performed in 102 subjects with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Right ventricular parameters were assessed including: fractional area change (FAC) and longitudinal strain. The same cohort underwent CMR. Post-contrast T 1 mapping was performed as a marker of fibrosis with a Look-Locker technique using inversion recovery imaging. Mid-ventricular post-contrast T 1 values of the RV free wall, RV septum and lateral LV were calculated using prototype analysis software. Biventricular volumetric data including ejection fraction was measured by CMR using a cine short axis stack. CMR strain analysis was also performed to assess 2D RV longitudinal and radial strain. Simultaneous biochemical and anthropometric data were recorded. Subjects were followed over a median time of 29 months (IQR 20-37 months) with echocardiography to evaluate temporal change in RV FAC according to baseline post-contrast T 1 values. Longitudinal data analysis was performed to adjust for patient loss during follow-up. Subjects (62% men, 51 ± 15 years) had mild to moderately impaired global RV systolic function (RVEF = 39 ± 15%; RVEDV = 187 ± 69 ml; RVESV = 119 ± 68 ml) and moderate left ventricular dysfunction at baseline (LVEF 30 ± 17%). Good correlation was observed between mean LV and RV post-contrast T 1 values (r = 0.652, p

  4. Pulmonary function in adolescents with ataxia telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Lefton-Greif, Maureen; Rosquist, Karen; Crawford, Thomas; Kelly, Amber; Zeitlin, Pamela; Carson, Kathryn A; Lederman, Howard M

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in adolescents with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T), however objective measurements of lung function may be difficult to obtain because of underlying bulbar weakness, tremors, and difficulty coordinating voluntary respiratory maneuvers. To increase the reliability of pulmonary testing, minor adjustments were made to stabilize the head and to minimize leaks in the system. Fifteen A-T adolescents completed lung volume measurements by helium dilution. To assess for reproducibility of spirometry testing, 10 A-T adolescents performed spirometry on three separate occasions. Total lung capacity (TLC) was normal or just mildly decreased in 12/15 adolescents tested. TLC correlated positively with functional residual capacity (FRC), a measurement independent of patient effort (R2=0.71). The majority of individuals had residual volumes (RV) greater than 120% predicted (10/15) and slow vital capacities (VC) less than 70% predicted (9/15). By spirometry, force vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) values were reproducible in the 10 individuals who underwent testing on three separate occasions (R=0.97 and 0.96 respectively). Seven of the 10 adolescents had FEV1/FVC ratios>90%. Lung volume measurements from A-T adolescents revealed near normal TLC values with increased RV and decreased VC values. These findings indicate a decreased ability to expire to residual volume rather then a restrictive defect. Spirometry was also found to be reproducible in A-T adolescents suggesting that spirometry testing may be useful for tracking changes in pulmonary function over time in this population. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Inflammatory Mediators Drive Adverse Right Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction and Serve as Potential Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydykov, Akylbek; Mamazhakypov, Argen; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Kosanovic, Djuro; Sarybaev, Akpay S.; Weissmann, Norbert; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Schermuly, Ralph T.

    2018-01-01

    Adverse right ventricular (RV) remodeling leads to ventricular dysfunction and failure that represents an important determinant of outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recent evidence indicates that inflammatory activation contributes to the pathogenesis of adverse RV remodeling and dysfunction. It has been shown that accumulation of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and mast cells in the right ventricle is associated with maladaptive RV remodeling. In addition, inhibition of inflammation in animal models of RV failure ameliorated RV structural and functional impairment. Furthermore, a number of circulating inflammatory mediators have been demonstrated to be associated with RV performance. This work reviews the role of inflammation in RV remodeling and dysfunction and discusses anti-inflammatory strategies that may attenuate adverse structural alterations while promoting improvement of RV function. PMID:29875701

  6. Different brain activation under left and right ventricular stimulation: an fMRI study in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia in the anterior wall of the left ventricule (LV) and in the inferior wall and/or right ventricle (RV) shows different manifestations that can be explained by the different innervations of cardiac afferent nerves. However, it remains unclear whether information from different areas of the heart, such as the LV and RV, are differently processed in the brain. In this study, we investigated the brain regions that process information from the LV or RV using cardiac electrical stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in anesthetized rats because the combination of these two approaches cannot be used in humans. An electrical stimulation catheter was inserted into the LV or RV (n = 12 each). Brain fMRI scans were recorded during LV or RV stimulation (9 Hz and 0.3 ms width) over 10 blocks consisting of alternating periods of 2 mA for 30 sec followed by 0.2 mA for 60 sec. The validity of fMRI signals was confirmed by first and second-level analyses and temporal profiles. Increases in fMRI signals were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and the right somatosensory cortex under LV stimulation. In contrast, RV stimulation activated the right somatosensory cortex, which was identified more anteriorly compared with LV stimulation but did not activate the anterior cingulate cortex. This study provides the first evidence for differences in brain activation under LV and RV stimulation. These different brain processes may be associated with different clinical manifestations between anterior wall and inferoposterior wall and/or RV myocardial ischemia.

  7. Effect of Selective Prostaglandin E2 EP2 Receptor Agonist CP-533,536 on Voiding Efficiency in Rats with Midodrine-Induced Functional Urethral Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Ryoko; Imazumi, Katsunori; Takamatsu, Hajime; Ishizu, Kenichiro; Yoshino, Taiji; Masuda, Noriyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effect of the selective prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor agonist CP-533,536 on voiding efficiency in rats with midodrine-induced functional urethral obstruction. The effect of CP-533,536 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, intravenous [i.v.]) on urethral perfusion pressure (UPP) was investigated in anesthetized rats pre-treated with midodrine (1 mg/kg, i.v.), which forms an active metabolite that acts as an α1 -adrenoceptor agonist. The effect of CP-533,536 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) on cystometric parameters was also investigated in anesthetized rats. In addition, the effect of CP-533,536 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) on residual urine volume (RV) and voiding efficiency (VE) was investigated in conscious rats treated with midodrine (1 mg/kg, i.v.). CP-533,536 dose-dependently decreased UPP elevated by midodrine in anesthetized rats. In contrast, CP-533,536 did not affect maximum voiding pressure, intercontraction interval, or intravesical threshold pressure. In conscious rats, midodrine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) markedly increased RV and reduced VE. CP-533,536 dose-dependently ameliorated increases in RV and decreases in VE induced by midodrine. These results suggest that a selective EP2 receptor agonist could ameliorate the elevation of RV and improve the reduction of VE in rats with functional urethral obstruction caused by stimulation of α1 -adrenoceptors. The mechanism of action might be not potentiation of bladder contraction but rather preferential relief of urethral constriction. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Accuracy of right and left ventricular functional assessment by short-axis vs axial cine steady-state free-precession magnetic resonance imaging: intrapatient correlation with main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta phase-contrast flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Susan H; Wald, Rachel; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Deva, Djeven; Crean, Andrew M; Nguyen, Elsie; Paul, Narinder S; Ley, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    The left ventricle (LV) is routinely assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using short-axis orientation; it remains unclear whether the right ventricle (RV) can also be adequately assessed in this orientation or whether dedicated axial orientation is required. We used phase-contrast (PC) flow measurements in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ascending aorta (Aorta) as nonvolumetric standard of reference and compared RV and LV volumes in short-axis and axial orientations. A retrospective analysis identified 30 patients with cardiac MRI data sets. Patients underwent MRI (1.5 T or 3 T), with retrospectively gated cine steady-state free-precession in axial and short-axis orientations. PC flow analyses of MPA and Aorta were used as the reference measure of RV and LV output. There was a high linear correlation between MPA-PC flow and RV-stroke volume (SV) short axis (r = 0.9) and RV-SV axial (r = 0.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean offset of 1.4 mL for RV axial and -2.3 mL for RV-short-axis vs MPA-PC flow. There was a high linear correlation between Aorta-PC flow and LV-SV short-axis (r = 0.9) and LV-SV axial (r = 0.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean offset of 4.8 m for LV short axis and 7.0 mL for LV axial vs Aorta-PC flow. There was no significant difference (P = .6) between short-axis-LV SV and short-axis-RV SV. No significant impact of the slice acquisition orientation for determination of RV and LV stroke volumes was found. Therefore, cardiac magnetic resonance workflow does not need to be extended by an axial data set for patients without complex cardiac disease for assessment of biventricular function and volumes. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Right ventricular longitudinal strain and right ventricular stroke work index in patients with severe heart failure: left ventricular assist device suitability for transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, M; Bernazzali, S; Lisi, M; Tsioulpas, C; Croccia, M G; Lisi, G; Maccherini, M; Mondillo, S

    2012-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) systolic function has a critical role in determining the clinical outcome and the success of using left ventricular assist devices in patients with refractory heart failure. RV deformation analysis by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has recently allowed the analysis of RV longitudinal function. Using cardiac catheterization as the reference standard, this study aimed to explore the correlation between RV longitudinal function by STE and RV stroke work index (RVSWI) among patients referred for cardiac transplantation. Right heart catheterization and transthoracic echo-Doppler were simultaneously performed in 47 patients referred for cardiac transplant assessment due to refractory heart failure (ejection fraction 25.1 ± 4.5%). Thermodilution RV stroke volume and invasive pulmonary pressures were used to obtain RVSWI. RV longitudinal strain (RVLS) by STE was assessed averaging RV free-wall segments (free-wall RVLS). We also calculated. Tricuspid S' and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). No significant correlation was observed for TAPSE on tricuspid S' with RV stroke volume (r = 0.14 and r = 0.06, respectively). A close negative correlation between free-wall RVLS and RVSWI was found (r = -0.82; P rights reserved.

