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Sample records for rutilus rutilus cyprinidae

  1. Expression of gonadotropin subunits in roach (Rutilus rutilus, Cyprinidae) infected with plerocercoids of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda).

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    Trubiroha, Achim; Wuertz, Sven; Frank, Sabrina N; Sures, Bernd; Kloas, Werner

    2009-11-01

    Plerocercoids of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) have been reported to inhibit gametogenesis of their intermediate fish hosts. However, mechanistic studies are rare and the proximate cues leading to impaired reproduction still remain unknown. In the present study we investigated the effects of infection by L. intestinalis on reproductive parameters of roach (Rutilus rutilus, Cyprinidae), a common fish host of this parasite. Field studies on roach demonstrated that in both genders infection prevented gonad development. As revealed by quantitative PCR, infection was accompanied by essentially lower pituitary expression of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHbeta) and luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHbeta) mRNA compared with uninfected roach, providing clear evidence for gonadotropin-insufficiency as the cause of arrested gametogenesis. Under controlled laboratory conditions infected roach showed lower mRNA levels of FSHbeta but not of LHbeta, despite histology revealing similar gonad stages as in uninfected conspecifics. These findings indicate the involvement of FSH rather than LH in mediating effects of infection early during gonad development in roach. Moreover, the impact of L. intestinalis on reproductive parameters of roach appeared to be independent of the parasite burden. Together, these data provide valuable information on the role of FSH and LH as mediators of parasite-induced sterilization in a vertebrate and implicate the selective inhibition of host reproduction by L. intestinalis as a natural source of endocrine disruption in fish.

  2. Rutilus frisii Kutum Kamensky, 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Acute toxicity and behavioral changes of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii Kutum Kamensky, 1991) and. Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus Jakowlew,. 1870) exposed to the fungicide hinosan. Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad.

  3. First record of Toxorhynchites rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Massachusetts.

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    Dennehy, J J; Livdahl, T

    1999-09-01

    The 1st recorded capture of Toxorhynchites rutilus in Massachusetts, USA, is reported. This capture represents the northernmost record of Tx. rutilus. The implications of this capture are discussed in the context of range expansion, evolution, and climatic change.

  4. Acute Toxicity of Butachlor to Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Sander lucioperca in Vivo Condition

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    Forouhar Vajargah Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to sites that are specific to plants. Butachlor is an herbicide of the acetanilide class, which is widely used in agricultural fields. At the present study, lethal concentration (LC50 of butachlor was calculated for Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Sander lucioperca with a mean weight of 4 ± 1 g (mean ± SD. Our results indicated that LC50 96 h butachlor for R. rutilus caspicus and S. lucioperca were 0.342 and 0.760 ppm respectively. These findings suggest that butachlor is moderately toxic and moderately irritating for these two species. Clinical symptoms included irregular protrusion of the eyes and irregular swimming.

  5. Ecological factors affecting the foraging behaviour of Xerus rutilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African unstriped ground squirrel (Xerus rutilus) is widely dispersed across various habitats in East Africa and hence encounters a diverse suite of predators and plant communities. It is not known how different habitats and plant characteristics affect the foraging behaviour of X. rutilus. We used giving-up densities ...

  6. Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis: new occurrences in upstate New York.

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    Kokas, John; Lee, Joon-Hak

    2004-06-01

    Records of Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis findings in New York State are few, and collections north of New York City are rare. This is the 1st official documentation of Tx. rutilus found in upstate New York in the past 46 years and the farthest northern record. In 2002, immatures of Tx. rutilus were found in artificial containers in 2 locations in the Hudson Valley region, at Quarryville (Ulster County) and Blauvelt (Rockland County), NY. A study conducted at Quarryville in 2002 and 2003 found that breeding occurred continuously through the season, and that overwintering possibly could be occurring at that site.

  7. Laboratory and field studies with /sup 32/P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

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    Smittle, B.J.; Focks, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with /sup 32/P by feeding fourth-stage larvae /sup 32/P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The /sup 32/P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population.

  8. Laboratory and field studies with 32P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, B J; Focks, D A

    1986-12-01

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with 32P by feeding fourth-stage larvae 32P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The 32P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population.

  9. Acute Toxicity and Behavioral Changes Associated with Diazinon in Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix

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    Seyed Ali Akbar Hedayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diazinon is an organophosphorous pesticide which widely found in municipal, agricultural, and urban storm water discharges. The present study was conducted to achieve lethal concentration (LC50 and behavioral changes of Rutilus rutilus caspius and Hypophthal-micthys molitrix after exposure to lethal concentration of diazinon. Methods: The experiment was carried out in static conditions, based on instructions of OECD in 4 days under controlled water physicochemical conditions with pH of 7.2±0.2, oxygen of 7±0.3 mg/l, total hardness of 180 mg CaCo3 and temperature of 24±1 C°. All fishes were accli-matized in 400 L aquaria for 10 days. Treated aquaria had concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 ppm of diazinon for H. molitrix, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 20 for R. rutilus caspi-cus, while there was no toxic concentration for the control group. LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90, and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Results: LC50 96h diazinon values were 3.93 and 1.71 ppm for H. molitrix and R. rutilus caspi-cus, respectively. Clinical observation revealed that the poisoned fishes suffered from nerve paralysis syndrome. The fishes exhibited irregular, erratic, and darting swimming movements, severe aching, and collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Conclusion: These findings suggest that diazinon has medium toxicity at low concentrations for thede two species and causes morbidities.

  10. Determination of Heavy Metals in Roach (Rutilus rutilus and Bleak (Alburnus alburnus in Zhrebchevo Dam Lake

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    Georgi I. Zhelyazkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the concentration of iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn in roach (Rutilus rutilus and bleak (Alburnus alburnus as species for human consummation. Two fresh water fish species, roach and bleak were caught from Zhrebchevo Dam Lake in Bulgaria. Determination of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr and Cd in muscle samples were performed with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS. The heavy metal content in the meat of roach and bleak were found to be 0.59±0.032 - 0.69±0.128 mg kg-1 for Cu, 6.59±0.224 - 7.34±0.142 mg kg-1 for Fe, 0.03±0.025 - 0.04±0.012 mg kg-1 for Ni, 0.06±0.044 - 0.07±0.031 mg kg-1 for Pb, 4.05±0.263 - 5.46±0.388 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.49±0.060 - 0.72±0.080 mg kg-1 for Mn, 0.09±0.036 - 0.1±0.045 mg kg-1 for Cr, 0.01±0.002 - 0.01±0.003 mg kg-1 for Cd. The data show that the differences between the content of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr and Ni in roach and bleak are significant, while these ones of Pb and Cd are not significant. The significant differences in the content of heavy metals in muscles of roach and bleak are as a result of multiple factors, including season, food, chemical properties of water or sediment. The data established during the investigation show that the edible part of fish do not carry heavy metals loads and concentrations are below the legal value for fish and fish products established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and national legislation. This paper is helpful to consumers and academics concerning the mineral of body composition of roach (Rutilus rutilus, and bleak (Alburnus alburnus.

  11. Search behavior associated with egg cannibalism in Toxorhynchites amboinensis and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Linley, J R; Darling, K

    1993-05-01

    Observations based on time-lapse video recordings were used to study behavior associated with egg cannibalism in fourth-instar Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall) and Tx. r. rutilus (Coquillett). Analysis indicated that, once triggered by finding of the first egg, larvae of both species engaged in a systematic search of the water surface in an attempt to find additional eggs, which were often seized and eaten. Seven behavioral elements were identified in the search repertoire, and their relationships studied by analysis of a matrix of preceding and succeeding behaviors. The pivotal behavior was "sweep-adjust," which accounted for 87.2% of the time budget in Tx. amboinensis and 73.3% in Tx. r. rutilus. Activity in sweep-adjust consisted predominantly of side-to-side sweeps of the head, held just below the surface, punctuated by small forward adjustments of position. Quantitative aspects of the sweep arcs, in terms of angular and linear velocity, were determined for the two species. Eggs encountered during search probably were detected by mechanoreception, only within a very limited, kidney-shaped zone (area approximately 9.8 mm2) centered at the anterior margin of the head. Eggs were seized with the lateral palatal brushes but without head extension as seen in strikes at subsurface prey.

  12. Infrasound initiates directional fast-start escape responses in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus.

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    Karlsen, Hans E; Piddington, Robert W; Enger, Per S; Sand, Olav

    2004-11-01

    Acoustic stimuli within the sonic range are effective triggers of C-type escape behaviours in fish. We have previously shown that fish have an acute sensitivity to infrasound also, with acceleration thresholds in the range of 10(-5) m s(-2). In addition, infrasound at high intensities around 10(-2) m s(-2) elicits strong and sustained avoidance responses in several fish species. In the present study, the possible triggering of C-escapes by infrasonic single-cycle vibrations was examined in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus. The fish were accelerated in a controlled and quantifiable manner using a swing system. The applied stimuli simulated essential components of the accelerations that a small fish would encounter in the hydrodynamic flow field produced by a predatory fish. Typical C- and S-type escape responses were induced by accelerations within the infrasonic range with a threshold of 0.023 m s(-2) for an initial acceleration at 6.7 Hz. Response trajectories were on average in the same direction as the initial acceleration. Unexpectedly, startle behaviours mainly occurred in the trailing half of the test chamber, in which the fish were subjected to linear acceleration in combination with compression, i.e. the expected stimuli produced by an approaching predator. Very few responses were observed in the leading half of the test chamber, where the fish were subjected to acceleration and rarefaction, i.e. the stimuli expected from a suction type of predator. We conclude that particle acceleration is essential for the directionality of the startle response to infrasound, and that the response is triggered by the synergistic effects of acceleration and compression.

  13. Effect of weight on osmoregulation ability in Rutilus frisii kutum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... Experiments were conducted to study the downstream migratory behavior and effects of weight on osmoregulation ability of hatchery-reared Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings during adaptation to the seawater. Accordingly, blood osmotic pressure regulation ability in kutum fingerlings with weights of 1,. 3, 5 and ...

  14. Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region

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    Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil sampl...

  15. Effect of dietary tryptophan and betaine on tolerance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus to copper toxicity

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    Sajjad Fatahi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of dietary tryptophan (TRP and betaine (BET on copper (Cu toxicity tolerance in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus. The Caspian roach fingerlings were fed diets containing 0, 0.25 and 0.5% TRP or 0, 0.5 and 1 % BET and combination of TRP and BET. Specimens were exposed to Cu (0.8 ppm after either 30 or 60 days feeding. Mortality was recorded in each treatment 48 h after the Cu exposure. TRP decreased significantly fish mortality. However, BET had no significant effect on fish mortality. Specimens fed on the diet supplemented with 0.25% TRP had the lowest mortality among the treatments. It is concluded that 0.25% TRP reduces mortality of Caspian roach during Cu exposure.

  16. The functional response of Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus to changes in the population density of its prey Aedes aegypti.

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    Hubbard, S F; O'Malley, S L; Russo, R

    1988-07-01

    We present an analysis of the functional response of the predator Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett) to changes in the density of the larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The experiment was replicated for five different ages, and at three different densities of the predator. The data were fitted to Rogers' (1972) random predator equation by non-linear least-squares in order to estimate searching efficiency and handling time for each experimental treatment. The data show that estimated searching efficiencies are highest at intermediate ages of the predator for all predator densities tested. Handling time declines exponentially with increasing predator age. There is a marked interference effect; searching efficiency decreases with increased predator density, and this is most pronounced at intermediate prey ages. Estimated handling times increase with predator density at a rate which declines with increasing predator age.

  17. The impact of high commercial fishery load on biological indices of the roach (Rutilus rutilus

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    G. O. Kotovska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Age composition, length and weight indices of the roach populations (Rutilus rutilus L. were analyzed and compared in water bodies with the different commercial fishery loading levels. Presence of fast-growing and slow-growing forms is inherent to cyprinid fish. In Dnieper reservoirs these forms are mixed and it is difficult to separate any one of them. It is assumed that selective elimination of fast-growing forms by commercial fishing may cause accumulation of slow-growing forms in populations. On that ground, water bodies with different levels of commercial fishery pressure have been chosen to test this hypothesis. For instance, Kremenchuk Reservoir was selected as a water body with high level of commercial fishery load because it forms more than a half of roach commercial catching in Ukraine. On the contrary, “Dniprovsko-Orilskiy” Natural Reserve was taken as a water body where human impact is minimum. Subsequently, comparing of the basic biological features of the roach from water bodies with different commercial fishery load illustrated the value of the study. It is found that the roach age range in Kremenchuk Reservoir is much higher than in subordinate waters of the Natural Reserve fund. Namely, the roach population in Kremenchuk Reservoir consisted of seventeen age groups while in “Dniprovsko-Orilskiy” Natural Reserve it comprised ten age groups only. However, size-weight features of species under study across the age groups 6+ –10+ in water bodies with the intensive commercial fishery were statistically lower than in protected waters of the Nature Reserve. Namely, length of these age groups in Kremenchuk Reservoir was equal to 24.6–33.5 cm, compared with 25.0–37.0 cm in the National Reserve. Naturally, that weight was equal to 334–957 and 340–1320 g, respectively. In general, this result does not fit into the traditional concept that the fast-growing roach should inhabit the lacustrine biocenosis of the Dnieper

  18. Inhibition of gametogenesis by the cestode Ligula intestinalis in roach (Rutilus rutilus) is attenuated under laboratory conditions.

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    Trubiroha, Achim; Kroupova, Hana; Frank, Sabrina N; Sures, Bernd; Kloas, Werner

    2011-04-01

    Reproductive parameters of Ligula intestinalis-infected roach (Rutilus rutilus) which were held under long-tem laboratory conditions with unlimited food supply were investigated. Although uninfected and infected roach showed no difference in condition factor and both groups deposited perivisceral fat, the gonadosomatic-index was significantly lower in infected female and male roach. Quantitative histological analysis revealed that gonad development was retarded upon parasitization in both genders. In contrast to the phenotype described in the field, infected females were able to recruit follicles into secondary growth, but a high percentage of secondary growth follicles underwent atresia. In both genders, the histological data corresponded well with reduced expression of pituitary gonadotropins and lowered plasma concentrations of sex steroids, as revealed by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Furthermore, a reduction of vitellogenin mRNA and modulated expression of sex steroid receptors in the liver was demonstrated. Like in the field, there was a significant adverse impact of L. intestinalis on host reproductive physiology which could not be related to parasite burden. Our results show, for the first time, that maintenance under laboratory conditions can not abolish the deleterious effect of L. intestinalis on gametogenesis in roach, and indicate a specific inhibition of host reproduction by endocrine disruption.

  19. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates......Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to de-termine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat....... Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were...

  20. Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis: a new adult and larval record from Rhode Island.

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    Lawson, D A; Gettman, A D; Perullo, Y S

    1994-06-01

    Twenty-three Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis were collected from a tire in South Kingstown, RI, on September 15, 1993. This represents the first recorded capture of the species in Rhode Island.

  1. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-03-02

    Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus.

  2. The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) inhibits LH expression and puberty in its teleost host, Rutilus rutilus.

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    Carter, V; Pierce, R; Dufour, S; Arme, C; Hoole, D

    2005-12-01

    The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis occurs in the body cavity of its cyprinid second intermediate host, in this study the roach Rutilus rutilus, and inhibits host gonadal development. The mechanism by which infected fish are prevented from reproducing is unknown. Comparison of parameters, such as body length and weight, and condition factor and age, between infected and uninfected individuals, indicated only minor effects of parasitism on growth and condition. In contrast, seasonal gonadal development, as observed in uninfected fish, did not occur in infected fish, and gonads remained small and blocked at the primary oocyte stage in female roach. As immature ovaries and testes are still present, the parasite is presumed to act upon the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of the fish to inhibit further development of reproductive organs. We investigated the Ligula/fish interaction at the level of the pituitary gland by determination of gonadotrophin (LH) content using a heterologous RIA for carp (Cyprinus carpio) LHbeta subunit. The results indicated that the pituitary glands of infected roach contained approximately 50% less LH than non-infected fish. After the cloning and sequencing of roach LHbeta subunit, we measured roach LHbeta mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR. A corresponding 50% reduction in LHbeta mRNA pituitary levels was determined. These results reflect a significant and measurable effect of parasitism on the pituitary gland, and lend support to the hypothesis that excretory/secretory products released from the parasite interact with the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of the fish host and thus inhibit gonadal development.

  3. Effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide on oxidative stress and immune parameters in roach, Rutilus rutilus L.

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    Jolly, S; Jaffal, A; Delahaut, L; Palluel, O; Porcher, J-M; Geffard, A; Sanchez, W; Betoulle, S

    2014-11-01

    Aluminium is used in diverse anthropogenic processes at the origin of pollution events in aquatic ecosystems. In the Champagne region (France), high concentrations of aluminium (Al) are detected due to vine-growing practices. In fish, little is known about the possible immune-related effects at relevant environmental concentrations. The present study analyzes the simultaneous effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alone and in combination, on toxicological biomarkers in the freshwater fish species Rutilus rutilus. For this purpose, roach treated or not with LPS were exposed to environmental concentrations of aluminium (100 μg/L) under laboratory-controlled conditions for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. After each exposure time, we assessed hepatic lipoperoxidation, catalase activity, glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. We also analyzed cellular components related to the LPS-induced inflammatory response in possible target tissues, i.e. head kidney and spleen. Our results revealed a significant prooxidant effect in the liver cells and head kidney leukocytes of roach exposed to 100 μg of Al/L for 2 days. In liver, we observed more lipoperoxidation products and lower endogenous antioxidant activity levels such as glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. These prooxidant effects were associated with a higher oxidative burst in head kidney leukocytes, and they were all the more important in fish stimulated by LPS injection. These findings demonstrate that environmental concentrations of Al induce oxidative and immunotoxic effects in fish and are associated to an immunomodulatory process related to the inflammatory response.

  4. The influence of magnetic field on the spatial orientation in zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.

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    Anastasia A. Batrakova

    2015-10-01

    This is the first study on the use of GMF for orientation in R. rutilus from a natural population. Our results confirm the presence of magnetosensitivity in roach. At the same time, the preferred direction in GMF matched the direction to the mouth of the channel where the fish were caught. It is possible that fish stressed by experimental manipulations have tried to “leave” the experimental arena in the usual direction of escape to the deep-water part of reservoir. Figure 1. Bimodal distribution of preferred directions in zebrafish by the reversal of vertical (a, horizontal (b, both vertical and horizontal (c components of GMF, and by the rotation of the horizontal component by 90 degrees clockwise (d. Distributions of preferred directions in control conditions (GMF for each experiment are given under corresponding diagrams (e, f, g, h. Figure 2. Distribution of preferred directions of roach in a GMF (a and the rotation of the horizontal component of the GMF by 90 degrees clockwise (b. Sample area with designation of the direction of the channel to the Rybinsk Reservoir (c. Asterisk shows the point of sampling.

  5. Assessing of heavy metal concentrations in the tissues of Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Neogobius gorlap from Miankaleh international wetland.

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    Alipour, Hossein; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Hassanpour, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr) were measured in tissues of pelagic (Rutilus caspicus) and benthic (Neogobius gorlap) fishes from the Miankaleh international wetland. The maximum concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr (2.06, 1.20, 1.14 and 0.70 μg g(-1), respectively) were measured in the liver of N. gorlap, while the lowest concentrations were measured in muscle tissue collected from R. caspicus (Pb 0.67; Cd 0.25; Ni 0.21 and Cr 0.08 μg g(-1)). The mean concentrations of metals in liver of R. caspicus and N. gorlap followed a trend where Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr, whereas in R. caspicus and N. gorlap gills and N. gorlap muscle the following trend was observed Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr. The data of presented study show that the liver and gill tissues have higher metal concentrations than muscle and also the metal concentrations in tissues of N. gorlap (benthic) were higher in comparison with R. caspicus (pelagic).

  6. Determination of acute toxicity and the effects of sub-acute concentrations of CuO nanoparticles on blood parameters in Rutilus rutilus

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    Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Copper oxidenanoparticles have different industrial applications so it is inevitable that nanoparticulate products finally find their way into aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless there is little information available about their effects on some of edible fish. The present study aims to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of two sub-acute concentrations (50 and 70% 96 h LC50 of CuO-NPs on some hematological and biochemical parameters of R. rutilus. Materials and Methods:225 healthy specimen of R. rutilus (mean weight 5.52±1.2 g; mean length 6.20±0.2 cm were transported to the laboratory. In order to prepare the stock solution, CuO-NPs was dispersed in pure water with ultrasonication (50-60 kHz for 15 min every day before dosing. At first, R. rutilus was exposed to CuO-NPs to determine the lethal concentration (LC50 value. Following acute test, fish were treated with sub-acute concentrations of CuO-NPs (50 and 70% 96 h-LC50 at with one control group (no CuO-NPs for a week to determine the changes in the level of some plasma hematological and biochemical parameters. Results:The 96 h-LC50 values of CuO-NPs was 2.19±0.003 mg/l. R. rutilus exhibited significantly lower RBC count, Hb and Hct values and a significant increase in the WBC numbers, MCH, MCHC and MCV indices (p

  7. A Survey On Ionic And Metabolite Factors Of Blood Serum In Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum

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    Afkhami Majid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ionic parameters and metabolite factors (cholesterol, total protein, and glucose of serum and their interrelationships were detected in 48 specimens of kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum captured during spawning migration. Blood sampling was conducted by cutting the caudal peduncle of each sample, and blood was collected into heparinized and sterile capillary glass tubes.

  8. Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

    2014-06-04

    Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of developmental asynchrony between Aedes triseriatus (Diptera:Culicidae) and its predator Toxorhynchites rutilus (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, M A; Juliano, S A

    1997-07-01

    Newly hatched Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillet) were added to experimental populations of Aedes triseriatus (Say) at varying days after prey hatch to test the hypothesis that a developmental asynchrony of Ae. triseriatus and Tx. rutilus leads to escape from predation by Ae. triseriatus in small water bodies. Presence of Tx. rutilus significantly affected prey survivorship. Regression of survivorship [log10 (x + 1) transformed] versus days head start for prey yielded a small, but significant positive slope, indicating that survivorship increased slightly with an increasing number of days head start. For females, mean weight at emergence was not significantly affected by treatments; however, median days to emergence differed significantly between the treatments, with females taking significantly longer to emerge with Tx. rutilus absent than when the predator was present. For males, neither mean mass nor median days to emergence was significantly affected by treatments. Treatments had no significant effect on the frequency of deaths or on mean weight of Tx. rutilus. Thus, a developmental asynchrony between Tx. rutilus and Ae. Triseriatus appears to have no effects on the predator, but does have a weak effect on prey performance at high hatch densities.

  10. A Re-assessment of the Growth Index for Quantifying Growth in Length of Fish with Application to Roach, Rutilus rutilus (L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Serhan TARKAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative assessments of mean growth rates in length across fish populations are useful for gaining insights into the conservation, management and control of species, especially at larger scales of distribution. The purpose of this study was to refine the Growth Index (GI, a useful measure for comparing species-specific growth rates in fish. Using literature-based length-at-age data for 299 populations of roach Rutilus rutilus, a widespread freshwater fish of Eurasian distribution, the GI was calibrated and the previously semi-quantitatively defined ‘slow’, ‘average’ and ‘fast’ growth categories were quantitatively re-defined. A threshold value of 114% GI separated ‘slow’ from ‘average’ growth populations and of 155% GI ‘average’ from ‘fast’ growth populations. Slow growth rates were identified along the entire latitudinal range of the species’ distribution, whereas below ≈37ºN all types of growth were encountered, indicating the importance of waterbody-related environmental factors in affecting growth in roach. Given the relatively widespread usage of the GI, species-specific calibrations leading to improved definition of corresponding growth bands are recommended for other widespread fish species of both economic value and ecological concern.

  11. The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on skin mucosal immune responses, stress resistance and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghehdarijani, Mahbubeh Salmanian; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Ghorbani, Rasol; Roohi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic supplementation on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Fish (1 ± 0.07 g) were divided into four groups fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g kg(-1) garlic for 8 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant increase in weight gain and specific growth rate in those fish fed garlic diets compared with the control (P garlic dosage. At the end of trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against 2 g-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) were measured. Skin mucus alkaline phosphatase, protein levels and antimicrobial activity were increased following garlic administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in garlic-fed fish (P garlic beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of the Caspian roach fry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the Sensitivity of Different Life Stages for Sexual Disruption in Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Exposed to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liney, Katherine E.; Jobling, Susan; Shears, Jan A.; Simpson, Peter; Tyler, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of U.K. rivers have shown a high incidence of sexual disruption in populations of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) living downstream from wastewater treatment works (WwTW), and the degree of intersex (gonads containing both male and female structural characteristics) has been correlated with the concentration of effluent in those rivers. In this study, we investigated feminized responses to two estrogenic WwTWs in roach exposed for periods during life stages of germ cell division (early life and the postspawning period). Roach were exposed as embryos from fertilization up to 300 days posthatch (dph; to include the period of gonadal sex differentiation) or as postspawning adult males, and including fish that had received previous estrogen exposure, for either 60 or 120 days when the annual event of germ cell proliferation occurs. Both effluents induced vitellogenin synthesis in both life stages studied, and the magnitude of the vitellogenic responses paralleled the effluent content of steroid estrogens. Feminization of the reproductive ducts occurred in male fish in a concentration-dependent manner when the exposure occurred during early life, but we found no effects on the reproductive ducts in adult males. Depuration studies (maintenance of fish in clean water after exposure to WwTW effluent) confirmed that the feminization of the reproductive duct was permanent. We found no evidence of ovotestis development in fish that had no previous estrogen exposure for any of the treatments. In wild adult roach that had previously received exposure to estrogen and were intersex, the degree of intersex increased during the study period, but this was not related to the immediate effluent exposure, suggesting a previously determined programming of ovotestis formation. PMID:16203238

  13. Life tables of Toxorhynchites rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae) in nature in southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, R E; Lounibos, L P

    2000-05-01

    Stage-specific survivorship curves were constructed for the immature stages of a native, predatory mosquito, Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillet), by regular censuses in the summer and fall of water-holding treeholes and tires. Survival from egg to adult ranged from 1.8 to 5.6%, and survivorship patterns were significantly heterogeneous between seasons and container types. The probability of death was highest in the first and fourth larval instars. Rainfall and drought were relatively unimportant risk factors during this study, but the probabilities of disappearance of eggs and first and fourth instars were significantly higher in the presence of large conspecifics, suggesting that cannibalism is a major source of mortality.

  14. Use of a culture independent method to analyze the diversity of soil fungi surrounding Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Shouxian; Yin, Yonggang

    2012-01-01

    habitat to facilitate its large-scale cultivation. A culture-independent molecular approach—a powerful technology for microbiological ecology studies—was used to investigate the diversity of soil fungal communities in samples surrounding C. rutilus from the Beijing region of China. Metagenomic DNA...... was isolated from soil samples collected around C. rutilus, and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene library was constructed. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction products were digested with HinfI, HaeIII, MspI, TaqI, or MboI. Clones were selected and sequenced based on their restriction fragment...... length polymorphisms. The diversity of the fungi represented by their ITS sequences was analyzed. Our results indicate the presence of numerous fungi in the C. rutilus habitat. This study is the first demonstration of the fungal ecology surrounding C. rutilus using a culture independent method...

  15. Check Amount of heavy metals in muscle and fish oil Rutilus frisii kutum, Clupeonella cultriventris and Liza saliens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salehi Borban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in marine environments and the potential for bioaccumulation of contaminants have been considered as a serious threat for a long time. These contaminants accumulate in fish body and then transferred through the food chain to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metals cadmium, lead, arsenic, mercury and copper and iron metals in muscle and fish oil (Rutilus frisii kutum ،Clupeonella cultriventris ،Liza saliens. Three samples of Rutilus frisii kutum ،Clupeonella cultriventris and Liza saliens were caught in Mahmoud Abad area. One part of the muscle was dried by freeze drying method and another part was used to extract the oil. Then, using the atomic absorption spectrometric and Mercury Analyzer heavy metals concentrations were determined in muscle and fish oil. The results of muscle showed the highest accumulation of mercury (0.347±0.018, cadmium (0.08±0.001, copper (1.2156±0.059 and iron (2.643±0.231 in Rutilus frisii kutum and the highest level of lead (0.3593±0.015 and arsenic (0.0892±0.001 in Liza saliens. Moreover, in the fish oils samples, lead and mercury had the highest concentrations. The heavy metals in the samples were lower than or close to international standards. Therefore, their use does not pose a health problem for the consumers.

  16. Effects of alcohol on length and weight of young of the year ide Idus idus (L. and roach Rutilus rutilus (L. Effects of alcohol on length and weight of young of the year ide Idus idus (L. and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cala Plutarco

    1971-09-01

    Full Text Available Cambios en la longitud fueron observados mediante subsecuentes medidas de peces sacrificados y almacenados en alcohol al 80%. Alevinos Idus idus (L. disminuyeron su longitud original a 96% (muestra A y a 98% (muestra B en menos de 24 horas (Tabla 1, y subsecuentementelos alevinos muy pequeños, se encogieron hasta ca. de 95% mientras los más largos no mostraron cambios posteriores.Alevinos Rutilus rutilus (L. disminuyeron su longitud original a94% (muestra A y a 98% (muestras B y C en menos de 24 horas (Tabla 1. Subsecuentemente, los alevinos muy pequeños (muestra A disminuyeron su longitud hasta Ca. de 93%, los de la muestra B hasta ca, de 97%, mientras que los más largos (muestra C no mostraron cambios posteriores.Los cambios proporcionados en peso entre los peees de diferente tamaño varían muy poco. Alevinos L. idus y R. rutilus (Tablas 1 y 2 disminuyeron hasta ca. de 80% de su peso original en menos de 2 días, Cambios posteriores, en peso, con el tiempo fueron considerados insignificantes, excepto en la muestra A (Tabla 2. La diferente pérdida aparente de peso de L. idus (muestra A, Tabla 1 y de R. rutilus (muestra A, Tabla 2 puede ser debido a algún error sistemático durante las mediciones, ya que las edades y longitudes de los peces de las dos muestras eran más o menos las mismas.  Cambios de longitud y peso de los peces fueron registrados tanto durante anestesia como después de muertos y mantenidos en agua o en seco. Se concluyó que en los peces puestos bajo anestesia, el peso debe ser observado tan pronto conto cese el movimiento voluntario para así poder aproximarse al peso en vivo. Anestesia prolongada (aunque los movimientos respiratorios puedan continuar y la muerte afectan la osmorregulación.  Los peces mantenidos en agua dulce después de la muerte ganan peso y se encogen menos en comparación con los peces mantenidos en seco, los cuales pierden peso.  De acuerdo con Parker (1963, puede concluírse que factores

  17. Ovarian development of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, in southern Caspian Sea: A histological and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akhoundian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology and ultrastructure of the ovarian maturation process in Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, was studied. A total 170 female specimens were collected from the Gharasoo River, Bandar Turkmen, the southern Caspian Sea to evaluate its maturation cycle. Based on the results, its ovarian follicle’s development could classified into six stages by distinct characteristics. Minimum and maximum diameter of oocytes were recorded in the chromatin-nucleolus and maturation stages as 56.34±3.74 and 918.83±14.82 µm, respectively. The zona radiata was observed from the cortical alveoli stage and its maximum diameter measured in the secondary vitellogenesis stage as 93.11±23.0 µm. Gonadosomatic index (GSI reached to its peak in mid-March and its sharp drop in the late April showed its spawning period from late March or early April till the end of April. A positive correlation was found between the GSI and HSI in the vitellogenesis stage. The results also revealed Caspian roach as iteroparous synchronous spawner.

  18. Optimization of fishing for stock enhancement of Rutilis rutilus and Scardinius erythropththalmus in forage fish-deficient Tunisian reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mili, Sami; Ennouri, Rym; Laouar, Houcine; Aleya, Lotfi

    2017-11-04

    Twenty specially designed fishing nets were used to catch broodstock of the forage fish roach and rudd (Rutilus rutilus and Scardinius erythrophthalmus). The monofilament gill nets were of different mesh sizes (18, 22, 24, and 26 mm) but of identical dimensions (4 × 50 m). The fish, caught in Sidi Salem reservoir in 2014, amounted to a total of 8901 roach and rudd caught at 41 different times; 3335 broodstock forage fish were transferred to 11 forage fish-deficient Tunisian reservoirs. The best yields (0.464 fish/m2) were obtained with fishing gear fitted with 18-mm mesh size; however, fish mortality with this net was very high, exceeding 83.36%. The greatest efficiency was obtained using nets of 22- and 24-mm mesh with a number of fish per unit effort (NPUE) of 0.181 and 0.173 fish/m2, and a mortality of 54.34 and 53.85%, respectively. Gill nets of 26-mm mesh size were inappropriate (lowest yield 0.129 fish/m2). Length of rudd and roach at first maturity and Gonadosomatic index (GSI) were measured, indicating that all transferred fish were mature. Transfer techniques were improved by holding the captured fish for 5 days before release into the host reservoir.

  19. Interaction between photoperiod, temperature, and chilling in dormant larvae of the tree-hole mosquito, Toxorhynchites rutilus Coq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    1977-04-01

    1. Unchilled, diapausing larvae of Toxorhynchites rutilus rely on photoperiod for the maintenance of diapause. The photoperiodic clock is temperature-compensated between 16.5 degrees and 25 degrees C, maintaining both a similar set-joint and inherent accuracy over this range. The rates of development among larvae terminating diapause are dependent upon both temperature and photoperiod. 2. Chilling of dormant Toxorhynchites rutilus can promote response to progressively shorter daylengths, thus decreasing the critical photoperiod. Chilling can also accelerate response to long days, thereby decreasing the depth of diapause and, after prolonged exposure, can eventually terminate diapause directly, leaving subsequent morphogenesis independent of photoperiod. 3. The optimal temperature for these effects of chilling is above 4 degrees C, below 16.5 degrees C, and may lie around 7 degrees C. 4. Temperatures between 5 degrees and 15 degrees C are vernal and autumnal rather than hibernal. The interaction between chilling and photoperiod may then represent an adaptive compromise between selection due to long-term climatic trends and the vagaries of spring weather.

  20. Up-regulation of gonadotropin mRNA-expression at the onset of gametogenesis in the roach (Rutilus rutilus): evidence for an important role of brain-type aromatase (cyp19a1b) in the pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiroha, Achim; Kroupova, Hana; Wuertz, Sven; Kloas, Werner

    2012-09-15

    The present study characterized changes in key parameters of reproduction in adult roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Grosser Mueggelsee (Berlin, Germany) during natural gametogenesis. Fish of both sexes were sampled in monthly intervals between April and August in order to cover the onset of gametogenesis. Investigated parameters included gonad histology, plasma levels of 17β-oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P) as well as the expression of gonadotropin subunits in the pituitary. Furthermore, the mRNA-expression of brain-type aromatase (cyp19a1b), androgen receptor (ar), and estrogen receptor isoforms was studied at the pituitary level. The onset of gametogenesis - as indicated by follicles with cortical alveoli in females and first spermatogonia B in males - was observed in July, accompanied by a significant up-regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone β (fshβ) mRNA in the pituitary in both sexes. On the other hand, luteinizing hormone β (lhβ) mRNA increased later on in August. In males, the increase of fshβ mRNA in July coincided with a rise in plasma 11-KT concentrations. In females, E2 in plasma increased later, not until August, shortly before true vitellogenesis (late cortical alveoli stage). Expression of sex steroid receptors in the pituitary revealed only minor seasonal fluctuations. Most pronounced, ar mRNA displayed the highest level pre-spawning in both sexes. Interestingly, cyp19a1b mRNA-expression in the pituitary increased in parallel with fshβ already before any changes in plasma E2 or T occurred. These data suggest an important role of pituitary FSH and aromatase at the onset of gametogenesis in the roach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Kardel; Farzaneh Mirzapour; Shila Omidzahir; Maryam Akhoundian

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn) concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of...

  2. Assessment of antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. on white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Kalatehjari, Pegah; Yousefian, Mahdi; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in-vitro effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. isolated from white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) eggs. The antifungal effects were measured by determining the minimum lethal concentration of copper nanoparticles on Saprolegnia sp. in yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC) agar at 25 °C. Saprolegnia grown in YGC agar without added copper nanoparticles served as negative controls. Our study showed that copper nano...

  3. Intraperitoneal fipronil effects on liver histopathological, biochemistry and morphology in Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamenskii, 1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alijani Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fipronil is a relatively new insecticide in agriculture with health and environmental effects. This is the first report studying effect of fipronil on fish administered via intraperitoneal route. Intraperitoneal LD50  of fipronil in 16.3 g Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fingerlings was determined using a total of 133 fish in 19 tanks (7 fish/tank including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 450, 550, 650, 750, 850 mg/kg. Fish were injected intraperitoneally and monitored at 96 h. The LD50 of fipronil was 632 mg/kg in Caspian kutum. Sub-lethal test doses of 10, 20, and 30% of the LD50 at 96 h were used to assess the effect of fipronil on the fish’s liver.  The blood plasma of 90 fish were used (18 at each test dose and in controls on days 7 and 14 for biochemistry. The hepatosomatic index (HSI of the livers were obtained and histopathology done on the same days. Pyknosis, sinusoid dilation and vacuolization were common histological changes, and these changes became more severe in a time and dose dependent manner. This dependence was also observed for HSI and the liver biochemical test (alanine and aspartate transaminase. Liver histological alterations showed that fipronil can be a potential factor in liver carcinoma.

  4. An unusual larval collection and survival of Orthopodomyia signifera in the presence of the predator Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Nelder, Mark P; Crans, Scott C; Gaugler, Randy

    2009-09-01

    From a discarded heavy-equipment tire (ca. 57 liter) at an industrial construction site, we collected 655 (86.0%) Orthopodomyia signifera, 23 (3.0%) Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis, 17 (2.2%) Aedes japonicus japonicus, and 67 (8.8%) Culex pipiens pipiens. Although larvae of Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus were not collected from this container, both species were prevalent as host-seeking adults and readily collected as larvae from other containers at this site. Laboratory trials to test the survival of prey (Ae. albopictus, Cx. p. pipiens, or Or. signifera) in the presence of Tx. rut. septentrionalis showed that survival of prey larvae differed among species. Multiple comparisons revealed that Ae. albopictus had the lowest and Or. signifera the highest survival in the presence of Tx. rut. septentrionalis. Survival of Or. signifera and Cx. p. pipiens was not significantly different from one another, but both were different from Ae. albopictus. Further testing is warranted to test other factors responsible for differences in the interspecific relationship between Or. signifera and other species in tree hole communities.

  5. Evaluation of heavy metal concentrations in Rutilus frisii kutum on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Naghipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine products, especially fish, play an increasingly significant role in human diets and health. This research evaluated the concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, and nickel in liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus frisii kutum along the Caspian Sea coasts of northern Iran. Methods: Thirty samples of fishes were taken from five stations (Astara, Rezvanshahr, Anazali, Ramsar, and Tonekabon during fishing season. An ICP-OES spectrophotometer was used to determine concentrations of the studied metals. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistical index, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA test; P Ni>Pb>Cd. The results showed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of these metals in liver and muscle tissues (P < 0.05, but no significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: Based on calculations, the estimated permissible tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs of cadmium (0.042 and 0.567 mg and lead (0.0021 and 0.027 mg in this study are lower than the levels established by the World Health Organization (WHO (0.455 mg for cadmium and 1.625 mg for lead.

  6. Investigating the Agent of Temperature into Acute Toxicity (LC50 96h of Edifenphos in Rutilus Frisii Kutum (Kamensky, 1901

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    Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edifenphos, a kind of organophosphate toxins, is used as agricultural fungicides in rice fields. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of temperature on lethal concentration of exposure to edifenphos on Rutilus frisii kutum (Caspian kutum. Methods: The experiment was carried out in static condition and based on instructions of OECD within 10 d under controlled water physicochemical factors. Dissolved oxygen was fixed on 7-7.5 ppm, pH: 7 to 7.5 and hardness: 200 ppm. Fish were acclimatized in 70*40*30 cm aquarium for 10 d before the test. Treated aquariums with concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 2, 4, 8, 16 ppm of edifenphos with one control group (no toxic concentration, were performed. In order to test the effect of temperature on acute toxicity, three ranges of 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC were treated and LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The study was carried out in Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Tehran in 2016. Results: LC50 value in 25 ºC was lower than 20 and 15 ºC. LC50 96h edifenphos for Caspian kutum in 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC was 3.70, 3.61 and 3.26, respectively. Conclusion: Higher temperature increase toxicity rate of edifenphos and the toxin had a positive temperature coefficient on Caspian kutum.

  7. Influence of MAP and Multi-layer Flexible Pouches on Clostridium Count of Smoked Kutum Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum

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    Nazanin Zand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of different concentrations of three gas mixture (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and also vacuum conditions and flexible multi-layer films were evaluated on Clostridium count of smoked kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum at ambient condition (T= 25 0C. Ordinary condition as control packaging were compared with four types of modified atmosphere packaging: (N270%+ CO230%, (N230% + CO270%, (45%CO2+ 45%N2+10%O2 and vacuum conditions, in this project. Smoked kutum fish were packaged into 3 kinds of flexible pouches {3- layers(PET(12/AL(12/LLD(100, 4-layers (PET(12/AL(7/ PET(12/LLD(100, and 3-layer (PET(12/AL(7/LLD(100}. Packed samples were performed microbial tests (Clostridium count, in different times during 60 days, with 15 treatment ,3 run, statistical analysis and comparison of data, were done by software SAS (Ver:9/1 and Duncan’s new multiple range test, with confidence level of 95% (P <0.05 . The shelf life of Samples (according to Clostridium count were reported in 4-layers , under conditions 1,2,3 and vacuum conditions, 60,58,45,40 days, in 3-layers (AL:12, under conditions 1,2,3 were 55,50,40 days and in vacuum conditions were about 35 days, with 3- layers(AL:7, under conditions 1,2,3 and vacuum conditions 45,40,35, 30 days. Clostridium count showed that increasing CO2 concentration prolonged shelf life. During the period of this experiment Clostridium count of samples in various conditions, had significant level. According to these results could be concluded the best condition belonged to treatment under modified atmosphere CO2 70% and also 4- layer container due to the thickness (131 μ, low permeability of water vapor in this 4-layer container and anti-microbial effect of more percentage of CO2.

  8. Hepatocyte nuclear structure and subcellular distribution of copper in zebrafish Brachydanio rerio and roach Rutilus rutilus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) exposed to copper sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris-Palacios, Severine [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Institut International de Recherche sur les Ions Metalliques, B.P. 1039-51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: severine.paris@univ-reims.fr; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Institut International de Recherche sur les Ions Metalliques, B.P. 1039-51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: sylvie.biagianti@univ-reims.fr

    2006-05-10

    Copper is a trace element essential to life, but also a heavy metal with toxic effect clearly demonstrated. Cu induced perturbations in fish liver are well documented but the variability of the reported results is large. In this study two cyprinids, zebrafish and roach, were exposed to copper. Reported histocytological changes are either adaptative or degenerative depending on fish species, concentration of metal, and duration of exposure. Hepatic subcellular distribution of copper was determined by X-ray microanalysis in control and Cu-exposed roach and zebrafish. Sublethal copper sulphate contamination induced the development of a particular nucleolar alteration forming a network or honeycomb like structure in liver. This perturbation is observable in almost all the hepatocytes of zebrafish and roach exposed to copper for a minimum of 4 days of exposure. It seemed to concern more precisely the pars fibrosa. X-ray microanalysis showed that the appearance of network nucleolus was in relation to a Cu accumulation. Cu deposit was well located in the network as pars granulosa and nucloplasm showed very lower metal concentrations. The origin and consequence of network structure in nucleolus was discussed.

  9. Comparison of waterborne and intraperitoneal exposure to fipronil in the Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii on acute toxicity and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Alijani Ardeshir

    Full Text Available Fipronil is an effective insecticide widely used in agriculture with potential ecotoxicological consequences. The median lethal dose (LD50 and concentration (LC50 of fipronil in 16.3 g Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings were determined. To determine the LD50, a total of 133 fish were assigned to 19 tanks (7 fish/tank including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 450, 550, 650, 750, 850 mg/kg. Fish were injected intraperitoneally and monitored at 96 h. The LD50 of fipronil was 632 mg/kg suggesting it was slightly toxic to the Caspian white fish. To determine LC50, 114 fish were assigned to 19 tanks (6 fish/tank including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 μg/L. The LC50 of fipronil was 572 μg/L, which was highly toxic to the fish. The degree of tissue change (DTC in vital organs from moribund fish exposed via waterborne exposure showed severe damage (DTC: 71 ± 52 for 700 μg/L in the gill, including aneurisms, extensive fusion and necrosis. The fish exposed through the intraperitoneal route seemed to have severe lesions (DTC: 66 ± 50 for 750 mg/kg in the kidney, involving hemorrhage, tubular degeneration and necrosis. The liver had no significant differences in DTC values between the two routes and showed pyknosis and sinusoid dilation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining did not show any histological alterations in the brain but nissl staining showed some alterations in distribution of purkinje cells. Generally, this study showed that the route of exposure to fipronil not only affects its acute toxicity but also determines the main target organs of toxicity and histopathological alterations in Caspian white fish. Keywords: Fipronil, Caspian white fish, Acute toxicity, Administration route

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kardel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn compared to that of R. kutum, but these results were not significant for gill tissue. Liver tissue accumulated higher concentration of Cd and Pb compared to gill tissue in C. aurata, but these results were not significant for R. kutum. It is concluded that the liver tissue of C. aurata has higher potential to accumulate heavy metal pollution compared to liver tissue of R. kutum

  11. Assessment of antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. on white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Kalatehjari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in-vitro effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. isolated from white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum eggs. The antifungal effects were measured by determining the minimum lethal concentration of copper nanoparticles on Saprolegnia sp. in yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC agar at 25 °C. Saprolegnia grown in YGC agar without added copper nanoparticles served as negative controls. Our study showed that copper nanoparticles at a minimum concentration of 10 ppm have antifungal effects on Saprolegnia sp. The antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles are positively correlated to both concentration and time of exposure. This study showed that the antifungal properties of copper nanoparticles make it a good alternative to malachite green, which is carcinogenic.

  12. Influence of tree trunks on the spatial distribution of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus ovipositions in a coastal oak/palm hammock in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S

    1991-09-01

    The number of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus eggs occurring in 20 ground-level oviposition traps was monitored daily for 14 days in an area of coastal oak/palm hammock forest in Florida. Ten of these ovitraps (modified 2-liter plastic soda bottles) were placed in contact with tree trunks, the others at least 2 m from the base of the nearest tree. There was no significant difference in the mean number of eggs observed in egg-positive ovitraps for either type of trap site. However, ovitraps abutting trees were egg-positive significantly more often than expected. This result is discussed in terms of the initial oviposition-site searching behavior of female Toxorhynchites.

