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Sample records for rutile titania phase

  1. PVA assisted low temperature anatase to rutile phase transformation (ART) and properties of titania nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Shrabani; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2015-01-01

    Anatase to rutile phase transformation (ART) of titania nanoparticles is observed at very low temperature (180 °C) just by introducing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during co-precipitation followed by hydrothermal synthesis. The detailed investigations pertaining to the structural, optical and electrochemical properties of the nanosized titania and titania/PVA nanohybrid has been carried out. The crystallite size and crystal structure is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image reveals formation of spherical NPs in both the cases. Identification of functional groups is done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The photoluminescence studies showed that emission slightly shifts towards higher wavelength side with remarkable decrease in intensity for TiO 2 /PVA nanocomposite (rutile samples). The remarkable decrease in PL intensity in TiO 2 /PVA nanocomposite (rutile samples) is explained considering the surface passivation during growth process. Ion transportation is monitored via Cyclic voltammetric (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. A significant enhancement of peak cathodic current in case of nanocomposite modified electrode is observed. It is assumed that TiO 2 /PVA (rutile) nanoparticles provided the conducting path for the electrons and hence enhanced the electrochemical reaction. - Graphical abstract: Present work reports anatase to rutile phase transformation (ART) of titania nanoparticles at very low temperature (180 °C) just by introducing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during co-precipitation followed by hydrothermal synthesis. - Highlights: • Low temperature phase transformation of TiO 2 nanoparticles from anatase to rutile. • Role of PVA in phase transformation. • Synthesis of spherical shaped uniformly distributed PVA capped TiO 2 NPs. • Explained the charge transfer process among anatase to rutile phase transformation via luminescence studies. • Enhanced

  2. Combined toxicity of two crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) of Titania nanoparticles towards freshwater microalgae: Chlorella sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iswarya, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Alex, Sruthi Ann; Iyer, Siddharth; Chaudhuri, Gouri [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chandrasekaran, Prathna Thanjavur [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Bhalerao, Gopalkrishna M.; Chakravarty, Sujoy [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Toxicity of two crystalline phases of titania NPs on freshwater microalgae studied. • (Anatase, Rutile) mixture showed additive and antagonistic effect on microalgae. • Rutile had more colloidal stability than anatase and binary mixtures. • ROS generation varied with the crystallinity of the NPs. • Ultrastructural damages observed in TEM images. - Abstract: In view of the increasing usage of anatase and rutile crystalline phases of titania NPs in the consumer products, their entry into the aquatic environment may pose a serious risk to the ecosystem. In the present study, the possible toxic impact of anatase and rutile nanoparticles (individually and in binary mixture) was investigated using freshwater microalgae, Chlorella sp. at low exposure concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L) in freshwater medium under UV irradiation. Reduction of cell viability as well as a reduction in chlorophyll content were observed due to the presence of NPs. An antagonistic effect was noted at certain concentrations of binary mixture such as (0.25, 0.25), (0.25, 0.5), and (0.5, 0.5) mg/L, and an additive effect for the other combinations, (0.25, 1), (0.5, 0.25), (0.5, 1), (1, 0.25), (1, 0.5), and (1, 1) mg/L. The hydrodynamic size analyses in the test medium revealed that rutile NPs were more stable in lake water than the anatase and binary mixtures [at 6 h, the sizes of anatase (1 mg/L), rutile NPs (1 mg/L), and binary mixture (1, 1 mg/L) were 948.83 ± 35.01 nm, 555.74 ± 19.93 nm, and 1620.24 ± 237.87 nm, respectively]. The generation of oxidative stress was found to be strongly dependent on the crystallinity of the nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed damages in the nucleus and cell membrane of algal cells due to the interaction of anatase NPs, whereas rutile NPs were found to cause chloroplast and internal organelle damages. Mis-shaped chloroplasts, lack of nucleus, and starch-pyrenoid complex were noted in binary

  3. Facile synthesis of hierarchical nanostructured rutile titania for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Hailong; Wei Mingdeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rutile TiO 2 sub-microflowers and sub-microspheres with different building blocks as anode materials of lithium-ion battery. → Controllable morphologies with oxalic acid by the hydrothermal technique. → Sub-microflower and sub-microspheres constructed by well organized nanorods exhibited high capacity and good cycle stability. → Small size building blocks nanorods enhance the transfer rate of Li-ion. - Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method is developed to prepare rutile titania sub-microflowers consisting of nanorods with oxalic acid and TiOSO 4 as reagents. The diameter of sub-microflowers and nanorods is found to be ca. 800 and 40 nm, respectively. Also, the shape and size of building blocks in rutile titania sub-microflowers can be considerably controlled via adjusting the reaction time and reactant amounts. Rutile titania sub-microflowers composed of nanorods display higher discharge capacity and better rate cycle stability than other rutile titania nanostructures as lithium-ion battery anode material due to enhancing the Li-ion transfer rate for small size building blocks.

  4. Hydrogen gas sensing feature of polyaniline/titania (rutile) nanocomposite at environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani Moghaddam, Hossain, E-mail: hossainmilani@yahoo.com [Solid State Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasirian, Shahruz [Solid State Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Basic Sciences Department, Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyaniline/titania (rutile) nanocomposite (TPNC) was synthesized by a chemical oxidative polymerization method. • Surface morphology and titania (rutile) wt% in TPNC sensors were significant factors for H{sub 2} gas sensing. • TPNC sensors could be used for H{sub 2} gas sensing at different R.H. humidity. • TPNC Sensors exhibited considerable sensitive, reversible and repeatable response to H{sub 2} gas at environmental conditions. - Abstract: The resistance-based sensors of polyaniline/titania (rutile) nanocomposite (TPNC) were prepared by spin coating technique onto an epoxy glass substrate with Cu-interdigited electrodes to study their hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas sensing features. Our findings are that the change of the surface morphology, porosity and wt% of titania in TPNCs have a significant effect on H{sub 2} gas sensing of sensors. All of the sensors had a reproducibility response toward 0.8 vol% H{sub 2} gas at room temperature, air pressure and 50% relative humidity. A sensor with 40 wt% of titania nanoparticles had better response/recovery time and the response than other sensors. Moreover, H{sub 2} gas sensing mechanism of TPNC sensors based contact areas and the correlation of energy levels between PANI chains and the titania grains were studied.

  5. Plasma sprayed rutile titania-nanosilver antibacterial coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jinjin [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhao, Chengjian [National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, Department of ECLSS, China Astronaut Researching and Training Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Zhou, Jingfang [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA, 5095 (Australia); Li, Chunxia [National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, Department of ECLSS, China Astronaut Researching and Training Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Shao, Yiran; Shi, Chao [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Yingchun, E-mail: yzhu@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/Ag feedstock powders containing 1–10,000 ppm silver nanoparticles were double sintered and deposited by plasma spray. • TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings were composed of pure rutile phase and homogeneously-distributed metallic silver. • TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. - Abstract: Rutile titania (TiO{sub 2}) coatings have superior mechanical properties and excellent stability that make them preferential candidates for various applications. In order to prevent infection arising from bacteria, significant efforts have been focused on antibacterial TiO{sub 2} coatings. In the study, titania-nanosilver (TiO{sub 2}/Ag) coatings with five different kinds of weight percentages of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by plasma spray. The feedstock powders, which had a composition of rutile TiO{sub 2} powders containing 1–10,000 ppm AgNPs, were double sintered and deposited on stainless steel substrates with optimized spraying parameters. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to analysize the phase composition and surface morphology of TiO{sub 2}/Ag powders and coatings. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were employed to examine the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared coatings by bacterial counting method. The results showed that silver existed homogeneously in the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings and no crystalline changed happened in the TiO{sub 2} structure. The reduction ratios on the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with 10 ppm AgNPs were as high as 94.8% and 95.6% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, and the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with 100–1000 ppm AgNPs exhibited 100% bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus, which indicated the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm AgNPs had strong antibacterial activity. Moreover, the main factors influencing the

  6. Plasma sprayed rutile titania-nanosilver antibacterial coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jinjin; Zhao, Chengjian; Zhou, Jingfang; Li, Chunxia; Shao, Yiran; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO_2/Ag feedstock powders containing 1–10,000 ppm silver nanoparticles were double sintered and deposited by plasma spray. • TiO_2/Ag coatings were composed of pure rutile phase and homogeneously-distributed metallic silver. • TiO_2/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. - Abstract: Rutile titania (TiO_2) coatings have superior mechanical properties and excellent stability that make them preferential candidates for various applications. In order to prevent infection arising from bacteria, significant efforts have been focused on antibacterial TiO_2 coatings. In the study, titania-nanosilver (TiO_2/Ag) coatings with five different kinds of weight percentages of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by plasma spray. The feedstock powders, which had a composition of rutile TiO_2 powders containing 1–10,000 ppm AgNPs, were double sintered and deposited on stainless steel substrates with optimized spraying parameters. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to analysize the phase composition and surface morphology of TiO_2/Ag powders and coatings. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were employed to examine the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared coatings by bacterial counting method. The results showed that silver existed homogeneously in the TiO_2/Ag coatings and no crystalline changed happened in the TiO_2 structure. The reduction ratios on the TiO_2/Ag coatings with 10 ppm AgNPs were as high as 94.8% and 95.6% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, and the TiO_2/Ag coatings with 100–1000 ppm AgNPs exhibited 100% bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus, which indicated the TiO_2/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm AgNPs had strong antibacterial activity. Moreover, the main factors influencing the antibacterial properties of TiO_2/Ag coatings were discussed with

  7. Dynamic Diffraction Studies on the Crystallization, Phase Transformation, and Activation Energies in Anodized Titania Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albetran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of calcination time on the phase transformation and crystallization kinetics of anodized titania nanotube arrays was studied using in-situ isothermal and non-isothermal synchrotron radiation diffraction from room temperature to 900 °C. Anatase first crystallized at 400 °C, while rutile crystallized at 550 °C. Isothermal heating of the anodized titania nanotubes by an increase in the calcination time at 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, and 650 °C resulted in a slight reduction in anatase abundance, but an increase in the abundance of rutile because of an anatase-to-rutile transformation. The Avrami equation was used to model the titania crystallization mechanism and the Arrhenius equation was used to estimate the activation energies of the titania phase transformation. Activation energies of 22 (10 kJ/mol for the titanium-to-anatase transformation, and 207 (17 kJ/mol for the anatase-to-rutile transformation were estimated.

  8. Dynamic Diffraction Studies on the Crystallization, Phase Transformation, and Activation Energies in Anodized Titania Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albetran, Hani; Vega, Victor; Prida, Victor M; Low, It-Meng

    2018-02-23

    The influence of calcination time on the phase transformation and crystallization kinetics of anodized titania nanotube arrays was studied using in-situ isothermal and non-isothermal synchrotron radiation diffraction from room temperature to 900 °C. Anatase first crystallized at 400 °C, while rutile crystallized at 550 °C. Isothermal heating of the anodized titania nanotubes by an increase in the calcination time at 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, and 650 °C resulted in a slight reduction in anatase abundance, but an increase in the abundance of rutile because of an anatase-to-rutile transformation. The Avrami equation was used to model the titania crystallization mechanism and the Arrhenius equation was used to estimate the activation energies of the titania phase transformation. Activation energies of 22 (10) kJ/mol for the titanium-to-anatase transformation, and 207 (17) kJ/mol for the anatase-to-rutile transformation were estimated.

  9. Low temperature N,N-dimethylformamide-assisted synthesis and characterization of anatase-rutile biphasic nanostructured titania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estruga, M; Domenech, X; Ayllon, J A [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Domingo, C [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: joseantonio.ayllon@uab.es, E-mail: mestruga@qf.uab.cat

    2009-03-25

    Anatase and rutile biphasic nanostructured titania (TiO{sub 2}) has been synthesized via hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide in an aqueous solution of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 80 deg. C for 16 h. The presence of DMF, which was partially hydrolyzed during the process, determined the formation of a biphasic material. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the presence of both anatase and rutile titania phases in a ratio of approx. 1:1. Transmission electron microscope analysis showed that rutile was present as radial flower-like nanorods, which were surrounded by anatase spherical nanoparticles of 5 nm diameter. Low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis showed the characteristic hysteresis loop of a mesoporous material. Specific surface area reached a value of 120 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and the average pore diameter was 50 A. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that interstitial nitrogen was incorporated (0.35 at.%) during the annealing process. According to ultraviolet (UV)-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscope characterization, the N-doping caused a bandgap reduction from 3.0 to 2.9 eV. Photocatalytic activity of the material was tested for the degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange and 4-nitrophenol under near-UV and visible light radiation.

  10. Hydrogen gas sensing feature of polyaniline/titania (rutile) nanocomposite at environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani Moghaddam, Hossain; Nasirian, Shahruz

    2014-10-01

    The resistance-based sensors of polyaniline/titania (rutile) nanocomposite (TPNC) were prepared by spin coating technique onto an epoxy glass substrate with Cu-interdigited electrodes to study their hydrogen (H2) gas sensing features. Our findings are that the change of the surface morphology, porosity and wt% of titania in TPNCs have a significant effect on H2 gas sensing of sensors. All of the sensors had a reproducibility response toward 0.8 vol% H2 gas at room temperature, air pressure and 50% relative humidity. A sensor with 40 wt% of titania nanoparticles had better response/recovery time and the response than other sensors. Moreover, H2 gas sensing mechanism of TPNC sensors based contact areas and the correlation of energy levels between PANI chains and the titania grains were studied.

  11. Dynamic Diffraction Studies on the Crystallization, Phase Transformation, and Activation Energies in Anodized Titania Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Hani Albetran; Victor Vega; Victor M. Prida; It-Meng Low

    2018-01-01

    The influence of calcination time on the phase transformation and crystallization kinetics of anodized titania nanotube arrays was studied using in-situ isothermal and non-isothermal synchrotron radiation diffraction from room temperature to 900 °C. Anatase first crystallized at 400 °C, while rutile crystallized at 550 °C. Isothermal heating of the anodized titania nanotubes by an increase in the calcination time at 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, and 650 °C resulted in a slight reduction in anatase...

  12. Synthesis of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanostructures from natural ilmenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahyuingsih, Sayekti, E-mail: sayekti@mipa.uns.ac.id; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Pramono, Edi; Sulistya, Ariantama Djati; Argawan, Panji Rofa; Dharmawan, Frenandha Dwi; Rinawati, Ludfiaastu; Hanif, Qonita Awliya [Inorganic Materials Research Group, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Sulistiyono, Eko; Firdiyono, Florentinus [Metallurgy Extraction Laboratory, Central of Metallurgy Research LIPI, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Nanostructure anatase and rutile type TiO{sub 2} were synthesized from dissolution roasted ilmenite from natural ilmenite sand as the starting materials. Anatase TiO{sub 2} and rutile TiO{sub 2} (high crystallinity) with the diameters of 20–100 nm were obtained by calcined soluble ilmenite sand produced by leaching process. Calcinations of the xerogel TiO{sub 2} from liquor products were conducted for 4 hours at temperature of 450 °C. The samples were characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction), STA (simultant thermal analysis), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), and BET surface area. Titania Anatase-Rutile form as a mixture were produced by titania slag with the hydrolysis product. While, in another route, complete titania anatase phase was produced through hydrolysis and condensation steps of leach liquors. This synthesis methods provide a simple route to fabricate nanostructure TiO{sub 2} from low cost material.

  13. Anatase-rutile phase transformation of titanium dioxide bulk material: a DFT + U approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, Nam H; Le, Hieu V; Cao, Thi M; Pham, Viet V; Le, Hung M; Nguyen-Manh, Duc

    2012-01-01

    The anatase-rutile phase transformation of TiO 2 bulk material is investigated using a density functional theory (DFT) approach in this study. According to the calculations employing the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional with the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential, it is suggested that the anatase phase is more energetically stable than rutile, which is in variance with the experimental observations. Consequently, the DFT + U method is employed in order to predict the correct structural stability in titania from electronic-structure-based total energy calculations. The Hubbard U term is determined by examining the band structure of rutile with various values of U from 3 to 10 eV. At U = 5 eV, a theoretical bandgap for rutile is obtained as 3.12 eV, which is in very good agreement with the reported experimental bandgap. Hence, we choose the DFT + U method (with U = 5 eV) to investigate the transformation pathway using the newly-developed solid-state nudged elastic band (ss-NEB) method, and consequently obtain an intermediate transition structure that is 9.794 eV per four-TiO 2 above the anatase phase. When the Ti-O bonds in the transition state are examined using charge density analysis, seven Ti-O bonds (out of 24 bonds in the anatase unit cell) are broken, and this result is in excellent agreement with a previous experimental study (Penn and Banfield 1999 Am. Miner. 84 871-6).

  14. Crystalline phase-dependent eco-toxicity of titania nanoparticles to freshwater biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Qian, Jin; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jingjing; Tian, Xin; Lu, Bianhe; Shen, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    The potential toxic impacts of different crystal phases of titania nanoparticles (TNPs) on freshwater biofilms, especially under ultraviolet C irradiation (UVC), are unknown. Here, adverse impacts of three phases (anatase, rutile, and P25, 50 mg L −1 respectively) with UVC irradiation (An-UV, Ru-UV, and P25-UV) on freshwater biofilms were conducted. Characterization experiments revealed that rutile TNPs had a higher water environment stability than anatase and P25 TNPs, possessing a stronger photocatalytic activity under UVC irradiation. Phase-dependent inhibition of cell viability and significant decreases of four- and five-fold in algal biomass at 12 h of exposure were observed compared with unexposed biofilms. Moreover, phase-dependent oxidative stress resulted in remarkably significant reductions (P < 0.01) of the photosynthetic yields of the biofilms, to 40.32% (P25-UV), 48.39% (An-UV), and 46.77% (Ru-UV) of the plateau value obtained in the unexposed biofilms. A shift in community composition that manifested as a strong reduction in diatoms, indicating cyanobacteria and green algae were more tolerant than diatoms when exposed to TNPs. In terms of the toxic mechanisms, rutile TNPs resulted in apoptosis by inducing excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas P25 and anatase TNPs tended to catalyze enormous acellular ROS lead to cell necrosis under UVC irradiation. - Highlights: • Phase-dependent response of freshwater biofilms to three TNPs was studied with UVC. • Rutile is more stable yet P25 and anatase own better photooxidation level in water. • Decrease in Chl-a and φM and a shift in algae bio-cenosis were phase-dependent. • Phase-dependent stress induced cellular or acellular ROS to reduce cells viability. • Rutile tend to induced apoptosis yet P25 and anatase prefer to cause cell necrosis. - Crystalline-dependent eco-toxicity of TNPs to freshwater biofilms show allotrope of nanoparticles must be considered

  15. Role of aluminum doping on phase transformations in nanoporous titania anodic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayata, Fatma [Istanbul Bilgi University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34060, Eyup, Istanbul (Turkey); Ürgen, Mustafa, E-mail: urgen@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    The role of aluminium doping on anatase to rutile phase transformation of nanoporous titanium oxide films were investigated. For this purpose pure and aluminum doped metal films were deposited on alumina substrates by cathodic arc physical deposition. The nanoporous anodic oxides were prepared by porous anodizing of pure and aluminum doped titanium metallic films in an ethylene glycol + NH{sub 4}F based electrolyte. Nanoporous amorphous structures with 60–80 nm diameter and 2–4 μm length were formed on the surfaces of alumina substrates. The amorphous undoped and Al-doped TiO{sub 2} anodic oxides were heat-treated at different temperatures in the range of 280–720 °C for the investigation of their crystallization behavior. The combined effects of nanoporous structure and Al doping on crystallization behavior of titania were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro Raman analysis. The results indicated that both Al ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} structure and the nanoporous structure retarded the rutile formation. It was also revealed that presence or absence of metallic film underneath the nanopores has a major contribution to anatase-rutile transformation. - Highlights: • Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanopores were grown on alumina substrates using anodization method. • The crystallization behavior of nanoporous Al-doped TiO{sub 2} were investigated. • Al doping into nanoporous TiO{sub 2} retarded the anatase-rutile transformation. • Nanostructuring has significant role in controlling rutile formation temperature. • The absence of the metallic film under the nanopores delayed the rutile formation.

  16. Crystallization and segregation in vitreous rutile films annealed at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, M.A.; Sorbello, R.S.; Aita, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Vitreous titania films with rutile short-range order were sputter deposited on unheated fused silica substrates, sequentially annealed at 973 and 1273 K, and examined by Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. A segregated microstructure developed after the 1273 K anneal. This microstructure consists of supermicron-size craters dispersed in a matrix of submicron rutile crystals. Ti-O short-range order in the craters is characteristic of a mixture of two high pressure phases, m-TiO 2 (monoclinic P2 1 /c space group) and α-TiO 2 (tetragonal Pbcn space group). We calculated that a high average compressive stress parallel to the substrate must be accommodated in the films at 1273 K, caused by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of titania and fused silica. The formation of the segregated microstructure is modeled by considering two processes at work at 1273 K to lower a film's internal energy: crystallization and nonuniform stress relief. The Gibbs-Thomson relation shows that small m-TiO 2 crystallites are able to form directly from vitreous TiO 2 at 1273 K. However, the preferred mechanism for forming α-TiO 2 is likely to be by epitaxial growth at crystalline rutile twin boundaries (secondary crystallization). Both phases are denser than crystalline rutile and reduce the average thermal stress in the films

  17. Evaluation of the Morphology and Osteogenic Potential of Titania-Based Electrospun Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Submicron-scale titania-based ceramic fibers with various compositions have been prepared by electrospinning. The as-prepared nanofibers were heat-treated at 700°C for 3 h to obtain pure inorganic fiber meshes. The results show that the diameter and morphology of the nanofibers are affected by starting polymer concentration and sol-gel composition. The titania and titania-silica nanofibers had the average diameter about 100–300 nm. The crystal phase varied from high-crystallized rutile-anatase mixed crystal to low-crystallized anatase with adding the silica addition. The morphology and crystal phase were evaluated by SEM and XRD. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on titania-silica 50/50 fiber meshes. Cell number and early differentiation marker expressions were analyzed, and the results indicated osteogenic potential of the titania-silica 50/50 fiber meshes.

  18. Characterization of nanocrystalline anatase titania: an in situ HTXRD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagtap, Neelam; Bhagwat, Mahesh; Awati, Preeti; Ramaswamy, Veda

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline titania was synthesized by the hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide using ultrasonication. The powder XRD patterns of the sample were recorded in static air and vacuum using a Philips X-pert Pro diffractometer equipped with a high-temperature attachment (HTK16) from room temperature (298 K) to 1173 K and were analyzed by the Rietveld refinement technique. The anatase to rutile phase transformation was observed at 1173 K for the data collected in static air. Only 3% of anatase titania transformed to rutile when the experiments were carried out at 1173 K in vacuum. The phase transformation from anatase to rutile is accompanied by a continuous increase in the crystallite size of the anatase phase from 9 nm at room temperature to 28 nm at 873 K and then to 50 nm at 1173 K in air while the process of crystallite growth was suppressed in vacuum. A linear increase in the unit cell parameters 'a' and 'c', and thus, an overall linear increase in the unit cell volume was observed as a function of temperature in static air as well as vacuum. The lattice and volume thermal expansion coefficients (TEC), α a , α c and α V at 873 K are 8.57 x 10 -6 , 8.71 x 10 -6 and 25.91 x 10 -6 K -1 in air and 18.01 x 10 -6 , 14.95 x 10 -6 and 51.13 x 10 -6 K -1 in vacuum, respectively

  19. Boron incorporation into rutile: phase equilibria and structural considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, I.E.; Li, C.; MacRae, C.M. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), East Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Div of Minerals; Bursill, L.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-06-01

    Reduction of rutile in the presence of borate flux stabilised the rutile phase relative to reduced rutiles due to incorporation of boron from the flux. In the presence of borates the rutile phase is stabilised to oxygen fugacities that are lower by almost two orders of magnitude compared with fugacities at the limit of the single-phase rutile phase field in the pure Ti-O system. Boron incorporation is accompanied by reduction of titanium to the trivalent state, according to the charge compensation relation: 3Ti{sup 4+}{identical_to} 3 Ti{sup 3+} + B{sup 3+}. Results of powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies on samples prepared in the temperature range 1100 to 1300 deg C have been used to establish a model for boron incorporation. It is proposed that at the temperatures studied, local defects in boron doped rutile result from displacement of titanium atoms to adjacent interstitial sites coupled with occupation by boron of the triangular face of the vacated octahedral sites. This atomic grouping represents a small element of the TiBO{sub 3} (calcite-type) structure. Annealing at a lower temperature results in ordering of the local defects to form (101){sub r} planar intergrowths of rutile and calcite-type structures. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Boron incorporation into rutile: phase equilibria and structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, I.E.; Li, C.; MacRae, C.M.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of rutile in the presence of borate flux stabilised the rutile phase relative to reduced rutiles due to incorporation of boron from the flux. In the presence of borates the rutile phase is stabilised to oxygen fugacities that are lower by almost two orders of magnitude compared with fugacities at the limit of the single-phase rutile phase field in the pure Ti-O system. Boron incorporation is accompanied by reduction of titanium to the trivalent state, according to the charge compensation relation: 3Ti 4+ ≡ 3 Ti 3+ + B 3+ . Results of powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies on samples prepared in the temperature range 1100 to 1300 deg C have been used to establish a model for boron incorporation. It is proposed that at the temperatures studied, local defects in boron doped rutile result from displacement of titanium atoms to adjacent interstitial sites coupled with occupation by boron of the triangular face of the vacated octahedral sites. This atomic grouping represents a small element of the TiBO 3 (calcite-type) structure. Annealing at a lower temperature results in ordering of the local defects to form (101) r planar intergrowths of rutile and calcite-type structures. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Hydrogen peroxide route to Sn-doped titania photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štengl Václav

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work aims at improving photocatalytic activity of titania under Vis light irradiation using modification by Sn ions and an original, simple synthesis method. Tin-doped titania catalysts were prepared by thermal hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium peroxo-complexes in the presence of SnCl4 or SnCl2 using an original, proprietary "one pot" synthesis not employing organic solvents, metallo-organic precursors, autoclave aging nor post-synthesis calcination. The products were characterized in details by powder diffraction, XPS, UV–vis, IR, and Raman spectroscopies, electron microscopy and surface area and porosity measurements Results The presence of tin in synthesis mixtures favors the formation of rutile and brookite at the expense of anatase, decreases the particle size of all formed titania polymorphs, and extends light absorption of titania to visible light region >400 nm by both red shift of the absorption edge and introduction of new chromophores. The photocatalytic activity of titania under UV irradiation and >400 nm light was tested by decomposition kinetics of Orange II dye in aqueous solution Conclusions Doping by Sn improves titania photoactivity under UV light and affords considerable photoactivity under >400 nm light due to increased specific surface area and a phase heterogeneity of the Sn-doped titania powders.

  2. Influence of morphology and surface characteristics on the photocatalytic activity of rutile titania nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Manaswita; Guin, Debanjan; Basak, Pratyay; Manorama, Sunkara V.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the synthesis of phase-pure rutile titania with different morphologies via hydrothermal method at significantly low temperatures (40-150 deg. C) without any additives and their application as efficient photocatalyst for environmental remediation. Phase and morphology has been determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ultra violet diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) shows the optical band-gap in the range of ∼2.8-3.1 eV and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area is found to be between 70 and 140 m 2 /g depending on the synthesis conditions. Raman spectroscopic analyses of the samples provide valuable insights into the structural and stoichiometric details. Photodegradation of the pollutant azo-dye, methyl orange (MO) in presence and absence of oxygen was performed to study the photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized materials. Complete photodegradation of the dye is confirmed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) study. Dependence of dye photodegradation rate on morphology, specific surface area, surface nonstoichiometry and acidity were investigated in detail. Catalyst performance was compared from the rate constants obtained for each reaction using non-linear least square fitting (NLSF) to the experimental data in a concentration ratio (C 0 /C t ) versus time (t) plot which shows extraordinarily high activity for all samples compared to commercial reference. Among them the catalyst synthesized at 40 deg. C for 16 h showed best activity. Kinetic study of the reaction matches well with simulated fit to experimental data and confirms to be pseudo-first order reaction

  3. Synthesis and polymorphic control for visible light active titania nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewgun, Sujaree

    Titania (TiO2) is useful for many applications in photocatalysis, antimicrobials, pigment, deodorization, and decomposition of harmful organics and undesirable compounds in the air and waste water under UV irradiation. Among the three phases of TiO2, Rutile, Anatase, and Brookite, studies have been more focused on the anatase and rutile phases. Pure brookite is the most difficult phase to prepare, even under hydrothermal conditions. Predominantly brookite phase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the Water-based Ambient Condition Sol (WACS) process in our laboratory. The objectives of this research were to enhance visible light active (VLA) photocatalytic properties of polymorphic brookite TiO2 by minimizing the lattice defects and narrowing band gap of titania by nitrogen and/or carbon chromophone, and to investigate the deactivation, reusability, and regeneration of the VLA titania in order to design better titania catalysts for organic compound degradation applications. In order to study the influence of hydroxyl content on photocatalytic activities (PCAs) of polymorphic titania nanoparticles, the WACS samples were post-treated by a Solvent-based Ambient Condition Sol (SACS) process in sec-butanol (sec-BuOH). All samples were characterized for phase composition, surface area, hydroxyl contamination, and particle morphology by x-ray diffraction, N2 physisorption, FT-IR, solid state 1H NMR and scanning electron microscopy, and then compared to a commercial titania, Degussa P25. Evaluation of methyl orange (MO) degradation under UV irradiation results showed that the lower lattice hydroxyl content in SACS titania enhanced the PCA. As-prepared titania and SACS samples, which have similar surface areas and crystallinity, were compared in order to prove that the superior PCA came from the reduction in the lattice hydroxyl content. To enhance PCA and VLA properties of WACS, an alternative high boiling point polar solvent, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), was utilized in the

  4. Recyclable Aggregates of Mesoporous Titania Synthesized by Thermal Treatment of Amorphous or Peptized Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recyclable aggregates of mesoporous titania with different anatase–rutile ratios have been prepared by thermal treatments of either amorphous or peptized precursors. These last two have been obtained by hydrolysis of either Ti(OC2H54 or of Ti(OC2H54 in mixture with 5 mol % Zr(OC3H74 at room temperature in the presence of NH4OH as a catalyzing agent. The anatase–rutile ratio, the recyclable aggregates of the nano-sized particles, the mesoporosity, the surface area and the crystallinity of the resulting crystallized products of titania can be controlled by the synthesis parameters including: concentration of ammonia catalyst, stirring time and concentration of the peptizing HNO3, drying method of peptized precursors, calcination temperature, and finally the ramp rate up to the titania crystallization temperature. A broad range of synthesis parameters control the crystal sizes of titania particles produced. This allows catalyst preparation with very different crystal size, surface area, anatase to rutile crystal ratio and various mesoporous structures. Drying by lyophilization of precursors reduce the aggregation of the primary particles giving micro-/macroporous structures.