  10. Calibration of GafChromic XR-RV3 radiochromic film for skin dose measurement using standardized x-ray spectra and a commercial flatbed scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Bradley P.; Speidel, Michael A.; Pike, Tina L.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, newly formulated XR-RV3 GafChromic film was calibrated with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceability for measurement of patient skin dose during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Methods: The film was calibrated free-in-air to air kerma levels between 15 and 1100 cGy using four moderately filtered x-ray beam qualities (60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp). The calibration films were scanned with a commercial flatbed document scanner. Film reflective density-to-air kerma calibration curves were constructed for each beam quality, with both the orange and white sides facing the x-ray source. A method to correct for nonuniformity in scanner response (up to 25% depending on position) was developed to enable dose measurement with large films. The response of XR-RV3 film under patient backscattering conditions was examined using on-phantom film exposures and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The response of XR-RV3 film to a given air kerma depended on kVp and film orientation. For a 200 cGy air kerma exposure with the orange side of the film facing the source, the film response increased by 20% from 60 to 120 kVp. At 500 cGy, the increase was 12%. When 500 cGy exposures were performed with the white side facing the x-ray source, the film response increased by 4.0% (60 kVp) to 9.9% (120 kVp) compared to the orange-facing orientation. On-phantom film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations show that using a NIST-traceable free-in-air calibration curve to determine air kerma in the presence of backscatter results in an error from 2% up to 8% depending on beam quality. The combined uncertainty in the air kerma measurement from the calibration curves and scanner nonuniformity correction was ±7.1% (95% C.I.). The film showed notable stability. Calibrations of film and scanner separated by 1 yr differed by 1.0%. Conclusions: XR-RV3 radiochromic film response to a given air kerma shows dependence on beam quality and film

  11. Stratus Ocean Reference Station (20 deg S, 85 deg W) Mooring Recovery and Deployment Cruise, R/V Ronald H. Brown Cruise 06-07, October 9-October 27, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bigorre, Sebastien; Weller, Robert; Lord, Jeff; Whelan, Sean; Galbraith, Nancy; Wolfe, Dan; Bariteau, Ludovic; Ghate, Virendra; Zajaczkovski, Uriel; Vera, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    .... During the October 2006 cruise of NOAA's R/V Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities where recovery of the Stratus 6 WHOI surface mooring that had been deployed in October...

  12. Conductivity, water temperature, coccolith species, and others collected from R/V Bellows in Gulf of Mexico from 2011-09-29 to 2011-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0159233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains conductivity, temperature and depth data R/V Bellows cruise BE-1204 in the DeSoto Canyon from September 29th to October 1st 2011. Census data...

  13. Monoclonal Antibodies, Derived from Humans Vaccinated with the RV144 HIV Vaccine Containing the HVEM Binding Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Glycoprotein D, Neutralize HSV Infection, Mediate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity, and Protect Mice from Ocular Challenge with HSV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Tomaras, Georgia D; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Goodman, Kyle N; Berman, Phillip W; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayapan, Sorachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Haynes, Barton F; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-10-01

    The RV144 HIV vaccine trial included a recombinant HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) construct fused to a small portion of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) so that the first 40 amino acids of gp120 were replaced by the signal sequence and the first 27 amino acids of the mature form of gD. This region of gD contains most of the binding site for HVEM, an HSV receptor important for virus infection of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. RV144 induced antibodies to HIV that were partially protective against infection, as well as antibodies to HSV. We derived monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from peripheral blood B cells of recipients of the RV144 HIV vaccine and showed that these antibodies neutralized HSV-1 infection in cells expressing HVEM, but not the other major virus receptor, nectin-1. The MAbs mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and mice that received the MAbs and were then challenged by corneal inoculation with HSV-1 had reduced eye disease, shedding, and latent infection. To our knowledge, this is the first description of MAbs derived from human recipients of a vaccine that specifically target the HVEM binding site of gD. In summary, we found that monoclonal antibodies derived from humans vaccinated with the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD (i) neutralized HSV-1 infection in a cell receptor-specific manner, (ii) mediated ADCC, and (iii) reduced ocular disease in virus-infected mice. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores and neonatal herpes and is a leading cause of blindness. Despite many trials, no HSV vaccine has been approved. Nectin-1 and HVEM are the two major cellular receptors for HSV. These receptors are expressed at different levels in various tissues, and the role of each receptor in HSV pathogenesis is not well understood. We derived human monoclonal antibodies from persons who received the HIV RV144 vaccine that contained the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD fused to HIV gp120. These antibodies were

  14. Geology of -30247, -35247, and -40247 Quadrangles, Southern Hesperia Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," and evaluating its history of formation, 2) analyzing channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to RV, and 3) examining young, possibly sedimentary plains along RV.

  15. Identification and application of ssDNA aptamers against H₃₇Rv in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimaiti, Rusitanmujiang; Qin, Lianhua; Cao, Ting; Yang, Hua; Wang, Jie; Lu, Junmei; Huang, Xiaochen; Hu, Zhongyi

    2015-11-01

    Microscopy of direct smear with the Ziehl-Neelsen stain is still broadly used in tuberculosis diagnosis. However, this method suffers from low specificity and is difficult to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from nontuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM), since all mycobacterial species are positive in Ziehl-Neelsen stain. In this study, we utilized whole cell SELEX to obtain species-specific aptamers for increasing the specificity of MTB detection. Whole cell SELEX was performed in MTB reference strain H37Rv by two selection processes based on enzyme-linked plate or Eppendorf tube, respectively. To increase success rate of generating aptamers, the selection processes were systematically monitored to understand the dynamic evolution of aptamers against complex structure of target bacteria. Two preponderant groups and ten high-affinity aptamers were obtained by analyzing the dynamic evolution. Preponderant aptamer MA1 from group I showed relatively high binding affinity with apparent dissociation constant (KD value) of 12.02 nM. Sandwich ELISA assay revealed five aptamer combinations effectively bound MTB strains in preliminary evaluation, especially the combination based on aptamer MA2 (another preponderant aptamer from group II) and MA1. Further evaluated in many other strains, MA2/MA1 combination effectively identified MTB from NTM or other pathogenic bacteria, and displayed the high specificity and sensitivity. Binding analysis of aptamer MA1 or MA2 by fluorescence microscopy observation showed high binding reactivity with H37Rv, low apparent cross-reactivity with M. marinum, and no apparent cross-reactivity with Enterobacter cloacae. Taken together, this study provides attractive candidate species-specific aptamers to effectively capture or discriminate MTB strains.

  16. Receiver Functions of the Mangystau Region, Western Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetti, L. B.; Mackey, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mangystau Region, in southwestern Kazakhstan contains many geographic features such as basins, plateaus, and mountain ranges. However, little has been published in English or Russian, and the region has never been instrumented with broadband seismometers before. From August through September 2016, a seismic noise survey took place where 10 broadband seismic stations were deployed throughout the region for 20 days each by MSU. The sensors recorded various teleseismic events and the data were used to infer crustal thickness. The goal of this study is to determine if reliable receiver functions can be created with 20 days of data recorded, and test what is the best way to use the data to find the thickness of the crust. Since a limited amount of data is available, teleseismic events of magnitude > 5 and that occurred from 30 to 90 degrees from the station were used. To have a better solution, a local calibration event was used to solve the seismic velocity and match the results of a previously done study (5.6 - 6.5 km/s) by a Kazak group, which was then used for H-k stacking. While the work is still in progress, it will add to the knowledge of the area, thus give an insight to the crustal thickness of the overall region. This study can also be used to provide information of the crustal thickness of the northern Caspian basin, near the Caucasus, where another major effort is being conducted.

  17. Clinical and Echocardiographic Evaluation of Regional Systolic Function Detected by Tissue Doppler Imaging in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghpour

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common type of the genetic cardiovasculardiseases. Regarding to tremendous heterogeneity in the phenotypic expression of HCM, which is generally unrelatedto genotype, we aimed to study, clinical and echocardiographic parameters such as Tissue Doppler Imaging(TDI in various subtypes of HCM patients and evaluate the influence of race and gender in Iranian patients.Methods: Patients with HCM underwent a complete clinical and echocardiographic study including TDI toassess regional systolic contraction( in the 12 segments and early diastolic annular velocity (Em from theseptal mitral annulus.Results: The study comprised 41 patients (20 women, mean age = 41 ± 15 years with mean LVEF 55%±4.8%and mean maximal septal thickness 2.07cm. Considering LVOT gradient>30mmHg, hypertrophic obstructivecardiomyopathy (HOCM was found in 18 (45%. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH existed in 27 patients(67%, systolic anterior motion of anterior mitral leaflet (SAM in 25 persons (64%. Nineteen patients (46.3%were included in NYHA function class (FC II and 6 (14.7% in FC III or higher. We found syncope in 10(24.4%, chest pain in 4 (9.8%, atrial fibrilation in 14.6 % and ventricular arrhythmias in (17.1% of patients.History of ICD was seen in 7 (17.1% and PPM in 9 cases. Mean E’ velocity was 5.44± 1.65 cm/sec and S velocity5.70± 1.49 cm/sec with significant lower S velocity and E’ in syncope patients. Overall, HOCM patients hadgrade II diastolic dysfunction with E/É >15(17.54±7.46. Majority (25 of cases (61% were categorized in typeIII of HCM. RV involvement was observed in 11 patients (28.2%.No significant differences existed betweenprevalence of syncope and dysrhythmia among HCM and HOCM patients.Conclusion: In our study, we found lower detection of latent HOCM, compared to other studies, suggestive ofinadequate use of appropriate provocative maneuvers such as exercise stress echocardiography and amyl

  18. Conductivity, water temperature, Coccolith species counts, and others collected from R/V Bellows in Gulf of Mexico from 2011-10-24 to 2011-10-26 (NCEI Accession 0159274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset reports conductivity, temperature, and depth data from R/V Bellows cruise BE-1205. This cruise took place from October 24-26, 2011 from the Florida...