  13. Dietary galactooligosaccharide elicits positive effects on non-specific immune parameters and growth performance in Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zoheiri, Fazel; Dadar, Maryam; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Ringø, Einar

    2016-09-01

    An eight-weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of galactooligosaccharide (GOS), on the skin and serum non-specific immune parameters and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry. Fish (2.07 ± 0.08 g) were fed different levels of GOS (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%). No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in mucus protease activity, but inclusion of 1% GOS significantly (P fish fed 1% or 2% GOS compared those of fish fed control diet. Furthermore, the serum alternative haemolytic complement activity (ACH50) was significantly (P growth performance and feed utilisation. The results of the present study revealed that GOS administration is beneficial by improving immune response and growth performance of Caspian white fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) on growth performance, chemical body composition and hematological and immune parameters of fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Abedian Amiri, Armin; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Nematolahi, Amin; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a very popular herb. While numerous effects have been described in mammals, its effects on fish have received so far limited attention. The effects of dietary administration of peppermint on fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases of growth parameters (WG and SGR), mucus skin (protein concentration, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity) and seric (lysozyme and IgM) and blood leucocyte respiratory burst activities and different hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, seric hemoglobin and hematocrit content) were recorded in fry fish fed supplemented diets. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leucocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was increased and decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Present results corroborate that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main hematological and immune humoral (both mucosal and systemic) parameters of fry Caspian white fish. This study may provide new applications of peppermint and, at the same time, promote rational development and utilization of peppermint resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on the chemosensory function of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (YAKOVLEV, 1870).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Mohaddes, Effat; Døving, Kjell B

    2015-08-01

    The water-soluble fraction of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons. Because aquatic organisms directly encounter it, the water-soluble fraction plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil in aquatic environments. To determine whether fish are attracted to or avoid the water-soluble fraction, Caspian roaches (Rutilus caspicus) were exposed to different concentrations of the water-soluble fraction in a choice maze apparatus. The results showed that Caspian roaches can detect and avoid 2 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. To study the effect of the water-soluble fraction on the olfactory function of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction for 96 h; afterward, exposed fish encountered food extract in a choice maze apparatus. The present study showed that the water-soluble fraction significantly impairs the olfactory function of roaches. To investigate the effect of olfactory system dysfunction on the feeding behavior of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. After 4 d, 8 d, and 12 d of exposure, the feeding behavior toward the food extract was tested. The results showed that both 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction suppress the feeding behavior of Caspian roaches. The present study demonstrates that sublethal concentrations of crude oil's water-soluble fraction impair the olfactory function of fish and consequently suppress the feeding behavior. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. The effect of the water soluble fraction of crude oil on survival, physiology and behaviour of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (Yakovlev, 1870).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed

    2016-01-01

    The water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons that aquatic organisms directly encounter in oil spills. WSF plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the effects of WSF on juvenile Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, at lethal and sub-lethal level was investigated. The lethality of WSF on R. caspicus was studied by conducting 96h LC50 tests with semi-static exposure methods with 6 and 24h solution renewals. The 96h LC50 of WSF was estimated at 62.5% and 35.9% WSF concentrations for 24h and 6h renewal methods, respectively. To investigate the sub-lethal effect of WSF on R. caspicus, fish were exposed to 62.5, 31.3, and 6.3% concentrations of WSF for 24h and changes in their respiration rate and swimming activity was monitored during the exposure. At the end of the exposure period, four hematologic parameters [O2 and CO2 pressures (pO2 and pCO2), hematocrit, and hemoglobin content] of the fish were measured. The result of the behavioural experiment revealed that all three studied concentrations of WSF elevated the respiration rate and reduced the swimming activity of R. caspicus. No significant changes were detected in the hematocrit and hemoglobin content of the fish blood, but the blood pO2 of the fish exposed to 62.5% WSF decreased while the blood pCO2 increased. The results of this study suggest that the egression of the volatile components in hydrocarbon mixtures during conventional semi-static toxicity tests may lead to underestimating the toxicity of the hydrocarbons. The results of the sub-lethal experiments propose that failure of the respiratory system that leads to asphyxia may be a major mechanism that results in lethal effect of WSF in high concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Infestation comparée de Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Diphyllobothridae chez deux poissons Cyprinidés : Rutilus rubilio et Scardinius erythrophthalmus dans deux retenues de barrages en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri-Sfar L.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le suivi des paramètres quantitatifs du parasitisme par Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda : Diphyllobothridae a été réalisé par l’examen de 516 spécimens appartenant à deux espèces introduites de poissons d’eau douce : Rutilus rubilio (350 individus et Scardinius erythrophthalmus (166 individus. Les échantillonnages ont été réalisés dans deux retenues de barrages, Sidi Salem et Nebhana en Tunisie. L’analyse de la composition spécifique de l’avifaune piscivore dans ces deux retenues a révélé l’existence d’espèces d’oiseaux déjà décrites dans la littérature comme étant des hôtes définitifs de la ligule. Le suivi de l’avifaune dans les deux plans d’eau a montré une abondance relative et une fréquence plus élevées dans la retenue de Sidi Salem que dans celle de Nebhana. L’analyse des prévalences, des intensités moyennes et de l’abondance du parasite a révélé des valeurs plus importantes chez le gardon, Rutilus rubilio qui semble donc le second hôte intermédiaire préférentiel de Ligula intestinalis dans ces milieux. L’analyse comparée de la parasitose, dans les deux retenues prospectées, suggère que la ligule présente deux stratégies différentes d’infestation selon le plan d’eau. À Sidi Salem, grande retenue dont la superficie est plus importante que celle de Nebhana et qui de plus abrite une avifaune piscivore plus importante et beaucoup plus diversifiée, le parasite infeste le maximum d’individus hôtes avec des charges parasitaires faibles. En revanche, à Nebhana, petite retenue, le parasite infeste moins d’individus hôtes qu’à Sidi Salem, mais avec des intensités moyennes beaucoup plus élevées. L’analyse de la prévalence en fonction de la taille et de l’âge au niveau de la retenue de Sidi Salem a révélé des valeurs plus élevées dans les grandes classes de taille chez le gardon.

  18. Sur les poissons fossiles (Teleosteens. Cyprinidae des gypses turoliens du fosse de Teruel: essai d'approche paléoécologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudant, J.

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The revision of the Turolian fossil fishes from Los Aljezares, near Teruel (Spain leads one to .establish that they belong to the Recent genus Rutilus RAFINESQUE. So, they must be named R. pochecoi (ROYO GÓMEZ. The occurrence of Cyprinid fishes in the Turolian gypsum of Teruel basin clearly indicates that the sedimentation has taken place in continental waters with low salt-content.

    La révision des Poissons fossiles turoliens de Los Aljezares de Teruel (Espagne conduit à considérer qu'ils appartiennent au genre actuel Rutilus RAFINESQUE. Ces Poissons sont done désignés comme R. pochecoi (ROYO GÓMEZ. La présence de Cyprinidae dans les gypses turoliens du fossé de Teruel indique clairement que le dépôt de ceux-ci s'est produit dans des eaux continentales à faible salinité. La revisión de los peces fósiles turolienses de Los Aljezares de Teruel conduce a considerarlos como pertenecientes al género actual Rutilus RAFINESQUE. Estos peces son designados como R. pochecoi (ROYO GÓMEZ. La presencia de Ciprínidos en los yesos turolienses de la cuenca de Teruel indica claramente que el depósito de éstos se ha producido en aguas continentales de escasa salinidad.

  19. Diversity of the parasite fauna of cyprinid (Cyprinidae) and percid (Percidae) fishes in the Vistula Lagoon, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2003-01-01

    A total of 2398 fish specimens (1091 Percidae and 1307 Cyprinidae) belonging to 16 species (3 Percidae and 13 Cyprinidae), caught in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon were examined within December 1994-March 1997. The parasites found were identified as belonging to 63 taxa (61 species as well as Diplostomum spp. flukes and glochidia Unionidae gen. sp. which could not be identified to species) of the Microsporea (1), Protozoa (1), Myxozoa (2), Monogenea (10), Digenea (15), Cestoda (11), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Mollusca (1), Copepoda (4), and Branchiura (1). The percids and cyprinids were found to support 37 and 40 parasitic taxa, respectively, the taxon-richest parasite fauna occurring in zander, Sander lucioperca (26 taxa), followed by carp bream, Abramis brama (24), European perch, Perca fluviatilis (24), roach, Rutilus rutilus (19), ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (15), and Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (11). The remaining fish species hosted less than 10 parasitic species each. Metacercariae of the genus Diplostomumn, found in about 37% of the fish examined, and Tylodelphys clavata, recorded in about 24% of the fish, proved the commonest parasites. The study showed the Vistula Lagoon cyprinid and percid parasite fauna to be dominated by freshwater species, frequencies of their occurrence in the brackishwater lagoon being lower than those in freshwater reservoirs. Frequencies of the 6 marine parasitic species found in the lagoon were, too, lower than those in the sea. It is suggested that some of the parasites (Ancyrocephalus paradoxus, Diplozoon paradoxum of the Monogenea, Diplostomum spp., Tylodelphys clavata of the Digenea, and Achtheres percarum of the Copepoda) prefer brackishwater habitats.

  20. Некоторые показатели состояния животных из разных популяций красной полевки (Clethrionomys rutilus Pall. ) Горного Алтая

    OpenAIRE

    Ивантер, Эрнест; Моисеева, Елена

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the research is to analyse the condition of respiratory and excretory systems, liver and blood which generally characterises the health of the red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus Pall.) various population groups. The research is based on the data obtained in two regions of Gorny Altai (the settlement of Seika of the Choisky region and the settlement of Artybash of the Turochaksky region). Both regions lay within the zone of propellant dispersion and is exposed to the consi...

  1. Sublethal effect of nanosilver on the structure of gill of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of nanosilver can be led the contamination of aquatic environment and impact on living organisms such as fishes. We investigated histopathological changes in the gills tissue of Caspian roach fingerlings after two weeks exposure to sublethal concentrations of nanosilver. Following one and two weeks exposure, necrosis, shortening of secondary lamellae, edema, destruction of epithelial lamella, shortening of secondary lamellae, epithelial lifting and curling of secondary lamellae were observed in gill tissues. This observation showed that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of nanosilver is caused damages in the gill tissues of Caspian roach. The results demonstrated direct correlation of gill tissue damage and toxin exposure i.e. increasing nanosilver concentration is caused more tissue damage. Hence, histopathological changes of gill can considered as a proper indicator for nanosilver contamination of aquatic environments.

  2. Acute toxicity and behavioral changes of Caspian kutum ( Rutilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment were carried out in static condition and based on instructions of O.E.C.D in four days under controlled water physicochemical factors with pH = 7 to 8.5, dissolved oxygen = 200 mg L-1 (CaCO3) and temperature = 20 ± 1°C. Fishes were acclimatized in 70x40x30 cm aquarium for 10 days. Five treated ...

  3. Effect of weight on osmoregulation ability in Rutilus frisii kutum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... In this situation, ionic regulation (osmoregulation) system plays a main ... by a manual sorter, weighed by electronic balance and classified ..... Influence Individual And Mixed Heavy Metals (Zn, Pd) And Detergent. (Las) On ...

  4. Sublethal effects of copper nanoparticles on the histology of gill, liver and kidney of the Caspian roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Aghamirkarimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study has determined the toxicity effects of copper nanoparticles on the some vital organs such as gill, liver and kidney of Caspian Roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus. For this purpose, 120 fishes were used as experimental samples and exposed to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/L of Cu nanoparticles for 21 days, and 30 fishes assumed as the experiment control. The mean water temperature of the aquaria was 22±2 ºC, dissolved oxygen 5.2 mg/L, pH at 7±0.004 and the concentration of calcium carbonate was 270 ppm. On 7, 14 and 21 days after exposing the fishes to copper nanoparticles, three fishes were randomly selected from each aquaria, sacrificed and samples from their gill, liver and kidney were taken and fixed in cold 10 % buffered formalin. Then microscopic sections were prepared and examined by light microscope which showed histological alternations in the gill, liver and kidney tissues. Evaluation of these changes could be useful in estimating the harmful effects of copper nanoparticles. Histological alternation in gills included: hyperplasia, fusion and detachment of secondary lamellae, blood congestion in vascular axis of primary filaments, reduced secondary lamellae length and cellular degeneration. Histological changes in liver included blood congestion in the central veins, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, cellular degeneration and congestion in the blood sinusoids and necrosis of the hepatocytes. Histological changes in kidneys included glomerular shrinkage, severe degeneration in the tubules cells, interstitial tissue and glomerulus, increase in interstitial tissue cells and macrophages aggregation. The degree of damages was more intensive at higher copper nanoparticles concentrations. The result of the study showed that copper nanoparticles could cause severe damages in the vital tissues of Caspian roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus and have lethal effects for fish.

  5. Delayed consequences of extremely low frequency magnetic fields and the influence of adverse environmental conditions on roach Rutilus rutilus L. embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav V. Krylov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that animals are most sensitive to the influence of different environmental stressors, including magnetic fields, during the embryonic period. Our study presents data collected over a six-year period on the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs (1.4-1.6 µT, 500 Hz and 1.4-1.6 µT, 72.5 Hz and MFs in combination with other environmental stressors (elevated temperature, 0.01 mg/L water solution of trichlorfon, 0.01 mg/L water solution of copper sulphate penta-hydrate on roach embryos. The effects of these stressors were studied during different stages of early development. The fish developed in ponds for four months after exposure to MFs. The weight, standard length and morphological characteristics of underyearlings which developed from the exposed embryos were recorded. An increase in embryo mortality and a decrease in size-weight indices in underyearlings were noted after fish had been exposed to a combination of magnetic fields and different adverse environmental factors. In addition, exposure to magnetic fields led to changes in the total number of vertebrae and in the number of seismosensory system openings in the mandibular bones of underyearlings. Magnetic fields of different frequency caused both increases (500 Hz and decreases (72.5 Hz in underyearlings' morphological diversity. The stressors used did not increase the fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological characters. The possible microevolutionary effects of exposure to magnetic fields alone and in combination with other adverse environmental factors upon natural fish populations are discussed.

  6. Physiological-biochemical status of perch (Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758 and roach in conditions (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758 of excessive anthropogenic pressure on the body of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martseniuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish during the spring and summer period the physiologically-biochemical response of fish to the effect of excessive anthropogenic contamination on the indicators of the maintenance of hormones and glucose in their blood plasma, and the possibility of using these indicators to assess the ecological status of the water body. Methodology. Two Lakes in the city of Kyiv were selected for research, which are characterized by various hydrochemical and toxicological indices. These water objects were Lake Kyrylivske (Opechen Upper – a water body from the system of Lakes Opechen (polluted by the water body and Lake Babyne that is on Trukhanov Island (relatively clean Lake, control. Fishing was carried out in the early spring and in the middle of the summer by hook fishing gear. In laboratory conditions, the total content of thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and cortisol in blood plasma of fish was determined by enzyme immunoassay, using commercial T3-EIA, T4-EIA sets (NPL Granum, Ukraine and DS-EIA-Steroid-Cortisol ("Diagnostic Systems" NGO, Russia using the Rayto RT-2100C EIA Analyzer. The glucose content was determined by spectrophotometrically glucose oxidase method using standard commercial kits "Filisit-Diagnostika" (Ukraine. Statistical data was processed using the programs Statistica 10.0 and Excel programs from the Microsoft Office suite. Findings. In the spring, excessive anthropogenic pressure on the Lake Kyrylivske causes an energy imbalance in fish, which causes the deceleration of catabolic reactions in their tissues. In this period, the perch and roach react to the conditions of existence in the Lake Kyrylivske increase in the content of cortisol in the blood compared with fish from the Lake. Babyne, what can be their reaction to excessive anthropogenic stress. Also, during this period, the low content of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske was noted compared with the Lake. Babyne, which is probably caused by changes in the oxygen and temperature regime during spawning. Increase of thyroxine content in roach from Lake Kyrylivske during the summer period with respect to fish from the Lake Babyne may indicate an increase in the negative effects of toxic substances on the physiological state of fish as water temperature rises. At the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske content of T3 and T4 in 1.19 and 6.22 times, respectively is higher, than that of fish from the Lake Babyne, which is associated with enhanced processes of generating energy in his body, as a result of increased activity of redox reactions, as well as different degrees of oxygen consumption by tissues under complicated conditions of existence. In the summer, in the roach from the Lake Babyne content of cortisol is 2.05 times higher than that of roach of Lake Kyrylivske, which may be the result of a violation of the mobilization of energy compounds by the organism of this species from the Lake Kyrylivske The content of glucose in the blood plasma of the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske was 10.5 mmol/L in the summer, which is 1.43 times higher than that of fish from the Lake Babyne. Such a buildup of glucose can be a mechanism for counteracting toxic substances in the environment. Decrease of glucose content in roach from Lake Kyrylivske is probably the consequence of increased its utilization to ensure the energy homeostasis of the organism under similar conditions of existence. Originality. Inter-species and inter-season differences in the content of hormones in perch and roach, which were under the influence of anthropogenic loading on the water bodies of the metropolis, were established. Practical Value. The obtained results suggest that the characteristics of the thyroxine, triiodothyronine and cortisol content can be characterized by the physiological state of fish, as well as the ecological state of the most water bodies.

  7. Filter-feeding in common bream (Abramis brama), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) : structures, functions and ecological significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den C.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the retention mechanism of the branchial sieve of three sympatric cyprinid fish species, the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the roach

  8. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per W; Jørgensen, Thomas R; Buchmann, Kurt

    2008-08-17

    The presence of metacercariae and adults of the trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in roach and mink, respectively, was recorded in Lake Fure North of Copenhagen, Denmark. This zoonotic digenean opisthorchiid represents a threat to humans due to its ability to infect the biliary system following ingestion of inadequately processed infected fish. Therefore precise species identification of infective metacercariae in fish used for human consumption is essential. Due to the relatively limited information on metacercarial identity obtained by morphometric studies a series of molecular techniques were used to link the larval parasite in fish with the un-equivocally diagnosed adults in the biliary system of the mink. By the use of carefully selected polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and subsequent sequencing of the ITS region from both metacercariae and adults full sequence identity of both metacercariae and adults were confirmed. The presence of this parasitosis in fish from a lake used for both commercial and recreational fisheries call for hygienic alerts in order to prevent accidental human infection with this opisthorchiid.

  9. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per Walter; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde

    2008-01-01

    Den digene ikte Pseudamphistomum forekommer som metacercarie i skaller fra Furesøen og som adult i mink fra området. Dette er belyst ved morfometriske og molekylære metoder. Fundet er væsentligt, idet parasitten er zoonotisk og kan inficere mennesker, der indtager utilstrækkeligt varmebehandlet f...

  10. Exploration en continu de la fonction respiratoire d'un poisson : Gardonus rutilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORIN J.

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available L'étude complète des échanges gazeux respiratoires d'un poisson avec son milieu ambiant semble nécessiter, à première vue, d'une part des installations importantes et d'autre part l'analyse ponctuelle de rélèvements d'eau. La méthode personnelle présentée a l'avantage de transcrire en continu les variations de pressions partielles d'un milieu hydrique où vit un poisson, ce qui traduit indirectement mais avec une sensibilité suffisante toutes les modifications naturelles ou provoquées de l'activité respiratoire du poisson dans ce milieu avec lequel il échange. Simple à mettre en oeuvre au laboratoire, elle est susceptible d'applications dans des domaines aussi variés que l'étude du comportement, l'éco-physiologie de la respiration, la toxico-physiologie ou la pathologie.

  11. [The influence of ecological factors on the formation of the parasite fauna of the common roach Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus (1758) in different periods of water abundance in Lake Sartlan (Southwestern Siberia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sous', S M

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the formation of the parasitofauna of the common roach under the influence of various biotic and abiotic environmental factors during three high water cycles observed in the last century is given. Periods of the formation of the enzooty are established.

  12. (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from the eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-03-05

    Mar 5, 1990 ... 1968b. The Barbus and Varicorhinus species. (Pisces: Cyprinidae) of Transvaal. Ann. Transv. Mus. 26(4): 79-97. LEVITON, AE., GIBBS, R.H., HEAL, E. & DAWSON,. C.E. 1985. Standards in herpetology and ichthyology: Part I. Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ...

  13. Statistical analysis of the somatic growth rate of O+ fish in relation to temperature under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, W.M.; Van Nes, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The somatic growth rate of 0+ fish of the six major species in Dutch shallow eutrophic lakes, bream (Abramis brama), roach (Rutilus rutilus), pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) (planktivorous and piscivorous), perch (Perca fluviatilis), ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), and smelt (Osmerus eperlanus),

  14. Shifts in the climate space of temperate cyprinid fishes due to climate change are coupled with altered body sizes and growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Navarro, Ana; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Britton, J Robert

    2016-09-01

    Predictions of species responses to climate change often focus on distribution shifts, although responses can also include shifts in body sizes and population demographics. Here, shifts in the distributional ranges ('climate space'), body sizes (as maximum theoretical body sizes, L∞) and growth rates (as rate at which L∞ is reached, K) were predicted for five fishes of the Cyprinidae family in a temperate region over eight climate change projections. Great Britain was the model area, and the model species were Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Squalius cephalus, Gobio gobio and Abramis brama. Ensemble models predicted that the species' climate spaces would shift in all modelled projections, with the most drastic changes occurring under high emissions; all range centroids shifted in a north-westerly direction. Predicted climate space expanded for R. rutilus and A. brama, contracted for S. cephalus, and for L. leuciscus and G. gobio, expanded under low-emission scenarios but contracted under high emissions, suggesting the presence of some climate-distribution thresholds. For R. rutilus, A. brama, S. cephalus and G. gobio, shifts in their climate space were coupled with predicted shifts to significantly smaller maximum body sizes and/or faster growth rates, aligning strongly to aspects of temperature-body size theory. These predicted shifts in L∞ and K had considerable consequences for size-at-age per species, suggesting substantial alterations in population age structures and abundances. Thus, when predicting climate change outcomes for species, outputs that couple shifts in climate space with altered body sizes and growth rates provide considerable insights into the population and community consequences, especially for species that cannot easily track their thermal niches. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Wang

    Full Text Available Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b and one nuclear marker (Rag2. The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake. In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

  16. Sahyadria, a new genus of barbs (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raghavan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Redline Torpedo Barbs (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, comprising of two species, Puntius denisonii and P. chalakkudiensis, and six evolutionarily distinct lineages are endemic to the streams of the Western Ghats freshwater ecoregion in peninsular India. Based on molecular and osteological evidence, we demonstrate that these barbs comprise a distinct genus, for which we propose the name Sahyadria.

  17. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Farashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is “Vulnerable” according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843 and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956 within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  18. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Baktoft, Henrik; Jepsen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed...... between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between...

  19. Morphological and osteological malformations in hatchery bred redline torpedo fish, Sahyadria denisonii (Day 1865) (Cyprinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sajeevan, Sajan; Anna-Mercy, Thoranam Varkey

    2016-01-01

    Malformaciones morfológicas y oseas en ejemplares de criadero de barbo de línea roja, Sahyadria denisonii (Day 1865) (Cyprinidae) Se publican, por primera vez, malformaciones morfológicas y osteológicos de Sahyadria denisonii producidas en criadero. Se fotografiaron anomalías morfológicas con cámara digital y de rayos X digital. De 950 larvas producidas, sólo 12 individuos (1,26 %) presentaron algún tipo de anomalía, incluyendo lordosis, escoliosis, cifosis, semi-opérc...

  20. Fish fauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava and surrounding marshland habitats near Donji Miholjac (Eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ćaleta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field research of ichthyofauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava near Donji Miholjac was made during 2006 using fishing nets and electrofisher. Additional data was collected from the local anglers to present all caught species in this area. Sampling was conducted on all types of water habitats including side arms, artificial channels, backwater arms and the main river channel. A total of 44 fish species were reported. Six species were documented from the catch of local anglers. The family Cyprinidae is represented by 24 species, Percidae by 4, Cobitidae by 3, Gobiidae and Centrarchidae by 2, while the remaining families were represented by 1 species. The most abundant species in this part of the River Drava is roach (Rutilus rutilus. The largest part of total biomass belongs to bream (Abramis brama. Other important species according to abundance in the examined area are: bitterling (Rhodeus amarus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus. According to the ichthyofauna composition, the explored area is classified as a typical bream zone which is characteristic for the lower part of the river.

  1. Development and validation of a range of endogenous controls to support the implementation of practical Taqman real-time PCR-based surveillance for fish diseases within aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, F; McIntosh, R; Bain, N; Snow, M

    2012-06-01

    The use of Taqman real-time PCR-based technology has recently become more frequent in the detection of pathogens in the aquaculture industry. This interest has necessitated the development of robust and reliable pathogen-detection assays. The development of a range of endogenous control assays to be run alongside these diagnostic assays works to further increase confidence in the latter. This study describes the design of a range of endogenous control assays based on the elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) gene specific to a range of fish species including Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; brown trout, Salmo trutta; cod, Gadus morhua; haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus; saithe, Pollachius virens; whiting, Merlangius merlangus; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii; carp (family Cyprinidae), roach, Rutilus rutilus; European eel, Anguilla anguilla; and herring, Clupea harengus, as well as a number of fish cell lines. Evidence is provided of the validation of these assays for specific species, a range of tissue types and cell lines as well as an example of the potential uses of these assays. © 2012 Crown copyright.

  2. THE QUALITY OF WATER AND ICHTHIOFAUNA OF THE SOUTHERN LAKE IN OSIJEK – THE CONDITIONS FOR BIOMANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The Southern lake is shallow (deep up to 4 meters artificial lake with the ackerage of 6. 25. It is situated within the city of Osijek. Its reconstruction began in 1995, after it has been polluted for many years. The results of, hydrobiological examination show the basic ecological characteristics of the Southern lake: high transparency, great quantity of nutrients and highly developed macrophit vegetation. After the conducted analysis of the qualitative composition of the ichthiofauna, it has been found that the lake has 13 species of fish form six families, with the greatest number of them coming from Cyprinidae family. idae family. The fish species that outnumbers all other in the quantitative composition of the ichtiofauna is P. parua, but also well represented are L. gibosus, C. carrasius gibelio, Scardinius erythrophthalmus and Rutilus rutilus. In the trophic structure, the ratio of the predatory species is disadvantageous in relation to the unpredatory species. The application of the biomanipulation method has been suggested for the further reconstruction of the Southern lake: the quantity of the macrophit vegetation should be reduced by the way of its direct removal and the input of the herbivore fish species. The disadvantageous trophic ratio should be changed by overfishing of predatory species within the ichthiofauna and the input of unpredatory fish species.

  3. The influence of environmental abiotic factors on the qualitative and quantitative structure of ichthyofauna from predeltaic Danube area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Georgiana Calin Sandu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper  is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on the capture and fish communities structure from Danube, between Siret River and Prut River mouth. Fish were collected from April to December 2012 in four fishing areas. During the year, 4910 kg, respectively 7121 fish of 31 species were collected. Cyprinidae, the dominant family, 54.84% in term of number of species, was represented by 17 species (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama, Abramis sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Leuciscus idus, Vimba vimba, Aspius aspius, Pelecus cultratus, Chondrostoma nasus, Ctenopharingodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Alburnus alburnus. Other families had the following structure: Percidae (16.13% with 5 species (Sander lucioperca, Zingel zingel, Zingel streber, Perca fluviatilis, Gymnocephalus schraetzer, Acipenseridae (12.90% with 4 species (Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Clupeidae (6.45% with two species (Alosa immaculata, Alosa tanaica, Siluridae (3.23% with one species (Silurus glanis, Esocidae (3.23% with one species (Esox lucius  and Salmonidae (3.23% with one species also (Salmo labrax. The highest capture was 2977.93 kg (60.65%, during the spring season (April-May, followed by autumn season (September–November, with 992.39 kg (20.21%. The water level and water flow showed high correlation with both number and total catch, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of PIT-tagging in cyprinids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Brönmark, C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were used to investigate how different marking procedures, with 23 mm PIT (passive integrated transponders) - tags. affected mortality, body condition and tag expulsion in small roach Rutilus rutilus and rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (117 to 163 mm total length)...

  5. Inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro by a lectin from Momordica charantia and by other haemagglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, L; Lorenzoni, E; Stirpe, F

    1979-08-15

    Protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate is inhibited by the haemagglutinating lectins from Momordica charantia and Crotalaria juncea seeds and from the roe of Rutilus rutilus, and by a commercial preparation of the mitogenic lectin from Phytolacca americana. The haemagglutinins from the seeds of Ricinus communis and of Vicia cracca acquired inhibitory activity after their reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol.

  6. Altered steroid metabolism in several teleost species exposed to endocrine disrupting substances in refuse dump leachate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noaksson, E.; Linderoth, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Balk, L.

    2003-01-01

    Endocrine disruption associated with reproductive failure has been reported previously in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Molnbyggen in Sweden and in female brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbäcken, a stream emptying into Molnbyggen. Both Molnbyggen

  7. The Significance of Protein Components in Heterogeneous Eggs for Embrionic Development and Larvas Persistence of Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalepukhin Valeriy Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous heterogeneity of females and their eggs is one of the most important factors of annual generation’s formation in nature-spawn and incubative centers. Its assessment is significant for comprehending the notion of biochemical changes in proximate prespawn period. Between the shares of egg’s biochemical composition of Cyprinidae species only protein and b-lipoproteids levels are incovering constant and authentic correlations with embrionic development and larval survival in the conditions of artificial reproduction. The promotion of protein’s level to 20 – 24 % (in wet weigth in percolating eggs positively affects the fertilization and larvae vitality. This trend is fair for the domesticated and nature-spawn fish. The same significance is important for the b-lipoproteids level in ovular eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.. The optimal concentration is 100-200 mg % in wet weight.

  8. [DNA barcoding application of mitochondrial COI gene sequence in medicinal fish of Culter (Pisces: Cyprinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia-Yan; Li, Jun-De; Huang, Yu-Song

    2013-04-01

    The sequence variation of medicinal fish of Culter (Pisces: Cyprinidae) was analyzed by using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequencing collected from different regions of the Yangtze River basin, and we examine whether barcoding of COI can be used to discriminate medicinal fish of Culter. The AT content in the COI region of medicinal fish of Culter was higher than that of GC, which was similar with other species of Cypriniformes. Ninty-six percent of nucleotide changes were observed at the 3rd codon position of COI sequence, but the amino acid compositions translated by COI sequences of all Culter fish stayed the same. It is suggested that most synonymous mutations might occur at the 3rd position. The average Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) distance within-species was lower than 1%, and the K2P distance of pairwise-species was 10 times as much as that of within-species. The phylogenetic tree estimated by Neighbour-joining method indicated that species within genera invariably clustered, and generally so did individuals within species. Individuals from operational taxonomic units designated as different Culter species, supporting morphological evidence for each of these being separate species. It is suggested that the COI barcoding can be used to identify medicinal fish species of Culter.

  9. Does hardness of food affect the development of pharyngeal teeth of the black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ryan, Timothy M.; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related to differe......We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related...... of the pharyngeal teeth were greater in fish fed hard diets than in those fed soft diets. Total weights of the pharyngeal arches were less in the fish fed a soft diet than in those fed a hard diet. These results indicated that food type affects development of the pharyngeal crushing mill of black carp and therefore...... if black carp are produced for snail control, a hard diet should be provided from an as early time as possible in the production cycle....

  10. Characterizing the transcriptome and molecular markers information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    repeatmasker.org). All experimental procedures were approved by the Animal Care and Use. Committee of Huazhong Agricultural University. Because R. rutilus is not endangered or protected in this area, specific permission was not required ...

  11. Differential Behavioral Responses to Water-Borne Cues to Predation in Two Container-Dwelling Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    KESAVARAJU, B.; Juliano, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Larvae of the mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) prey upon other container-dwelling insects, including larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), which is native to Asia but was introduced into the United States, and on the native tree hole mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Previous work has established that O. triseriatus adopts low-risk behaviors in the presence of predation risk from T. rutilus. It is unknown whether introduced A. albopictus show a similar response to this predat...

  12. Influences of environmental cues, migration history, and habitat familiarity on partial migration

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Skov; Kim Aarestrup; Henrik Baktoft; Jakob Brodersen; Christer Brönmark; Lars-Anders Hansson; Nielsen, Einar E.; Tine Nielsen; P Anders Nilsson

    2010-01-01

    The factors that drive partial migration in organisms are not fully understood. Roach (Rutilus rutilus), a freshwater fish, engage in partial migration where parts of populations switch between summer habitats in lakes and winter habitats in connected streams. To test if the partial migration trait is phenotypically plastic or has genetic components, we translocated roach from 2 populations with different opportunities for migration to a lake with migration opportunity, containing a local roa...

  13. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Impact des pollutions sur une rivière canalisée de Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHA J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Du point de vue piscicole, la Sambre, sur son parcours belge de 87,5 km entièrement canalisé, héberge 24 espèces dont 14 font partie de la famille des Cyprinidae. Leur répartition est localisée uniquement à la Sambre Supérieure de Erquelines à Marchienne-au-Pont, soit 34 km de parcours. La pollution physico-chimique de l'eau est telle en aval de Charleroi, que les poissons sont absents de la rivière. Même en Sambre Supérieure, les conditions de vie piscicole sont assez précaires et seules quelques espèces de Cyprinidae y sont relativement abondantes. L'espèce la plus importante est certainement le gardon, Rutilus rutilus, capturé aux filets de senne et par pêche électrique, qui atteint des densités de l'ordre d'une dizaine de milliers d'individus à l'hectare. L'ablette commune, Alburnus alburnus, dont la capture n'est efficace qu'avec les filets de senne, atteint des densités de l'ordre de quelques milliers d'individus par hectare. Le goujon, Gobio gobio, le chevaine Leuciscus cephalus ne sont recensés valablement que par pêche électrique ; ils atteignent respectivement des densités de l'ordre de quelques milliers et d'une centaine d'individus par hectare. Sur la base des estimations par pêche au filet et par pêche électrique, on obtient une biomasse piscicole totale de 231,9 kg/ha qui est fort proche du chiffre obtenu (200 kg/ha en combinant la méthode empirique de productivité de HUET et en fixant un rapport P/B (0,15 approximatif, mais très vraisemblable. En conclusion, les pollutions organiques et minérales dans la Sambre ont un impact considérable sur ses populations piscicoles, en limitant sa production piscicole à un niveau très bas en Haute-Sambre, et en la réduisant à néant en aval de Charleroi.

  15. Assessment of rarity of the blackmouth shiner Notropis melanostomus (Cyprinidae) based on museum and recent survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M. T.; Uzee O'Connell, A.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of an organism's distribution is necessary for conserving species with small or isolated populations. A perceived rarity may only reflect inadequate sampling effort and suggest the need for more research. We used a recently developed method to evaluate the distribution of a rare fish species, the blackmouth shiner Notropis melanostomus Bortone 1989 (Cyprinidae), which occurs in disjunct populations in Mississippi and Florida. Until 1995, N. melanostomus had been collected from only three localities in Mississippi, but in 1995, eight new localities were discovered. We analyzed museum records of fish collections from Mississippi, Florida, and Alabama to compare sampling effort before and after 1995. Results supported our predictions that 1) pre-1995 data would indicate inadequate sampling effort in Mississippi, 2) additional post-1995 sampling improved confidence in the currently known Mississippi distribution, and 3) there has not been enough sampling to accurately represent the actual distribution of N. melanostomus in Florida and across its entire known range. This last prediction was confirmed with the recent (2003) discovery of the first N. melanostomus in Alabama.

  16. Biologie de la reproduction du Cyprinidae, Barbus callensis dans le lac de barrage Hamiz (Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ould Rouis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive Biology of the Cyprinidae, Barbus callensis in an Algerian Dam. The freshwater fish, Barbus callensis (Valenciennes, 1842 was studied from 2005 to 2007 for the first time in Hamiz dam. This species endemic of North African continent is widely spread in the rivers of Algeria. This reservoir is situated in Boumerdes 35 km southeast of Algiers. During these three years, the monthly sampling was carried out by trammel nets, fishing near the dike during one night. At the same time, the fry was captured with a transparent plastic bottle baited with breadcrumbs put down near the lakeshore. The monthly follow-up of the gonadosomatic ratio (RGS reveals that the spawning period occurred between April and May. The evolution of the condition factor (K shows low seasonal variations. However, a lower value appears in spring when the temperature increases and the breeding begins. The sex ratio is higher for the adult females (1:2.8, more than 26 cm. The first sexual maturity size (L50 is lower for males (19.6 cm than for females (27.7 cm.

  17. A New Locality for the Freshwater Fish Chondrostoma angorense Elvira, 1987 (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae in the Marmara Region (Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Serhan Tarkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marmara Bölgesi’nde (Türkiye tatlısu balığı Chondrostoma angorense Elvira, 1987 (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae için yeni bir lokalite. Sakarya Nehri havzasından ilk Chondrostoma türü C. nasus olarak 1987 yılında rapor edildi. Sapanca Gölü’nden ise 1966 yılında rapor verildi. Ancak, 1987 yılında Sapanca Gölü’ndeki örneğin üzerinde yapılan dikkatli incelemeler aslında türün Vimba vimba olduğunu ortaya çıkardı. Bu çalışmada, Sapanca Gölü’nden C. angorense’nin ilk raporu verildi. Bu türün tanınma özellikleri ve koruma durumu tartışıldı

  18. [Impact of Ligula intestinalis (L.1758) (Cestode), on the growth of Barbus setivimensis (Cyprinidae) in a lake system in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadou-Sanoun, Ghania; Arab, Abdeslem; Lek-Ang, Sithan; Lek, Sovan

    2012-04-01

    The Algerian freshwater fish fauna is mainly represented by the Cyprinidae family, in particular, the genus Barbus. This is represented only by natural populations of the subgenus Barbus. The systematic, based mainly on the methods of biometrics, is quite different from one author to another. However, two nominal species are usually cited: Barbus callensis (Valenciennes, 1842), which is limited to the region of El Kala (eastern Algeria) and Barbus setivimensis (Valenciennes, 1842) in other parts of the North. During the ecological study of this fauna, many individuals were found infested with the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Linné, 1758), which led us to study the effect of this parasite on B. setivimensis using the ecological parasites' index (prevalence, abundance and parasite intensity) and to focus on the impact of the parasite on the growth of fish. Tapeworm L. intestinalis presents a wide geographical distribution and a complex lifecycle to multiple hosts: the cycle starts in the body of birds. The life expectancy in the major host is a maximum of 5 days, but in this time, they will lay a multitude of eggs. These eggs are passed into water via the faeces of the bird. Once in the aquatic medium, they hatch and are eaten by a wide range of copepod zooplankton (first intermediate host). The cycle continues when fish (second intermediate host) ingests the copepod. The worm then burrows through the gut wall and continues to develop in the fish's body cavity. The cycle is then complete when the bird (final host) eats the tapeworm-hosting fish. We studied the effects of diet, the hosting period, the habitat on the prevalence, abundance and intensity of the parasitic larvae plerocercoid L. intestinalis and the parasiting effect on the Cyprinids fishs of the genus Barbus in the Keddara dam (Boumerdes, Algeria) during one year. Although L. intestinalis was recorded in several host fish, the available data on the parameters of parasitism are limited and no studies are

  19. Historic hybridization and persistence of a novel mito-nuclear combination in red-backed voles (genus Myodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Joseph A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of hybridization in generating diversity in animals is an active area of discovery and debate. We assess hybridization across a contact zone of northern (Myodes rutilus and southern (M. gapperi red-backed voles using variation in skeletal features and both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This transect extends approximately 550 km along the North Pacific Coast of North America and encompasses 26 populations (n = 485. We establish the history, geographic extent and directionality of hybridization, determine whether hybridization is ongoing, and assess the evolutionary stability of novel genomic combinations. Results Identification of M. rutilus and M. gapperi based on the degree of closure of the post-palatal bridge was concordant with the distribution of diagnostic nuclear MYH6 alleles; however, an 80 km zone of introgressed populations was identified. The introgressant form is characterized by having mitochondrial haplotypes closely related to the northern M. rutilus on a nuclear background and morphological characteristics of southern M. gapperi. Conclusion Introgression appears to have been historic as pure populations of M. rutilus are now isolated to the north from introgressants or pure M. gapperi by the LeConte Glacier. As we do not find pure M. rutilus or M. gapperi individuals throughout the distribution of the introgressant form, it appears that the introgressants are a self-sustaining entity not requiring continued hybridization between pure parental forms to generate this novel combination of characters.

  20. Dieta de la carpa Notropis moralesi (Pisces: Cyprinidae en el río Amacuzac, Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Trujillo-Jiménez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Notropis moralesi, conocido comúnmente como "carpa tepelneme", es un pez endémico del río Papaloapan. Se analizó su dieta y hábitos alimentarios. Se tomaron muestras mensuales en el río Amacuzac, Morelos, México. La identificación del contenido estomacal (294 ejemplares se llevó hasta el taxon más específico posible. Para la cuantificación se utilizaron los métodos numérico (No y frecuencia de aparición (F.O.. Se utilizó el índice de amplitud de nicho trófico de Levin y el índice de traslape de MacArthur y Levin. N. moralesi presentó la ingestión de once componentes alimenticios, de los cuales diez son de origen animal y uno vegetal. Los quironómidos y efemerópteros fueron los más consumidos independientemente del sexo, talla y época del año. El análisis por épocas del año, reportó diez componentes en el estiaje y ocho en las lluvias. La dieta de los inmaduros estuvo constituida por diez componentes, la de las hembras por ocho y el de los machos por cinco. La prueba de Ji-cuadrada reveló que no existen diferencias significativas entre las dietas por estadio de desarrollo, sexos y épocas del año. El traslape de los nichos tróficos, reveló valores superiores a 0.60 en todas las combinaciones por sexos y épocas del año. N. moralesi es una especie carnívora con tendencias insectívoras y presenta hábitos alimentarios de tipo bentófago.Diet of the chub, Notropis moralesi (Pisces: Cyprinidae in the Amacuzac River, Morelos, Mexico. Notropis moralesi, locally known as "carpa tepelneme", is a small endemic fish of the Papaloapan River. We analyzed its diet and feeding habits. Specimens were captured monthly from Amacuzac, River, Morelos, Mexico. The gut content of 294 specimens was identified to the most specific taxonomic category possible. We quantified gut content by the numerical and frequency of occurrence methods and used the Levin’s amplitude of trophic niche indices and MacArthur and Levin`s indices for

  1. Sex identification and PIT-tagging: tools and prospects for studying intersexual differences in freshwater fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, K.; Chapman, B.B.; Nilsson, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    integrated transponders (PIT) following sex determination in spring and various performance measures were compared with fish tagged outside the reproductive period in autumn. Short-term survival was >95% for R. rutilus sexed and tagged under natural field conditions. Total length (LT) did not affect......This study evaluated a technique to allow the long-term monitoring of individual fishes of known sex in the wild using sex confirmation in close proximity to the reproductive period combined with individual tagging. Hundreds of partially migratory roach Rutilus rutilus were tagged with passive....... The observed sex ratio of recaptured fish did not differ from the expected values of equal recapture rates between males and females. Hence, there is no observable evidence for an adverse effect of tagging close to the reproductive period and therefore this method is suitable for studying intersexual...

  2. Monogenean Parasites on the Gills of Some Fish Species from Lakes Sapanca and Durusu, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Soylu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sapanca ve Durusu Göllerindeki bazı balık türlerinin solungaçlarındaki Monogenean parazitler. Sapanca ve Durusu göllerindeki 11 balık türü; Silurus glanis, Esox lucius, Rutilus rutilus, Vimba vimba, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Abramis brama, Tinca tinca, Cyprinus carpio, Rhodeus sericeus amarus, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, Rutilus frisii’den Monogenean parazitler çalışıldı. Dactylogyrus, Silurodiscoides, Tetraonchus ve Paradiplozoon genuslarına ait 19 monogenoid türü; Dactylogyrus sphyrna, D. vistulae, D. phoxini, D. difformis, D. difformoides, D. chalcalburni, D. bicornis D. nybelini, D. frisii, D. crucifer, D. cornu, D.cornoides, D. extensus, D. macracanthus, D. izjumovae, Silurodiscoides siluri, S.vistulensis, Tetraonchus monenteron ve Paradiplozoon sp. bulundu. D.bicornis, D.nybelini ve D.izjumovae Türkiye için yeni kayıtlardır

  3. Summer co-existence of small-sized cyprinid and percid individuals in natural and impounded stretches of a lowland river: food niche partitioning among fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lik, J; Dukowska, M; Grzybkowska, M; Leszczyńska, J

    2017-04-01

    Due to changes of discharge regime downstream of a dam reservoir, an alluvial natural stretch of the Warta River changed to a macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Large patches of submersed, aquatic macrophytes appeared in summer and their effect is analysed in this study. These patches contained enriched macroinvertebrate assemblages (epiphyton and benthos) and they were refuge for both zooplankton and young fishes released from the reservoir. Despite these altered conditions in this stretch, roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua dominated, as they did in the natural backwater. Fishes were sampled every 2 weeks from June to August, together with their food resources to assess the partitioning of the diet among small individuals of the three species in both stretches (the natural and affected ones). The aim of the analysis was to answer how animal food associated with water plants was partitioned between the species. In both stretches, G. cernua were primarily benthivorous, but epiphytic fauna, zooplankton and large-sized benthic chironomid larvae replaced lack of many large, benthic insects in the tailwater. Levins' food breath index decreased from 0·36 in the backwater to 0·29 in the tailwater. An opposite trend was observed for P. fluviatilis occurring among macrophytes. Perca fluviatilis were competitors of R. rutilus and took food not only in or on the river bed, but also in the water column. They ate zooplankton and epiphytic fauna and Levins' index increased from 0·32 to 0·44 in the tailwater. Rutilus rutilus fed on adult insects, algae and plant fragments in the natural stretch. In the tailwater, these food types were chiefly complemented by zooplankton. Despite this, the niche breadth of R. rutilus was similar at the two sites. Abundance of food associated with the macrophytes appeared to facilitate cohabitation in the abundant fish populations, but P. fluviatilis appeared to benefit the most in the altered river

  4. A new monozoic tapeworm, Lobulovarium longiovatum n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), from barbs Puntius spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Indomalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ash, Anirban; Brabec, Jan; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-09-01

    A new caryophyllidean cestode is described from barbs Puntius spp. (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with P. sophore (Hamilton) as its type-host, in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins in India and Bangladesh, and a new genus, Lobulovarium n. g., is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Lytocestidae because its vitelline follicles are situated in the cortex. It is typified by: (i) a peculiar ovary, which is roughly H-shaped, but with asymmetrical, irregular lobes on its ventral and dorsal sides; (ii) an extensive vitellarium formed by numerous vitelline follicles scattered throughout the cortex; (iii) a long, conical postovarian part of the body with numerous vitelline follicles; (iv) a broadly digitate scolex with a slightly protrusible central cone; (v) a single gonopore (male and female genital ducts open via a single pore and a common genital atrium is absent); and (vi) a small number of testes (90 μm in L. longiovatum), which are spherical (length/width ratio 1:1 versus 2.5-3:1 in the new species), and the presence of vitelline follicles alongside the ovarian lobes (almost completely absent in L. longiovatum).

  5. Dactylogyrus barnae sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea infecting gills of Barilius barna Hamilton, 1822 (Pisces: Cyprinidae from a global biodiversity hotspot - Arunachal Pradesh (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leki Wangchu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was a part of an ongoing parasitological survey to investigate the health status of hill stream fish in river systems of Arunachal Pradesh - A global biodiversity hotspot. Materials and Methods: During the 2013/2015, 18 live specimens of Barilius barna (Cyprinidae were captured from the local rivers of Arunachal Pradesh and examined for parasitic monogenoids. These fish, with their flatworms, were immediately fixed in hot (60°C 4% formalin for later examination. Identification and morphometric description used in this study followed Gussev (1976. Type specimens were deposited in the British Natural History Museum, UK. Results: Dactylogyrus barnae sp. n. is described and illustrated from specimens of B. barna (Hamilton, 1822 from Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species is characterized by a combination of the following characters: Copulatory tube coiled in 1½ counterclockwise rings, vagina consisting of a vaginal tube and vaginal pore, a complex sclerotized plate of unknown function in between male copulatory organ and vagina, and an anteromedial knob-like process on the dorsal bar. Conclusion: D. barnae sp. n. is the fourth species of Dactylogyrus described from the Northeast India and brings the total number of species of Dactylogyrus in Indian waters to 56. B. barna represents a new host record for Dactylogyrus spp., and possibly the first report for any parasite.

  6. Inter- and size-specific patterns of fish seasonal migration between a shallow lake and its streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study used passive telemetry (passive integrated transponders) to evaluate winter migration in three species of cyprinids (roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna (L.)) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.))) and their potential predators (pike (Esox lucius (L.......)) and perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.))) between a shallow lake and its streams. Migration patterns were investigated from October to June, and a substantial part of the roach (40%) and white bream (55%) populations tagged in the lake during autumn migrated during winter into the streams, whereas only very few...... piscivores (white bream, only few rudd (

  7. Response of animal and vegetative cells to the effect of a typical magnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talikina, M. G.; Izyumov, Yu. G.; Krylov, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    Experimentally reproduced fluctuations of a low-frequency magnetic field in a nanotesla range (magnetic storm) affect the mitosis of animals and vegetative cells. Action of this factor during twenty four hours leads to a significant increase in the proliferative activity of embryo cells in roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and meristem cells of onion rootlets ( Allium cepa). The clastogenic effect statistically confirmed only in the Allium test seems to reflect the species specificity of the response and higher sensitivity of the cell association of the onion meristem to magnetic storm.