  5. Plasmonic Titania Photo catalysts Active under UV and Visible-Light Irradiation: Influence of Gold Amount, Size, and Shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, E.; Rau, S.; Kowalska, E.; Kowalska, E.; Ohtani, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmonic titania photo catalysts were prepared by titania modification with gold by photo deposition. It was found that for smaller amount of deposited gold (≤ 0.1 wt%), anatase presence and large surface area were beneficial for efficient hydrogen evolution during methanol dehydrogenation. After testing twelve amounts of deposited gold on large rutile titania, the existence of three optima for 0.5, 2 and >6 wt% of gold was found during acetic acid degradation. Under visible light irradiation, in the case of small gold NPs deposited on fine anatase titania, the dependence of photo activity on gold amount was parabolic, and large gold amount (2 wt%), observable as an intensively coloured powder, caused photo activity decrease. While for large gold NPs deposited on large rutile titania, the dependence represented cascade increase, due to change of size and shape of deposited gold with its amount increase. It has been thought that spherical/hemispherical shape of gold NPs, in comparison with rod-like ones, is beneficial for higher level of photo activity under visible light irradiation. For all tested systems and regardless of deposited amount of gold, each rutile Au/TiO 2 photo catalyst of large gold and titania NPs exhibited much higher photo activity than anatase Au/TiO 2 of small gold and titania NPs

  6. The influence of sodium lauryl sulfate on the crystal phases of titania by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaohong; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we prepared TiO2 nanostructures by a hydrothermal method and investigated the influence of the SO4^{2-} ion and the effect of long alkyl chains of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the crystal phases of TiO2 by experiments and theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the absorption of the H+HSO4 fragment on rutile (110) is more stable than that of the 2H+SO4 fragment and more favorable to the formation of anatase. The absorption and steric effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the surfaces of TiO2 grains also have an important influence on the formation of mixed crystals by changing the speed and the way of octahedral TiO6 units combining. Based on the above facts, we revised the original reaction scheme for crystalline titania formation by previous authors.

  7. Preparation and characterization of titania based nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Natalie; Vecernikova, Eva; Subrt, Jan; Balek, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new method for preparation of titania nanowires with diameter around 10 nm and length up to 2-3 μm is described. The precursor was prepared from sodium titanate by adding ethylene glycole (EG) and heating at temperature of 198 deg. C for 6 h under reflux. The sodium titanate glycolate formed by this way aggregated into 1D nanostructures and was subsequently transformed into titania glycolate during a chemical treatment with 98% sulfuric acid. Titania nanowires with variable amount of anatase and rutile were prepared by heating to temperatures in the range 350-1000 deg. C. The precursor as well as titania based samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, High resolution transmission microscopy, Thermogravimetry, Differential thermal analysis, Evolved gas analysis and Emanation thermal analysis. The nitrogen adsorption/desorption was used for surface area and porosity determination. The photoactivity of the prepared titania samples was assessed by the photocatalytic decomposition of 4-chlorophenol in an aqueous slurry under UV irradiation of 365 nm wavelength

  8. Structural transformation of nanocrystalline titania by sol-gel and the growth kinetics of crystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Linhua; Dai Songyuan; Wang Kongjia

    2002-05-01

    Structural transformation of nanocrystalline titania prepared by sol-gel with hydrolysis precursor titanium isopropoxide was investigated. At the same time, the growth kinetics of titania powders was also studied here. It was found that the grain size of the powders increased slowly with autoclave heating temperature up to 230 degree C, when hydrolysis pH was 0.9, but grew rapidly when heating temperature was higher that 230 degree C. The activation energies for growth of anatase crystallites in two temperature regions were calculated to be 18.5 kJ/mol and 59.7 kJ/mol respectively. The X-ray diffraction results show that the transformation from anatase phase to rutile phase starts at 230 degree C and structural transformation finished when temperature raises to 270 degree C, which is a temperature much more lower than that of the transformation by conventional literature reports

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ferreira, Nildemar A.M.; Rumbao, Ana Carolina S. Coutinho; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150°C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, W.K.; Ferreira, N.A.M.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.; Rumbao, A.C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150 deg C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania-silica mixed oxide prepared via basic hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chao; Xu Zili; Yang Qiujing; Xue Baoyong; Du Yaoguo; Zhang Jiahua

    2004-01-01

    Two different synthesis routes were applied to prepare TiO 2 -XSiO 2 (X denotes mol% of silica in titania-silica mixed oxides) with different silica concentrations by using ammonia water as hydrolysis catalyst. Through comparing the photocatalytic performance of two sets of mixed oxides, we found that the photocatalytic activity of mixed oxides prepared via the route which can promote homogeneity, was significantly enhanced as compared with that of counterparts prepared via the another route, and the highest photocatalytic activity obtained by adding about 9.1 mol% silica into titania was much higher than that of pure TiO 2 . The mixed oxides were investigated by means of XRD, thermal analysis, UV-vis, FT-IR and XPS. The characterization results suggest that, in comparison with pure TiO 2 , the mixed oxides exhibit smaller crystallite size and higher thermal stability which can elevate the temperature of anatase to rutile phase transformation due to the addition of silica. Furthermore, Broensted acidity, which is associated with the formation of Ti-O-Si hetero linkages where tetrahedrally coordinated silica is chemically mixed with the octahedral titania matrix, may be a very important contribution to the enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania-silica mixed oxides as well

  12. Surface energy effects on the stability of anatase and rutile nanocrystals: A predictive diagram for Nb_2O_5-doped-TiO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Andre Luiz da; Hotza, Dachamir; Castro, Ricardo H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Anatase-rutile phase transition diagram was built for nano Nb_2O_5-doped-TiO_2. • Nb_2O_5-doping postpones the anatase-to-rutile transition. • The stability crossover for TiO_2 was 17.3 nm, for 2 mol% Nb_2O_5-doped-TiO_2 ∼30 nm. • The surface energy for Nb_2O_5-doped-TiO_2 decreases systematically with Nb concentration. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used for photocatalysis, and the relative fraction of titanium dioxide polymorph, i.e. anatase, rutile, or brookite, significantly affects the final performance. Even though conventional phase diagrams indicate a higher stability for the rutile polymorph, it is well established that nanosizes benefit the anatase phase due to its smaller surface energy. However, doping elements are expected to change this behavior, once changes in both surface and bulk energies may occur. Nb_2O_5 is commonly added to TiO_2 to allow property control. However, the effect of niobium on the relative stability of anatase and rutile phases is not well understood from the thermodynamic point of view. The objective of this work was to build a new predictive nanoscale phase diagram for Nb_2O_5-doped TiO_2. Water adsorption microcalorimetry and high temperature oxide melt solution were used to obtain the surface and bulk enthalpies. The phase diagram obtained shows the stable titania polymorph as a function of the composition and size.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of mixed-phase TiO2 powders with controllable anatase/rutile ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qiao, Zhi; Jiang, Peng; Kuang, Jianlei; Liu, Wenxiu; Cao, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mixed-phase TiO2 powders were novelly synthesized via a facile and mild hydrothermal method without any post-heat treatment. TiOSO4 and peroxide titanic acid (PTA) were used as inorganic titanium sources, while no special solvent or additive were introduced. The XRD and TEM results showed the mixed-phase TiO2 powders were composed of anatase and rutile phases, and the PTA sol played an important role on forming the rutile nucleus. The proportion of rutile in the mixed-phase TiO2 could be easily controlled in the range of 0%-70.5% by changing the amount of PTA sol used in the synthesis process. The UV-Visible absorption spectra indicated the prepared mixed-phase TiO2 showed enhanced visible light absorption with the increase of rutile ratio. The photodegradation experiments revealed the mixed-phase TiO2 exhibited the best photocatalytic activity at the rutile ratio of 41.5%, while a higher or lower rutile ratio both resulted in the decrease of photocatalytic activity.

  14. Study of phase development and thermal stability in as synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis: ethylene uptake and oxygen enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Alina Georgiana; Scarisoreanu, Monica; Dutu, Elena; Dumitrache, Florian; Banici, Ana-Maria; Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Vasile, Eugenia; Mihailescu, Ion

    2018-01-01

    Laser pyrolysis has proven a viable and trustworthy method of TiO2 nanoparticles fabrication, ensuring good quality and wide variety of nanoparticle morphologies and sizes. This work is aimed to phase control, experimentally studied, by parameter modulation, during one step laser pyrolysis synthesis or in combination with thermal annealing. High phase purity anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles, oxygen abundant, are synthesized from TiCl4 and C2H4 gas mixtures, in the presence of air as oxygen donor, under CO2 laser radiation. The nano-titania samples are analyzed by X-ray Diffraction, EDAX, TEM and Raman spectroscopy and reveal good phase stability and distinct morphology. This study extends the method applicability onto rutile majoritarian TiO2 synthesis and generation of thermally stable anatase titania, a well-known catalyst.

  15. Optimized nanostructured TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Selda; Jodhani, Gagan; Gouma, Pelagia

    2016-07-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  16. Different Device Architectures for Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Getachew; Munkhbat, Battulga; Denk, Patrick; Ulbricht, Christoph; Hrelescu, Calin; Scharber, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  17. Controlled release of phenytoin for epilepsy treatment from titania and silica based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Tessy; Ortiz, Emma; Meza, Doraliz; Basaldella, Elena; Bokhimi, Xim; Magana, Carlos; Sepulveda, Antonio; Rodriguez, Francisco; Ruiz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Template technique was used to obtain well ordered nanostructured materials: SBA-15 and titania tubes. → Phenytoin (PH), a drug used in epilepsy treatment, was loaded in these materials to used como PH release. → Loaded PH showed a good stability inside the used materials as observed by spectroscopy analysis. → The load-release PH are faster in nanostructured TiO2 tubes than in mesoporous silica matrix. → There is an inverse effect of the surface area of the structured materials on the amount of released PH. - Abstract: Template technique was used to obtain well ordered nanostructured materials: mesoporous silica and nanostructured titania tubes. This technique permits the synthesis of solids with controlled mesoporosity, where a large variety of molecules that have therapeutic activity can be hosted and further released to specific sites. In this work phenytoin (PH), a drug used in epilepsy treatment, was loaded in ordered mesoporous silica (SBA 15) and nanostructured titania tubes (TiO 2 ). The pure materials and those containing PH were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption at 77 K. In order to determine the loading capacity of the antiepileptic drug on these silica- and titania-based materials, the loading and release of PH was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. Tubular structures were found for the titania samples, for which the X-ray diffractograms showed to be formed by anatase and rutile phases. On the other hand, an amorphous phase was found in the silica sample. A highly ordered hexagonal structure of 1D cylindrical channels was also observed for this material. Loaded PH showed a good stability inside the used materials as observed by spectroscopy analysis. The adsorption and desorption of PH are faster in nanostructured TiO 2 tubes than in mesoporous silica matrix.

  18. On the rutile alpha-PbO"2-type phase boundary of TiO"2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.S.; Gerward, Leif; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1999-01-01

    The high-pressure, high-temperature phase quilibria of TiO"2 have been studied with special emphasis on the rutile and alpha-PbO"2-type phases. It is found that the phase boundary, when plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram, changes from having a negative to having a positive slope...... with increasing temperature at about 6GPa and 850^oC. For nanophase material, the phase boundary is shifted towards lower pressure. The room-temperature bulk moduli are 210(120)GPa, 258(8)GPa and 290(20)GPa for rutile, the alpha-PbO"2-type phase and the baddeleyite-type phase, respectively....

  19. Sol-gel formed spherical nanostructured titania based liquefied petroleum gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhajeet, S. R.; Yadav, B. C.; Sonker, Rakesh K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the preparation of Titania(TiO2) thin film by sol-gel technique and its Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) sensing. TiO2 exists in numerous phases possessing different structural properties like amorphous, anatase or anatase/rutile mixed phases. The structural analysis confirmed the formation of TiO2 having an average crystallite size 21 nm. SEM showed the regular and porous surface morphology. The band gap of the material was found as 3.65 eV. This film was employed for LPG sensing and variations in resistance with exposure of LPG were observed. Sensor response (S) as a function of time was calculated and its maximum value was found as 2.8 for 4% vol. of LPG with a response and recovery times of 240 sec and 248 sec respectively.

  20. Effect of annealing temperature on the anatase and rutile TiO2 nano tubes formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainovia Lockman; Kit, C.H.; Srimala Sreekantan

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report on the optimum condition for TiO 2 titania nano tubes formation and the effect of annealing on the formation of anatse and rutile titania. Anodic oxidation was carried out in two electrodes bath consisting of 5 wt % NH 4 F ions. The anode was a 0.1 mm thick Ti foil and the cathode was Pt electrode. Anodization was conducted at 20 V. The anodised foils were subjected to morphological and structural characterizations. As-anodised foil was found to be amorphous or weakly crystalline. When the oxide was heat treated, x-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of (101) anatase at annealing temperature from 400 - 500 degree Celsius. This indicates that the transformation occurs at this range of temperatures. Raman spectroscopy analysis showed the diminishing of anatase peaks for samples annealed at 500 degree Celsius. At above 600 degree Celsius, x-ray diffraction pattern shows a peak belonging to the rutile peak. Transformation from anatase to rutile is thought to occur at about 500 degree Celsius with a more complete transformation at higher temperature. Annealing at higher than 600 degree Celsius induces thickening of the nano tubes wall and at above 700 degree Celsius, the nano tubes structure has completely disappeared. (author)

  1. Selective scanning tunneling microscope light emission from rutile phase of VO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joe; Kuwahara, Masashi; Hotsuki, Masaki; Katano, Satoshi; Uehara, Yoichi

    2016-09-28

    We observed scanning tunneling microscope light emission (STM-LE) induced by a tunneling current at the gap between an Ag tip and a VO2 thin film, in parallel to scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) profiles. The 34 nm thick VO2 film grown on a rutile TiO2 (0 0 1) substrate consisted of both rutile (R)- and monoclinic (M)-structure phases of a few 10 nm-sized domains at room temperature. We found that STM-LE with a certain photon energy of 2.0 eV occurs selectively from R-phase domains of VO2, while no STM-LE was observed from M-phase. The mechanism of STM-LE from R-phase VO2 was determined to be an interband transition process rather than inverse photoemission or inelastic tunneling processes.

  2. Photocatalysis of methylene blue contaminated water using titania fiber doped with silicon; Fotocatalise de aguas contaminadas com azul de metileno utilizando fibras de titania dopadas com silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugarteche, C.V.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2009-07-01

    In this work, titania fibers doped with silicon were synthesized by electro spinning methodology, using titanium propoxide, silicon tetra propoxide and a solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone as precursors. The non-tissue material obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the phase and crystallite size, BET method to determine the surface and SEM to analyze the microstructure of the fibers. The photo catalytic activity of the fibers in comparison with the standard TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25 was evaluated using a 20ppm methylene blue solution. The composition containing 30% of silicon kept the anatase phase stable until the heat treatment temperature of 800 deg C. In the other compositions there was a formation of the rutile phase, which is less photoactive. The compositions containing silicon were photo catalytic efficient and some of them were more active that the standard P25. (author)

  3. Reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of bismuth tungstate onto titania nanoparticles for enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T. [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Tosheva, Lubomira; Edge, Michele [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth tungstate coatings were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • Oscillating bowl was introduced to the system to enable coating of nanopartulates. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} enhanced visible light activity of titania nanoparticles. • The best results were obtained for coating with Bi:W ratio of approximately 2:1. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} onto TiO{sub 2} resulted in more efficient electron-hole separation. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide − bismuth tungstate composite materials were prepared by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering of bismuth and tungsten metallic targets in argon/oxygen atmosphere onto anatase and rutile titania nanoparticles. The use of an oscillating bowl placed beneath the two magnetrons arranged in a co-planar closed field configuration enabled the deposition of bismuth tungstate onto loose powders, rather than a solid substrate. The atomic ratio of the bismuth/tungsten coatings was controlled by varying the power applied to each target. The effect of the bismuth tungstate coatings on the phase, optical and photocatalytic properties of titania was investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an acetone degradation test. The latter involved measurements of the rate of CO{sub 2} evolution under visible light irradiation of the photocatalysts, which indicated that the deposition of bismuth tungstate resulted in a significant enhancement of visible light activity, for both anatase and rutile titania particles. The best results were achieved for coatings with a bismuth to tungsten atomic ratio of 2:1. In addition, the mechanism by which the photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was enhanced by compounding it with bismuth tungstate was studied by microwave cavity perturbation. The results of these

  4. Photocatalysis of methylene blue contaminated water using titania fiber doped with silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarteche, C.V.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, titania fibers doped with silicon were synthesized by electro spinning methodology, using titanium propoxide, silicon tetra propoxide and a solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone as precursors. The non-tissue material obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the phase and crystallite size, BET method to determine the surface and SEM to analyze the microstructure of the fibers. The photo catalytic activity of the fibers in comparison with the standard TiO 2 Degussa P25 was evaluated using a 20ppm methylene blue solution. The composition containing 30% of silicon kept the anatase phase stable until the heat treatment temperature of 800 deg C. In the other compositions there was a formation of the rutile phase, which is less photoactive. The compositions containing silicon were photo catalytic efficient and some of them were more active that the standard P25. (author)

  5. A fast-reliable methodology to estimate the concentration of rutile or anatase phases of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Zanatta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium-dioxide (TiO2 is a low-cost, chemically inert material that became the basis of many modern applications ranging from, for example, cosmetics to photovoltaics. TiO2 exists in three different crystal phasesRutile, Anatase and, less commonly, Brookite − and, in most of the cases, the presence or relative amount of these phases are essential to decide the TiO2 final application and its related efficiency. Traditionally, X-ray diffraction has been chosen to study TiO2 and provides both the phases identification and the Rutile-to-Anatase ratio. Similar information can be achieved from Raman scattering spectroscopy that, additionally, is versatile and involves rather simple instrumentation. Motivated by these aspects this work took into account various TiO2 Rutile+Anatase powder mixtures and their corresponding Raman spectra. Essentially, the method described here was based upon the fact that the Rutile and Anatase crystal phases have distinctive phonon features, and therefore, the composition of the TiO2 mixtures can be readily assessed from their Raman spectra. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the suitability of Raman spectroscopy in estimating the concentration of Rutile or Anatase in TiO2 and is expected to influence the study of TiO2-related thin films, interfaces, systems with reduced dimensions, and devices like photocatalytic and solar cells.

  6. Controlled release of phenytoin for epilepsy treatment from titania and silica based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tessy, E-mail: tessy3@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco. Departamento de Microbiologia. Calzada del Hueso 1100, Col. Villa Quietud, Coyoacan, C.P. 04960, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia ' MVS' . Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia. Av. Insurgentes Sur 3877, Col. La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269, Mexico, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Ortiz, Emma [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia ' MVS' . Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia. Av. Insurgentes Sur 3877, Col. La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269, Mexico, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Meza, Doraliz [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, A.P. 55-534, Mexico D.F., C.P. 09340 (Mexico); Basaldella, Elena [CIC-CINDECA - Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Calle 47 No 257 - La Plata (Argentina); Bokhimi, Xim; Magana, Carlos [Instituto de fisica, UNAM. Circuito de la Investigacion s/n. C.U. Mexico D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Sepulveda, Antonio; Rodriguez, Francisco; Ruiz, Javier [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante. Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante, Espana Spain (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Template technique was used to obtain well ordered nanostructured materials: SBA-15 and titania tubes. {yields} Phenytoin (PH), a drug used in epilepsy treatment, was loaded in these materials to used como PH release. {yields} Loaded PH showed a good stability inside the used materials as observed by spectroscopy analysis. {yields} The load-release PH are faster in nanostructured TiO2 tubes than in mesoporous silica matrix. {yields} There is an inverse effect of the surface area of the structured materials on the amount of released PH. - Abstract: Template technique was used to obtain well ordered nanostructured materials: mesoporous silica and nanostructured titania tubes. This technique permits the synthesis of solids with controlled mesoporosity, where a large variety of molecules that have therapeutic activity can be hosted and further released to specific sites. In this work phenytoin (PH), a drug used in epilepsy treatment, was loaded in ordered mesoporous silica (SBA 15) and nanostructured titania tubes (TiO{sub 2}). The pure materials and those containing PH were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption at 77 K. In order to determine the loading capacity of the antiepileptic drug on these silica- and titania-based materials, the loading and release of PH was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. Tubular structures were found for the titania samples, for which the X-ray diffractograms showed to be formed by anatase and rutile phases. On the other hand, an amorphous phase was found in the silica sample. A highly ordered hexagonal structure of 1D cylindrical channels was also observed for this material. Loaded PH showed a good stability inside the used materials as observed by spectroscopy analysis. The adsorption and desorption of PH are faster in nanostructured TiO{sub 2} tubes than in mesoporous silica

  7. Surface layer composition of titania produced by various methods. The change of layer state under illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharenko, V; Daibova, E; Zmeeva, O; Kosova, N

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of experimental data over titanium dioxide powders prepared by various ways under ambient air is carried out. The results over TiO 2 prepared by high-temperature heating of anatase, produced by burning of titanium micro particles and grinding of rutile crystal are used for that comparison. Water and carbon dioxide were the main products released from the surface of the titania powders. It was found that under UV irradiation absorbed by titania, in absent oxygen, water effectively reacts with lattice oxygen of titanium dioxide. (paper)

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLES TITANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Titanium dioxide has three different crystal structures: rutile, anatase, and brookite. Rutile is the most ... the anatase phase has been shown to be much higher than that of rutile [8]. ... method does, though, require a complicated flame reactor.

  9. Role of the crystalline form of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Rutile, and not anatase, induces toxic effects in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboldi, Chiara; Urbán, Patricia; Gilliland, Douglas; Bajak, Edyta; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François

    2016-03-01

    The wide use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in industrial applications requires the investigation of their effects on human health. In this context, we investigated the effects of nanosized and bulk titania in two different crystalline forms (anatase and rutile) in vitro. By colony forming efficiency assay, a dose-dependent reduction of the clonogenic activity of Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was detected in the presence of rutile, but not in the case of anatase NPs. Similarly, the cell transformation assay and the micronucleus test showed that rutile TiO2 NPs were able to induce type-III foci formation in Balb/3T3 cells and appeared to be slightly genotoxic, whereas anatase TiO2 NPs did not induce any significant neoplastic or genotoxic effect. Additionally, we investigated the interaction of TiO2 NPs with Balb/3T3 cells and quantified the in vitro uptake of titania using mass spectrometry. Results showed that the internalization was independent of the crystalline form of TiO2 NPs but size-dependent, as nano-titania were taken up more than their respective bulk materials. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic, neoplastic and genotoxic effects triggered in Balb/3T3 cells by TiO2 NPs depend on the crystalline form of the nanomaterial, whereas the internalization is regulated by the particle size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Raman-scattering observation of the rutile-to-CaCl2 phase transition in RuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, S.S.; Weber, W.H.; Chamberland, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Using a diamond-anvil cell, we have probed the pressure-induced rutile-to-CaCl 2 ferroelastic phase transition in RuO 2 with Raman spectroscopy. The transition is marked by a splitting of the degenerate E g mode of the rutile phase into two nondegenerate components and by an abrupt change in the Grueneisen parameters for all the phonons. The behavior of this splitting shows good agreement with Landau close-quote s theory for a second-order phase transition, application of which yields a transition pressure of 11.8±0.3 GPa. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Proportion of influence phases anatase and rutile TiO_2 in the photoluminescence 538 nm emission wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, D.S.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Araujo, P.M.A.G.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Viana, R.S.; Junior, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 is one of the most studied materials in the technology area, especially in photoluminescent applications involving catalysts from the biosensor. Therefore, we propose to obtain the Pechini method TiO_2 molar ratio of citric acid/metal ions of 3:1 and 4:1 in order to investigate the influence of the proportion of anatase and rutile phases with the photoluminescence excitation wavelength of 538nm emission. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and excitation spectroscopy. The results indicate the presence of two phases, with a proportion of 78.99 and 83.58 and 21.01% of anatase and rutile 16.42%, density 3.82 and 3.70 g/cm"3 and excitement in length wave emission 538nm with maximum intensity 91289.2 and 71880,7 cps for samples 3:1 and 4:1, respectively. Sample 3:1 with the highest percentage of rutile phase favored photoluminescence. (author)

  12. Mixed phase titania nanocomposite codoped with metallic silver and vanadium oxide: New efficient photocatalyst for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xia [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Ma Fengyan; Li Kexin; Guo Yingna; Hu Jianglei; Li Wei [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Huo Mingxin [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Guo Yihang, E-mail: guoyh@nenu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Titania nanocomposite codoped with metallic silver and vanadium oxide was prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method in the presence of a triblock copolymer surfactant (P123). The resulting Ag/V-TiO{sub 2} three-component junction system exhibited an anatase/rutile (weight ratio of 73.8:26.2) mixed phase structure, narrower band gap (2.25 eV), and extremely small particle sizes (ca. 12 nm) with metallic Ag particles well distributed on the surface of the composite. The Ag/V-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was used as the visible- and UV-light-driven photocatalyst to degrade dyes rhodamine B (RB) and coomassie brilliant blue G-250 (CBB) in an aqueous solution. At 1.8% Ag and 4.9% V doping, the Ag/V-TiO{sub 2} system exhibited the highest visible- as well as UV-light photocatalytic activity; additionally, the activity of the three-component system exceeded that of Degussa P25, pure TiO{sub 2}, single-doped TiO{sub 2} system (Ag/TiO{sub 2} or V-TiO{sub 2}) as well as P123-free-Ag/V-TiO{sub 2} codoped system. The reasons for this enhanced photocatalytic activity were revealed.

  13. Revelation of rutile phase by Raman scattering for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of hydrothermally-grown anatase TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsun-Wei; Liao, Kuo-Lun; Yang, Jih-Sheng; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the anatase TiO2 films hydrothermally grown on the seeded fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are examined in this work. Structural characterizations of the TiO2 films were conducted using Raman scattering spectroscopy. Although there is no obvious rutile peak appearing, an asymmetrical peak centered at ∼399 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of the TiO2 films deposited either on the low-temperature-formed seed layers or with low concentrations of Ti precursor. The asymmetrical Raman shift can be deconvoluted into the B1g mode of anatase and Eg mode of rutile TiO2 peaks centered at ∼399 cm-1 and ∼447 cm-1, respectively. Therefore, a minute quantity of rutile phase was inspected in the anatase film using Raman scattering spectroscopy. With the same light harvesting ability, we found that the PEC performance of the anatase TiO2 film was significantly enhanced as the minute quantity of rutile phase existing in the film. It is ascribed to the formation of the anatase/rutile heterojunction which is beneficial to the charge separation in the photoanode.

  14. UV and visible light photocatalytic activity of Au/TiO2 nanoforests with Anatase/Rutile phase junctions and controlled Au locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wen, Wei; Qian, Xin-Yue; Liu, Jia-Bin; Wu, Jin-Ming

    2017-01-24

    To magnify anatase/rutile phase junction effects through appropriate Au decorations, a facile solution-based approach was developed to synthesize Au/TiO 2 nanoforests with controlled Au locations. The nanoforests cons®isted of anatase nanowires surrounded by radially grown rutile branches, on which Au nanoparticles were deposited with preferred locations controlled by simply altering the order of the fabrication step. The Au-decoration increased the photocatalytic activity under the illumination of either UV or visible light, because of the beneficial effects of either electron trapping or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Gold nanoparticles located preferably at the interface of anatase/rutile led to a further enhanced photocatalytic activity. The appropriate distributions of Au nanoparticles magnify the beneficial effects arising from the anatase/rutile phase junctions when illuminated by UV light. Under the visible light illumination, the LSPR effect followed by the consecutive electron transfer explains the enhanced photocatalysis. This study provides a facile route to control locations of gold nanoparticles in one-dimensional nanostructured arrays of multiple-phases semiconductors for achieving a further increased photocatalytic activity.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Rutile TiO_2 Powder by the Sulfuric Acid Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soon Ok; Cho, Jee Hee; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Won Yong

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the experimental method that uses the homogeneous precipitation method to prepare mica flakes-coated rutile-type titania pearlescent pigment with urea as a precipitant. TiO_2 particles exhibit a high reflection of lights and optical properties with chemical stabilities, so they are appropriate for coating on luminescent pigments (mica). The coating principle of mica coated titania with various thicknesses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tested by spectrophotometer. Mica with a particle size in the range of 40-60 um was suspended in water, and metal sulphates and urea were added to the mixture, which was heated to boiling. The change in pH was continuously followed. The metal oxide and crystal structure were affected by the conditions of TiOSO_4 concentration and reaction time with a sintering temperature the range of 800-1100°C.