  19. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Hoey, Andrew

    2015-11-20

    Parrotfishes (f. Labridae) are a unique and ubiquitous group of herbivorous reef fishes. We compared the distribution and ecosystem function (grazing and erosion) of parrotfishes across 75 reefs in Arabia. Our results revealed marked regional differences in the abundance, and taxonomic and functional composition of parrotfishes between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Gulf. High densities and diversity of parrotfishes, and high rates of grazing (210% year) and erosion (1.57 kg m year) characterised Red Sea reefs. Despite Arabian Sea and Red Sea reefs having broadly comparable abundances of parrotfishes, estimates of grazing (150% year) and erosion (0.43 kg m year) were markedly lower in the Arabian Sea. Parrotfishes were extremely rare within the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  20. Physical profile data from CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the R/V ALPHA HELIX from 2001-04-18 to 2001-12-11 (NODC Accession 0000739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical profile data were collected from CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the R/V Alpha Helix. Data were collected by Western Washington University (WWU) and...

  1. Source analysis using regional empirical Green's functions: The 2008 Wells, Nevada, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.

    2009-01-01

    We invert three-component, regional broadband waveforms recorded for the 21 February 2008 Wells, Nevada, earthquake using a finite-fault methodology that prescribes subfault responses using eight MW∼4 aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) distributed within a 20-km by 21.6-km fault area. The inversion identifies a seismic moment of 6.2 x 1024 dyne-cm (5.8 MW) with slip concentrated in a compact 6.5-km by 4-km region updip from the hypocenter. The peak slip within this localized area is 88 cm and the stress drop is 72 bars, which is higher than expected for Basin and Range normal faults in the western United States. The EGF approach yields excellent fits to the complex regional waveforms, accounting for strong variations in wave propagation and site effects. This suggests that the procedure is useful for studying moderate-size earthquakes with limited teleseismic or strong-motion data and for examining uncertainties in slip models obtained using theoretical Green's functions.

  2. Right ventricular function during one-lung ventilation: effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shehri, Abdullah M; El-Tahan, Mohamed R; Al Metwally, Roshdi; Qutub, Hatem; El Ghoneimy, Yasser F; Regal, Mohamed A; Zien, Haytham

    2014-08-01

    To test the effects of pressure-controlled (PCV) and volume-controlled (VCV) ventilation during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for thoracic surgery on right ventricular (RV) function. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover study. A single university hospital. Fourteen pairs of consecutive patients scheduled for elective thoracotomy. Patients were assigned randomly to ventilate the dependent lung with PCV or VCV mode, each in a randomized crossover order using tidal volume of 6 mL/kg, I: E ratio 1: 2.5, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H2O and respiratory rate adjusted to maintain normocapnia. Intraoperative changes in RV function (systolic and early diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (TAV), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and fractional area changes (FAC)), airway pressures, compliance and oxygenation index were recorded. The use of PCV during OLV resulted in faster systolic (10.1±2.39 vs. 5.8±1.67 cm/s, respectively), diastolic TAV (9.2±1.99 vs. 4.6±1.42 cm/s, respectively) (prights reserved.

  3. Left Phrenic Nerve Stimulation Due to Breakage of the Endocardial Right Ventricular Lead at the Costoclavicular Ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Fujimori, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old man with a permanent pacemaker (PM implanted in his left prepectoral area reported twitches in his left lateral abdominal region. Chest X-rays revealed a broken right atrial (RA lead and a fracture of the right ventricular (RV lead at the left costoclavicular ligament. The electrocardiogram (ECG and the Holler ECG revealed atrial fibrillation (AF and an improperly functioning PM. We observed that the twitching seemed to correspond with each pacing beat and that it did not appear with his own beat. We suspected that the twitching was due to electric current leakage from the broken RV lead. We performed a PM re-implantation with a screw-in RV lead using the extrathoracic approach. After re-implantation the twitching disappeared. Costoclavicular ligament related electrode lead fractures are not uncommon and electric current leaks can be a source of problems in cardiac pacing. In this case, the electric current leak from the broken RV lead at the costoclavicular ligament stimulated the left phrenic nerve.

  4. Clinical validation of the planar radionuclide ventriculography in patients with right ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, L; Merabet, Y; Chevalier, P; Itti, R

    2013-01-01

    Gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) may be used for the evaluation of the right ventricular function. However, the accuracy of the method should be clinically validated in patients suffering from diseases with specific pathology of the right ventricle (RV) and with possible left ventricular (LV) interaction. Three groups of 15 patients each, diagnosed with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) or atrial septal defect (ASD) were compared to a group of normal subjects. The parameters for both ventricles were evaluated separately (ejection fractions: LVEF and RVEF, and intraventricular synchronism quantified as phase standard deviation: LVPSD and RVPSD) as well as the relation or interdependence of the right to left ventricle (RV/LV volume ratio, LV/RV ejection fraction and stroke volume ratios, and interventricular synchronism). All the variables as a whole were analyzed to identify groups of patients according to their functional behaviour. Significant differences were found between the patients and control group for the RV function while the LV function remained mostly within normal limits. When the RV function was considered, the control group and ASD patient group showed differences regarding the ARVD and PAH patients. On evaluating the RV/LV ratios, differences were found between the control group and the ASD group. In the PAH patients, LV function showed differences in relation to the rest of the groups. RNV is a reliable clinical tool to evaluate RV function in patients with RV abnormality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joon Hwan; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Jee Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023). The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory. PMID:28692702

  6. Tracking Regional Tissue Volume and Function Change in Lung Using Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the 24-hour redistribution and reabsorption of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid delivered to the lung during a bronchoscopic procedure in normal volunteers. In this work we utilize image-matching procedures to correlate fluid redistribution and reabsorption to changes in regional lung function. Lung CT datasets from six human subjects were used in this study. Each subject was scanned at four time points before and after BAL procedure. Image registration was performed to align images at different time points and different inflation levels. The resulting dense displacement fields were utilized to track tissue volume changes and reveal deformation patterns of local parenchymal tissue quantitatively. The registration accuracy was assessed by measuring landmark matching errors, which were on the order of 1 mm. The results show that quantitative-assessed fluid volume agreed well with bronchoscopist-reported unretrieved BAL volume in the whole lungs (squared linear correlation coefficient was 0.81. The average difference of lung tissue volume at baseline and after 24 hours was around 2%, which indicates that BAL fluid in the lungs was almost absorbed after 24 hours. Regional lung-function changes correlated with the presence of BAL fluid, and regional function returned to baseline as the fluid was reabsorbed.

  7. Functional connections between activated and deactivated brain regions mediate emotional interference during externally directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Plinio, Simone; Ferri, Francesca; Marzetti, Laura; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2018-04-24

    Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions. We studied this interplay in an fMRI experiment using emotional negative stimuli as distractors. Activity modulations induced by the emotional interference of negative stimuli were found in frontal, parietal, and visual areas, and were associated with modulations of functional connectivity between these task-activated areas and DMN regions. A worse performance was predicted both by lower activity in the superior parietal cortex and higher connectivity between visual areas and frontal DMN regions. Connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and several DMN regions in the left hemisphere was related to the behavioral performance. This relation was weaker in the negative than in the neutral condition, likely suggesting less functional inhibitions of DMN regions during emotional processing. These results show that both executive and DMN regions are crucial for the emotional interference process and suggest that DMN connections are related to the interplay between externally-directed and internally-focused processes. Among DMN regions, superior frontal gyrus may be a key node in regulating the interference triggered by emotional stimuli. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular function in routine practice: Which parameters are useful to predict one-year outcome in advanced heart failure patients with dilated cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Takayuki; Daimon, Masao; Kimura, Koichi; Nakao, Tomoko; Lee, Seitetsu L; Hirokawa, Megumi; Kato, Tomoko S; Watanabe, Masafumi; Yatomi, Yutaka; Komuro, Issei

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function has recently gained attention as a prognostic predictor of outcome even in patients who have left-sided heart failure. Since several conventional echocardiographic parameters of RV systolic function have been proposed, our aim was to determine if any of these parameters (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion: TAPSE, tissue Doppler derived systolic tricuspid annular motion velocity: S', fractional area change: FAC) are associated with outcome in advanced heart failure patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We retrospectively enrolled 68 DCM patients, who were New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV and had a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction functional class IV, plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration, intravenous inotrope use, left atrial volume index, and FAC were associated with outcome, whereas TAPSE and S' were not. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal FAC cut-off value to identify patients with an event was rights reserved.

  9. Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-04-12

    Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We

  10. In-situ diagnosis of stone monuments; the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Török, Ákos

    2014-05-01

    Székesfehérvár is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. In the Middle Ages (11th and 12th centuries), the city was a Royal residence and until the Turkish occupation in 1543, one of the most important cities of Hungary. The Ruin Garden of Székesfehérvár is a unique assemblage of monuments belonging to the cultural heritage of Hungary due to its important role in the Middle Ages as the coronation church for the kings of the Hungarian Christian Kingdom and the burial place for fifteen kings and other members of the royal families and the high nobility. It was also the home of the royal treasury and relics. It is comprised of a provostal church dedicated to Virgin Mary, so called today "Royal Basilica", royal tombs and related ecclesial and lay buildings. Since it has been nominated for "National Memorial Place", its present and future protection is required. Its several reconstructions and expansions throughout Hungarian history introduce another aspect of the importance of the historical site. By a quick overview of the current state of the monument, the presence of several lithotypes could be found among the remained building and decorative stones. Therefore, the research related to the materials in order to understand their composition, structure, origin and behavior was crucial not only for the conservation of that specific monument but also for a series of other historic structures in the Hungarian territory. In order to help the study of the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár, a series of maps was created based on in-situ investigations. Five wall sections were selected for the sake of the different lithotypes distribution and the different construction periods were the ruins belong to. The total mapped area covers about 30 m2 of the existing walls surfaces. Three different kinds of maps were designed for each wall section. The first series of maps depicts the different construction periods of the selected section of the

  11. Non-invasive evaluation of regional function of the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, N.; Nickel, O.