  8. The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less...... than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes...

  9. Feeding efficiency of planktivores under disturbance, the effect of water colour, predation threat and shoal composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, L; Estlander, S; Olin, M; Lehtonen, H

    2014-04-01

    The consumption of phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans larvae by Perca fluviatilis showed clear response to water colour, predation threat and shoal composition with the most significant negative effect for water colour. In the case of Rutilus rutilus, no similar combined response was observed and the total prey consumption was significantly negatively affected by predation threat of Esox lucius. The results suggest that differences in life-history traits may result in disparity in species-specific responses to disturbance. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers.

  11. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  12. Genetic heterogeneity reveals on-going speciation and cryptic taxonomic diversity of stream-dwelling gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the middle Danubian hydrosystem (Hungary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Takács

    Full Text Available Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR. Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary, G. gobio (sporadic and G. carpathicus (sporadic. Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary, and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary. Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11980-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Toxorhinchites rutilus white gene, par... 56 1e-05 U73837_1( U73837 |pid:none) Tripteroides bam...busa white gene, parti... 55 1e-05 AM432206_1( AM432206 |pid:none) Vitis vinifera c

  14. Differential Behavioral Responses to Water-Borne Cues to Predation in Two Container-Dwelling Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, B; Juliano, S A

    2004-01-01

    Larvae of the mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) prey upon other container-dwelling insects, including larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), which is native to Asia but was introduced into the United States, and on the native tree hole mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Previous work has established that O. triseriatus adopts low-risk behaviors in the presence of predation risk from T. rutilus. It is unknown whether introduced A. albopictus show a similar response to this predator. Behavior of fourth instars of A. albopictus or O. triseriatus was recorded in water that had held either A. albopictus or O. triseriatus larvae alone (control) and in water that had held T. rutilus larvae feeding on either A. albopictus or O. triseriatus (predation). Activity and position of larvae were recorded in 30-min instantaneous scan censuses. In response to water-borne cues to predation, O. triseriatus adopted low-risk behaviors (more resting, less feeding and movement), but A. albopictus did not change its behavior. We also tested the species specificity of the cues by recording the behavior of A. albopictus in water prepared using O. triseriatus and vice versa. O. triseriatus adopted low-risk behaviors even in predation water prepared by feeding T. rutilus with A. albopictus, but A. albopictus did not alter its behavior significantly between predation and control treatments prepared using O. triseriatus. Thus, A. albopictus does not seem to respond behaviorally to cues produced by this predator and may be more vulnerable to predation than is O. triseriatus.

  15. Characterizing the transcriptome and molecular markers information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T10r. TGATTTCAGCGATAAGAAG. Success. Table 2. Profiles of repetitive elements residing in the R. rutilus transcriptome identified using RepeatMasker. Number of. Length. Percentage of elements occupied (bp) sequence (%). Retroelements. 5607. 1502681. 1.70. SINEs. 173. 16070. 0.02. Penelope. 0. 0. 0. LINEs. 2635.

  16. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polysaccharides (ABP) extraction from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murill using response surface methodology (RSM). Carbohydr Polym 2009; 78(4):704-. 709. 19. Sun YX, Liu JC, Kennedyb JF. Extraction optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of. Chroogomphis rutilus (Schaeff.

  17. in ovarian fluid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... programs of kutum within 8 h at temperatures ranging from 4 to 12°C. Key words: Rutilus frisii kutum, egg storage, temperature, ovarian fluid. INTRODUCTION. Although cryopreservation methods which are especially desirable for gene banking, might eventually be effective for restocking programs because ...

  18. Differential Behavioral Responses to Water-Borne Cues to Predation in Two Container-Dwelling Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KESAVARAJU, B.; JULIANO, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Larvae of the mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) prey upon other container-dwelling insects, including larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), which is native to Asia but was introduced into the United States, and on the native tree hole mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Previous work has established that O. triseriatus adopts low-risk behaviors in the presence of predation risk from T. rutilus. It is unknown whether introduced A. albopictus show a similar response to this predator. Behavior of fourth instars of A. albopictus or O. triseriatus was recorded in water that had held either A. albopictus or O. triseriatus larvae alone (control) and in water that had held T. rutilus larvae feeding on either A. albopictus or O. triseriatus (predation). Activity and position of larvae were recorded in 30-min instantaneous scan censuses. In response to water-borne cues to predation, O. triseriatus adopted low-risk behaviors (more resting, less feeding and movement), but A. albopictus did not change its behavior. We also tested the species specificity of the cues by recording the behavior of A. albopictus in water prepared using O. triseriatus and vice versa. O. triseriatus adopted low-risk behaviors even in predation water prepared by feeding T. rutilus with A. albopictus, but A. albopictus did not alter its behavior significantly between predation and control treatments prepared using O. triseriatus. Thus, A. albopictus does not seem to respond behaviorally to cues produced by this predator and may be more vulnerable to predation than is O. triseriatus. PMID:17710216

  19. Growth and development of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on salmonid and cyprinid hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, A; Mikheev, V; Valtonen, E T

    2004-03-10

    The obligate fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni is strictly specific to salmonids and is very rarely found on other fish species. The ability of the parasite to grow and complete its life cycle on a cyprinid host, Rutilus rutilus, was compared with that on a typical salmonid host, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rearing experiments were run for 42 d with newly hatched metanauplii in flow-through tanks. Body length and sex of the parasites were recorded every 5 d. Growth rates on O. mykiss exceeded those on R. rutilus from the age of 2 wk, at which time the parasites reached a length of about 3.5 mm. Males grew faster than females at the beginning of the experiment up to a length of 2.5 to 3.0 mm; thereafter, a faster growth rate was observed in females. In another experiment, association of parasites with the hosts was monitored and residence time defined as the period between attachment and first detachment from the host. Longer residence time was observed on O. mykiss than on R. rutilus; female parasites stayed on both fish species longer than did males. Faster growth of parasites could be associated with longer uninterrupted periods of attachment to hosts, since frequent detachment means higher energy losses and less time available for feeding. Despite its slower growth on R. rutilus, A. coregoni matured and laid egg clutches, but took 5 d longer than on O. mykiss. The potential of A. coregoni to complete its life cycle on cyprinids could have important ecological consequences, creating an infection reservoir when the main salmonid hosts are rare or temporarily missing.

  20. Predation resistance does not trade off with competitive ability in early-colonizing mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The tradeoff between colonization and competitive ability has been proposed as a mechanism for ecological succession, and this tradeoff has been demonstrated in multiple successional communities. The tradeoff between competitive ability and predation resistance is also a widely-described phenomenon; however, this tradeoff is not usually postulated as a cause of ecological succession. Early successional species that arrive before predator colonization could be either (1) Less vulnerable to predation than their successors, by virtue of being poor competitors (direct competition-predation tradeoff); (2) Equally or more vulnerable to predation, because they normally colonize ahead of predators in succession and therefore are not evolutionarily adapted to avoid predators that they rarely encounter (no competition-predation tradeoff). To test these alternative hypotheses, we established water-filled containers in an oak-hickory forest. We allowed half of the containers to be naturally colonized by early-successional Culex mosquitoes, mid-successional Aedes mosquitoes, and the mosquito predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. In the other half of the containers we prevented Aedes colonization via systematic removal of Aedes eggs, but allowed Culex and T. rutilus to colonize. The numbers of mature Culex larvae and pupae, and later the total number of Culex, were significantly greater in containers where Aedes had been removed, which suggests that Culex are competitively suppressed by Aedes. Toxorhynchites rutilus abundance and colonization rate were unaffected by the removal of Aedes, and densities of both Culex and Aedes decreased significantly with T. rutilus abundance in both treatments. In-lab bioassays showed that Culex were significantly more vulnerable to predation by T. rutilus than were Aedes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Culex and Aedes demonstrate a direct colonization/competition tradeoff, and are inconsistent with the hypothesis of a direct

  1. Influences of environmental cues, migration history and habitat familiarity on partial migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The factors that drive partial migration in organisms are not fully understood. Roach (Rutilus rutilus), a freshwater fish, engage in partial migration where parts of populations switch between summer habitats in lakes and winter habitats in connected streams. To test if the partial migration trait...... is phenotypically plastic or has genetic components, we translocated roach from 2 populations with different opportunities for migration to a lake with migration opportunity, containing a local roach population. This enabled monitoring of partial migration of fish in 3 different situations: 1) previous opportunity...... in the lake with migration opportunity where from group 2 fish were translocated. Directional migration in and out of the lakes was monitored using Passive Integrated Transponder technology. Translocated fish with previous migration opportunity showed migration patterns more similar to local fish than...

  2. A predation cost to bold fish in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben; Nilsson, Anders P.

    2017-01-01

    is challenging and there is currently little data from the wild. We assayed individual behaviour and electronically tagged hundreds of fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus) before releasing them into their lake of origin, thereby exposing them to predation risk from avian apex predators (cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo......Studies of predator-mediated selection on behaviour are critical for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of behavioural diversity in natural populations. Consistent individual differences in prey behaviour, especially in the propensity to take risks ("boldness"), are widespread...... in the animal kingdom. Theory predicts that individual behavioural types differ in a cost-benefit trade-off where bolder individuals benefit from greater access to resources while paying higher predation-risk costs. However, explicitly linking predation events to individual behaviour under natural conditions...

  3. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging......The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  4. Effects of Competition and Predation by Native Mosquitoes on the North American Invasion of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, T Z; Kesavaraju, B; Leisnham, P T

    2014-11-01

    The success and effects of a biological invasion can be dependent on species interactions with resident competitors and predators. Indirect interactions between competition and predation, such as keystone predation, can influence both invasion success and the impact of an invasive species on resident competitors. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) has been established within the North American range of the indigenous competitor Aedes triseriatus (Say) and indigenous mosquito predator Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The effects of Tx. rutilus predation on competition between Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus were tested in laboratory microcosms. Consistent with a prior study, there was minimal evidence of competitive asymmetry between Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus, with similar effects of intraspecific versus interspecific interactions on both species. Tx. rutilus predation caused high mortality of both Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus, and minimized the effects of density-dependent competition. Ae. japonicus females that survived predation had larger adult body sizes than those in treatments without predators. Ae. triseriatus females that survived Tx. rutilus predation were larger and developed quicker than individuals in treatments without predators. Intraspecific competition and predation negatively affected the finite rate of population increase for Ae. j. japonicus, but only affected individual fitness correlates for Ae. triseriatus, indicating that the overall population performance of the invader is more sensitive to these interactions than the native species. Based on these results, we predict that predation is likely to be an important barrier to the establishment and spread of Ae. j. japonicus in tree holes in North America. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  5. Predator identity and additive effects in a treehole community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Marcus W; Lounibos, L Philip

    2006-04-01

    Multiple predator species can interact as well as strongly affect lower trophic levels, resulting in complex, nonadditive effects on prey populations and community structure. Studies of aquatic systems have shown that interactive effects of predators on prey are not necessarily predictable from the direct effects of each species alone. To test for complex interactions, the individual and combined effects of a top and intermediate predator on larvae of native and invasive mosquito prey were examined in artificial analogues of water-filled treeholes. The combined effects of the two predators were accurately predicted from single predator treatments by a multiplicative risk model, indicating additivity. Overall survivorship of both prey species decreased greatly in the presence of the top predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. By itself, the intermediate predator Corethrella appendiculata increased survivorship of the native prey species Ochlerotatus triseriatus and decreased survivorship of the invasive prey species Aedes albopictus relative to treatments without predators. Intraguild predation did not occur until alternative prey numbers had been reduced by approximately one-half. Owing to changes in size structure accompanying its growth, T. rutilus consumed more prey as time progressed, whereas C. appendiculata consumed less. The intermediate predator, C. appendiculata, changed species composition by preferentially consuming A. albopictus, while the top predator, T. rutilus, reduced prey density, regardless of species. Although species interactions were in most cases predicted from pairwise interactions, risk reduction from predator interference occurred when C. appendiculata densities were increased and when the predators were similarly sized.

  6. PREDATOR IDENTITY AND ADDITIVE EFFECTS IN A TREEHOLE COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Marcus W.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Multiple predator species can interact as well as strongly affect lower trophic levels, resulting in complex, nonadditive effects on prey populations and community structure. Studies of aquatic systems have shown that interactive effects of predators on prey are not necessarily predictable from the direct effects of each species alone. To test for complex interactions, the individual and combined effects of a top and intermediate predator on larvae of native and invasive mosquito prey were examined in artificial analogues of water-filled treeholes. The combined effects of the two predators were accurately predicted from single predator treatments by a multiplicative risk model, indicating additivity. Overall survivorship of both prey species decreased greatly in the presence of the top predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. By itself, the intermediate predator Corethrella appendiculata increased survivorship of the native prey species Ochlerotatus triseriatus and decreased survivorship of the invasive prey species Aedes albopictus relative to treatments without predators. Intraguild predation did not occur until alternative prey numbers had been reduced by approximately one-half. Owing to changes in size structure accompanying its growth, T. rutilus consumed more prey as time progressed, whereas C. appendiculata consumed less. The intermediate predator, C. appendiculata, changed species composition by preferentially consuming A. albopictus, while the top predator, T. rutilus, reduced prey density, regardless of species. Although species interactions were in most cases predicted from pairwise interactions, risk reduction from predator interference occurred when C. appendiculata densities were increased and when the predators were similarly sized. PMID:16676542

  7. Behavioral differences of invasive container-dwelling mosquitoes to a native predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Khan, Daanish F; Gaugler, Randy

    2011-05-01

    Aquatic prey show behavioral modifications in the presence of predation-risk cues that alleviate their risk from predation. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes japonicus (Theobald), and Culex pipiens L. are invasive mosquitoes in North America, and their larvae are prey for the native mosquito predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus are recent invaders, whereas Cx. pipiens has been in the United States for >100 yr. In the presence of predation-risk cues from Tx. rutilus larvae, Cx. pipiens larvae increased the time spent resting at the surface (least risky behavior) more than the other prey species. Ae. japonicus larvae increased resting at the surface of the containers more than Ae. albopictus larvae in the presence of predation-risk cues. Cx. pipiens larvae spent more time motionless at the surface even in the absence of predation-risk cues when compared with the other species, indicating that Cx. pipiens larvae are the least vulnerable prey. As compared with the other prey species, Ae. albopictus larvae exhibited more high-risk behaviors both in the presence and absence of predation-risk cues, indicating that they are the most vulnerable prey. Ae. albopictus is the superior competitor; however, predation by Tx. rutilus larvae may prevent competitive exclusion by Ae. albopictus and promote coexistence among the three prey species.

  8. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  9. Early ontogeny of Labeo capensis (pisces: Cyprinidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Ventral: no distinct row of pigment from caudal fm to anus, belly and throat still clear of pigment. ...... WRIGHT, C.W. & COKE, M.M. 1975. The artificial propagation of Barbus natalensis: 2: Hatching and early development. Lammergeyer 22: 42 ...

  10. Threat-Sensitive Behavioral Responses to Concentrations of Water-Borne Cues from Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Damal, Kavitha; Juliano, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic organisms often detect predators via water-borne chemical cues, and respond by showing reduced activity. Prey responses may be correlated with the concentration of predation cues, which would result in graded antipredator behavioral responses that adjust potentially costly behavioral changes to levels that are commensurate with the risk of predation. Larvae of the predatory mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus prey upon other container-dwelling insects, including larvae of the mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Previous work has established that O. triseriatus reduce movement, foraging, and time below the surface, and increase the frequency of resting at the surface, in the presence of water-borne cues from predation by T. rutilus. We tested whether these responses by O. triseriatus are threat sensitive by recording behavior of fourth instar larvae in two runs of an experiment in which we created a series of concentrations (100, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01% and 100, 70, 40, 20, and 10%) of water that had held either O. triseriatus larvae alone (control) or a T. rutilus larva feeding on O. triseriatus (predation). We also tested whether associated effects on time spent feeding are threat sensitive by determining whether frequencies of filtering or browsing are also related to concentration of cues. The frequencies of resting and surface declined, whereas frequency of filtering (but not browsing) increased more rapidly with a decrease in concentration of predation cues compared with control cues. Thus, O. triseriatus shows a threat sensitive behavioral response to water-borne cues from this predator, adjusting its degree of behavioral response to the apparent risk of predation. PMID:17440601

  11. Intense genomic reorganization in the genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae: comparison between DNA barcoding and mapping of repetitive elements in three species of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Gabriel Gomes Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oecomys Thomas, 1906 is one of the most diverse and widely distributed genera within the tribe Oryzomyini. At least sixteen species in this genus have been described to date, but it is believed this genus contains undescribed species. Morphological, molecular and cytogenetic study has revealed an uncertain taxonomic status for several Oecomys species, suggesting the presence of a complex of species. The present work had the goal of contributing to the genetic characterization of the genus Oecomys in the Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens were collected from four locations in the Brazilian Amazon and three nominal species recognized: Oecomys auyantepui (Tate, 1939, O. bicolor (Tomes, 1860 and O. rutilus (Anthony, 1921. COI sequence analysis grouped O. auyantepui, O. bicolor and O. rutilus specimens into one, three and two clades, respectively, which is consistent with their geographic distribution. Cytogenetic data for O. auyantepui revealed the sympatric occurrence of two different diploid numbers, 2n=64/NFa=110 and 2n=66/NFa=114, suggesting polymorphism while O. bicolor exhibited 2n=80/NFa=142 and O. rutilus 2n=54/NFa=90. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin followed a species-specific pattern. Interspecific variation was evident in the chromosomal location and number of 18S rDNA loci. However, not all loci showed signs of activity. All three species displayed a similar pattern for 5S rDNA, with only one pair carrying this locus. Interstitial telomeric sites were found only in O. auyantepui. The data presented in this work reinforce intra- and interspecific variations observed in the diploid number of Oecomys species and indicate that chromosomal rearrangements have led to the appearance of different diploid numbers and karyotypic formulas.

  12. Introgression of mitochondrial DNA among Myodes voles: consequences for energetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyński Zbyszek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is among the most frequently described cases of reticulate evolution. The tendency of mtDNA to cross interspecific barriers is somewhat counter-intuitive considering the key function of enzymes that it encodes in the oxidative-phosphorylation process, which could give rise to hybrid dysfunction. How mtDNA reticulation affects the evolution of metabolic functions is, however, uncertain. Here we investigated how morpho-physiological traits vary in natural populations of a common rodent (the bank vole, Myodes glareolus and whether this variation could be associated with mtDNA introgression. First, we confirmed that M. glareolus harbour mtDNA introgressed from M. rutilus by analyzing mtDNA (cytochrome b, 954 bp and nuclear DNA (four markers; 2333 bp in total sequence variation and reconstructing loci phylogenies among six natural populations in Finland. We then studied geographic variation in body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR among the populations of M. glareolus and tested its relationship with mtDNA type. Results Myodes glareolus and its arctic neighbour, M. rutilus, are reciprocally monophyletic at the analyzed nuclear DNA loci. In contrast, the two northernmost populations of M. glareolus have a fixed mitotype that is shared with M. rutilus, likely due to introgressive hybridization. The analyses of phenotypic traits revealed that the body mass and whole-body, but not mass corrected, BMR are significantly reduced in M. glareolus females from northern Finland that also have the introgressed mitotype. Restricting the analysis to the single population where the mitotypes coexist, the association of mtDNA type with whole-body BMR remained but those with mass corrected BMR and body mass did not. Mitochondrial sequence variation in the introgressed haplotypes is compatible with demographic growth of the populations, but may also be a result of positive selection. Conclusion Our

  13. Vertical distribution and species coexistence of tree hole mosquitoes in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E T; Meek, C L; Yates, M M

    1988-03-01

    Vertical distribution and species coexistence of mosquitoes inhabiting a deciduous forest in southern Louisiana were determined using 470 ml black jars for larval collections at ground level and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 m on selected trees. Specific preferences for discrete microhabitats by Aedes triseriatus, Ae. hendersoni, Ae. vexans and Ae. albopictus were not evident. Niche overlap indices, however, showed little overlap of these species and seemed to indicate that the mosquitoes partitioned the ovipositional/larval sites. Competition between the most abundant species, Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus, was not apparent. The tree hole mosquito community structure appeared to be mediated by the predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis.

  14. The impact of fish predation on shallow soft bottoms in brackish waters (SW Finland); an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    The impact of fish predation on shallow soft bottoms was studied by field and laboratory experiments. The field manipulations (caging experiments) were carried out in 2 shallow (1.5 m) bays in the northern Baltic Sea. An a priori hypothesis that fish do not structure macrozoobenthic communities in shallow soft-bottom areas was tested. Short-term aquarium experiments clearly showed that perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.), roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and ruffe ( Acerina cernua (L.)) are all effective predators on benthic macroinvertebrates ( Corophium volutator) Pallas and Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller) under laboratory conditions. Thus fish can be considered a potential structuring force on benthic communities in shallow soft-bottom areas. Caging experiments of one to two month's duration (partial and total exclosure of fish and enclosure with perch) induced only minor changes in the benthic community. These results support the a priori hypothesis. One of our main conclusions is, however, that fish predation and other biotic interactions (competition, disturbance, etc.) together with abiotic factors play some role in the structuring processes. Multilevel testing is needed in studies on biotic interactions in the marine environment. Results from a specific environment should not automatically be applied to other kinds of habitats.

  15. Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Rodents from the Perspective of Comparative Region-Specific Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Serdyukova, Natalya A; Perelman, Polina L; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Bulatova, Nina S; Golenishchev, Feodor N; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2017-08-30

    It has long been hypothesized that chromosomal rearrangements play a central role in different evolutionary processes, particularly in speciation and adaptation. Interchromosomal rearrangements have been extensively mapped using chromosome painting. However, intrachromosomal rearrangements have only been described using molecular cytogenetics in a limited number of mammals, including a few rodent species. This situation is unfortunate because intrachromosomal rearrangements are more abundant than interchromosomal rearrangements and probably contain essential phylogenomic information. Significant progress in the detection of intrachromosomal rearrangement is now possible, due to recent advances in molecular biology and bioinformatics. We investigated the level of intrachromosomal rearrangement in the Arvicolinae subfamily, a species-rich taxon characterized by very high rate of karyotype evolution. We made a set of region specific probes by microdissection for a single syntenic region represented by the p-arm of chromosome 1 of Alexandromys oeconomus, and hybridized the probes onto the chromosomes of four arvicolines (Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes rutilus, and Dicrostonyx torquatus). These experiments allowed us to show the intrachromosomal rearrangements in the subfamily at a significantly higher level of resolution than previously described. We found a number of paracentric inversions in the karyotypes of M. agrestis and M. rutilus, as well as multiple inversions and a centromere shift in the karyotype of M. arvalis. We propose that during karyotype evolution, arvicolines underwent a significant number of complex intrachromosomal rearrangements that were not previously detected.

  16. Differential hepatic metal and metallothionein levels in three Feral fish species along a metal pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Lieven; Knapen, Dries; De Jonge, Maarten; Van Campenhout, Karen; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium). At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MT(theoretical)/ MT(measured) was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio). Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak.

  17. A foraging cost of migration for a partially migratory cyprinid fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Ben B; Eriksen, Anders; Baktoft, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory...... fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems.......Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory...... Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had...

  18. Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ben B; Hulthén, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P Anders; Skov, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. 3. We find evidence both across and within populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow-bodied morphology than fish from closed lakes and all-year residents. 4. Our data suggest that a shallow body morphology is beneficial to migratory individuals and our study is one of the first to link migratory strategy and intraspecific variation in body shape. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  19. Repeated Fish Removal to Restore Lakes: Case Study of Lake Væng, Denmark—Two Biomanipulations during 30 Years of Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has been biomanipulated twice with a 20-year interval by removing roach (Rutilus rutilus and bream (Abramis brama. After both biomanipulations, Lake Væng shifted from a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear, water macrophyte-dominated state. Chlorophyll a was reduced from 60–80 μg·L−1 to 10–30 μg·L−1 and the coverage of submerged macrophytes, dominated by Elodea canadensis, increased from <0.1% to 70%–80%. Mean summer total phosphorus was reduced from about 0.12 to 0.07 mg·L−1 and total nitrogen decreased from 1.0 to 0.4 mg·L−1. On a seasonal scale, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations changed from a summer maximum during turbid conditions to a winter maximum under clear conditions. The future of Lake Væng is uncertain and a relatively high phosphorus loading via the groundwater, and the accumulation of a mobile P pool in the sediment make it likely that the lake eventually will return to turbid conditions. Repeated fish removals might be a relevant management strategy to apply in shallow lakes with a relatively high external nutrient loading.

  20. Differential hepatic metal and metallothionein levels in three Feral fish species along a metal pollution gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Bervoets

    Full Text Available The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio, roach (Rutilus rutilus and perch (Perca fluviatilis were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium. At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K, hepatosomatic index (HSI and gonadosomatic index (GSI. From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MT(theoretical/ MT(measured was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio. Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak.

  1. Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Rodents from the Perspective of Comparative Region-Specific Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdyukova, Natalya A.; Perelman, Polina L.; Pavlova, Svetlana V.; Bulatova, Nina S.; Golenishchev, Feodor N.; Stanyon, Roscoe

    2017-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that chromosomal rearrangements play a central role in different evolutionary processes, particularly in speciation and adaptation. Interchromosomal rearrangements have been extensively mapped using chromosome painting. However, intrachromosomal rearrangements have only been described using molecular cytogenetics in a limited number of mammals, including a few rodent species. This situation is unfortunate because intrachromosomal rearrangements are more abundant than interchromosomal rearrangements and probably contain essential phylogenomic information. Significant progress in the detection of intrachromosomal rearrangement is now possible, due to recent advances in molecular biology and bioinformatics. We investigated the level of intrachromosomal rearrangement in the Arvicolinae subfamily, a species-rich taxon characterized by very high rate of karyotype evolution. We made a set of region specific probes by microdissection for a single syntenic region represented by the p-arm of chromosome 1 of Alexandromys oeconomus, and hybridized the probes onto the chromosomes of four arvicolines (Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes rutilus, and Dicrostonyx torquatus). These experiments allowed us to show the intrachromosomal rearrangements in the subfamily at a significantly higher level of resolution than previously described. We found a number of paracentric inversions in the karyotypes of M. agrestis and M. rutilus, as well as multiple inversions and a centromere shift in the karyotype of M. arvalis. We propose that during karyotype evolution, arvicolines underwent a significant number of complex intrachromosomal rearrangements that were not previously detected. PMID:28867774

  2. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles André

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  3. Proteolytic activity in some freshwater animals and associated microflora in a wide pH range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mina, V V; Zolotareva, G V; Sheptitskiy, V A

    2017-04-01

    Proteolytic activity in some freshwater animals (crustacean plankton, sandhopper Amphipoda sp., larvae of chironomids Chironomus sp., oligochaetes Oligohaeta sp., dreissena Dreissena polymorpha, roach Rutilus rutilus heckelii, rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus, ruff Acerina cernua, and monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis) prevailing within the food of fishes of various ecological groups as well as in their associated microflora in a wide pH range was investigated. It has been shown that the optimum pH of proteases in the animals' whole organism varies: 6.0 for sandhopper; 8.0 for chironomid larvae, oligochaetes, monkey goby, and ruff; 8.0-9.0 for zooplankton; and 10.0 for roach and rudd. The optimum pH of associated microflora proteases is 6.0 for monkey goby; 7.0 for sandhopper and roach and ruff ; 8.0-9.0 for oligochaetes; 9.0 for zooplankton; and 10.0 for chironomid larvae and rudd. The compensatory role of food items and enteric microbiota proteases in digestive processes in fish of different ecological groups at low pH is discussed.

  4. First detection of circovirus-like sequences in amphibians and novel putative circoviruses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Zoltán László; Pénzes, Judit J; Tóth, Róza P; Benkő, Mária

    2014-03-01

    The negative samples of a collection, established originally for seeking new adeno- and herpesviruses in lower vertebrates, were screened for the pres-ence of circoviruses by a consensus nested PCR targeting the gene coding for the replication-associated protein. Six fish samples representing five species, namely asp (Aspius aspius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis), as well as three frog samples were found positive for circoviral DNA. Sequence analysis of the amplicons indicated the presence of three novel putative circo-like viruses and a circovirus in Hungarian fishes and one novel circovirus in a common toad (Bufo bufo), and another one in a dead and an alive specimen of green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), respectively. In phylogeny reconstruction, the putative bream circovirus clustered together with circoviruses discovered in other cyprinid fishes recently. Three other piscine circoviral sequences appeared closest to sequences derived from different environmental samples. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence derived from two fish samples (a bream and a monkey goby) proved to be from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), almost identical to a sequence detected in Sweden previously. This is the first report on the detection of PCV2 in fish and circoviral DNA in amphibian hosts.

  5. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (Pstained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Uptake and Disposition of Neutral Organic Chemicals in Fish Using a Multispecies Physiologically-Based Toxicokinetic Model Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Schlechtriem, Christian; Reininghaus, Mathias; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hollert, Henner; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-02-16

    The potential to bioconcentrate is generally considered to be an unwanted property of a substance. Consequently, chemical legislation, including the European REACH regulations, requires the chemical industry to provide bioconcentration data for chemicals that are produced or imported at volumes exceeding 100 tons per annum or if there is a concern that a substance is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. For the filling of the existing data gap for chemicals produced or imported at levels that are below this stipulated volume, without the need for additional animal experiments, physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models can be used to predict whole-body and tissue concentrations of neutral organic chemicals in fish. PBTK models have been developed for many different fish species with promising results. In this study, we developed PBTK models for zebrafish (Danio rerio) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) and combined them with existing models for rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The resulting multispecies model framework allows for cross-species extrapolation of the bioaccumulative potential of neutral organic compounds. Predictions were compared with experimental data and were accurate for most substances. Our model can be used for probabilistic risk assessment of chemical bioaccumulation, with particular emphasis on cross-species evaluations.

  7. Host searching in Argulus foliaceus L. (Crustacea: Branchiura): the role of vision and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V N; Valtonen, E T; Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P

    1998-05-01

    In laboratory experiments the swimming behaviour of the ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus and its infection rates on juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were examined. The highest infection rate and a preference for perch juveniles were obtained in darkness, the lowest infection rate and a lack of preference in the light, when aquaria with glass walls (high reflectivity) were used. In the light, when aquaria were lined with black plastic (low reflectivity) an intermediate level of infection for perch and the highest for roach was recorded. Under such conditions roach were significantly more heavily infected than perch; an attack rate 4 times greater was recorded for brighter (more reflective) roach juveniles than for perch. Within the aquaria with a low reflective interior parasites swam 4.4 times slower and were observed predominantly in the central area, while in the highly reflective aquaria fast swimming A. foliaceus were recorded mainly near the walls. The primary role of visual stimuli for the host search behavior of A. foliaceus in the light is suggested. Parasites can effectively use such stimuli only in the low reflective surroundings. Highly reflective glass aquarium walls produce numerous secondary local light sources, which cause fast, erratic parasite movements and prevent the efficient location of potential hosts.

  8. Tuning host specificity during the ontogeny of a fish ectoparasite: behavioural responses to host-induced cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, Victor N; Pasternak, Anna F; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2004-02-01

    The choice between two alternative hosts, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and roach (Rutilus rutilus), and the response to visual and olfactory cues were studied in the ontogeny of Argulus coregoni. The initial preference of the smallest parasites for brighter roach changed at the age of 2 weeks, at the size of about 2 mm, for trout, a typical salmonid host. Younger argulids were attracted by a non-specific visual stimulus (white disc over dark background), and they did not respond to olfactory stimulation (fish-conditioned water). Later, the response to visual stimuli was modulated by trout-conditioned water, but not by that conditioned by roach. The primary role of vision, particularly in early ontogeny, is emphasized as an adaptation of A. coregoni to habitats in boreal latitudes, clear and running water with a sparse fish population. In sub-adult and adult parasites, vision is complimented by olfaction that enables them to choose hosts more precisely. The nature and adaptive significance of the ontogenetic shift in host choice by A. coregoni is discussed.

  9. Trophic interaction between topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and the co-occurring species during summer in the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva is the most common invasive fish in Europe, which can compete with the juveniles of valuable commercial fishes. The goal of this work is to study the diet of topmouth gudgeon and trophic relationships with some native fishes inhabiting the littoral zone of the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir. The obtained relatively low values of diet overlaps between topmouth gudgeon and other co-occurring cyprinids such as juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus; silver bream, Blicca bjoerkna; rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus; Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and bleak, Abramis brama, indicate that it is not a serious food competitor for them, especially commercially valuable ones. On the contrary, high diet overlaps were observed among some native cyprinids such as juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and bleak. The major prey items of topmouth gudgeon were Chydorus sphaericus and chironomids, whereas other cyprinids selected Bosmina spp. This peculiarity may be due to different vertical distributions of these fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, where topmouth gudgeon inhabit near-bottom water layers, where they preyed on near-bottom and benthic zooplankters and chironomids, while juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and juvenile and adult bleak live in higher water layers, where they preyed on pelagic zooplankton.

  10. Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Chapman, Ben B.; Baktoft, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration in a fresh......The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration...... in a freshwater fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus) that commonly migrates from lakes to streams during winter confers a significant survival benefit with respect to bird (cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo spp.) predation. We tagged over 2000 individual fish in two Scandinavian lakes over 4 years and monitored migratory...... behaviour using passive telemetry. Next, we calculated the predation vulnerability of fish with differing migration strategies, by recovering data from passive integrated transponder tags of fish eaten by cormorants at communal roosts close to the lakes. We show that fish can reduce their predation risk...

  11. Effects of fish removal in the Furnas Lake, Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bio, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Furnas Lake is a small volcanic, monomitic and increasingly eutrophised water body. Next to agricultural nutrient inputs, high densities of herbivorous fish are thought to contribute to high levels of turbidity in the lake, through zooplankton consumption and re suspension of the nutrients accumulated in the sediment. According to the alternative state hypothesis a shift from turbid to clear water conditions is favoured by reduction of nutrient concentrations, increased light availability and reduction of planktivorous and benthos-feeding fish stock. To improve water quality in the Furnas Lake, a substantial part of the bottom-feeding fish population (62% of the estimated common carp population, Cyprinus carpio, and 5% of the estimated roach population, Rutilus rutilus was removed. Effects of fish removal on turbidity and associated trophic state were analysed next to post-manipulation chlorophyll a concentration, zooplankton and macrophytes densities. Results suggest that fish removal was not enough to change lake conditions towards a lasting clear state dominated by macrophytes. Excessive nutrient load, in water and sediments, nutrient input from the lake basin and fish recruitment causing enhanced zooplankton grazing are appointed causes. Any further biomanipulation efforts should be associated to nutrient reduction; and continued monitoring of water quality, fish stock, macrophytes and zooplankton is needed.

  12. Disruption of the Prostaglandin Metabolome and Characterization of the Pharmaceutical Exposome in Fish Exposed to Wastewater Treatment Works Effluent As Revealed by Nanoflow-Nanospray Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Lange, Anke; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-03

    Fish can be exposed to a complex mixture of chemical contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, present in discharges of wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents. There is little information on the effects of effluent exposure on fish metabolism, especially the small molecule signaling compounds which are the biological target of many pharmaceuticals. We applied a newly developed sensitive nanoflow-nanospray mass spectrometry nontargeted profiling technique to identify changes in the exposome and metabolome of roach (Rutilus rutilus) exposed to a final WwTWs effluent for 15 days. Effluent exposure resulted in widespread reduction (between 50% and 90%) in prostaglandin (PG) profiles in fish tissues and plasma with disruptions also in tryptophan/serotonin, bile acid and lipid metabolism. Metabolite disruptions were not explained by altered expression of genes associated with the PG or tryptophan metabolism. Of the 31 pharmaceutical metabolites that were detected in the effluent exposome of fish, 6 were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but with plasma concentrations too low to disrupt PG biosynthesis. PGs, bile acids, and tryptophan metabolites are important mediators regulating a diverse array of physiological systems in fish and the identity of wastewater contaminants disrupting their metabolism warrants further investigation on their exposure effects on fish health.

  13. Feeding guilds and food resource partitioning in a lake fish assemblage: an ontogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specziár, A; Rezsu, E T

    2009-07-01

    Ontogenetic diet patterns and trophic guild structure of a 15 species temperate lake fish assemblage were analysed over wide size intervals (up to seven orders of magnitude in body mass), representing practically the whole life span in most species. A two-step objective clustering technique supplemented with other multivariate statistical tools proved that size-related diet changes clearly played an important role in structuring trophic organization of fishes inhabiting Lake Balaton. As many as 13 out of the 15 fish species showed marked size-related dietary changes with two to four ontogenetic feeding stages. At the assemblage level, 11 trophic guilds were separated. Guild membership was size-dependent in 11 fish species that participated in two to four trophic guilds during their life span. The most complex trophic ontogeny was observed in roach Rutilus rutilus and asp Aspius aspius with four guild memberships. This study showed that trophic status of fishes may be very size-sensitive and thus a universal classification of fish species to general trophic guilds, such as 'planktivore', 'benthivore', 'piscivore' or 'herbivore', should be applied very carefully even in environmental monitoring and fisheries management applications, unless it is supported by relevant results of life span diet analyses.

  14. First molecular detection and characterization of Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis spp. in field mice and voles from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Shimozuru, Michito; Mohamed, Wessam; Taylor, Kyle Rueben; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Tsubota, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    Sarcocystis and Hepatozoon species are protozoan parasites that are frequently detected in domestic and wild animals. Rodents are considered common intermediate and paratenic hosts for several Sarcocystis and Hepatozoon species. Here, blood DNA samples from a total of six rodents, including one Myodes rutilus, one Myodes rufocanus, and four Apodemus speciosus, collected from Hokkaido, Japan, were shown by conventional PCR of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene to contain Sarcocystis and Hepatozoon DNA. Sequencing of the DNA detected one Sarcocystis sp. in the M. rufocanus sample and two different Hepatozoon spp. in the M. rutilus and A. speciosus samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected Sarcocystis sp. sequence grouped with GenBank Sarcocystis sequences from rodents, snakes, and raccoons from Japan and China. The 18S rRNA partial gene sequences of both detected Hepatozoon spp. clustered with GenBank Hepatozoon sequences from snakes, geckos and voles in Europe, Africa, and Asia. This study provides evidence that wild rodents have a role in the maintenance of Sarcocystis and Hepatozoon species on the island of Hokkaido.

  15. Does differential predation permit invasive and native mosquito larvae to coexist in Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRISWOLD, MARCUS W.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP

    2012-01-01

    1. The hypothesis that selective predation on larvae of the invasive Aedes albopictus (Skuse) could account for its stable coexistence with the native mosquito species and inferior competitor Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say) in Florida treeholes and container systems was tested experimentally. 2. Functional responses of the two dipteran predators Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) and Corethrella appendiculata (Grabham) were evaluated separately for A. albopictus and O. triseriatus prey. Both predators exhibited type II functional responses and consistently consumed more of the invasive species. Handling time of T. rutilus feeding upon O. triseriatus was significantly longer than when preying upon the invasive species. 3. When either predator species was offered varying ratios of the two prey species, A. albopictus was consumed preferentially. The absence of a prey ratio effect on preference indicated that switching probably does not occur. 4. The higher maximum feeding rate upon, and preference for, A. albopictus suggests that differential predation may foster coexistence of the invasive and native mosquito prey species in Florida. PMID:22532705

  16. Habitat complexity and sex-dependent predation of mosquito larvae in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Marcus W.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2012-01-01

    Studies in aquatic systems have shown that habitat complexity may provide refuge or reduce the number of encounters prey have with actively searching predators. For ambush predators, habitat complexity may enhance or have no effect on predation rates because it conceals predators, reduces prey detection by predators, or visually impairs both predators and prey. We investigated the effects of habitat complexity and predation by the ambush predators Toxorhynchites rutilus and Corethrella appendiculata on their mosquito prey Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus triseriatus in container analogs of treeholes. As in other ambush predator-prey systems, habitat complexity did not alter the effects of T. rutilus or C. appendiculata whose presence decreased prey survivorship, shortened development time, and increased adult size compared to treatments where predators were absent. Faster growth and larger size were due to predator-mediated release from competition among surviving prey. Male and female prey survivorship were similar in the absence of predators, however when predators were present, survivorship of both prey species was skewed in favor of males. We conclude that habitat complexity is relatively unimportant in shaping predator-prey interactions in this treehole community, where predation risk differs between prey sexes. PMID:16041612

  17. Accumulation and effects of metals in caged carp and resident roach along a metal pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynders, H. [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.reynders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L.; Gelders, M.; Coen, W.M. de; Blust, R. [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-02-25

    Metal accumulation and effects on plasma Ca{sup 2+}, alanine transaminase (ALT) and fish condition factor were examined in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio) and resident roach (Rutilus rutilus) at four locations along the Grote Nete River system (Belgium). Cadmium and zinc accumulation were found in carp and roach, with highest concentrations at the most contaminated site (dissolved Cd: 1.82 {mu}g/l, Zn: 967 {mu}g/l). On the tissue level, highest cadmium concentrations were measured in kidneys of carp and roach, followed by gills, intestine and liver, while low concentrations were observed in carcass and muscle. For zinc, a similar pattern was observed (intestine > kidney > gills > liver > carcass > muscle). Comparison between species showed higher cadmium concentrations in feral roach, while zinc levels were lower, owing to the high zinc concentrations in control carp. Furthermore, comparison of metal concentrations between two sampling periods (2005 and 2000-2001) revealed a drastic decrease in cadmium concentration in gills, liver and muscle of roach, similar to the reduction in waterborne cadmium concentrations, while differences for zinc were much less pronounced. In addition to metal accumulation, increased metallothionein concentrations ({approx} 2x) were found in carp and roach, while no metal-related effects were found on ALT, Ca{sup 2+}or condition factor. However, negative effects on fish community structure, as assessed by the index of biotic integrity (IBI), were found along the pollution gradient and indicated long-term adverse effects of metal pollution.

  18. A Comparison of Ageing Techniques to Improve Precision of Age Estimation from Fish Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Gürsoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Balık pullarından yapılan yaş tahminlerinin doğruluğunu arttırmada yaş tayini tekniklerinin bir karşılaştırması. Kızılkanat, Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L., 1758, gümüşi havuz balığı Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 ve kızılgöz, Rutilus rutilus (L., 1758 balıklarının pulları iki farklı habitattan elde edildi. Tüm balık türlerine iki yaş tayini yöntemi uygulandı. Bu yöntemler arasında uyuşmazlıklar bulundu. Farklı okuyucuların yaş tayinleri arasındaki uyum, pul basma yönteminde pul temizleme metodundakinden daha iyiydi. Pul basma metodu yaş hesaplamalarının doğruluğu bakımından en iyi sonuçları ortaya çıkardı. Bunun yanı sıra hızlı kullanım, verileri saklama, ve kolay geri-hesaplama gibi birçok avantajları görüldü

  19. Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius-Effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: chhatra.sharma@gmail.com; Borgstrom, Reidar [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: reidar.borgstrom@umb.no; Huitfeldt, Jorgen Sinkaberg [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: jhu@wang.no; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: bjorn.rosseland@umb.no

    2008-07-25

    The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The {delta}{sup 15}N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 ( per mille{delta}{sup 15}N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans.

  20. Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish--a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Alice; Green, Christopher; Nicol, Elizabeth; Beresford, Nicola; Kanda, Rakesh; Henshaw, Alan; Churchley, John; Jobling, Susan

    2012-05-15

    Steroid estrogens are thought to be the major cause of feminization (intersex) in wild fish. Widely used wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing these contaminants to concentrations thought to be required to protect aquatic wildlife. A number of advanced treatment processes have been proposed to reduce the concentrations of estrogens entering the environment. Before investment is made in such processes, it is imperative that we compare their efficacy in terms of removal of steroid estrogens and their feminizing effects with other treatment options. This study assessed both steroid removal and intersex induction in adult and early life stage fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus). Roach were exposed directly to either secondary (activated sludge process (ASP)), tertiary (sand filtrated (SF)), or advanced (chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), granular activated charcoal (GAC)) treated effluents for six months. Surprisingly, both the advanced GAC and tertiary SF treatments (but not the ClO(2) treatment) significantly removed the intersex induction associated with the ASP effluent; this was not predicted by the steroid estrogen measurements, which were higher in the tertiary SF than either the GAC or the ClO(2). Therefore our study highlights the importance of using both biological and chemical analysis when assessing new treatment technologies.

  1. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  2. The biology of Barbus mattozi Guimaraes (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase from June 1975 and these were most likely the cohort spawned during the good rains of 1973–1974. Fluvial fishes in semi-arid parts of southern. Africa are likely to experience wide variations in numbers determined by the success or failure of spawning in wet or dry years. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2004 ...

  3. The reproduction of Barbus Cf. Kimberleyensis (Pisces, Cyprinidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only one large yellowfish species occurs in the Hardap Dam, apparently closely related to Barbus kimberleyensis. Though smaller than this species in the Vaal River, it is nevertheless a valuable and abundant angling fish. After maturity, reached in females at 26 cm and in males at 18 cm fork length, females outnumber ...

  4. Local adaptation of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Cyprinidae) on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyi; Ludwig, Arne; Zhang, Cunfang; Tong, Chao; Li, Guogang; Tang, Yongtao; Peng, Zuogang; Zhao, Kai

    2015-05-06

    Divergent selection among environments affects species distributions and can lead to speciation. In this article, we investigated the transcriptomes of two ecotypes of scaleless carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and G. p. ganzihonensis) from the Tibetan Plateau. We used a transcriptome sequencing approach to screen approximately 250,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the gill and kidney tissues of twelve individuals from the Ganzi River and Lake Qinghai to understand how this freshwater fish has adapted to an ecological niche shift from saline to freshwater. We identified 9,429 loci in the gill transcriptome and 12,034 loci in the kidney transcriptome with significant differences in their expression, of which 242 protein-coding genes exhibited strong positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1). Many of the genes are involved in ion channel functions (e.g., Ca(2+)-binding proteins), immune responses (e.g., nephrosin) or cellular water absorption functions (e.g., aquaporins). These results have potentially broad importance in understanding shifts from saline to freshwater habitats. Furthermore, this study provides the first transcriptome of G. przewalskii, which will facilitate future ecological genomics studies and aid in the identification of genes underlying adaptation and incipient ecological speciation.

  5. Quest for the sex chromosomes in Squalius pyrenaicus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sofia A. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In teleosts, evolutionary proximity does not dictate similarity in the sex determining systems. Hybridization, even among closely related species, often results in a huge shock. A good example of such deviation is the cyprinid species complex of Squalius alburnoides with unique characteristics that make this a very interesting model of study regarding the differentiation of sex chromosomes in a hybrid context. This complex endemic to the Iberian Peninsula resulted from the hybridization of Squalius pyrenaicus females (P genome with males from an unknown species closely related to Anaecypris hispanica (A genome. The complex comprises males and females with different levels of ploidy and genome combinations (genomotypes intertwined by altered modes of reproduction, ranging from normal meiosis to meiotic hybridogenesis. Sex ratio in nature is clearly biased towards the prevalence of triploid females but the complex also comprises an allegedly all-male lineage. Overall, sex chromosomes are very similar with X and Z having euchromatic regions while Y and W are completely heterochromatic. The accumulation of heterochromatin and the potential loss of genes on Y and W chromosomes are considered convergent traits in the process of sex chromosome differentiation. Bearing in mind S. pyrenaicus as the maternal lineage of S. alburnoides and the possibility of a ZW sex determining system in this complex, GISH (genomic in situ hybridization experiments were performed in 6 specimens (3 males, 3 females; Cheleiros tributary, Portugal trying to identify polymorphisms that could be associated with differentiating sex chromosomes in S. pyrenaicus. No differences could be found suggesting that either sex determining genes are scattered throughout the genome of this species or that, if present, sex chromosomes remain in a relatively undifferentiated state (morphological and structural. This investigation requires higher resolution cytogenetic tools like repetitive-free chromosome-specific probes, single-copy gene mapping (sex related genes and chromosome-specific anchoring probes/markers.