  16. Sustainable steric stabilization of colloidal titania nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbasuney, Sherif, E-mail: sherif_basuney2000@yahoo.com

    2017-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Controlled surface properties of titania nanoparticles via surface modification, flocculation from aqueous phase (a), stabilization in aqueous phase (b), extraction to organic phase (c). - Highlights: • Complete change in surface properties of titania nanoparticles from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. • Harvesting the formulated nanoparticles from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. • Exclusive surface modification in the reactor during nanoparticle synthesis. • Sustainable stabilization of titania nanoparticles in aqueous media with polar polymeric dispersant. - Abstract: A route to produce a stable colloidal suspension is essential if mono-dispersed particles are to be successfully synthesized, isolated, and used in subsequent nanocomposite manufacture. Dispersing nanoparticles in fluids was found to be an important approach for avoiding poor dispersion characteristics. However, there is still a great tendency for colloidal nanoparticles to flocculate over time. Steric stabilization can prevent coagulation by introducing a thick adsorbed organic layer which constitutes a significant steric barrier that can prevent the particle surfaces from coming into direct contact. One of the main features of hydrothermal synthesis technique is that it offers novel approaches for sustainable nanoparticle surface modification. This manuscript reports on the sustainable steric stabilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticle surface modification was performed via two main approaches including post-synthesis and in situ surface modification. The tuneable hydrothermal conditions (i.e. temperature, pressure, flow rates, and surfactant addition) were optimized to enable controlled steric stabilization in a continuous fashion. Effective post synthesis surface modification with organic ligand (dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)) was achieved; the optimum surface coating temperature was reported to be 180–240 °C to ensure DDSA ring opening

  17. DFT + U investigation on the adsorption and initial decomposition of methylamine by a Pt single-atom catalyst supported on rutile (110) TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Cun-Qin [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Jian-Hong, E-mail: ljh173@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Guo, Yong; Li, Xue-Mei [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, Shanxi Province (China); Wang, Gui-Chang, E-mail: wangguichang@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Lab. of Metal and Molecule-Based Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • DFT + U is used to investigate the initial decomposition of methylamine. • The adsorption characteristics of possible intermediates involved in methylamine initial decomposition are discussed. • The energy barriers of the possible elementary reactions involved are obtained. • C−H bond scission is the most favored among the C−H, N−H and C−N bond breakings in methylamine. - Abstract: The adsorption and initial decomposition for methylamine catalyzed by a single Pt atom supported on rutile (110) titania (namely, Pt{sub 1}/TiO{sub 2}–R(110)) surface have been investigated by the density functional theory slab calculations with Hubbard corrections (DFT + U). The main purpose of the work is to better understand the role of dispersed platinum metal on the surface of rutile (110) titania in the initial decomposition of methylamine. Our calculated results show that the barriers increased with the order of C−H < N−H < C−N, which indicates that the C−H bond is the easiest to decompose and the C−N bond is the most difficult to break.

  18. Scanning probe microscopy studies on the adsorption of selected molecular dyes on titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub S. Prauzner-Bechcicki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide, or titania, sensitized with organic dyes is a very attractive platform for photovoltaic applications. In this context, the knowledge of properties of the titania–sensitizer junction is essential for designing efficient devices. Consequently, studies on the adsorption of organic dyes on titania surfaces and on the influence of the adsorption geometry on the energy level alignment between the substrate and an organic adsorbate are necessary. The method of choice for investigating the local environment of a single dye molecule is high-resolution scanning probe microscopy. Microscopic results combined with the outcome of common spectroscopic methods provide a better understanding of the mechanism taking place at the titania–sensitizer interface. In the following paper, we review the recent scanning probe microscopic research of a certain group of molecular assemblies on rutile titania surfaces as it pertains to dye-sensitized solar cell applications. We focus on experiments on adsorption of three types of prototypical dye molecules, i.e., perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA, phtalocyanines and porphyrins. Two interesting heteromolecular systems comprising molecules that are aligned with the given review are discussed as well.

  19. Electrochemical performance of mixed crystallographic phase nanotubes and nanosheets of titania and titania-carbon/silver composites for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Shyamal K.; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Carbon wired TiO 2 nanotubes as anode for lithium ion batteries. → Mixed phase nanotubes show higher energy and power density than titania nanosheets. → Lithium storage and phase stabilization influenced by morphology of carbon coating. - Abstract: The role of homogeneity in ex situ grown conductive coatings and dimensionality in the lithium storage properties of TiO 2 is discussed here. TiO 2 nanotube and nanosheet comprising of mixed crystallographic phases of anatase and TiO 2 (B) have been synthesized by an optimized hydrothermal method. Surface modifications of TiO 2 nanotube are realized via coating the nanotube with Ag nanoparticles and amorphous carbon. The first discharge cycle capacity (at current rate = 10 mA g -1 ) for TiO 2 nanotube and nanosheet were 355 mAh g -1 and 225 mAh g -1 , respectively. The conductive surface coating stabilized the titania crystallographic structure during lithium insertion-deinsertion processes via reduction in the accessibility of lithium ions to the trapping sites. The irreversible capacity is beneficially minimized from 110 mAh g -1 for TiO 2 nanotubes to 96 mAh g -1 and 57 mAh g -1 respectively for Ag and carbon modified TiO 2 nanotubes. The homogeneously coated amorphous carbon over TiO 2 renders better lithium battery performance than randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles coated TiO 2 due to efficient hopping of electrons.

  20. DFT+U study of defects in bulk rutile TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm-Møller, Jess; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Hinnemann, Berit

    2010-01-01

    phase of bulk titanium dioxide. We find that by applying a sufficiently large value for the Hubbard-U parameter of the Ti 3d states, the excess electrons localize spatially at the Ti sites and appear as states in the band gap. At U = 2.5 eV, the position in energy of these gap states are in fair...... is that regardless of which structural defect is the origin of the gap states, at U = 2.5 eV, these states are found to have their mean energies within a few hundredths of an eV from 0.94 eV below the conduction band minimum.......We present a systematic study of electronic gap states in defected titania using our implementation of the Hubbard-U approximation in the grid-based projector-augmented wave density functional theory code, GPAW. The defects considered are Ti interstitials, O vacancies, and H dopants in the rutile...

  1. Thermodynamic investigation of the phase equilibrium boundary between TiO2 rutile and its α-PbO2-type high-pressure polymorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojitani, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Monami; Kojima, Meiko; Inaguma, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Daisuke; Akaogi, Masaki

    2018-06-01

    Heat capacity (C P) of rutile and α-PbO2 type TiO2 (TiO2-II) were measured by the differential scanning calorimetry and thermal relaxation method. Using the results, standard entropies at 1 atm and 298.15 K of rutile and TiO2-II were determined to be 50.04(4) and 46.54(2) J/mol K, respectively. Furthermore, thermal expansivity (α) determined by high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurement and mode Grüneisen parameters obtained by high-pressure Raman spectroscopy suggested the thermal Grüneisen parameter (γ th) for TiO2-II of 1.7(1). By applying the obtained low-temperature C P and γ th, the measured C P and α data of TiO2-II were extrapolated to higher temperature region using a lattice vibrational model calculation, as well as rutile. Internally consistent thermodynamic data sets of both rutile and TiO2-II assessed in this study were used to thermodynamically calculate the rutile‒TiO2-II phase equilibrium boundary. The most plausible boundary was obtained to be P (GPa) = 0.0074T (K) - 1.7. Our boundary suggests that the crystal growth of TiO2-II observed below 5.5 GPa and 900 K in previous studies advanced in its stability field. The phase boundary calculation also suggested small, exothermic phase transition enthalpy from rutile to TiO2-II at 1 atm and 298.15 K of - 0.5 to - 1.1 kJ/mol. This implies that the thermodynamic stability of rutile at 1 atm above room temperature is due to larger contribution of entropy term.

  2. Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheyev, S.O.; Van Buuren, T.V.; Baumann, T.F.; Satcher, J.H.; Willey, T.M.; Muelenberg, R.W.; Felter, T.E.; Poco, J.E.; Gammon, S.A.; Terminello, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Titania aerogels - a somewhat extreme form of nanoporous TiO 2 - are open-cell solid foams derived from highly crosslinked gels by drying them under supercritical conditions. In this presentation, the unoccupied electronic states of TiO 2 aerogels are studied by soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. High-resolution O K-edge and Ti L 2,3 -edge XANES spectra of aerogels are compared with those of rutile, anatase, and unrelaxed amorphous phases of full- density TiO 2 . Results show that all the main spectroscopic features of aerogels, reflecting the element-specific partial density of empty electronic states and correlation effects, can be attributed to the absence of long-range order in stoichiometric amorphous TiO 2 . Based on these results, we discuss the effects of short- and long-range order on the electronic structure of TiO 2 . This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48

  3. Nanoscale roughness and morphology affect the IsoElectric Point of titania surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borghi

    Full Text Available We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2 surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanometric lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by several pH units of IEP on rough nanostructured surfaces, with respect to flat crystalline rutile TiO2. In order to explain the observed behavior of IEP, we consider the roughness-induced self-overlap of the electrical double layers as a potential source of deviation from the trend expected for flat surfaces.

  4. The El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit from a hydrothermal rutile perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, Osvaldo M.; Hernández, Laura B.; French, David H.; King, Robert W.; Ayers, John C.

    2009-11-01

    Mineralogical, textural, and chemical analyses (EPMA and PIXE) of hydrothermal rutile in the El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit help to better constrain ore formation processes. Rutile formed from igneous Ti-rich phases (sphene, biotite, Ti-magnetite, and ilmenite) by re-equilibration and/or breakdown under hydrothermal conditions at temperatures ranging between 400°C and 700°C. Most rutile nucleate and grow at the original textural position of its Ti-rich igneous parent mineral phase. The distribution of Mo content in rutile indicates that low-temperature (˜400-550°C), Mo-poor rutile (5.4 ± 1.1 ppm) is dominantly in the Mo-rich mafic wallrocks (high-grade ore), while high-temperature (˜550-700°C), Mo-rich rutile (186 ± 20 ppm) is found in the Mo-poor felsic porphyries (low-grade ore). Rutile from late dacite ring dikes is a notable exception to this distribution pattern. The Sb content in rutile from the high-temperature potassic core of the deposit to its low-temperature propylitic fringe remains relatively constant (35 ± 3 ppm). Temperature and Mo content of the hydrothermal fluids in addition to Mo/Ti ratio, modal abundance and stability of Ti-rich parental phases are key factors constraining Mo content and provenance in high-temperature (≥550°C) rutile. The initial Mo content of parent mineral phases is controlled by melt composition and oxygen fugacity as well as timing and efficiency of fluid-melt separation. Enhanced reduction of SO2-rich fluids and sulfide deposition in the Fe-rich mafic wallrocks influences the low-temperature (≤550°C) rutile chemistry. The data are consistent with a model of fluid circulation of hot (>550°C), oxidized (ƒO2 ≥ NNO + 1.3), SO2-rich and Mo-bearing fluids, likely exsolved from deeper crystallizing parts of the porphyry system and fluxed through the upper dacite porphyries and related structures, with metal deposition dominantly in the Fe-rich mafic wallrocks.

  5. Effect of urea on the photoactivity of titania powder prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Ping; Deng Changsheng; Gu Mingyuan; Dai Xiaming

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of nanocrystalline titania powders from the hydrolysis of Ti(OBu n ) 4 in the presence of urea was investigated. DRS results showed that a redshift occurred in the absorption edge of titania with increasing the content of urea. XRD results indicated that urea showed a retarding effect on the transformation of titania from anatase to rutile. Moreover, the addition of urea resulted in a higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area as well as a larger average pore size of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The average pore size of urea/TiO 2 gels calcined at 500 deg. C increased with the increase of urea content, while the specific surface area increased with the amount of urea to reach a maximum at 10% and then decreased with further increase of the amount of urea. The maximal specific surface area of 64.4 m 2 g -1 was obtained for 10% urea/TiO 2 gels calcined at 500 deg. C, which showed an average particle size of 15 nm and pore size distribution in the range of mesopores centered at 5.8 nm. The photocatalytic experiments exhibited that titania nanoparticles prepared in the presence of urea could effectively photodegrade methyl orange under visible light irradiation due to the redshift of the absorption edge. The maximum photoactivity was achieved when the content of urea was 10%, which was attributed to the higher specific surface area

  6. In vitro behavior of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast with different annealing temperature titania nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W Q; Zhang, Y L; Jiang, X Q; Zhang, F Q

    2010-10-01

    Titanium oxide nanotube layers by anodization have excellent potential for dental implants because of good bone cell promotion. It is necessary to evaluate osteoblast behavior on different annealing temperature titania nanotubes for actual implant designs.  Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray polycrystalline Diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron Spectroscope, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the different annealing temperature titania nanotubes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, MTT, and Alizarin Red-S staining were used to evaluate the MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast behavior on different annealing temperature nanotubes.  The tubular morphology was constant when annealed at 450°C and 550°C, but collapsed when annealed at 650°C. XRD exhibited the crystal form of nanotubes after formation (amorphous), after annealing at 450°C (anatase), and after annealing at 550°C (anatase/rutile). Annealing led to the complete loss of fluorine on nanotubes at 550°C. Average surface roughness of different annealing temperature nanotubes showed no difference by AFM analysis. The proliferation and mineralization of preostoblasts cultured on anatase or anatase/rutile nanotube layers were shown to be significantly higher than smooth, amorphous nanotube layers.  Annealing can change the crystal form and composition of nanotubes. The nanotubes after annealing can promote osteoblast proliferation and mineralization in vitro. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Nitrogen-modified nano-titania: True phase composition, microstructure and visible-light induced photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobaldi, D.M., E-mail: david.tobaldi@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering / CICECO−Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pullar, R.C. [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering / CICECO−Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gualtieri, A.F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41121 Modena (Italy); Otero-Irurueta, G.; Singh, M.K. [Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation – TEMA, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Seabra, M.P.; Labrincha, J.A. [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering / CICECO−Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-11-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is a popular photocatalyst used for many environmental and anti-pollution applications, but it normally operates under UV light, exploiting ∼5% of the solar spectrum. Nitrification of titania to form N-doped TiO{sub 2} has been explored as a way to increase its photocatalytic activity under visible light, and anionic doping is a promising method to enable TiO{sub 2} to harvest visible-light by changing its photo-absorption properties. In this paper, we explore the insertion of nitrogen into the TiO{sub 2} lattice using our green sol–gel nanosynthesis method, used to create 10 nm TiO{sub 2} NPs. Two parallel routes were studied to produce nitrogen-modified TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs), using HNO{sub 3}+NH{sub 3} (acid-precipitated base-peptised) and NH{sub 4}OH (totally base catalysed) as nitrogen sources. These NPs were thermally treated between 450 and 800 °C. Their true phase composition (crystalline and amorphous phases), as well as their micro-/nanostructure (crystalline domain shape, size and size distribution, edge and screw dislocation density) was fully characterised through advanced X-ray methods (Rietveld-reference intensity ratio, RIR, and whole powder pattern modelling, WPPM). As pollutants, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are of particular concern for human health, so the photocatalytic activity of the NPs was assessed by monitoring NO{sub x} abatement, using both solar and white-light (indoor artificial lighting), simulating outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Results showed that the onset of the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation (ART) occurred at temperatures above 450 °C, and NPs heated to 450 °C possessed excellent photocatalytic activity (PCA) under visible white-light (indoor artificial lighting), with a PCA double than that of the standard P25 TiO{sub 2} NPs. However, higher thermal treatment temperatures were found to be detrimental for visible-light photocatalytic activity, due to the effects

  8. Sol-gel titania-coated needles for solid phase dynamic extraction-GC/MS analysis of desomorphine and desocodeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chi-Ju; Srimurugan, Sankarewaran; Chen, Chinpiao; Shu, Hun-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Novel sol-gel titania film coated needles for solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE)-GC/MS analysis of desomorphine and desocodeine are described. The high thermal stability of titania film permits efficient extraction and analysis of poorly volatile opiate drugs. The influences of sol-gel reaction time, coating layer, extraction and desorption time and temperature on the SPDE needle performance were investigated. The deuterium labeled internal standard was introduced either during the extraction of analyte or directly injected to GC after the extraction process. The latter method was shown to be more sensitive for the analysis of water and urine samples containing opiate drugs. The proposed conditions provided a wide linear range (from 5-5000 ppb), and satisfactory linearity, with R(2) values from 0.9958 to 0.9999, and prominent sensitivity, LOQs (1.0-5.0 ng/g). The sol-gel titania film coated needle with SPDE-GC/MS will be a promising technique for desomorphine and desocodeine analysis in urine.

  9. Transparent conducting oxide films of group V doped titania prepared by aqueous chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elen, Ken; Capon, Boris; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; Dewulf, Daan; Peys, Nick; Detavernier, Christophe; Hardy, An; Van Bael, Marlies K.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of titania doped with vanadium (V), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) are obtained by aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD). The effect of the dopant on the crystallization and microstructure of the resulting films is examined by means of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. During annealing of the thin films, in-situ characterization of the crystal structure and sheet resistance is carried out. Niobium doped anatase films, obtained after annealing in forming gas, show a resistivity of 0,28 Ohm cm, which is the lowest resistivity reported for a solution deposited anatase-based TCO so far. Here, we demonstrate that aqueous CSD may provide a strategy for scalable TCO production in the future. - Highlights: • Aqueous chemical solution deposition of doped titanium dioxide • Doping delays the phase transition from anatase to rutile • Lowest resistivity after doping with niobium and annealing in Forming Gas • Transparency higher than 80% in the visible range of optical spectrum

  10. Transparent conducting oxide films of group V doped titania prepared by aqueous chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elen, Ken [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Strategisch Initiatief Materialen (SIM), SoPPoM Program (Belgium); Capon, Boris [Strategisch Initiatief Materialen (SIM), SoPPoM Programm (Belgium); Coating and Contacting of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Dobbelaere, Christopher [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Dewulf, Daan [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Peys, Nick [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Detavernier, Christophe [Coating and Contacting of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hardy, An [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Bael, Marlies K., E-mail: marlies.vanbael@uhasselt.be [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-03-31

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of titania doped with vanadium (V), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) are obtained by aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD). The effect of the dopant on the crystallization and microstructure of the resulting films is examined by means of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. During annealing of the thin films, in-situ characterization of the crystal structure and sheet resistance is carried out. Niobium doped anatase films, obtained after annealing in forming gas, show a resistivity of 0,28 Ohm cm, which is the lowest resistivity reported for a solution deposited anatase-based TCO so far. Here, we demonstrate that aqueous CSD may provide a strategy for scalable TCO production in the future. - Highlights: • Aqueous chemical solution deposition of doped titanium dioxide • Doping delays the phase transition from anatase to rutile • Lowest resistivity after doping with niobium and annealing in Forming Gas • Transparency higher than 80% in the visible range of optical spectrum.

  11. Formation of rutile fasciculate zone induced by sunlight irradiation at room temperature and its hemocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuan-Hui; Zheng, Xiang; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Guo-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile was fabricated under sunlight irradiation at room temperature, using titanium tetrachloride as a sole precursor. The crystal phase, morphology and microstructure, and optical absorption behavior of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and UV–vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS), respectively. XRD results show that the crystal phase of the sample is composed of rutile only, and a lattice distortion displays in the crystallite of the sample. HRTEM results show that the morphology of rutile particle is fasciculate zone constituted of nanoparticles with a diameter of 4–7 nm, and these particles grow one by one and step by step. The pattern of the selected area electron diffraction of the sample is Kikuchi type, which can be attributed to the predominant orientation growth of rutile nanoparticles along [001] induced by sunlight irradiation. DRS results show that the absorption threshold of the sample is 415 nm, corresponding to the band gap energy of 2.99 eV, which is lower than the band gap energy of rutile, 3.03 eV. Blood compatibility measurement shows that the sample has no remarkable effect on hemolytic and coagulation activity. The percent hemolysis of red blood cells is less than 5% even treated with a big dosage of the fasciculate rutile and under UV irradiation, and there are no obvious changes of plasma recalcification time after the rutile treatment. Thus, the novel structure of rutile fasciculate has low potential toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe. Highlights: • A novel approach to fabricate the fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile • The fasciculate grows from a particle to nanorod and to fasciculate, step by step. • A preferred orientation growth induced by sunlight irradiation in the fasciculate • The rutile fasciculate is low toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe

  12. Rutile nanopowders for pigment production: Formation mechanism and particle size prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wu; Tang, Hongxin

    2018-01-01

    Formation mechanism and particle size prediction of rutile nanoparticles for pigment production were investigated. Anatase nanoparticles were observed by oriented attachment with parallel lattice fringe spaces of 0.2419 nm. Upon increasing the calcination temperature, the (1 1 0) plane of rutile was gradually observed, suggesting that the anatase (1 0 3) planes undergo internal structural rearrangement of oxygen and titanium ions into rutile phase due to ionic diffusion. Backpropagation neural network was used to predict particle size of rutile nanopowders, the prediction errors were all smaller than 2%, providing an efficient method to control particle size in pigment production.

  13. Vapor phase modification of sol-gel derived titania (TiO{sub 2}) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonski, Ireneusz [University of Lodz, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Protection, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: irek@uni.lodz.pl; Ilik, Aneta [University of Lodz, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Protection, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2006-12-30

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was used in titania surface modification. Titania layers were obtained in sol-gel process and prepared as thin films on silicon wafers in dip-coating method. In order to define the influence of modification on titania surface properties (e.g., friction), various types of fluoroalkylsilanes were used. The effectiveness of the modification was monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. The topography and frictional measurements were investigated with the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  14. Synthesis and characterization on titanium dioxide prepared by precipitation and hydrothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Andre V.P. dos; Yoshito, Walter K.; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter

    2012-01-01

    Surface properties of titanium dioxide (titania) are outstanding among ceramic materials and enables uses as catalysts, photoelectrochemical devices, solar cells and others. In many of these applications, it is necessary to keep the anatase phase, that is stable only in low temperatures (<400 deg C). In the present work, the influence of hydrothermal treatment on physical characteristics and crystal structure of titania powders synthesized by precipitation was investigated. Characterizations of obtained powders were carried out by X-ray diffraction, surface area analysis by N2 gas sorption (BET) and microstructure of powders and ceramics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. As prepared powders were formed as cylindrical pellets by uniaxial pressing and sintered at 1500 deg C for 01 hour. Results showed that anatase phase without formation of rutile phase can be formed in hydrothermally treated samples . Rutile phase is predominant in calcined and/or sintered samples (author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization on titanium dioxide prepared by precipitation and hydrothermal treatment; Sintese e caracterizacao de dioxido de titanio preparado por precipitacao e tratamento hidrotermico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andre V.P. dos; Yoshito, Walter K.; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter, E-mail: vussui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Surface properties of titanium dioxide (titania) are outstanding among ceramic materials and enables uses as catalysts, photoelectrochemical devices, solar cells and others. In many of these applications, it is necessary to keep the anatase phase, that is stable only in low temperatures (<400 deg C). In the present work, the influence of hydrothermal treatment on physical characteristics and crystal structure of titania powders synthesized by precipitation was investigated. Characterizations of obtained powders were carried out by X-ray diffraction, surface area analysis by N2 gas sorption (BET) and microstructure of powders and ceramics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. As prepared powders were formed as cylindrical pellets by uniaxial pressing and sintered at 1500 deg C for 01 hour. Results showed that anatase phase without formation of rutile phase can be formed in hydrothermally treated samples . Rutile phase is predominant in calcined and/or sintered samples (author)

  16. THE EFFECT OF NANO-TITANIA ADDITION ON THE PROPERTIES OF HIGH-ALUMINA LOW-CEMENT SELF-FLOWING REFRACTORY CASTABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Otroj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The self-flow characteristics and properties of high-alumina low-cement refractory castables added with nano-titania particles are investigated. For this reason, the reactive alumina in the castable composition is substituted by nano-titania powder in 0-1 %wt. range. The microstructures, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of these refractory castables at different temperatures are studied. The results show that the addition of nano-titania particles has great effect on the self-flow characteristics, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of these refractory castables. With increase of nano-titania particles in castable composition, the self-flow value and working time tend to decrease. With addition of 0.5 wt.% nano-titania in the castable composition, the mechanical strength of castable in all firing temperatures tends to increase. It is attributed to the formation of CA6 phase and enhanced ceramic bonding. Nano-titania particles can act as a nucleating agent for hibonite phase and decrease the formation temperature of hibonite. Because of perovskite phase formation, the addition of 1 wt.% nano-titania can decrease the mechanical strength of castable after firing.

  17. Sintering and mechanical properties of the alumina–tricalcium phosphate–titania composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakka, Siwar, E-mail: sakka.siwar@yahoo.fr; Bouaziz, Jamel; Ben Ayed, Foued

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the content of titania and the sintering process on the transformation phase, the densification, the rupture strength and the microstructures of the alumina–10 wt.% tricalcium phosphate composites. After the sintering process, the samples were examined by using {sup 31}P and {sup 27}Al magic angle scanning nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The Brazilian test was used to measure the rupture strength of the samples. The present results provide new information about solid-state reactivity in the ternary system α-alumina-β-tricalcium phosphate–anatase–titania. The differential thermal analysis of the α-alumina-β-tricalcium phosphate–titania composites shows two endothermic peaks, at 1360 °C and at 1405 °C, which are caused by the reactions between titania/alumina and titania/tricalcium phosphate, respectively. Thus, the presence of titania in the alumina–10 wt.% tricalcium phosphate leads to the formation of β-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} at 1360 °C. At 1600 °C, the alumina–10 wt.% tricalcium phosphate–5 wt.% titania composites displayed the highest rupture strength (74 MPa), compared to the alumina–10 wt.% tricalcium phosphate composites (13.5 MPa). Accordingly, the increase of the rupture strength is due to the formation of the new β-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • We examine the mechanical properties of bioceramics. • We measure the rupture strength by the Brazilian test. • We characterize the alumina–10 wt.% tricalcium phosphate–titania composites.

  18. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  19. Titania nanotube powders obtained by rapid breakdown anodization in perchloric acid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Saima; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Titania nanotube (TNT) powders are prepared by rapid break down anodization (RBA) in a 0.1 M perchloric acid (HClO 4 ) solution (Process 1), and ethylene glycol (EG) mixture with HClO 4 and water (Process 2). A study of the as-prepared and calcined TNT powders obtained by both processes is implemented to evaluate and compare the morphology, crystal structure, specific surface area, and the composition of the nanotubes. Longer TNTs are formed in Process 1, while comparatively larger pore diameter and wall thickness are obtained for the nanotubes prepared by Process 2. The TNTs obtained by Process 1 are converted to nanorods at 350 °C, while nanotubes obtained by Process 2 preserve tubular morphology till 350 °C. In addition, the TNTs prepared by an aqueous electrolyte have a crystalline structure, whereas the TNTs obtained by Process 2 are amorphous. Samples calcined till 450 °C have XRD peaks from the anatase phase, while the rutile phase appears at 550 °C for the TNTs prepared by both processes. The Raman spectra also show clear anatase peaks for all samples except the as-prepared sample obtained by Process 2, thus supporting the XRD findings. FTIR spectra reveal the presence of O-H groups in the structure for the TNTs obtained by both processes. However, the presence is less prominent for annealed samples. Additionally, TNTs obtained by Process 2 have a carbonaceous impurity present in the structure attributed to the electrolyte used in that process. While a negligible weight loss is typical for TNTs prepared from aqueous electrolytes, a weight loss of 38.6% in the temperature range of 25–600 °C is found for TNTs prepared in EG electrolyte (Process 2). A large specific surface area of 179.2 m 2 g −1 is obtained for TNTs prepared by Process 1, whereas Process 2 produces nanotubes with a lower specific surface area. The difference appears to correspond to the dimensions of the nanotubes obtained by the two processes. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotube

  20. Improving the photovoltaic parameters in Quantum dot sensitized solar cells through employment of chemically deposited compact titania blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendra Prasad, M.B., E-mail: rajendraprasadmb75@gmail.com [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla, Pune, 411023 (India); Kadam, Vishal [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Joo, Oh-Shim [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box No. 131, Chongryang, Seoul, 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Pathan, Habib M. [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Incorporation of compact blocking layer at the Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO)/Electrolyte interface is an effective method to improve the device performance in QDSSC through mitigation of electron recombinations at this interface. This paper reports the most facile and cost effective method of depositing a rutile titania Compact Layer (CL) over Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) substrate and its application in titania based CdS QD sensitized solar cells. The deposited compact layers are characterized to study their structural, optical, morphological and electrochemical properties using X-Ray Diffractometry, UV–Visible spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry and Contact Angle measurements. Sandwich solar cells are fabricated using these CL based electrodes and characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Open Circuit Voltage Decay and J-V characteristics. The CL incorporated CdS QDSSC showed more than 100% increase in the photoconversion efficiency (1.68%) as compared to its bare FTO counterpart (0.73%) proving the efficacy of employed strategy. - Highlights: • Deposited titania compact layer by a facile room temperature chemical bath method. • Employed this to mitigate back electron transfer at TCO/Electrolyte interface. • Compact layer incorporation has improved the solar cell performance by 130%.

  1. Recovery evaluation of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction using sorbents based on silica and titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Perea, C; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D; Carrera-Figueiras, C; Medina-Peralta, S; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2013-01-01

    This work focused on the evaluation of the recovery of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen after matrix solid phase-dispersion extraction (MSPD). Materials based on silica, titania and titania modified with polivylnylimidazole or polyestirene were used as adsorbents for the extraction of pesticides. Small amounts of fortified pollen (0.1 g, at 1 micro-g/g of pesticides), adsorbent (0.4 g) and solvent elution (1 mL de acetonitrile – ACN) were used in the extractions. For recovery evaluation, pollen extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

  2. Performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell using Nafion composites with high volume fraction of titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, B. R.; Isidoro, R. A.; Santiago, E. I.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports on the performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 130 °C with Nafion-titania composite electrolytes prepared by sol-gel technique and containing high volume fractions of the ceramic phase. It is found that for high volume fractions of titania (>10 vol%) the ethanol uptake of composites is largely reduced while the proton conductivity at high-temperatures is weakly dependent on the titania content. Such tradeoff between alcohol uptake and conductivity resulted in a boost of DEFC performance at high temperatures using Nafion-titania composites with high fraction of the inorganic phase.