    1980-01-01

    Assessment of regional left ventricular function with first pass angiocardiography in the RAO view almost entirely depends on high image statistics, accurate border definition and background subtraction, as well as an analysis of so called functional images which regionally measure and illustrate functional change during heart action. During first bolus transit the multicrystal camera gives an average of 300,000 cts/sec allowing precise border definition because of steepness of count changes at the LV-border. A varying background adjacent to each border point and also over the LV is subtracted. Measurements of segmental hemiaxis shortening and of zonal ejection fractions in the three zones supplied by the major coronary arteries have been performed. Clinical applications comprise examinations at rest, peak exercise, after nitroglycerin administration and after bypass graft surgery. Wall motion measured by means of hemiaxis shortening (210 segments) showed good correlation with angiocardiography in 91% of segments with normokinesis, in 90% asynergic and 88% of hypokinetic segments. Functional images corrected false negativ and false positiv wall motion measurements. In patients after myocardial infarction, there was (after NTG-administration) a significant increase in hemiaxis shortening in asynergic segment, but not in dyskinesias. Exercise studies in patients with wall motion disorders showed a significantly higher increase in global ejection fraction in patients with resting EF-values and 58% than above that value. Zonal ejection fractions after bypass surgery showed an average increase of 6.4 points if complete vascularization was performed, but no zonal increase or decrease when vascularization was incomplete or the zone included a previous myocardial infarction. (orig.) [de

  12. Evaluation of the relationship between renal function and renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansu, Aysegul, E-mail: drcansu@gmail.com; Kupeli, Ali; Kul, Sibel; Eyuboglu, Ilker; Oguz, Sukru; Ozturk, Mehmet Halil; Dinc, Hasan

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between renal function and total renal volume-vascular indices using 3D power Doppler ultrasound (3DPDUS). Materials and methods: One hundred six patients with hypertensive proteinuric nephropathy (HPN) (49 male, 57 female) and 65 healthy controls (32 male, 33 female) were evaluated prospectively using 3DPDUS. Total renal volume (RV), vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL). The estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of the patients with HPN and the control group were calculated. The patients with HPN were divided into two groups on the basis of GFR, normal (≥90) or reduced (<90). Differences between groups were compared using ANOVA. Correlations between GFR, renal volume and vascular indices were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean total RV, VI, FI and VFI values in the reduced GFR, normal GFR and control groups were RV (ml): 234.7, 280.7 and 294.6; VI: 17.6, 27.6 and 46.8; FI: 79.1, 88.7 and 93.9 and VFI: 7.1, 12.7 and 23.8. There were statistically significant differences between the groups (p < 0.001). Total RVs and vascular indices exhibited significant correlations with estimated GFR (r = 0.53–0.59, p < 0.001) Conclusion: Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound is a reliable predictive technique in renal function analysis.

  13. Regional sensitivity analysis using revised mean and variance ratio functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Ruan, Wenbin; Song, Jingwen

    2014-01-01

    The variance ratio function, derived from the contribution to sample variance (CSV) plot, is a regional sensitivity index for studying how much the output deviates from the original mean of model output when the distribution range of one input is reduced and to measure the contribution of different distribution ranges of each input to the variance of model output. In this paper, the revised mean and variance ratio functions are developed for quantifying the actual change of the model output mean and variance, respectively, when one reduces the range of one input. The connection between the revised variance ratio function and the original one is derived and discussed. It is shown that compared with the classical variance ratio function, the revised one is more suitable to the evaluation of model output variance due to reduced ranges of model inputs. A Monte Carlo procedure, which needs only a set of samples for implementing it, is developed for efficiently computing the revised mean and variance ratio functions. The revised mean and variance ratio functions are compared with the classical ones by using the Ishigami function. At last, they are applied to a planar 10-bar structure

  14. Myocardial fatty acid imaging with 123I-BMIPP in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload. Clinical significance of reduced uptake in interventricular septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Yoshiro; Ishida, Yoshio; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Hayashida, Kouhei; Takamiya, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Regionally reduced 123 I-beta-methyliodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) uptake in the interventricular septum (SEP) is observed in some patients with chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overload. We studied the significance of this finding by comparing it with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging was carried out in 21 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH; 51+-14 years; 11 men and 10 women; 7 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 11 with pulmonary thromboembolism, and 3 with atrial septal defect). mPAP ranged from 25 to 81 mmHg (49±16 mmHg). Using a midventricular horizontal long-axis plane, regional BMIPP distributions in the RV free wall and SEP were estimated by referring to those in the LV free wall. Count ratios of the RV free wall and SEP to the LV free wall (RV/LV, SEP/LV) were determined by ROI analysis. RV/LV showed a linear correlation with mPAP (r=0.42). However, SEP/LV was inversely correlated with mPAP (r=-0.49). When SEP/RV was compared among three regions of SEP in each patient, basal SEP/RV was most sensitively decreased in response to increased mPAP (r=-0.70). These results suggest that the assessment of septal tracer uptake in 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluating the severity of RV pressure overload in patients with PH. (author)

  15. Effects of milrinone and epinephrine or dopamine on biventricular function and hemodynamics in right heart failure after pulmonary regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Agger, Peter; Sivén, Eleonora; Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Heiberg, Johan; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Ravn, Hanne Berg

    2015-09-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) secondary to pulmonary regurgitation (PR) impairs right ventricular (RV) function and interrupts the interventricular relationship. There are few recommendations for the medical management of severe RVF after prolonged PR. PR was induced in 16 Danish landrace pigs by plication of the pulmonary valve leaflets. Twenty-three pigs served as controls. At reexamination the effect of milrinone, epinephrine, and dopamine was evaluated using biventricular conductance and pulmonary catheters. Seventy-nine days after PR was induced, RV end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) had increased by 33% (P = 0.006) and there was a severe decrease in the load-independent measurement of contractility (PRSW) (-58%; P = 0.003). Lower cardiac index (CI) (-28%; P Milrinone improved RV-PRSW and CI and maintained systemic pressure while reducing central venous pressure (CVP). Epinephrine and dopamine further improved biventricular PRSW and CI equally in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic and pulmonary pressures were higher in the dopamine-treated animals compared with epinephrine-treated animals. None of the treatments improved stroke volume index (SVI) despite increases in contractility. Strong correlation was detected between SVI and LV-EDVI, but not SVI and biventricular contractility. In RVF due to PR, milrinone significantly improved CI, SvO2, and CVP and increased contractility in the RV. Epinephrine and dopamine had equal inotropic effect, but a greater vasopressor effect was observed for dopamine. SV was unchanged due to inability of both treatments to increase LV-EDVI. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Analysis of shipboard aerosol optical thickness measurements from multiple sunphotometers aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mark A.; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Frouin, Robert; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Reynolds, R. Michael; Pietras, Christophe; Fargion, Giulietta; Quinn, Patricia; Thieuleux, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Marine sunphotometer measurements collected aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia (ACE-Asia) are used to evaluate the ability of complementary instrumentation to obtain the best possible estimates of aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from ships at sea. A wide range of aerosol conditions, including clean maritime conditions and highly polluted coastal environments, were encountered during the ACE-Asia cruise. The results of this study suggest that shipboard hand-held sunphotometers and fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers (FRSRs) yield similar measurements and uncertainties if proper measurement protocols are used and if the instruments are properly calibrated. The automated FRSR has significantly better temporal resolution (2 min) than the hand-held sunphotometers when standard measurement protocols are used, so it more faithfully represents the variability of the local aerosol structure in polluted regions. Conversely, results suggest that the hand-held sunphotometers may perform better in clean, maritime air masses for unknown reasons. Results also show that the statistical distribution of the Angstrom exponent measurements is different when the distributions from hand-held sunphotometers are compared with those from the FRSR and that the differences may arise from a combination of factors

  17. Research in the Functioning of the Regional Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrovna Pechenskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The state regulation conducted in accordance with the current economic policy plays a leading role in the formation and development of the economic structure of modern society. The financial system carries out control activities in the market economy through financial mechanisms by means of financial levers and incentives to achieve financial objectives. Regional public finance, as a major part of the RF financial system, is of great importance for the reproductive process during the transfer to effective market organization of the economy. The state budget is the main link of the financial system. It is an incomparable by its amount monetary fund, winch has huge investment potential and can quantitatively and qualitatively affect the efficiency of social production. The use of this potential to a great extent will determine a development direction and regional economy sustainability. The stability of the budget system is seen in the concept of long term socio-economic development of Russia until 2020 as a vital condition for the solution of strategic economic and social objectives of financial provision of innovative development of the economy. Despite recent reforms, the negative trends persist in the sphere of public finance. The proportion in the distribution of tax revenues between the Federation and its subjects changed from 44–56 in 1997 to 54–46 in 2014 that led to the serious deficit and the debt of regional budgets. The most critical situation is observed in the field of municipal finance. The budgets of even large Russian cities depend on regional subsidies by 25–35%. The regional and district levels were formed during the 2003 local government reform in isolation from the financial-economic base of their functioning. So, as a result, the revenue base of the Vologda Oblast municipal districts decreased by 3.3 times and their transfer dependence from higher levels increased by almost 5 times. About 95% of the settlements in the

  18. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared to controls, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pre-treated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy controls from Time 1 to Time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity following an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  19. The Ironbridge Gorge Heritage Site and its local and regional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudny Waldemar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of heritage and its functions. Based on the existing literature, the author presents the definition of heritage, the classification of heritage resources, and its most important impacts. The aim of the article was to show the functions that may be performed by a heritage site, locally and regionally. The example used by the author is the Ironbridge Gorge Heritage Site in the United Kingdom. Most heritage functions described by other authors are confirmed in this case study. The cultural heritage of the Ironbridge Gorge creates an opportunity to undertake various local and regional activities, having first of all an educational influence on the inhabitants, school youth and tourists. We must not ignore the economicinfluences, such as financing the activity of the Ironbridge Trust (the institution administering the site, generating income for local firms providing service to tourists, or for construction companies. This income helps to preserve and conserve the tangible heritage of the Ironbridge Gorge, as well as to generate jobs in heritage management, conservation and heritage tourism. Other effects of the Ironbridge Gorge Site include a socio-cultural impact or that related to sustainable development.