  6. Leuciscus (Pisces, Cyprinidae karyotypes: Transect of Portuguese populations

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    Maria João Collares-Pereira

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The presently described Iberian chubs - Leuciscus carolitertii and L. pyrenaicus - sampled throughout their distribution ranges in Portugal were cytogenetically analyzed. Their chromosome numbers were consistently 2n = 50, except for two specimens of L. carolitertii, which exhibited a supernumerary chromosome in some of the metaphases. The karyotypes were found to be highly typical for other Leuciscus taxa, as well as for European leuciscine cyprinids: the chromosome sets are dominated by metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs (three to four; the largest pair of the complements belongs typically to this latter category. The chubs from northern drainages, assignable to L. carolitertii, have apparently a more stable karyotype structure (12M:30S:8A than the chubs from L. pyrenaicus, which have 12M:32S:6A, but may exhibit in the most southern river basins (Guadiana, Mira, Aljezur, Bordeira and Arade more variable karyotypes. Besides, these data support the very recent discovery of two genetically distinct Leuciscus taxa in this region of the Iberian Peninsula, suggesting the stochastic fixation of structural chromosome rearrangements in these small and isolated drainages, which may be affected by bottlenecks due to significant variations in hydrological regimes. The NORs were apparently located in one small submetacentric pair of chromosomes and the presence of a heteromorphic sex chromosome system of the ZW/ZZ type was also evidenced for the Iberian endemic chubs.A análise citogenética dos dois endemismos de Leuciscus atualmente descritos na Península Ibérica foi efetuada em amostras obtidas ao longo da sua área de distribuição. Apresentaram um valor diplóide de 2n = 50, com exceção de dois exemplares de L. carolitertii, os quais exibiam um cromossomo supranumerário em algumas metáfases. Caracterizaram-se por um padrão cariológico idêntico ao dos restantes táxons do mesmo gênero, igualmente partilhado pelos Leuciscinae europeus: um elevado número de cromossomos metacêntricos e submetacêntricos e um número reduzido de acrocêntricos (três a quatro pares, incluindo-se neste último grupo o maior par do complemento. As NORs localizaram-se tipicamente num par de submetacêntricos de reduzidas dimensões, existindo também evidências de um sistema cromossômico de determinação sexual do tipo ZW/ZZ. Porém, os espécimes do norte, L. carolitertii, aparentaram possuir um cariótipo mais estável em termos estruturais (12M:30S:8A do que os do sul, pertencentes a L. pyrenaicus (12M:32S:6A. Esta espécie exibiu, nas suas populações mais meridionais que se localizam nas bacias do Mira, Aljezur, Bordeira e Arade, alterações da referida fórmula cromossômica, fato que vem em apoio da recente descoberta de dois taxóns de Leuciscus geneticamente diferenciados no sul da Península Ibérica, sugerindo a fixação de rearranjos cromossômicos estruturais nestas pequenas e isoladas bacias hidrográficas, com grandes variações dos seus regimes hidrológicos produzindo os chamados" efeitos de gargalo".

  7. (Pisces, Cyprinidae) in Wuras Dam, a shallow, turbid impoundment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an important role in energy cycling. In Wuras Dam, in which energy cycling is detritus-based, this species makes up 70"70 of the mass of fish (Pieterse & Keulder 1982). Wuras Dam is situated in the central highveld area of South. Africa (19°4O'S126°00E) in the Fourie Spruit, an annual tributary of the Modder River, Orange ...

  8. Local and regional factors influence the structure of treehole metacommunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Christopher J; Blue, Jarrod D; Burkhart, John Q; Goldberg, Justin; Harshaw, Lauren; Hawkins, Katherine D; Kegan, Benjamin; Krentz, Tyler; Smith, Leslie; Villalpando, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Background Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study system. Results Every species responded to at least one of three local environmental factors measured: water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator. Several species were affected by water volume, and a non-exclusive group of species were influenced by leaf litter mass. Relative abundance of Aedes triseriatus was higher in treeholes with higher volumes of water, and relative abundances of three out of six other species were lower in treeholes with higher volumes of water. Leaf litter mass positively affected densities of Aedes triseriatus and relative abundance of several dipteran species. The density of the top predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus, affected the relative abundance of the two most common species, A. triseriatus and Culicoides guttipennis. Treeholes with T. rutilus had an average of two more species than treeholes without T. rutilus. We found little evidence of synchrony between pairs of treeholes, either spatially or temporally. There were high levels of spatial and temporal turnover, and spatial turnover increased with distance between patches. Conclusion The strong effects of water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator, along with the high temporal turnover strongly suggest that species presence and density are determined by local factors and changes in those factors over time. Both low water volume and high predator densities can eliminate populations in local patches, and those populations can recolonize patches when rain refills or predators exit treeholes. Population densities of the same species were not matched between pairs of treeholes, suggesting variation

  9. Local and regional factors influence the structure of treehole metacommunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegan Benjamin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study system. Results Every species responded to at least one of three local environmental factors measured: water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator. Several species were affected by water volume, and a non-exclusive group of species were influenced by leaf litter mass. Relative abundance of Aedes triseriatus was higher in treeholes with higher volumes of water, and relative abundances of three out of six other species were lower in treeholes with higher volumes of water. Leaf litter mass positively affected densities of Aedes triseriatus and relative abundance of several dipteran species. The density of the top predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus, affected the relative abundance of the two most common species, A. triseriatus and Culicoides guttipennis. Treeholes with T. rutilus had an average of two more species than treeholes without T. rutilus. We found little evidence of synchrony between pairs of treeholes, either spatially or temporally. There were high levels of spatial and temporal turnover, and spatial turnover increased with distance between patches. Conclusion The strong effects of water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator, along with the high temporal turnover strongly suggest that species presence and density are determined by local factors and changes in those factors over time. Both low water volume and high predator densities can eliminate populations in local patches, and those populations can recolonize patches when rain refills or predators exit treeholes. Population densities of the same species were not matched between pairs of

  10. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

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    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  11. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  12. Surplus Killing by Predatory Larvae of Corethrella appendiculata: Prepupal Timing and Site-Specific Attack on Mosquito Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, L. P.; Makhni, S.; Alto, B. W.; Kesavaraju, B.

    2008-01-01

    Surplus or ‘wasteful’ killing of uneaten prey has been documented in the fourth larval instar of various species of the mosquito genus Toxorhynchites that occur in treeholes and other phytotelmata. Here we document surplus killing by the predatory midge Corethrella appendiculata, which in Florida cohabits treeholes and artificial containers with larvae of Toxorhynchites rutilus. Provided with a surfeit of larval mosquito prey, surplus killing was observed only in the fourth instar of C. appendiculata, peaking in intensity in the final 24 h prior to pupation, as observed for Toxorhynchites spp. Attack sites identified from videotaped encounters with mosquito prey were divided among head, thorax, abdomen, and siphon. Consumed mosquito larvae (n = 70) were attacked primarily on the head (46%) or siphon (34%), but surplus-killed prey (n = 30) were attacked predominantly on the thorax (83%). Despite its independent evolution among different insect species in aquatic container habitats, the functional significance of prepupal surplus killing remains unclear. PMID:19081802

  13. Comparative susceptibility of five species of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes to parenteral infection with dengue and other flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L; Shroyer, D A

    1985-07-01

    Five species of colonized Toxorhynchites mosquitoes were compared for relative susceptibility to parenteral infection with the four dengue serotypes and St. Louis and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Tx. amboinensis, Tx. brevipalpis, Tx. rutilus, and Tx. splendens were equally susceptible to infection with the dengue viruses, while Tx. theobaldi was relatively resistant to infection with those viruses. All five mosquito species were equally susceptible to infection with the encephalitis viruses. The intensity of immunofluorescence in head squashes was slightly less in Tx. brevipalpis infected with the dengue viruses as compared to the other three mosquito species susceptible to those viruses. Immunofluorescence was also less in Tx. theobaldi infected with the encephalitis viruses as compared with all the other mosquito species.

  14. Drought and the organization of tree-hole mosquito communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    1988-01-01

    In southeastern North America (North Florida, USA), the duration, frequency, and timing of drought differentially affect the survivorship of pre-adult tree-hole mosquitoes. Drought affects survivorship both by the direct action of dehydration on developing larvae and pupae and by the indirect modulation of predation. The drought-susceptible species, Toxorhynchites rutilus, Orthopodomyia signifera, and Anopheles barberi co-occur in more permanent holes that are larger, with larger, more vertical openings, lower down in larger trees, and contain darker water with higher conductivity, pH, and tannin-lignin content than the holes occupied by Aedes triseriatus that has drought-resistant eggs and rapid larval development. Ovipositing mosquitoes cue on physical and chemical attributes of tree holes independently of host tree species. These same attributes differ among drought-prone and drought-resistant holes but mosquitoes track these attributes more faithfully than the attributes predict tree-hole stability.

  15. Health Effects in Fish of Long-Term Exposure to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liney, Katherine E.; Hagger, Josephine A.; Tyler, Charles R.; Depledge, Michael H.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Jobling, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Concern has been raised in recent years that exposure to wastewater treatment effluents containing estrogenic chemicals can disrupt the endocrine functioning of riverine fish and cause permanent alterations in the structure and function of the reproductive system. Reproductive disorders may not necessarily arise as a result of estrogenic effects alone, and there is a need for a better understanding of the relative importance of endocrine disruption in relation to other forms of toxicity. Here, the integrated health effects of long-term effluent exposure are reported (reproductive, endocrine, immune, genotoxic, nephrotoxic). Early life-stage roach, Rutilus rutilus, were exposed for 300 days to treated wastewater effluent at concentrations of 0, 15.2, 34.8, and 78.7% (with dechlorinated tap water as diluent). Concentrations of treated effluents that induced feminization of male roach, measured as vitellogenin induction and histological alteration to gonads, also caused statistically significant alterations in kidney development (tubule diameter), modulated immune function (differential cell count, total number of thrombocytes), and caused genotoxic damage (micronucleus induction and single-strand breaks in gill and blood cells). Genotoxic and immunotoxic effects occurred at concentrations of wastewater effluent lower than those required to induce recognizable changes in the structure and function of the reproductive endocrine system. These findings emphasize the need for multiple biological end points in tests that assess the potential health effects of wastewater effluents. They also suggest that for some effluents, genotoxic and immune end points may be more sensitive than estrogenic (endocrine-mediated) end points as indicators of exposure in fish. PMID:16818251

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL STABILITY AND CYTOGENETIC HOMEOSTASIS OF FISH FAUNA OF THE SLUCH RIVER IN CURRENT CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bedunkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the developmental stability and cytogenetic homeostasis of fish populations in the Sluch River in the watercourse areas subjected to anthropogenic stress of different intensities. Methodology. Studies of fish populations in the Sluch River were carried out within Berezne district of Rivne region. The condition of individual fish in the populations were evaluated integrally using morphological (evaluation of the stability of development based on the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA and cytogenetic (micronucleus (MN test of peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish methods. The methods used allowed identifying the destabilization level of organism development, even in the cases when there is no direct disturbance of population homeostasis. Findings. The found FA levels reflect minor (initial deviations from the normal developmental processes of fish populations in in the studied watercourse areas. Especially significantly this is reflected in a high proportion of individuals with FA in the samples of roach (Rutilus rutilus, bleak (Alburnus alburnus, bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. An excess in the frequency of MN erythrocyte cells in roach and pike (Esox lucius blood relatively the level of spontaneous mutagenesis was observed in the cross section №2, which is exposed to sewage waters. The observed manifestation of degenerative processes in fish organisms at this stage can be evaluated as an increased reactivity of sensitive species to the presence of mutagenic agents in the composition of river pollution. The functioning of spawning populations gives reason to believe that the current level of human impact is not critical for the hydroecosystem. Originality. For the first time we obtained data on the stability of development and cytogenetic homeostasis of fish populations in the hydroecosystem of Rivne region in current conditions of anthropogenic stress. Practical value. The obtained results can be used for

  17. Differences in the activities of eight enzymes from ten soil fungi and their possible influences on the surface structure, functional groups, and element composition of soil colloids.

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    Wenjie Wang

    Full Text Available How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum secreted 3-4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C = O, COO- decreased by 11-60%, while P = O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9-22%, surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials, and elemental compositions (11-49% decreases in C1s in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus. Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix, highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance.

  18. Differences in the activities of eight enzymes from ten soil fungi and their possible influences on the surface structure, functional groups, and element composition of soil colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3-4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C = O, COO- decreased by 11-60%, while P = O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9-22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11-49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance.

  19. Gravel pit lakes in Denmark: Chemical and biological state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Lauridsen, Torben L; Johansson, Liselotte S; Jeppesen, Erik

    2018-01-15

    Mining of gravel and sand for construction purposes is big business and gravel pit lakes have become increasingly common all over the world. In Denmark, hundreds of gravel pit lakes have been created during the past decades. We investigated the chemical and biological status of 33-52 gravel pit lakes and compared the results with data from similar-sized natural Danish lakes. The area of the lakes ranged from 0.2 to 13ha and their age from 0.5 to 26years. Generally, the gravel pit lakes were clear with low nutrient concentrations, the median concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen being 0.023mg/l and 0.30mg/l compared with 0.115mg/l and 1.29mg/l, respectively, in natural lakes. Correspondingly, median chlorophyll a was 5μg/l in the gravel pit lakes and 36μg/l in the natural lakes. Submerged macrophytes were found in all gravel pit lakes, with particularly high cover in the shallow ones. Most gravel pit lakes were deeper than the natural lakes, which may restrict the area potentially to be covered by submerged macrophytes, with implications also for the biological quality of the lakes. Fish were found in most of the gravel pit lakes, roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophalmus) being the most frequently observed species. Fish stocking was common and included also non-native species such as carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss). Compared with the natural lakes, fish species richness and catch per gillnet were overall lower in the gravel pit lakes. Groundwater-fed gravel pit lakes add importantly to the number of high-quality lakes in Denmark and with an optimised design and by avoiding negative side effects, they can be positive for both nature and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Light-mediated host searching strategies in a fish ectoparasite, Argulus foliaceus L. (crustacea: branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V N; Mikheev, A V; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

    2000-04-01

    Argulus foliaceus, an obligate fish ectoparasite, can search for its hosts in both light and dark conditions and uses vision in the light. We have examined what searching mode is used at night, when the infection rate was at its highest, and which stimuli produced by the fish are most important. A change of illumination produced a clear difference in the searching behaviour of adult Argulus females. The mean swimming speed and the area explored were 3-4 times higher in the dark, when the parasite employed a cruising search strategy. This changed to an ambush (hover-and-wait) strategy in the light. The swimming activity is accompanied by changes in metabolic costs; the activity of the electron transport system being approximately 25 % lower in the light. The most pronounced light-induced differences in host-searching behaviour took place in moderately hungry parasites (starved for 24-96 h). Less motivated (just having left a fish) or exhausted animals did not exhibit any clear differences in swimming speed. Among the external signals tested, fish smell, from both perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus), induced an elevated swimming speed of the parasite. Periodic water movements caused similar but weaker effects. The effects of these stimuli were observed under both light and dark conditions. We conclude that host-searching behaviour of A. foliaceus is under internal (state of hunger) and external (illumination and host-induced signals) control and involves all its sensory equipment (vision, olfaction and mechano-reception). Perch (but not roach) reduced their swimming speed in the dark, which make them more susceptible to cruising Argulus. Thus the behavioural interplay between hosts and parasites can also influence the infection rate of A. foliaceus found on perch and roach in Finnish lakes.

  1. Strategies of zooplanktivory shape the dynamics and diversity of littoral plankton communities: a mesocosm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Laura K; Aymà Padrós, Anna; Leskinen, Elina; Lehtonen, Hannu; Nurminen, Leena

    2015-05-01

    Planktivorous fish can exert strong top-down control on zooplankton communities. By incorporating different feeding strategies, from selective particulate feeding to cruising filter feeding, fish species target distinct prey. In this study, we investigated the effects of two species with different feeding strategies, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), on a low-diversity brackish water zooplankton community using a 16-day mesocosm experiment. The experiment was conducted on a small-bodied spring zooplankton community in high-nutrient conditions, as well as a large-bodied summer community in low-nutrient conditions. Effects were highly dependent on the initial zooplankton community structure and hence seasonal variation. In a small-bodied community with high predation pressure and no dispersal or migration, the selective particulate-feeding stickleback depleted the zooplankton community and decreased its diversity more radically than the cruising filter-feeding roach. Cladocerans rather than copepods were efficiently removed by predation, and their removal caused altered patterns in rotifer abundance. In a large-bodied summer community with initial high taxonomic and functional diversity, predation pressure was lower and resource availability was high for omnivorous crustaceans preying on other zooplankton. In this community, predation maintained diversity, regardless of predator species. During both experimental periods, predation influenced the competitive relationship between the dominant calanoid copepods, and altered species composition and size structure of the zooplankton community. Changes also occurred to an extent at the level of nontarget prey, such as microzooplankton and rotifers, emphasizing the importance of subtle predation effects. We discuss our results in the context of the adaptive foraging mechanism and relate them to the natural littoral community.

  2. Precision of the age-length increments of three cyprinids: effects of fish number and sub-sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busst, G M; Britton, J R

    2014-06-01

    The effects of number of fish that are aged and scale sub-sampling strategies on the precision of estimates of mean age-length increments from populations of Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus and Leuciscus cephalus were tested. Analyses used data derived from river fish communities in eastern England, U.K.. Regarding the number of fishes analysed in each age group, for each species and mean fork-length increment at age, significant relationships were detected between sample size (n) and the coefficient of variation of the mean (Z) and mean length increment x‾ and measured variance (s(2)). This enabled calculation of the number of scales for producing a mean length increment at age according to n=ax‾(b(-2))Zx‾(-2). Outputs indicated that the number of scales requiring ageing increased substantially as precision increased, but with little variation between species per age category. Ageing between seven and 12 scales per age group would thus provide estimates at 10% precision. As the ages of fishes are not known in advance of scale ageing, the effect of scale sub-sampling regime on precision was also tested using randomized strategies of 10 fish per 5 mm, five per 5 mm, three per 5 mm, 10 per 10 mm, five per 10 mm and three per 10 mm. These were applied to the datasets and the consequences of their reduction in the number of scales for precision were determined using Z=a(0.5)x‾((b/2)(-1))n(-0.5). When compared to no sub-sampling, three per 10 mm always significantly reduced data precision, whereas 10 per 5 mm never significantly reduced precision. These outputs can thus be applied to the design of fish sampling protocols where age and growth estimates are required, with the randomized sub-sampling likely to be the most useful strategy. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of the Bílina River (Czech Republic using passive water samplers and fish biliary metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination on the Bílina River (the Czech Republic by measurement of three PAH biliary metabolites in fish and 16 PAHs in passive samplers. A total of sixty-one fish were collected; the indicator species were chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.; n = 25, roach (Rutilus rutilus L.; n = 17 and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.; n = 19. Three biliary PAH metabolites were measured: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP, 2-naphtol, and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, but only 1-OHP was detected in all fish. The highest median value of 32.3 ng·mg-1of 1-OHP was found at Ústí nad Labem, while the lowest median value of 27.6 ng·mg-1was found in the control site, Březenec. No significant differences (P < 0.05 among the sites were found. The highest concentration of PAH was detected in Litvínov-Záluží (172.0 ng·l-1 and the lowest concentration (7.9 ng·l-1 was detected in Březenec. A positive, but non-significant correlation (rs = 0.8 was confirmed between biliary 1-OHP and total PAH in passive samplers. These results indicate the highest pollution in the middle stretches of the Bílina River, especially at Litvínov-Záluží. We confirmed 1-OHP as the most prevalent PAH biliary metabolite in fish that could be used as a biomarker for assessment of PAH pollution of the aquatic ecosystem. The main importance of the present study is in the combination of biochemical and chemical monitoring that provides complex evaluation of aquatic environment contamination. It was the first study on the Bílina River, in which the assessment of PAH contamination in the aquatic ecosystem was realized using combination of biotic and abiotic monitoring.

  4. Differences in the Activities of Eight Enzymes from Ten Soil Fungi and Their Possible Influences on the Surface Structure, Functional Groups, and Element Composition of Soil Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3–4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C = O, COO- decreased by 11–60%, while P = O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9–22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11–49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance. PMID:25398013

  5. Concentrating mixtures of neuroactive pharmaceuticals and altered neurotransmitter levels in the brain of fish exposed to a wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Lange, Anke; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2017-12-01

    Fish can be exposed to a variety of neuroactive pharmaceuticals via the effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants and concerns have arisen regarding their potential impacts on fish behaviour and ecology. In this study, we investigated the uptake of 14 neuroactive pharmaceuticals from a treated wastewater effluent into blood plasma and brain regions of roach (Rutilus rutilus) after exposure for 15days. We show that a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals including, 6 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, 3 atypical antipsychotics, 2 tricyclic antidepressants and a benzodiazepine, concentrate in different regions of the brain including the telencephalon, hypothalamus, optic tectum and hindbrain of effluent-exposed fish. Pharmaceuticals, with the exception of nordiazepam, were between 3-40 fold higher in brain compared with blood plasma, showing these neuroactive drugs are readily uptaken, into brain tissues in fish. To assess for the potential for any adverse ecotoxicological effects, the effect ratio was calculated from human therapeutic plasma concentrations (HtPCs) and the measured or predicted fish plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals. After accounting for a safety factor of 1000, the effect ratios indicated that fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, sertraline, and amitriptyline warrant prioritisation for risk assessment studies. Furthermore, although plasma concentrations of all the pharmaceuticals were between 33 and 5714-fold below HtPCs, alterations in serotonin, glutamate, acetylcholine and tryptophan concentrations were observed in different brain regions of effluent-exposed fish. This study highlights the importance of determining the potential health effects arising from the concentration of complex environmental mixtures in risk assessment studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic estrogen directly affects fish biomass and may indirectly disrupt aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Per; Nicolle, Alice; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer; Nikoleris, Lina; Hyder, Murtaza; Persson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are known to alter the fitness of individual organisms via changes in growth, behavior, and reproduction. It is largely unknown, however, whether these effects cascade through the food web and indirectly affect other, less sensitive organisms. The authors present results from a mesocosm experiment whereby the effects of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were quantified in pelagic communities. Treatment with EE2 at a concentration of 28 ng/L had no large effects on the pelagic communities composed only of phytoplankton and zooplankton. In communities where planktivorous roach (Rutilus rutilus) were also present, however, EE2 caused a significant reduction in fish biomass. Moreover, zooplankton biomass was higher in the EE2 treatments, suggesting that zooplankton may have been released from fish predation. Hence, the direct effect of EE2 on roach may have cascaded down the food web to produce positive indirect effects on zooplankton. This result was supported in complementary foraging experiments with roach, showing reduced foraging performance after exposure to EE2. Despite the observed negative effect of EE2 on roach and the positive indirect effect on zooplankton, these effects did not cascade to phytoplankton, possibly because only copepods, but not cladocerans-the major grazers in these systems-were released from fish predation. The authors conclude that the known reproductive impairment in fish by EE2 in combination with the disturbed foraging performance observed in the present study may be a disadvantage to fish that may result in increasing abundance or biomass of prey such as zooplankton. Hence, EE2 may have consequences for both the structure and function of freshwater communities. © 2014 SETAC.

  7. A multifaceted trophic cascade in a detritus-based system: density-, trait-, or processing-chain-mediated effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeny-Simões, Daniel; Murrell, Ebony G; Vilela, Evaldo F; Juliano, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    We investigated three pathways by which predators on an intermediate trophic level may produce a trophic cascade in detritus-based systems. Predators may increase lower trophic levels (bacteria) by reducing density of bacteriovores, by altering behavior of bacteriovores, and by processing living bacteriovores into carcasses, feces, and dissolved nutrients that are substrates for bacteria. We tested these pathways in laboratory experiments with mosquitoes in water-filled containers. Larval Toxorhynchites rutilus prey on larval Aedes triseriatus, which feed on bacteria. Using containers stocked with oak leaf infusion as a bacterial substrate, we compared bacterial productivity at 7 and 14 days for: prey alone; prey with a predator; and prey with predation cues but no predator. Controls contained no larvae, either with predation cues or without cues. Predation cues in the control treatment increased bacterial abundance at 7 days, but this effect waned by 14 days. Aedes triseriatus larvae reduced bacterial abundance significantly at 14 days. Predator cues and real predation both eliminated the negative effect of A. triseriatus on bacterial abundance. Predation cues reduced survivorship of A. triseriatus larvae at 14 days, however this effect was smaller than the effect of real predation. We further tested effects of residues from predation as cues or as detritus in a second experiment in which A. triseriatus were killed at similar rates by: real predators; mechanical damage without the predator and carcasses left as detritus; or mechanical damage and carcasses removed. No prey larvae were killed in controls. Bacterial productivity was greater with real predation than in all other treatments and greater when prey larvae were killed or killed and removed, than in controls. Thus we find evidence that all three pathways contribute to the trophic cascade from T. rutilus to bacteria in tree hole systems.

  8. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

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    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  9. Occurrence and distribution of exotic fishes in the river Tiber basin (Umbria-Italy with special reference to new species recently introduced.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Carosi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of exotic species, with the combined action of habitat's alterations and water pollution, is a general problem of aquatic ecosystems which leads to the qualitative decline of fish communities. In the river Tiber basin (Umbria-Italy many exotic species were introduced in the last 25 years; currently 65% of fish species present in the watercourses of the Umbria region are exotic (Carosi et al., 2015. The purpose of the research was to analyze the occurrence and distribution of exotic fishes in the Tiber river basin with special reference to four fish species recently introduced: Gobio gobio (Linnaeus, 1758, Luciobarbus graellsii (Steindachner, 1866, Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Rhodeus sericeus (Pallas, 1776. Another aim was to analyze the ecological preferences of these species and their relations with the environmental characteristics in the investigated area. The study area comprised 92 watercourses of the Umbrian portion of the river Tiber basin; our analyzes utilized data collected during the periods between the 1990−1996, 2000−2006 and 2007−2014, in 171 sampling stations. A census of the fish fauna by elettrofishing was carried out at each sampling stations. Fishes were identified and for all specimens total length and weight were measured. 22 environmental parameters were used to characterize the river sectors (Figure 2. To analyze the relationships among environmental and fish species data matrices, the CCA analysis (ter Braak, 1986 was performed. 40 fish species were found. Only 14 were native; of the 26 alien species, 9 were translocated while 17 were transplanted (Table 1. Results showed that in the Tiber river basin there was a progressive increase over time of the average number of exotic species for each sampling station (Figure 1; the differences between the three periods considered were highly statistically significant at the ANOVA test (F=15.727, p=0.001. Gobio gobio, Rhodeus sericeus, Rutilus rutilus

  10. Inversion factor in the comparative analysis of dynamical processes in radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, O.; Zarubina, N. [Institute for Nuclear Researh of National Academy of Science of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    We have studied levels of specific activity of radionuclides in fish and fungi of the Kiev region of Ukraine since 1986 till 2013, including 30-km alienation zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) after the accident. The radionuclides specific activity dynamics analysis for 10 species of freshwater fishes of different trophic levels and at 7 species of higher fungi was carried out for this period. Multiple research of specific activity of radionuclides in fish was carried out on the Kanevskoe reservoir and cooling-pond of ChNPP, in fungi - on 6 testing areas, which are situated within the range of 2 to 150 km from ChNPP. The basic attention was given to accumulation of {sup 137}Cs. We have established that dynamics of specific activity of {sup 137}Cs within different species of fish in the same reservoir is not identical. Dynamics of specific activity of {sup 137}Cs within various species of fungi of the same testing area is also not identical. Dynamics of specific activity of {sup 137}Cs with the investigated objects of various testing dry-land and water areas also varies. Authors suggest an inversion factor to be used for comparison of dynamics of specific activity of {sup 137}Cs, which in case of biota is a nonlinear process: K{sub inv} = A{sub 0} / A{sub t}, where A{sub 0} stands for the value of specific activity of the radionuclide at time 0; A{sub t} - specific activity of radionuclide at time t. Therefore, K{sub inv} reflects ratio (inversion) of specific activity of radionuclides to its starting value as a function of time, where K{sub inv} > 1 corresponds to increase in radionuclides' specific activity and K{sub inv} < 1 corresponds to its decrease. For example, K{sub inv} of {sup 137}Cs in fish Rutilus rutilus in the Kanevskoe reservoir was equal to 0.57, and 13.33 in the cooling-pond of ChNPP, at Blicca bjoerkna 0.95 and 29.61 accordingly in 1987 - 1996. In 1987 - 2011 K{sub inv} of {sup 137}Cs at R. rutilus in the Kanevskoe reservoir

  11. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae.

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    Nisreen Alwan

    Full Text Available Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103 and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65. Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  12. THREATENED FISHES OF THE WORLD: Iberochondrostoma almacai COELHO, MESQUITA & COLLARES-PEREIRA, 2005 (Cyprinidae

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    Joana Isabel Robalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Iberochondrostoma almacai is an endemic cyprinid fish from the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, with a distribution area restricted to three independent Portuguese river basins. This species is critically endangered due to water abstraction, pollution, habitat destruction and introduction of exotic species. Captive breeding for restocking purposes is already being conducted.

  13. Preliminary results of morhological varability of the genus (teleostei, cyprinidae) in Tunisia freshwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dkhil-Abbes, T.; Kraeim, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    L’analyse de la variabilité bioécologique des populations de poissons du genre Pseudophoxinus a été réalisée par deux méthodes statistiques. La première univariée basée sur les tests de Fisher et de Duncan et a permis de distinguer l’espèce Pseudophoxinus punicus qui s’individualise par des valeurs très élevées de nombre de branchiospines au premier arc branchial gauche et d’écailles à la ligne latérale par rapport aux autres formant un groupe biologiquement homogène. La deuxième méthode, mu...

  14. Spawning seasons of Rasbora tawarensis (Pisces: Cyprinidae in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia

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    Musman Musri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rasbora tawarensis is an endemic freshwater fish in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Unfortunately, its status is regarded as critical endangered with populations decreasing in recent years. To date no information on the spawning activities of the fish are available. Therefore, this study provides a contribution to the knowledge on reproductive biology of R. tawarensis especially on spawning seasons as well as basic information for conservation of the species. Methods Monthly sampling was conducted from April 2008 to March 2009 by using selective gillnets. The gonadosomatic index, size composition and sex ratio were assessed. The gonadal development was evaluated based on macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the gonads. Results The gonadosomatic index (GSI varied between 6.65 to 18.16 in female and 4.94 to 8.56 for male. GSI of the female R. tawarensis was higher in March, September and December indicating the onset of reproductive seasons, the GSI and oocyte size being directly correlated with gonadal development stages. Although, a greater proportion of mature male than female was detected during the study, the sex ratio showed that the overall number of female was higher than male. The ovaries had multiple oocyte size classes at every stage of gonadal development, thus R. tawarensis can be classified as a group synchronous spawner or a fractional multiple spawner. Conclusion The spawning seasons of R. tawarensis were three times a year and September being the peak of the reproductive season and the female was the predominant sex. This species is classified as a group synchronous spawner.

  15. Threatened Fishes of the World: Telestes Croaticus (Steindachner, 1866 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae

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    Jelić Dušan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telestes croaticus is a freshwater fish endemic in Croatia. It is a stygophile species, living above ground but occasionally retreating into subterranean waters. This species is found in the southwest region of Croatia, in the Lika-Jadova and Ričica drainages, in cold and clear waters in lowland habitats with little current, and in springs and associated wetlands. It is protected under Croatian law and was listed by the IUCN Red List as Endangered (EN. It has an extremely limited distribution which makes it vulnerable to different kind of traits such as habitat destruction, water extraction, dam construction, agricultural water pollution and especially the introduction of non-indigenous fish species. Suggested conservation actions for this species are: bans on watercourse regulation, reduction of pollution and eradication of alien fish species. Due to its fast decline in the last 10 years, it is our proposition that T. croaticus should be upgraded to a Critically Endangered species under criterion A2ace A4ace.

  16. Karyotype of Persian Chub, Petroleuciscus persidis (Coad, 1981) (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    ESMAEILI, H. R.; PIRAVAR, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The diploid chromosome number of Persian chub, Petroleuciscus persidis (Coad, 1981), was 2n = 50, comprising 29 metacentric, 18 submetacentric, and 3 subtelocentric chromosomes and the number of arms was 97. A detailed karyotype of this endemic cyprinid fish of southern Iran was established for the first time in this study.

  17. Global transcriptional and miRNA insights into bases of heterosis in hybridization of Cyprinidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Ren, Li; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Wang, Jun; Hu, Jie; Yu, Fan; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid Megalobrama amblycephala × Culter alburnus represents a population newly formed by interspecific crossing between two different genera. Here we assessed the expression pattern of mRNA and small RNA in newly formed F1, F2 and their progenitors. Large amounts of nonadditively expressed protein-coding genes showed parental expression level dominance (ELD). Interestingly, the ELD pattern could inherit from F1 to F2, which guaranteed a stable appearance in progenies. The ELD-B genes were found to contribute to cell development, while the ELD-T genes were enriched in function of stress and adaptability. microRNAs (miRNA) also had similar expression patterns to genes. A high proportion of miRNAs showed nonadditive expression upon hybridization, and were found to target important genes with diverse roles potentially involved in stress adaption and development. Taken together, the gene and miRNA expression divergence contributes to heterosis in the newly formed hybrid, promising the successful existence of hybrid speciation. PMID:26346824

  18. Long-term persistence, density dependence and effects of climate change on rosyside dace (Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Gary Sundin; Robert E. Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    SummaryWe used long-term population data for rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides), a numerically dominant member of a stochastically organised fish assemblage, to evaluate the relative importance of density-dependent and density-independent processes to population...

  19. Gill ectoparasites of Barbus martorelli (Teleostean: Cyprinidae from a tropical watercourse (Cameroon, Africa: conflict or coexistence?

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    Tombi J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure and stability of parasite communities have been mainly explained by high diversity and strong interactions among parasite species. During 16 months, 558 Barbus martorelli gill infracommunities were studied in a tropical zone to determine whether parasite infrapopulations interact. Three levels were retained: the infracommunity level, the gill filament level, and the filament fraction level. Single species infections in Barbus martorelli were very rare and only concerned the core species: Dactylogyrus bopeleti, D. insolitus, D. simplex and Myxobolus barbi. Mixed infections appeared as a general rule in this fish species. Interspecific interactions at all three levels were statistically non significant. Our results suggest that Barbus martorelli gill parasites are non interactive (isolationist.

  20. The toxic potential of aldrin and heptachlor on Danio rerio juveniles (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Aline F; Eler, Márcia N; Fracácio, Renata; Rodrigues, Beatriz K; Verani, Nelsy F

    2007-04-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effects of organochlorine pesticides (aldrin and heptachlor) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio), four partial chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted (seven days' duration) with both compounds in a semi-static system with renewal every 24 h. The results did not show any effects on the fish's survival, but did on their growth and gill morphology. Aldrin was more toxic than heptachlor, since the chronic value (CV) for growth was nearly 8.7 times less, a result confirmed by analyzing the histology of the gills, in which the changes detected were considered more severe for the former substance. In general, they were found branchial lesions of first stage, in other words, cell proliferation between the secondary lamellae, hyperplasia, lifting of respiratory epithelial cells; fusion of several secondary lamellae and dilation of blood vessels. Aneurysms (alterations of second stage) they were verified in the exposed organisms to the aldrin, which also presented about 10% of reduction in the standard length and 30% of reduction in the total weight in relation to the exposed organisms to the control. For heptachlor these values were of 8% and 25%, respectively. The intensity of the gill lesions and growth of the fish did not depend on the pesticide concentration, suggesting different modes of action of the products.

  1. Garra robertsi, a new cyprinid (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) fish species from Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoni, Ryan J; Mayden, Richard L

    2015-07-10

    Garra robertsi is described from specimens collected from the Sungai Bongan and Tempassuk rivers in Sabah, Borneo. The species is differentiated from G. borneensis, its only congener on the island of Borneo, in having five (versus four) transverse scale rows above lateral line, the first branched dorsal-fin ray extending beyond the posterior-most extent of any other part of the dorsal fin when depressed (versus not extending posteriorly beyond last ray when depressed), breast with deeply embedded scales (versus exposed scales), fewer tubercles on snout, thin (versus thick) anteromedial fold on the lower lip, absence (versus presence) of a lateral stripe, absence (versus presence) of a stark, contrasting black stripe on lower caudal-fin rays, and other pigmentation characteristics.

  2. The first case of morphological differentiation of Altai Osman Oreoleuciscus potanini (Cyprinidae, Actinopterigii) in a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dgebuadze, Yu Yu; Mironovskii, A N; Mendsaikhan, B; Slyn'ko, Yu V

    2017-03-01

    The variability of osteological characters has been investigated in cyprinid fish of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Potanin Altai osman) from the river Zavkhan; this fish species is endemic for water bodies of Central Asia. Multivariate analysis of 13 quantitative parameters of the size of the cerebral and visceral skull and the pectoral girdle and the construction of ontogenetic channels allowed the detection of morphologically distinct forms in the fluvial habitats. The result obtained provides additional proof of the possibility of sympatric diversification of fish in river ecosystems. One of the two fluvial forms discovered has been shown to be identical (with regard to the osteological characters) to a previously described herbivorous form of O. potanini from the standing water bodies of the Great Lakes Hollow (Western Mongolia).

  3. THREATENED FISHES OF THE WORLD: Squalius svallize (HECKEL & KNER, 1858 (CYPRINIDAE

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    Nikica Šprem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neretva chub Squalius svallize is an endemic vulnerable species, strictly protected in Croatia but not protected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Populations are declining due to environmental degradation, dams, predators and poaching. A detailed study of current population status, biology and ecology of S. svalize is required.

  4. Reproductive strategies of two sympatric "small barbs" (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae) in Lake Tana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of two species of 'small barbs' (12,000 fish). Both species have a long breeding period (from March to September), and the distinct bimodal size-frequency distributions of eggs suggest multiple spawning for both species. Absolute fecundity increased exponentially with

  5. Garra sindhi, a new species from the Jebel Samhan Nature Reserve in Oman (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Robert Gary; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-08-18

    Garra sindhi, new species, is described from Wadi Andhur in the Dhofar province of the Sultanate of Oman. It is closely related to G. dunsirei and G. smarti, two other species from the same Omani province. It differs from these species by the following combination of characters: breast covered by scales, a shallow hump on back, eyes normally developed and 8-12 gill rakers on the lower limb of the first gill arch.

  6. Pethia sanjaymoluri, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the northern Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katwate, U; Jadhav, S; Kumkar, P; Raghavan, R; Dahanukar, N

    2016-05-01

    Pethia sanjaymoluri, a new cyprinid, is described from the Pavana and Nira tributaries of Bhima River, Krishna drainage, Maharashtra, India. It can be distinguished from congeners by a combination of characteristics that includes an incomplete lateral line, absence of barbels, upper lip thick and fleshy, 23-25 lateral series scales, 7-12 lateral-line pored scales, 10 predorsal scales, 11-14 prepelvic scales, 17-20 pre-anal scales, 4½ scales between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line, four scales between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, 8-15 pairs of serrae on distal half of dorsal-fin spine, 12-14 branched pectoral-fin rays, 4 + 26 total vertebrae, 4 + 5 predorsal vertebrae, 4 + 13 abdominal vertebrae, 13 caudal vertebrae and a unique colour pattern comprising a humeral spot positioned below the lateral line and encompassing the third and fourth lateral-line scales and one scale below, one caudal spot on 17th-21st lateral-line scales with a yellow hue on its anterior side and apical half of dorsal fin studded with melanophores making the fin tip appear black. Genetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence suggests that the species is distinct from other known species of Pethia for which data are available. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Developmental morphology of the axial skeleton of the zebrafish, Danio rerio (Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Nathan C; Mabee, Paula M

    2003-11-01

    Before our rapidly increasing knowledge of gene interactions can be connected with the morphologic defects in mutant zebrafish, the normal course of skeletal development must be understood. Here, we describe the developmental morphology of the axial skeleton of zebrafish and review it in relation to the morphology of related species. The relative sequence of ossification in the skeleton is described. Two separate centers of development were found in the axial skeleton (Weberian apparatus and caudal fin) in contrast to tetrapods, which have a single anterior center. Slight variation was found in the overall relative timing of development. The extensive ichthyological literature on teleost anatomy and recent genetic data form the basis for our review and interpretation of homologies of various elements of the axial skeleton. Because homology forms the basis for all evolutionary comparisons, these data are critical for integration in evo-devo studies. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. [Effects of thyroid hormone level alterations on the Weberian apparatus ontogeny of cyprinids (Cyprinidae; Teleostei)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitanova, D V; Shkil', F N

    2014-01-01

    Effects of thyroid hormone (TH) level alterations on the development and definitive morphology of the Weberian apparatus (WA, morphofunctional complex, providing transmission of sound signals from the gas bladder to the labyrinth of inner ear) were experimentally assessed in cyprinid fishes (Labeobarbus intermedius and Danio rerio). Alterations of TH-level were shown to lead to heterochronies, changes of timing and rates of ontogenetic events resulting in changes of definitive morphology of some structures as well as of the WA as a whole. Differences, in reaction of WA structures to the TH-level alterations, and inter- and intraspecific variability of TH-responsiveness were revealed.

  9. Estimation of the ideal dosage and feeding frequency for Garra rufa (Cyprinidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mafalda M. R. S. Catarino; Sílvia C. Gonçalves; Susana M. F. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Garra rufa are widely used in skin treatments at beauty and wellness institutes. This freshwater species is native from Eurasia and has a large distribution area, including river basins in Turkey and Iran...

  10. Insights on the Reproduction and Embryonic Development of Garra rufa (Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica R S Gomes

    2015-11-01

    In a total of 28 postures, only 17 resulted in newly born fish. This was mostly due to fungal development around the eggs that caused the embryos to degenerate. There was a hatching success of 60%. The eggs showed no adhesive properties, being deposited on the bottom. The most prominent structures of the embryos were noticeable after: 3h - tail bud; 6h - optic primordium; 10h - heart beating; 15h - pectoral fins buds. They hatched between 24 to 48h and the larvae consumed the yolk sac in 48h.

  11. Estimation of the ideal dosage and feeding frequency for Garra rufa (Cyprinidae

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    Mafalda M. R. S. Catarino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Garra rufa are widely used in skin treatments at beauty and wellness institutes. This freshwater species is native from Eurasia and has a large distribution area, including river basins in Turkey and Iran. It has a high commercial value and arouse interest among fish farmers. Even so, G. rufa methods of production are still unknown. In fact, aspects that sustain a rapid and healthy growth of these fish need to be investigated, like an adequate daily dose and feeding frequency. This work aimed to establish: 1 the optimal feed dose per day, correspondent to the amount necessary for obtaining satiation, with a commercial granulated food; and 2 the optimal frequency of feeding for intensive production of G. rufa in Aquaculture. A total of 60 fishes underwent a 3 weeks acclimation period in laboratory, distributed by 6 aquaria, containing 10 fishes with similar body weight and length. The animals were initially fed with a dose correspondent to 10% of their body weight. This dose was gradually increased until complete satiation of the fishes. An optimal dose of 0.04 g fish-1 day-1 was found. Afterwards, the same fishes went through a 1 month experimental trial to evaluate the ideal feeding frequency. Fish growth was compared between feeding 0.2 g twice per day and 0.1333 g three times per day. Variations in size (total and fork length, plus body weight were evaluated at the end of the trial. One-Way ANOVA procedures revealed that the variations in weight and in fork length were similar between treatments, but the variation in total length was significantly higher with 3 daily feeding moments (p<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that the optimal dose that ensures satiation for G. rufa is 0.04 g fish-1 day-1 and that 3 daily feeding moments promotes higher growth rates.

  12. Age and growth of Labeo gonius (Cyprinidae) in Kali river, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Asian_Fish_Sci_5_257.pdf.txt stream_source_info Asian_Fish_Sci_5_257.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

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    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  14. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

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    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas entre cada inyección. Con la dosis de 0.5 mg/ml/kg, se encontró un aumento en el número de gonadotrofas de 382% y de 123% en el volumen, en comparación con los controles. La dosis de 1.0 mg/ml/kg presentó un aumento de 704% en el número de células y de 152% en el volumen celular. Con 1.5 mg/ml/kg se causó que las gonadotrofas aumentarán 171% en número y 106% en volumen. En general, las gónadas de los grupos experimentales presentaron estadios más avanzados de espermatogénesis. Nuestros resultados demuestran que ocho aplicaciones de reserpina provocan el incremento, tanto del número como del volumen, de células gonadotropas

  15. From Late Miocene to Holocene: Processes of Differentiation within the Telestes Genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubut, Vincent; Fouquet, Antoine; Voisin, Adrien; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2012-01-01

    Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts) and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites) were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene) seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region. PMID:22479629

  16. Novel evolutionary lineages in Labeobarbus (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) based on phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshera, Kebede A; Harris, Phillip M; Mayden, Richard L

    2016-03-22

    Phylogenetic relationships within Labeobarbus, the large-sized hexaploid cyprinids, were examined using cytochrome b gene sequences from a broad range of geographic localities and multiple taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed novel lineages from previously unsampled drainages in central (Congo River), eastern (Genale River) and southeastern (Revue and Mussapa Grande rivers) Africa. Relationships of some species of Varicorhinus in Africa (excluding 'V.' maroccanus) render Labeobarbus as paraphyletic. 'Varicorhinus' beso, 'V.' jubae, 'V.' mariae, 'V.' nelspruitensis, and 'V.' steindachneri are transferred to Labeobarbus. Bayesian estimation of time to most recent common ancestor suggested that Labeobarbus originated in the Late Miocene while lineage diversification began during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene and continued to the late Pleistocene. The relationships presented herein provide phylogenetic resolution within Labeobarbus and advances our knowledge of genetic diversity within the lineage as well as provides some interesting insight into the hydrographic and geologic history of Africa.

  17. Adaptive radiation of Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) Labeobarbus species flock (Pisces, Cyprinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Dejen, E.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Studying species flocks (e.g. Darwin¿s finches, Caribbean anoline lizards, East African cichlid fishes) has proven to be highly successful in understanding the forces driving speciation. The only known, intact species flock of cyprinid fishes, the 15 Labeobarbus species in Lake Tana (Ethiopia),

  18. Feeding and reproductive biology of Amblypharyngodon mola (Cyrpiniformes: Cyprinidae from two floodplain lakes of India

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    Debjit Kumar Mondal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of feeding and reproduction of Amblypharyngodon mola (Hamilton, 1822 was studied in two floodplain lakes of North 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal in India during 2011.  Results indicated that the fish exhibited a predominantly herbivorous diet with algae as the main content of gut. A long, thin walled, coiled gut and closely packed filamentous gill racker suited this feeding habit. Feeding intensity of the fish fluctuated throughout the year, males showing maximum intensity in June and females showing maximum intensity in February and November. Females outnumbered males (1.9:1 and were found as   highly fecund with a calculated fecundity factor of 1445 ova g-1 of body weight.  From the peak of gonado-somatic index and ova diameter it was revealed that A. mola apparently spawned only once during July in these floodplain lakes. It was concluded that improvement of ecosystem health of these two lakes were necessary to ensure spawning of the fish.

  19. Dactylogyrus fraternus Wagener, 1909 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae Parasitic on Alburnus alburnus (Cyprinidae from Turkey

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    Mustafa KOYUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dactylogyrus species are a group of monogenean gill parasites that are highly specific to freshwater fishes; represents the most dominant genus among the Monogenea with regard to host distribution and location. They were sampled 14 species from more than 27 host collected in Turkey. Among these dactylogyrid parasites, Dactylogyrus fraternus could be described and illustrated from specimens collected from gills of a cyprinid fish, bleak Alburnus alburnus, in Enne Dam reservoir from Kutahya, Turkey. Diagnostic characters of this species are the tegument of trunk showing annulations, except on the cephalic region, and copulatory complex comprising sclerotized, basal part broad, the tube which is long and hard. The purpose of the present study was to determine, on the whole, the body structure of the Dactylogyrus fraternus in bleak.