  3. Mixed conductivity, structural and microstructural characterization of titania-doped yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline/titania-doped yttria stabilized zirconia composite anode matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, M.T.; Maczka, M.

    2011-01-01

    Taking advantage of the fact that TiO 2 additions to 8YSZ cause not only the formation of a titania-doped YSZ solid solution but also a titania-doped YTZP solid solution, composite materials based on both solutions were prepared by solid state reaction. In particular, additions of 15 mol% of TiO 2 give rise to composite materials constituted by 0.51 mol fraction titania-doped yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and 0.49 mol fraction titania-doped yttria stabilized zirconia (0.51TiYTZP/0.49TiYSZ). Furthermore, Y 2 (Ti 1-y Zr y ) 2 O 7 pyrochlore is present as an impurity phase with y close to 1, according to FT-Raman results. Lower and higher additions of titania than that of 15 mol%, i.e., x=0, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 30 mol% were considered to study the evolution of 8YSZ phase as a function of the TiO 2 content. Furthermore, zirconium titanate phase (ZrTiO 4 ) is detected when the titania content is equal or higher than 20 mol% and this phase admits Y 2 O 3 in solid solution according to FE-SEM-EDX. The 0.51TiYTZP/0.49TiYSZ duplex material was selected in this study to establish the mechanism of its electronic conduction under low oxygen partial pressures. In the pO 2 range from 0.21 to 10 -7.5 atm. the conductivity is predominantly ionic and constant over the range and its value is 0.01 S/cm. The ionic plus electronic conductivity is 0.02 S/cm at 1000 o C and 10 -12.3 atm. Furthermore, the onset of electronic conductivity under reducing conditions exhibits a -1/4 pO 2 dependence. Therefore, it is concluded that the n-type electronic conduction in the duplex material can be due to a small polaron-hopping between Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ . -- Graphical abstract: FE-SEM micrograph of a polished and thermal etched surface of a Ti-doped YTZP/Ti-doped YSZ composite material. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Ti-doped YTZP/Ti-doped YSZ composite materials are mixed conductors under low partial pressures. → From 5 mol% of TiO 2 , Y 2 (Ti 1-y ,Zr y ) 2 O 7 pyrochlore is

  4. Size and morphology effects of titania on dye-sensitized solar cells performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Lin, Chien-Chih; Jang, Shiue-Ming; Kao, Tien-Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    This study uses commercial titania (P25) to prepare titania nanowires (NWs) using alkali and hydrothermal treatments. Nanosized titania P25 and NWs were used to prepare spray-dried titania P25 (SP25) and spray-dried titania nanowires (SNWs), respectively, using the spray-drying process. These different titania sizes and morphologies were used to fabricate photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and to investigate their effect on cell performance. All prepared titania NWs and SNWs were in the anatase phase after heat treatment at 450 °C for 2 h. The specific areas for titania with different morphologies were 49.5 m 2 /g for P25, 48.3 m 2 /g for SP25, 42.6 m 2 /g for NWs, and 40.3 m 2 /g for SNWs. The results show that the surface areas decreased when the titania P25 or NWs were processed by spray drying. In optimal conditions, DSSCs prepared from P25 + 2.5 wt.% NWs with a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.88% were produced using a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW/cm 2 (AM 1.5). - Highlights: • Titania with different size and morphology were prepared. • Hydrothermal and spray drying process were applied. • Solar cells with an efficiency of 5.88% were produced

  5. Size and morphology effects of titania on dye-sensitized solar cells performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Wen-Chen, E-mail: wcchien@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chien-Chih [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Jang, Shiue-Ming [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China); Kao, Tien-Hsieh [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    This study uses commercial titania (P25) to prepare titania nanowires (NWs) using alkali and hydrothermal treatments. Nanosized titania P25 and NWs were used to prepare spray-dried titania P25 (SP25) and spray-dried titania nanowires (SNWs), respectively, using the spray-drying process. These different titania sizes and morphologies were used to fabricate photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and to investigate their effect on cell performance. All prepared titania NWs and SNWs were in the anatase phase after heat treatment at 450 °C for 2 h. The specific areas for titania with different morphologies were 49.5 m{sup 2}/g for P25, 48.3 m{sup 2}/g for SP25, 42.6 m{sup 2}/g for NWs, and 40.3 m{sup 2}/g for SNWs. The results show that the surface areas decreased when the titania P25 or NWs were processed by spray drying. In optimal conditions, DSSCs prepared from P25 + 2.5 wt.% NWs with a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.88% were produced using a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} (AM 1.5). - Highlights: • Titania with different size and morphology were prepared. • Hydrothermal and spray drying process were applied. • Solar cells with an efficiency of 5.88% were produced.

  6. Towards TiO2 nanotubes modified by WO3 species: influence of ex situ crystallization of precursor on the photocatalytic activities of WO3/TiO2 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Dong, Bohua; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Liu, Wei; Song, Liang; Cao, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) crystallized at different temperatures were loaded with WO3 hydrate through the reaction between (NH4)6W7O24·6H2O and an aqueous solution of HCl. The photocatalytic activities of nanocomposites firstly increase and then decrease as a function of the crystallized temperature of the TNT precursor. The structural, morphologic and optical properties of WO3/TiO2 nanocomposites were also investigated in this study. The samples, initially anatase titania (573 K-773 K), presented phase transition to rutile titania at 873 K. With the crystallized temperature increasing, an evolution of samples morphology changing from nanotube-like structure to nanorod-like structure was observed. Meanwhile, the absorption edge of samples exhibited a red shift, and correspondingly their band gap decreased. Consistent with x-ray diffraction diffractograms, the existence of rutile titania as an impurity in the precursor TNT, crystallized at higher than 873 K, depressed photocatalytic activity evidently. As a result, the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) increased with the samples crystallinity firstly, and then reduced due to the appearance of rutile titania. In our experimental conditions, the optimal photocatalytic activity was achieved for the sample crystalized at 773 K. Its degradation rate could reach 98.76% after 90 min UV light irradiation.

  7. Towards TiO2 nanotubes modified by WO3 species: influence of ex situ crystallization of precursor on the photocatalytic activities of WO3/TiO2 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hui; Dong, Bohua; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Liu, Wei; Cao, Lixin; Song, Liang

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 nanotubes (TNT) crystallized at different temperatures were loaded with WO 3 hydrate through the reaction between (NH 4 ) 6 W 7 O 24 ·6H 2 O and an aqueous solution of HCl. The photocatalytic activities of nanocomposites firstly increase and then decrease as a function of the crystallized temperature of the TNT precursor. The structural, morphologic and optical properties of WO 3 /TiO 2 nanocomposites were also investigated in this study. The samples, initially anatase titania (573 K–773 K), presented phase transition to rutile titania at 873 K. With the crystallized temperature increasing, an evolution of samples morphology changing from nanotube-like structure to nanorod-like structure was observed. Meanwhile, the absorption edge of samples exhibited a red shift, and correspondingly their band gap decreased. Consistent with x-ray diffraction diffractograms, the existence of rutile titania as an impurity in the precursor TNT, crystallized at higher than 873 K, depressed photocatalytic activity evidently. As a result, the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) increased with the samples crystallinity firstly, and then reduced due to the appearance of rutile titania. In our experimental conditions, the optimal photocatalytic activity was achieved for the sample crystalized at 773 K. Its degradation rate could reach 98.76% after 90 min UV light irradiation. (paper)

  8. Sustainable steric stabilization of colloidal titania nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif

    2017-07-01

    A route to produce a stable colloidal suspension is essential if mono-dispersed particles are to be successfully synthesized, isolated, and used in subsequent nanocomposite manufacture. Dispersing nanoparticles in fluids was found to be an important approach for avoiding poor dispersion characteristics. However, there is still a great tendency for colloidal nanoparticles to flocculate over time. Steric stabilization can prevent coagulation by introducing a thick adsorbed organic layer which constitutes a significant steric barrier that can prevent the particle surfaces from coming into direct contact. One of the main features of hydrothermal synthesis technique is that it offers novel approaches for sustainable nanoparticle surface modification. This manuscript reports on the sustainable steric stabilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticle surface modification was performed via two main approaches including post-synthesis and in situ surface modification. The tuneable hydrothermal conditions (i.e. temperature, pressure, flow rates, and surfactant addition) were optimized to enable controlled steric stabilization in a continuous fashion. Effective post synthesis surface modification with organic ligand (dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)) was achieved; the optimum surface coating temperature was reported to be 180-240 °C to ensure DDSA ring opening and binding to titania nanoparticles. Organic-modified titania demonstrated complete change in surface properties from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and exhibited phase transfer from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. Exclusive surface modification in the reactor was found to be an effective approach; it demonstrated surfactant loading level 2.2 times that of post synthesis surface modification. Titania was also stabilized in aqueous media using poly acrylic acid (PAA) as polar polymeric dispersant. PAA-titania nanoparticles demonstrated a durable amorphous polymeric layer of 2 nm thickness. This

  9. Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous titania nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.J.; Lin, C.T.; Wu, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Tri-block nonionic surfactant and titanium chloride were used as starting materials for the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystallite powders. The main objective of the present study was to examine the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystals and the adsorption of vitamin E on those nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. When the calcination temperature was increased to 300 o C, the reflection peaks in the XRD pattern indicated the presence of an anatase phase. The crystallinity of the nanocrystallites increased from 80% to 98.6% with increasing calcination temperature from 465 o C to 500 o C. The N 2 adsorption data and XRD data taken after vitamin E adsorption revealed that the vitamin E molecules were adsorbed in the mesopores of the titania nanocrystals.

  10. Titania nanotube powders obtained by rapid breakdown anodization in perchloric acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Saima, E-mail: saima.ali@aalto.fi; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2017-05-15

    Titania nanotube (TNT) powders are prepared by rapid break down anodization (RBA) in a 0.1 M perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) solution (Process 1), and ethylene glycol (EG) mixture with HClO{sub 4} and water (Process 2). A study of the as-prepared and calcined TNT powders obtained by both processes is implemented to evaluate and compare the morphology, crystal structure, specific surface area, and the composition of the nanotubes. Longer TNTs are formed in Process 1, while comparatively larger pore diameter and wall thickness are obtained for the nanotubes prepared by Process 2. The TNTs obtained by Process 1 are converted to nanorods at 350 °C, while nanotubes obtained by Process 2 preserve tubular morphology till 350 °C. In addition, the TNTs prepared by an aqueous electrolyte have a crystalline structure, whereas the TNTs obtained by Process 2 are amorphous. Samples calcined till 450 °C have XRD peaks from the anatase phase, while the rutile phase appears at 550 °C for the TNTs prepared by both processes. The Raman spectra also show clear anatase peaks for all samples except the as-prepared sample obtained by Process 2, thus supporting the XRD findings. FTIR spectra reveal the presence of O-H groups in the structure for the TNTs obtained by both processes. However, the presence is less prominent for annealed samples. Additionally, TNTs obtained by Process 2 have a carbonaceous impurity present in the structure attributed to the electrolyte used in that process. While a negligible weight loss is typical for TNTs prepared from aqueous electrolytes, a weight loss of 38.6% in the temperature range of 25–600 °C is found for TNTs prepared in EG electrolyte (Process 2). A large specific surface area of 179.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} is obtained for TNTs prepared by Process 1, whereas Process 2 produces nanotubes with a lower specific surface area. The difference appears to correspond to the dimensions of the nanotubes obtained by the two processes. - Graphical abstract

  11. Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous titania nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.T.; Wu, S.M. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-15

    Tri-block nonionic surfactant and titanium chloride were used as starting materials for the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystallite powders. The main objective of the present study was to examine the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystals and the adsorption of vitamin E on those nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. When the calcination temperature was increased to 300 {sup o}C, the reflection peaks in the XRD pattern indicated the presence of an anatase phase. The crystallinity of the nanocrystallites increased from 80% to 98.6% with increasing calcination temperature from 465 {sup o}C to 500 {sup o}C. The N{sub 2} adsorption data and XRD data taken after vitamin E adsorption revealed that the vitamin E molecules were adsorbed in the mesopores of the titania nanocrystals.

  12. In situ iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic investigations of the effect of titania surface area on the reducibility of titania-supported iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Du Hongzhang

    1990-01-01

    Iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to monitor the reducibility in hydrogen of iron oxides supported on titania of differing surface areas. The results show that although Fe 3+ in the iron oxide supported on low surface area titania (11 m 2 g -1 ) is not amenable to facile reduction at low temperatures, complete reduction to metallic iron is achieved by treatment at 600deg C. The data also show that the extent of reduction at elevated temperatures exceeds that which is obtained on similar silica- and alumina-supported systems. Fe 3+ in iron oxide supported on higher surface area titania (50 m 2 g -1 and 240 m 2 g -1 ) is partially reduced in hydrogen at 235deg C to Fe 2+ but fails to attain complete reduction to the metallic state following treatment at 600deg C. The results are related to the different dispersions of iron oxide which can be attained on titania of differing surface area and the consequent interactions between the support and the supported phases. (orig.)

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of porous manganese oxide doped titania for toluene decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jothiramalingam, R.; Wang, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase on different porous manganese oxide doped titanium dioxide. As synthesized birnessite and cryptomelane type porous manganese oxide were doped with titania and tested for photocatalytic decomposition of toluene in gas phase. The effects of the inlet concentration of toluene, flow rate (retention time) were examined and the relative humidity was maintained constantly. Thermal and textural characterization of manganese oxide doped titania materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravemetry (TG), BET and TEM-EDAX studies. The aim of the present study is to synthesize the porous manganese oxide doped titania and to study its photocatalytic activity for toluene degradation in gas phase. Cryptomelane doped titania catalyst prepared in water medium [K-OMS-2 (W)] is shown the good toluene degradation with lower catalysts loading compared to commercial bulk titania in annular type photo reactor. The higher photocatalytic activity due to various factors such as catalyst preparation method, experimental conditions, catalyst loading, surface area, etc. In the present study manganese oxide OMS doped titania materials prepared by both aqueous and non-aqueous medium, aqueous medium prepared catalyst shows the good efficiency due to the presence of OH bonded groups on the surface of catalyst. The linear forms of different kinetic equations were applied to the adsorption data and their goodness of fit was evaluated based on the R 2 and standard error. The goodness to the linear fit was observed for Elovich model with high R 2 (≥0.9477) value

  14. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dandan; Lue Jianxia; Liu Jingfu; Jiang Guibin

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H 2 O 2 (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a ∼1.2 μm thick nanostructured coating consisting of ∼100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L -1 ), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L -1 ), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R 2 = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  15. Deformation and microstructure of rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchin, M.G.; Bursill, L.A.; Lafage, C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the mechanical properties of rutiles are described, in particular the behaviour of the elastic limit under compression with respect to variations in temperature (pure rutile), intrinsic non-stoichiometry (pure rutile reduced under low oxygen pressure) and extrinsic non-stoichiometry (rutile doped with chromia and alumina). A wide range of values is obtained, which may be understood in terms of the interaction of dislocations belonging to the slip systems {101} and {110} with impurities, non-stoichiometric small and extended defects and precipitates. Transmission electron microscopy at medium resolution as well as high resolution electron microscopy have been used to relate mechanical behaviour with microstructure. 43 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Tm-doped TiO2 and Tm2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanoparticles: enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile with a pyrochlore phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Santos, Desiré M; Navas, Javier; Aguilar, Teresa; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Blanco, Ginesa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Tm-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using a water-controlled hydrolysis reaction. Analysis was performed in order to determine the influence of the dopant concentration and annealing temperature on the phase, crystallinity, and electronic and optical properties of the resulting material. Various characterization techniques were utilized such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. For the samples annealed at 773 and 973 K, anatase phase TiO2 was obtained, predominantly internally doped with Tm(3+). ICP-AES showed that a doping concentration of up to 5.8 atom % was obtained without reducing the crystallinity of the samples. The presence of Tm(3+) was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy: the incorporation of Tm(3+) was confirmed by the generation of new absorption bands that could be assigned to Tm(3+) transitions. Furthermore, when the samples were annealed at 1173 K, a pyrochlore phase (Tm2Ti2O7) mixed with TiO2 was obtained with a predominant rutile phase. The photodegradation of methylene blue showed that this pyrochlore phase enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the rutile phase.

  17. Growth of anatase and rutile phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Influence of surfactant addition and ablation time variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Amita, E-mail: amita-chaturvedi@rrcat.gov.in [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India); Joshi, M.P. [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai – 400094 (India); Mondal, P.; Sinha, A.K.; Srivastava, A.K. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Ablations of Ti metal target were carried out in DI water and in 0.001 M SDS solution for different times using PLAL process. • Different characterization studies have been carried out to confirm the growth of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in both the liquid mediums. • Anatase phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were obtained in DI water and rutile phase in 0.001 M SDS aqueous solution. • In surfactant solution, longer time ablation leads depletion of SDS molecules causes growth of anatase phase for 90 min. • Our studies confirmed the role of liquid ambience conditions variation over the different phase formations of nanoparticles. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were grown using nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ti target in DI water and in 0.001 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant aqueous solution. Growth was carried out with varying ablation times i. e. 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of variations in liquid ambience conditions on the growth of the nanoparticles in a pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) process. Size, composition and optical properties of the grown TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The obtained nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} were found almost spherical in shape and polycrystalline in nature in both the liquid mediums i.e. DI water and aqueous solution of surfactant. Nanoparticles number density was also found to increase with increasing ablation time in both the liquid mediums. However crystalline phase of the grown TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles differs with the change in liquid ambience conditions. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), PL and XRD studies suggest that DI water ambience is favorable for the growth of anatase phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for all

  18. Optimization of mechanical strength of titania fibers fabricated by direct drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Kelli; Tätte, Tanel; Hussainova, Irina; Part, Marko; Mändar, Hugo; Roosalu, Kaspar; Chasiotis, Ioannis

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured polycrystalline titania (TiO2) microfibers were produced by direct drawing from visco-elastic alkoxide precursors. The fiber crystallinity and grain size were shown to depend on post-treatment calcination temperature. Tensile tests with individual fibers showed strong sensitivity of the elastic modulus and the tensile strength to microstructural details of the fibers. The elastic modulus of as-fabricated fibers increased about 10 times after calcination at 700 ∘C, while the strain at failure remained almost the same at ˜1.4 %. The highest tensile strength of more than 800 MPa was exhibited by nanoscale grained fibers with a bimodal grain size distribution consisting of rutile grains embedded into an anatase matrix. This structure is believed to have reduced the critical defect size, and thus increased the tensile strength. The resultant fibers showed properties that were appropriate for reinforcement of different matrixes.

  19. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Dandan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Environmental Science Division, School of Earth and Space Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Lue Jianxia [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu Jingfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: jfliu@rcees.ac.cn; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2008-03-17

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a {approx}1.2 {mu}m thick nanostructured coating consisting of {approx}100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L{sup -1}), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L{sup -1}), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R{sup 2} = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  20. Rapid synthesis of nitrogen doped titania with mixed crystal lattice via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peilin; Liu Bin; Yin Shu; Wang Yuhua; Petrykin, Valery; Kakihana, Masato; Sato, Tsugio

    2009-01-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize nitrogen doped titania nanoparticles. Due to the high heating efficiency of microwave, rapid synthesis could be achieved in comparison with the conventional oven. Mixed crystal lattice was found existing in the obtained product, and the phase transformation behaviour under calcination was studied by XRD measurement together with Raman spectroscopy in details. The obtained nitrogen doped titania showed high specific surface area, about 300 m 2 g -1 . Photocatalytic activity in destructing NO x gas by the prepared sample exceeded that of commercial titania (P 25) or nitrogen doped titania synthesized by conventional hydrothermal method, under both visible-light and ultraviolet-light irradiation.

  1. Ce-doped nanoparticles of TiO2: Rutile-to-brookite phase transition and evolution of Ce local-structure studied with XRD and XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kityakarn, Sutasinee; Worayingyong, Attera; Suramitr, Anwaraporn; Smith, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal and electronic structural changes undergone by TiO 2 nanoparticles when Ce is introduced were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). A small amount of Ce (less than 1% molar concentration) resulted in i/a significant reduction of the average size of the TiO 2 nanoparticles and ii/a phase transition in which brookite replaced rutile as the minority phase component (anatase was the majority phase component at all Ce concentrations studied up to 10% molar concentration). The Ce L3 edge XANES revealed changes in the local environment of Ce impurities. As Ce concentration was increased the fraction of Ce that have formal valence of +3 decreased and, for the remaining Ce with valence +4, the 4f orbitals became less-strongly hybridized with the p-orbitals of oxygen neighbors. The results have implications for photocatalytic and gas sensing properties of Ce-doped TiO 2 . - Highlights: ► Ce-doping: TiO 2 nanoparticles shrink and minority phase changes rutile-> brookite. ► XANES reveals phase change for arbitrarily small particles (while XRD fails). ► As Ce added: fraction of Ce +3 dopants falls, hybridization of Ce +4 with O weakens

  2. Density functional theory study of the mechanism of Li diffusion in rutile RuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jongboo; Cho, Maenghyo; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    First-principle calculations are carried out to study the diffusion of Li ions in rutile structure RuO 2 , a material for positive electrodes in rechargeable Li ion batteries. The calculations focus on migration pathways and energy barriers for diffusion in Li-poor and Li-rich phases using the Nudged Elastic Band Method. Diffusion coefficients estimated based on calculated energy barriers are in good agreement with experimental values reported in the literature. The results confirm the anisotropic nature of diffusion of Li ions in one-dimensional c channels along the [001] crystalline direction of rutile RuO 2 and show that Li diffusion in the Li-poor phase is faster than in the Li-rich phase. The findings of fast Li diffusion and feasible Li insertion at low temperatures in the host rutile RuO 2 suggest this material is a good ionic conductor for Li transport. The finding also suggests possible means for enhancing the performance of RuO 2 -based electrode materials

  3. Nanocasting of Periodic Mesoporous Materials as an Effective Strategy to Prepare Mixed Phases of Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luther Mahoney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous titanium dioxide materials were prepared using a nanocasting technique involving silica SBA-15 as the hard-template. At an optimal loading of titanium precursor, the hexagonal periodic array of pores in SBA-15 was retained. The phases of titanium dioxide could be easily varied by the number of impregnation cycles and the nature of titanium alkoxide employed. Low number of impregnation cycles produced mixed phases of anatase and TiO2(B. The mesoporous TiO2 materials were tested for solar hydrogen production, and the material consisting of 98% anatase and 2% TiO2(B exhibited the highest yield of hydrogen from the photocatalytic splitting of water. The periodicity of the pores was an important factor that influenced the photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that mixed phases of titania containing ordered array of pores can be prepared by using the nanocasting strategy.

  4. Titania-coated manganite nanoparticles: Synthesis of the shell, characterization and MRI properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirák, Zdeněk; Kuličková, Jarmila [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Herynek, Vít [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vídeňská 1958/9, 140 21 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Maryško, Miroslav [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Koktan, Jakub [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kaman, Ondřej, E-mail: kamano@seznam.cz [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-01

    Novel procedure for coating of oxide nanoparticles with titania, employing hydrolysis and polycondensation of titanium alkoxides under high-dilution conditions and cationic surfactants, is developed and applied to magnetic cores of perovskite manganite. Bare particles of the ferromagnetic La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} phase, possessing high magnetization, M{sub 10} {sub kOe}(4.5 K) = 63.5 emu g{sup −1}, and Curie temperature, T{sub C} = 355 K, are synthesized by sol-gel procedure and subsequently coated with titania. Further, a comparative silica-coated product is prepared. In order to analyse the morphology, colloidal stability, and surface properties of these two types of coated particles, a detailed study by means of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential measurements, and IR spectroscopy is carried out. The experiments on the titania-coated sample reveal a continuous though porous character of the TiO{sub 2} shell, the nature of which is amorphous but can be transformed to anatase at higher temperatures. Finally, the relaxometric study at the magnetic field of 0.5 T, performed to quantity the transverse relaxivity and its temperature dependence, reveals important differences between the titania-coated and silica-coated nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticles of perovskite La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} phase are coated with TiO{sub 2}. • The titania forms a continuous and amorphous shell and provides colloidal stability. • Morphology and surface properties are compared to a silica-coated product. • MRI properties of both the titania- and silica-coated particles are studied at 0.5 T. • The temperature dependence of r{sub 2} is strongly affected by the type of coating.

  5. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Zhao, Ye

    2013-12-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO{sub 2}) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity.

  6. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yibing; Zhao, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO 2 ) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity

  7. Positron annihilation lifetime characterization of oxygen ion irradiated rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Homnath; Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Chattopadhyay, S.; Asokan, K.; Sanyal, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature has been induced in rutile phase of TiO2 polycrystalline sample by O ion irradiation. 96 MeV O ion induced defects in rutile TiO2 sample has been characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopic techniques. Positron annihilation results indicate the formation of cation vacancy (VTi, Ti vacancy) in these irradiated TiO2 samples. Ab initio density functional theoretical calculations indicate that in TiO2 magnetic moment can be induced either by creating Ti or O vacancies.

  8. A rapid hydrothermal synthesis of rutile SnO2 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, O.; Chow, L.; Chai, G.; Schulte, A.; Park, S.; Heinrich, H.

    2009-01-01

    Tin oxide (SnO 2 ) nanowires with rutile structure have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method at 98 deg. C. The morphologies and structural properties of the as-grown nanowires/nanoneedles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM images reveal tetragonal nanowires of about 10-100 μm in length and 50-100 nm in radius. The Raman scattering peaks indicate a typical rutile phase of the SnO 2 . The effects of molar ratio of SnCl 4 to NH 4 OH on the growth mechanism are discussed

  9. TiO2-Based Nanomaterials for Gas Sensing-Influence of Anatase and Rutile Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, K; Radecka, M

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with application of three nanomaterial systems: undoped TiO 2 , chromium-doped TiO 2 :Cr and TiO 2 -SnO 2 synthesized by flame spray synthesis (FSS) technique for hydrogen sensing. The emphasis is put on the role of anatase and rutile polymorphic forms of TiO 2 in enhancing sensitivity towards reducing gases. Anatase-to-rutile transformation is achieved by annealing of undoped TiO 2 in air at 700 °C, specific Cr doping and modification with SnO 2 . Undoped TiO 2 and TiO 2 -SnO 2 exhibit n-type behaviour and while TiO 2 : 5 at.% Cr is a p-type semiconductor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been applied to determine anatase-to-rutile weight ratio as well as anatase and rutile crystal size. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to characterize the structure and morphological parameters. Optical reflectometry enabled to find and compare the band gaps E g of anatase and rutile predominated compositions. Electrical properties, i.e. the electrical conductivity and values of constant phase element (CPE), have been established on the basis of impedance spectroscopy. Dynamic responses of the electrical resistance as a function of hydrogen concentration revealed that predominance of rutile in anatase/rutile mixture is beneficial for gas sensing. Partial transformation to rutile in all three material systems under study resulted in an increased sensitivity towards hydrogen. It is proposed that this effect can be explained in a similar way as in photocatalysis, i.e. by specific band alignment and electron transfer from rutile to anatase to facilitate oxygen preadsorption on the surface of anatase grains.

  10. Low temperature self-assembled growth of rutile TiO2/manganese oxide nanocrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenya; Zhou, Daokun; Du, Jianhua; Xie, Yuxing

    2017-10-01

    We report formation of rutile TiO2 nanocrystal at low temperature range in the presence of α-MnO2 which self-assembled onto sulfanyl radical activated silicon oxide substrate. SEM, HRTEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the morphology and oxidation state of synthesised crystals. The results showed that when the α-MnO2 was reduced to Mn3O4, it induced the formation of rutile instead of anatase phase in the TiCl4-HCl aqueous system. The finding will promote the understanding of phase transformation mechanism when manganese oxide and titanium oxide co-exist in soil and water environment.

  11. Low-temperature preparation of rutile-type TiO2 thin films for optical coatings by aluminum doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Kosei; Oikawa, Itaru; Kamegawa, Atsunori; Imura, Masaaki; Kanai, Toshimasa; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    A rutile-type TiO2 thin film with a high refractive index (n), a low extinction coefficient (k) and small surface roughness (Ra) is required for use in a variety of optical coatings to improve the controllability of the reflection spectrum. In this study, Al-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and the effects of Al doping on their phases, optical properties, surface roughness and nanoscale microstructure, including Al distribution, were investigated. By doping 5 and 10 mol%Al, rutile-type TiO2 was successfully prepared under a PO2 of 0.5 Pa at 350-600 °C. The nanoscale phase separation in the Al-doped TiO2 thin films plays an important role in the formation of the rutile phase. The 10 mol%Al-doped rutile-type TiO2 thin film deposited at 350 °C showed excellent optical properties of n ≈ 3.05, k ≈ 0.01 (at λ = 400 nm) and negligible surface roughness, at Ra ≈ 0.8 nm. The advantages of the superior optical properties and small surface roughness of the 10 mol%Al-doped TiO2 thin film were confirmed by fabricating a ten-layered dielectric mirror.