  20. The cross-functional role of frontoparietal regions in cognition: internal attention as the overarching mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückmann, Helen C; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-05-01

    Neuroimaging studies have repeatedly reported findings of activation in frontoparietal regions that largely overlap across various cognitive functions. Part of this frontoparietal activation has been interpreted as reflecting attentional mechanisms that can adaptively be directed towards external stimulation as well as internal representations (internal attention), thereby generating the experience of distinct cognitive functions. Nevertheless, findings of material- and task-specific activation in frontal and parietal regions challenge this internal attention hypothesis and have been used to support more modular hypotheses of cognitive function. The aim of this review is twofold: First, it discusses evidence in support of the concept of internal attention and the so-called dorsal attention network (DAN) as its neural source with respect to three cognitive functions (working memory, episodic retrieval, and mental imagery). While DAN activation in all three functions has been separately linked to internal attention, a comprehensive and integrative review has so far been lacking. Second, the review examines findings of material- and process-specific activation within frontoparietal regions, arguing that these results are well compatible with the internal attention account of frontoparietal activation. A new model of cognition is presented, proposing that supposedly different cognitive concepts actually rely on similar attentional network dynamics to maintain, reactivate and newly create internal representations of stimuli in various modalities. Attentional as well as representational mechanisms are assigned to frontal and parietal regions, positing that some regions are implicated in the allocation of attentional resources to perceptual or internal representations, but others are involved in the representational processes themselves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Right ventricular longitudinal strain correlates well with right ventricular stroke work index in patients with advanced heart failure referred for heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Lisi, Matteo; Righini, Francesca Maria; Tsioulpas, Charilaos; Bernazzali, Sonia; Maccherini, Massimo; Sani, Guido; Ballo, Piercarlo; Galderisi, Maurizio; Mondillo, Sergio

    2012-03-01

    Right ventricular (RV) systolic function has a critical role in determining the clinical outcome and success of using left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) in patients with refractory heart failure. Tissue Doppler and M-mode measurements of tricuspid systolic motion (tricuspid S' and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE]) are the most currently used methods for the quantification of RV longitudinal function; RV deformation analysis by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has recently allowed the analysis of global RV longitudinal function. Using cardiac catheterization as the reference standard, this study aimed at exploring the correlation between RV longitudinal function by STE and RV stroke work index (RVSWI) in patients referred for cardiac transplantation. Right-side heart catheterization and transthoracic echo Doppler were simultaneously performed in 41 patients referred for cardiac transplantation evaluation for advanced systolic heart failure. Thermodilution RV stroke volume and invasive pulmonary pressures were used to obtain RVSWI. RV longitudinal strain (RVLS) by STE was assessed averaging all segments in apical 4-chamber view (global RVLS) and by averaging RV free-wall segments (free-wall RVLS). Tricuspid S' and TAPSE were also calculated. No significant correlations were found for TAPSE or tricuspid S' with RVSWI (r = 0.14; r = 0.06; respectively). Close negative correlations between global RVLS and free-wall RVLS with the RVSWI were found (r = -0.75; r = -0.82; respectively; both P rights reserved.

  2. Which visual functions depend on intermediate visual regions? Insights from a case of developmental visual form agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    A key question in visual neuroscience is the causal link between specific brain areas and perceptual functions; which regions are necessary for which visual functions? While the contribution of primary visual cortex and high-level visual regions to visual perception has been extensively investigated, the contribution of intermediate visual areas (e.g. V2/V3) to visual processes remains unclear. Here I review more than 20 visual functions (early, mid, and high-level) of LG, a developmental visual agnosic and prosopagnosic young adult, whose intermediate visual regions function in a significantly abnormal fashion as revealed through extensive fMRI and ERP investigations. While expectedly, some of LG's visual functions are significantly impaired, some of his visual functions are surprisingly normal (e.g. stereopsis, color, reading, biological motion). During the period of eight-year testing described here, LG trained on a perceptual learning paradigm that was successful in improving some but not all of his visual functions. Following LG's visual performance and taking into account additional findings in the field, I propose a framework for how different visual areas contribute to different visual functions, with an emphasis on intermediate visual regions. Thus, although rewiring and plasticity in the brain can occur during development to overcome and compensate for hindering developmental factors, LG's case seems to indicate that some visual functions are much less dependent on strict hierarchical flow than others, and can develop normally in spite of abnormal mid-level visual areas, thereby probably less dependent on intermediate visual regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical profile data from XTD and XCTD casts in the Southern Ocean from the R/V XUE LONG from 28 December 2001 to 11 March 2002 (NODC Accession 0000734)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical profile data were collected from XTD and XCTD casts in the Southeast Indian Ocean and Weddell Gyre from the R/V XUE LONG. Data were collected by...

  4. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea by the R.V. Samudera, April 16 to May 19, 1975 (NODC Accession 7700306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and chemical data were collected using net and bottle casts from the R.V. SAMUDERA in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea from 16...

  5. Frequency-dependent changes in the regional amplitude and synchronization of resting-state functional MRI in stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Zhu

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI has been intensively used to assess alterations of inter-regional functional connectivity in patients with stroke, but the regional properties of brain activity in stroke have not yet been fully investigated. Additionally, no study has examined a frequency effect on such regional properties in stroke patients, although this effect has been shown to play important roles in both normal brain functioning and functional abnormalities. Here we utilized R-fMRI to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo, two major methods for characterizing the regional properties of R-fMRI, in three different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.73 Hz; and typical band: 0.01-0.1 Hz in 19 stroke patients and 15 healthy controls. Both the ALFF and ReHo analyses revealed changes in brain activity in a number of brain regions, particularly the parietal cortex, in stroke patients compared with healthy controls. Remarkably, the regions with changed activity as detected by the slow-5 band data were more extensive, and this finding was true for both the ALFF and ReHo analyses. These results not only confirm previous studies showing abnormality in the parietal cortex in patients with stroke, but also suggest that R-fMRI studies of stroke should take frequency effects into account when measuring intrinsic brain activity.

  6. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Vaughan, Grace; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  7. Stratus Ocean Reference Station (20 deg. S, 85 deg. W) : Mooring Recovery and Deployment Cruise, R/V Ronald H. Brown Cruise 05-05, September 26, 2005-October 21, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutto, Lara; Weller, Robert; Lord, Jeff; Smith, Jason; Bouchard, Paul; Fairall, Chris; Pezoa, Sergio; Bariteau, Ludovic; Lundquist, Jessica; Ghate, Virendra

    2006-01-01

    .... During the October 2005 cruise of NOAA's R/V Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were recovery of the WHOl surface mooring that had been deployed in December 2004, deployment of a new...

  8. On the absolute stability regions corresponding to partial sums of the exponential function

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-12-03

    Certain numerical methods for initial value problems have as stability function the nth partial sum of the exponential function. We study the stability region, i.e., the set in the complex plane over which the nth partial sum has at most unit modulus. It is known that the asymptotic shape of the part of the stability region in the left half-plane is a semi-disk. We quantify this by providing disks that enclose or are enclosed by the stability region or its left half-plane part. The radius of the smallest disk centered at the origin that contains the stability region (or its portion in the left half-plane) is determined for 1 n 20. Bounds on such radii are proved for n 2; these bounds are shown to be optimal in the limit n ! +1. We prove that the stability region and its complement, restricted to the imaginary axis, consist of alternating intervals of length tending to , as n ! 1. Finally, we prove that a semi-disk in the left half-plane with vertical boundary being the imaginary axis and centered at the origin is included in the stability region if and only if n 0 mod 4 or n 3 mod 4. The maximal radii of such semi-disks are exactly determined for 1 n 20.

  9. The right ventricle in pulmonary arterial hypertension: disorders of metabolism, angiogenesis and adrenergic signaling in right ventricular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J; Archer, Stephen L

    2014-06-20

    The right ventricle (RV) is the major determinant of functional state and prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension. RV hypertrophy (RVH) triggered by pressure overload is initially compensatory but often leads to RV failure. Despite similar RV afterload and mass some patients develop adaptive RVH (concentric with retained RV function), while others develop maladaptive RVH, characterized by dilatation, fibrosis, and RV failure. The differentiation of adaptive versus maladaptive RVH is imprecise, but adaptive RVH is associated with better functional capacity and survival. At the molecular level, maladaptive RVH displays greater impairment of angiogenesis, adrenergic signaling, and metabolism than adaptive RVH, and these derangements often involve the left ventricle. Clinically, maladaptive RVH is characterized by increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, troponin release, elevated catecholamine levels, RV dilatation, and late gadolinium enhancement on MRI, increased (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography, and QTc prolongation on the ECG. In maladaptive RVH there is reduced inotrope responsiveness because of G-protein receptor kinase-mediated downregulation, desensitization, and uncoupling of β-adrenoreceptors. RV ischemia may result from capillary rarefaction or decreased right coronary artery perfusion pressure. Maladaptive RVH shares metabolic abnormalities with cancer including aerobic glycolysis (resulting from a forkhead box protein O1-mediated transcriptional upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase), and glutaminolysis (reflecting ischemia-induced cMyc activation). Augmentation of glucose oxidation is beneficial in experimental RVH and can be achieved by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, fatty acid oxidation, or glutaminolysis. Therapeutic targets in RV failure include chamber-specific abnormalities of metabolism, angiogenesis, adrenergic signaling, and phosphodiesterase-5 expression. The ability to