  20. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Asi River Drainage (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Fahrettin; Güçlü, Salim Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Pseudophoxinus turani sp. n. is described from the İncesu Spring (Hassa-Hatay) drainage of Asi River, Turkey. It is distinguished from other Eastern Mediterranean Region Pseudophoxinus species by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 12-25 (commonly 16-21) perforated scales and 38-46+2-3 scales in lateral series (commonly 41-44+2-3); 10-11 scale rows between the lateral line and dorsal-fin origin; 3-4 scale rows between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin origin; dorsal fin with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; 8-11gill rakers on the first branchial arch; dorsal profile markedly convex with marked hump at the nape, ventral profile less convex than dorsal profile; a small, irregular, black blotch on the base of the caudal fin; mouth terminal, with slightly distinct chin, its corner not reaching vertical through anterior margin of eye; snout somewhat long, with rounded tip; and its length greater than eye diameter.

  1. Life-history traits of the bluenose shiner, Pteronotropis welaka (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol E. Johnston; Charles L. Knight

    1999-01-01

    Life-history aspects and behavioral ecology of the bluenose shiner (Pteronotropis welaka) were investigated from May 1993 to June 1994 in a small tributary of the lower Pearl River in Marion County, MS. Samples were taken monthly or biweekly to provide information about preferred habitat, reproductive biology, and demography. Observations were made during the breeding...

  2. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

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    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  3. From Late Miocene to Holocene: processes of differentiation within the Telestes genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Dubut

    Full Text Available Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region.

  4. Solute carriers (SLCs) identified and characterized from kidney transcriptome of golden mahseer (Tor putitora) (Fam: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Ashoktaru; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari; Kumar, Rohit; Pande, Veena

    2016-10-01

    The solute carriers (SLC) are trans-membrane proteins, those regulate the transport of various substances (sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, inorganic cations/anions, metals, drugs etc.) across the cell membrane. There are more than 338 solute carriers (slc) reported in fishes that play crucial role in cellular influx and efflux. The study of solute carrier families may reveal many answers regarding the function of transporter genes in the species and their effect in the existing environment. Therefore, we performed RNA sequencing of kidney tissue of the golden mahseer (Tor putitora) using Illumina platform to identify the solute carrier families and characterized 24 putative functional genes under 15 solute carrier families. Out of 24 putative functional genes, 11 genes were differentially expressed in different tissues (head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, liver, gill, muscle, intestine and brain) using qRT-PCR assay. The slc5a1, slc5a12, slc12a3, slc13a3, slc22a13 and slc26a6 were highly expressed in kidney. The slc15a2, slc25a47, slc33a1 and slc38a2 were highly expressed in brain and slc30a5 was over-expressed in gill. The unrooted phylogenetic trees of slc2, slc5, slc13 and slc33 were constructed using amino acid sequences of Homo sapiens, Salmo salar, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio and Tor putitora. It appears that all the putative solute carrier families are very much conserved in human and fish species including the present fish, golden mahseer. This study provides the first hand database of solute carrier families particularly transporter encoding proteins in the species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A contribution to the data on tench (Tinca tinca L., Cyprinidae, pisces distribution in Serbia

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    Marković Goran S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the ichthyofauna of Serbia that have been conducted so far indicate the sporadic tench (Tinca tinca L. presence in typical habitats. The hydroenvironmental conditions necessary for the survival of this fish species are highly variable and, generally, are more favourable in the northern part of the country (the Vojvodina Province. Although the tench presence has been registered at over 30 sites, there is a tendency of a decrease in population abundance. This is due to the reduction of the surface area of the macrophyte-covered flood zones induced by the damming and regulation of rivers, high water level fluctuations, and water amount reduction in the majority of watercourses, a massive increase in the number of allochthonous phytofagous species, reservoir sediment deposition, water quality deterioration and other factors. The tench conservation status in Serbia is officially designated as Low Risk - Least Concern. It may be transferred to a higher category if the tendency towards deterioration of survival conditions for the species should continue.

  6. Diversification of prey capture techniques among the piscivores in Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) Labeobarbus species flock (Cyprinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Weerd, van de G.H.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tana harbours the only known intact species flock of large cyprinid fishes (15 Labeobarbus spp.). One of the most curious aspects of this species flock is the large number (8) of piscivorous species. Cyprinids are not well designed for piscivory (i.e. small slit-shaped pharyngeal cavity, lack

  7. Analyse des statistiques de pêche aux engins dans le bassin du Rhône. Deuxième partie : étude des captures

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    CHANGEUX T.

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available En confrontant les captures déclarées et les autorisations délivrées sur le Rhône et la Saône en 1988 et 1989, on estime pour ces deux années les prélèvements de la pêche aux engins à 238 t/an et 273 t/an. Les captures sont essentiellement constituées de grands cyprinidés (Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Rutilus rutilus et Chondrostoma nasus et de poissons amphihalins comme les muges (Liza ramada en majorité ou l'anguille (Anguilla anguilla. La pêche professionnelle fluviale représente en moyenne 72 % des captures. Pour certaines espèces comme les aloses (Alosa fallax en majorité, le brochet (Esox lucius, le sandre (Stizostedion lucioperca et le poisson-chat (ictalurus mêlas, les pêcheurs amateurs aux engins et filets prélèvent des quantités comparables à celles des professionnels. De plus, les amateurs sont majoritaires dans les productions de la Saône amont. La biomasse totale des captures du Rhône deltaïque arrive en seconde position derrière celle de la Saône aval, située au centre du bassin. Ce secteur apparaît comme une zone de première importance pour la pratique de la pêche aux engins strictement fluviale en France. Les captures déclarées suivent un rythme saisonnier en relation avec le cycle de l'effort de pêche mis en évidence dans la première partie de l'article (CHANGEUX et ZYLBERBLAT, ce numéro. Les aloses sont capturées pendant la fermeture des autres pêches, au mois de mai. Les muges sont capturés pendant la saison "froide" et la friture de petits cyprinidés (Alburnus alburnus, en majorité pendant la "saison chaude". Dans la Saône aval, l'analyse des Captures par Unité d'Effort (CPUE valide la distinction des métiers définis dans la première partie de l'article. L'utilisation des CPUE est envisagée pour suivre les stocks des principales captures du secteur.

  8. An evaluation of LSU rDNA D1-D2 sequences for their use in species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Rainer; Nolte, Arne W; Tautz, Diethard

    2007-02-16

    Identification of species via DNA sequences is the basis for DNA taxonomy and DNA barcoding. Currently there is a strong focus on using a mitochondrial marker for this purpose, in particular a fragment from the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). While there is ample evidence that this marker is indeed suitable across a broad taxonomic range to delineate species, it has also become clear that a complementation by a nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Ribosomal RNA genes could be suitable for this purpose, because of their global occurrence and the possibility to design universal primers. However, it has so far been assumed that these genes are too highly conserved to allow resolution at, or even beyond the species level. On the other hand, it is known that ribosomal gene regions harbour also highly divergent parts. We explore here the information content of two adjacent divergence regions of the large subunit ribosomal gene, the D1-D2 region. Universal primers were designed to amplify the D1-D2 region from all metazoa. We show that amplification products in the size between 800-1300 bp can be obtained across a broad range of animal taxa, provided some optimizations of the PCR procedure are implemented. Although the ribosomal genes occur in multiple copies in the genomes, we find generally very little intra-individual polymorphism (COI sequences. In one case we can even show that a mitochondrial transfer must have occurred, since the nuclear sequence confirms the taxonomic assignment, while the mitochondrial sequence would have led to the wrong classification. We have further explored whether hybrids between species can be detected with the nuclear sequence and we show for a test case of natural hybrids among cyprinid fish species (Alburnus alburnus and Rutilus rutilus) that this is indeed possible. The D1-D2 LSU region is a suitable marker region for applications in DNA based species identification and should be considered to be routinely used as a marker

  9. An evaluation of LSU rDNA D1-D2 sequences for their use in species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautz Diethard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of species via DNA sequences is the basis for DNA taxonomy and DNA barcoding. Currently there is a strong focus on using a mitochondrial marker for this purpose, in particular a fragment from the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI. While there is ample evidence that this marker is indeed suitable across a broad taxonomic range to delineate species, it has also become clear that a complementation by a nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Ribosomal RNA genes could be suitable for this purpose, because of their global occurrence and the possibility to design universal primers. However, it has so far been assumed that these genes are too highly conserved to allow resolution at, or even beyond the species level. On the other hand, it is known that ribosomal gene regions harbour also highly divergent parts. We explore here the information content of two adjacent divergence regions of the large subunit ribosomal gene, the D1-D2 region. Results Universal primers were designed to amplify the D1-D2 region from all metazoa. We show that amplification products in the size between 800–1300 bp can be obtained across a broad range of animal taxa, provided some optimizations of the PCR procedure are implemented. Although the ribosomal genes occur in multiple copies in the genomes, we find generally very little intra-individual polymorphism (Cottus and genus Aphyosemion show that the D1-D2 LSU sequence can resolve even very closely related species with the same fidelity as COI sequences. In one case we can even show that a mitochondrial transfer must have occurred, since the nuclear sequence confirms the taxonomic assignment, while the mitochondrial sequence would have led to the wrong classification. We have further explored whether hybrids between species can be detected with the nuclear sequence and we show for a test case of natural hybrids among cyprinid fish species (Alburnus alburnus and Rutilus rutilus that this

  10. THE STRUCTURE OF ANGLERS’ CATCHES AND THEIR PART IN TOTAL FISH CATCH ON THE KAKHOVKA RESERVOIR

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    M. Maksimenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine species and weight composition of anglers’ catches and their part in the total fish catch on the Kakhovka reservoir. Methodology. The work is based on the ichthyological material obtained from the catches of anglers and commercial gill nets with mesh size of 36-120 mm during 2011-2013 in the upper and middle parts of the Kakhovka reservoir. Data collection and processing were carried out according to conventional methods. In total, during the study period, 7775 fish from 455 day anglers’ catches as well as 18165 fish from commercial catches for 6435 net-days have been analyzed. Statistical processing of the obtained data was performed in MS Excel. Findings. Twenty seven fish species (64% of reservoir fish fauna belonging to 7 families were observed in anglers’ catches (excluding fish caught by spearing on the Kakhovka reservoir. The estimated catch per one finished fishing trip in the study zone of the Kakhovka reservoir was 27.7 fish or 2.4 kg. Species diversity and amounts of anglers’ day catches varied depending on the fishing techniques used (from the boat or shore and fishing season (ice fishing or open water. Averaged day catch on the Kakhovka reservoir was within the range set by valid Fishing regulations excluding fishing from the boat, where some insignificant excess was observed (3 kg, however, 20.4% among the analyzed catches exceeded the daily allowable catch. The total anglers’ catch on the Kakhovka reservoir was 747 tons (3.5 kg/ha or 33% of the commercial one. Commercial and recreational fishing on the Kakhovka reservoir are based on the same the most abundant fish species: gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio, roach (Rutilus rutilus, bream (Abramis brama, pikeperch (Sander lucioperca. However, a significant part in anglers’ catches consists of species, which are exploited by commercial fishing in lower degree or are not exploited at all, including coarse and low value fish. This fact confirms

  11. Bream (Abramis brama (L.)) as zoogeomorphic agents and ecosystem engineers: Implications for fine sediment transport in lowland rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James; Rice, Stephen; Hodgkins, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing recognition that animals play important roles in geomorphological systems (zoogeomorphology), with important ecological implications for the animals and their ecosystems (ecosystem engineering), sediment transport continues to be regarded as an abiotic process. This research challenges that orthodoxy by investigating the biotic processes associated with bioturbation in rivers caused by feeding bream (Abramis brama (L.)) and quantifying their impact on fine sediment suspension and sediment yield. Experiments in lakes have demonstrated that bream negatively influence ecosystem dynamics through bottom up mechanisms as a result of physical bioturbation caused by benthivorous feeding. Although this level of bioturbation, and thus sediment entrainment, can alter the fundamental biogeochemical cycles and food web dynamics in lentic ecosystems, research is yet to assess this potential effect in riverine ecosystems or evaluate this bioturbation mechanism as a driver of fluvial sediment flux - even though they are common in rivers across mainland Europe. A series of ex-situ mesocosm experiments have investigated the controls of fine sediment entrainment by bream, assessing the roles of both biomass (size and number) and food density on suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Bream create large volumes of suspended sediment during feeding (highest recorded turbidity 1172 NTU) and there are significant (p fish, fish size and food density. Supplementary experiments have assessed bream as ecosystem engineers in the presence of the congener species, roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), which share the same ecological niche. In the presence of roach, the impact of bream on turbidity increased by an average of 120% (6.6 NTU to 15 NTU) and increased further at the 90th percentile by 240% (32 NTU to 110 NTU). In light of these findings, the extensive geographical distribution of bream and the observation that shoals of bream commonly exceed one thousand

  12. Life history traits of the fish community in Lake Annecy: evidence from the stable isotope composition of otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdeaux D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA of fish otoliths shows great potential for exploring the ecology of fish, but this method has not been applied to the study of lacustrine fish communities. Both sequential and whole-otolith SIAs were performed on six fish species of Lake Annecy and their results compared to muscle SIA. The first purpose of these investigations was to test the use of δ18Ooto values for reconstructing fish thermal history and delimiting spatial distribution in a stratified lake. Comparison of species-specific fractionation equations and the general equation developed for freshwater fishes showed that the general one was the best suited for thermal estimation of Lake Annecy fishes and suggested that inter-specific differences or specific “vital effects” are not the only reason for apparent difference in fractionation. Thermal estimations based on SIA were consistent with descriptions of thermal habitats in the literature, except in the case of roach (Rutilus rutilus. Based on the current results, roach appears to live in a colder habitat than do perch (Perca fluviatilis. The high water transparency and thermal stratification of Lake Annecy could explain this distribution. Moreover, perch juveniles were found to live in two different thermal niches. This finding highlights the great plasticity of the species. Second, the potential use of δ13Coto values to reconstruct variation in diet and metabolism was assessed. The proportion of metabolic carbon (M contributing to otolith carbon varies markedly among species. Comparison with δ13Cmuscle values shows no direct relationship between δ13Coto and diet at either the intra-individual or the inter-specific level. A strong linear relationship between either M or the isotopic offset between otolith and muscle (Δδ13Coto - muscle and δ18Ooto values was found; this relationship reveals the dependence of M on the ambient temperature at which the species occurs. This relationship might be

  13. Calcium and Strontium in Swedish Waters and Fish, and Accumulation of Strontium-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.

    1966-04-15

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate the correlation between calcium and strontium in fish in relation to the concentration of these elements in the water. An investigation of the uptake of strontium-90 has also been made and permissible levels of strontium-90 in the water is calculated based upon the uptake in fish muscle tissues. Lakes with calcium concentrations between 2 - 63 mg/l have been studied and samples from the Baltic coastal water are also included. Three fish species are studied, viz. pike (Esox lucius (L.)), perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.)) and roach (Leuciscus rutilus (L.)). Bones, muscle tissues and skin + scales have been analysed. Strontium-90 measurements have been made showing an increase in both water and fish. Calculations show that in water with about 2 mg Ca/l a 10-fold increase of the existing strontium-90 level might give strontium-90 concentrations in fish muscle tissues close to what is permissible. In lakes with calcium concentrations 20 - 40 mg/l the permissible levels for drinking water will be exceeded before the fish consumption would have to be restricted.

  14. Determination of metals (As, Cu, Fe, and Zn in two fish species from the Miankaleh wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations As, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the livers, gills, and muscles of vobla or Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (Yakovlev, and bighead goby, Neogobius gorlap (Iljin, from the Miankaleh wetland. The results showed that metal accumulation in the liver tissues was higher than in the gills and muscles for all metals, and Fe concentration was higher than Zn, Cu, and As in all the tissues studied. The concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the livers, gills, and muscles of bighead goby were higher than in vobla tissues, except for concentrations of As in the muscles. Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in the muscles were below the maximum permissible limit of the WHO and the FAO for both species, but the concentration of As in the muscles of both species exceeded the permissible limit proposed by the FAO; thus, human consumption should be limited. The levels of the other metals (Fe, Cu and Zn were completely safe.

  15. Gene conversion in the mitochondrial genome on interspecific hybridization in voles of the Clethrionomys genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarchuk, B A

    2012-05-01

    The phenomenon of interspecific hybridization accompanied by transfer of the mitochondrial genome from the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) to the bank vole (Cl. glareolus) in northeastern Europe is well known already for 25 years. However, the possibility of recombination between homologous segments of maternal and paternal mtDNAs of the voles during fertilization was not previously studied. Analysis of data on variability of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b in populations of red-backed and bank voles in the area of their sympatry has shown that as a result of interspecific hybridization, the mitochondrial gene pool of bank voles contains not only mtDNA haplotypes of red-backed vole females, but also mtDNA haplotypes of bank voles bearing short nucleotide tracts of red-backed vole mtDNA. This finding supports the hypothesis that an incomplete elimination of red-backed vole paternal mtDNA during the interspecific hybridization between bank vole females and red-backed vole males leads to the gene conversion of bank vole maternal mtDNA tracts by homologous ones of mtDNA of red-backed vole males.

  16. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can accurately and nondestructively measure the body composition of small, free-living rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kalb T; van Tets, Ian G

    2008-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a nondestructive technique that can potentially measure specific components of whole-body composition in free-living and lab-raised animals. Our aim was to test the ability of DXA to measure the composition of a common arvicoline rodent, the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). We used a DXA apparatus to obtain measurements of fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM),bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and fat-free mass(FFM) in carcasses of free-living and lab-raised voles. We then used chemical carcass analysis to derive predictive algorithms for actual values of FM, total body water, total protein, total mineral, LM, and FFM. Unexplained error in the equations for all voles grouped collectively ranged from R(2) = 0.82 to R(2) = 0.98. The DXA FM measurement had the highest coefficient of variation, and it was higher for free-living voles than for lab-raised voles. However, FM can be determined by difference with excellent precision by using the FFM equation (R(2) = 0.98). We also derived corrective terms for passive integrated transponder-tagged animals. Thus, DXA is a nonlethal, nondestructive tool capable of precisely and accurately measuring many specific parameters of whole-body composition in small free-living and lab-raised rodents.

  17. Evaluation of Residues of D.D.T and D.D.A in Fish Collected from Caspian Sea, Iran

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    Mohammad Shokrzadeh lamuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticides are essential in modern agricultural practices but due to their biocide activity and potential risk to the consumer, the control of pesticide residues in foods is a growing source of concern for the general population. Extensive application of such agents as organochlorine pesticides in farmlands and contemporary agricultural industries has led to undesired environmental contamination and human health hazards. Thus, this study attempted to evaluate and analyze the residual values of the organochlorine insecticide D.D.T and its metabolite D.D.A in the four species of most consumed fish collected from the Caspian Sea. Methods: In this investigation, concentrations of residual values of D.D.T and D.D.A were quantitatively determined in the 4 species of fish sampled from 4 major fishing centers (Chalous and Babolsar cities and Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions in Mazandaran province, Iran, using gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC–ECD in 2008. Results: The results showed that the highest values of D.D.T were in Mugil auratns (0.033±0.008 mg/kg and Rutilus frisikutum (0.031±0.007 mg/kg fishes collected from Babolsar sampling center. Conclusion: Concentrations of D.D.T and D.D.A in the fish were found to be less than the standard permissible intake.

  18. The importance of agricultural tire habitats for mosquitoes of public health importance in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Harrington, Laura C; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-06-01

    The presence of mosquito species breeding in agricultural "bunker tires" on dairy farms in New York state was evaluated. Twelve species of mosquitoes (Aedes vexans, Anopheles barberi, An. punctipenriis, An. perplexens, Culex pipiens pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, Cx. territans, Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis, Ochlerotatus atropalpus, Oc. japonicus japonicus, and Oc. triseriatus) were collected from 8 New York state dairy farms in 2001 and from 17 dairy farms in 2002. All but 2 of these species have been found naturally infected with arboviruses and could be important vectors affecting human and animal health. Because of the potential public and animal health importance of the invasive species Oc. j. japonicus, active surveillance to identify breeding sites and distribution of this mosquito is essential. In 2001, Oc. j. japonicus was recovered from 5 of 8 central New York dairy farms surveyed. In 2002, Oc. j. japonicus was recovered from 4 of the same dairy farms plus an additional dairy out of 5 surveyed. This species appears to be established on dairy farms in the south, central, and eastern regions of New York state, with greatest abundance in the southeastern region. A single Oc. j. japonicus larva was collected from the northern region on the final sampling date in September 2002. Our data demonstrate that agricultural tire habitats can be productive breeding sites for arbovirus vectors. As a consequence, these habitats should not be ignored in vector control and surveillance programs.

  19. Determination of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, selenium and iron by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from around thermal power plant in Muğla, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Ibrahim; Solak, M Halil; Uğurlu, Mehmet; Işıloğlu, Mustafa; Arslan, Yasin

    2011-09-01

    Scleroderma verrucosum, Stropharia coronilla, Lactarius deterrimus, Chroogomphus rutilus, Russula delica, Laccaria laccata, Clitocybe odora var. alba, Lyophyllum decastes, Coprinus comatus, Helvella leucomelaena, Melanoleuca cognata, Melanoleuca cognata, Paxina acetabulum, Clitocybe vermicularis, Sarcosphaera crassa, Rhizopogon roseolu and Thelephora caryophyllea were collected from different localities in Muğla-Yatağan region of Turkey. Their trace metals concentrations were determined by ICPOES after microwave digestion. The results were 0.37 ± 0.01-5.28 ± 0.21 for cadmium, 467 ± 19-3,280 ± 131 for iron, 0.69 ± 0.03-9.15 ± 0.37 for lead, 18.70 ± 0.75-67.10 ± 2.68 for selenium, 75 ± 3-213 ± 8 for zinc and 0.15 ± 0.01-0.55 ± 0.01 for mercury (as μg/g). The detection limits for ICPOES were found as 0.25 for Cadmium, 0.2 for iron, 0.1 for lead, 0.5 for selenium, 0.2 for zinc and 0.03 for mercury (as mg L(-1)). The Relatively Standard Deviations (R.S.D.) were found below 4.0%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  20. A parasite's modification of host behavior reduces predation on its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghigian, John; Valsdottir, Linda R; Livdahl, Todd P

    2017-03-01

    Parasite modification of host behavior is common, and the literature is dominated by demonstrations of enhanced predation on parasitized prey resulting in transmission of parasites to their next host. We present a case in which predation on parasitized prey is reduced. Despite theoretical modeling suggesting that this phenomenon should be common, it has been reported in only a few host-parasite-predator systems. Using a system of gregarine endosymbionts in host mosquitoes, we designed experiments to compare the vulnerability of parasitized and unparasitized mosquito larvae to predation by obligate predatory mosquito larvae and then compared behavioral features known to change in the presence of predatory cues. We exposed Aedes triseriatus larvae to the parasite Ascogregarina barretti and the predator Toxohrynchites rutilus and assessed larval mortality rate under each treatment condition. Further, we assessed behavioral differences in larvae due to infection and predation stimuli by recording larvae and scoring behaviors and positions within microcosms. Infection with gregarines reduced cohort mortality in the presence of the predator, but the parasite did not affect mortality alone. Further, infection by parasites altered behavior such that infected hosts thrashed less frequently than uninfected hosts and were found more frequently on or in a refuge within the microcosm. By reducing predation on their host, gregarines may be acting as mutualists in the presence of predation on their hosts. These results illustrate a higher-order interaction, in which a relationship between a species pair (host-endosymbiont or predator-prey) is altered by the presence of a third species.

  1. SEX RATIOS OF MOSQUITOES FROM LONG-TERM CENSUSES OF FLORIDA TREE HOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, L. Philip; Escher, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Pupal sexes of the most common mosquito species were determined in the course of biweekly censuses (with replacement) of the contents of 3–7 tree holes from 1980–2003 in Vero Beach, FL. A significant (P Toxorhynchites rutilus or Ae. albopictus, the latter species occurring in this community only since 1991. Although pupae of Ae. triseriatus were recorded during every month of the year, significant male biases were detected only in February–May, August, and December. These results are interpreted in the context of multivoltinism and the previously documented differential sensitivity of male and female eggs of this species to hatching stimuli. Sex-specific responses to hatching stimuli are judged to be present but less pronounced in eggs of Ae. albopictus. Male biases in container Aedes are likely associated with sexual selection, which may also explain seasonal changes in sex ratios, whereby early males compete to mate with high-fecundity females. The overproduction of Ae. triseriatus males may be counterbalanced by increased fitness of females, which are known to predominate in delayed hatches. PMID:18437808

  2. Nature of Predation Risk Cues in Container Systems: Mosquito Responses to Solid Residues From Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    KESAVARAJU, BANUGOPAN; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2012-01-01

    In aquatic systems, prey animals associate predation risk with cues that originate either from the predator or from injured conspecifics. Sources and benefits of these cues have received considerable attention in river, lake, and pond ecosystems but are less well understood in small container ecosystems that can hold less than a liter of water. Mosquitoes Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) encounter predatory Corethrella appendiculata (Grabham) and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) in small containers and show antipredatory behavioral responses. We investigated the sources of the predation cues to which these prey larvae respond. We tested whether Ae. albopictus larvae show behavioral responses to cues emanating from the predator or from damage to prey caused by the act of predation. We also tested whether Ae. triseriatus respond to cues present in fluid or solid residues from predator activity. Ae. albopictus showed behavioral modifications only in response to waterborne cues from a feeding predator and not to cues from a starving predator, indicating that Ae. albopictus respond to cues created by the act of predation, which could include substances derived from damaged prey or substances in predator feces. Ae. triseriatus showed behavioral responses to solid residues from predation but not to fluid without those solids, indicating that the cues to which they respond originate in predator feces or uneaten prey body parts. Our results suggest that cues in this system may be primarily chemicals that are detected upon contact with solid residues that are products of the feeding processes of these predators. PMID:22740721

  3. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del cuerpo, un punto negro presente en la base de la aleta caudal que se extiende hasta las membranas interradiales, y por presentar la línea lateral pigmentada. Esta nueva especie incrementa nuestro conocimiento de la diversidad de la ictiofauna endémica de la cuenca del río Ameca, y queda manifiesto su parentesco cercano con la especie A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago, lo cual refleja una conexión histórica entre ambos sistemas hidrológicos que posteriormente fue interrumpida por un evento vicariante que produjo el aislamiento de las poblaciones y con ello el evento de especiación. Debido a la limitada distribución del nuevo taxón y al deterioro ambiental del río Ameca, se recomienda designarla como una especie protegida dentro de la Norma Oficial Mexicana.

  4. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez; Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León; Omar Domínguez-Domínguez; Ignacio Doadrio

    2009-01-01

    A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a promi...

  5. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, from the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Nabais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA probe protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species.

  6. The analysis of the pharyngeal-sieve mechanism and the efficiency of food intake in the bream (Abramis brama, Cyprinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanism and the selectivity of food intake in bream ( Abramis brama ). It is a compilation of six articles which have been published (or will soon be published) in international journals.

    In the first chapter, diets and feeding modes in

  7. Histological-morphometric structure of the liver of some cyprinids (Cyprinidae Rafinesque, 1810 from the Zaporizhzhia reservoir

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    T. Sharamok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the state of the liver of wild carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 and bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 from sites of the Zaporizhzhia reservoir with different human pressures based on histological and cytometric parameters Methodology.The study was carried out in two zones of the Zaporizhzhia reservoir with different degrees and types of human impact - the lower part, located in the agrarian zone (conditionally "environmentally clean" site, and in the Samara Bay with high content of heavy metals in water. The objects of the study were age-4 bream and wild carp. The fish livers for histological studies were obtained from freshly caught fish (in the spring-summer period by anatomical dissection. Fragments of organs of 0.3 – 0.5 cm were taken for preservation. For the preparation of histological preparations, the liver tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The pictures of histological preparations were made with the aid of a digital camera connected to the microscope. Histologic sections were investigated with 40X magnification using a microscope with the Sciencelab T500 5.17 M digital camera. Findings. Human impact on the hydroelectric system causes signs of hepatocyte hypertrophy and a number of histopathologies in cyprinids in the Samara Bay. The cytometric analysis of the liver showed that the area of hepatocytes in the bay was larger in comparison with the the individuals of similar age from the lower part of the reservoir by 20 and 10% for the wild carp and bream, respectively. In this case, a 14% increase in the small diameter of cells was observed the in hepatocytes of carp, and a 10% increase in large diameter and a 19% increase in nucleus area was observed in bream. The results of the histological invesatigation of the morphological structure of the liver of cyprinids inhabiting the Samara Bay have revealed a number of pathological changes. Fatty liver dystrophy was observed in 37% of bream and 12% of wild carp. The bream liver (2% had necrotic areas of parenchyma. In the 50% of bream and 25% of wild carp, the initial necrosis stages occurred, which were manifested as changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Frequently, karyopicnosis and cariolysis and destruction of cellular integrity were observed, which may indicate on a chronic damage and a progressive pathological process. There were no pathologies in the fish inhabiting the lower part of the reservoir. Originality. For the first time a cytometric and histological study of the liver of age-4 bream and wild carp from the Zaporizhian reservoir was performed. Practical Value. The obtained results can be used for the detection of histological biomarkers, the most sensitive to the effect of toxic substances. Fish liver is the most appropriate organ for such researches, since changes in its cytometric and histological parameters are a prerequisite for a number of changes in the metabolism as a separate organ and other interconnected systems of fish organism.

  8. On Gonorynchus, Gonorhynchus, Gonorinchus, Gonorhinchus and Gonorrhynchus, and some other names of labeonine fishes (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae and Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottelat, Maurice

    2016-10-25

    The supposed cyprinid genus 'Gonorhynchus McClelland, 1838' does not exist; the name refers to Gonorhynchus Cuvier, 1816, which is a junior objective synonym of Gonorynchus Scopoli, 1777. The correct family-group name, authorship and date are: Gonorynchidae Fowler, 1941 (1848). Tariqilabeo Mirza & Saboohi, 1990 is the valid genus name for the South Asian species earlier placed in Crossocheilus or 'Gonorhynchus'. The family-group names Garrae Bleeker, 1863 and Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 are declared nomina protecta and Platycarinae Macleay, 1841 is declared nomen oblitum.

  9. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), from the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, Catarina; Rampin, Massimiliano; Collares-Pereira, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3)-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs)) and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe) protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species. PMID:24260688

  10. Natural habitats uncovered? – Genetic structure of known and newly found localities of the endangered bitterling Pseudorhodeus tanago (Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Saitoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Overuse of natural resources by humans is a major threat to biodiversity. Overuse often involves species of economic or esthetic value, and fish are a typical example for a group that is exploited both for economic reasons (for human consumption and for esthetic reasons (e.g. by aquarists. Pseudorhodeus tanago (Tanaka, 1909 (formerly known as Tanakia tanago is a small colorful but legally protected (fishing, keeping and transfer are banned bitterling fish distributed around Tokyo, Japan. Whereas it is critically endangered and more and more habitat loss has occurred, at least four stocks have been newly found during the last decade. To explore whether emergence of these newly found habitats is a consequence of incomplete survey, we genotyped mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence of P. tanago from 17 localities and an illegal home aquarium. Populations known by the past extensive survey (13 localities showed geographically structured population genetic characteristics. Population-specific haplotypes were common indicating past divergence and bottleneck events. Four (north, {center + west}, south_1, south_2 or five (north, center, west, south_1, south_2 geographic groups were detectable as for these known localities. On the other hand, newly found stocks were polymorphic and showed identical haplotypes from distant known localities. If we assume historical basis of distribution and genetic characteristics of these newly found stocks, it must be a series of unlikely geological events and haplotype sorting. We discuss potential issues posed by these questionable stocks.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal load in chub liver (Cyprinidae – Leuciscus cephalus from the Nišava River (Serbia

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    Jovanović, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nišava River plays an important role as the source for both drinking water and agricultural irrigation due to its hydrological and geomorphological characteristics as the largest river in the region of southeast Serbia. In this study we used the liver of the chub (Leiciscus cephalus as a tool for biomonitoring heavy metal accumulation along the river. Chub specimens were sampled from two localities (one at the border with Bulgaria and a second in the city of Niš. Concentrations were estimated for six heavy metals (iron, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead and manganese in chub liver. Low bioconcentration level was observed for most of the metals and the concentrations corresponded to the nominal concentration in livers of fish inhabiting metal unpolluted streams and rivers. However, cadmium concentration in the chub liver exceeded 0.5 mg kg-1, a several hundred folds increase from nominal concentration indicating a potential toxic exposure of the fish and of the stream ecosystem to this heavy metal. Hepatosomatic indices were calculated and tested for the impact of metal concentrations on liver size. A decrease of the hepatic index was observed in fish with higher cadmium concentration, suggesting a possible impact on the health of the chub population in the Nišava River.

  12. Morphological variation of Puntius bimaculatus (Cyprinidae with respect to altitudinal differences and five major river basins of Sri Lanka

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    M.P.K.S.K. De Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty sites located in five major river basins (Mahaweli, Kelani, Kalu, Gin, and Nilwala at four different altitude ranges (0-150 m, 151-300 m, 301-600 m and 601-1200 m were sampled to study the distribution and intra-specific morphological variation among the endemic fish species Puntius bimaculatus populations in Sri Lanka. Twenty one (21 morphometric characters and 15 meristic characters were recorded with respect to each specimen. Size adjusted meristic data and non transformed meristic data were analysed. In addition, fourteen physico-chemical parameters were recorded from each site. Puntius bimaculatus was found only at 10 locations. Out of the total of 63 individuals 57% were collected from the highest elevation. Twelve meristic and 14 morphometric characters of fish were significantly different among the five rivers. Ten meristic and morphometric characters were significantly differed among altitudinal ranges. Discriminant function analysis resulted three discriminant functions for morphometric characters explained 74.8%, 16.4%, 8.8% variance of the data set. They classified the originally grouped cases (according to the altitudinal range with an accuracy of 87%. Length of the caudal fin, maximum depth of the fish and the position and length of the dorsal fin highly contributed in discrimination of fish into their respective altitude ranges. Meristic characters also resulted in three discriminant functions and explained the variance of 62.3%, 30.9% and 6.8%. They classified originally grouped cases with a 100% accuracy showing that meristic characters are powerful in discriminating the fish. Rays in the ventral, pelvic, caudal and anal fins, and number of scales on lateral line, number of pre and post dorsal scales were the major meristic characters contributed to the discrimination of fish. Most of the physico-chemical parameters were also significantly different with respect to the altitude ranges and rivers. Clear intra-specific morphological variations observed among individuals from different altitudinal ranges and rivers could be an adaptation to their habitats with diverse environmental conditions.

  13. Distribution of Phoxinus eos, Phoxinus neogaeus, and their asexually-reproducing hybrids (Pisces: Cyprinidae in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Mee

    Full Text Available Hybrid Phoxinus are one of the few asexually reproducing vertebrates species. The distribution of hybrid Phoxinus among lakes in Algonquin Park, Ontario, was evaluated relative to the distribution of parental species and relative to physiochemical lake characteristics. No association between the distribution of hybrids and the distribution of parental species was found, suggesting that the hybrids can successfully coexist with either parental species. In addition, we found no association between hybrid distribution and the physiochemical characteristics of lakes, suggesting that the hybrids are generalists with respect to the ecological niches available in Algonquin Park. There was a difference between the physiochemical characteristics of lakes with and without the parental species P. neogaeus. The lakes containing P. neogaeus were lower elevation than the lakes containing the other parental species, P. eos. The difference in distribution between the parental species may therefore be due to different dispersal abilities, to later arrival following post-glacial dispersal, or to differences in ecology. These results suggest that asexual reproduction is a successful strategy for hybrid Phoxinus in Algonquin Park because these sperm-dependent asexual hybrids are able to survive and persist regardless of which parental species is present, and regardless of the physiochemical characteristics of their habitat.

  14. Reproductive strategies of two sympatric 'small barbs'(Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius, Cyprinidae)in Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of two species of 'small barbs' (12,000 fish). Both species have a long breeding period (from March to September), and the distinct bimodal size-frequency distributions of eggs suggest multiple spawning for both species. Absolute fecundity increased exponentially with

  15. Comparative osteology of the Danio (Cyprinidae: Ostariophysi) axial skeleton with comments on Danio relationships based on molecules and morphology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SANGER, THOMAS J; McCUNE, AMY R

    2002-01-01

    .... Biological interest in danios has increased in recent years because the zebrafish, Danio rerio , has become an important model organism, particularly for studies of vertebrate developmental biology and genetics...

  16. Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

  17. PREDICTION OF THE RESULTS OF CYPRINID (CYPRINIDAE FISH SEED CULTIVATION FOR STOCKING IN THE LOWER DNIEPER RESERVOIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Loshkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To improve the technology of growing age-1+ carp by constructing mathematical equations for predicting the results of cyprinid fish seed growing in ponds, including the level of fish productivity depending on the level of intensification measures. Methodology. The study is based on theoretical, experimental and laboratory methods approved for fisheries, physical, chemical and hydrobiological studies. Findings. The studies demonstrated that the proposed mathematical equations allow determining the parameters of the results of the growing of common carp, silver carp, and grass carp as fish seeds for stocking them in natural water bodies of the lower Dnieper. The hydrobiological regime was at the satisfactory level and ensured the necessary quantity of fish juveniles with feed organisms. As a result of the cultivation, we received high quality fish seeds with body weight of over 100 g that met the standards. The obtained age-1+ fish are viable in the future and can survive wintering in natural water bodies. The dependence between the parameters of fish productivity of common carp, silver carp and grass carp, and the amount of compost applied at ratio of 500–5050 kg/ha of ammonium nitrate in the range 10–150 kg/ha of superphosphate within 10–40 kg/ha was described by mathematical equations. The study found that our proposed mathematical equation can determine the performance results of the cultivation of common carp, silver carp and grass carp as fish seeds for stocking them in natural water bodies of the lower Dnieper. The application of the mathematical equations, which takes into account the use of intensification measures (organic fertilizers, as compost and fertilizers like ammonium nitrate and superphosphate, makes possible to predict fish productivity in ponds. Originality. A mathematical model of the efficiency of growing age-1+ cyprinids under special conditions of the application of certain technological factors, and technical factors, including organic and mineral fertilizers, was developed. Practical value. The developed mathematical model gives an opportunity to predict the probable effectiveness of growing age-1+ cyprinids under the conditions of the use of certain technological factors.

  18. Comparative Studies of 5S rDNA Profiles and Cyt b Sequences in two Onychostoma Species (Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Chuan Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Onychostoma barbatulum and O. alticorpus, two primarily freshwater cyprinid fish, have similar morphological characters and partially overlapping ecological habitats. In order to explore the genetic differences between these two species, chromosomal characteristics and genetic variations were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of 5S rDNA and cytochrome (Cyt b gene analysis. Ten specimens of O. barbatulum and O. alticorpus were collected from the Nanzihsian Stream in southern Taiwan. FISH revealed that the 5S rDNA loci of O. barbatulum and O. alticorpus were found at a pericentromeric and subtelomeric position, respectively, in a pair of submetacentric chromosomes. Cyt b genes were amplified and sequenced from five individuals of each species. Intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.001–0.004 in O. barbatulum and from 0.001–0.006 in O. alticorpus. Genetic distances between these two species ranged from 0.132–0.142. The phylogenetic tree showed these two species are not sister species. In conclusion, FISH cytogenetic information and Cyt b gene analyses indicated that these two species have significantly different genetic characteristics; nevertheless, their morphological similarities may be due to environmental adaptation.

  19. Histological damage and inflammatory response elicited by Monobothrium wageneri (Cestoda in the intestine of Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyaf Dezfuli Bahram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the European cyprinids, tench, Tinca tinca (L., and the pathological effects their cestodes may effect, have received very little or no attention. Most literature relating to Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922, a common intestinal cestode of tench, for example, has focused on aspects of its morphology rather than on aspects of the host-parasite interaction. Results Immunopathological and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of 28 tench, collected from Lake Piediluco, of which 16 specimens harboured tight clusters of numerous M. wageneri attached to the intestinal wall. The infection was associated with the degeneration of the mucosal layer and the formation of raised inflammatory swelling surrounding the worms. At the site of infection, the number of granulocytes in the intestine of T. tinca was significantly higher than the number determined 1 cm away from the site of infection or the number found in uninfected fish. Using transmission electron microscopy, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in close proximity to, and inside, the intestinal capillaries; often these cells were in contact with the cestode tegument. At the host-parasite interface, no secretion from the parasite's tegument was observed. Intense degranulation of the mast cells was seen within the submucosa and lamina muscularis, most noticeably at sites close to the tegument of the scolex. In some instances, rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa. In histological sections, hyperplasia of the mucous cells, notably those giving an alcian blue positive reaction, were evident in the intestinal tissues close to the swelling surrounding the worms. Enhanced mucus secretion was recorded in the intestines of infected tench. Conclusions The pathological changes and the inflammatory cellular response induced by the caryophyllidean monozoic tapeworm M. wageneri within the intestinal tract of an Italian population of wild tench is reported for the first time.

  20. Taxonomy of rheophilic Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from Morocco with the description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 is characterized by medium to large fish species occurring in large rivers and downstream zones with slow-moving waters. Remarkably also rheophilic Luciobarbus occur in Morocco, which are of small size and exhibit distinct morphological traits as well as different habitat requirements. These rheophilic species have traditionally been assigned to Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 and L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919, although some authors consider L. magniatlant as a junior synonym of L. nasus. This lack of consensus on the taxonomy of rheophilic barbs is constrained by limited population studies that do not encompass their entire distribution range. Using molecular, morphometric, and osteological data we studied populations of rheophilic barbs of three drainage basins in which they are currently present: Tensift, Moulouya and Oum er Rbia. Our results clearly identified the rheophilic barbs of each basin as different species. The species Luciobarbus magniatlantis is a well-recognized species endemic to Tensift Basin. In contrast, the investigated populations from the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins could not be assigned to any previously described species. Consequently, we describe two new Luciobarbus species in the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins.El género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 se caracteriza por presentar especies de medio y gran tamaño que viven en las zonas bajas de grandes ríos con aguas lentas. Singularmente, en Marruecos también existen especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus de pequeño tamaño y que presentan diferentes caracteres morfológicos y distintos requerimientos de hábitat. Estas especies reófilas han sido tradicionalmente asignadas a Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 y L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919 aunque algunos autores consideran a L. magniatlantis como un sinónimo de L. nasus. Esta falta de consenso en la taxonomía de los barbos reófilos está limitada por los escasos estudios poblacionales realizados que no abarcan la totalidad del área de distribución de estos barbos. Nosotros, usando datos moleculares, morfométricos y osteológicos, estudiamos las poblaciones de los barbos reófilos de tres cuencas hidrográficas, en las cuales están actualmente presentes: Tensift, Moulouya y Oum er Rbia. Nuestros resultados claramente identifican a los barbos reófilos de cada una de estas cuencas como diferentes especies. La especie L. magniatlantis es una especie bien definida y endémica de la cuenca del Tensift. En contraste, las poblaciones analizadas de las cuencas del Moulouya y Oum er Rbia no pudieron ser asignadas a ninguna especie previamente descrita. Consecuentemente, nosotros describimos dos nuevas especies de Luciobarbus en las cuencas del Moulouya y del Oum er Rbia.

  1. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of the indication of the quality and general state of fish seeds. The changes in certain parameters in young-of-the-year cyprinids observed in the process of their growing suggest certain changes in their physiological conditions and may be considered as a specific signal for developing appropriate preventive actions and optimizing fish rearing process.

  2. Extracellular tannase-producing bacteria detected in the digestive tracts of freshwater fishes (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae and Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, Sandipan; Ringø, Einar; Ghosh, Koushik

    2016-01-01

    Published version. Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.3750/AIP2016.46.3.04 Background. Although, presence of tannase-producing and/or tannin tolerant gut bacteria has been documented in ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores, the topic is rarely addressed in fi sh. The present study aimed at enumeration of autochthonous tannase-producing bacteria in the gut of freshwater teleosts. Materials and methods. This study covered seven freshwater teleost fi sh species: rohu, Labeo rohita ...

  3. Taxonomic review of the genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from northwestern Morocco with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal-Lopez, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus in Morocco presents high diversification, in contrast to the generally impoverished freshwater fish fauna from North Africa. Within Morocco the northern area is one of the least studied territories, due to both its historical background and the limited accessibility of many regions. Previous phylogenetic studies identified Luciobarbus populations that are morphologically and genetically differentiated, to the same extent as others already recognized as separate species. The aim of this work is to describe these populations as distinct species, based on morphological, meristic, and genetic traits. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8FC4B423-104C-4097-A468-ED3D2664A15AEn Marruecos el género Luciobarbus está altamente diversificado, en comparación con la empobrecida fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África. Dentro de Marruecos la región norte es una de las áreas menos estudiadas, por motivos históricos y también por la poca accesibilidad en algunas de sus regiones. Los estudios filogenéticos previos para esta área han señalado la existencia de poblaciones pertenecientes al género Luciobarbus tan diferenciadas morfológica y genéticamente como otras que ya habían sido reconocidas como diferentes especies. En este trabajo describimos estas poblaciones como diferentes taxa, en base a caracteres morfológicos, merísticos y genéticos.

  4. THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION ON PHYTOPLANKTON AND FISH PRODUCTION IN CARP (CYPRINIDAE POLYCULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce-Palafox JT

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of sheep and pig liquid manure, and chemical fertilizer on the phytoplankton, primary productivity and aquaculture production in the cultivation of carp in semi-rustic ponds. The total yield was 4.632 kg in two hectares. Treatment with chemical fertilizers was found to present the highest yield with 10.06 ± 0.67 (kg/Ha/day, followed by treatment with pig manure (8.27 ± 1.24 kg/Ha/day and sheep manure (6.33 ± 1.95 kg/Ha/day. It was also found that concentrations of phytoplankton were significantly (p <0.05 higher in ponds fertilized with sheep and pig manure (945.940 and 1,157,706 cells/ml, respectively than in ponds where chemical fertilizer was used (744.560 cells/ml. In general, conditions were adequate to obtain high yields without commercial feed, thus organic fertilizer application can be recommended because of its availability and low cost.

  5. Dynamics of Rex3 in the genomes of endangered Iberian Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) and their natural hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pereira, C. S.; Pazian, M. F.; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 81 (2015) ISSN 1755-8166 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anaecypris hispanica * Chondrostoma s.l. sp * Karyotype differentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2015

  6. Chromosomes of Iberian Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae) Revisited: Evidence of Genome Restructuring in Homoploid Hybrids Using Dual-Color FISH and CGH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pereira, C. S.; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 141, 2/3 (2013), s. 143-152 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : CGH/GISH * Chondrostoma s.I. * genome reshuffling hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  7. Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Percocypris pingi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): Implications for Conservation and Hatchery Release in the Yalong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Deng, Yuanping; Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya'an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi.

  8. Age and growth in the Indian major carp Labeo rohita Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal Mir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1 082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8 age classes were recorded from two rivers Betwa and Sharda. The back-calculated lengths at 8 age class ranged from 86.22cm to 91.66cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7 age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase Cl and specific rate of weight increase Cw showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data Clt. Analysis of variance ANOVA of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference p0.05. All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1 and 3 age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2 and 7 age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga basin.