  12. Solventless acid-free synthesis of mesostructured titania: Nanovessels for metal complexes and metal nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dag, Oe.; Celik, Oe.; Ozin, G.A. [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06533 Ankara (Turkey); Soten, I.; Polarz, S.; Coombs, N. [Materials Chemistry Research Group, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2003-01-01

    A new and highly reproducible method to obtain mesostructured titania materials is introduced in this contribution. The mesostructured titania is obtained by employing self-assembled structures of non-ionic alkyl-poly(ethylene oxide) surfactants as templates. The materials are produced without additional solvents such as alcohols, or even water. Only the titanium(IV) ethoxide and the surfactant (C{sub 12}EO{sub 10}) are needed. Water, in the form of that attached to the surfactant and from the atmosphere, induces growth of titania nanoclusters in the synthesis sol. It is indicated that these nanoclusters interact with the surfactant EO-head groups to form a new titanotropic amphiphile. The new amphiphiles self-assemble into titanium nanocluster-surfactant hybrid lyotropic phases, which are transformed to the final mesostructured materials by further condensation of the titania network. The titania materials can be obtained also with noble-metal particles immobilized in the mesostructured framework. It is seen that when different metal salts are used as the metal precursors, different interactions with the titania walls are found. The materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), polarization optical microscopy (POM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and micro-Raman analysis. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Fabrication of homogeneous titania/MWNT composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbely, Barbara; Nemeth, Zoltan; Reti, Balazs; Seo, Jin Won; Magrez, Arnaud; Forro, Laszlo; Hernadi, Klara

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Homogenous titania coverage on MWNT surface in a controllable way. → Various titanium alkoxy precursors are suitable for layer formation. → Acetone and ethanol are the best to promote interaction between MWNT and titania. -- Abstract: MWNT/titania nanocomposites were prepared by an impregnation method and subsequent heat treatment at 400 o C. Precursor compounds such as titanium (IV) propoxide and titanium (IV) ethoxide were used to cover the surface of CNTs under solution conditions. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were carried out to characterize the as-prepared titania layers.

  14. A comparative study on synthesis of LLDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using different TiO2 by in situ polymerization with zirconocene/dMMAO catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owpradit, Wathanyoo; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2008-01-01

    The present study revealed the effect of different TiO 2 nanoparticles employed on catalytic and characteristic properties of LLDPE/TiO 2 nanocomposites synthesized by the in situ polymerization with zirconocene/dMMAO catalyst. It was found that the presence of rutile phase in titania apparently resulted in decreased activities due to low intrinsic activity of active sites being present. Based on 13 C NMR results, all LLDPE/TiO 2 samples exhibited the random copolymer having different degree of 1-hexene insertion. The highly dispersion of titania can enhance the degree of 1-hexene insertion resulting in decreased crystallinity

  15. The role of Nb in rutile-type multi-component antimonates, catalysts for propane ammoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarini, N.; Cavani, F.; Cimini, M.; Trifiro, F. [Dip. Chimica Industriale e Materiali, INSTM, Research Unit of Bologna (Italy); Cornaro, U.; Ghisletti, D. [EniTecnologie SpA, San Donato Milanes (Italy); Catani, R. [Snamprogetti SpA, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Rutile-type Cr/V/Sb/Nb mixed oxides were prepared by coprecipitation from ethanolic solutions and calcination at 700 C. They were then tested as catalysts for the gas-phase ammoxidation of propane. The addition of increasing amounts of Nb to the rutile Cr/V antimonate led to a considerable increase of the selectivity to acrylonitrile, and to a lower selectivity to N{sub 2} derived from ammonia overoxidation. However, the effect was evident only when excess Sb was present with respect to the stoichiometric requirement for the formation of the rutile compound. Evidences were obtained for the development of rutile-type mixed Cr/V antimonate/niobate, in which the progressive increase of Nb concentration, due to the increased Nb loading, led to the segregation of Sb oxide, in the form of crystalline Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The multi-component rutile was a highly defective structure, and contained excess Sb{sup 5+} and Nb{sup 5+} with respect to the stoichiometric composition. The excess Sb provided the active sites for allcylic ammoxidation on intermediate absorbed propylene. The concomitant presence of Nb in the lattice improved the efficiency of these sites, and was responsible for the better catalytic performance with respect to the Cr/V/Sb/O systems. (orig.)

  16. Individual and binary toxicity of anatase and rutile nanoparticles towards Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswarya, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Individual, binary toxicity of anatase and rutile NPs studied on Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Anatase and rutile phases showed differential effect upon variation in irradiation. • Mixture induced antagonistic at visible and additive effect at UV-A irradiation. • Marking-Dawson model fitted more appropriately than Abbott model. • Agglomeration played a major role in the toxicity induced by the mixture. - Abstract: Increasing usage of engineered nanoparticles, especially Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) in various commercial products has necessitated their toxicity evaluation and risk assessment, especially in the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, a comprehensive toxicity assessment of anatase and rutile NPs (individual as well as a binary mixture) has been carried out in a freshwater matrix on Ceriodaphnia dubia under different irradiation conditions viz., visible and UV-A. Anatase and rutile NPs produced an LC_5_0 of about 37.04 and 48 mg/L, respectively, under visible irradiation. However, lesser LC_5_0 values of about 22.56 (anatase) and 23.76 (rutile) mg/L were noted under UV-A irradiation. A toxic unit (TU) approach was followed to determine the concentrations of binary mixtures of anatase and rutile. The binary mixture resulted in an antagonistic and additive effect under visible and UV-A irradiation, respectively. Among the two different modeling approaches used in the study, Marking-Dawson model was noted to be a more appropriate model than Abbott model for the toxicity evaluation of binary mixtures. The agglomeration of NPs played a significant role in the induction of antagonistic and additive effects by the mixture based on the irradiation applied. TEM and zeta potential analysis confirmed the surface interactions between anatase and rutile NPs in the mixture. Maximum uptake was noticed at 0.25 total TU of the binary mixture under visible irradiation and 1 TU of anatase NPs for UV-A irradiation. Individual NPs showed highest uptake under

  17. Individual and binary toxicity of anatase and rutile nanoparticles towards Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iswarya, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Individual, binary toxicity of anatase and rutile NPs studied on Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Anatase and rutile phases showed differential effect upon variation in irradiation. • Mixture induced antagonistic at visible and additive effect at UV-A irradiation. • Marking-Dawson model fitted more appropriately than Abbott model. • Agglomeration played a major role in the toxicity induced by the mixture. - Abstract: Increasing usage of engineered nanoparticles, especially Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in various commercial products has necessitated their toxicity evaluation and risk assessment, especially in the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, a comprehensive toxicity assessment of anatase and rutile NPs (individual as well as a binary mixture) has been carried out in a freshwater matrix on Ceriodaphnia dubia under different irradiation conditions viz., visible and UV-A. Anatase and rutile NPs produced an LC{sub 50} of about 37.04 and 48 mg/L, respectively, under visible irradiation. However, lesser LC{sub 50} values of about 22.56 (anatase) and 23.76 (rutile) mg/L were noted under UV-A irradiation. A toxic unit (TU) approach was followed to determine the concentrations of binary mixtures of anatase and rutile. The binary mixture resulted in an antagonistic and additive effect under visible and UV-A irradiation, respectively. Among the two different modeling approaches used in the study, Marking-Dawson model was noted to be a more appropriate model than Abbott model for the toxicity evaluation of binary mixtures. The agglomeration of NPs played a significant role in the induction of antagonistic and additive effects by the mixture based on the irradiation applied. TEM and zeta potential analysis confirmed the surface interactions between anatase and rutile NPs in the mixture. Maximum uptake was noticed at 0.25 total TU of the binary mixture under visible irradiation and 1 TU of anatase NPs for UV-A irradiation. Individual NPs showed highest

  18. Iron and Nitrogen doped Titania an Overview of Function and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasap, M.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is an exceptional material, featuring high transparency in the visible-IR range, high photo activity and superhidrophilicity, physical and chemical stability, low cost, non-toxicity. It is mostly applied in selective oxidation and reduction of an organic and organic materials, photovoltaics, photocatalytic sterilization, and sensors. Upon illumination of the TiO 2 surface with UV photons having energies in excess of 3.0 - 3.2 eV, electron-hole pairs are generated by interband transitions. The charge carriers migrate to the surface and react with the adsorbed water and oxygen, the -OH radicals thus formed being responsible for the highly enhanced chemical reactions with other adsorbates. To extend the amount of usable solar energy involved in TiO 2 surface catalyse, shifting the absorption edge towards the blue range of the visible spectrum (λ≥390-450 nm), several means have been proposed (attaching various organic dyes to the surface, reduction by hydrogenation, doping with various anions/cations etc.), each means with specific advantages and drawbacks. The most important restriction in all cases is the need to keep the lower limit of the conduction band non altered by band gap narrowing. Adequate doping of the titania materials may result in high-efficiency stable photocatalytic materials, sensitive enough to be photo-activated by low-level indoor light sources. We report here some of our latest results in preparing and characterizing Fe:TiO 2 and N:TiO-2 thin films using the RF magnetron sputtering and distinct growth conditions (pellet and discharge gas mixing, respectively). The as-deposited Fe:TiO 2 films, 300 nm thick, had a Fe/Ti concentration ratio ranging between 0.0% and 0.9%. While the low Fe-content samples were amorphous, an anatase Fe-rich nanophase dispersed in the amorphous phase was present in the high-content Fe films. Crystalline anatase and rutile nanodomains have been found in the nitrogen-containing titania films, with the

  19. A recipe for the use of rutile in sedimentary provenance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebold, Silke; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Zack, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Rutile has received considerable attention in the last decade as a valuable petrogenetic indicator mineral. Based on both new and previously published data, we carve out advantages and pitfalls regarding TiO2-minerals in sedimentary provenance analysis. This results in a recipe for the use of rutile in provenance studies. The main points are: Rutile geochemistry from different grain size fractions does not differ systematically, and hence rutiles should be extracted from the fraction containing the most rutile grains (usually 63-200 μm). Similarly, different magnetic susceptibility of rutile does not systematically imply different trace element composition. Before interpretation of TiO2-mineral data, it is important to determine the polymorph type. Rutile, anatase and brookite appear to differ systematically in trace element composition. As an alternative to Raman spectroscopy, chemical classification according to Nb, Cr, Sn, Fe, V, and Zr concentrations can be applied. For rutile, a new host lithology discrimination scheme based on Cr-Nb systematics is introduced (x = 5 ∗ (Nb [ppm] - 500) - Cr [ppm]), which leads to better classification results than previously published discrimination methods. According to this equation, metamafic rutiles have negative values of x, while metapelitic rutiles have positive values. Evaluation of the growth temperature calculations of metamorphic rutile after different authors shows that the equations given by Tomkins et al. (2007) should be applied to both metamafic and metapelitic rutiles. Although there is a pressure effect on the Zr incorporation in rutile, the pressure range for most rutiles of 5-15 kbar introduces an uncertainty in calculated temperature of no more than ± 35 °C. The distribution of calculated temperatures from detrital rutiles is crucial; only well-defined temperature populations should be used for thermometry interpretation.

  20. Study of the Bulk Charge Carrier Dynamics in Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Single Crystals by Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Partha

    2018-04-02

    Understanding of the fundamentals behind charge carriers of photo-catalytic materials are still illusive hindering progress in our quest for renewable energy. TiO2 anatase and rutile are the most understood phases in photo-catalysis and serve as the best model for fundamental studies. Their ultrafast charge carrier dynamics especially on TiO2 anatase single crystal (the most active phase) are unresolved. Here femtosecond time resolved spectroscopy (TRS) was carried out to explore the dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers’ recombination in anatase single crystal, for the first time using pump fluence effects, and compares it to that of the rutile single crystal. A significant difference in charge carrier recombination rates between both crystals is observed. We found that the time constants for carrier recombination are two orders of magnitude slower for anatase (101) when compared to those of rutile (110). Moreover, bulk defects introduced by reduction of the samples via annealing in ultra-high vacuum resulted in faster recombination rates for both polymorphs. Both states (fresh and reduced) probed by pump fluence dependence measurements revealed that the major recombination channel in fresh and reduced anatase and reduced rutile is the first-order Shockley–Reed mediated. However, for fresh rutile, third-body Auger recombination was observed, attributed to the presence of higher density of intrinsic charge carriers. At all excitation wavelengths and fluence investigated, anatase (101) single crystal show longer charge carrier lifetime when compared to rutile (110) single. This may explain the superiority of the anatase phase for the electron transfer H+ reduction to molecular hydrogen.

  1. Development of highly porous crystalline titania photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszewski, Michal

    The objectives of this dissertation are the design, synthesis, and characterization of titania materials with surface area, porosity, crystallinity and doping tailored toward photocatalytic applications. Ultimately, the research should result in a strategy allowing the synthesis of titania with all these important features. The synthetic methods investigated in this research will include: i) soft-templating, ii) hard-templating, and iii) modified precursor strategy. Soft-templating strategy uses organic templates--either block copolymers or surfactants--that under specific conditions assemble into micelles, and later, these micelles are used to template the desired material around them. The resulting organic-inorganic composite is then calcined in air to remove the organic template and recover the final material with high surface area and large pore volume. This work explores 1) synthesis of titania materials in the presence of polymer templates, and the effects of different synthetic conditions on the structure of the resulting materials. Hard-templating, in contrast to soft-templating, uses inorganic templates. The hard template is introduced during the synthesis to cast its shape onto the fabricated material and removed afterwards, when the material has formed. The final material is an inverse replica of the hard template used, typically with a well-developed mesostructure. This work explores 1) hard templating synthesis of titania materials using silica and alumina, and 2) the effects of the template amount and type. The modified precursor strategy is a novel synthetic method, developed in this research, and designed specifically to achieve titania material with high surface area, large pore volume, high crystallinity, and possibly doping. The modified precursors are prepared by reacting generic titania precursors, such as titanium isopropoxide (TIPO), with organic acids, which results in substitution of some or all alkoxide groups in TIPO structure. The goal

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of selected herbicides in aqueous suspensions of doped titania under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojic, Daniela V., E-mail: daniela.sojic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Despotovic, Vesna N., E-mail: vesna.despotovic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Abazovic, Nadica D., E-mail: kiki@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 11001 Beograd, PO Box 522 (Serbia); Comor, Mirjana I., E-mail: mirjanac@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 11001 Beograd, PO Box 522 (Serbia); Abramovic, Biljana F., E-mail: biljana.abramovic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of Fe- and N-doped titania suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of the herbicides RS-2-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy)propionic acid (mecoprop, MCPP), (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), and 3,6-dichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid (clopyralid, CP) under the visible light ({lambda} {>=} 400 nm) irradiation. The obtained results were compared with those of the corresponding undoped TiO{sub 2} (rutile/anatase) and of the most frequently used TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25. Computational modeling procedures were used to optimize geometry and molecular electrostatic potentials of MCPP, MCPA and CP and discuss the obtained results. The results indicate that the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation is greatly influenced by the molecular structure of the compound. Lowering of the band gap of titanium dioxide by doping is not always favorable for increasing photocatalytic efficiency of degradation.

  3. Possibilities for rutile extraction from Norwegian eclogite by flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan; Sandvik, Knut

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary flotations tests towards rutile extraction from Norwegian eclogites (Verving deposit) have been carried out. Various sulfonate type flotation reagents (produced by Hoechts) have been tested. Selectivity between rutile/pyroxene has been targeted. Rutile separation from pyrite and garnet has been further identified as principal problem.

  4. Construction of anatase/rutile TiO2 hollow boxes for highly efficient photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Changchao; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Hollow TiO2 hierarchical boxes with suitable anatase and rutile ratios were designed for photocatalysis. The unique hierarchical structure was fabricated via a Topotactic synthetic method. CaTiO3 cubes were acted as the sacrificial templates to create TiO2 hollow hierarchical boxes with well-defined phase distribution. The phase composition of the hollow TiO2 hierarchical boxes is similar to that of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles (∼80% anatase, and 20% rutile). Compared with nanaoparticles, TiO2 hollow boxes with hierarchical structures exhibited an excellent performance in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue organic pollutant. Quantificationally, the degradation rate of the hollow boxes is higher than that of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles by a factor of 2.7. This is ascribed that hollow structure provide an opportunity for using incident light more efficiently. The surface hierarchical and well-organized porous structures are beneficial to supply more active sites and enough transport channels for reactant molecules. The boxes consist of single crystal anatase and rutile combined well with each other, which gives photon-generated carriers transfer efficiently.

  5. Zircon-rutile-ilmenite froth flotation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Denham, D.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for separating a mixture of minerals comprising at least zircon, ilmenite and rutile. It comprises adding an acid solution to the mixture to acidify to a pH of between about 2.0 and 6.0; adding starch to the mixture to depress the ilmenite and the rutile; adding a source of fluoride ions to the mixture to provide a negative surface charge on the zircon surface to activate the zircon; adding an amine cationic collector to the mixture to float the activated zircon; subjecting the mixture containing the added acid solution, the fluoride ions, the starch and the cationic collector, to froth flotation; and withdrawing a float product comprising the zircon and a sink product comprising the ilmenite and rutile

  6. Guided in Situ Polymerization of MEH-PPV in Mesoporous Titania Photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minar, Norma K; Docampo, Pablo; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina; Bein, Thomas

    2015-05-20

    Incorporation of conjugated polymers into porous metal oxide networks is a challenging task, which is being pursued via many different approaches. We have developed the guided in situ polymerization of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) in porous titania films by means of surface functionalization. The controlled polymerization via the Gilch route was induced by an alkoxide base and by increasing the temperature. The selected and specially designed surface-functionalizing linker molecules mimic the monomer or its activated form, respectively. In this way, we drastically enhanced the amount of MEH-PPV incorporated into the porous titania phase compared to nonfunctionalized samples by a factor of 6. Additionally, photovoltaic measurements were performed. The devices show shunting or series resistance limitations, depending on the surface functionalization prior to in situ polymerization of MEH-PPV. We suggest that the reason for this behavior can be found in the orientation of the grown polymer chains with respect to the titania surface. Therefore, the geometry of the anchoring via the linker molecules is relevant for exploiting the full electronic potential of the conjugated polymer in the resulting hybrid composite. This observation will help to design future synthesis methods for new hybrid materials from conjugated polymers and n-type semiconductors to take full advantage of favorable electronic interactions between the two phases.

  7. Fabrication of modified lithium orthosilicate pebbles by addition of titania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knitter, R., E-mail: regina.knitter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT), Karlsruhe, 76021 (Germany); Kolb, M.H.H.; Kaufmann, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT), Karlsruhe, 76021 (Germany); Goraieb, A.A. [Goraieb Versuchstechnik (GVT), Karlsruhe, 76227 (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Lithium orthosilicate pebbles with additions of titania were fabricated by a modified melt-based process. ► The fabricated pebbles exhibit a very fine-grained microstructure with lithium metatitanate as a secondary phase. ► Due to the addition of titanate, the crush load of the pebbles was significantly increased. ► The closed porosity was found to be slightly increased with increasing titanate content. -- Abstract: Lithium orthosilicate pebbles are one of the ceramic tritium breeder materials destined for the European solid breeder test blanket modules of ITER, the large-scale scientific experiment intended to prove the viability of fusion as an energy source, presently under construction in Cadarache, France. While the current reference material is fabricated by melt-spraying with 2.5 wt.% excess of silica, resulting in a two-phase material of lithium orthosilicate and metasilicate, a modified melt-based process was used to fabricate breeder pebbles with additions of titania in order to obtain pebbles with lithium metatitanate as a secondary phase. The fabricated two-phase pebbles exhibit a fine-grained microstructure and increased crush loads. The optimum titanate content has yet to be evaluated, nonetheless the pebbles may have the potential to combine the advantages of both lithium orthosilicate and metatitanate breeder ceramics.

  8. Simultaneous synthesis of anatase colloidal and multiple-branched rutile TiO{sub 2} nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trong Tung; Duong, Ngoc Huyen [School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Mai, Xuan Dung [Dept. of Chemistry, Hanoi Pedagogical University No2, Vinh Phuc (Viet Nam)

    2017-03-15

    Facile synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2} ) nanostructures with controllability over their cystallinity, dimensions, and shape is in demand for diverse optoelectronic applications. Anatase colloidal particles and precipitates of rutile bundles were synthesized simultaneously using HCl catalyzed sol–gel process with titanium tetrachloride as Ti precursor. The crystallinity and the morphology of these two separable TiO{sub 2} phases were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that by varying HCl concentration during synthesis, dimensions of colloidal anatase can be tuned from spherical particles with a diameter of 2–5 nm to nanorods of dimension of 4 nm (width) × 14 nm (length). The rutile bundles whose size increased with aging time consisted of multiple branches with elongation along c-axis. Both anatase nanorods and rutile bundles can be applied as highly efficient photocatalysts or electron conduits.

  9. The nature of excess electrons in anatase and rutile from hybrid DFT and RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Clelia; VandeVondele, Joost

    2014-12-21

    The behavior of excess electrons in undoped and defect free bulk anatase and rutile TiO2 has been investigated by state-of-the-art electronic structure methods including hybrid density functional theory (DFT) and the random phase approximation (RPA). Consistent with experiment, charge trapping and polaron formation is observed in both anatase and rutile. The difference in the anisotropic shape of the polarons is characterized, confirming for anatase the large polaron picture. For anatase, where polaron formation energies are small, charge trapping is observed also with standard hybrid functionals, provided the simulation cell is sufficiently large (864 atoms) to accommodate the lattice relaxation. Even though hybrid orbitals are required as a starting point for RPA in this system, the obtained polaron formation energies are relatively insensitive to the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange employed. The difference in trapping energy between rutile and anatase can be obtained accurately with both hybrid functionals and RPA. Computed activation energies for polaron hopping and delocalization clearly show that anatase and rutile might have different charge transport mechanisms. In rutile, only hopping is likely, whereas in anatase hopping and delocalization are competing. Delocalization will result in conduction-band-like and thus enhanced transport. Anisotropic conduction, in agreement with experimental data, is observed, and results from the tendency to delocalize in the [001] direction in rutile and the (001) plane in anatase. For future work, our calculations serve as a benchmark and suggest RPA on top on hybrid orbitals (PBE0 with 30% Hartree-Fock exchange), as a suitable method to study the rich chemistry and physics of TiO2.

  10. Probing the Effects of Templating on the UV and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Porous Nitrogen-Modified Titania Monoliths for Dye Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursam, Natalita M; Wang, Xingdong; Tan, Jeannie Z Y; Caruso, Rachel A

    2016-07-13

    Porous nitrogen-modified titania (N-titania) monoliths with tailored morphologies were prepared using phase separation and agarose gel templating techniques. The doping and templating process were simultaneously carried out in a one-pot step using alcohol amine-assisted sol-gel chemistry. The amount of polymer used in the monoliths that were prepared using phase separation was shown to affect both the physical and optical properties: higher poly(ethylene glycol) content increased the specific surface area, porosity, and visible light absorption of the final materials. For the agarose-templated monoliths, the infiltration conditions affected the monolith morphology. A porous monolith with high surface area and the least shrinkage was obtained when the N containing alkoxide precursor was infiltrated into the agarose scaffolds at 60 °C. The effect of the diverse porous morphologies on the photocatalytic activity of N-titania was studied for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) under visible and UV light irradiation. The highest visible light activity was achieved by the agarose-templated N-titania monolith, in part due to higher N incorporation. This sample also showed better UV activity, partly because of the higher specific surface area (up to 112 m(2) g(-1)) compared to the phase separation-induced monoliths (up to 103 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, agarose-templated, porous N-titania monoliths provided better features for effectively removing the MB contaminant.

  11. Proportion of influence phases anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} in the photoluminescence 538 nm emission wavelength; Influencia da proporcao das fases anatasio e rutilo na fotoluminescincia do TiO{sub 2} em comprimento de onda de emissao de 538 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, D.S.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Araujo, P.M.A.G.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: dagobertoufcg@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Viana, R.S.; Junior, S.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    TiO2 is one of the most studied materials in the technology area, especially in photoluminescent applications involving catalysts from the biosensor. Therefore, we propose to obtain the Pechini method TiO{sub 2} molar ratio of citric acid/metal ions of 3:1 and 4:1 in order to investigate the influence of the proportion of anatase and rutile phases with the photoluminescence excitation wavelength of 538nm emission. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and excitation spectroscopy. The results indicate the presence of two phases, with a proportion of 78.99 and 83.58 and 21.01% of anatase and rutile 16.42%, density 3.82 and 3.70 g/cm{sup 3} and excitement in length wave emission 538nm with maximum intensity 91289.2 and 71880,7 cps for samples 3:1 and 4:1, respectively. Sample 3:1 with the highest percentage of rutile phase favored photoluminescence. (author)

  12. A thick hierarchical rutile TiO2 nanomaterial with multilayered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Yang, Xianjin; Cui, Zhenduo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We synthesized a new rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure. ► The nano architecture structure consist of nanorods and nanoflower arrays. ► The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). ► The TiO 2 nanomaterials present a multilayer structure. - Abstract: In the present paper, we synthesized a new type of rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure using a novel method, which combined dealloying process with chemical synthesis. The structure characters were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). The hierarchical structure of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial consists of large quantities nanorods and nanoflower arrays. The nanoflowers consist of serveral nanopetals with diameter of 100–200 nm. The cross section of TiO 2 nanomaterials presents a multilayer structure with the layer thickness of about 3–5 μm. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has high specific surface area. The formation mechanism of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial was discussed according to the experimental results. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has potential applications in catalysis, photocatalysis and solar cells

  13. Interfacial Interaction of Titania Nanoparticles and Ligated Uranyl Species: A Relativistic DFT Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Ming; Schreckenbach, Georg; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2017-03-06

    To understand interfacial behavior of actinides adsorbed onto mineral surfaces and unravel their structure-property relationship, the structures, electronic properties, and energetics of various ligated uranyl species adsorbed onto TiO 2 surface nanoparticle clusters (SNCs) were examined using relativistic density functional theory. Rutile (110) and anatase (101) titania surfaces, experimentally known to be stable, were fully optimized. For the former, models studied include clean and water-free Ti 27 O 64 H 20 (dry), partially hydrated (Ti 27 O 64 H 20 )(H 2 O) 8 (sol) and proton-saturated [(Ti 27 O 64 H 20 )(H 2 O) 8 (H) 2 ] 2+ (sat), while defect-free and defected anatase SNCs involving more than 38 TiO 2 units were considered. The aquouranyl sorption onto rutile SNCs is energetically preferred, with interaction energies of -8.54, -10.36, and -2.39 eV, respectively. Energy decomposition demonstrates that the sorption is dominated by orbital attractive interactions and modified by steric effects. Greater hydrogen-bonding involvement leads to increased orbital interactions (i.e., more negative energy) from dry to sol/sat complexes, while much larger steric interaction in the sat complex significantly reduces the sorption interaction (i.e., more positive energy). For dry SNC, adsorbates were varied from aquo to aquo-carbonato, to carbonato, to hydroxo uranyl species. Longer U-O surf /U-Ti distances and more positive sorption energies were calculated upon introducing carbonato and hydroxo ligands, indicative of weaker uranyl sorption onto the substrate. This is consistent with experimental observations that the uranyl sorption rate decreases upon raising solution pH value or adding carbon dioxide. Anatase SNCs adsorbing aquouranyl are even more exothermic, because more bonds are formed than in the case of rutile. Moreover, the anatase sorption can be tuned by surface defects as well as its Ti and O stoichiometry. All the aquouranyl-SNC complexes show similar

  14. Improving the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell by graphene/titania photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Junchang; Wu, Jihuai; Zheng, Ming; Huo, Jinghao; Tu, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A colloid of graphene/titania is prepared, and thus a graphene/titania film is made. • The film shows high porosity, large surface area and small transfer resistance. • The cell with graphene/titania photoanode obtains a conversion efficiency of 7.52%. • Which is increased by 18% compared to the cell with pristine titania electrode. - Abstract: A mixed colloid of graphene and titania is synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal reaction, thus a graphene/titania film photoanode is prepared. The graphene/titania film shows high porosity and large specific surface area, which favors a full adsorption of sensitized dye. On the other hand, the graphene/titania electrode has smaller charge transfer resistance than the pristine titania electrode, which replies that the graphene/titania electrode accelerates electronic transportation and suppresses the charge recombination. Under an optimal condition, the dye-sensitized solar cell based on graphene/titania photoanode achieve a power conversion efficiency of 7.52%, which is increased by 17.7% compared to the cell based on the pristine titania electrode under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW·cm −2

  15. Excess electrons in reduced rutile and anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Jin; Wen, Bo; Zhou, Chuanyao; Selloni, Annabella; Liu, Li-Min

    2018-05-01

    As a prototypical photocatalyst, TiO2 is a material of scientific and technological interest. In photocatalysis and other applications, TiO2 is often reduced, behaving as an n-type semiconductor with unique physico-chemical properties. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the fundamental properties and applications of excess electrons in reduced, undoped TiO2. We discuss the characteristics of excess electrons in the bulk and at the surface of rutile and anatase TiO2 focusing on their localization, spatial distribution, energy levels, and dynamical properties. We examine specific features of the electronic states for photoexcited TiO2, for intrinsic oxygen vacancy and Ti interstitial defects, and for surface hydroxyls. We discuss similarities and differences in the behaviors of excess electrons in the rutile and anatase phases. Finally, we consider the effect of excess electrons on the reactivity, focusing on the interaction between excess electrons and adsorbates.