  10. Tinnitus alters resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in human auditory and non-auditory brain regions as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Juan; Hu, Xiao-Su; Issa, Mohamad; Bisconti, Silvia; Kovelman, Ioulia; Kileny, Paul; Basura, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over the region of interest (primary auditory cortex) and non-region of interest (adjacent non-auditory cortices) and functional brain connectivity was measured during a 60-second baseline/period of silence before and after a passive auditory challenge consisting of alternating pure tones (750 and 8000Hz), broadband noise and silence. Functional connectivity was measured between all channel-pairs. Prior to stimulation, connectivity of the region of interest to the temporal and fronto-temporal region was decreased in tinnitus participants compared to controls. Overall, connectivity in tinnitus was differentially altered as compared to controls following sound stimulation. Enhanced connectivity was seen in both auditory and non-auditory regions in the tinnitus brain, while controls showed a decrease in connectivity following sound stimulation. In tinnitus, the strength of connectivity was increased between auditory cortex and fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal, temporal, occipito-temporal and occipital cortices. Together these data suggest that central auditory and non-auditory brain regions are modified in tinnitus and that resting functional connectivity measured by fNIRS technology may contribute to conscious phantom

  11. Tinnitus alters resting state functional connectivity (RSFC in human auditory and non-auditory brain regions as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan San Juan

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over the region of interest (primary auditory cortex and non-region of interest (adjacent non-auditory cortices and functional brain connectivity was measured during a 60-second baseline/period of silence before and after a passive auditory challenge consisting of alternating pure tones (750 and 8000Hz, broadband noise and silence. Functional connectivity was measured between all channel-pairs. Prior to stimulation, connectivity of the region of interest to the temporal and fronto-temporal region was decreased in tinnitus participants compared to controls. Overall, connectivity in tinnitus was differentially altered as compared to controls following sound stimulation. Enhanced connectivity was seen in both auditory and non-auditory regions in the tinnitus brain, while controls showed a decrease in connectivity following sound stimulation. In tinnitus, the strength of connectivity was increased between auditory cortex and fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal, temporal, occipito-temporal and occipital cortices. Together these data suggest that central auditory and non-auditory brain regions are modified in tinnitus and that resting functional connectivity measured by fNIRS technology may contribute to

  12. CTD, water quality, and pigment data collected from R/V Bellows cruise BE-1317 in the Gulf of Mexico from 2013-04-06 to 2013-04-08 (NCEI Accession 0160919)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset reports conductivity, temperature, and depth data collected during R/V Bellows cruise BE-1317 of the offshore shelf of the Florida Panhandle Bight at...

  13. Partition function expansion on region graphs and message-passing equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Haijun; Wang, Chuang; Xiao, Jing-Qing; Bi, Zedong

    2011-01-01

    Disordered and frustrated graphical systems are ubiquitous in physics, biology, and information science. For models on complete graphs or random graphs, deep understanding has been achieved through the mean-field replica and cavity methods. But finite-dimensional 'real' systems remain very challenging because of the abundance of short loops and strong local correlations. A statistical mechanics theory is constructed in this paper for finite-dimensional models based on the mathematical framework of the partition function expansion and the concept of region graphs. Rigorous expressions for the free energy and grand free energy are derived. Message-passing equations on the region graph, such as belief propagation and survey propagation, are also derived rigorously. (letter)

  14. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients.

  15. Physical and nutrient profile data from bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX in Gulf of Alaska from 03 December 1990 to 11 December 1998 (NODC Accession 0000221)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX in Gulf of Alaska from December 3, 1980 to December 11, 1998. These data were...

  16. Disease-associated mutations disrupt functionally important regions of intrinsic protein disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vacic

    Full Text Available The effects of disease mutations on protein structure and function have been extensively investigated, and many predictors of the functional impact of single amino acid substitutions are publicly available. The majority of these predictors are based on protein structure and evolutionary conservation, following the assumption that disease mutations predominantly affect folded and conserved protein regions. However, the prevalence of the intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs and regions (IDRs in the human proteome together with their lack of fixed structure and low sequence conservation raise a question about the impact of disease mutations in IDRs. Here, we investigate annotated missense disease mutations and show that 21.7% of them are located within such intrinsically disordered regions. We further demonstrate that 20% of disease mutations in IDRs cause local disorder-to-order transitions, which represents a 1.7-2.7 fold increase compared to annotated polymorphisms and neutral evolutionary substitutions, respectively. Secondary structure predictions show elevated rates of transition from helices and strands into loops and vice versa in the disease mutations dataset. Disease disorder-to-order mutations also influence predicted molecular recognition features (MoRFs more often than the control mutations. The repertoire of disorder-to-order transition mutations is limited, with five most frequent mutations (R→W, R→C, E→K, R→H, R→Q collectively accounting for 44% of all deleterious disorder-to-order transitions. As a proof of concept, we performed accelerated molecular dynamics simulations on a deleterious disorder-to-order transition mutation of tumor protein p63 and, in agreement with our predictions, observed an increased α-helical propensity of the region harboring the mutation. Our findings highlight the importance of mutations in IDRs and refine the traditional structure-centric view of disease mutations. The results of this study

  17. Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av psykosocial arbetsmiljö i primärvården : En kvantitativ enkätstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Elin; Thomsgård, Elin

    2018-01-01

    Bakgrund I begreppet arbetsmiljö ingår de fysiska, psykiska och sociala upplevelser som en individ har i sitt arbete. Distriktssköterskans arbetsplats kan vara stressig på flera sätt vilket kan påverka den psykosociala arbetsmiljön negativt. Tillfredsställelse och motivation i arbetslivet är grundläggande för god psykosocial arbetsmiljö och för en individs goda hälsa. Syfte Att undersöka distriktsköterskors erfarenheter av psykosocial arbetsmiljö i primärvården. Metod Föreliggande studie har ...

  18. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy; Koo, Phillip; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional avoidance

  19. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Koo, Phillip [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the STAS Domains of Rat Prestin and Human Pendrin Reveal Conformational Motions in Conserved Flexible Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok K. Sharma

    2014-02-01

    domain in solution structure may be more dynamic than rat prestin STAS. Regions of prestin and pendrin identified by RMS fluctuation data as exhibiting larger atomic fluctuations corresponded to nominal GDP-binding regions of the aligned Rv1739c STAS domain of M. tuberculosis. Conclusions: MD simulations of mammalian STAS domains reveal substantial predicted conformational heterogeneity. These predicted conformational dynamics serve to supplement the reported crystal structure of the rat prestin STAS domain, and extend our understanding of the roles of STAS domains in SLC26 anion transporter function.

  1. Sparse genetic tracing reveals regionally specific functional organization of mammalian nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William; Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Cui, Lian; Burdge, Justin; Raabe, Tobias; Ma, Minghong; Luo, Wenqin

    2017-10-12

    The human distal limbs have a high spatial acuity for noxious stimuli but a low density of pain-sensing neurites. To elucidate mechanisms underlying regional differences in processing nociception, we sparsely traced non-peptidergic nociceptors across the body using a newly generated Mrgprd CreERT2 mouse line. We found that mouse plantar paw skin is also innervated by a low density of Mrgprd + nociceptors, while individual arbors in different locations are comparable in size. Surprisingly, the central arbors of plantar paw and trunk innervating nociceptors have distinct morphologies in the spinal cord. This regional difference is well correlated with a heightened signal transmission for plantar paw circuits, as revealed by both spinal cord slice recordings and behavior assays. Taken together, our results elucidate a novel somatotopic functional organization of the mammalian pain system and suggest that regional central arbor structure could facilitate the "enlarged representation" of plantar paw regions in the CNS.

  2. Global Occurrence and Emission of Rotaviruses to Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Kiulia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Group A rotaviruses (RV are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

  3. Downregulation of MicroRNA-126 Contributes to the Failing Right Ventricle in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potus, François; Ruffenach, Grégoire; Dahou, Abdellaziz; Thebault, Christophe; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Tremblay, Ève; Nadeau, Valérie; Paradis, Renée; Graydon, Colin; Wong, Ryan; Johnson, Ian; Paulin, Roxane; Lajoie, Annie C; Perron, Jean; Charbonneau, Eric; Joubert, Philippe; Pibarot, Philippe; Michelakis, Evangelos D; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2015-09-08

    Right ventricular (RV) failure is the most important factor of both morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in the failed RV in PAH remain unknown. There is growing evidence that angiogenesis and microRNAs are involved in PAH-associated RV failure. We hypothesized that microRNA-126 (miR-126) downregulation decreases microvessel density and promotes the transition from a compensated to a decompensated RV in PAH. We studied RV free wall tissues from humans with normal RV (n=17), those with compensated RV hypertrophy (n=8), and patients with PAH with decompensated RV failure (n=14). Compared with RV tissues from patients with compensated RV hypertrophy, patients with decompensated RV failure had decreased miR-126 expression (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; P<0.01) and capillary density (CD31(+) immunofluorescence; P<0.001), whereas left ventricular tissues were not affected. miR-126 downregulation was associated with increased Sprouty-related EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED-1), leading to decreased activation of RAF (phosphorylated RAF/RAF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); (phosphorylated MAPK/MAPK), thus inhibiting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway. In vitro, Matrigel assay showed that miR-126 upregulation increased angiogenesis of primary cultured endothelial cells from patients with decompensated RV failure. Furthermore, in vivo miR-126 upregulation (mimic intravenous injection) improved cardiac vascular density and function of monocrotaline-induced PAH animals. RV failure in PAH is associated with a specific molecular signature within the RV, contributing to a decrease in RV vascular density and promoting the progression to RV failure. More importantly, miR-126 upregulation in the RV improves microvessel density and RV function in experimental PAH. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular stroke work index in advanced heart failure: a new index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frea, Simone; Bovolo, Virginia; Bergerone, Serena; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Antolini, Marina; Capriolo, Michele; Canavosio, Federico Giovanni; Morello, Mara; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function plays a pivotal role in advanced heart failure patients, especially for screening those who may benefit from left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We introduce RV contraction pressure index (RVCPI) as a new echo-Doppler parameter of RV function. The accuracy of RVCPI in detecting RV failure was compared with the criterion standard, the RV stroke work index (RVSWI) obtained through right heart catheterization in advanced heart failure patients referred for heart transplantation or LVAD implantation. Right heart catheterization and echo-Doppler were simultaneously performed in 94 consecutive patients referred to our center for advanced heart failure (ejection fraction (EF) 24 ± 8.8%, 40% NYHA functional class IV). RV stroke volume and invasive pulmonary pressures were used to obtain RVSWI. Simplified RVCPI (sRVCPI) was derived as TAPSE × (RV - right atrial pressure gradient). Close positive correlation between sRVCPI and RVSWI was found (r = 0.68; P rights reserved.