  9. Histological damage and inflammatory response elicited by Monobothrium wageneri (Cestoda) in the intestine of Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Among the European cyprinids, tench, Tinca tinca (L.), and the pathological effects their cestodes may effect, have received very little or no attention. Most literature relating to Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922, a common intestinal cestode of tench, for example, has focused on aspects of its morphology rather than on aspects of the host-parasite interaction. Results Immunopathological and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of 28 tench, collected from Lake Piediluco, of which 16 specimens harboured tight clusters of numerous M. wageneri attached to the intestinal wall. The infection was associated with the degeneration of the mucosal layer and the formation of raised inflammatory swelling surrounding the worms. At the site of infection, the number of granulocytes in the intestine of T. tinca was significantly higher than the number determined 1 cm away from the site of infection or the number found in uninfected fish. Using transmission electron microscopy, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in close proximity to, and inside, the intestinal capillaries; often these cells were in contact with the cestode tegument. At the host-parasite interface, no secretion from the parasite's tegument was observed. Intense degranulation of the mast cells was seen within the submucosa and lamina muscularis, most noticeably at sites close to the tegument of the scolex. In some instances, rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa. In histological sections, hyperplasia of the mucous cells, notably those giving an alcian blue positive reaction, were evident in the intestinal tissues close to the swelling surrounding the worms. Enhanced mucus secretion was recorded in the intestines of infected tench. Conclusions The pathological changes and the inflammatory cellular response induced by the caryophyllidean monozoic tapeworm M. wageneri within the intestinal tract of an Italian population of wild tench is reported for the first time. PMID:22152408

  10. Implications of climate change for the fishes of the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, C T; Harrod, C

    2009-04-01

    temperatures are likely to favour cool-adapted (e.g. Perca fluviatilis) and warm-adapted freshwater fishes (e.g. roach Rutilus rutilus and other cyprinids) whose distribution and reproductive success may currently be constrained by temperature rather than by cold-adapted species (e.g. salmonids). Species that occur in Britain and Ireland that are at the edge of their distribution will be most affected, both negatively and positively. Populations of conservation importance (e.g.Salvelinus alpinus and Coregonus spp.) may decline irreversibly. However, changes in food-web dynamics and physiological adaptation, for example because of climate change, may obscure or alter predicted responses. The residual inertia in climate systems is such that even a complete cessation in emissions would still leave fishes exposed to continued climate change for at least half a century. Hence, regardless of the success or failure of programmes aimed at curbing climate change, major changes in fish communities can be expected over the next 50 years with a concomitant need to adapt management strategies accordingly.

  11. Occurrence of some organic UV filters in wastewater, in surface waters, and in fish from Swiss Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Marianne E; Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

    2005-02-15

    triclosan, used as a chemical marker for WWTP-derived lipophilic contaminants in the lakes. This indicated inputs of UV filters from sources other than WWTPs to the lakes during summer,for example,inputs from recreational activities. Fish (white fish, Coregonus sp.; roach, Rutilus rutilus; perch, Perca fluviatilis) from these lakes contained low but detectable concentrations of UV filters, in particular, 4-MBC (up to 166 ng g(-1) on a lipid basis). 4-MBC concentrations relative to methyl triclosan were lower in fish than in SPMDs exposed in the same lakes, suggesting that 4-MBC is less bioaccumulated than expected or metabolized in fish. The lipid-based bioconcentration factor (BCF(L)) estimated from the fish (roach) data and SPMD-derived water concentrations was about 1-2.3 x 10(4) and thus approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than expected from its Kow value.

  12. Feeding tests on captive otters Lutra lutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ferrario

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out during 1990-91 in "La Torbiera" Faunistic Park (Piemonte region, northern Italy. Feeding experiments were conducted on 4 pairs of otters (Lutra lutra of 2-7 year old, housed in enclosures of 210-360 m² in size with ponds of 20-33 m² and about 1 m in depth. Three foraging tests were done on a pair using eels Anguilla anguilla, rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri and roach Rutilus erythrophthalmus, in order to collect data on dive duration and foraging success. Both parameters varied widely and were influenced by the behaviour of fish prey. For eels, slow moving fishes, the dive duration and the foraging success were lower than those of other fish species. Feeding correction factors, calculated as ratio between the weight of ingested fish and the dry weight of remains in spraints, were determined from a total of 21 experiments carried out on eels, rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus and bleak Alburnus alburnus alborella. The factors differed widely between the fish species and the highest value was found for eels. Riassunto Test alimentari sulla lontra Lutra lutra in cattività - Lo studio è stato effettuato nel 1990-91 presso il Parco Faunistico "La Torbiera" di Agrate Conturbia (Novara, Piemonte. I test alimentari sono stati condotti su 4 coppie di lontra (Lutra lutra di età compresa tra 2 e 7 anni, tenute in recinti di 210-360 m² provvisti di vasche di 20-33 m² profonde 1 m circa. Tre test sono stati effettuati su una coppia somministrando quantità note di Anguilla Anguilla anguilla, Trota iridea Salmo gairdneri e Triotto Rutilus erythrophthalmus, al fine di valutare la durata delle immersioni e il successo di predazione. Entrambi i parametri variavano ampiamente tra le specie ittiche considerate ed erano influenzati dal comportamento delle stesse. Per l

  13. Temperature-dependent modification of muscle precursor cell behaviour is an underlying reason for lasting effects on muscle cellularity and body growth of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Peter; Marschallinger, Julia; Obermayer, Astrid; Neuhofer, Alois; Sänger, Alexandra M; Stoiber, Walter

    2011-06-01

    Temperature is an important factor influencing teleost muscle growth, including a lasting ('imprinted') influence of embryonic thermal experience throughout all further life. However, little is known about the cellular processes behind this phenomenon. The study reported here used digital morphometry and immunolabelling for Pax7, myogenin and H3P to quantitatively examine the effects of thermal history on muscle precursor cell (MPC) behaviour and muscle growth in pearlfish (Rutilus meidingeri) until the adult stage. Fish were reared at three different temperatures (8.5, 13 and 16°C) until hatching and subsequently kept under the same (ambient) thermal conditions. Cellularity data were combined with a quantitative analysis of Pax7+ MPCs including those that were mitotically active (Pax7+/H3P+) or had entered differentiation (Pax7+/myogenin+). The results demonstrate that at hatching, body lengths, fast and slow muscle cross-sectional areas and fast fibre numbers are lower in fish reared at 8.5 and 13°C than at 16°C. During the larval period, this situation changes in the 13°C-fish, so that these fish are finally the largest. The observed effects can be related to divergent cellular mechanisms at the MPC level that are initiated in the embryo during the imprinting period. Embryos of 16°C-fish have reduced MPC proliferation but increased differentiation, and thus give rise to larger hatchlings. However, their limited MPC reserves finally lead to smaller adults. By contrast, embryos of 13°C-fish and, to a lesser extent, 8.5°-fish, show enhanced MPC proliferation but reduced differentiation, thus leading to smaller hatchlings but allowing for a larger MPC pool that can be used for enhanced post-hatching growth, finally resulting in larger adults.

  14. Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species.

  15. Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species. PMID:25429168

  16. Mosquito Larvae in Tires from Mississippi, United States: The Efficacy of Abiotic and Biotic Parameters in Predicting Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mosquito Populations and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A.; Abuzeineh, Alisa A.; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F.; Schelble, Stephanie S.; Glasgow, William C.; Flanagan, Stephen D.; Skiff, Jeffrey J.; Reeves, Ashton; Kuehn, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Container systems, including discarded vehicle tires, which support populations of mosquitoes, have been of interest for understanding the variables that produce biting adults that serve as both nuisances and as public health threats. We sampled tires in six sites at three times in 2012 across the state of Mississippi to understand the biotic and abiotic variables responsible for explaining patterns of larvae of common species, species richness, and total abundance of mosquitoes. From 498 tires sampled, we collected >58,000 immatures representing 16 species, with the most common species including Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex quinquefasciatus (L.), Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Coquillett), and Culex territans (Walker) accounting for ∼97% of all larvae. We also documented 32 new county records for resident species and recent arrivals in the state, including Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Culex coronator (Dyar & Knab). Cluster analysis, which was used to associate sites and time periods based on similar mosquito composition, did reveal patterns across the state; however, there also were more general patterns between species and genera and environmental factors. Broadly, Aedes was often associated with factors related to detritus, whereas Culex was frequently associated with habitat variables (e.g., tire size and water volume) and microorganisms. Some Culex did lack factors connecting variation in early and late instars, suggesting differences between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival. General patterns between the tire environment and mosquito larvae do appear to exist, especially at the generic level, and point to inherent differences between genera that may aid in predicting vector locations and populations. PMID:26334813

  17. Interaction of Mycobacterium ulcerans with Mosquito Species: Implications for Transmission and Trophic Relationships▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John R.; Gordon, Matthew C.; Hartsell, Lindsey; Mosi, Lydia; Benbow, M. Eric; Merritt, Richard W.; Small, Pamela L. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, a severe necrotizing skin disease that causes significant morbidity in Africa and Australia. Person-to-person transmission of Buruli ulcer is rare. Throughout Africa and Australia infection is associated with residence near slow-moving or stagnant water bodies. Although M. ulcerans DNA has been detected in over 30 taxa of invertebrates, fish, water filtrate, and plant materials and one environmental isolate cultured from a water strider (Gerridae), the invertebrate taxa identified are not adapted to feed on humans, and the mode of transmission for Buruli ulcer remains an enigma. Recent epidemiological reports from Australia describing the presence of M. ulcerans DNA in adult mosquitoes have led to the hypothesis that mosquitoes play an important role in the transmission of M. ulcerans. In this study we have investigated the potential of mosquitoes to serve as biological or mechanical vectors or as environmental reservoirs for M. ulcerans. Here we show that Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, and Culex restuans larvae readily ingest wild-type M. ulcerans, isogenic toxin-negative mutants, and Mycobacterium marinum isolates and remain infected throughout larval development. However, the infections are not carried over into the pupae or adult mosquitoes, suggesting an unlikely role for mosquitoes as biological vectors. By following M. ulcerans through a food chain consisting of primary (mosquito larvae), secondary (predatory mosquito larva from Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis), and tertiary (Belostoma species) consumers, we have shown that M. ulcerans can be productively maintained in an aquatic food web. PMID:20675453

  18. Mosquito Larvae in Tires from Mississippi, United States: The Efficacy of Abiotic and Biotic Parameters in Predicting Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mosquito Populations and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A; Abuzeineh, Alisa A; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F; Schelble, Stephanie S; Glasgow, William C; Flanagan, Stephen D; Skiff, Jeffrey J; Reeves, Ashton; Kuehn, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Container systems, including discarded vehicle tires, which support populations of mosquitoes, have been of interest for understanding the variables that produce biting adults that serve as both nuisances and as public health threats. We sampled tires in six sites at three times in 2012 across the state of Mississippi to understand the biotic and abiotic variables responsible for explaining patterns of larvae of common species, species richness, and total abundance of mosquitoes. From 498 tires sampled, we collected >58,000 immatures representing 16 species, with the most common species including Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex quinquefasciatus (L.), Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Coquillett), and Culex territans (Walker) accounting for ∼97% of all larvae. We also documented 32 new county records for resident species and recent arrivals in the state, including Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Culex coronator (Dyar & Knab). Cluster analysis, which was used to associate sites and time periods based on similar mosquito composition, did reveal patterns across the state; however, there also were more general patterns between species and genera and environmental factors. Broadly, Aedes was often associated with factors related to detritus, whereas Culex was frequently associated with habitat variables (e.g., tire size and water volume) and microorganisms. Some Culex did lack factors connecting variation in early and late instars, suggesting differences between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival. General patterns between the tire environment and mosquito larvae do appear to exist, especially at the generic level, and point to inherent differences between genera that may aid in predicting vector locations and populations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  19. Expansión del alburno Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae en la península Ibérica: el papel de los embalses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardà-Palomera, F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its first record in a tributary of the Ebro basin in 1992, the bleak Alburnus alburnus has spread to almost the whole Iberian Peninsula. In this paper (based on electrofishing surveys in 598 localities, we provide information on the expansion of the bleak. We detail current distribution in the Ebro basin and the rivers of the Eastern Pyrenees and we report its presence in three other major Iberian drainages. Currently, the bleak is sympatric with 15 Iberian endemic species (58% of total Iberian endemic fish. The possible threats to the rich Iberian ichthyofauna caused by the presence of the bleak are discussed. The factors that promoted the extremely rapid expansion of this exotic cyprinid are examined, focusing on the role of reservoirs, which seem to favour its dispersal.Desde su aparición en un afluente de la cuenca del Ebro en 1992, el alburno Alburnus alburnus se ha expandido en gran parte de la península Ibérica. El presente trabajo aporta nueva información sobre su expansión (basada en el muestreo de 598 localidades mediante pesca eléctrica. Se facilita información detallada sobre su actual distribución en la cuenca del Ebro y en cuencas al este de los Pirineos, así como nuevas citas de tres grandes cuencas hidrográficas. De acuerdo a su actual distribución en la península Ibérica, el alburno habita en simpatría con 15 especies endémicas (el 58% del total de endemismos ibéricos. Se analiza la posible amenaza que el alburno representa para la ictiofauna ibérica, examinando los factores causantes de su rápida expansión, en especial el papel de los embalses.

  20. Résultats préliminaires sur la variabilité morphométrique chez le genre Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) dans les eaux douces tunisiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Dkhili-Abbes. T.; Kraiem. M.M.

    2008-01-01

    L’analyse de la variabilité bioécologique des populations de poissons du genre Pseudophoxinus a été réalisée par deux méthodes statistiques. La première univariée basée sur les tests de Fisher et de Duncan et a permis de distinguer l’espèce Pseudophoxinus punicus qui s’individualise par des valeurs très élevées de nombre de branchiospines au premier arc branchial gauche et d’écailles à la ligne latérale par rapport aux autres formant un groupe biologiquement homogène. La deuxième ...

  1. Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilus bacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis.

  2. A new monozoic tapeworm, Lobulovarium longiovatum n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), from barbs Puntius spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Indomalayan region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ash, Anirban; Brabec, Jan; Kar, P. K.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-13 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : MIXED MODELS * SILURIFORMES * PARASITES * IDENTIFICATION * CATOSTOMIDAE * MORPHOLOGY * CESTOIDEA * REVISION * SOPHORE * PISCES Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11230-012-9367-6

  3. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864) species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakona, Albert; Skelton, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE) at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to Pseudobarbus afer across the species' distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i) the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii) the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii) the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv) the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to Pseudobarbus phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to Pseudobarbus afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the Pseudobarbus afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for Pseudobarbus afer s.s (Mandela lineage), revalidate Pseudobarbus senticeps (Krom lineage) as a distinct species, and describe a new species Pseudobarbus swartzi (St Francis lineage). The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both Pseudobarbus afer and Pseudobarbus swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger) scales (25-33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10-12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales) and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate Pseudobarbus senticeps from Pseudobarbus afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from Pseudobarbus swartzisp. n. by possession of fewer scale rows along the lateral line (29-35, mode 32 vs 34-37, mode 36 in Pseudobarbus swartzi), fewer scales around the caudal peduncle (12-16, mode 12 vs 13-17, mode 16 in Pseudobarbus swartzi) and a distinct mesh or net-like pigmentation pattern on latero-ventral scales.

  4. The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

  5. Microsatellite-based genetic variability and differentiation of hatchery and feral common carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes populations in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomljanović Tea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp production has an important status in Croatian aquaculture. In addition, the sport fishing of common carp in open waters is very popular, but it is often based on stocking from fish farms. Using fifteen microsatellites, 243 individuals from 5 hatchery and 5 feral populations have been analyzed. A total number of 148 alleles were recorded. However, the mean number of alleles per locus was remarkably low. Pairwise FST values (0.026-0.130 were significant (P<0.01, demonstrating differentiation among populations. The Markov chain method test showed that all the populations deviated from HWE (P <0.05. After sequential Bonferroni correction only the Vrana lake was in HWE in all the loci but MFW20. The factors that may result in genetic divergence and significant reduction of the observed heterozygosity are discussed. AMOVA results for 10 populations indicate that the percentage of the variation among populations was 6.26%, which is lower than the variation within populations (91.04%.

  6. Cambios morfológicos en gametos del barbo tigre Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae e implementación de la fertilización in vitro

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    Omar Domínguez-Castanedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las características de los gametos de Puntius tetrazona (n=240, los cambios morfológicos a partir de su activación mediante espermogramas cásicos y por otro lado, se evaluó la implementación de la fertilización in vitro a partir de la tasa ovulatoria, el % de fertilización y eclosión y el número de larvas vivas a las 72h. El volumen promedio de semen fue de 3.0±0.7µL. La concentración espermática mínima, máxima y promedio fue 44.48x10(6spz/mL, 52.3x10(6spz/mL y 48.1±5.9x10(6spz/mL, respectivamente. La viabilidad promedio fue de 84.68±3.27%. La motilidad promedio fue 81.53±2.28%. El diámetro de los espermatozoides fluctuó entre 2.16±0.2 y 2.79±0.3µm; 3.84±0.3 y 4.86±0.31µm sin y con contacto con el agua respectivamente, con diferencias significativas. El diámetro mayor fue a los 30s en contacto con el agua. Los ovocitos de menor y mayor diámetro se registraron a los diez y 30s sin y con contacto con el agua respectivamente. Los diámetros de los ovocitos en diez y 30s en contacto con el agua fluctuaron entre 1.11 y 1.55mm respectivamente. La mayor tasa ovulatoria fue en la fertilización in vitro con 250±50 ovocitos frente a 28±09 de la natural, con diferencias significativas. Los porcentajes de fertilización y eclosión fueron más elevados en la fertilización natural con 80% y 60% respectivamente. Se registraron 75±18 larvas a las 72 horas en el grupo in vitro comparado con 13.4±12 larvas de la fertilización natural. Con lo anterior, la técnica que permitió mayor cantidad de larvas fue la de fertilización in vitro.

  7. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the Nocomis biguttatus species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): nuclear and mitochondrial introgression and a cryptic Ozark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echelle, Anthony A; Schwemm, Michael R; Lang, Nicholas J; Nagle, Brett C; Simons, Andrew M; Unmack, Peter J; Fisher, William L; Hoagstrom, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    The Nocomis biguttatus species group ranges widely across North America from the Red River in Oklahoma and Arkansas north to Minnesota and east-west from Wyoming to Ontario. The group includes three traditionally recognized allopatric species: the wide-ranging N. biguttatus and two geographically more restricted species, N. asper from the western Ozarks (Arkansas River system) and two disjunct locations in the Red River system, and N. effusus from the Green, Cumberland, and lower Tennessee rivers. Separate analyses of the mitochondrial cytb gene and two nuclear genes (S7 intron 1 and a portion of the gene for growth hormone, GH), each resolved a cryptic species previously treated as N. biguttatus from the southern Ozarks (White River). Relationships among the four species were unresolved because of conflicts between cytb and S7 and a lack of resolution for GH. A previously indicated N. biguttatus-N. effusus sister-relationship appears to reflect past hybridization and mtDNA capture by N. effusus. Nocomis biguttatus includes four primary cytb clades with unresolved inter-relationships. A Northern Ozarks-Great Plains-Upper Midwest Clade and an Ohio River-Eastern Great Lakes Clade presumably represent late Quaternary dispersal from glacial refugia in, respectively, the northern Ozarks and an unglaciated portion of the Ohio River system. Other clades include one from the Meramec River and a Black River-St. Francis River Clade. There was evidence in N. effusus for a phylogeographic break between the lower Tennessee River and the Green-Cumberland basins. Geographic structure is weak in N. asper, indicating relatively recent contact between now disjunct populations in the Arkansas and Red river basins. The Blue River population of N. asper appears to reflect late Pleistocene or Holocene hybridization and genetic swamping of a resident native population of N. biguttatus by an invading population of N. asper. This postulates past occurrence of N. biguttatus far south of its present range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of the genus Garra Hamilton 1822 of Bhutan, including the descriptions of two new species and three additional records (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoni, R J; Gurung, D B; Mayden, R L

    2016-09-19

    Seven species of Garra are herein accounted for in Bhutan. Three new records of known species, G. arupi, G. birostris, and G. lissorhynchus, and two new species, G. bimaculacauda sp. nov. and G. parastenorhynchus sp. nov., are reported from central and southern Bhutan. Garra bimaculacauda sp. nov. is most notably different from its congeners by the presence of two dark spots on the lobes of the caudal fin, having one spot on each lobe. Meristic and morphometric differences from northeastern Indian congeners exist as well. Garra parastenorhynchus sp. nov. is differentiated from its congeners by the presence of a prominent, overhanging, club-shaped proboscis, and a suite of meristic and morphometric characters. Notes on the taxonomy are provided for some species. Notes are provided on the biology and ecology for most species, which have been inferred from field observations. Ranges are expanded for two recently described taxa from Northeast India G. arupi, and G. birostris. A key is provided to the currently known species of Garra within Bhutan.

  9. Taxonomic remarks on Barbus moulouyensis Pellegrin, 1924 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae with the description of a new species of Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Doadrio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of Barbus Cuvier and Cloquet, 1816 has been reviewed in the last years and as consequence some species traditionally included in genus Barbus sensu lato have been assigned to different genera. In North Africa the species of the former genus Barbus have been included in the genera Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843, Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 and Enteromius Cope, 1867. We studied populations of the former genus Barbus of the Moulouya river basin in Morocco through molecular, morphometric, and osteological data. Our data clearly showed that populations from Moulouya river basin described originally as Barbus moulouyensis Pellegrin, 1924 belong to the genus Carasobarbus and not to Luciobarbus. Moreover, populations of the genus Luciobarbus exist in the Moulouya river basin and could not be assigned to any previously described species. Consequently, we describe a new Luciobarbus species from the Moulouya river basin.

  10. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic. [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal A. Muchlisin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish (Tor tambra fry. Methods Lactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg-1 (control, 5 ml kg-1, 10 ml kg-1 and 15 ml kg-1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic to 10 ml kg-1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg-1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg-1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg-1 of feed.

  11. [Analysis of mtDNA and Nuclear Markers Points to Homoploid Hybrid Origin of the New Species of Far Eastern Redfins of the Genus Tribolodon (Pisces, Cyprinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, N E; Semina, A V; Brykov, V A

    2015-11-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, COI, and cytochrome b, cyt b) and four nuclear genes (growth hormone gene GH1, ribosomal protein S7 gene RP1, recombination activating gene RAG1, and rhodopsin gene RH) from the Far Eastern redfins of the genus Tribolodon were examined to clarify the status of the southern form of T. hakonensis. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genes showed differences of 2.6% between individuals of T. hakonensis inhabiting the north and south of the range. Analysis of the nuclear genes showed that Tribolodon sp. (southern form of T. hakonensis) has a mosaic of nuclear genes received from the Pacific redfin T. brandtii and big-scaled redfin T. hakonensis. It is suggested that the new species could have formed as a result of homoploid hybridization between the true T. hakonensis (by original description) and T. brandtii, which probably made it possible for this species to occupy a new ecological niche.

  12. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864 species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Chakona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to P. afer across the species’ distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to P. afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the P. afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for P. afer s.s (Mandela lineage, revalidate P. senticeps (Krom lineage as a distinct species, and describe a new species P. swartzi (St Francis lineage. The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both P. afer and P. swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger scales (25–33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10–12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate P. senticeps from P. afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from P. swartzi sp. n. by possession of fewer scale rows along the lateral line (29–35, mode 32 vs 34–37, mode 36 in P. swartzi, fewer scales around the caudal peduncle (12–16, mode 12 vs 13–17, mode 16 in P. swartzi and a distinct mesh or net-like pigmentation pattern on latero-ventral scales.

  13. Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilusbacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis. PMID:24668657

  14. The impact of Manjil and Tarik dams (Sefidroud River, southern Caspian Sea basin on morphological traits of Siah Mahi Capoeta gracilis (Pisces: Cyprinidae

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    Adeleh Heidari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that the building of the Manjil and Tarik dams on Sefidroud River has led to the body shape variation of Capoeta gracilis in up- and downstream populations due to the isolation. In this study, Geometric morphometric approach was used to explore body shape variations of Capoeta gracilis populations in up- and downstream Manjil and Tarik dams in Sefidroud River from south of the Caspian Sea basin. The shape of 90 individuals from three sampling sites was extracted by recording the 2-D coordinates of 13 landmark points. PCA, CVA, DFA and CA analysis were used to examine shape differences among the populations. The significant differences were found among the shape of the populations and these differences were observed in the snout, the caudal peduncle and head. The present study indicated the body shape differences in the populations of Capoeta gracilis in the Sefidroud River across the Manjil and Tarik dams, probably due to the dam construction showing anthropogenic transformation of rivers influences body shape in an aquatic organism.

  15. Habitat-associated morphological divergence in four Shemaya, Alburnus chalcoides (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae populations in the southern Caspian Sea using geometric morphometrics analysis

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    Mohammad Mohadasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Geometric morphometrics approach was used to explore body shape variations and growth trajectory among four population of Shemaya (Alburnus chalcoides. The shape of 114 individuals from three rivers (Lisar, Shiroud and Babolroud and one lagoon (Anzali from the south of Caspian Sea was extracted by recording the 2-D coordinates of 16 landmark points. We applied a GPA analysis to eliminate non-shape variations. PCA, CVA, MANOVA analysis were used to examine shape differences among populations. The significant differences found among the shape of populations. Since Shemaya is an anaderemus fish and all their populations have a common origin, we concluded that differences between habitat features might create selective pressures resulting morphological divergence among conspecific populations. We suggest that high level of plasticity, particularly in the depth of body, head and caudal peduncle shape may reflect low costs of maintaining the plastic response even in relatively isolated populations.

  16. Age and growth of European barbel Barbus barbus (Cyprinidae in the small, mesotrophic River Lee and relative to other populations in England

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    Vilizzi L.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspected of being in decline, the European barbel Barbus barbus population of the River Lee, a heavily-modified river in South East England, has been the subject of investigations to identify factors associated with perceived population decreases. Population surveys between 1995 and 1999 captured a total of 912 individuals, and standard length (SL frequency analyses between years suggested that the population decline was not related to juvenile recruitment but rather to a recruitment bottleneck in fish 300–340 mm SL. This bottleneck probably results from insufficient available habitat suitable to this size class. Of the sampled fish, scales were removed from 764 and were used in a scale ageing exercise among three researchers. Analyses of their independent age estimates revealed variable interpretations, which arose from uncertainties relating to the difficulty of analysing scale patterns from relatively large, slow-growing fish. Nevertheless, error was within published acceptable margins, and age estimates revealed B. barbus in the river to age 10 years, lower than in many UK rivers. The SL-at-age growth curve was characterised by very fast growth in the initial years of life. Thus, the causal factors in the decline of this B. barbus population appear to have been in the adult life-stage habitat and were likely related to the loss of longitudinal connectivity, mainly due to the presence of water retention structures. River and aquatic ecosystem remediation strategies should therefore focus on enhancing longitudinal connectivity in conjunction with the ongoing improvement of water quality and ecosystem integrity.

  17. Genetic variation of wild and hatchery populations of the catla Indian major carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae revealed by RAPD markers

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    S.M. Zakiur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is a key component for improving a stock through selective breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to assess genetic variation in three wild population of the catla carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822 in the Halda, Jamuna and Padma rivers and one hatchery population in Bangladesh. Five decamer random primers were used to amplify RAPD markers from 30 fish from each population. Thirty of the 55 scorable bands were polymorphic, indicating some degree of genetic variation in all the populations. The proportion of polymorphic loci and gene diversity values reflected a relatively higher level of genetic variation in the Halda population. Sixteen of the 30 polymorphic loci showed a significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 departure from homogeneity and the F ST values in the different populations indicated some degree of genetic differentiation in the population pairs. Estimated genetic distances between populations were directly correlated with geographical distances. The unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA dendrogram showed two clusters, the Halda population forming one cluster and the other populations the second cluster. Genetic variation of C. catla is a useful trait for developing a good management strategy for maintaining genetic quality of the species.

  18. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  19. Feeding behavior of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) on fry of other fish species and trematode transmitting snail species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; The, Dang Tat; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    of the mollusc-eating fish, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Obviously, the risk that black carp might also prey on the juvenile fishes in nursery ponds should first be assessed. Laboratory trials showed that all size classes of juvenile black carp consumed fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) even when...... stressed in the experimental aquaria. Under semi-field conditions, presence of the black carp had no effect on survival of fry of Oreochromis niloticus and C. carpio both in the absence and presence of snails as alternative food. The black carp consumed most snails offered with the exception of some...

  20. A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids

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    Luis Boto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new microsatellite locus (SAS1 for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.

  1. Two new freshwater fish species of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from karst poljes in Eastern Herzegovina and Dubrovnik littoral (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia

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    Nina Bogutskaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new species, Telestes dabar and T. miloradi, are described on the basis of morphological comparisons of isolated geographical populations of fishes identified earlier as T. metohiensis. A lectotype is designated for T. metohiensis, whose range is shown to include waters of Gatačko, Cerničko, and Nevesinjsko poljes in Eastern Herzegovina. Telestes dabar from Dabarsko Polje (Eastern Herzegovina and T. miloradi from Konavosko Polje (south Croatia share with T. metohiensis the following combination of characters that distinguish them from the rest of the genus Telestes: pharyngeal teeth in one row, usually 5–4; preoperculo-mandibular canal not communicating with the infraorbital canal; mouth subterminal, the tip of the mouth cleft on or below the level of the ventral margin of the eye; postcleithrum minute or absent; ventral portion of the trunk with a dark stripe on a pale background; and dorsal portion of trunk uniformly dark and bordered ventrally by a dark midlateral stripe. Telestes dabar and T. miloradi are distinguishable from T. metohiensis in usually8½ branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. usually 7½, 9 or 10 gill rakers (vs. 7–10, usually 8, and the dark stripe on the ventral portion of the trunk below the main pigmented area of the back narrow and usually not reaching posteriorly to the caudal peduncle (vs. dark stripe wide and extending posteriorly to the caudal peduncle. Telestes dabar is distinguished from T. miloradi byscales on most of the body situated close to one another and overlapping in a region behind the pectoral girdle and usually on the caudal peduncle (vs. overlapping scales on most of the body; the lateral line usually incomplete and interrupted, with 24–69, usually 54–65, total scales (vs. lateral line usually complete, with 55–67 total scales; scales above and below the lateral line slightly smaller than lateral-line scales (vs. of about equal size; head width 43–52% HL (vs. 48–58% HL; and lower jaw length 10–12% SL or 36–41% HL (vs. 8–10% SL or 33–38% HL. Telestes miloradi, a very local endemic species, is known only by historical samples. Telestes dabar is an abundant fish in Dabarsko Polje, but its range is critically restricted during the dry season by a few permanent sources. Nothing is known about its occurrence in underground karst waters.

  2. The feeding habit of the Cyprinidae Rastrineobola argentea in its new habitat, lakes Bulera and Ruhondo, two Rwandan lakes (Eastern Africa

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    Isumbisho M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rastrineobola argentea Pellegrin 1904, a small pelagic endemic cyprinid from lake Victoria was introduced into lake Bulera (Rwanda in 1991 in order to develop a fishery. From there, it accidentally colonized lake Ruhondo. To study its biology in its new habitat, samples were collected in 2007 and size and the feeding habits of the fish were analyzed. R. argentea is smaller in lake Bulera (41.8 ± 6 mm than in lake Ruhondo (mean total body length: 72.6 ± 15 mm. The mean total body length in lake Bulera is less than its size at the first maturity in lake Victoria (47 mm. Differences in size structure of fish between lakes Bulera and Ruhondo is attributed mainly to the food availability in the two lakes. In lake Bulera, the fish feeds on six food items with plant remnants dominant. In lake Ruhondo, R. argentea is a zooplanktivorous feeder like in lake Victoria. The dominant prey is a cladoceran species, Daphnia sp. which has not been observed in lake Bulera during the sampling period.

  3. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico Dos nuevas especies del género Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae), de la cuenca del río Lerma, México central

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez; Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez; Luis Humberto Escalera-Vázque; Ignacio Doadrio

    2009-01-01

    Prior findings suggest the existence of undescribed species among the cyprinids of central Mexico. Within the genus Notropis distributed across central Mexico and adjacent areas sometimes reaching southern basins, two groups have been recognized: a Southern Mexican clade and a central Mexican clade. Within this last clade, Notropis calientis has been defined as a species complex of four small minnows inhabiting upland areas. Here we describe two new species of this complex based on morphometr...

  4. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

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    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basophily and peripheral nuclei. Neuronal density in 6.92mm2 of intestinal bulb was of 2,040 neuronsO plexo mientérico apresenta variabilidade morfológica e quantitativa ao longo do tubo digestório das diferentes espécies animais. No presente trabalho quantificamos e analisamos a morfologia dos neurônios do plexo mientérico de dez bulbos intestinais de Cyprinus carpio, por meio de cortes histológicos corados com HE e Van Gieson e de preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa. O plexo mientérico foi localizado entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular, sendo constituído por neurônios isolados e por gânglios. As porcentagens de neurônios pequenos, médios e grandes foram 21%, 63,4% e 15,6%, respectivamente, predominando neurônios com basofilia citoplasmática intermediária e núcleo em posição periférica. A análise quantitativa revelou a presença de 2.040 neurônios/6,92mm2 de bulbo intestinal

  5. Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes: Otus with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna

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    Currie David

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The island of Madagascar and surrounding volcanic and coralline islands are considered to form a biodiversity hotspot with large numbers of unique taxa. The origin of this endemic fauna can be explained by two different factors: vicariance or over-water-dispersal. Deciphering which factor explains the current distributional pattern of a given taxonomic group requires robust phylogenies as well as estimates of divergence times. The lineage of Indian Ocean scops-owls (Otus: Strigidae includes six or seven species that are endemic to Madagascar and portions of the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos; little is known about the species limits, biogeographic affinities and relationships to each other. In the present study, using DNA sequence data gathered from six loci, we examine the biogeographic history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls. We also compare the pattern and timing of colonization of the Indian Ocean islands by scops-owls with divergence times already proposed for other bird taxa. Results Our analyses revealed that Indian Ocean islands scops-owls do not form a monophyletic assemblage: the Seychelles Otus insularis is genetically closer to the South-East Asian endemic O. sunia than to species from the Comoros and Madagascar. The Pemba Scops-owls O. pembaensis, often considered closely related to, if not conspecific with O. rutilus of Madagascar, is instead closely related to the African mainland O. senegalensis. Relationships among the Indian Ocean taxa from the Comoros and Madagascar are unresolved, despite the analysis of over 4000 bp, suggesting a diversification burst after the initial colonization event. We also highlight one case of putative back-colonization to the Asian mainland from an island ancestor (O. sunia. Our divergence date estimates, using a Bayesian relaxed clock method, suggest that all these events occurred during the last 3.6 myr; albeit colonization of the Indian Ocean islands were not synchronous

  6. Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes: Otus) with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Goodman, Steven M; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Melo, Martim; Bowie, Rauri C K; Currie, David; Safford, Roger; Virani, Munir Z; Thomsett, Simon; Hija, Alawi; Cruaud, Corinne; Pasquet, Eric

    2008-07-09

    The island of Madagascar and surrounding volcanic and coralline islands are considered to form a biodiversity hotspot with large numbers of unique taxa. The origin of this endemic fauna can be explained by two different factors: vicariance or over-water-dispersal. Deciphering which factor explains the current distributional pattern of a given taxonomic group requires robust phylogenies as well as estimates of divergence times. The lineage of Indian Ocean scops-owls (Otus: Strigidae) includes six or seven species that are endemic to Madagascar and portions of the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos; little is known about the species limits, biogeographic affinities and relationships to each other. In the present study, using DNA sequence data gathered from six loci, we examine the biogeographic history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls. We also compare the pattern and timing of colonization of the Indian Ocean islands by scops-owls with divergence times already proposed for other bird taxa. Our analyses revealed that Indian Ocean islands scops-owls do not form a monophyletic assemblage: the Seychelles Otus insularis is genetically closer to the South-East Asian endemic O. sunia than to species from the Comoros and Madagascar. The Pemba Scops-owls O. pembaensis, often considered closely related to, if not conspecific with O. rutilus of Madagascar, is instead closely related to the African mainland O. senegalensis. Relationships among the Indian Ocean taxa from the Comoros and Madagascar are unresolved, despite the analysis of over 4000 bp, suggesting a diversification burst after the initial colonization event. We also highlight one case of putative back-colonization to the Asian mainland from an island ancestor (O. sunia). Our divergence date estimates, using a Bayesian relaxed clock method, suggest that all these events occurred during the last 3.6 myr; albeit colonization of the Indian Ocean islands were not synchronous, O. pembaensis diverged from O. senegalensis

  7. Population limitation of the northern red-backed vole in the boreal forests of northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J

    2006-11-01

    1. Across the vast boreal forests of North America, no population cycles in Clethrionomys species occur. In Eurasia, by contrast, some Clethrionomys populations of the same species undergo regular 3-5-year cycles. We examined the effects of nutrients, food, competitors, predators and climate on population limitation in the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus Pallas) in the south-western Yukon to determine why this difference occurs. 2. From 1986 to 1996 we added food, reduced large mammal predators and excluded snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) from large plots and found that none of these manipulations affected red-backed vole abundance. Adding nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizer had a slight negative effect, probably acting through a reduction in dwarf shrub productivity caused by competition from grasses. 3. We monitored weasel populations directly through trapping and indirectly through snow tracking. Predation by these vole specialists was irrelevant as a limiting factor most of the time because voles in this area do not reach the densities needed to sustain weasel populations. Other boreal forest mammal and bird predators did not focus on red-backed voles. However, when red-backed vole populations increased in the forest and Microtus voles also increased in the meadows, weasel populations increased and may have temporarily depressed red-backed voles in winter. 4. We monitored one major potential food, white spruce seeds, but seed fall was not related to population changes in red-backed voles, even after mast years. 5. We assessed the impact of weather variables, and the average depth of the snow pack during winter (October-March) was correlated directly with vole demography, having both direct effects in that year and delayed effects in the following year. 6. Our long-term trapping data (1973-96) indicate that Clethrionomys populations fluctuated, with peaks following hare peaks by 2-3 years. 7. We propose

  8. LJUBLJANICA CONNECTS - Restoration of the Ljubljanica River corridor and improvement of the river's flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabret, Katarina; Sapač, Klaudija; Šraj, Mojca; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej; Vidmar, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja

    2016-04-01

    The project Ljubljanica connects is focused on improving connectivity and living conditions in Ljubljanica River which flows through capital city of Slovenia, Ljubljana. It represents living environment for endangered and Natura 2000 targeted fish species Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), Danube Roach (Rutilus pigus) and Striped Chub (Leuciscus souffia). The project consists of four sets of activities: concrete restoration actions including improvement of two fish passes, monitoring of fish migration, monitoring of eco-hydrological parameters, and raising of public awareness. To improve living conditions the concrete restoration measures were performed. The reconstructions of sill and two fish passes on the Ljubljanica River have been implemented and barrier's lifting system on the weir was modernized. Above the sill in Zalog there is an oxbow which was disconnected with main river channel during the low flows. Interrupted inflow of fresh water caused very poor living conditions for animals in the oxbow. The raise of the sill helped to improve this situation. One of the fish passes included in the project is more than 100 years old whereas both are protected as cultural and technical heritage. None was working properly and due to the protection no visible nor drastic measures were allowed. With smaller improvements we managed to re-establish their operation. A lifting system of the barrier at the Ambrožev trg gate was outdated and did not allow precise regulation of the water level. Too fast raising of the barrier instantly caused deterioration of eco-hydrological conditions downstream. With modernization of the electromechanical equipment the situation is improved. The fish monitoring helps us to evaluate success of concrete restoration actions. The fish population status is monitored with marking the fish with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags. Regarding the location of catch we implant tags beneath transparent or translucent tissue combining different tag

  9. FEATURES OF MIGRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE NORTHERN CASPIAN ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Chujko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Study of the forms of migration of heavy metals in water of the Northern part of the Caspian Sea, the characteristics of their accumulation in sediments and fish fauna are presented.Methods. The western part of the North Caspian Sea is investigated in 2002–2009. Complex of sampling, transportation, storage and handling of samples was carried out in accordance with the regulations and methods of measurement.Results. The main share of elements in sea water was transferred as a part of suspended particles. Most often ionic forms of migration of metals dominated over weighed in the central part of a shallow zone of pre-mouth of Volga River. The greatest number of cases of excess was recorded by metals of maximum-permissible concentration in the central part of the studied water area with depths from 5 m to 10 m. It is established that the index of impurity of waters of the changed in the range from 0,2 (waters alone to 3,4 (the polluted waters. The surface water of the water area is located in the western part of the studied area. The greatest coefficients of ground accumulation (CGA are characteristic for iron and the manganese, the least for Zincum. The western part of the studied water area belongs to areas with the greatest values of CGA of metals in the north part of the Caspian Sea: zone near Island Chechen and the region of Volga-Caspian Channel. Cases of excess of the admissible residual concentration for lead and cadmium are noted in Neogobius fluviatilis and sprat ordinary practically in 50 % of cases, and in 35 % in Rutilus caspicus. Most often all studied hydrobionts containing metals in concentration above admissible residual concentration were met in zone before mouth of Volga River.Main conclusions. The main form of migration of heavy metals in the water of the north part of the Caspian Sea is suspension. The largest accumulation of heavy metals was found in the sediments of the western part of the area. The content

  10. Biological recipient control at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011; Biologisk recipientkontroll vid Oskarshamns kaernkraftverk. Aarsrapport foer 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jan; Franzen, Fredrik; Lingman, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Potential ecosystem effects caused by the effluent cooling water from the Simpevarp nuclear power plant, close to Oskarshamn on the Swedish coast of the Baltic Proper, are monitored in yearly surveys using gillnets and fyke nets. Fishing is undertaken at several sites in a coastal gradient starting at the location of the emitted cooling water, and in a reference area 100 km north of the recipient. Soft bottom macro fauna and macro vegetation are monitored both in the gradient and in the reference area. Fish mortality due to entrapment in the cooling water system and commercial landings are monitored to assess the effects on the local fishery. The water used for cooling is normally heated by 10-12 deg C when passing through the power plant. In sheltered parts of the recipient bay of Hamnefjaerden, the surface water was 4-6 deg C warmer in April-November 2011 than in the reference area comparable reference areas and the emitted water occasionally exceeded 30 deg C in the summer. Fish losses in the cooling water rinsing system were dominated by Baltic herring. Effects on abundances at the population level are estimated to be small, but local effects cannot be ruled out. Perch (Perca fluviatilis), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) dominated the catches in the surveys with gillnets in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the archipelago surrounding the power plant. Perch abundances increased in these areas. Catches of roach decreased close to the power plant, but also in the reference area. Perch in the gillnet catches were younger and grew faster close to the power plant than in the reference area. Abnormal gonads, previously observed at high frequencies in perch and roach in Hamnefjaerden, were rare in the 2011 sampling. The abundance of young of the year perch in the recipient did not change over time. The size of the perch fry however, increased in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the local reference area. The catch and size structure of yellow eel

  11. CONFRONTATION EXPÉRIMENTALE ENTRE DES POISSONS OMNIVORES AUTOCHTONES (11 ESPÈCES ET DES ÉCREVISSES ÉTRANGÈRES INTRODUITES (2 ESPÈCES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVEU A.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Les écrevisses sont une source de nourriture pour les poissons carnassiers, elles peuvent aussi faire partie du régime de certains poissons omnivores. Actuellement d’importantes populations d’écrevisses étrangères sont présentes en France, elles représentent une nouvelle source de nourriture pour les poissons locaux non prédateurs qui peuvent changer de régime. Peu de données sont présentes dans la littérature concernant l’impact des poissons omnivores sur les écrevisses, plus particulièrement sur le rôle de ces poissons vivant dans les mêmes habitats que les juvéniles. La présente étude porte sur les relations entre 11 espèces locales de poissons omnivores et 2 espèces d’écrevisses introduites dans les eaux douces françaises (Pacifastacus leniusculus et plus secondairement sur Astacus leptodactylus. Les interactions ont été étudiées grâce à une approche expérimentale, soit en enclos de 4 m2 dans un étang, soit directement dans de petits étangs de 100 m2. Les jeunes carpes (Cyprinus carpio consomment la plupart des juvéniles d’écrevisse et réduisent la croissance des survivantes. De même des tanches (Tinca tinca de 20 cm sont aussi efficaces, mais les très jeunes tanches ne peuvent capturer les juvéniles au cours du 1er été. Des gardons de deux étés (Rutilus rutilus ont un effet modéré sur les juvéniles d’écrevisse au cours du 1er été en enclos, la croissance et la survie sont faiblement réduites. Mais ces gardons en étang semblent avoir un effet positif sur ces mêmes paramètres, probablement en liaison avec une réduction des insectes prédateurs ou par un effet trophique. Le rotengle (Scardinius erythrophtalmus a un effet légèrement positif au cours du 1er été d’association avec des juvéniles, mais des rotengles de deux étés réduisent un peu la croissance et la survie. La croissance des deux espèces est corrélée à la production primaire (surtout les algues et la pr

  12. Incorporación de larvas de mosquito Culex stigmatosoma (Diptera:Culicidae) en la dieta del pez cebra Brachidanio rerio (Pisces:Cyprinidae) y su efecto en la reproducción

    OpenAIRE

    J. Luna-Figueroa

    2007-01-01

    En la acuicultura, un aspecto de gran importancia es la nutrición. En especies potencialmente cultivables, como el pez cebra Brachidanio rerio, es importante conocer los requerimientos nutricionales para maximizar su reproducción. Las larvas de mosquito son una alternativa viable como alimento vivo en la dieta de peces. Por lo que, en la presente investigación, se evaluó el efecto de la incorporación de larvas de Culex stigmatosoma en la dieta del pez cebra mediante...

  13. On the bibliography of a late eighteenth-century German work on natural history and an early record of Leuciscus meidingeri Heckel, 1852 (Pisces, Cyprinidae) in the river system of the Upper Danube on 6th APRIL 1786

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de S.J.

    1972-01-01

    The bibliography of a hitherto inaccurately described anonymous eighteenth-century popular German work on natural history is given, dealing with mammals, birds, fishes, amphibians and reptiles. As an addendum to this work the publisher has given an engraving of an unknown fish from the river Lech,

  14. Molecular systematics and DNA barcoding of Altai osmans, oreoleuciscus (pisces, cyprinidae, and leuciscinae), and their nearest relatives, inferred from sequences of cytochrome b (Cyt-b), cytochrome oxidase c (Co-1), and complete mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavtsev, Yuri Phedorovich; Batischeva, Natalia M; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Katugina, Anna O; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at the protein-coding Cyt-b gene along with data retrieved from GenBank for Co-1 gene fragments and complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Altai osmans and the nearest relatives of Leuciscinae fish species were compared for the estimation of variability and phylogenetic tree building. Phylogenetic trees were built by four techniques: Bayesian (BA), maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and neighbor-joining (NJ). Resolution of Cyt-b trees for species of two genera (Oreoleuciscus and Phoxinus) was quite distinct at all the approaches. For Tribolodon, the single gene trees were not well resolved; however, the mitogenome tree was resolved. Species identification on per individual basis (DNA barcoding) was high for both Cyt-b and Co-1 genes. The trees built using the data for 13 protein mitochondrial genes revealed a complicated phylogenetic pattern within the subfamily Leuciscinae. Scores of the average p-distances at three taxonomic levels were considerably different: (1) 1.16 ± 0.96, (2) 8.21 ± 1.01, and (3) 16.41 ± 0.85 for Cyt-b and (1) 1.04 ± 0.78, (2) 8.30 ± 0.92, and (3) 10.74 ± 0.79 for 13 protein genes of mitogenome, where (1) is intraspecies, (2) is intragenus, and (3) is intrasubfamily levels. Data on mitogenome distances were summarized for the taxonomic hierarchy for the first time. A concordant increase in distance score with growth of the rank of taxa (having the minimum score at the intraspecies level), both for a single gene and the whole mitogenome, substantiates the concept that speciation in the subfamily Leuciscinae in most cases follows the geographic mode. The distinct clustering of Altai osmans, Oreoleuciscus potanini and O. humilis, in the Cyt-b and Co-1 gene trees with small overall genetic distances, obtained for both genes, allows us to consider these taxa as separate but genetically sister species.