  16. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  17. Photodegradation of phenol by N-Doped TiO2 anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microsphere under UV and visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Salleh, W.N.W.; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A.F.; Nor, Nor Azureen Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    N-doped TiO 2 anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microspheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and direct sol–gel method containing titanium-n-butoxide Ti(OBu) 4 as a precursor material, nitric acid as a catalyst, and isopropanol as a solvent. By manipulating calcination temperature, the photocatalyst consisting of different phase compositions of anatase and rutile was obtained. The prepared TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The results from UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy and FTIR revealed the direct incorporation of nitrogen in TiO 2 lattice since visible absorption capability was observed at 400–600 nm. XPS study indicated the incorporation of nitrogen as dopant in TiO 2 at binding energies of 396.8, 397.5, 398.7, 399.8, and 401 eV. Calcination temperature was observed to have a great influence on the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 nanorods. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared mixed phase of anatase/rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles was measured by photodegradation phenol in an aqueous solution under UV and visible irradiations. N-doped TiO 2 anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microsphere (consists of 38.3% anatase and 61.7% rutile) that was prepared at 400 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity after irradiated under visible and UV light for 540 min. The high performance of photocatalyst materials could be obtained by adopting a judicious combination of anatase/rutile prepared at optimum calcination conditions. - Highlights: • Synthesis of N-Doped TiO 2 Anatase/Rutile Nanorods via simple preparation method. • Direct incorporation of HNO 3 as the nitrogen dopant source. • The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV and visible light irradiation. • The optimum calcination temperature is 400 °C for

  18. Recent progress in mesoporous titania materials: adjusting morphology for innovative applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L Vivero-Escoto, Ya-Dong Chiang, Kevin C-W Wu and Yusuke Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article summarizes recent developments in mesoporous titania materials, particularly in the fields of morphology control and applications. We first briefly introduce the history of mesoporous titania materials and then review several synthesis approaches. Currently, mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTNs have attracted much attention in various fields, such as medicine, catalysis, separation and optics. Compared with bulk mesoporous titania materials, which are above a micrometer in size, nanometer-sized MTNs have additional properties, such as fast mass transport, strong adhesion to substrates and good dispersion in solution. However, it has generally been known that the successful synthesis of MTNs is very difficult owing to the rapid hydrolysis of titanium-containing precursors and the crystallization of titania upon thermal treatment. Finally, we review four emerging fields including photocatalysis, photovoltaic devices, sensing and biomedical applications of mesoporous titania materials. Because of its high surface area, controlled porous structure, suitable morphology and semiconducting behavior, mesoporous titania is expected to be used in innovative applications.

  19. Study of paramagnetic defect centers in as-grown and annealed TiO2 anatase and rutile nanoparticles by a variable-temperature X-band and high-frequency (236 GHz) EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S K; Andronenko, S I; Tipikin, D; Freed, J H; Somani, V; Prakash, Om

    2016-03-01

    Detailed EPR investigations on as-grown and annealed TiO 2 nanoparticles in the anatase and rutile phases were carried out at X-band (9.6 GHz) at 77, 120-300 K and at 236 GHz at 292 K. The analysis of EPR data for as-grown and annealed anatase and rutile samples revealed the presence of several paramagnetic centers: Ti 3+ , O - , adsorbed oxygen (O 2 - ) and oxygen vacancies. On the other hand, in as-grown rutile samples, there were observed EPR lines due to adsorbed oxygen (O 2 - ) and the Fe 3+ ions in both Ti 4+ substitutional positions, with and without coupling to an oxygen vacancy in the near neighborhood. Anatase nanoparticles were completely converted to rutile phase when annealed at 1000° C, exhibiting EPR spectra similar to those exhibited by the as-grown rutile nanoparticles. The high-frequency (236 GHz) EPR data on anatase and rutile samples, recorded in the region about g = 2.0 exhibit resolved EPR lines, due to O - and O 2 - ions enabling determination of their g-values with higher precision, as well as observation of hyperfine sextets due to Mn 2+ and Mn 4+ ions in anatase.

  20. Micro-structural investigations of spray hydrolyzed TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhotiya, H. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India); Singh, Ripandeep; Bahadur, J. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sen, D., E-mail: debasis@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Das, Avik; Mazumder, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Paul, B. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sastry, P.U. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Lemmel, H. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • Titania microstructure formation by spray hydrolysis. • Morphological transition during spray hydrolysis process. • Hollow microspheres and fractal like grains depending on precursor concentration. • Use of scattering and microscopy techniques in probing mesoscopic structures. • A plausible mechanism regarding the morphological transition is also introduced. -- Abstract: Hydrolysis across tiny spray droplet allows a facile one step synthesis of interesting sub-micrometric structures owing to the large available surface area unlike bulk hydrolysis. In the present work, it has been demonstrated that titania precursor concentration plays a significant role in effecting morphological transformation during spray hydrolysis. While hollow microspheres are formed primarily at low precursor concentration, fractal like grains, having two levels of hierarchy, result at high precursor concentration. Mesoscopic structure of these spray hydrolyzed grains has been investigated by ultra small-angle neutron scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal evolution of initial amorphous phase of titania into crystalline rutile phase, through intermediate anatase and brookite phases, is followed by high temperature X-ray diffraction. A plausible mechanism has been elucidated for the observed morphological transition with variation of precursor concentration.

  1. Photodegradation of phenol by N-Doped TiO{sub 2} anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microsphere under UV and visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Salleh, W.N.W., E-mail: hayati@petroleum.utm.my [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A.F.; Nor, Nor Azureen Mohamad [Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2015-07-15

    N-doped TiO{sub 2} anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microspheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and direct sol–gel method containing titanium-n-butoxide Ti(OBu){sub 4} as a precursor material, nitric acid as a catalyst, and isopropanol as a solvent. By manipulating calcination temperature, the photocatalyst consisting of different phase compositions of anatase and rutile was obtained. The prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The results from UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy and FTIR revealed the direct incorporation of nitrogen in TiO{sub 2} lattice since visible absorption capability was observed at 400–600 nm. XPS study indicated the incorporation of nitrogen as dopant in TiO{sub 2} at binding energies of 396.8, 397.5, 398.7, 399.8, and 401 eV. Calcination temperature was observed to have a great influence on the photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2} nanorods. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared mixed phase of anatase/rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was measured by photodegradation phenol in an aqueous solution under UV and visible irradiations. N-doped TiO{sub 2} anatase/rutile nanorods assembled microsphere (consists of 38.3% anatase and 61.7% rutile) that was prepared at 400 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity after irradiated under visible and UV light for 540 min. The high performance of photocatalyst materials could be obtained by adopting a judicious combination of anatase/rutile prepared at optimum calcination conditions. - Highlights: • Synthesis of N-Doped TiO{sub 2} Anatase/Rutile Nanorods via simple preparation method. • Direct incorporation of HNO{sub 3} as the nitrogen dopant source. • The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV and visible light irradiation.

  2. The immobilization of titania nanoparticles on hyaluronan films and their photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqui, Daniela; Atrei, Andrea; Barbucci, Rolando

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a method to bind titania nanoparticles onto hyaluronic films (HA) photoimmobilized on silanized glass. Titania nanoparticles were deposited on the HA films from commercially available dispersions by casting and dip-coating methods at various pH values. XPS was used to monitor the deposition of titania and to estimate the surface coverage of the nanoparticles. The topography of the titania-modified HA films was investigated by means of AFM. XPS results indicate that the titania surface coverage depends on the preparation method and the pH of the dispersion. We found that the maximum titania nanoparticle surface coverage was obtained by the casting method with the formation of aggregates and multilayers of particles. The titania surface coverage for the surfaces prepared by the dip-coating method is pH-dependent. The surfaces prepared at pH 2 show a surface coverage of 65% and a rather uniform distribution of particles. We found that titania nanoparticles are anchored in a stable way to the HA substrate in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and that the interaction between the HA and the titania is through the carbonyl group of carboxylates and amidic groups of the polymer. AFM images clearly show that titania nanoparticles are uniformly distributed over the HA films. By measuring the average diameter and the average height of the nanoparticles deposited on HA films it appears that the particles are partially embedded in the polysaccharide films. The results of the study on the photobleaching of methylene blue indicate that the characteristic photocatalytic activity of titania is maintained when the nanoparticles are anchored to the HA substrate.

  3. Titania based nanocomposites as a photocatalyst: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Modi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide or Titania is a semiconductor compound having remarkable dielectric, electronic and physico-chemical surface properties. It has excellent photocatalytic efficiency in presence of UV light. The curious grey matter of scientists has forced them to focus their attention to make Titania capable of utilizing the whole visible spectrum of light also. The hurdle that they faced was larger band gap of 3 eV and more, for this, efforts were directed towards adding other materials to Titania. The present article reviews the recent advances in the synthesis of different Titanium-based nanocomposite materials and their photocatalytic efficiency so as to apply them for several applications such as removal of dyes, other water pollutants, microbes and metals. A brief explanation of the photocatalytic process and the structural properties of TiO2 are also touched upon. Various past and recent approaches made in these directions of utilizing Titania based nanocomposites for photocatalytic activities are reviewed. It is suggested that there is a need to establish the kinetics of photo-corrosion and thermodynamic part of the photo-corrosion of various composites developed by different group across the globe, so that Titania based nanocomposites could be commercially utilized.

  4. Fabrication of Titania Nanotubes for Gas Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzilal, A. A.; Muti, M. N.; John, O. D.

    2010-03-01

    Detection of hydrogen is needed for industrial process control and medical applications where presence of hydrogen indicates different type of health problems. Titanium dioxide nanotube structure is chosen as an active component in the gas sensor because of its highly sensitive electrical resistance to hydrogen over a wide range of concentrations. The objective of the work is to fabricate good quality titania nanotubes suitable for hydrogen sensing applications. The fabrication method used is anodizing method. The anodizing parameters namely the voltage, time duration, concentration of hydrofluoric acid in water, separation between the electrodes and the ambient temperature are varied accordingly to find the optimum anodizing conditions for production of good quality titania nanotubes. The highly ordered porous titania nanotubes produced by this method are in tabular shape and have good uniformity and alignment over large areas. From the investigation done, certain set of anodizing parameters have been found to produce good quality titania nanotubes with diameter ranges from 47 nm to 94 nm.

  5. Searching for new TiO2 crystal phases with better photoactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Cheng; Zhao, Wei-Na; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2015-01-01

    Using the recently developed stochastic surface walking global optimization method, this work explores the potential energy surface of TiO 2 crystals aiming to search for likely phases with higher photocatalytic activity. Five new phases of TiO 2 are identified and the lowest energy phase transition pathways connecting to the most abundant phases (rutile and anatase) are determined. Theory shows that a high-pressure phase, α-PbO 2 -like form (TiO 2 II) acts as the key intermediate in between rutile and anatase. The phase transition of anatase to rutile belongs to the diffusionless Martensitic phase transition, occurring through a set of habit planes, rutile(101)//TiO 2 II(001), and TiO 2 II(100)//anatase(112). With regard to the photocatalytic activity, three pure phases (#110, pyrite and fluorite) are found to possess the band gap narrower than rutile, but they are unstable at the low-pressure condition. Instead, a mixed anatase-TiO 2 II phase is found to have good stability and narrower band gap than both parent phases. Because of the phase separation, the mixed phase is also expected to improve the photocatalytic performance by reducing the probability of the electron-hole pair recombination. (paper)

  6. Effect of Gold Dispersion on the Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous Titania for the Vapor-Phase Oxidation of Acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Awate

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesostructured titanium dioxide photocatalyst, having uniform crystallite size (6–12 nm and average pore diameter of ∼4.2 nm, was synthesized by using a low-temperature nonsurfactant hydrothermal route, employing tartaric acid as a templating agent. Gold additions from 0.5 to 2 wt% were incorporated, either during the hydrothermal process or by postsynthesis wet impregnation. Compared to the impregnation-prepared samples, the samples synthesized hydrothermally contained smaller-size (≤1 nm gold clusters occluded in the pores of the host matrix. Whereas CO2 and H2O were the main reaction products in UV-assisted vapor-phase oxidation of acetone using these catalysts, C2H6 and HCO2CH3 were also produced for higher acetone concentrations in air. The conversion of acetone was found to increase with decrease in the size of both TiO2 and gold particles. In situ IR spectroscopy revealed that titania and gold particles serve as independent adsorption and reaction sites for acetone and oxygen molecules. Acetone molecules adsorb exclusively at TiO2 surface, giving rise to a strongly adsorbed (condensed state as well as to the formation of formate- and methyl formate-type surface species. Hydroxyl groups at titania surface participate directly in these adsorption steps. Nanosize gold particles, on the other hand, were primarily responsible for the adsorption and activation of oxygen molecules. Mechanistic aspects of the photochemical processes are discussed on the basis of these observations.

  7. Hydrolysis and ion exchange of titania nanoparticles towards large-scale titania and titanate nanobelts for gas sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela, Somaiah; Ho, Ghim Wei; Wong, Andrew See Weng

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional titanate and titania nanostructures are prepared by hydrothermal method from titania nanoparticles precursor via hydrolysis and ion exchange processes. The formation mechanism and the reaction process of the nanobelts are elucidated. The effects of the NaOH concentration, HCl leaching duration and the calcination temperature on the morphology and chemical composition of the produced nanobelts are investigated. Na + ions of the titanate nanobelts can be effectively removed by longer acid leaching and neutralization process and transformed into metastable hydrogen titanate compound. A hybrid hydrogen titanate and anatase titania nanobelts can be obtained under dehydration process of 500 0 C. The nanobelts are produced in gram quantities and easily made into nanostructure paper for the bulk study on their electrical and sensing properties. The sensing properties of the nanobelts sheet are tested and exhibited response to H 2 gas.

  8. The mantle source of island arc magmatism during early subduction: Evidence from Hf isotopes in rutile from the Jijal Complex (Kohistan arc, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tanya A.; Müntener, Othmar

    2018-05-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene Kohistan arc complex, northern Pakistan, is renowned as one of the most complete sections through a preserved paleo-island arc. The Jijal Complex represents a fragment of the plutonic roots of the Kohistan arc, formed during its early intraoceanic history. We present the first Hf isotope determinations for the Jijal Complex, made on rutile from garnet gabbros. These lithologies are zircon-free, but contain rutile that formed as an early phase. Recent developments in analytical capabilities coupled with a careful analytical and data reduction protocol allow the accurate determination of Hf isotope composition for rutile with <30 ppm Hf for the first time. Rutile from the analysed samples contains 5-35 ppm Hf, with sample averages of 13-17 ppm. Rutile from five samples from the Jijal Complex mafic section, sampling 2 km of former crustal thickness, gave indistinguishable Hf isotope compositions with εHf(i) ranging from 11.4 ± 3.2 to 20.1 ± 5.7. These values are within error of or only slightly more enriched than modern depleted mantle. The analysed samples record variable degrees of interaction with late-stage melt segregations, which produced symplectitic overprints on the main mineral assemblage as well as pegmatitic segregations of hydrous minerals. The indistinguishable εHf(i) across this range of lithologies demonstrates the robust preservation of the Hf isotope composition of rutile. The Hf isotope data, combined with previously published Nd isotope data for the Jijal Complex garnet gabbros, favour derivation from an inherently enriched, Indian Ocean type mantle. This implies a smaller contribution from subducted sediments than if the source was a normal (Pacific-type) depleted mantle. The Jijal Complex thus had only a limited recycled continental crustal component in its source, and represents a largely juvenile addition of new continental crust during the early phases of intraoceanic magmatism. The ability to determine the Hf

  9. Hybrids of ethylene vinyl acetate with Na-montmorillonite and titania: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrids of Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) with Na-montmorillonite and titania were formed. Montmorillonite was organically modified by two different modifiers: Pyridinium ions and 4. 4-oxydianilinium ions. X-ray diffraction results revealed that Pyridinium ions increased the .interlayer spacing by 0.33 nm and 4, 4-oxydianilinium by 0.55 nm approximately. These modified organo-clays were successfully exfoliated in EVA using melt blending. These hybrids showed improvement in mechanical and thermal properties. 4, 4-oxydianilinium ions were degraded at higher temperature due to which thermal degradation was enhanced in EVA. In addition to this, EVA/titania hybrids were also prepared using sot-gel technique and modified by triethoxy vinyl silane and (3-aminopropyI)- triethoxy silane to increase their compatibility with EVA. Some portion of unmodified titania was heat treated to 600 degree C to obtain particulate titania. The hybrid of particulate titania and modified titania improved the mechanical properties and thermal properties. Especially in case of modified titania toughness was almost doubled. (author)

  10. Electric-dipole effect of defects on the energy band alignment of rutile and anatase TiO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoyu; Yang, Minnan; Dong, Shuai

    2015-11-21

    Titanium dioxide materials have been studied intensively and extensively for photocatalytic applications. A long-standing open question is the energy band alignment of rutile and anatase TiO2 phases, which can affect the photocatalytic process in the composite system. There are basically two contradictory viewpoints about the alignment of these two TiO2 phases supported by the respective experiments: (1) straddling type and (2) staggered type. In this work, our DFT plus U calculations show that the perfect rutile(110) and anatase(101) surfaces have the straddling type band alignment, whereas the surfaces with defects can turn the band alignment into the staggered type. The electric dipoles induced by defects are responsible for the reversal of band alignment. Thus the defects introduced during the preparation and post-treatment processes of materials are probably the answer to the above open question regarding the band alignment, which can be considered in real practice to tune the photocatalytic activity of materials.

  11. Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bing-Xi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Jiao, Yang [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Guan, Jing [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Wang, Lei [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-07-01

    The rutile single crystals were implanted by 200 keV He{sup +} ions with a series fluence and annealed at different temperatures to investigate the blistering behavior. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the implantation induced lattice damage and blistering. It was found that the blistering on rutile surface region can be realized by He{sup +} ion implantation with appropriate fluence and the following thermal annealing.

  12. Distinctive toxicity of TiO2 rutile/anatase mixed phase nanoparticles on Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Kirsten; Fenoglio, Ivana; Carella, Emanuele; Kolling, Julia; Albrecht, Catrin; Boots, Agnes W; Förster, Irmgard; Schins, Roel P F

    2012-03-19

    Titanium dioxide has a long-standing use as a food additive. Micrometric powders are, e.g., applied as whiteners in confectionary or dairy products. Possible hazards of ingested nanometric TiO(2) particles for humans and the potential influence of varying specific surface area (SSA) are currently under discussion. Five TiO(2)-samples were analyzed for purity, crystallinity, primary particle size, SSA, ζ potential, and aggregation/agglomeration. Their potential to induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage was evaluated in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Only anatase-rutile containing samples, in contrast to the pure anatase samples, induced significant LDH leakage or mild DNA damage (Fpg-comet assay). Evaluation of the metabolic competence of the cells (WST-1 assay) revealed a highly significant correlation between the SSA of the anatase samples and cytotoxicity. The anatase/rutile samples showed higher toxicity per unit surface area than the pure anatase powders. However, none of the samples affected cellular markers of oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that both SSA and crystallinity are critical determinants of TiO(2)-toxicity toward intestinal cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Preparation and characterization of phase-pure anatase and rutile TiO2 powder by new chemistry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E. A.; Montanhera, M.A.; Paula, F.R.; Spada, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is used in a wire range applications such as photocatalysis and sensor device. In this work is shown a new and effective method for the preparation of TiO 2 nanocrystalline in the crystallographic forms, anatase and rutile. The method involves dissolving the TiOSO 4 powder in H 2 O 2 solution and thermal treatment of amorphous precipitate. The technique of X-ray diffraction was used to follow the structure evolution of amorphous precipitate. Pure anatase structure and rutile are obtained at 600 deg C and 1000 deg C with a grain size estimated 24 and 55 nm respectively. TiO 2 nanoparticles is a promising alternative of the low cost whose potential for solar cells deserve a careful evaluation, especially in hybrid solar cells that employs TiO 2 as electron acceptor and as transport channels. (author)

  14. Ultrahigh temperature-sensitive silicon MZI with titania cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Moo eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a possibility of intensifying temperature sensitivity of a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI by using a highly negative thermo-optic property of titania (TiO2. Temperature sensitivity of an asymmetric silicon MZI with a titania cladding is experimentally measured from +18pm/C to -340 pm/C depending on design parameters of MZI.

  15. Silver decorated titanate/titania nanostructures for efficient solar driven photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Dangguo; Ho, Weng Chye Jeffrey; Tang Yuxin; Tay Qiuling; Lai Yuekun; Highfield, James George; Chen Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalysis has attracted significant interest to solve both the energy crisis and effectively combat environmental contamination. However, as the most widely used photocatalyst, titania (TiO 2 ) suffers from inefficient utilization of solar energy due to its wide band gap. In the present paper, we describe a method to extend the absorption edge of photocatalyst to visible region by the surface plasmon effect of silver. Silver ions are photo-reduced onto the surface of titanate nanotubes, which are synthesized by a conventional hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized Ag/titanate composite is transformed into Ag/titania nanoparticles by annealing at different temperatures. It is found that the interaction of Ag nanoparticles with the supports (titanate/titania) plays a key role for the visible light activity. The samples annealed at low temperature (<350 °C) do not show significant activity under our conditions, while the one annealed at 450 °C shows fast-degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The detailed mechanisms are also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles decorated titanate/titania as visible light active photocatalysts: silver nanoparticles could be excited by visible light due to its surface plasmon effect and excited electrons could be transferred to the conduction band of the semiconductor, where the reduction process occurs. Highlights: ► Uniform Ag nanoparticles are photo-reduced onto titanate and titania nanostructures. ► Titania crystal is formed by annealing hydrogen titanate at different temperatures. ► Best visible-light activity is achieved by Ag-loaded titania annealed at 450 °C. ► The visible light activity is attributed to the surface plasmonic resonance effect.

  16. Photochemistry Aspects of the Laser Pyrolysis Addressing the Preparation of Oxide Semiconductor Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alexandrescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser pyrolysis is a powerful and a versatile tool for the gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. In this paper, some fundamental and applicative characteristics of this technique are outlined and recent results obtained in the preparation of gamma iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3 and titania (TiO2 semiconductor nanostructures are illustrated. Nanosized iron oxide particles (4 to 9 nm diameter values have been directly synthesized by the laser-induced pyrolysis of a mixture containing iron pentacarbonyl/air (as oxidizer/ethylene (as sensitizer. Temperature-dependent Mossbauer spectroscopy shows that mainly maghemite is present in the sample obtained at higher laser power. The use of selected Fe2O3 samples for the preparation of water-dispersed magnetic nanofluids is also discussed. TiO2 nanoparticles comprising a mixture of anatase and rutile phases were synthesized via the laser pyrolysis of TiCl4- (vapors based gas-phase mixtures. High precursor concentration of the oxidizer was found to favor the prevalent anatase phase (about 90% in the titania nanopowders.

  17. Controlled growth of silica-titania hybrid functional nanoparticles through a multistep microfluidic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, K; Sugiyama, T; Takei, T; Yoshikawa, G

    2015-11-11

    Silica/titania-based functional nanoparticles were prepared through controlled nucleation of titania and subsequent encapsulation by silica through a multistep microfluidic approach, which was successfully applied to obtaining aminopropyl-functionalized silica/titania nanoparticles for a highly sensitive humidity sensor.

  18. Molecularly imprinted titania nanoparticles for selective recognition and assay of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Adnan; Khan, Aimen Idrees; Afzal, Adeel; Hussain, Tajamal; Raza, Muhammad Hamid; Shah, Asma Tufail; uz Zaman, Waheed

    2015-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted titania nanoparticles are su ccessfully synthesized by sol-gel method for the selective recognition of uric acid. Atomic force microscopy is used to study the morphology of uric acid imprinted titania nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 100-150 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images of thick titania layer indicate the formation of fine network of titania nanoparticles with uniform distribution. Molecular imprinting of uric acid as well as its subsequent washing is confirmed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy measurements. Uric acid rebinding studies reveal the recognition capability of imprinted particles in the range of 0.01-0.095 mmol, which is applicable in monitoring normal to elevated levels of uric acid in human blood. The optical shift (signal) of imprinted particles is six times higher in comparison with non-imprinted particles for the same concentration of uric acid. Imprinted titania particles have shown substantially reduced binding affinity toward interfering and structurally related substances, e.g. ascorbic acid and guanine. These results suggest the possible application of titania nanoparticles in uric acid recognition and quantification in blood serum.

  19. Seeded Growth of Titania Colloids with Refractive Index Tunability and Fluorophore-Free Luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Jannasch, A.; van Oostrum, P.D.J.; Schäffer, E.; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Titania is an important material in modern materials science, chemistry, and physics because of its special catalytic, electric, and optical properties. Here, we describe a novel method to synthesize colloidal particles with a crystalline titania, anatase core and an amorphous titania-shell

  20. Radiological impact assessment of arc welding supplies rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozas Guinea, S.; Herranz Soler, M.; Perez Marin, C.; Idoeta Hermandorena, R.; Alegria gutierrez, N.; Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.; Legarda Ibanez, F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumables for welding containing rutile, the coating of the electrode or the filling of tubular thread, are the most widely used and also the most radioactive since the rutile is a mineral containing traces of natural radionuclides, and is therefore considered Normal Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As these electrodes and wire are consumed, small particles, aerosols and gases are emitted to the atmosphere of work, and may be inhaled by the welder. Therefore, and also according to the current regulatory framework and work carried out previously by the author on the radiological impact of the process of manufacture and storage of coated rutile electrodes, the objectives are: 1Calcular the internal dose for inhalation during two types of welding, one with electrodes coated and the other with thread. 2 calculate the external dose due to the deposition of particles in the work environment, slag and the immersion of the soldering iron in the cloud of smoke. 3 to assess the radiological impact. (Author)

  1. M-Polynomials and Topological Indices of Titania Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Munir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Titania is one of the most comprehensively studied nanostructures due to their widespread applications in the production of catalytic, gas sensing, and corrosion-resistant materials. M-polynomial of nanotubes has been vastly investigated, as it produces many degree-based topological indices, which are numerical parameters capturing structural and chemical properties. These indices are used in the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs in which the biological activity and other properties of molecules, such as boiling point, stability, strain energy, etc., are correlated with their structure. In this report, we provide M-polynomials of single-walled titania (SW TiO2 nanotubes and recover important topological degree-based indices to theoretically judge these nanotubes. We also plot surfaces associated to single-walled titania (SW TiO2 nanotubes.

  2. Effect of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders prepared by co-precipitation of TiCl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudoyono, Gatut; Ichzan, Nur; Zharvan, Vicran; Daniyati, Rizqa; Santoso, Hadi; Indarto, Bachtera; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Zainuri, Mochamad; Darminto

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of basic dye methylene blue (MB) onto titanium dioxide (titania) powder that were prepared by coprecipitation method of TiCl 3 and NH 4 OH as iniatial material with different calcination temperature was studied to examine the photocatalytic activity. Synthesis process carried out by the solution pH was adjusted to be 8. Effect of calcination temperature on the titania powder were characterized with Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of TG and XRD showed that the NH 4 Cl decomposed between 235-372°C. The XRD result showed that the anatase TiO 2 only contained a single phase when the calcination temperature of the precursor at 800°C, and over which it began to grow rutile phase. The influence of synthesis condition on the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 powder was determined by the photodegradation of MB dye under UV light.

  3. Increased fibroblast functionality on CNN2-loaded titania nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HB

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hongbo Wei*, Shuyi Wu*, Zhihong Feng, Wei Zhou, Yan Dong, Guofeng Wu, Shizhu Bai, Yimin Zhao Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Infection and epithelial downgrowth are major problems associated with maxillofacial percutaneous implants. These complications are mainly due to the improper closure of the implant–skin interface. Therefore, designing a percutaneous implant that better promotes the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites is highly desirable. Additionally, the fibroblast has been proven to play an important role in the formation of biologic seals. In this study, titania nanotubes were filled with 11.2 kDa C-terminal CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor fragment, which could exert full CCN2 activity to increase the biological functionality of fibroblasts. This drug delivery system was fabricated on a titanium implant surface. CCN2 was loaded into anodized titania nanotubes using a simplified lyophilization method and the loading efficiency was approximately 80%. Then, the release kinetics of CCN2 from these nanotubes was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes on fibroblast functionality was examined. The results revealed increased fibroblast adhesion at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours, increased fibroblast viability over the course of 5 days, as well as enhanced actin cytoskeleton organization on CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes surfaces compared to uncoated, unmodified counterparts. Therefore, the results from this in vitro study demonstrate that CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes have the ability to increase fibroblast functionality and should be further studied as a method of promoting the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites.Keywords: anodization, titania nanotubes, adhesion, connective

  4. Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ching Sim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA was investigated using the binary composite of alkaline treated g-C3N4 (HT-g-C3N4 deposited over commercial TiO2 (Evonik Degussa GmbH, Essen, Germany. The existence and contribution of both TiO2 and g-C3N4/HT-g-C3N4 in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS, and photoluminescence (PL analysis. The results showed that the titania in the binary composite exhibited both pure rutile and anatase phases. The morphological analysis indicated that the spongy “morel-like” structure of g-C3N4 turned to nanotube form after alkaline hydrothermal treatment and thereby decreased the specific surface area of HT-g-C3N4. The low surface area of HT-g-C3N4 dominates its promising optical property and effective charge transfer, resulting in a deprived degradation efficiency of BPA two times lower than pure g-C3N4. The binary composite of HT-g-C3N4/TiO2 exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of BPA with 2.16 times higher than the pure HT-g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly due to the promising optical band gap structure with heterojunction interface, favorable specific surface area, and good charge separation.

  5. Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lan Ching; Tan, Wei Han; Leong, Kah Hon; Bashir, Mohammed J. K.; Saravanan, Pichiah; Surib, Nur Atiqah

    2017-01-01

    The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated using the binary composite of alkaline treated g-C3N4 (HT-g-C3N4) deposited over commercial TiO2 (Evonik Degussa GmbH, Essen, Germany). The existence and contribution of both TiO2 and g-C3N4/HT-g-C3N4 in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS), and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The results showed that the titania in the binary composite exhibited both pure rutile and anatase phases. The morphological analysis indicated that the spongy “morel-like” structure of g-C3N4 turned to nanotube form after alkaline hydrothermal treatment and thereby decreased the specific surface area of HT-g-C3N4. The low surface area of HT-g-C3N4 dominates its promising optical property and effective charge transfer, resulting in a deprived degradation efficiency of BPA two times lower than pure g-C3N4. The binary composite of HT-g-C3N4/TiO2 exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of BPA with 2.16 times higher than the pure HT-g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly due to the promising optical band gap structure with heterojunction interface, favorable specific surface area, and good charge separation. PMID:28772387

  6. Preparation and bioactivity evaluation of hydroxyapatite-titania/chitosan-gelatin polymeric biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Khaled R.; Mostafa, Amani A.