  5. CTD, water quality, and phytoplankton data from the R/V Bellows cruise BE-1322 in the Gulf of Mexico from 2013-06-02 to 2013-06-04 (NCEI Accession 0161217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains conductivity, temperature, and depth data from R/V Bellows cruise BE-1322 of the offshore shelf of the Florida Panhandle Bight at the head of...

  6. Role of Mutations in Dihydrofolate Reductase DfrA (Rv2763c) and Thymidylate Synthase ThyA (Rv2764c) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Koser, C. U.

    2010-09-17

    We would like to comment on a number of recent reports in this journal (6, 8, 12, 18) concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), encoded by dfrA (Rv2763c). Around 36% of phenotypically para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS)-resistant M. tuberculosis strains harbor mutations in thyA (Rv2764c), which encodes a thymidylate synthase (20). In their effort to elucidate the remaining unknown resistance mechanism(s), Mathys et al. extended their sequence analysis to a number of additional genes, including dfrA (12). It was unclear whether the three dfrA mutations they identified in the PAS-resistant strains P-693 and P-3158 could contribute to PAS resistance on their own. Nonetheless, these findings are notable for two reasons. First, isoniazid (INH) has been shown to inhibit M. tuberculosis DHFR in vitro (1). Whether the same holds true for ethionamide, which shares a number of common resistance mechanisms with INH, was not tested (J. Blanchard, personal communication). In any case, the clinical relevance of DHFR-mediated INH resistance remains enigmatic. To date, only Ho et al. have addressed this question, but they did not identify any dfrA mutations in a screen of 127 INH-resistant clinical isolates (8). Consequently, Mathys et al. remain the first to describe mutations in this target (12). However, given that isolates with mutated DHFR are members of a cluster with baseline INH resistance, the importance of these mutations with respect to INH resistance remains unclear. Irrespective of their relevance in INH resistance, these dfrA mutations are noteworthy for a second reason. Contrary to previous wisdom, Forgacs et al. recently showed that M. tuberculosis is sensitive to the drug combination trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) (6, 18). DHFR is competitively inhibited by TMP, and consequently, mutations therein lead to resistance in a variety of organisms (9, 16, 19). The crystal structures of the wild-type M. tuberculosis DHFR in complex with

  7. Systematic documentation of new vaccine introduction in selected countries of the Latin American Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lúcia H; Toscano, Cristiana M; Sanwogou, N Jennifer; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Tambini, Gina; Roses-Periago, Mirta; Andrus, Jon K

    2013-07-02

    Countries in Latin America were among the first developing countries to introduce new vaccines, particularly rotavirus (RV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), into their national immunization schedules. Experiences and lessons learned from these countries are valuable to donors, immunization partners, and policy makers in other countries wishing to make informed decisions on vaccine introduction. In order to enhance knowledge and promote understanding of the process of new vaccine introduction in the Latin American Region, with particular focus on RV and PCV, we conducted a systematic qualitative assessment. We evaluated the decision-making process, documented the structure in place, and reviewed key factors pertaining to new vaccine introduction. These include country morbidity and mortality data available prior to vaccine introduction, funding sources and mechanisms for vaccine introduction, challenges of implementation, and assessment of vaccine impact. From March 2010 to April 2011, we evaluated a subset of countries that had introduced RV and/or PCV in the past five years through interviews with key informants at the country level and through a systematic review of published data, gray literature, official technical documents, and country-specific health indicators. Countries evaluated were Bolivia, Brazil, Nicaragua, Peru, and Venezuela. In all countries, the potential of new vaccines to reduce mortality, as established by Millennium Development Goal 4, was an important consideration leading to vaccine introduction. Several factors-the availability of funds, the existence of sufficient evidence for vaccine introduction, and the feasibility of sustainable financing-were identified as crucial components of the decision-making process in the countries evaluated. The decision making process regarding new vaccine introduction in the countries evaluated does not follow a systematic approach. Nonetheless, existing evidence on efficacy, potential impact, and

  8. Rampant adaptive evolution in regions of proteins with unknown function in Drosophila simulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha K Holloway

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive protein evolution is pervasive in Drosophila. Genomic studies, thus far, have analyzed each protein as a single entity. However, the targets of adaptive events may be localized to particular parts of proteins, such as protein domains or regions involved in protein folding. We compared the population genetic mechanisms driving sequence polymorphism and divergence in defined protein domains and non-domain regions. Interestingly, we find that non-domain regions of proteins are more frequent targets of directional selection. Protein domains are also evolving under directional selection, but appear to be under stronger purifying selection than non-domain regions. Non-domain regions of proteins clearly play a major role in adaptive protein evolution on a genomic scale and merit future investigations of their functional properties.

  9. WATER TEMPERATURE and SALINITY - SURFACE WATER, and other parameters collected from R.V. Celtic Explorer in Mid Atlantic Ridge from 2016-05-12 to 2016-05-21 (NCEI Accession 0157069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains in situ sea surface measurements from R.V. Celtic Explorer in Mid Altlantic Ridge. The survey was conducted between May 12th and May 21, 2016...

  10. Temperature profile and other data from surface measurements casts from the R/V ATLANTIC in a world-wide survey from 17 March 1900 to 08 March 1998 (NODC Accession 0000241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected from the R/V ATLANTIC in a world-wide distribution from March 17, 1900 to March 8, 1996. Data were collected by...

  11. Benthic organisms collected using net casts and other instruments from the R/V VENTURE in the Gulf of Mexico from 27 October 1980 and 29 April 1984 (NODC Accession 8600027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms were collected using net, sediment sampler casts, and other instruments from the R/V VENTURE in the Gulf of Mexico from 27 October 1980 to 29 April...

  12. Development and Application of a Planning Support System for Regional Spatial Functional Zoning Based on GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional spatial functional zoning in China is a large-scale strategic planning and requires very advanced planning decision support technology. With respect to spatial functional zoning, the planning support system (PSS is introduced as one of the most popular computer aided planning systems at the present time in this paper, and is further explained with the example of the latest regional main functional area (RMFA planning in China. On the Visual Studio.NET visualization development platform, the planning decision model, planning decision method, and GIS are organically integrated and customized by using the component-type secondary development technology of the ArcGIS Engine with the development language VB.NET. Hence, a highly efficient and flexible planning support system of regional main functional areas (RMFA-PSS is established. It was adopted in the research of the Beijing–Tianjin area in China and accordingly two types of main functional area planning are acquired. The RMFA-PSS offers an efficient and flexible decision support with regard to RMFA planning. The research can provide a reference for further PSS development and applications related to other types of spatial functional zoning.

  13. R/V KAIYO cruises from 1995-2000 collecting CTD, XCTD, and dissolved oxygen data in support of the Tropical Ocean Climate Study in the Tropical Western Pacific (NODC Accession 0048913)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes 10 cruises of the R/V Kaiyo of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center conducted in 1995-2000 as part of the Tropical Ocean Climate...

  14. Distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease subtypes from normal controls based on functional network regional efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD are inhomogeneous. However, the symptom-specific intrinsic neural activities underlying the PD subtypes are still not well understood. Here, 15 tremor-dominant PD patients, 10 non-tremor-dominant PD patients, and 20 matched normal controls (NCs were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Functional brain networks were constructed based on randomly generated anatomical templates with and without the cerebellum. The regional network efficiencies (i.e., the local and global efficiencies were further measured and used to distinguish subgroups of PD patients (i.e., with tremor-dominant PD and non-tremor-dominant PD from the NCs using linear discriminant analysis. The results demonstrate that the subtype-specific functional networks were small-world-organized and that the network regional efficiency could discriminate among the individual PD subgroups and the NCs. Brain regions involved in distinguishing between the study groups included the basal ganglia (i.e., the caudate and putamen, limbic regions (i.e., the hippocampus and thalamus, the cerebellum, and other cerebral regions (e.g., the insula, cingulum, and calcarine sulcus. In particular, the performances of the regional local efficiency in the functional network were better than those of the global efficiency, and the performances of global efficiency were dependent on the inclusion of the cerebellum in the analysis. These findings provide new evidence for the neurological basis of differences between PD subtypes and suggest that the cerebellum may play different roles in the pathologies of different PD subtypes. The present study demonstrated the power of the combination of graph-based network analysis and discrimination analysis in elucidating the neural basis of different PD subtypes.