  15. Incorporación de larvas de mosquito Culex stigmatosoma (Diptera:Culicidae en la dieta del pez cebra Brachidanio rerio (Pisces:Cyprinidae y su efecto en la reproducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luna-Figueroa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En la acuicultura, un aspecto de gran importancia es la nutrición. En especies potencialmente cultivables, como el pez cebra Brachidanio rerio, es importante conocer los requerimientos nutricionales para maximizar su reproducción. Las larvas de mosquito son una alternativa viable como alimento vivo en la dieta de peces. Por lo que, en la presente investigación, se evaluó el efecto de la incorporación de larvas de Culex stigmatosoma en la dieta del pez cebra mediante la producción de huevos y la sobrevivencia. Los resultados indican que la producción de huevos difirió 64.40% entre los peces nutridos con Cx. stigmatosoma (570.98 ± 179.16 y con alimento comercial (203.22 ± 32.88 (p 0.05. La máxima producción de huevos (908 se obtuvo en hembras con un peso húmedo promedio de 1,170 mg, alimentadas con larvas de Cx. stigmatosoma, mientras que la mínima producción (140 huevos en las hembras, con un peso húmedo promedio de 1,254 mg, utilizando alimento comercial. La sobrevivencia de los reproductores fue del 100%. En el caso de las crías, la mayor sobrevivencia (88.22% fue registrada en los peces alimentados con larvas de Cx. stigmatosoma (p < 0.001. Los resultados ponderan la relación entre las altas tasas de reproducción y sobrevivencia de B. rerio, así como el potencial económico del cultivo mediante la incorporación de larvas de Cx. stigmatosoma en su dieta.

  16. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.162 Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Maia Yamashita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nas tilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número de linfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pig manure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest values of total leukocyte count were observed in A and C from Blumenau and Ituporanga. Tilapia exposed to pig dung showed the highest number of lymphocyte in the circulating blood. Haematological values of carp did not show significant changes that were related to the environment.

  17. Cyprinid fishes: systematics, biology, and exploitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winfield, Ian J; Nelson, Joseph S

    1991-01-01

    The Cyprinidae is one of the two largest families of vertebrates in the world. This book draws together the experience of more than 30 international experts to provide the first comprehensive account of the biology of this family...

  18. Células sangüíneas, eletrólitos séricos, relação hepato e esplenossomática de carpa-comum, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae na primeira maturação gonadal - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661 Blood cells, seric electrolyte and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae common carp hepatosomatic and splenosomatic relation in the first gonadal maturation - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Campos Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em ambos os sexos de Cyprinus carpio o fator relativo de condição (Kn, a relação hepato (RHS e esplenossomática (RES, o eritrograma, trombograma, leucograma, a localização de glicogênio pelo método de PAS em trombócitos e leucócitos e os níveis séricos de proteína total e de eletrólitos. O Kn nas fêmeas foi maior que nos machos. Os valores médios da RES nas fêmeas foram inferiores aos dos machos, enquanto que o número de leucócitos, linfócitos e neutrófilos foram superiores; porém os níveis séricos de magnésio e de cloreto nos machos foram maiores quando comparados aos das fêmeas. Os valores médios da RHS, hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, concentração da hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, número de eritrócitos, trombócitos, monócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos granular PAS-positivos (LG-PAS, níveis séricos de proteína total, sódio, potássio e cálcio não evidenciaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (P>0,05, entre machos e fêmeas. O método de PAS mostra grânulos de glicogênio no citoplasma de trombócitos, eosinófilos e neutrófilos. Entretanto, no citoplasma dos LG-PAS foram detectados grânulos de glicoproteínas neutras. Monócitos, linfócitos foram PAS negativos. Nos teleósteos o amadurecimento das gônadas apresenta forte relação com o fator de condição. Na fase de reprodução nem sempre é possível detectar os efeitos do sexo isoladamente no hemograma, pois muitas vezes esse pode não ser o único fator ocasionando dimorfismoThis research studied the condition (Kn relative factor, the hepatosomatic (HSR, the splenosomatic (SSR relation, the erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes number, the glicogen locality by PAS method in thrombocytes and leucocytes and the total protein and electrolytes serices levels in both Cyprinus carpio L. sex. The female Kn showed higher value than the males. The female HSR average values were lower than the ones observed in males, while the leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils percentage number were the highest. However, the males magnesium and choride serices levels were higher than the females. The HRS average values, hematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, average corspucular volume (ACV, average corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (ACHC, erythocytes number, trombocytes, monocytes, oesinophils, positive PAS leukocyte granular (PAS-LG, and total protein, sodium, potassium and calcium serices levels did not show significant statistics difference (p> 0.05 between males and females. The PAS method showed glicogen granules into the thronbocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils cytoplasm. Nevertheless, in the PAS-LG cytoplasm, neutral glicoprotein granules were also observed. Monocytes and lynfocytes showed negative reaction to PAS. In the teleosts, the gonodas matureness presents higher relation with the factor of condition. During the reprodution period it is unlikely to find the sexual effects isolated in the hemogram, because most of the time that is not the only factor to cause dimorphism

  19. 76 FR 63443 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... northern leatherside chub (Lepidomeda copei) is a rare desert fish in the minnow family (Cyprinidae) that..., entire). The species is native to smaller, mid-elevation, desert streams in the northeastern portions of..., ecology, or status until recently (Belk and Johnson 2007, pp. 67-68). Taxonomy and Species Description The...

  20. CARACTERISTIQUES ZOOTECHNIQUES D'UN POISSON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CARACTERISTIQUES ZOOTECHNIQUES D'UN. POISSON POTENTIEL POUR LA PISCICULTURE. AFRICAINE : Labeo coubie RÜPPEL, 1832. (TELEOSTEI ; CYPRINIDAE). K.S. DA COSTA', E. MAMADOU1 et G. GOURÈNE2. 1Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques (CNRA),. Station Pisciculture, 01 B.P. 633 ...

  1. A synoptic review of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barčák, D.; Oros, M.; Hanzelová, V.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, AUG 16 (2017), č. článku 027. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tapeworms * freshwater fish * Cyprinidae * systematics * identification key * phylogenetic relationships * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  2. Reproductive and feeding biology of the endangered fiery redfin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive and feeding biology of the endangered fiery redfin, Pseudobarbus phlegethon (Barnard 1938) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), in the Noordhoeks River, South Africa. ... The study was based on available specimens, stored in the fish collection of the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, that were collected by ...

  3. Diversity and relative abundance of fishes in some rivers of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity and relative abundance of fishes in some rivers of the Tekeze and Blue Nile (Abay) basins, Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Cyprinidae was the most dominant family in all the four rivers, and it comprised 51.5 % (Index of Relative Importance-IRI) of the catches from the four rivers.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 926 - 950 of 1840 ... ... Karyology of the redfin minnows, genus Pseudobarbus Smith, 1841 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): one of the evolutionarily tetraploid lineages of South African barbines, Abstract. D. Naran, P.H. Skelton, M.H. Villet. Vol 14, No 3 (1979), Kelp grazing by the common sea urchin Parechinus angulosus Leske ...

  5. The barbs of Lake Tana, Ethiopia : morphological diversity and its implications for taxonomy, trophic resource partitioning, and fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, L.

    1997-01-01

    The rediscovery of a unique species flock of cyprinid fish, its taxonomy and its feeding-biology are described. Fourteen species of barbs (Barbus spp, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) were found in highland (1800 m) Lake Tana, in northwestern Ethiopia. Lake Tana is

  6. Genomic and transcriptomic approaches to study immunology in cyprinids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Jules; David, Lior; Dirks, Ron; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated by the introduction of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), a number of genomes of cyprinid fish species have been drafted, leading to a highly valuable collective resource of comparative genome information on cyprinids (Cyprinidae). In addition, NGS-based transcriptome analyses of

  7. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science - Vol 20, No 1 (1997)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diet composition, length-weight relationship and condition factor of Barbus species Rüipell, 1836 (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Lake Awassa, Ethiopia. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Demeke Admassu, Elias Dadebo, 13-30.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of threatened mahseer Tor tor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 4. Complete mitochondrial genome of threatened mahseer Tor tor (Hamilton 1822) and its phylogenetic relationship within Cyprinidae family. A. PAVAN-KUMAR SUDHANSHU RAMAN PRAKASH G. KORINGA NAMRATA PATEL TEJAS SHAH RAJEEV K. SINGH ...

  9. Growth performances of common carp fry ( Cyprinus carpio ) in semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1-exp(-0.0625.t)) expresses the length growth of common carp in this station. These findings are an attempt to understand the growth performances of this cyprinidae species in semi arid climate and under semi intensive conditions. Key words: L-W relationship, Condition factor, Cyprinus carpio, Morocco. Journal of Aquatic ...

  10. Annoted checklist of the freshwater fishes of Kenya (excluding the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Kenya is presented. Pending more accurate information on their status, the lacustrine Lake Victoria haplochromines have been omitted from the list. Currently 206 species belonging to 38 families are known from Kenyan fresh waters. With at least 50 species, Cyprinidae are by far the ...

  11. Aspects of the biology of a rare redfm minnow, Barbus burchelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the biology of a rare redfm minnow, Barbus burchelli (pisces, Cyprinidae), from South Africa. J.A. Cambray and C.T. Stuart. Albany Museum, Grahamstown. Burchell's redfin, Barbus burchelli is endemic to the Breede. River and adjacent smaller river systems in the Cape Province. Negative human influences have ...

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in densities of small fishes across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish families Cichlidae (dominated by tilapias), Poeciliidae (Aplocheilichthys spp.) and Cyprinidae (Barbus spp.), were the most abundant across the study floodplains. The poeciliids were most abundant in frequently flooded primary and secondary floodplains, whereas juvenile cichlids dominated in rarely flooded ...

  13. Fish distribution in a small domestic water supply reservoir: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the composition and distribution of fish populations in the inshore, surface and bottom water habitats of Kangimi Reservoir showed that the most abundant family was the Cichlidae followed in order of abundance by the families Cyprinidae, Schilbeidae, Mormyridae, Mochokidae, Characidae, Centropomidae and ...

  14. Contrasting phylogeography of two Western Palaearctic fish parasites despite similar life cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perrot-Minnot, M. J.; Špakulová, M.; Wattier, R.; Kotlík, Petr; Düsen, S.; Aydoğdu, A.; Tougard, C.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2018), s. 101-115 ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : amphipod * British Islands * comparative phylogeography * Cyprinidae * Danube Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  15. Aspects of the biology of a rare redfm minnow, Barbus burchelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the biology of a rare redfm minnow, Barbus burchelli (pisces, Cyprinidae), from South Africa ... of the biology of B. burchelli with the aim of conserving this minnow species. Methods. Collections, using a 5 m x 1 m funnelled .... In the lower reaches of the river dis- solved souds can be greater than 400 mgle and the ...

  16. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert

    OpenAIRE

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in thi...

  17. Seasonal variation in fishery diversity of some wetlands of the Salcete Taluka, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, B.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Anchoviella commersonii Indian Anchovy Motiyali 3 Charidae Chanos chanos Milk fish Gholasi 4 Cyprinoformes Cyprinidae Danio acquipinnatus Giant Danio Daddeo 5 Puntius spp Barbs Pitol 6 Claridae Clarius batrachus Spotted cat fish Tigur 7... Bagridae Arius serratus Saw edged cat fish Sangat 8 Oreochromis niloticass Tilapia Tilapia 9 Cyprinodontiformes Cyprinpdontidae Panchax lineatus Stripped top minnow Kanare 10 Perciformes Latidae Lates calcarifer Giant Perch Chanak 11 Ambassidae...

  18. Résultats ichthyologiques des voyages scientifiques de Monsieur le Professeur Dr. A. W. Nieuwenhuis dans le centre de Bornéo (1898 et 1900)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1905-01-01

    Dans quelques genres de Cyprinidae, c.-à-d. le Dangila, l’ Osteochilus et le Crossochilus famille des Cyprininae, qui appartiennent à la sousle nombre des écailles de la ligne latérale est plus petit dans les espèces spéciales que dans les espèces anciennes. Le Tylognathus a augmenté ce nombre de 2

  19. Some Aspects of the Anatomy and Histology of Digestive Tracts in Two Sympatric Species of Freshwater Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Taher Ba-Omar; Reginald Victor; Daniel Tobias

    2003-01-01

    Comparative anatomy and histology of the digestive tracts of two sympatric species of freshwater fish, Aphanius dispar (Cyprinodontidae) and Garra barreimiae (Cyprinidae) are studied. Morphometric measurements of alimentary canal such as length and the number and height of rugae in sections have been made for both species. Relationships between these morphometric characters and the total length of fish have been evaluated. The ratio between the length of alimentary canal and total length of f...

  20. Étude préliminaire des communautés ichtyofauniques de la lagune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2016 ... ordres renfermant le plus grand nombre de familles et d'espèces sont les Perciformes (9 familles et 18 espèces) suivi des Ostéoglossiformes et des Characiformes (respectivement 3 et 5 espèces chacune). Les. Cypriniformes sont représentés par une seule famille (Cyprinidae) et trois espèces tandis que ...

  1. A checklist of freshwater fishes of the New Amarambalam Reserve Forest (NARF, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baby

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater fish fauna of New Amarambalam Reserve Forest (NARF in the Southern Western Ghats (Kerala is constituted by 43 species belonging to 13 families and 28 genera. Family Cyprinidae dominated with 20 species followed by Balitoridae and Bagridae (four species each. NARF may harbour higher freshwater fish species diversity than in protected areas in North Kerala. The area around Maanchery in the Karimpuzha tributary of River Chaliyar needs to be designated as a priority area for freshwater fish conservation.

  2. WATER QUALITY AND ECTOPARASITE DISEASES OF CY- PRINIDAE FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available On large carp fish farms water from larger surface streams is used, which have been affected by industrial and urban pollution, making the zoohygienic conditions bad for the culturing region. The quality of the culturing region directly affects the growth, condition and health of the fish. The aim of this work was to investigate the components of phytoplankton and the physico-chemical indicators of water quality on the occurrence of ectoparasites on the cyprinidae fish farms. Investigation were carried out from May to September 1992 on the fish farms Narta and Blatnica. The main stock of the farms were there year old carp fry. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton, as well as the basic physico-chemical indicators were carried out by methods used in limnology. The health examination of the fish was carried out in view of the general clinical, microscopic and path anatomic examination. In the components of phytoplankton the species which participated in the group s were: Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta, Euglenophita, Phyrrophyta, Chryso- phita and Chlorophyta. Eventhough there were indicators of greater and lesser water pollution, the betamesosaprobic representative were dominant. The obtained values of physico-chemical indicators ranged in the limitis characteristic of the cyprinidae fish farms. An exception was in the concentration of disolved oxygen in the water, which was relatively lower that the optimal concentration for cyprinidae, amounting to 1.4 mg.l-1 (pond 9. Based on the health examination of the ectoparasite fish, determined were representatives of the families: Trichodina, Argulus, Dactylogorus and Gyrodactylus, ectopara sites which mainly occur when there is low water quality, bad zoohygienic conditions in the ponds and an increase in water temperature. A higher invasion of ectoparasites was determined in the fish from ponds 9 and 10.

  3. [A catalog of fish specimens preserved within Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Na; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2013-08-01

    As of 2013, some 178 fish type species and 2131 type specimens belonging to 4 orders and 11 families were currently being preserved at the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology, located as art of the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. These specimens were collected from across western China, includingYunnan, Sicuan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Chongqi, Gansu and Xinjiang. In general, most species are Cyprinidae (71 species and 1103 specimens), followed by Nemacheilidae (52 species and 556 specimens). For the convenience of research and communication, the present paper presents a detailed list of fish type species preserved in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology.

  4. A comparative biochemical profile of some cyprinids fish in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Darya Mohammed; Mohammed, Sarbaz Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate the baseline values for some serum biochemical parameters for 64 adult freshwater fish including seven species belong to family Cyprinidae, have been collected in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan region-Iraq. Fishes were weighed, measured, and collect blood for blood chemistry. Serum biochemical analyses were determined using (Cobas C 311) full automatic chemical analyzer. The result of comparative study of serum biochemical parameters of all Cyprinidae species showed that serum glucose was (459.10±106.99 mg/dl) and direct bilirubin was (0.056±0.021mg/dl) in Barbus grypus, serum total protein (3.511± 0.0484gm/dl) and HDL (133.11±0.4231mg/dl) in Cyprinus carpio, serum cholesterol (338.33±43.923 mg/dl) and LDL (86.11±11.871mg/dl) in Carassius carassius, serum triglyceride (420.0±28.8mg/dl) and ALK (113.93±20.65U/L) in Chondrostoma regium, serum AST and serum ALT in Capoeta trutta, were significantly higher when compared to other species. In a conclusion there is variation in biochemical values among species of same family.

  5. Experimental infection of six North American fish species with the North Carolina strain of spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Sanders, George E.; Conway, Carla M.; Binkowski, Fred P.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in cultured and wild fish worldwide. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio carp), and koi (C. carpio koi) suffer the highest mortalities from SVCV infections, while other cyprinid fish species have varying susceptibility. Although salmonid fish typically are considered refractory to infection by SVCV, there have been a few reports suggesting infection has occurred in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). There have been no reports of Percid fish being infected with SVCV. Since the first North American outbreak of SVCV at a North Carolina koi farm in 2002 there have been eight subsequent detections or outbreaks of SVCV among fish species from the families of Cyprinidae andCentrarchidae within the US and Canada. Thus, this exotic virus is considered a potential threat to native and cultured fish populations in North America. We performed multiple experimental challenges with fish species from three families (Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, and Percidae) to identify the potential risk associated with SVCV exposure of resident fish populations in North America.

  6. Development and characterization of two cell lines PDF and PDH from Puntius denisonii (Day 1865).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Wazir S; Goswami, M; Yadav, Kamalendra; Gopalakrishnan, A; Patiyal, R S; Singh, M

    2011-02-01

    The Puntius denisonii colloquially and more popularly referred to as Miss Kerala is a subtropical fish belonging to the genus Puntius (Barb) and family Cyprinidae. Two cell lines PDF and PDH were developed from the caudal fin and heart of P. denisonii, respectively. The cell lines were optimally maintained at 26°C in Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. A diploid count of 50 chromosomes at passage 50 was observed in both the cell lines. The high growth potential of the cell lines was reflected from the cell doubling time of 28 and 30 h of PDF and PDH cell lines, respectively. The viability of the PDF and PDH cell lines was 70% and 76%, respectively, after 4 mo of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 653 bp fragments of cytochrome oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA genes.

  7. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in this lake. With these new records, the relict fish fauna currently known in lakes and gueltas of the Borkou plateaus comprises six species. In the Ennedi Mountains, where the specific status of Barbus populations was unclear, B. macrops was collected in Bachikere guelta. The toad Amietophrynus regularis was collected in Ounianga Kebir. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [The role of the thyroid gland hormone in ontogenesis and morphological diversification of Barbus intermedius sensu of Lake Tana in Ethiopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkil', F N; Borisov, V B; Belai, Abdissa; Smirnov, S V

    2010-01-01

    The role of thyroid gland hormone in the ontogenesis of the Large African Barb Barbus intermedius sensu Banister, 1973 (Teleostei; Cyprinidae)--the supposed ancestral species which produced the species flock of the large African Barbs of the Lake Tana (Ethiopia)--has been studied. It has been shown that the thyroid hormone influences the period of many morphological processes and a change in its level causes heterochrony, reflecting on the definitive morphology of fish. Thus, it can be assumed that even a slight change in activity of the thyroid axis in the process of ontogenesis can be the cause of wide variability of the morphological features of B. intermedius and is at the basis for the fast diversification of the species flock of Big African Barbs of Lake Tana.

  9. “Porţile de Fier/Iron Gates” Gorges Area (Danube Fish Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bănăduc Doru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important fisheries sector of the Danube, the “Iron Gates” area, was studied by famous naturalists along the history like Marsigli, Haeckel, Kner, Antipa and Bănărescu. After more than half a century after the last main publication in this area, the “Iron Gates” Danube sector suffered significant human impact, and an assessment of the fish fauna was needed. The paper summarizes the trend of fish species along the XIX to XXIst centuries, and reveals the appearance of new species. The study includes data from about 65 fish species, belonging to: Acipenseridae, Polyodontidae, Clupeidae, Salmonidae, Esocidae, Cyprinidae, Cobitidae, Siluridae, Ictaluridae, Anguillidae, Lotidae, Gasterosteidae, Syngnathidae, Centrarchidae, Percidae, Gobiidae, Odontobutidae, and Cottidae. The major hidrotechnical works along with pollution, overexploitation and poachery, induced major changes in the ichthyofauna structure.

  10. Redescription of the fish parasite Nerocila japonica Schioedte & Meinert, 1881 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae), with comments on previous records of N. acuminata in Japanese waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takeo; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    Nerocila japonica Schioedte & Meinert, 1881 is redescribed based on the holotype and specimens from various localities in Japanese waters. The following fishes are recorded as new hosts: Tribolodon hakonensis (Cyprinidae), Mugil cephalus, Liza affinis, Chelon haematocheilus (Mugilidae), Lateolabrax japonicus, L. latus (Lateolabracidae), Acanthopagrus latus, A. schlegelii schlegelii (Sparidae), Rhyncopelates oxyrhynchus (Terapontidae), Ditrema viride, D. temminckii temminckii (Embiotocidae), Chaenogobius gulosus, Acanthogobius flavimanus (Gobiidae), Pseudolabrus sp. (Labridae) and Aluterus monoceros (Monacanthidae). Specimens previously recorded as 'Nerocila acuminata' from Toyama Bay (the Sea of Japan) were examined, when available, and re-identified as N. japonica. As there has been no reliable record of N. acuminata Schioedte & Meinert, 1881 from off Japan, reports of this species in Japanese waters are considered to represent N. japonica.

  11. Some Aspects of the Anatomy and Histology of Digestive Tracts in Two Sympatric Species of Freshwater Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Ba-Omar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative anatomy and histology of the digestive tracts of two sympatric species of freshwater fish, Aphanius dispar (Cyprinodontidae and Garra barreimiae (Cyprinidae are studied. Morphometric measurements of alimentary canal such as length and the number and height of rugae in sections have been made for both species. Relationships between these morphometric characters and the total length of fish have been evaluated. The ratio between the length of alimentary canal and total length of fish in both species reflects their feeding habits. Histology of the ‘stomach’ and ‘intestine’ of these two species as shown by light microscopy has been described and compared. Results of this study are used to discuss the query whether these species have true stomachs.

  12. The diet of otters ( Lutra lutra L.) in Danish freshwater habitats : comparisons of prey fish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taastrom, H.M.; Jacobsen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    variations were found in the diet corresponding to the availability of prey. Non-fish prey categories, such as frogs, birds, mammals and invertebrates, were most frequently taken in spring and summer, but only frogs made an important contribution to the diet (0-21%). The results of analysing 978 otter......Otter spraints from five Danish freshwater localities were analysed. In all localities fish was the main prey (76-99% of estimated bulk), especially in winter. Depending on locality, the prey fish mainly consisted of cyprinids (Cyprinidae), percids (Percidae) or salmonids (Salmonidae). Seasonal...... spraints were compared with prey fish populations as estimated by electrofishing. It was concluded that the fish species composition in the otter diet generally reflected that of the foraging area, however, with the exception of a negative preference for trout (Salmo sp.) and a preference for sticklebacks...

  13. The Key Role of Epigenetics in the Persistence of Asexual Lineages

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    Emilie Castonguay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asexual organisms, often perceived as evolutionary dead ends, can be long-lived and geographically widespread. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms could play a crucial role in the evolutionary persistence of these lineages. Genetically identical organisms could rely on phenotypic plasticity to face environmental variation. Epigenetic modifications could be the molecular mechanism enabling such phenotypic plasticity; they can be influenced by the environment and act at shorter timescales than mutation. Recent work on the asexual vertebrate Chrosomus eos-neogaeus (Pisces: Cyprinidae provides broad insights into the contribution of epigenetics in genetically identical individuals. We discuss the extension of these results to other asexual organisms, in particular those resulting from interspecific hybridizations. We finally develop on the evolutionary relevance of epigenetic variation in the context of heritability.

  14. ICHTHYOFAUNA OF A PART OF SAVA RIVER

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    Dobrila Habeković

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a personal research from 1991-1994 the ichthyofauna structure of the part of the Sava river upstream from Zagreb on the section from Podsused to Gradna mouth is presented. The data are being compared with the results of the research of this part of the Sava river before constructing the Krško nuclear power plant. The ichthyological samples were taken seasonally, on various water levels and temperatures of the Sava river. A qualitative and quantitive structure of the fish communities was identified (Tabels 1 to 7. The researched area is populated by fish of the transitional-plain type of the open waters, which means it belongs to the typical barbel region with all the related fish species. The most numerous is the Cyprinidae family, dominated by the chub species (Leuciscus cephalus L.. Around thirty species and subspecies of fish and Cyclostomata populates the area.

  15. Characterization of heavy metal contamination in the habitat of red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong Wetland, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Ye, Yajie; Gao, Zhongyan; Wang, Yongjie; Wang, Wenfeng

    2014-09-01

    Heavy metal enrichment in the prey of red-crowned cranes in Zhalong Wetland, northeastern China was researched. Lead and Cd were the most abundant elements in the sediments; their concentrations ranged from 9.85 to 127 ppm and from 1.23 to 10.6 ppm, respectively. Six aquatic animal taxa contained detectable levels of heavy metals, in the decreasing order of Cyprinidae > Cobitidae > Dytiscidae > Odontobutidae > Viviparidae > Aeshnidae. Metal concentrations in these taxa followed the order: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Hg > Cd. Metals in tissues of the red-crowned crane varied in the following order: Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg in feathers, and Zn > Cu > Hg > Cr > Pb > Cd in eggshells. Cadmium concentrations in the feathers of the red-crowned crane exceeded a level considered to be potentially toxic in birds (i.e., 0.22 ppm), ranging from 1.42 to 3.06 ppm.

  16. Posthodiplostomatosis in a fishpond in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Posthodiplostomatosis (black spot disease is a disease of young freshwater fish species of families Cyprinidae and Cobitidae, resulting from infection with metacercaria, which is the penultimate developmental stage of Posthodiplostomum cuticola. Metacercaria give rise to black cysts located primarily in the skin, muscles and on the fins. The disease caused by P. cuticola in certain fish species is first detected in a fishpond in Serbia, as presented in the current work, whilst in natural waters it has been existing for many years. Diagnosis of the infection in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella and the bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis was based on the occurrence of dark discolorations and cysts of the parasite on the fins. Cysts measured approximately 1 mm in diameter, were confirmed by histopathological means. Posthodiplostomatosis occurred in fishponds in which preventive measures were not implemented, i.e. where the nurseries were not dried up and mechanically cleaned.

  17. Iktiofauna Sungai Sangkir Kabupaten Rokan Hulu Provinsi Riau (Ichthyofauna of Sangkir River, Rokan Hulu District Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunuk Dian Pranata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri river Sangkir village, Rokan Hulu district, Riau Province from May of July 2016. The aim of this study was to inventory the fish species in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri River with direct observation (survey. Five sampling locations were determined purposely based on the environmental condition that could be represented by the river condition. A total of 288 individuals of fish belonging to 3 orders, 7 families, 13 genera and 16 species were recorded in this study, namely Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis, Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus and Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae was the most abundance fish in this study. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di sungai Sangkir, anak sungai Rokan Kiri, desa Sangkir, Kabupaten Rokan Hulu, Provinsi Riau pada bulan Mei sampai Juli 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis ikan di sungai Sangkir anak Sungai Rokan Kiri dengan metode pengamatan langsung (survei dengan penetapan stasiun pengambilan sampel secara purposive sampling. Penetapan stasiun berdasarkan kondisi lingkungan yang terdiri dari 5 stasiun penelitian. Hasil penelitian  didapatkan sebanyak 288 individu ikan yang terdiri dari 3 ordo, 7 famili 13 genus dan 16 spesies. Spesies yang didapatkan yaitu Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus dan Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae merupakan kelompok ikan yang paling banyak dalam penelitian ini.

  18. Comparative scale morphologies in common freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah-Ayuni, F.; Muse, A. O.; Samat, A.; Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Hard plates covering fish body or scales, do not only serve as external protection, but are also important as one of the tools for species identification. This study was designed to recognise morphological characters of fish scales that can be used for identification and to comprehend the inter-specific variations of scales from different species by using selected indices from scale measurements; L1/1, L2/L, L1/L2, and W/L. Sixteen species of common freshwater fishes were sampled from a few localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Examinations were based on photographs to determine the scale morphologies. Basic distinguishable characteristics that were identified are type of scale, the overall shape, the position and shape of the focus, distribution of radii, and the circuli appearance. It was found that scale type and radii arrangement at the anterior field are two significant morphological features that could distinguish between Cyprinidae and other families. Main characters used to identify scales at species level are radii cover, structure of inter radial tongue, and radii arrangement. Meanwhile, multiple comparison tests to reveal inter-specific variations suggested that there are significant differences among 16 species of common freshwater fishes studied. Two indices were found to be suitable to highlight the significant differences (P<0.05) for all species which are index L1/L2 and index W/L. For all indices, species that showed significantly different with most of other species are Osteochilus vittatus, Pristolepis fasciata, Rasbora sumatrana, and Labeo rohita. The scales of Osteochilus vittatus showed significant values with most of other species in more than one index; index L1/L and index L2/L. The distinctive morphological character that distinguished it from other Cyprinidae species is having clearly formed serrations in the middle of the inter-radial tongue at the anterior region.

  19. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, São Paulo, Brasil = Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in fee fishing farm of Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Canello Schalch

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a ocorrência e a sazonalidade de parasitos em peixes de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (21o15`22``S, 48o18`58``W e 595 m de altitude, durante o período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002. A presença de parasitos foi pesquisada em pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, carpacomum Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, híbrido tambacu (macho de P. mesopotamicus x fêmea de tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum e piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Os resultados demonstram que dos 100 peixes examinados, 15% estavam parasitados por pelo menos um dos seguintes parasitos: Trichodina sp.; helmintos monogenóides; copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea; L. cyprinacea adulta ou Dolops carvalhoi. Por ordem decrescente, o grau de suscetibilidade dos hospedeiros foi C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B. hillari, híbrido tambacu e O. niloticus. Por ordem decrescente, os parasitos encontrados foram helmintos monogenóides, Dolops carvalhoi, Trichodina sp., Lernaea cyprinacea adultas e suas formas jovens.This study describes the occurrence and the seasonality of parasites of cultivated fish from a fee fishing farm located in Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º15`22`` S, 48º18`58`` W and 595 m of altitude, from August, 2001 to July, 2002. The presence of parasiteswas researched in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum and piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Results demonstrate that out of 100 fish examined, 15% were sponged for at least one of the following parasites: Trichodina sp.; monogenean helminths; copepodits of Lernaea cyprinacea; adults of L. cyprinacea; or Dolops carvalhoi. In decreasing order, the susceptibility degree of the hosts was C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B

  20. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.253 Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in fee fishing farm of Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.253

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Rodini Engracia de Moraes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a ocorrência e a sazonalidade de parasitos em peixes de “pesque-pague” do município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (21º15`22``S, 48º18`58``W e 595 m de altitude, durante o período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002. A presença de parasitos foi pesquisada em pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, carpa comum Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, tilápia-do-Nilo Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, híbrido tambacu (macho de P. mesopotamicus x fêmea de tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum e piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Os resultados demonstram que dos 100 peixes examinados, 15% estavam parasitados por pelo menos um dos seguintes parasitos: Trichodina sp.; helmintos monogenóides; copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea; L. cyprinacea adulta ou Dolops carvalhoi. Por ordem decrescente, o grau de suscetibilidade dos hospedeiros foi C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B. hillari, híbrido tambacu e O. niloticus. Por ordem decrescente, os parasitos encontrados foram helmintos monogenóides, Dolops carvalhoi, Trichodina sp., Lernaea cyprinacea adultas e suas formas jovens.This study describes the occurrence and the seasonality of parasites of cultivated fish from a fee fishing farm located in Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º15`22`` S, 48º18`58`` W and 595 m of altitude, from August, 2001 to July, 2002. The presence of parasites was researched in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae, common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae, tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of tambaqui-Colossoma macropomum and piraputanga Brycon hillari (Characidae. Results demonstrate that out of 100 fish examined, 15% were sponged for at least one of the following parasites: Trichodina sp.; monogenean helminths; copepodits of Lernaea cyprinacea; adults of L. cyprinacea; or Dolops carvalhoi. In decreasing order, the susceptibility degree of the hosts was C. carpio, P. mesopotamicus, B

  1. Significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inferred from mtDNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher haplotype diversity and higher nucleotide diversity, presumably a result of the founder effect. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed between native and introduced populations as well as among five sampled populations, suggesting strong selection pressures might have occurred in introduced populations. Collectively, this study not only provides baseline information for sustainable use of silver carp in their native country (i.e., China), but also offers first-hand genetic data for the control of silver carp in countries (e.g., the United States) where they are considered invasive.

  2. A histoenzymological investigation of the caudal neurosecretory system in six species of freshwater teleosts: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A C

    1989-01-01

    Enzymecytochemical features of the caudal neurosecretory system of 6 species of freshwater teleosts, Gudusia chapra, Gonialosa manmina (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes), Oxygaster bacaila (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes), Mystus bleekeri (Bagridae, Cypriniformes), Sciaena coiter (Scienidae, Perciformes), and Mastacembelus pancalus (Mastacembelidae, Mastacembeliformes) have been investigated with the help of several specific histochemical techniques. No sex-dependent variation have been observed in the enzymecytochemical characteristics of the caudal neurosecretory system of the present species. The Dahlgren cells show intense RNA activity. Caudal neurosecretion lacks carbohydrate but seems to possess small amount of lipid. Acid-phosphatase is located in the Dahlgren cells and axons. Alkaline-phosphatase has been observed in the Dahlgren cells, axons, and urophysial blood-capillaries. Acetylcholine esterase is present in the Dahlgren cells, axons, and urophysis of Mystus, Mastacembelus, and Gonialosa, but lacking in the other 3 species. It is concluded that the caudal neurosecretory system of Mystus, Mastacembelus, and Gopialosa is innervated by cholinergic neurons. Despite their different taxonomic positions, caudal neurosecretory system of all 6 species produce similar responses to various enzymecytochemical tests, except for acetylcholine esterase.

  3. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  4. A novel resource polymorphism in fish, driven by differential bottom environments: an example from an ancient lake in Japan.

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    Takefumi Komiya

    Full Text Available Divergent natural selection rooted in differential resource use can generate and maintain intraspecific eco-morphological divergence (i.e., resource polymorphism, ultimately leading to population splitting and speciation. Differing bottom environments create lake habitats with different benthos communities, which may cause selection in benthivorous fishes. Here, we document the nature of eco-morphological and genetic divergence among local populations of the Japanese gudgeon Sarcocheilichthys (Cyprinidae, which inhabits contrasting habitats in the littoral zones (rocky vs. pebbly habitats in Lake Biwa, a representative ancient lake in East Asia. Eco-morphological analyses revealed that Sarcocheilichthys variegatus microoculus from rocky and pebbly zones differed in morphology and diet, and that populations from rocky environments had longer heads and deeper bodies, which are expected to be advantageous for capturing cryptic and/or attached prey in structurally complex, rocky habitats. Sarcocheilichthys biwaensis, a rock-dwelling specialist, exhibited similar morphologies to the sympatric congener, S. v. microoculus, except for body/fin coloration. Genetic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite DNA data revealed no clear genetic differentiation among local populations within/between the gudgeon species. Although the morphogenetic factors that contribute to morphological divergence remain unclear, our results suggest that the gudgeon populations in Lake Biwa show a state of resource polymorphism associated with differences in the bottom environment. This is a novel example of resource polymorphism in fish within an Asian ancient lake, emphasizing the importance and generality of feeding adaptation as an evolutionary mechanism that generates morphological diversification.

  5. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  6. A Bayesian framework to estimate diversification rates and their variation through time and space

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    Silvestro Daniele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of species diversity are the result of speciation and extinction processes, and molecular phylogenetic data can provide valuable information to derive their variability through time and across clades. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods offer a promising framework to incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty when estimating rates of diversification. Results We introduce a new approach to estimate diversification rates in a Bayesian framework over a distribution of trees under various constant and variable rate birth-death and pure-birth models, and test it on simulated phylogenies. Furthermore, speciation and extinction rates and their posterior credibility intervals can be estimated while accounting for non-random taxon sampling. The framework is particularly suitable for hypothesis testing using Bayes factors, as we demonstrate analyzing dated phylogenies of Chondrostoma (Cyprinidae and Lupinus (Fabaceae. In addition, we develop a model that extends the rate estimation to a meta-analysis framework in which different data sets are combined in a single analysis to detect general temporal and spatial trends in diversification. Conclusions Our approach provides a flexible framework for the estimation of diversification parameters and hypothesis testing while simultaneously accounting for uncertainties in the divergence times and incomplete taxon sampling.

  7. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

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    Lijo John

    Full Text Available Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS (Cyprinidae: Puntius endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa.

  8. BARCODING DNA IKAN HIAS LAHAN GAMBUT

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    Melta Rini Fahmi

    2016-12-01

    Peat is a unique ecosystem which a high fish biodiversity, and most of them are potential as ornamental fish. This research was conducted to identify and analyze genetic diversity, genetic code, genetic distances, and phylogenies of the fish that inhabit in the Bukit Batu Biosfere Reserves, Riau Province. The first stage of this study was identification of 29 fish species that potential as ornamental fish by using morphological character. The further stages were amplification and alignment of 675 base pairs of 90 partial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI. Results showed that the identification based on COI could be classified into six families. These Families were Balontidae, Cyprinidae, Cobitidae, Siluridae, Datnoidae, and Bagridae which consist of three species (12.5%, 13 species (54.17%, one species (4.17%, two species (8.3%, one species (4.17%, and four species (16.67%, respectively. Some clustered have intra-species genetic divergence more than 3%. Phylogenetic and clustering analysis showed all of the OTU (0perational Taxonomic Unit has a high bootstrap permutation of 87-99.

  9. The zebrafish model system in cardiovascular research: A tiny fish with mighty prospects

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    Kar Lai Poon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish Danio rerio, a tropical freshwater fish, belongs to the family of cyprinidae, which in the last 30 years has developed into a very popular model organism for studies of embryonic development and human diseases. Initially the zebrafish species has been selected on the basis of its small size of approximately 3-5 cm, its transparency during development and its high fertility, qualities first identified by George Stresinger, the founding father of zebrafish research [1]. The ability to house thousands of small fishes and the ease of screening mutations in the translucent embryos made it feasible to perform large-scale forward genetic screens in a vertebrate model organism. The abundance of eggs obtained, approximately 200 eggs per female per week, is ideal for genetic and statistical analysis. The mutagenesis screens performed in the early 1990s have led to the identification of genes important in vertebrate organogenesis in an unbiased fashion [2-3]. Many of the isolated mutants have now been fully characterized and the mutated genes mapped, as the zebrafish genome sequencing completes. The knowledge derived has led to a better understanding of the underlying genetic networks governing vertebrate development. More sophisticated phenotype-based screens have since been developed to screen for mutations in defined biological processes [4].

  10. Temporal and spatial variations of water qualities and fish fauna distributions in the Kaname river, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, K.; Kitano, T.; Kutsumi, M.; Shimizu, K.

    2011-12-01

    Fish fauna distributions had been studied at many places and they indicated that the fish distributions were dramatically different depending on fish species and local environment such as water temperature, current, sediment parameters. But the relationships between water qualities and fish fauna distribution have not been understood well. In order to find physical and chemical environment factors which relate to the fish fauna distribution, we investigated the temporal and spatial change of water qualities and fish distributions in Kaname river, Japan. We measured both of physical (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Chl-a and turbidity) and chemical (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphoric and suspended solids) water parameters and surveyed the fish distribution. The field observations were conducted seasonally and check the season differences. Observation results showed that Gobiidae and Cyprinidae fishes live in the Kaname river and the distribution was clearly classified with the species. And also chemical water qualities were dramatically different by location. Especially the effects of sewage farms on water qualities were detected. This study will be contributory to reveal the relationships between fish fauna distribution and environmental parameters and it will lead to the ecological preservation.

  11. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  12. Morphological variation in the Weberian apparatus of Cypriniformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Nathan C; Hernandez, L Patricia

    2007-09-01

    Cypriniformes (which includes the minnows, carps, loaches, algae-eaters, stone loaches, and suckers) is a morphologically diverse and incredibly speciose order of teleosts. It has been suggested that a number of evolutionary innovations, key to improved hearing and feeding, have played an important role in cypriniform fishes' success. One such innovation, the Weberian apparatus, is a novel assemblage of vertebral elements and modified ribs that relay and amplify sound pressure changes from the gas bladder to the inner ear. The Weberian apparatus unites Cypriniformes with other major orders into an extremely species-rich group of fishes, the Otophysi. Together, otophysan fishes comprise one of the largest groups of fishes in the world, as well as the majority of freshwater fishes. Here we present a detailed comparison of the Weberian apparatus in a number of cypriniform families using cleared and stained specimens. We present data regarding inter- and intrafamilial morphological variation within Cypriniformes. With few, but evolutionarily important, exceptions we find that diagnostic features of the Weberian apparatus characterize each family. Interspecific variation within each of the families Balitoridae, Gyrinocheilidae, and Catostomidae is only slight, whereas variation among subfamilies within Cyprinidae and Cobitidae is far more significant. This comparative study identifies a number of distinct morphologies, some of which appear highly correlated with ecological niche. For example, inhabiting swift-moving waters appears to be a key factor in the encapsulation of the anterior gas bladder in some cobitids, balitorids, and gobionin cyprinids. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  13. Estimation of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus diet composition in the Baltic Sea

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    Karl Lundström

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the digestive tract contents from 145 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus collected between 2001 and 2004 in the Baltic Sea. We compensated for biases introduced by erosion of otoliths, both by using additional hard-part structures other than otoliths, and species-specific size and numerical correction factors. In the absence of numerical correction factors based on feeding experiments for some species, we used correction factors based on a relationship between otolith recoveryrate and otolith width. A total of 24 prey taxa were identified but only a few species contributed substantially to the diet. The estimated diet composition was, independently of the prey number estimation method and diet composition estimation model used, dominated by herring (Clupea harengus, both by numbers and biomass. In addition to herring, common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus and sprat (Sprattus sprattus were important prey, but cyprinids (Cyprinidae, eelpout (Zoarces viviparus, flounder (Platichtys flesus and salmon (Salmo salar also contributed significantly. Our results indicated dietary differences between grey seals of different age as well as between seals from the northern (Gulf of Bothnia and the southern (Baltic Proper Baltic Sea.

  14. Molecular evidence on the evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of European cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardoya, R; Doadrio, I

    1999-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 106 European cyprinid taxa were determined based on the complete nucleotide sequence (1140 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The molecular phylogeny was used (1) to revise the current systematics of European cyprinids, (2) to establish the phylogenetic utility of traditional morphological characters that are widely used in Cyprinidae systematics, and (3) to discuss alternative hypotheses on the biogeography of the family in Europe. The age of the major lineages within European cyprinids was tentatively estimated with a molecular clock and showed full agreement with the fossil record of the group. Moreover, the results provided unambiguous evidence for a close phylogenetic affinity of some Caucasian and Greek endemic cyprinid taxa (e.g., B. capito and B. brachycephalus and Leuciscus keadicus, Barbus graecus, and B. albanicus, respectively) to Iberian and North African, but not Central European, cyprinids. The existence of such unexpected phylogenetic relationships refutes the classical hypothesis on the biogeography of European cyprinids, which assumes a dispersal of the cyprinid fauna from central Europe to southern Europe and northern Africa during the Miocene (and, hence, predicts a close phylogenetic relationship of all Caucasian, Greek, Iberian, and North African cyprinids to central European taxa). Instead, the existence of a Mediterranean realm independent of the central European route seems plausible based on the molecular evidence. It is likely that the new biogeographical scenario proposed here might apply to other primary freshwater European animals with low dispersal abilities, including fish, amphibians, and invertebrates.

  15. Morphological and Genetic Evidence for Multiple Evolutionary Distinct Lineages in the Endangered and Commercially Exploited Red Lined Torpedo Barbs Endemic to the Western Ghats of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBs) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their ‘Endangered’ listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa. PMID:23894533

  16. Fish composition and assemblage in the anthropogenic-modified tidally-restricted Doñana (Spain) marshlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Valcárcel, Raquel; Oliva-Paterna, Francisco J.; Arribas, Carmen; Fernández-Delgado, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    The Guadalquivir estuary is the largest estuarine area on the southern Atlantic coast of Europe; its anthropogenic tidally-restricted marshes are partly within the boundary of the Doñana National Park, southern Spain. Our two-year study describes the spatial and temporal patterns of the fish assemblages in the Doñana marshlands in terms of species richness, abundance and biomass. The main families were Mugilidae and Cyprinidae, which accounted for 40.9% of the total species richness. Unlike the fish assemblages found in other European estuaries, Doñana was dominated in both biomass and abundance by freshwater species, mainly invasive exotic species. The spatial analysis of the assemblage showed four significant fish groups corresponding to different habitats established a priori and related to the salinity gradient. Assemblages did not show a seasonal pattern and the temporal fish groups observed were mainly related to the hydrological cycle and the extreme drought that occurred during the study period.

  17. Morphological differences among the Garra rufa populations (Cyprınıdae in Tigris River system of Southeast Turkey

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    Tarık Cicek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine morphometric and meristic variations between Garra rufa (G. rufa samples obtained from different locality in Tigris River. Methods: Transformed morphometric characters were subjected to discriminant analysis and according to grouping model, number of discriminant function and morphologic variation between populations with respect to their importance of explaining total variation were determined. Results: Success rate of classifying the groups according to the results of discriminant analysis of morphometric characters of G. rufa individuals, belonging to seven different localities of Tigris and Euphrates river system revealed as 56.7%. Savur stream group showed different distribution from the other groups. Success rate of classifying the groups according to the discriminant analysis of meristic characters of G. rufa individuals appeared as 56.32%. Conclusions: Devegeçidi Dam Lake and Kulp stream groups were the ones which showed the most different distributions in the discriminant analysis. Between locality groups of G. rufa individuals belonging to Cyprinidae family, meristic and especially morphometric variations were significantly found in the consequent of discriminant analysis.

  18. Biologie et écologie de Barbus holotaenia, Boulenger, 1904, du bassin de la rivière Luki (Zaïre

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    MUTAMBUE S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbus holotaénia est un petit Cyprinidae (142,5 mm LS largement répandu dans la région guinéenne. Son régime alimentaire est composé principalement d'invertébrés aquatiques et d'insectes terrestres, en saison des pluies ; de crevettes et d'écaillés, en saison sèche. La taille à la première, maturation est de 42,5 mm LS chez les mâles et de 37,5 mm LS chez les femelles. La vitellogenèse et la ponte se déroulent en saison des pluies. La fécondité individuelle partielle varie entre 5 et 18 oeufs par gramme de la masse du corps de la femelle. Le coefficient de condition est indépendant de la taille ; les valeurs les plus élevées s'observent en saison des pluies. La croissance de l'espèce est analysée par un modèle d'estimation rapide de la croissance des poissons d'eau douce africains

  19. Responses of medullary lateral line units of the rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, and the nase, Chondrostoma nasus, to vortex streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelnkemper, Jan; Kranz, Simon; Bleckmann, Horst

    2018-02-01

    Fish use their mechanosensory lateral line amongst others for the detection of vortices shed by an upstream object and/or for the detection of vortices caused by the tail fin movements of another fish. Thus, vortices are one type of hydrodynamic stimuli to which fish are exposed in their natural environment. We investigated the responses of medullary lateral line units of common rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, and common nase, Chondrostoma nasus (Cyprinidae), to water flow (9.5-13.3 cm -1 ) that contained vortices (a Kármán vortex street) shed by an upstream cylinder (diameter 2 cm). The distance between the cylinder and the tip of the fish's snout varied between 8 and 24 cm. 21 out of 42 units (S. erythrophthalmus), respectively, 9 out of 39 units (Chondrostoma nasus) responded to the vortices shed by the cylinder. Up to a cylinder distance of 24 cm, interburst intervals revealed the vortex shedding frequency, i.e., burst frequency was similar to or identical with the vortex shedding frequency.