    2008-01-01

    Biocomposites consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and natural polymers such as collagen, chitosan, chitin,and gelatin have been extensively investigated. However, studies on the combination of HA and titania with chitosan and gelatin have not been conducted yet. Novel biodegradable hydroxyapatite-titania/chitosan-gelatin polymeric composites were fabricated. In this work, our results are concerning with the preparation and characterization of HA powder and HA filler containing titania powder (10 and 30%) with a chitosan and gelatin copolymer matrix. The present research focuses on characterizing the structure of this novel class of biocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX) were employed to assess the produced composites. The mechanical properties in terms of compressive strength and hardness test were also investigated. The in vitro study in simulated body fluid (SBF) was performed to assess the bioactivity of composites. The results proved that apatite resembling natural bone are formed faster and greater in the case the composite of HA containing 10% titania into chitosan-gelatin polymeric matrix when they are soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) than the composite containing 30% titania. The biocomposites containing HA with 10% titania are expected to be attractive for bioapplications as bone substitutes and scaffolds for tissue engineering in future

  7. Nano-TiO{sub 2} coatings on aluminum surfaces by aerosol flame synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberini, Mariacira; De Falco, Gianluigi; Scherillo, Fabio; Astarita, Antonello [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli 80125 (Italy); Commodo, Mario; Minutolo, Patrizia [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Napoli 80125 (Italy); D' Anna, Andrea, E-mail: anddanna@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli 80125 (Italy); Squillace, Antonino [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli 80125 (Italy)

    2016-06-30

    Aluminum alloys are widely used in the aeronautic industry for their high mechanical properties; however, because they are very sensitive to corrosion, surface treatments are often required. TiO{sub 2} has excellent resistance to oxidation and it is often used to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminum surfaces. Several coating procedures have been proposed over the years, which are in some cases expensive in terms of production time and amount of deposited material. Moreover, they can damage aluminum alloys if thermal treatments are required. In this paper, a one-step method for the coating of aluminum surfaces with titania nanoparticles is presented. Narrowly sized, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are synthesized by flame aerosol and directly deposited by thermophoresis onto cold plates of aluminum AA2024. Submicron coatings of different thicknesses are obtained from two flame synthesis conditions by varying the total deposition time. A fuel-lean synthesis condition was used to produce 3.5 nm pure anatase nanoparticles, while a mixture of rutile and anatase nanoparticles having 22 nm diameter — rutile being the predominant phase —, was synthesized in a fuel-rich condition. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize morphology of titania films, while coating thickness is measured by confocal microscopy measurements. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to evaluate corrosion resistance of coated aluminum substrates. Results show an improvement of the electrochemical behavior of titania coated surfaces as compared to pristine aluminum surfaces. The best results are obtained by covering the substrates with 3.5 nm anatase-phase nanoparticles and with lower deposition times, that assure a uniform surface coating. - Highlights: • Nanosized TiO{sub 2} particles produced by aerosol flame synthesis • Coatings of aluminum substrates with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by thermophoretic deposition in flames • Thickness measurement by confocal microscopy

  8. Nano-TiO_2 coatings on aluminum surfaces by aerosol flame synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberini, Mariacira; De Falco, Gianluigi; Scherillo, Fabio; Astarita, Antonello; Commodo, Mario; Minutolo, Patrizia; D'Anna, Andrea; Squillace, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are widely used in the aeronautic industry for their high mechanical properties; however, because they are very sensitive to corrosion, surface treatments are often required. TiO_2 has excellent resistance to oxidation and it is often used to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminum surfaces. Several coating procedures have been proposed over the years, which are in some cases expensive in terms of production time and amount of deposited material. Moreover, they can damage aluminum alloys if thermal treatments are required. In this paper, a one-step method for the coating of aluminum surfaces with titania nanoparticles is presented. Narrowly sized, TiO_2 nanoparticles are synthesized by flame aerosol and directly deposited by thermophoresis onto cold plates of aluminum AA2024. Submicron coatings of different thicknesses are obtained from two flame synthesis conditions by varying the total deposition time. A fuel-lean synthesis condition was used to produce 3.5 nm pure anatase nanoparticles, while a mixture of rutile and anatase nanoparticles having 22 nm diameter — rutile being the predominant phase —, was synthesized in a fuel-rich condition. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize morphology of titania films, while coating thickness is measured by confocal microscopy measurements. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to evaluate corrosion resistance of coated aluminum substrates. Results show an improvement of the electrochemical behavior of titania coated surfaces as compared to pristine aluminum surfaces. The best results are obtained by covering the substrates with 3.5 nm anatase-phase nanoparticles and with lower deposition times, that assure a uniform surface coating. - Highlights: • Nanosized TiO_2 particles produced by aerosol flame synthesis • Coatings of aluminum substrates with TiO_2 nanoparticles by thermophoretic deposition in flames • Thickness measurement by confocal microscopy • Improvement of

  9. A novel chemical scheme for flotation of rutile from eclogite tailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    Full Text Available A novel chemical scheme for the flotation of rutile from eclogite tailings has been developed in this work. It consists of lead ion as the activator, sodium fluorosilicate (SF as the depressant, and styryl phosphonic acid (SPA and n-octyl alcohol (OCT as the collector. By using the proposed scheme to treat a feed ore of 4.5% TiO2, a rougher concentrate of grade 84.47% TiO2 was achieved with the recovery of 61.5%. Also, the scheme made a high flotation rate for rutile. The scheme was applied to closed-circuit flotation (one-stage rougher flotation, two-stage scavenger flotation and two-stage cleaner flotation, produced a concentrate of 92% TiO2 with the recovery of 70%. It is shown that the new chemical scheme would be a potential one for the effective separation of rutile from eclogite ores. Keywords: Rutile, Flotation, Reagents, Eclogite tailings

  10. Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grown on nano titania particles enhances recruitment of Escherichia coli for subsequent photocatalytic elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jing; Liu, Yi; Liu, Yuxin; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Titania-hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposites were fabricated by wet chemical synthesis approach. HA exhibited crystallographic orientation of nucleation on nano titania particle, forming the composite particles with titania being partially enwrapped with HA. Microstructural characterization by high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed coherent interfacial bond of (110) and (222) planes of HA crystal with (101) plane of anatase. The HA layer promoted significantly recruitment of Escherichia coli bacteria onto the titania-based particles for subsequent photocatalytic killing. Less extent of enwrapping of HA on titania particle, as accomplished by increasing the aging time of HA suspension, gave rise to better capability of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and sterilization of the bacteria. The novel HA-enwrapped titania powder shows great potential for environmental applications. - Highlights: • Titania-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite powder was fabricated with cladding structure. • Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grew on titania particle with preferred orientation. • Hydroxyapatite layer promotes recruitment of Escherichia coli onto titania-based particles. • The titania-hydroxyapatite particles show excellent antibacterial performances. • The nanocomposite powder exhibits excellent photocatalytic performances

  11. Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grown on nano titania particles enhances recruitment of Escherichia coli for subsequent photocatalytic elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Liu, Yi; Liu, Yuxin; Li, Hua, E-mail: lihua@nimte.ac.cn

    2015-02-01

    Titania-hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposites were fabricated by wet chemical synthesis approach. HA exhibited crystallographic orientation of nucleation on nano titania particle, forming the composite particles with titania being partially enwrapped with HA. Microstructural characterization by high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed coherent interfacial bond of (110) and (222) planes of HA crystal with (101) plane of anatase. The HA layer promoted significantly recruitment of Escherichia coli bacteria onto the titania-based particles for subsequent photocatalytic killing. Less extent of enwrapping of HA on titania particle, as accomplished by increasing the aging time of HA suspension, gave rise to better capability of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and sterilization of the bacteria. The novel HA-enwrapped titania powder shows great potential for environmental applications. - Highlights: • Titania-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite powder was fabricated with cladding structure. • Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grew on titania particle with preferred orientation. • Hydroxyapatite layer promotes recruitment of Escherichia coli onto titania-based particles. • The titania-hydroxyapatite particles show excellent antibacterial performances. • The nanocomposite powder exhibits excellent photocatalytic performances.

  12. Preparation of nitrogen-doped titania using sol-gel technique and its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Haoli; Gu Guobang; Liu Song

    2008-01-01

    Yellowish nitrogen-doped titania was produced through sol-gel method at room temperature, with the elemental nitrogen derived from aqua ammonia. The titania catalysts were characterized using TG-DSC, XRD, BET, TEM, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Methyl orange (MO) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) were used in this study as model chemicals and both the adsorption isotherm and photocatalytic activity of the nitrogen-doped titania catalysts were evaluated based on the MO and MBT photodegradation in aqueous solution under UV and visible light, respectively. The results showed that all titania catalysts were anatase. The crystallite size of nitrogen-doped ones increased with the increase of N/Ti proportion, both the adsorption capacity and adsorption equilibrium constants of the nitrogen-doped titania catalysts were improved by the doping of nitrogen. The doping of nitrogen could extend the absorption shoulder into the visible-light region, thus nitrogen-doped titania possessed visible-light activity illustrated by that higher capability of degradation of MO and MBT under the irradiation of visible light, whereas the pure ones showed little such kind of visible-light activity. The kinetics of the MO and MBT photodegradation using different nitrogen-doped titania were also studied, the experiments demonstrated that there was an optimum N/Ti proportion of 4 mol% to exhibit the highest visible-light activity. The UV activity of nitrogen-doped titania catalysts were worse than that of the pure one and Degussa P-25. In addition, nitrogen-doped titania had weakened appreciably activity in the visible-light region as the N/Ti proportion increased, while a reverse relationship exists for the UV light. It was concluded that the enhancement of MO and MBT photodegradation using the nitrogen-doped titania catalysts mainly involved in both the improvement of the organic substrate adsorption in catalysts suspension and the enhancement of the separation of electron

  13. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Knowles, Jonathan Campbell

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS cells cultured on the surface of glass discs. Cell proliferation was also studied in the presence of the glass extract. Cell differentiation, through osteoblast phenotype genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production, was carried out using normal or osteogenic media. Both Thermanox® and titania free glass were used as controls. The data demonstrated that titania inclusion provides desired cytocompatible surface that supported initial cell attachment, sustained viability, and increased cell proliferation similar or significantly higher than Thermanox®. The modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation as detected by osteoblast phenotype gene transcription and upregulated ALP and osteocalcin expression. Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on ALP activity and osteocalcin expression. Therefore, titania modified phosphate glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. - Highlights: • This study investigated the role of titania on the biological response of phosphate glasses. • Incorporation of titania improved HOS cell attachment, viability and proliferation. • Titania modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation. • Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on cell differentiation. • Titania modified glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds

  14. Synthesis of eccentric titania-silica core-shell and composite particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel method to synthesize colloidal particles with an eccentric core-shell structure. Titania-silica core-shell particles were synthesized by silica coating of porous titania particles under Sto¨ber (Sto¨ber et al. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1968, 26, 62) conditions. We can control

  15. Highly flexible self-standing film electrode composed of mesoporous rutile TiO2/C nanofibers for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bote; Cai Rui; Jiang Simin; Sha Yujing; Shao Zongping

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in flexible, safe, high-power thin-film lithium-ion batteries which can be applied to various modern devices. Although TiO 2 in rutile phase is highly attractive as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries for its high thermal stability and theoretical capacity of 336 mA h g −1 and low price, its inflexibility and sluggish lithium intercalation kinetics of bulk phase strongly limit its practical application for particular in thin-film electrode. Here we show a simple way to prepare highly flexible self-standing thin-film electrodes composed of mesoporous rutile TiO 2 /C nanofibers with low carbon content ( 2 in as-fabricated nanofibers. Big size (10 cm × 4 cm), flexible thin film is obtained after heat treatment under 10%H 2 –Ar at 900 °C for 3 h. After optimization, the diameter of fibers can reach as small as ∼110 nm, and the as-prepared rutile TiO 2 films show high initial electrochemical activity with the first discharge capacity as high as 388 mA h g −1 . What is more, very stable reversible capacities of ∼122, 92, and 70 mA h g −1 are achieved respectively at 1, 5 and 10 C rates with negligible decay rate within 100 cycling times.

  16. Detrital rutile geochemistry and thermometry from the Dabie orogen: Implications for source-sediment links in a UHPM terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Xiao, Yilin; Wörner, G.; Kronz, A.; Simon, K.; Hou, Zhenhui

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the potential of detrital rutile geochemistry and thermometry as a provenance tracer in rocks from the Central Dabie ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) zone in east-central China that formed during Triassic continental collision. Trace element data of 176 detrital rutile grains selected from local river sediments and 91 rutile grains from distinct bedrocks in the Shuanghe and Bixiling areas, obtained by both electron microprobe (EMP) and in situ LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that geochemical compositions and thermometry of detrital rutiles are comparable to those from their potential source rocks. After certification of the Cr-Nb discrimination method for the Central Dabie UHPM zone, we show that 29% of the detrital rutiles in the Shuanghe area were derived from metamafic sources whereas in the Bixiling area that it is up to 76%. Furthermore, the proportion of distinct types of detrital rutiles combined with modal abundances of rutile in metapelites and metamafic bedrocks can be used to estimate the proportion of different source lithologies. Based on this method the proportion of mafic source rocks was estimated to ∼10% at Shuanghe and >60% at Bixiling, respectively, which is consistent with the proportions of eclogite (the major rutile-bearing metamafic rock) distribution in the field. Therefore, the investigation of detrital rutiles is a potential way to evaluate the proportion of metamafic rocks and even to prospect for metamafic bodies in UHPM terranes. Zr-in-rutile temperatures were calculated at different pressures and compared with temperatures derived from rock-in rutiles and garnet-clinopyroxene Fe-Mg thermometers. Temperatures calculated for detrital rutiles range from 606 °C to 707 °C and 566 °C to 752 °C in Shuanghe and Bixiling, respectively, at P = 3 GPa with an average temperatures of ca. 630 °C for both areas. These temperature averages and ranges are similar to those calculated for rutiles from surrounding source rocks

  17. Electrochemical coating of dental implants with anodic porous titania for enhanced osteointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Shayganpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical long-term osteointegration of titanium-based biomedical devices is the main goal for both dental and orthopedical implants. Both the surface morphology and the possible functionalization of the implant surface are important points. In the last decade, following the success of nanostructured anodic porous alumina, anodic porous titania has also attracted the interest of academic researchers. This material, investigated mainly for its photocatalytic properties and for applications in solar cells, is usually obtained from the anodization of ultrapure titanium. We anodized dental implants made of commercial grade titanium under different experimental conditions and characterized the resulting surface morphology with scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The appearance of nanopores on these implants confirm that anodic porous titania can be obtained not only on ultrapure and flat titanium but also as a conformal coating on curved surfaces of real objects made of industrial titanium alloys. Raman spectroscopy showed that the titania phase obtained is anatase. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that by carrying out the anodization in the presence of electrolyte additives such as magnesium, these can be incorporated into the porous coating. The proposed method for the surface nanostructuring of biomedical implants should allow for integration of conventional microscale treatments such as sandblasting with additive nanoscale patterning. Additional advantages are provided by this material when considering the possible loading of bioactive drugs in the porous cavities.

  18. Performance engineering of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using Ag modified titania as photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G.; Mathan Kumar, P.; Samdarshi, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present work reports the fabrication of silver (Ag) modified titania photoanode as an efficient photoanode for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Pristine and Ag modified Titania nanomaterials were prepared using sol gel method. The structural analyses confirm the high crystallinity of the samples with crystallite size distribution in nanorange. TEM micrograph confirms that the synthesized nanomaterials are in uniform size. A red shift is observed in the UV DRS spectra compared to pristine Titania and which confirm the incorporation of Ag inside titania. A prototype DSSC was fabricated using the pristine and modified Titania as photoanode, Ruthenium dye as sensitizer, I-/I-3 as redox electrolyte and platinum counter electrode. The cell with Ag modified titania photoanode showed 15 times enhanced photoconversion efficiency (PCE) than the pristine one. This improved performance of the Ag modified DSSC can be ascribed to reduced recombination and improved charge carrier transport of electrons/holes at the interfaces.

  19. Quantification of rutile in anatase by means of X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Palacios G, J.; Garcia C, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, making use of the X-ray diffraction technique, it was determined the quantification of two phases which are mixed in a crystalline sample of rutile and anatase also it is indicated the method to proceed in its evaluation, so that in the end it will be had as result of a semi-quantitative analysis of the phases that are found in the sample. The conclusion is that this method performs in samples which are presented as powders and since the different parameters with which they must be fulfilled then this should not be called quantitative but semi-quantitative and it has a margin of error in its evaluation. (Author)

  20. Iron on mixed zirconia-titania substrate F-T catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, P.N.; Nordquist, A.F.; Pierantozzi, R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent deals with a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising iron co-deposited with or deposited on particles comprising a mixture of zirconia and titania, preferably formed by co-precipitation of compounds convertible to zirconia and titania, such as zirconium and titanium alkoxide. The invention also comprises the method of making this catalyst and an improved Fischer-Tropsch reaction process in which the catalyst is utilized

  1. Macrostructure-dependent photocatalytic property of high-surface-area porous titania films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T., E-mail: t-kimura@aist.go.jp [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Porous titania films with different macrostructures were prepared with precise control of condensation degree and density of the oxide frameworks in the presence of spherical aggregates of polystyrene-block-poly(oxyethylene) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer. Following detailed explanation of the formation mechanisms of three (reticular, spherical, and large spherical) macrostructures by the colloidal PS-b-PEO templating, structural variation of the titania frameworks during calcination were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, photocatalytic performance of the macroporous titania films was evaluated through simple degradation experiments of methylene blue under an UV irradiation. Consequently, absolute surface area of the film and crystallinity of the titania frameworks were important for understanding the photocatalytic performance, but the catalytic performance can be improved further by the macrostructural design that controls diffusivity of the targeted molecules inside the film and their accessibility to active sites.

  2. Macrostructure-dependent photocatalytic property of high-surface-area porous titania films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kimura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous titania films with different macrostructures were prepared with precise control of condensation degree and density of the oxide frameworks in the presence of spherical aggregates of polystyrene-block-poly(oxyethylene (PS-b-PEO diblock copolymer. Following detailed explanation of the formation mechanisms of three (reticular, spherical, and large spherical macrostructures by the colloidal PS-b-PEO templating, structural variation of the titania frameworks during calcination were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, photocatalytic performance of the macroporous titania films was evaluated through simple degradation experiments of methylene blue under an UV irradiation. Consequently, absolute surface area of the film and crystallinity of the titania frameworks were important for understanding the photocatalytic performance, but the catalytic performance can be improved further by the macrostructural design that controls diffusivity of the targeted molecules inside the film and their accessibility to active sites.

  3. Preparation and properties of titania based ionogels synthesized using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium thiocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Y.L.; Tripathi, A.K.; Shalu; Singh, V.K.; Balo, L.; Gupta, H.; Singh, S.K.; Singh, R.K., E-mail: rajendrasingh.bhu@gmail.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of titania based ionogels using non-aqueous sol-gel process. • Ionogels are found to be mesoporous structure with uniform pore size distribution. • Ionic liquid extracted TiO{sub 2} matrix reveals the anatase phase of TiO{sub 2}. • Properties of ionic liquid are found to change in TiO{sub 2} matrix. - Abstract: Present study reports the synthesis of titania (TiO{sub 2}) based ionogels using ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium thiocyanate ([EMIM][SCN]) by non-aqueous sol-gel process. Ionogels are characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, TGA, DSC, SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR. N{sub 2}-sorption results show that TiO{sub 2} matrices have meso-pores with uniform pore size distribution. Thermal studies reveal that thermal stability of confined IL decreases while the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) is found to increase. XRD patterns show that IL containing TiO{sub 2} matrices exhibit amorphous (weak crystalline peaks) nature however after extraction of IL from ionogel, it shows the crystalline (anatase) phase of TiO{sub 2} which has also been found from SAED pattern. SEM micrographs reveal that as the amount of IL is increased, TiO{sub 2} particles are found to agglomerate. FTIR results indicate that the vibrational frequencies of confined IL are found to shift due to interaction of IL molecules with titania pore wall surface.

  4. Whiter, brighter, and more stable cellulose paper coated with TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lorch, Mark; Sajedin, Seyed Mani; Kelly, Stephen M; Kornherr, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    To inhibit the photocatalytic degradation of organic material supports induced by small titania (TiO2 ) nanoparticles, four kinds of TiO2 nanoparticles, that is, commercial P25-TiO2 , commercial rutile phase TiO2 , rutile TiO2 nanorods and rutile TiO2 spheres, prepared from TiCl4 , were coated with a thin, but dense, coating of silica (SiO2 ) using a conventional sol-gel technique to form TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles. These core/shell particles were deposited and fixed as a very thin coating onto the surface of cellulose paper samples by a wet-chemistry polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer approach. The TiO2 /SiO2 nanocoated paper samples exhibit higher whiteness and brightness and greater stability to UV-bleaching than comparable samples of blank paper. There are many potential applications for this green chemistry approach to protect cellulosic fibres from UV-bleaching in sunlight and to improve their whiteness and brightness. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Adhesion between a rutile surface and a polyimide: a coarse grained molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Sudarkodi, V.; Parandekar, Priya V.; Sinha, Nishant K.; Prakash, Om; Nair, Nisanth N.; Basu, Sumit

    2018-04-01

    Titanium, due to its high strength to weight ratio and polyimides, due to their excellent thermal stability are being increasingly used in aerospace applications. We investigate the bonding between a (110) rutile substrate and a popular commercial polyimide, PMR-15, starting from the known atomic structure of the rutile substrate and the architecture of the polymer. First, the long PMR-15 molecule is divided into four fragments and an all-atom non-bonded forcefield governing the interaction between PMR-15 and a rutile substrate is developed. To this end, parameters of Buckingham potential for interaction between each atom in the fragments and the rutile surface are fitted, so as to ensure that the sum of non-bonded and electrostatic interaction energy between the substrate and a large number of configurations of each fragment, calculated by the quantum mechanical route and obtained from the fitted potential, is closely matched. Further, two coarse grained models of PMR-15 are developed—one for interaction between two coarse grained PMR-15 molecules and another for that between a coarse grained PMR-15 and the rutile substrate. Molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse grained models yields a traction separation law—a very useful tool for conducting continuum level finite element simulations of rutile-PMR-15 joints—governing the normal separation of a PMR-15 block from a flat rutile substrate. Moreover, detailed information about the affinity of various fragments to the substrate are also obtained. In fact, though the separation energy between rutile and PMR-15 turns out to be rather low, our analysis—with merely the molecular architecture of the polyimide as the starting point—provides a scheme for in-silico prediction of adhesion energies for new polyimide formulations.

  6. Comparison of cation adsorption by isostructural rutile and cassiterite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machesky, Michael; Wesolowski, David; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Předota, Milan; Vlcek, Lukas; Ridley, Moira; Kohli, Vaibhav; Zhang, Zhan; Fenter, Paul; Cummings, Peter; Lvov, Serguei; Fedkin, Mark; Rodriguez-Santiago, Victor; Kubicki, James; Bandura, Andrei

    2011-04-19

    Macroscopic net proton charging curves for powdered rutile and cassiterite specimens with the (110) crystal face predominant, as a function of pH in RbCl and NaCl solutions, trace SrCl(2) in NaCl, and trace ZnCl(2) in NaCl and Na Triflate solutions, are compared to corresponding molecular-level information obtained from static DFT optimizations and classical MD simulations, as well as synchrotron X-ray methods. The similarities and differences in the macroscopic charging behavior of rutile and cassiterite largely reflect the cation binding modes observed at the molecular level. Cation adsorption is primarily inner-sphere on both isostructural (110) surfaces, despite predictions that outer-sphere binding should predominate on low bulk dielectric constant oxides such as cassiterite (ε(bulk) ≈ 11). Inner-sphere adsorption is also significant for Rb(+) and Na(+) on neutral surfaces, whereas Cl(-) binding is predominately outer-sphere. As negative surface charge increases, relatively more Rb(+), Na(+), and especially Sr(2+) are bound in highly desolvated tetradentate fashion on the rutile (110) surface, largely accounting for enhanced negative charge development relative to cassiterite. Charging curves in the presence of Zn(2+) are very steep but similar for both oxides, reflective of Zn(2+) hydrolysis (and accompanying proton release) during the adsorption process, and the similar binding modes for ZnOH(+) on both surfaces. These results suggest that differences in cation adsorption between high and low bulk dielectric constant oxides are more subtly related to the relative degree of cation desolvation accompanying inner-sphere binding (i.e., more tetradentate binding on rutile), rather than distinct inner- and outer-sphere adsorption modes. Cation desolvation may be favored at the rutile (110) surface in part because inner-sphere water molecules are bound further from and less tightly than on the cassiterite (110) surface. Hence, their removal upon inner

  7. Anatase/rutile TiO2 composites: Influence of the mixing ratio on the photocatalytic degradation of Malachite Green and Orange II in slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojinova, A.; Kralchevska, R.; Poulios, I.; Dushkin, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study is directed to clarify the influence of the ratio of anatase to rutile phase, containing in the TiO 2 samples, on their activity as photocatalysts in slurry. A series of samples corresponding to different percentages of anatase is prepared from commercial anatase and rutile TiO 2 brands (KRONOS). The crystalline phase composition of the samples is characterized by X-ray diffraction. The photocatalytic action of the mixtures is tested in photodegradation of the commercial organic dyes Malachite Green Hydrochloride and Orange II in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation. Comparative tests with Degussa P-25 are performed. The apparent rate constants of the process are determined from the kinetic curves using appropriate models. They generally increase with the anatase ratio, being always larger for Malachite Green than for Orange II

  8. Chirality of Single-Handed Twisted Titania Tubular Nanoribbons Prepared Through Sol-gel Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibing; Zhang, Chuanyong; Li, Yi; Li, Baozong; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-08-01

    Single-handed twisted titania tubular nanoribbons were prepared through sol-gel transcription using a pair of enantiomers. Handedness was controlled by that of the template. The obtained samples were characterized using field-emission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance circular dichroism (DRCD), and X-ray diffraction. The DRCD spectra indicated that the titania nanotubes exhibit optical activity. Although the tubular structure was destroyed after being calcined at 700 °C for 2.0 h, DRCD signals were still identified. However, the DRCD signals disappeared after being calcined at 1000 °C for 2.0 h. The optical activity of titania was proposed to be due to chiral defects. Previous results showed that straight titania tubes could be used as asymmetric autocatalysts, indicating that titania exhibit chirality at the angstrom level. Herein, it was found that they also exhibit DRCD signals, indicating that there are no obvious relationships between morphology at the nano level and chirality at the angstrom level. The nanotube chirality should originate from the chiral defects on the nanotube inner surface. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that the chirality of the titania was transferred from the gelators through the hydrogen bonding between N-H and Ti-OH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Room temperature ferromagnetism of iron-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods synthesized by a low temperature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melghit, Khaled [Chemistry Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)], E-mail: melghit@squ.edu.om; Bouziane, Khalid [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2008-04-03

    Nanorods of Fe-TiO{sub 2} were synthesized at 100 deg. C and room pressure by mixing titanium oxide wet gel TiO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O with a boiling solution of iron nitrate. The results of EDAX, performed on different selected area of the sample, revealed a homogeneous composition of about 3 at% Fe. Electron diffraction and XRD measurements show that the as-prepared Fe-TiO{sub 2} and annealed one at 550 deg. C have both a single rutile structure with no indication about the presence of a secondary phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs show that both as-prepared Fe-TiO{sub 2} and annealed one at 550 deg. C have nanorod-shape with dimensions length by diameter of about 60 x 5 nm and 52 x 12 nm, respectively. Magnetization measurements show that both samples present a nonzero remanence and a coercivity of 108 and 120 Oe, respectively. At higher temperature, 850 deg. C, Fe-TiO{sub 2} decomposes to rutile TiO{sub 2} and new iron-titanate phase.

  10. The Effect of Titanium Tetrahedral Coordination of Silica-Titania Catalyst on the Physical Properties of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, U. K.; Hidayatul, J.; Sundari, R.; Bahrizal, B.; Amran, A.; Putra, A.; Latisma DJ, L.; Dewata, I.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the correlation of the number of titanium tetrahedral coordination and biodiesel production. The solid-state method has been used to synthesis of silica-titania catalyst for biodiesel production, which the precursors, i.e. silica and titania commercials were heated in the temperature range of 450 - 550°C. The characterization of the prepared silica-titania has been studied by FTIR and DR UV-Vis in order to identify and calculate the presence of titanium tetrahedral coordination in silica-titania catalyst. A very small peak at around 950 cm-1 indicated the presence of titanium tetrahedral coordination through Si–O–Ti bonds. Deconvolution of DR UV-Vis spectra showed the coordination of titanium in silica-titania is more octahedral. However, the number of titanium tetrahedral coordination of the prepared silica-titania is found higher than that of TiO2 commercial. The increasing of titanium tetrahedral fraction in silica-titania affects the physical properties of biodiesel in terms of boiling point, viscosity and density, which is produced by the reaction of methanol and palm oil.