  15. Overproduction, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a sulfotransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Moriizumi, Yuuji; Kimura, Makoto; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu

    2004-01-01

    A sulfotransferase from M. tuberculosis was crystallized and preliminarily analyzed using X-ray diffraction. Sulfotransferase STF1 from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv genome was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffract to 1.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The crystals are monoclinic and belong to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 40.86, b = 95.76, c = 48.04 Å, β = 106.43°. The calculated Matthews coefficient is approximately 2.1 Å 3 Da −1 assuming the presence of one molecule of STF1 in the asymmetric unit. A substrate-binding assay using a PAP–agarose column suggests that STF1 exhibits sulfotransferase activity

  16. Characterization of HIV-1 gp120 antibody specificities induced in anogenital secretions of RV144 vaccine recipients after late boost immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwat Akapirat

    Full Text Available Sexual transmission is the principal driver of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pandemic. Understanding HIV vaccine-induced immune responses at mucosal surfaces can generate hypotheses regarding mechanisms of protection, and may influence vaccine development. The RV144 (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00223080 efficacy trial showed protection against HIV infections but mucosal samples were not collected, therefore, the contribution of mucosal antibodies to preventing HIV-1 acquisition is unknown. Here, we report the generation, magnitude and persistence of antibody responses to recombinant gp120 envelope and antigens including variable one and two loop scaffold antigens (gp70V1V2 previously shown to correlate with risk in RV144. We evaluated antibody responses to gp120 A244gD and gp70V1V2 92TH023 (both CRF01_AE and Case A2 (subtype B in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM, seminal plasma (SP and rectal secretions (RS from HIV-uninfected RV144 vaccine recipients, who were randomized to receive two late boosts of ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX®B/E, AIDSVAX®B/E, or ALVAC-HIV alone at 0 and 6 months. Late vaccine boosting increased IgG geometric mean titers (GMT to gp120 A244gD in AIDSVAX®B/E and ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX®B/E CVM (28 and 17 fold, respectively, followed by SP and RS. IgG to gp70V1V2 92TH023 increased in AIDSVAX®B/E and ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX®B/E CVM (11-17 fold and SP (2 fold two weeks post first boost. IgG to Case A2 was only detected in AIDSVAX®B/E and ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX®B/E CVM. Mucosal IgG to gp120 A244gD (CVM, SP, RS, gp70V1V2 92TH023 (CVM, SP, and Case A2 (CVM correlated with plasma IgG levels (p<0.001. Although the magnitude of IgG responses declined after boosting, anti-gp120 A244gD IgG responses in CVM persisted for 12 months post final vaccination. Further studies in localization, persistence and magnitude of envelope specific antibodies (IgG and dimeric IgA in anogenital secretions will help determine their role in preventing mucosal HIV acquisition.

  17. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  18. Physical and nutrients profile data from the R/V ALPHA HELIX using bottle casts in the Gulf of Alaska from 06 April 1989 to 11 April 1989 (NODC Accession 0000223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and nutrient profile data were collected using bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX in the Gulf of Alaska from April 6, 1989 to April 11, 1989. Data were...

  19. Parameterization of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function as a Function of the Zenith Angle around the Knee Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsttar, Marwah M.; Al-Rubaiee, A. A.; Ali, Abdul Halim Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (CLLDF) simulation was fulfilled using CORSIKA code for configurations of Tunka EAS array of different zenith angles. The parameterization of the CLLDF was carried out as a function of the distance from the shower core in extensive air showers (EAS) and zenith angle on the basis of the CORSIKA simulation of primary proton around the knee region with the energy 3.10^15 eV at different zenith angles. The parameterized CLLDF is verified in comparison...

  20. Properties of Gribov region and horizon function in the SU(N) Maximal Abelian Gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capri, Marcio Andre Lopes; Gomez, A.J.; Guimaraes, M.S.; Lemes, Vitor Emanuel Rodino; Sorella, Silvio Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The problem of the Gribov copies deals with the impossibility of to choose a unique gauge condition in the quantization process in the Yang Mills theories. In the Landau gauge, several properties of the Gribov region are established, the implementation of the Gribov copies in the path integral is taking account by the introduction of the horizon function directly in the action giving rise to modifications in the ghost and gluon propagator in the infrared regime. However, is interesting to looking at other gauge choices for obtain additional information of the phenomena, and compare our results in the landau gauge. In this work we address the issue of the Gribov copies in SU(N),N ¿ 2, Euclidean Yang-Mills theories quantized in the maximal Abelian gauge. A few properties of the Gribov region in this gauge are established. Similarly to the case of SU(2), the Gribov region turns out to be convex, bounded along the off-diagonals directions in field space, and unbounded along the diagonal ones. The implementation of the restriction to the Gribov region in the functional integral is discussed through the introduction of the horizon function, whose construction will be outlined in detail. The influence of this restriction on the behavior of the gluon and ghost propagators of the theory is also investigated together with a set of dimension two condensates. (author)

  1. Defining the molecular signatures of human right heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jordan L; Cavus, Omer; Loccoh, Emefah C; Adelman, Sara; Daugherty, John C; Smith, Sakima A; Canan, Benjamin; Janssen, Paul M L; Koenig, Sara; Kline, Crystal F; Mohler, Peter J; Bradley, Elisa A

    2018-03-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) varies significantly from the more common left ventricular failure (LVF). This study was undertaken to determine potential molecular pathways that are important in human right ventricular (RV) function and may mediate RVF. We analyzed mRNA of human non-failing LV and RV samples and RVF samples from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and post-LVAD implantation. We then performed transcript analysis to determine differential expression of genes in the human heart samples. Immunoblot quantification was performed followed by analysis of non-failing and failing phenotypes. Inflammatory pathways were more commonly dysregulated in RV tissue (both non-failing and failing phenotypes). In non-failing human RV tissue we found important differences in expression of FIGF, TRAPPAC, and CTGF suggesting that regulation of normal RV and LV function are not the same. In failing RV tissue, FBN2, CTGF, SMOC2, and TRAPP6AC were differentially expressed, and are potential targets for further study. This work provides some of the first analyses of the molecular heterogeneity between human RV and LV tissue, as well as key differences in human disease (RVF secondary to pulmonary hypertension and LVAD mediated RVF). Our transcriptional data indicated that inflammatory pathways may be more important in RV tissue, and changes in FIGF and CTGF supported this hypothesis. In PAH RV failure samples, upregulation of FBN2 and CTGF further reinforced the potential significance that altered remodeling and inflammation play in normal RV function and failure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of Impaired Parasympathetic Activity to Right Ventricular Dysfunction and Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Gonçalves Bós, Denielli; Van Der Bruggen, Cathelijne E E; Kurakula, Kondababu; Sun, Xiao-Qing; Casali, Karina R; Casali, Adenauer G; Rol, Nina; Szulcek, Robert; Dos Remedios, Cris; Guignabert, Christophe; Tu, Ly; Dorfmüller, Peter; Humbert, Marc; Wijnker, Paul J M; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda; Goumans, Marie-José; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; de Man, Frances S; Handoko, M Louis

    2018-02-27

    The beneficial effects of parasympathetic stimulation have been reported in left heart failure, but whether it would be beneficial for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains to be explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between parasympathetic activity and right ventricular (RV) function in patients with PAH, and the potential therapeutic effects of pyridostigmine (PYR), an oral drug stimulating the parasympathetic activity through acetylcholinesterase inhibition, in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH). Heart rate recovery after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test was used as a surrogate for parasympathetic activity. RV ejection fraction was assessed in 112 patients with PAH. Expression of nicotinic (α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) and muscarinic (muscarinic acetylcholine type 2 receptor) receptors, and acetylcholinesterase activity were evaluated in RV (n=11) and lungs (n=7) from patients with PAH undergoing heart/lung transplantation and compared with tissue obtained from controls. In addition, we investigated the effects of PYR (40 mg/kg per day) in experimental PH. PH was induced in male rats by SU5416 (25 mg/kg subcutaneously) injection followed by 4 weeks of hypoxia. In a subgroup, sympathetic/parasympathetic modulation was assessed by power spectral analysis. At week 6, PH status was confirmed by echocardiography, and rats were randomly assigned to vehicle or treatment (both n=12). At the end of the study, echocardiography was repeated, with additional RV pressure-volume measurements, along with lung, RV histological, and protein analyses. Patients with PAH with lower RV ejection fraction (<41%) had a significantly reduced heart rate recovery in comparison with patients with higher RV ejection fraction. In PAH RV samples, α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was increased and acetylcholinesterase activity was reduced versus controls. No difference in muscarinic acetylcholine type 2 receptor expression was observed. Chronic

  3. Orofacial complex regional pain syndrome: pathophysiologic mechanisms and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo; Chun, Yang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated. In the case of CRPS with trigeminal neuropathic pain, protocols for proper diagnosis and prompt treatment have yet to be established in academia or in the clinical field. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging for a thorough analysis of the cortical representation of the affected orofacial area immediately before and immediately after isolated light stimulus of the affected hand and foot and concluded that CRPS can be correlated with trigeminal neuropathy in the orofacial area. Furthermore, the patient was treated with carbamazepine administration and stellate ganglion block, which can result in a rapid improvement of pain in the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expanding pedestrian injury risk to the body region level: how to model passive safety systems in pedestrian injury risk functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the effectiveness of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) plays a crucial role in accident research. A common way to evaluate the effectiveness of new systems is to determine the potentials for injury severity reduction. Because injury risk functions describe the probability of an injury of a given severity conditional on a technical accident severity (closing speed, delta V, barrier equivalent speed, etc.), they are predestined for such evaluations. Recent work has stated an approach on how to model the pedestrian injury risk in pedestrian-to-passenger car accidents as a family of functions. This approach gave explicit and easily interpretable formulae for the injury risk conditional on the closing speed of the car. These results are extended to injury risk functions for pedestrian body regions. Starting with a double-checked German In-depth Accident Study (GIDAS) pedestrian-to-car accident data set (N = 444) and a functional-anatomical definition of the body regions, investigations on the influence of specific body regions on the overall injury severity will be presented. As the measure of injury severity, the ISSx, a rescaled version of the well-known Injury Severity Score (ISS), was used. Though traditional ISS is computed by summation of the squares of the 3 most severe injured body regions, ISSx is computed by the summation of the exponentials of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) severities of the 3 most severely injured body regions. The exponentials used are scaled to fit the ISS range of values between 0 and 75. Three body regions (head/face/neck, thorax, hip/legs) clearly dominated abdominal and upper extremity injuries; that is, the latter 2 body regions had no influence at all on the overall injury risk over the range of technical accident severities. Thus, the ISSx is well described by use of the injury codes from the same body regions for any pedestrian injury severity. As a mathematical consequence, the ISSx becomes explicitly