  20. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  1. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Lijo; Philip, Siby; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa.

  2. The post-larval and juvenile fish assemblage in the Sukhothai floodplain, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwan, Suksri; Boonsatien, Boonsoong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated abundance, species composition and spatial and temporal distributions of fish larvae and their relationship with some environmental variables in the Sukhothai floodplain in northern Thailand. Fish larvae were collected from 33 sampling stations on 8 occasions between August 2010 and October 2013. The study collected and identified 149 296 individuals, representing 32 families and 165 taxa. The species composition of larval fish was dominated by the Cyprinidae (47.27%), Cobitidae (7.88%), Siluridae (6.67%), Bagridae (6.06%) and Mastacembelidae (3.33%) families. The most-abundant larval species were the Striped flying barb Esomus metallicus (16.90%), the Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis (8.48%) and the Sumatran river sprat Clupeichthys goniognathus (8.31%). The greatest abundance and species diversity of larvae were found when the river flow runs onto the floodplain. PCA and nMDS analysis revealed that the samples plot is associated with temporal distribution among years. The discharge was a major factor determining fish larvae assemblage and environmental variables in the Sukhothai floodplain. Four fish larval species were positively correlated with the samples for 2013. The result of the CCA ordination plot showed that only the discharge variable was strongly correlated with fish larvae abundance, especially two cyprinid Rasbora species.

  3. Review of fish species introduced into the Great Lakes, 1819-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee

    1985-01-01

    This review is based on an extensive literature search, combined with updated information obtained from biologists, and unpublished reports from private, state, and federal organizations throughout the Great Lakes basin. The chronological review lists 34 species of fishes in 13 families that were introduced into the basin from 1819 to 1974. The Salmonidae and Cyprinidae are best represented, contributing 14 and 5 of the species, respectively. The list is divided into successful and unsuccessful introductions; each species is briefly described and information about its entry into the basin and present status is given. About half of the introductions have been successful (i.e., the fish have reproduced and created viable, self-sustaining populations). Some of the successful introductions were disastrous in terms of damage inflicted on native populations (e.g., the effect of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, on populations of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis), but others yielded highly favorable results (e.g., the extraordinary sport fisheries created by introductions of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

  4. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

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    Simagegnew Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia. Fish samples were collected in one wet and one dry season. The length-weight relationships were fitted using power equation for the most abundant species. A total of 348 fish specimens were collected using gillnets and hooks. These were identified into eight species and one Garra sp. representing seven genera and four families. Family Cyprinidae was the most dominant with six species (66.7%. Labeobarbus intermedius, Labeobarbus nedgia, and Labeo cylindricus were the most abundant fish species, respectively, with 60.72%, 16.83%, and 14.66% index of relative importance (IRI. The diversity index was higher for Geba River (H′ = 1.50 than for Sor River (H′ = 1.10. All the three most abundant species had negative allometric growth. Seasonal variations in the mean Fulton condition factor (FCF were statistically significant for L. cylindricus (p<0.05. There was variation in the sex ratio with the females dominating in all the three most abundant species. Further investigation into the fish diversity, food, feeding, and reproductive behaviors of fish species especially in the tributaries of these rivers and their socioeconomic aspects is recommended.

  5. Catchment-scale determinants of nonindigenous minnow richness in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Brandon K.; Midway, Stephen R.; DeWeber, Jefferson T.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of biological invasions is critical for preserving aquatic biodiversity. Stream fishes make excellent model taxa for examining mechanisms driving species introduction success because their distributions are naturally limited by catchment boundaries. In this study, we compared the relative importance of catchment-scale abiotic and biotic predictors of native and nonindigenous minnow (Cyprinidae) richness in 170 catchments throughout the eastern United States. We compared historic and contemporary cyprinid distributional data to determine catchment-wise native/nonindigenous status for 152 species. Catchment-scale model predictor variables described natural (elevation, precipitation, flow accumulation) and anthropogenic (developed land cover, number of dams) abiotic features, as well as native congener richness. Native congener richness may represent either biotic resistance via interspecific competition, or trait preadaptation according to Darwin's naturalisation hypothesis. We used generalised linear mixed models to examine evidence supporting the relative roles of abiotic and biotic predictors of cyprinid introduction success. Native congener richness was positively correlated with nonindigenous cyprinid richness and was the most important variable predicting nonindigenous cyprinid richness. Mean elevation had a weak positive effect, and effects of other abiotic factors were insignificant and less important. Our results suggest that at this spatial scale, trait preadaptation may be more important than intrageneric competition for determining richness of nonindigenous fishes.

  6. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

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    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  7. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

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    Keun-Yong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1, recombination activating gene 2 (rag2, and early growth response 1 gene (egr1, from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.

  8. SCARDINIUS GENUS IN MOLECULAR STUDIES – A REVIEW

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    Ovidiu Popescul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scardinius is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family commonly called rudds. The common rudd(Scardinius erithrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish that occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetatedlowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes and it is widespread in Europe and middle Asia. It has a mediumlength of 20-30 cm, but it can reach 50 cm. The classification of cyprinids has always been controversial the morphologicaltraits have an unclear homology this led to the idea that the recognized monophyletic groups are surely misinterpreted. Thispaper aims to assess the current level of molecular data regarding Scardinius genera. Some of the molecular data obtainedfor Scardinius genus is from DNA barcoding studies on fresh water fishes, but studies regarding this genus and Cyprinidaefamily used mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (cyt b and cytochrome oxidase (CO, but nuclear genes or nuclearmicrosatellites were also used. We found that molecular data exists for both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but this genuswasn’t studied separately and as many of the researchers suggest more taxonomic studies are required in order to solve theuncertainties within it.

  9. Feeding habits of an endemic fish, Oxygymnocypris stewartii, in the Yarlung Zangbo River in Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Bin; Xie, Cong Xin; Madenjian, Charles P.; Ma, Bao Shan; Yang, Xue Feng; Huang, Hai Ping

    2014-01-01

    Feeding habits of Oxygymnocypris stewartii were investigated based on monthly sampling in the Yarlung Zangbo River from August 2008 to August 2009. The gut contents of 194 individuals were analysed and quantified with numerical and gravimetric methods. This species can be considered a generalized and opportunistic predator feeding both on teleosts and aquatic insects. A multivariate analysis revealed noticeable variation in O. stewartii diet composition with fish size and season. The smaller specimens fed primarily on Cobitidae and Hydropsychidae. As they grew, Cyprinidae and Chironomidae larvae became important prey. The preferred food items were teleosts in summer and autumn. For winter and spring, the predominant prey switched to chironomidae larvae. Diet composition did not significantly vary between the sexes. Finally, a significant and positive correlation between predator and prey length was found. These findings provide the fundamental information better understanding the role of this important endemic species in the Yarlung Zangbo River food web.

  10. Lesser known aquarium fish tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, J C; Slatick, M S

    2001-06-01

    The repeated use of particular species for experimental oncology in fish increases their future value by accumulating background information for these models and justifies the establishment of genetic stock centers. However, the wide diversity that exists within the class Osteichthyes and Chondrichthyes suggests that the ideal surrogate models for studying some types of neoplasms might be found among lesser known species. To help assess cultured fish as surrogates for some other types of human neoplasia, we examined cases in the archives of the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals and reviewed reports in the literature. Spontaneous and induced neoplasms originating from a spectrum of cell types were seen in more than 215 fish species commonly raised in aquaria or cultured for study among 69 families. Prominent families include the Poeciliidae (livebearers), Cyprinidae (carps and minnows), Cichlidae (cichlids), Cyprinodontidae (killifish), Characidae (tetras), Adrianichthyidae (medakas), Aplocheilidae (rivulins), and Salmonidae (salmon and trout). The following are examples of potential fish tumor models that have received less consideration than some others: papilloma and carcinoma of the urinary bladder in oscar (Astronotus ocellatus); osteogenic neoplasms, peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and ependymoblastoma in coho salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus kisutch); and nephroblastoma resembling Wilms' tumor in Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica).

  11. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River, September 17--18, 1996. Annual report

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    Moller, B.; Miller, M.C.; Buschelmann, F.; Evans, R.L. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The electrofishing survey of fish from the Great Miami River at RM 19, 24 and 38 from late summer 1996 demonstrated the sensitivity of the fish community to microhabitat variation. The variation was particularly clear between the pooled, low flow sections of the river and the runs, where fast current habitats occurred. In 1996, like most recent years, the differences were obvious between Rm 24 and RM 19 and RM 38. River Mile 24 was characterized by a fish community of current-loving fish, dominated by Catastomidae (suckers), and Ictaluridae (catfish). In contrast, samples from pooled stations at RM 19 and 38 were dominated by Centrarchidae, Clupeidae and Cyprinidae, particularly the carp. The microhabitats sampled around the abutments of bridges at RM 19 and 38 where fast current and physical structure occurred, both resembled the community at RM 24. Changes in the fish communities associated with the upstream/downstream changes in stream volume, channel size, morphology, etc., were evidenced by the community coefficients which showed least similarity between the most distant sites.

  12. Ultrastructure and distribution of superficial neuromasts of blind cavefish, Phreatichthys andruzzii, juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Magosso, Sara; Simoni, Edi; Hills, Kathleen; Berti, Roberto

    2009-09-01

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) were used to study the ultrastructure of superficial neuromasts in 15 six-month old blind cavefish juveniles, Phreatichthys andruzzii (Cyprinidae). In five specimens examined with SEM, the number of superficial neuromasts over the fish body (480-538) was recorded. They were localized mainly on the head (362-410), including the dorsal surface, the mentomandibular region, and laterally from the mouth to the posterior edge of the operculum. Neuromasts were also present laterally on the trunk and near the caudal fin (116-140). A significantly higher number of neuromasts were present on the head compared to the trunk (t-test, P pear-shaped, 15-21 microm high and 4-6 microm in diameter, with a single long kinocilium and several short stereocilia. Most support cells were elongated, with nuclei occupying a large portion of the cytoplasm. In the margin of the neuromast, mantle cells were particularly narrow. Both types of support cells had well-developed Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The number of hair cells and nonsensory support cells of the anterior lateral line (head) did not differ significantly from those of the posterior lateral line (trunk) (t-test, P > 0.05).

  13. Distribution and abundance of fish populations in Harike wetland--a Ramsar site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anish; Parkash, Chander

    2009-03-01

    Harike wetland was declared a Ramsar site in 1990. It is located at the confluence of two major rivers of Indus rivers system, the Beas and the Sutlej, but was never explored extensively for its existing fish biodiversity. Earlier only 27 fish species of commercial value were reported from the wetland. Acknowledging its importance for rich diversity fish assemblages in seven different reaches of Harike wetland were studied to determine their abundance and distribution. 61 fish species of 35 genera were recorded from Harike wetland during the present study. Cirrihinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio belonging to family Cyprinidae were the dominant fish species. Lake and Riyasat having many microhabitats supported highest diversity of fishes (60 and 56 respectively) followed by Beas (20) Sutlej (14), Confluence (12), Reservoir (9) and Downstream (8). Among the IUCN designated threatened species, 1 Critically Endangered, 4 Endangered and 13 Vulnerable fish species of India are found in Harike wetland. Species diversity index, dominance, evenness and catch per unit effort were calculated to ascertain the fish distribution in Harike wetland.

  14. Physical factors and their influence on fish species composition in Asa Lake, Ilorin, Nigeria

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    P.A Araoye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical factors on fish species composition was studied during 12 months in Asa Lake, Nigeria. Fish and water samples were collected bimonthly (March 2003 to February 2004 in the morning. Fish samples were caught with gill nets set at the surface and bottom habitats. There were 11 fish families and 21 species. Osteoglossidae, Anabantidae, Channidae, Schilbedae and Cyprinidae were rare and occurred seasonally in fishermen catches, while Mormyridae, Cichlidae, Mochokidae, Characidae, Bagridae and Clariidae showed less variation and were more common. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most abundant (23.0 and 18.6% respectively while Osteoglossidae, Channidae and Anabantidae were the least (1.7, 2.1 and 2.3% respectively. Clariidae and Mormyridae had the highest weight with 16.0% and 12.3% respectively, while Anabantidae had the lowest (3.4%. Surface water temperatures were generally higher than air temperatures during the afternoon, except from January to March when air temperatures were high (28.1 to 28.7 ºC due to low relative humidity (39 to 70%. In the morning, surface water temperatures (25.5 to 26.3 ºC became higher than air temperatures (25.2 to 26.0 ºC from May to December, when relative humidity values were also high (50 to 88%. The differences between surface and bottom water temperatures was generally higher (0.7 to 3.1 ºC; P Estudié la composición de especies de peces y las temperaturas durante 12 meses en el lago Asa, Nigeria. Recolecté muestras de peces y de agua bimestralmente en la mañana, de marzo 2003 a febrero 2004. Los peces (11 familias y 21 especies fueron capturados con atarrayas en la superficie y el fondo. Osteoglossidae, Anabantidae, Channidae, Schilbedae y Cyprinidae fueron raras y aparecieron estacionalmente en las capturas de pescadores, mientras que Mormyridae, Cichlidae, Mochokidae, Characidae, Bagridae y Clariidae mostraron menos variación y fueron más comunes. Las familias Characidae y

  15. Hatchability and survival of oncomiracidia of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon (Monogenea: Diplozoidae) exposed to aqueous aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Beric M; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2016-07-28

    Monogenea is a diverse group of ectoparasites showing great potential as sentinel organisms for monitoring environmental health. Exposure to metals negatively affects infrapopulations of monogeneans and exposure to aluminium has been found to negatively impact the survival of gyrodactylids. Samples of infected host fish, the smallmouth yellowfish Labeobarbus aeneus (Cyprinidae), were collected from the Vaal Dam, South Africa and transported back to the laboratory in dark 160 l containers. Eggs of the monogenean Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon infecting L. aeneus were collected and exposed to varying concentrations of aluminium along with a control group in static tanks. The eggs were checked every 24 h and hatching commenced 13-14 days after exposure. Water samples were taken from exposure tanks and acidified for analysis of Al levels with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Hatching of eggs was variable between exposures, and in 30 μg Al/l and 60 μg Al/l was found to occur before eggs in control beakers, whereas, exposure to 120 μg Al/l delayed hatching and reduced hatchability. Survival of hatched oncomiracidia was concentration dependent and negatively correlated with aluminium concentrations. Lowest survival was recorded for 60 μg Al/l and 120 μg Al/l where all larvae died shortly after or during hatching. Normal development of embryos of P. ichthyoxanthon within eggs exposed to all doses of aluminium indicates that the egg shell is moderately impermeable to metals and inhibits movement of aluminium across the shell and interacting with developing embryos. Higher larval mortality rate in 120 μg/l exposure can be related to aluminium crossing the egg shell in the late stages and causing death of unhatched yet fully developed embryos, possibly due to changes in the permeability of the egg shell as embryos neared developmental completion. Accelerated death of oncomiracidia after hatching indicates sensitivity toward high concentrations of aluminium.

  16. Diel and distributional abundance patterns of fish embryos and larvae in the lower Columbia and Deschutes rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Barfoot, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Diel and distributional abundance patterns of free embryos and larvae of fishes in the lower Columbia River Basin were investigated. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected in 1993 during day and night in the main-channel and a backwater of the lower Columbia River, and in a tributary, the Deschutes River. Fish embryos and larvae collected in the main-channel Columbia River were primarily (85.6%) of native taxa (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, suckers Catostomus spp., and sculpins Cottus spp.), with two introduced species (American shad Alosa sapidissima and common carp Cyprinus carpio) comprising a smaller percentage of the catch (13.3%). Similarly, in the Deschutes River native taxa [lampreys (Petromyzontidae), minnows (Cyprinidae), and suckers Catostomus spp.] dominated collections (99.5% of the catch). In contrast, 83.5% of embryos and larvae in the Columbia River backwater were of introduced taxa [American shad, common carp, and sunfishes (Centrarchidae)]. In all locations, all dominant taxa except sculpins were collected in significantly greater proportions at night. Taxon-specific differences in proportions of embryos and larvae collected at night can in some instances be related to life history styles. In the main-channel Columbia River, northern squawfish and peamouth were strongly nocturnal and high proportions still had yolksacs, suggesting that they had recently hatched and were drifting downriver to rearing areas. In contrast, sculpin abundances were similar during day and night, and sculpins mostly had depleted yolksacs, indicating sculpins were feeding and rearing in offshore limnetic habitats. Taxon-specific diel abundance patterns and their causes must be considered when designing effective sampling programs for fish embryos and larvae.

  17. The effects of dissolved oxygen levels on the metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in Cyprinid fishes with different locomotive and digestive performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2012-07-01

    To test whether the effects of water oxygen concentration ([O(2)]) on the metabolic interaction between locomotion and digestion differ between fish species with different locomotive and digestive behaviours in normoxia, we investigated the swimming performance of fasted and fed fish at water [O(2)] of 1, 2 and 8 (normoxia) mg L(-1) (2.5, 5 and 20 kPa) at 25°C in three juvenile Cyprinidae fish species: goldfish (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis). Digestion, taxon and water [O(2)] all had significant effects on the pre-exercise oxygen consumption rate [Formula: see text] and the swimming performance (P water [O(2)], and its active oxygen consumption rate [Formula: see text] and critical swimming speed (U (crit)) decreased the most with decreases in water [O(2)]. Qingbo exhibited a locomotion-priority metabolic mode at all three water [O(2)]. Digestion was sacrificed to locomotion in a postprandial swimming situation, but fed qingbo could not maintain their U (crit) at water [O(2)] of 2 and 1 mg L(-1). Goldfish showed the lowest swimming performance and the highest feeding [Formula: see text] at the saturated water [O(2)]. They exhibited a digestion-priority metabolic mode at high water [O(2)]. However, with a decrease in water [O(2)], the feeding [Formula: see text] decreased more acutely than the respiratory capacity; thus, digestion and locomotion performed independently in a postprandial swimming situation (i.e., an additive metabolic mode) at a water [O(2)] of 1 mg L(-1). The common carp showed moderate and balanced swimming performance and feeding [Formula: see text] at the saturated water [O(2)], and exhibited an additive metabolic mode at all 3 water [O(2)], because digestion, swimming and respiratory capacities decreased in parallel with the decrease in water [O(2)].

  18. Combined effects of hydrologic alteration and cyprinid fish in mediating biogeochemical processes in a Mediterranean stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Gracia, Francesc; Almeida, David; Bonet, Berta; Casals, Frederic; Espinosa, Carmen; Flecker, Alexander S; García-Berthou, Emili; Martí, Eugènia; Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Zamora, Lluis; Guasch, Helena

    2017-12-01

    Flow regimes are important drivers of both stream community and biogeochemical processes. However, the interplay between community and biogeochemical responses under different flow regimes in streams is less understood. In this study, we investigated the structural and functional responses of periphyton and macroinvertebrates to different densities of the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis, Cyprinidae) in two stream reaches differing in flow regime. The study was conducted in Llémena Stream, a small calcareous Mediterranean stream with high nutrient levels. We selected a reach with permanent flow (permanent reach) and another subjected to flow regulation (regulated reach) with periods of flow intermittency. At each reach, we used in situ cages to generate 3 levels of fish density. Cages with 10 barbels were used to simulate high fish density (>7indm-2); cages with open sides were used as controls (i.e. exposed to actual fish densities of each stream reach) thus having low fish density; and those with no fish were used to simulate the disappearance of fish that occurs with stream drying. Differences in fish density did not cause significant changes in periphyton biomass and macroinvertebrate density. However, phosphate uptake by periphyton was enhanced in treatments lacking fish in the regulated reach with intermittent flow but not in the permanent reach, suggesting that hydrologic alteration hampers the ability of biotic communities to compensate for the absence of fish. This study indicates that fish density can mediate the effects of anthropogenic alterations such as flow intermittence derived from hydrologic regulation on stream benthic communities and associated biogeochemical processes, at least in eutrophic streams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Distribution of three non-essential trace metals (Cadmium, Mercury and Lead in the organs of fish from Aiba Reservoir, Iwo, Nigeria

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    Oluwatosin Ebenezer Atobatele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of non-essential trace elements in some vital organs of 11 fish species from Aiba Reservoir, Iwo, Nigeria was assessed between November 2010 and June 2011. The fish species belong to seven families; family Mormyridae, family Cyprinidae, family Hepsetidae and family Channidae each with one species; family Bagridae and family Clariidae each with two species; and family Cichlidae with three species. All families, except Clariidae and Channidae, are common in the daily catch from the reservoir. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in fish organs. The concentration of toxic trace metals in fish ranged from 0.001 to 0.100 ppm (Cd, 0.000–0.067 ppm (Hg and 0.001–0.125 ppm (Pb dry weight. This study shows similarity (p > 0.05 in the distribution of Cd, Hg and Pb among fish species; and a non-uniform distribution of toxic trace metals within fish organs with Kidney > Liver > Gill ≥ Intestine ≥ Muscle. Canonical variate analysis shows clear discrimination of Clarias macromystax and Channa obscura for gill trace metal levels of Cd, Hg and Pb while Labeo senegalensis and Oreochromis niloticus were discriminated for liver trace metal values of Cd and Pb only when compared to other fish species studied. The discrimination of some fish species based on trace metals in the gills and liver suggests different regulatory strategies for trace metal accumulation. Variation due to comparison among different fish species from the same water body suggests that accumulation may be species dependent. Differential accumulation of toxic trace metals in fish organs makes them good bioindicators of freshwater contamination.

  20. Comparison of Lethal Concentrations (LC50-96 H of Cdcl2, Crcl3, and Pb (NO32 in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio and Sutchi Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus

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    Zeynab Abedi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compared lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h of CdCl2, CrCl3, and Pb (NO32 between two scaled and scaleless freshwater fish species: Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae and Pangasius hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae. Methods: The experimental fishes were obtained from fish markets/ponds with average lengths and weights of approximately 11.68 ±1.92 and 9.8±1.9 cm, and 25.92±6.3 and 18.61±3.22 g for C. carpio and P. hypophthalmus, respectively. The fishes were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 100, 120, 200 mg L−1 lead (Pb (0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 90, 150 mg L−1, and chromium (Cr (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 mg L−1 for 96 h. Physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature of aquaria as well as mortality rate of the fishes, were monitored daily. Results: The 50% lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h of CdCl2, CrCl3, and Pb (NO32 for P. hypophthalmus were found at 64.89, 7.46, and 48.06 mg L−1, and those of CdCl 2, CrCl 3, Pb (NO32 for C. carpio were detected at 84.8, 17.05, and 77.33 mg L−1. The ratios of heavy metal toxicity factors (TF were greater for common carp compared to those for the catfish. Conclusion: Our preliminary findings suggest that common carp C. carpio with higher LC50 (and LC100 values appears to be more tolerant to heavy metals exposure than the catfish (P. hypophthalmus. This may be due to the resistance to the heavy metals through protection from the carp's scaled body versus scaleless body of the catfish.

  1. Commercial and game fish from the Dąbie lake (Poland and their infection of Paracoenogonimus ovatus (Digenea

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    Angelika Anna Linowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Paracoenogonimus ovatus is the parasite that infest wide definitive host range (predator birds and at least two intermediate hosts: molluscs (Viviparus viviparus, V. fasciatus and freshwater fish from eastern and central Europe. The larvae of the parasite (metacercariae go to the muscle and connective tissue, and at high intensity of infection to the internal organs and brain of fish. A total of 128 fishes were caught in autumn 2009 and 2014, by fishing boats operating in Lake Dąbie, which is one of the largest lakes in Poland. The species selected reflect the species structure of commercial and recreational catches. They were roach, bream, silver bream, crucian carp (Cyprinidae, ruffe, perch, zander (Percidae and pike (Esocidae. The fish were filleted, and the skinned muscle was compressed under a trichinoscope, what allowed to see and count metacercariae in the tissues. To facilitate parasite isolation from the cysts, the muscle tissues were subjected to a 0.1 % solution of activated pepsin and 5 % citric acid at a temperature of 20ºC. The free larvae were measured and identified under an Olympus BX 50 microscope coupled with a camera running AxioVs40 V 4.8.2.0 software. Metacercariae are grouped primarily at depths ranging from just beneath the skin to about 50% of fillet thickness. The infection prevalence of P. ovatus metacercariae in the fish analyzed was 78,5%. The density of infection per gram of muscle tissue mass in the fish infected was 8.85 (from 1 to 84 metacercariae. The highest density was noted in roach, bream and white bream (17.09, 11.14 and 9.58, respectively. Metacercariae occurred singly in pike, parasites were not found in the muscles of crucian carp, ruffe, and perch examined. The reason for such differences in infection is the availability and composition of food, as well as the behavior of the fish examined.

  2. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  3. Fish and land use influence Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) densities in large wetlands across the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Moser, E. Barry

    2011-01-01

    Gammarus lacustrisK/i> and Ki>Hyalella azteca (hereafter G. lacustris and H. azteca, respectively) are important components of secondary production in wetlands and shallow lakes of the upper Midwest, USA. Within the past 50 years, amphipod densities have decreased while occurrences of fish and intensity of agricultural land use have increased markedly across this landscape. We investigated influences of fish, sedimentation, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) on densities of G. lacustris and H. azteca in semipermanent and permanent wetlands and shallow lakes (n = 283) throughout seven eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during 2004–2005. G. lacustris and H. azteca densities were positively correlated with densities of SAV (P P P = 0.01 and P = 0.013, respectively) and with high densities of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; P P = 0.033, respectively). H. azteca densities also were negatively correlated with densities of small fish (e.g., other minnows [Cyprinidae] and sticklebacks [Gasterosteidae]; P = 0.048) and common carp (Cyprinus spp.; P = 0.022). G. lacustris densities were negatively correlated with high levels of suspended solids (an index for sedimentation; P H. azteca densities were positively correlated with the width of upland-vegetation buffers (P = 0.004). Our results indicate that sedimentation and fish reduce amphipod densities and may contribute to the current low densities of amphipods in the upper Midwest. Thus, removing/excluding fish, and providing a thick buffer of upland vegetation around wetlands may help restore amphipod densities and wetland and water quality within this landscape.

  4. Fauna parasitária de peixes oriundos de "pesque-pagues" do município de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil. II. Metazoários Parasitic fauna of cultivated fishes in feefishing farm of franca, state of São Paulo, Brazil. II. Metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan fauna from cultivated fishes (N = 433 in two feefishing farm of Franca, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was studied during a period of April 1997 through March 1999. Specimens of piauçú Leporinus macrocephalus Garavello & Britski, 1988 (Anostomidae, pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Characidae, carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (Cyprinidae, Tillapia rendalli Boulenger, 1896 (Cichlidae, nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 (Cichlidae, matrinxã Brycon cephalus Günther, 1869 (Characidae and tambacu hybrid (male of P. mesopotamicus x female of Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 were collected. A total of 29.3% was parasitized by monogenean, 9.7% with crustacean (copepodits and adults of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758 and Argulus sp. and 1.6% with myxosporean (Henneguya piaractus Martins & Souza, 1997 and Myxobolus colossomatis Moinar & Békési, 1993.The most susceptible species to myxosporean infestation was P. mesopotamicus. L. macrocephalus and P. mesopotamicus that showed a higher susceptibility to Argulus sp infestation. It was not observed significant difference (P > 0.05 in the seasonal variation of L. cyprinacea infection of all species. L. macrocephalus, P. mesopotamicus and tambacu showed a great number of P. pillulare with no significant difference (P > 0.05 between them. Monogenean infections were observed in all examined species, without significant difference (P > 0.05 in the seasonal variation. Nevertheless, occurrence of monogenean was higher in P. mesopotamicus and lower in Nile-tilapia. By the other hand, parasites number collected from P. mesopotamicus was lower in the winter. Copepodits of L. cyprinacea were found in the gills of P. mesopotamicus, tambacu and L. macrocephalus. However, adults of L. cyprinacea were observed only in the P. mesopotamicus and tambacu.

  5. Specificity and specialization of congeneric monogeneans parasitizing cyprinid fish.

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    Simková, Andrea; Verneau, Olivier; Gelnar, Milan; Morand, Serge

    2006-05-01

    Patterns and likely processes connected with evolution of host specificity in congeneric monogeneans parasitizing fish species of the Cyprinidae were investigated. A total of 51 Dactylogyrus species was included. We investigated (1) the link between host specificity and parasite phylogeny; (2) the morphometric correlates of host specificity, parasite body size, and variables of attachment organs important for host specificity; (3) the evolution of morphological adaptation, that is, attachment organ; (4) the determinants of host specificity following the hypothesis of specialization on more predictable resources considering maximal body size, maximal longevity, and abundance as measures of host predictability; and (5) the potential link between host specificity and parasite diversification. Host specificity, expressed as an index of host specificity including phylogenetic and taxonomic relatedness of hosts, was partially associated with parasite phylogeny, but no significant contribution of host phylogeny was found. The mapping of host specificity into the phylogenetic tree suggests that being specialist is not a derived condition for Dactylogyrus species. The different morphometric traits of the attachment apparatus seem to be selected in connection with specialization of specialist parasites and other traits favored as adaptations in generalist parasites. Parasites widespread on several host species reach higher abundance within hosts, which supports the hypothesis of ecological specialization. When separating specialists and generalists, we confirmed the hypothesis of specialization on a predictable resource; that is, specialists with larger anchors tend to live on fish species with larger body size and greater longevity, which could be also interpreted as a mechanism for optimizing morphological adaptation. We demonstrated that ecology of host species could also be recognized as an important determinant of host specificity. The mapping of morphological

  6. Evaluation of swimming performance for fish passage of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae using an experimental flume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, D R; McMahon, T E; Kappenman, K M; Blank, M

    2017-03-01

    The swimming performance of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae, the most widely distributed minnow (Cyprinidae) in North America, was assessed in relation to potential passage barriers. The study estimated passage success, maximum ascent distances and maximum sprint speed in an open-channel flume over a range of water velocities and temperatures (10·7, 15·3 and 19·3° C). Rhinichthys cataractae had high passage success (95%) in a 9·2 m flume section at mean test velocities of 39 and 64 cm s(-1) , but success rate dropped to 66% at 78 cm s(-1) . Only 20% of fish were able to ascend a 2·7 m section with a mean velocity of 122 cm s(-1) . Rhinichthys cataractae actively selected low-velocity pathways located along the bottom and corners of the flume at all test velocities and adopted position-holding behaviour at higher water velocities. Mean volitional sprint speed was 174 cm s(-1) when fish volitionally sprinted in areas of high water velocities. Swimming performance generally increased with water temperature and fish length. Based on these results, fishways with mean velocities 100 cm s(-1) within structures should be limited to short distance (swimming performance metrics in an open-channel flume, which can simulate the hydraulic features of fishways and allow for behavioural observations that can facilitate the design of effective passage structures. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Phytoplankton response to fish-induced environmental changes in a temperate shallow pond-type lake

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    Napiórkowska-Krzebietke Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1967, the temperate, shallow, pond-type Lake Warniak has been subjected to different biomanipulation methods including the introduction of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val., silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val., and bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson and then their removal in an effort to control macrophytes and phytoplankton. Recently, pilot stocking with predatory fish, particularly pike, Esox lucius L., has also been conducted. Hence, an examination of the long-term response patterns of phytoplankton to multiple fish-induced stressors was undertaken. In recent years, Chara domination (2000-2004 has helped to stabilize a clear-water state, high/good ecological status, and meso-eutrophic conditions. After the disappearance of Charales in 2004, the rapid, unstable changes in phytoplankton biomass, structure, and biodiversity suggested a shift toward a turbid-water state. As a result, the phytoplankton assemblages changed from those dominated by cryptophytes Y+X2+X1+LO (2000-2004 through those dominated by cyanobacteria K (2005-2008, dinoflagellates LO+Y (2009-2011, and cryptophytes Y+LO+F+X2 (2012, to those dominated by diatoms D+K+P+A (2013-2014 with representative taxa that occur in nutrient-rich and/or nutrient-poor water bodies. The 1967-2014 changes indicated that four periods, two with clear-water state and two with turbid-water state, alternately, one after the other, resulted from different fish pressure. Higher autochthonous fish biomass was usually accompanied by lower phytoplankton biomass. In contrast, the introduction of Cyprinidae fish had a stimulating effect on summer phytoplankton dominated by cyanobateria. Among the nutrients, only phosphorus played an important role.

  8. Changes in the fish community of the Kpong Headpond, lower Volta River, Ghana after 25 years of impoundment

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    Theodore Quarcoopome

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1685-1696. Epub 2011 December 01.

  9. De novo assembly and characterization of the spleen transcriptome of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

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    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Liu, Zhonghu; Gao, Chunsheng; Yan, Fengbin; Liu, Bianzhi; Feng, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquacultured species of the family Cyprinidae, and breeding this species for disease resistance is becoming more and more important. However, at the genome or transcriptome levels, study of the immunogenetics of disease resistance in the common carp is lacking. In this study, 60,316,906 and 75,200,328 paired-end clean reads were obtained from two cDNA libraries of the common carp spleen by Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Totally, 130,293 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 1400.57 bp. Approximately 105,612 (81.06%) unigenes could be annotated according to their homology with matches in the Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, COG, GO, or KEGG databases, and they were found to represent 46,747 non-redundant genes. Comparative analysis showed that 59.82% of the unigenes have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins. Gene expression comparison revealed that 10,432 and 6889 annotated unigenes were, respectively, up- and down-regulated with at least twofold changes between two developmental stages of the common carp spleen. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed to classify all unigenes into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. In addition, 46,847 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected from 35,618 unigenes, and a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (INDEL) sites were identified in the spleen transcriptome of common carp. This study has characterized the spleen transcriptome of the common carp for the first time, providing a valuable resource for a better understanding of the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. This knowledge will also facilitate future functional studies on common carp immunogenetics that may eventually be applied in breeding programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Population demographics and life history of the round hickorynut (Obovaria subrotunda) in the Duck River, Tennessee

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    Ehlo, Chase A.; Layzer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Population characteristics and life history aspects of healthy mussel populations are poorly understood. The reproductive cycle, age and growth, and population structure of Obovaria subrotunda were examined at four sites in the middle Duck River, Tennessee. Obovaria subrotunda was confirmed to be a bradytictic species, spawning in the late summer and holding glochidia in the gills for 11 mo until the following summer. Fecundity was positively related to mussel length (R2  =  0.75) and ranged from 7122 to 76,584 glochidia. Fourteen species of fish found in the Duck River, in the families Percidae, Cyprinidae, and Cottidae, were infested with glochidia in the laboratory to examine potential hosts. Juveniles transformed onEtheostoma blennioides (greenside darter), E. obama (spangled darter), E. flabellare (fantail darter), and Cottus carolinae (banded sculpin). Analyses of shell thin-sections indicated that males grew faster and obtained a larger size than females. Individuals live to at least 14 y old. Females became sexually mature at age one. Four sites were quantitatively sampled using a systematic design with three random starts. The observed ratio of adult males to females (0.9∶1) did not differ significantly from 1∶1. Results of the quantitative sampling showed an increase in density compared to earlier studies and a high proportion of 1 to 5 y old O. subrotunda.

  11. Morphological and molecular data for a new species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) in the Mexican redhorse Moxostoma austrinum Bean (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Varela, Martín; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; Choudhury, Anindo; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    Pomphorhynchus purhepechus n. sp. is described from the intestine of the Mexican redhorse Moxostoma austrinum Bean (Catostomidae) in central Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from the other seven described species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 in the Americas by a subspherical proboscis and 14 longitudinal rows with 16-18 hooks each; the third and the fourth row of hooks are alternately longest. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA (including the domains D2-D3) were used to corroborate the morphological distinction between the new species and Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli Linkins in Van Cleave, 1919, a species widely distributed in several freshwater fish species across Canada, USA, and Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated between the new species and the isolates of P. bulbocolli ranged between 13 and 14% for cox1, and between 0.6 and 0.8% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of each dataset showed that the isolates of P. bulbocolli parasitising freshwater fishes from three families, the Catostomidae, Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae, represent a separate lineage, and that the acanthocephalans collected from two localities in central Mexico comprise an independent lineage. In addition, our analysis of the genetic variation of P. bulbocolli demonstrates that individuals of this acanthocephalan from different host species are conspecific. Finally, the distribution, host-association, and phylogenetic relationship of the new species, when placed in the context of the region's geological history, suggest that both host and parasite underwent speciation after their ancestors became isolated in Central Mexico.

  12. Ornamental fish in pet stores in Greece: a threat to biodiversity?

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    I. PAPAVLASOPOULOU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquarium trade has been recognized as an important pathway for the introduction of invasive species around the world. This study investigates the availability of ornamental fish species in ten large-size, centrally positioned aquarium stores that control a large share of imports and the Hellenic market chain, and aims to provide a provisional checklist on the aquarium fish trade in Greece. For each recorded species, additional data concerning various aspects (e.g. natural environment, native range, established as aliens, conservation status and threats to humans were collected from Fishbase, IUCN red list and the scientific literature. Overall, 326 fish species belonging to 64 families were reported according to the store labels. The majority of the species recorded were freshwater (66%, originating mainly from South America and Asia, while most of the marine species (26% had primarily an Indo-Pacific native distribution. Among the freshwater fishes, Cichlidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant families with 64 and 27 species, respectively, while the family Acanthuridae dominated within the marine fishes with ten species. The vast majority of both freshwater and marine species (>90% were tropical. Concerning the presence of alien species, 62 ornamental species have been established outside their natural range, with 22 of them positively confirmed as aliens in the European waters. Moreover, 25 species were listed in the critically endangered (CR, endangered (EN and vulnerable (VU categories of the IUCN red list. Even more surprisingly, for 192 species recorded, data were missing to assign their conservation status or had not been assessed at all. Finally, the majority of the species (84% were harmless to humans. However, 35 species (11% were recognised as potentially harmful (i.e. venomous, ciguatera poisoning, traumatogenic and two were found to be poisonous if consumed. In conclusion, the aquarium fish sector in Greece is practically

  13. Historical and current perspectives on fish assemblages of the Snake River, Idaho and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, T.R.; Mebane, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River is the tenth longest river in the United States, extending 1,667 km from its origin in Yellowstone National Park in western Wyoming to its union with the Columbia River at Pasco, Washington. Historically, the main-stem Snake River upstream from the Hells Canyon Complex supported at least 26 native fish species, including anadromous stocks of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Of these anadromous species, only the white sturgeon remains in the Snake River between the Hells Canyon Complex and Shoshone Falls. Today, much of the Snake River has been transformed into a river with numerous impoundments and flow diversions, increased pollutant loads, and elevated water temperatures. Current (1993-2002) fish assemblage collections from 15 sites along the Snake River and Henrys Fork contained 35 fish species, including 16 alien species. Many of these alien species such as catfish (Ictaluridae), carp (Cyprinidae), and sunfish (Centrarchidae) are adapted for warmwater impounded habitats. Currently, the Snake River supports 19 native species. An index of biotic integrity (IBI), developed to evaluate large rivers in the Northwest, was used to evaluate recent (1993-2002) fish collections from the Snake River and Henrys Fork in southern Idaho and western Wyoming. Index of biotic integrity site scores and component metrics revealed a decline in biotic integrity from upstream to downstream in both the Snake River and Henrys Fork. Two distinct groups of sites were evident that correspond to a range of IBI scores-an upper Snake River and Henrys Fork group with relatively high biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 46-84) and a lower Snake River group with low biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 10-29). Sites located in the lower Snake River exhibited fish assemblages that reflect poor-quality habitat where coldwater and sensitive species are rare or absent, and

  14. Susceptibility of Representative Great Lakes Fish Species to the North Carolina Strain of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthai, Traimat; Loch, Thomas P; Standish, Isaac; Faisal, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a notifiable pathogen of the World Organization of Animal Health. Since SVCV was isolated in Lake Ontario in 2007, concern has grown about its spread in the Great Lakes basin and its potential negative impacts on fish species of importance in stock enhancement programs basinwide. The susceptibility of representative fish species from the families Cyprinidae (Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, Spotfin Shiner Cyprinella spiloptera, and Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus), Centrarchidae (Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides), Percidae (Walleye Sander vitreus), Salmonidae (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Esocidae (Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) to SVCV was evaluated by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Morbidity and mortality were recorded, and virus re-isolation, seminested reverse transcription PCR, and histopathological assessments were performed. Using intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were highly susceptible to SVCV (40-70% mortality). All dead or moribund and apparently healthy surviving Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV positive. The SVCV was also detected in challenged but healthy Spotfin Shiners (30%) and Creek Chub (5%). However, noncyprinid species exhibited no morbidity or mortality and were free of SVCV following an observation period of 30 d. In a follow-up experimental challenge, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV challenged at 10 3 and 10 5 PFU/mL by means of waterborne immersion. After immersion, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners exhibited characteristic SVCV disease signs, but mortality was less (30% and 10% mortality, respectively) than that in fish with i.p. injections. The SVCV was detected in all mortalities and a subset of healthy Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners. Necrotic changes were observed in the kidneys, liver, spleen, ovaries, and heart, and other histopathological lesions also

  15. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes of Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, M Razia; Radhakrishnan, S

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinidae followed by that of Channidae and the poorest of Belonidae. The most homogeneous parasite fauna was that of Bagridae and the most heterogeneous that of Cyprinodontidae. The parasite fauna of Cyprinodontidae and Belontidae were qualitatively very similar. The results indicate that the freshwater fishes of the southwest cost of India harbour a rich and diverse metazoan parasite fauna, which is as rich and diverse as that of the marine fishes of this area. The results also suggest that carnivorous/omnivorous fish species harbour richer and more heterogeneous component communities of parasites than herbivorous species implying that the feeding habits of fishes is a major factor deciding their parasite faunas.

  16. Novelties in hybrid zones: crossroads between population genomic and ecological approaches.

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    Caroline Costedoat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interspecific hybridization is widespread, occurring in a taxonomically diverse array of species. The Cyprinidae family, which displays more than 30% hybridization, is a good candidate for studies of processes underlying isolation and speciation, such as genetic exchange between previously isolated lineages. This is particularly relevant in the case of recent hybridization between an invasive species, Chondrostoma nasus nasus (from Eastern Europe, and C. toxostoma toxostoma (a threatened species endemic to southern France, in which bidirectional introgressive hybridization has been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 128 specimens from reference populations and 1495 hybrid zone specimens (two years of sampling and four stations, using five molecular markers (one mitochondrial gene, four nuclear introns, morphology (meristic and plastic characters and life history traits (weight, size, coefficient of condition, sex, age, shoaling. We identified 65 hybrid combinations and visualized spatial and temporal changes in composition. The direction of mitochondrial introgression was density-dependent in favor of the rarer species and we demonstrate that the sexual selection hypothesis is a preponderant explanation in the asymmetry of introgression. Despite genomic evolution in the hybrid zone, convergence was observed for body shape and coefficient of condition, indicating changes in foraging behavior with respect to reference populations, reflecting strong environmental pressure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The complex rules of hybrid zone dynamics are established very early in the contact zone. We propose "inheritance from the rare species" as a new evolutionary hypothesis for animal models. The endemic species was not assimilated by the invasive species. Survival rates for this species were highest in the middle of the river (the warmest part due to a trade-off between food availability and fecundity. The environment

  17. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Z G; Buhl, K; Bartell, S E; Schoenfuss, H L

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption-as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration-than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered Rio

  18. Characterization of common carp transcriptome: sequencing, de novo assembly, annotation and comparative genomics.

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    Peifeng Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. RESULT: Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs were detected from 29,869 (81.1% contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2% contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%, 24,501(66.5% and 25,025(70.0% to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. CONCLUSION: The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and

  19. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

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    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  20. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of

  1. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

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    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    watershed. Their extensions touch just at the water-separation between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea on the Dinarid Mountains. The idea for this thesis originates from the distribution of the small cobitid Cobitis elongata Heckel & Kner, 1858 given in the work of K a r ama n, S., (1952. The thesis that the endemic salmonids came in the Adriatic Sea watershed through the Adriatic.Pannonian connection is supported by the zoogeographical distribution of some mutual marine, brachic or freshwater fish species for Adriatic Sea itself or the Adriatic Sea watershed and Ponto.Caspian depression (Black Sea and Caspian Lake. These fish belong to the families Acipenseridae and Cobitidae, some endemic Cyprinidae representatives from the Adriatic Sea watershed belong to widely extended genera in the central Europe, mainly in the Danube river flow.

  2. Changes in the fish community of the Kpong Headpond, lower Volta River, Ghana after 25 years of impoundment

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    Theodore Quarcoopome

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1685-1696. Epub 2011 December 01.La laguna Kpong se convirtió en la segunda

  3. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, fish communities are found in a diverse array of aquatic habitats ranging from the large coastal rivers of the temperate rainforests, to the fragmented and sometimes ephemeral streams of the xeric interior basins, and high-elevation streams and lakes in the mountainous areas (Rieman et al. 2003). Only high-elevation lakes and streams isolated above barriers to fish passage remained historically devoid of fish because they were never invaded following Pleistocene glaciation (Smith 1981). Despite this widespread distribution and once great population abundances, taxonomic diversity of fishes in these forested systems is naturally lower than in aquatic habitats in the eastern U.S. (Reeves, Bisson, and Dambacher 1998). Interactions among factors that influence species richness in aquatic systems (e.g., basin size, long-term stability of habitat, and barriers to colonization; Smith 1981) continue to influence the occurrence and persistence of fishes in these systems today. Consequently, the larger low-elevation rivers and estuaries support the greatest variety of fish species. In the high-elevation tributary streams, fish communities are less complex because these aquatic systems were less climatically and geologically stable, and fish populations were smaller and more prone to local extirpation. Furthermore, barriers to fish passage inhibited dispersal and colonization (Smith 1981). Streams in forested landscapes generally support salmon and trout, Oncorhynchus spp., whitefish Prosopium spp., sculpins Cottus spp., suckers Catostomus spp., and minnows (Cyprinidae), but in some of the colder streams, chars (e.g., Salvelinus confluentus and Salvelinus malma) and lampreys (Petromyzontidae)may also occur (Rieman et al. 2003).Although biodiversity defined in terms of fish species richness is low in the Pacific Northwest, intraspecific variability is high, and polytypic fish species are common in the diverse aquatic habitats of the region. For

  4. Koi herpesvirus disease in carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, caused by the herpesvirus and accompanied by a high mortality rate, has spread across numerous fish ponds all over the world since 1998, resulting in massive mortality and significant financial losses. The herpesvirus-like virus, called the koi herpesvirus (KHV has been isolated and identified from the koi and the common carp in the course of the incidences of massive mortalities. The first appearance of a disease with a high mortality in the common and the koi carp caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV was described in 1998 in Israel and the United States of America (USA. Since that time, a large number of cases of outbreaks of this disease have been confirmed throughout the world, including the USA, Israel, and a large number of European countries. The deaths occurred seasonally, in late spring or early autumn, when the water temperature was from 18-28ºC. The most important factor of the environment that affects the occurrence and gravity of this disease is the water temperature. This disease is currently considered one of the factors that present the biggest threat to populations of the common and the koi carp. Diseased fish are disoriented, their movements uncoordinated, their breathing rapid, gills swollen, and they have local skin lesions. The virus was isolated from tissue of diseased fish and cultivated on a KF-1 (koi fin cells cell line. Electronic microscopy examinations revealed virus identical viral particles of the Herpesviridae family. Analyses of the virion polypeptide and DNA established differences between the KHV and the previously known herpesvirus of the Cyprinida family, Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV, and the virus of the channel catfish (Channel catfish virus - CCV. In the years 2004 and 2005, high mortality was established among one-year and two-year carp fry on three fish ponds. At two ponds, the deaths occurred among one year and two

  5. [Fauna of monogeneans (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) of gudgeons (Gobioninae, Cyprininae). 2. Coevolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, P I

    2009-01-01

    (Sarcocheilichthys group of genera), which ends in the gudgeons with primitive monogeneans (Pseudogobio group of genera) and evolutionary young monogeneans (Gobio group of genera). The pattern of distribution of the morphological groups of monogeneans by gudgeons is a mirror reflection of modern contradictory views on the taxonomy and evolution of these fishes and may contribute to a more profound understanding of the place of gudgeons in Cyprinidae, their taxonomy and evolution.