  11. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  12. Band Gap Engineering of Titania Systems Purposed for Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Cameron

    Ab initio computer aided design drastically increases candidate population for highly specified material discovery and selection. These simulations, carried out through a first-principles computational approach, accurately extrapolate material properties and behavior. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) is one such material that stands to gain a great deal from the use of these simulations. In its anatase form, titania (TiO2 ) has been found to exhibit a band gap nearing 3.2 eV. If titania is to become a viable alternative to other contemporary photoactive materials exhibiting band gaps better suited for the solar spectrum, then the band gap must be subsequently reduced. To lower the energy needed for electronic excitation, both transition metals and non-metals have been extensively researched and are currently viable candidates for the continued reduction of titania's band gap. The introduction of multicomponent atomic doping introduces new energy bands which tend to both reduce the band gap and recombination loss. Ta-N, Nb-N, V-N, Cr-N, Mo-N, and W-N substitutions were studied in titania and subsequent energy and band gap calculations show a favorable band gap reduction in the case of passivated systems.

  13. Effect of rutile TiO{sub 2} on the photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/brookite-TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y} photocatalyst for NO decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huihui, E-mail: lihh@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, 222 south Tianshui Road, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Wu, Xiaoyong [Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yin, Shu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Katsumata, Kenichi [Photocatalysis International Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Wang, Yuhua [Key Laboratory for Magnetism Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, 222 south Tianshui Road, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/rutile-brookite TiO{sub 2-x}Ny forms a Z-scheme photocatalytic system, which shows improvement on the photocatalytic activity than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/single brookite TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y}. - Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/rutile-brookite TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y} forms a Z-scheme photocatalytic system. • Photogenerated electrons can efficiently transfer from rutile TiO{sub 2} to g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Single brookite TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y} shows lower photo-utilization efficiency than rutile-brookite mixed one. • DeNO{sub x} activities of brookite TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y} hybrids decrease with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} amount increase. - Abstract: Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/rutile-brookite TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y} composite photocatalysts were fabricated through a facile solvothermal approach. The effect of rutile phase TiO{sub 2} with brookite TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on the photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} composite was studied. The photocatalytic performance of the photocatalyst was evaluated by measuring the degradation of NO gas under visible and UV light irradiation. It is suggested that g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/rutile-brookite TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y} forms a Z-scheme photocatalytic system, which shows improvement on the photocatalytic activity than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/single brookite TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y}. By importing rutile phase TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y}, the photogenerated electrons can efficiently transfer from rutile TiO{sub 2} to g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which results in the separation of electron and hole pairs, enhancing the photocatalytic ability. However, single brookite TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub y} can not remove the photogenerated electrons efficiently and the photocatalytic performances of composites decrease with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} amount increase.

  14. Composite templates synthesis of mesoporous titania from industrial titanyl sulfate solution under external outfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Congxue

    2008-01-01

    The precursors of mesoporous titania were synthesized via supra-molecular self-assembly route induced by composite templates (CTAB/P-123) from industrial titanyl sulfate solution under ultrasonic irradiation, microwave and hydrothermal condition. The hydrolysis and polycondensation rates of TiOSO 4 solution were controlled by adjusting the pH value at about 1.0. Mesoporous titania with anatase phase was obtained after templates removal by calcinations. The as-prepared powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 isothermal adsorption-desorption, HRTEM and SAD. External outfields with enhancing polar action and soft hydrothermal condition were beneficial to prepare better mesoporous TiO 2 . Ultrasonic vibration promoted the formation of mesoporous structure. Under microwave irradiation, mesoporous TiO 2 was synthesized with BET specific surface area of 190.6 m 2 g -1 , average pore diameter of 2.57 nm and crystal size of 13.65 nm. And ultrasonic irradiation, microwave and hydrothermal conditions were making for forming and stabilizing the mesoporous structure

  15. The behavior of mineral inclusions during host decomposition. A SEM-STEM study of rutile inclusions at a natural propagating corundum-spinel interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Lisa; Li, Chen; Habler, Gerlinde; Abart, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    When two neighbor phases are not in chemical equilibrium, they may react and produce a reaction rim at their interface, separating the mutually incompatible phases. At constant P-T-X conditions, such a reaction will continue until one of the reactants is completely consumed. Reaction rim growth involves transfer of chemical components across the growing rim by long-range diffusion and localized interface reactions on either side of the growing rim. Consequently, the thickness of the reaction rim will be a function of time. Yet, in order to quantify and interpret such corona structures and to define a reaction rate law, the kinetics and mechanism of rim formation must be well constrained. In particular, the coupling between long-range diffusion, and interface reaction must be known. In this contribution we focus on potential complexities associated with interface reactions. Many natural minerals contain inclusions of other phases, which in turn may influence the reaction interface propagation kinetics during host phase decomposition (Ashby et al. 1969), as a propagating reaction interface dissipates more free energy when bypassing a mineral inclusion, resulting in a locally decelerated reaction rate. Here, we report results of a SEM-STEM study of the interface between natural rutile-bearing corundum and a polycrystalline ferromagnesio-aluminate spinel that grew topotactically with respect to the corundum precursor as a consequence of its reaction with FeO and MgO from basaltic melt. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) crystal orientation imaging revealed that the spinel rim is polycrystalline and exhibits (111) twinning that is parallel to the corundum (0001) plane. The rutile inclusions in corundum are elongated perpendicular to the corundum [0001] axis and are randomly oriented in the (0001) plane. Furthermore, they follow an oscillatory grain size distribution zonation with grain sizes being either a few tens of nanometers, or about 500 to 800 nanometers in

  16. Effective dose in the manufacturing process of rutile covered welding electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, M; Rozas, S; Pérez, C; Idoeta, R; Núñez-Lagos, R; Legarda, F

    2013-03-01

    Shielded metal arc welding using covered electrodes is the most common welding process. Sometimes the covering contains naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). In Spain the most used electrodes are those covered with rutile mixed with other materials. Rutile contains some detectable natural radionuclides, so it can be considered a NORM. This paper mainly focuses on the use of MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) as a predictive tool to obtain doses in a factory which produces this type of electrode and assess the radiological impact in a specific facility after estimating the internal dose.To do this, in the facility, areas of highest radiation and positions of workers were identified, radioactive content of rutile and rutile covered electrodes was measured, and, considering a worst possible scenario, external dose at working points has been calculated using MCNP. This procedure has been validated comparing the results obtained with those from a pressurised ionisation chamber and TLD dosimeters. The internal dose has been calculated using DCAL (dose and risk calculation). The doses range between 8.8 and 394 μSv yr(-1), always lower than the effective dose limit for the public, 1 mSv yr(-1). The highest dose corresponds to the mixing area.

  17. Development and characterization of silica and titania based nano structured materials for the removal of indoor and outdoor air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Thelge Manindu Nirasha

    Solar energy driven catalytic systems have gained popularity in environmental remediation recently. Various photocatalytic systems have been reported in this regard and most of the photocatalysts are based on well-known semiconducting material, Titanium Dioxide, while some are based on other materials such as Silicon Dioxide and various Zeolites. However, in titania based photocatalysts, titania is actively involved in the catalytic mechanism by absorbing light and generating exitons. Because of this vast popularity of titania in the field of photocatalysis it is believed that photocatalysis mainly occurs via non-localized mechanisms and semiconductors are extremely important. Even though it is still rare, photocatalysis could be localized and possible without use of a semiconductor as well. Thus, to support localized photocatalytic systems, and to compare the activity to titania based systems, degradation of organic air pollutants by nanostructured silica, titania and mixed silica titania systems were studied. New materials were prepared using two different approaches, precipitation technique (xerogel) and aerogel preparation technique. The prepared xerogel samples were doped with both metal (silver) and non-metals (carbon and sulfur) and aerogel samples were loaded with Chromium, Cobalt and Vanadium separately, in order to achieve visible light photocatalytic activity. Characterization studies of the materials were carried out using Nova BET analysis, DR UV-vis spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, etc. Kinetics of the catalytic activities was studied using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP 5000 instrument using a closed glass reactor. All the experiments were carried out in gaseous phase using acetaldehyde as the model pollutant. Kinetic results suggest that chromium doped silica systems are good UV and visible light active photocatalysts. This is a good example for a localized

  18. Laser oxidative pyrolysis synthesis and annealing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in carbon–silica shells/matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleaca, C.T. [National Institute for Plasma, Laser and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, R-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Physics Department, Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoreanu, M., E-mail: monica.scarisoreanu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Plasma, Laser and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, R-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Morjan, I.; Luculescu, C.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Badoi, A. [National Institute for Plasma, Laser and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, R-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, E. [“Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Gh. Polizu 1-7, Bucharest (Romania); Kovacs, G. [“Babes-Boyai” University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}-based nanocomposites were obtained by one-step laser oxidative pyrolysis. • Titania particles are surrounded by/embedded in carbon/silica shells/matrix. • They contain an anatase/rutile mixture with mean crystalline diameters up to 24 nm. • Their carbon content decreased with the increasing of introduced air coflow. • Their bandgap energy decreased due to the carbon incorporation. - Abstract: Titania nanoparticles containing a mixture of anatase and rutile phases (with mean crystalline sizes up to 24 nm) covered with/embedded in carbon/silica thin layers or matrix were obtained in a single step using laser oxidative pyrolysis. Titanium tetrachloride and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors were separately introduced into the reaction zone – both together with the laser-absorbing agent (sensitizer) ethylene – which acts also as carbon source – and the oxidant (air) – through the inner and the concentric nozzle, respectively. By increasing the air flow through the annular nozzle, while keeping constant the TiC{sub 4}, inner air, HMDSO and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} flows, the atomic carbon concentration as well as the rutile to anatase ratio in the resulted nanopowders decrease. A much brighter and extended flame was observed for the experiment involving the greatest air flow. The Ti/Si atomic ratio in the resulted nanocomposites was higher than that from the introduced precursors (1.8), indicating a partial siloxane conversion to silica. The annealed powders (at 450 °C to further carbon content reducing) exhibit a lower bandgap energy than those of the reference sample without silica (and also lower than the commercial Degussa P25 nano-TiO{sub 2})

  19. Rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays directly grown on Ti foil substrates towards lithium-ion micro-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shanmu; Wang Haibo; Gu Lin; Zhou Xinhong; Liu Zhihong; Han Pengxian; Wang Ya; Chen Xiao; Cui Guanglei; Chen Liquan

    2011-01-01

    Nanosized rutile TiO 2 is one of the most promising candidates for anode material in lithium-ion micro-batteries owing to their smaller dimension in ab-plane resulting in an enhanced performance for area capacity. However, few reports have yet emerged up to date of rutile TiO 2 nanorod arrays growing along c-axis for Li-ion battery electrode application. In this study, single-crystalline rutile TiO 2 nanorod arrays growing directly on Ti foil substrates have been fabricated using a template-free method. These nanorods can significantly improve the electrochemical performance of rutile TiO 2 in Li-ion batteries. The capacity increase is about 10 times in comparison with rutile TiO 2 compact layer.

  20. First-principles atomistic Wulff constructions for an equilibrium rutile TiO2 shape modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fengzhou; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Dali; He, Gang; Zhou, Jiabei; Wang, Fanhou; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-01

    Identifying the exposed surfaces of rutile TiO2 crystal is crucial for its industry application and surface engineering. In this study, the shape of the rutile TiO2 was constructed by applying equilibrium thermodynamics of TiO2 crystals via first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and Wulff principles. From the DFT calculations, the surface energies of six low-index stoichiometric facets of TiO2 are determined after the calibrations of crystal structure. And then, combined surface energy calculations and Wulff principles, a geometric model of equilibrium rutile TiO2 is built up, which is coherent with the typical morphology of fully-developed equilibrium TiO2 crystal. This study provides fundamental theoretical guidance for the surface analysis and surface modification of the rutile TiO2-based materials from experimental research to industry manufacturing.

  1. Photocatalytic composites based on titania nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Nguyen, Van Hieu; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present a review on recent experimental works toward the formation of visible light responsive composite photocatalysts on the basis of titania nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials of different types. The research results achieved in last years has shown that the nanocomposite photocatalysts comprising titania nanoparticles and graphene or graphene oxide sheets, and also nanoparticles of noble metals and metallic oxides, exhibited the evident priority compared to the others. Therefore our review emphasizes the research on these promising visible light responsive nanophotocatalysts. (review)

  2. The improved stability of enzyme encapsulated in biomimetic titania particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yanjun; Sun Qianyun; Jiang Zhongyi; Zhang Lei; Li Jian; Li Lin; Sun Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel biomimetic approach for the entrapment of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) within titania nanoparticles to improve its stability. Protamine was as the template and catalyst for the condensation of titanium (IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) into titania nanoparticles in which YADH was trapped. The as-prepared titania/protamine/YADH composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanism of YADH encapsulation was tentatively proposed from a series of experimental results. The preliminary investigation showed that encapsulated YADH could retain most of its initial activity. Compared to free YADH, encapsulated YADH exhibited significantly improved thermal, pH and recycling stability. After 5 weeks storage, no substantial loss of catalytic activity for encapsulated YADH was observed

  3. Novel structuring routines of titania films for application in photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Niedermeier, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Novel routines to structure titania thin films on various length scales are investigated regarding photovoltaic applications. The main focus of the investigations lies on the custom-tailoring of the morphologies of the titania films using sol-gel chemistry in combination with block copolymer templating. Additionally, a low-temperature routine for functional hybrid films as well as the growth of gold as electrode material on top of an organic hole-conductor are investigated. Im Hinblick auf...

  4. The potential health risk of titania nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruinan; Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Lingxin; Yan, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanotechnology has been widely used in environmental treatments. ► The safety of nanomaterials to human is under-studied. ► Taking titania nanoparticle as an example to address nanotoxicity and remedy. ► The much needed future investigations are suggested. - Abstract: Widespread use of titania nanoparticles (TNPs) has caused a significant release of TNPs into the environment, increasing human exposure to TNPs. The potential toxicity of TNPs has become an urgent concern. Various models have been used to evaluate the toxic effects of TNPs, but the relationship between TNPs’ toxicity and physicochemical properties is largely unknown. This review summarizes relevant reports to support the development of better predictive toxicological models and the safe future application of TNPs.

  5. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  6. The Activation Mechanism of Bi3+ Ions to Rutile Flotation in a Strong Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead hydroxyl compounds are known as rutile flotation of the traditional activated component, but the optimum pH range for flotation is 2–3 using styryl phosphoric acid (SPA as collector, without lead hydroxyl compounds in slurry solution. In this study, Bi3+ ions as a novel activator was investigated. The results revealed that the presence of Bi3+ ions increased the surface potential, due to the specific adsorption of hydroxyl compounds, which greatly increases the adsorption capacity of SPA on the rutile surface. Bi3+ ions increased the activation sites through the form of hydroxyl species adsorbing on the rutile surface and occupying the steric position of the original Ca2+ ions. The proton substitution reaction occurred between the hydroxyl species of Bi3+ ions (Bi(OHn+(3−n and the hydroxylated rutile surface, producing the compounds of Ti-O-Bi2+. The micro-flotation tests results suggested that Bi3+ ions could improve the flotation recovery of rutile from 61% to 90%, and from 61% to 64% for Pb2+ ions.

  7. Development of a dielectric ceramic based on diatomite-titania part two: dielectric properties characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Jamilson Pinto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric properties of sintered diatomite-titania ceramics are presented. Specific capacitance, dissipation factor, quality factor and dielectric constant were determined as a function of sintering temperature, titania content and frequency; the temperature coefficient of capacitance was measured as a function of frequency. Besides leakage current, the dependence of the insulation resistance and the dielectric strength on the applied dc voltage were studied. The results show that diatomite-titania compositions can be used as an alternative dielectric.

  8. Reduced Titania Films with Ordered Nanopores and Their Application to Visible Light Water Splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Choi, Seoyeong; Liu, Jingling; Kwon, Younguk

    2013-01-01

    We report on the photoelectrochemical properties of partially reduced mesoporous titania thin films. The fabrication is achieved by synthesizing mesoporous titania thin films through the self-assembly of a titania precursor and a block copolymer, followed by aging and calcination, and heat-treatment under a H 2 (1 torr) environment. Depending on the temperature used for the reaction with H2, the degree of the reduction (generation of oxygen vacancies) of the titania is controlled. The oxygen vacancies induce visible light absorption, and decrease of resistance while the mesoporosity is practically unaltered. The photoelectrochemical activity data on these films, by measuring their photocurrent-potential behavior in 1 M NaOH electrolyte under AM 1.5G 100 mW cm -2 illumination, show that the three effects of the oxygen vacancies contribute to the enhancement of the photoelectrochemical properties of the mesoporous titania thin films. The results show that these oxygen deficient TiO 2 mesoporous thin films hold great promise for a solar hydrogen generation. Suggestions for the materials design for improved photoelectrochemical properties are made

  9. First-principles investigation of aluminum intercalation and diffusion in TiO2 materials: Anatase versus rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiqiang; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi; Zhao, Shuangliang; Liu, Honglai

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum-ion batteries, emerging as a promising post-lithium battery solution, have been a subject of increasing research interest. Yet, most existing aluminum-ion research has focused on electrode materials development and synthesis. There has been a lack of fundamental understanding of the electrode processes and thus theoretical guidelines for electrode materials selection and design. In this study, by using density functional theory, we for the first time report a first-principles investigation on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of aluminum intercalation into two common TiO2 polymorphs, i.e., anatase and rutile. After examining the aluminum intercalation sites, intercalation voltages, storage capacities and aluminum diffusion paths in both cases, we demonstrate that the stable aluminum intercalation site locates at the center of the O6 octahedral for TiO2 rutile and off center for TiO2 anatase. The maximum achievable Al/Ti ratios for rutile and anatase are 0.34375 and 0.36111, respectively. Although rutile is found to have an aluminum storage capacity slightly higher than anatase, the theoretical specific energy of rutile can reach 20.90 Wh kg-1, nearly twice as high as anatase (9.84 Wh kg-1). Moreover, the diffusion coefficient of aluminum ions in rutile is 10-9 cm2 s-1, significantly higher than that in anatase (10-20 cm2 s-1). In this regard, TiO2 rutile appears to be a better candidate than anatase as an electrode material for aluminum-ion batteries.

  10. Tin-Platinum catalysts interactions on titania and silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, N.; Del Angel, P.; Salmones, J.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Santiago, P.

    2007-01-01

    Pt-Sn was supported on titania and silica, and the resulting interactions between the components in prepared samples and the resulting interactions between the components before and after treatment with hydrogen were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and catalytic tests data. Results show the presence of Pt and SnO 2 after calcinations, and Pt 3 Sn, PtSn and PtSn 3 after reduction. Rietveld analysis shows that some Ti 4+ are replaced by Sn 4+ atoms in the titania structure. Finally, HRTEM and the practically absence of activity observed confirms that metallic platinum is encapsulated

  11. Bactericidal performance of visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst with silver nanostructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Show Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Titania dioxide (TiO(2 photocatalyst is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Visible-light responsive anion-doped TiO(2 photocatalysts contain higher quantum efficiency under sunlight and can be used safely in indoor settings without exposing to biohazardous ultraviolet light. The antibacterial efficiency, however, remains to be further improved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using thermal reduction method, here we synthesized silver-nanostructures coated TiO(2 thin films that contain a high visible-light responsive antibacterial property. Among our tested titania substrates including TiO(2, carbon-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (C] and nitrogen-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (N], TiO(2 (N showed the best performance after silver coating. The synergistic antibacterial effect results approximately 5 log reductions of surviving bacteria of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated that crystalline silver formed unique wire-like nanostructures on TiO(2 (N substrates, while formed relatively straight and thicker rod-shaped precipitates on the other two titania materials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggested that proper forms of silver on various titania materials could further influence the bactericidal property.

  12. A series of three-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with rutile and unprecedented rutile-related topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Wang, En-Bo; Su, Zhong-Min

    2005-10-03

    The complexes of formulas Ln(pydc)(Hpydc) (Ln = Sm (1), Eu (2), Gd (3); H2pydc = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) and Ln(pydc)(bc)(H2O) (Ln = Sm (4), Gd (5); Hbc = benzenecarboxylic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 are isomorphous and crystallize in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbcn. Their final three-dimensional racemic frameworks can be considered as being constructed by helix-linked scalelike sheets. Compounds 4 and 5 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/c. pydc ligands bridge dinuclear lanthanide centers to form the three-dimensional frameworks featuring hexagonal channels along the a-axis that are occupied by one-end-coordinated bc ligands. From the topological point of view, the five three-dimensional nets are binodal with six- and three-connected nodes, the former of which exhibit a rutile-related (4.6(2))(2)(4(2).6(9).8(4)) topology that is unprecedented within coordination frames, and the latter two species display a distorted rutile (4.6(2))(2)(4(2).6(10).8(3)) topology. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of 2 were studied.

  13. Formation energies of rutile metal dioxides using density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We apply standard density functional theory at the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level to study the stability of rutile metal oxides. It is well known that standard GGA exchange and correlation in some cases is not sufficient to address reduction and oxidation reactions. Especially...... and due to a more accurate description of exchange for this particular GGA functional compared to PBE. Furthermore, we would expect the self-interaction problem to be largest for the most localized d orbitals; that means the late 3d metals and since Co, Fe, Ni, and Cu do not form rutile oxides...

  14. In vivo demonstration of enhanced radiotherapy using rare earth doped titania nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Helen E; Kim, Jeewon; Dobson, Peter J

    2012-08-21

    Radiation therapy is often limited by damage to healthy tissue and associated side-effects; restricting radiation to ineffective doses. Preferential incorporation of materials into tumour tissue can enhance the effect of radiation. Titania has precedent for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT), generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photoexcitation, but is limited by the penetration depth of UV light. Optimization of a nanomaterial for interaction with X-rays could be used for deep tumour treatment. As such, titania nanoparticles were doped with gadolinium to optimize the localized energy absorption from a conventional medical X-ray, and further optimized by the addition of other rare earth (RE) elements. These elements were selected due to their large X-ray photon interaction cross-section, and potential for integration into the titania crystal structure. Specific activation of the nanoparticles by X-ray can result in generation of ROS leading to cell death in a tumour-localized manner. We show here that intratumoural injection of RE doped titania nanoparticles can enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in vivo.

  15. Improvement of Orange II Photobleaching by Moderate Ga3+ Doping of Titania and Detrimental Effect of Structural Disorder on Ga Overloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Štengl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly photoactive Ga3+-doped anatase modification of titania was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions mixture of titanium oxo-sulphate TiOSO4 and gallium(III nitrate with urea. Incorporation of Ga3+ into the anatase lattice has a clear positive effect on the photocatalytic activity under UV and Vis light irradiation up to a certain extent of Ga. Ga3+ doping decreased the size of the crystallites, increased surface area, and affected texture of the samples. Higher amount of gallium leads to the formation of a nondiffractive phase, probably photocatalytically inactive. The titania sample with 2.18 wt.% Ge3+ had the highest activity during the photocatalysed degradation in the UV and visible light regions; the total bleaching of dye Orange II was achieved within 29 minutes. Ga concentration larger than 5% (up to 15% significantly inhibited the growth of the anatase crystal domains which formed the nondiffractive phase content and led to remarkable worsening of the photobleaching efficiency.

  16. The potential health risk of titania nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruinan, E-mail: ruinanzhang87@gmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bai, Yuhong, E-mail: yuhong.bai1983@gmail.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Bin, E-mail: binzhang1968@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Lingxin, E-mail: lxchen@yic.ac.cn [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail: dr.bingyan@gmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanotechnology has been widely used in environmental treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The safety of nanomaterials to human is under-studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taking titania nanoparticle as an example to address nanotoxicity and remedy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The much needed future investigations are suggested. - Abstract: Widespread use of titania nanoparticles (TNPs) has caused a significant release of TNPs into the environment, increasing human exposure to TNPs. The potential toxicity of TNPs has become an urgent concern. Various models have been used to evaluate the toxic effects of TNPs, but the relationship between TNPs' toxicity and physicochemical properties is largely unknown. This review summarizes relevant reports to support the development of better predictive toxicological models and the safe future application of TNPs.

  17. In-vitro bioactivity and electrochemical behavior of polyaniline encapsulated titania nanotube arrays for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agilan, P.; Rajendran, N.

    2018-05-01

    Titania nanotube arrays (TNTA) have attracted increasing attention due to their outstanding properties and potential applications in biomedical field. Fabrication of titania nanotubes on titanium surface enhances the biocompatibility. Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best conducting polymers with remarkable corrosion resistance and reasonable biocompatibility. In this work, the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of polyaniline encapsulated TiO2 nanotubes for orthopaedic applications were investigated. The vertically oriented, highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated on titanium by electrochemical anodization process using fluoride containing electrolytes. The anodization parameters viz., voltage, pH, time and electrolyte concentration were optimized to get orderly arranged TNTA. Further, the conducting polymer PANI was encapsulated on TNTA by electropolymerization process to enhance the corrosion resistance. The nanostructure of the fabricated TNTA and polyaniline encapsulated titania nanotube arrays (PANI-TNTA) were investigated by HR SEM analysis. The formed phases and functional groups were find using XRD, ATR-FTIR. The hydrophilic surface of TNTA and PANI-TNTA was identified by water contact angle studies. The corrosion behavior of specimens was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization studies. In-vitro immersion studies were carried out in simulated body fluid solution (Hanks' solution) to evaluate the bioactivity of the TNTA and PANI-TNTA. The surface morphological studies revealed the formation of PANI on the TNTA surface. Formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surfaces of TNTA and PANI-TNTA enhanced the bioactivity and corrosion resistance.

  18. Synthesis of Titania-supported Copper Nanoparticles via Refined Alkoxide Sol-gel Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jeffrey C.S.; Tseng, I.-Hsiang; Chang, W.-C.

    2001-01-01

    Nanoparticles of titania and copper-loaded titania were synthesized by a refined sol-gel method using titanium butoxide. Unlike the conventional sol-gel procedure of adding water directly, the esterification of anhydrous butanol and glacial acetic acid provided the hydrolyzing water. In addition, acetic acid also served as a chelating ligand to stabilize the hydrolysis-condensation process and minimize the agglomeration of titania. Following the hydrolysis, Cu/TiO 2 was prepared by adding copper chloride to titania sol. The sol was dried, then calcined at 500 deg. C to remove organics and transformed to anatase titania which was verified by XRD. Cu/TiO 2 was further hydrogen-reduced at 300 deg. C. The recovery of Ti was exceeded by an average of 95% from titanium butoxide. TEM micrographs show that the Cu/TiO 2 particles are near uniform. The average crystallite sizes are 17-20 nm estimated from the peak broadening of XRD spectra. The bandgaps of TiO 2 and reduced Cu/TiO 2 range from 2.70 to 3.15 eV estimated from the diffusive reflective UV-Vis spectra. XPS analysis shows that Cu 2p 3/2 is 933.4 eV indicating primary Cu 2 O form on the TiO 2 supports. The binding energy of Ti does not exhibit chemical shift suggesting negligible interaction of Cu cluster and TiO 2 support

  19. Synthesis of Titania-supported Copper Nanoparticles via Refined Alkoxide Sol-gel Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeffrey C. S.; Tseng, I.-Hsiang; Chang, Wan-Chen

    2001-06-01

    Nanoparticles of titania and copper-loaded titania were synthesized by a refined sol-gel method using titanium butoxide. Unlike the conventional sol-gel procedure of adding water directly, the esterification of anhydrous butanol and glacial acetic acid provided the hydrolyzing water. In addition, acetic acid also served as a chelating ligand to stabilize the hydrolysis-condensation process and minimize the agglomeration of titania. Following the hydrolysis, Cu/TiO2 was prepared by adding copper chloride to titania sol. The sol was dried, then calcined at 500°C to remove organics and transformed to anatase titania which was verified by XRD. Cu/TiO2 was further hydrogen-reduced at 300°C. The recovery of Ti was exceeded by an average of 95% from titanium butoxide. TEM micrographs show that the Cu/TiO2 particles are near uniform. The average crystallite sizes are 17-20 nm estimated from the peak broadening of XRD spectra. The bandgaps of TiO2 and reduced Cu/TiO2 range from 2.70 to 3.15 eV estimated from the diffusive reflective UV-Vis spectra. XPS analysis shows that Cu 2p3/2 is 933.4 eV indicating primary Cu2O form on the TiO2 supports. The binding energy of Ti does not exhibit chemical shift suggesting negligible interaction of Cu cluster and TiO2 support.

  20. Synthesis of Titania-supported Copper Nanoparticles via Refined Alkoxide Sol-gel Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jeffrey C.S., E-mail: Cswu@ccms.ntu.edu.tw; Tseng, I.-Hsiang; Chang, W.-C. [National Taiwan University, Department of Chemical Engineering (China)

    2001-06-15

    Nanoparticles of titania and copper-loaded titania were synthesized by a refined sol-gel method using titanium butoxide. Unlike the conventional sol-gel procedure of adding water directly, the esterification of anhydrous butanol and glacial acetic acid provided the hydrolyzing water. In addition, acetic acid also served as a chelating ligand to stabilize the hydrolysis-condensation process and minimize the agglomeration of titania. Following the hydrolysis, Cu/TiO{sub 2} was prepared by adding copper chloride to titania sol. The sol was dried, then calcined at 500 deg. C to remove organics and transformed to anatase titania which was verified by XRD. Cu/TiO{sub 2} was further hydrogen-reduced at 300 deg. C. The recovery of Ti was exceeded by an average of 95% from titanium butoxide. TEM micrographs show that the Cu/TiO{sub 2} particles are near uniform. The average crystallite sizes are 17-20 nm estimated from the peak broadening of XRD spectra. The bandgaps of TiO{sub 2} and reduced Cu/TiO{sub 2} range from 2.70 to 3.15 eV estimated from the diffusive reflective UV-Vis spectra. XPS analysis shows that Cu 2p{sub 3/2} is 933.4 eV indicating primary Cu{sub 2}O form on the TiO{sub 2} supports. The binding energy of Ti does not exhibit chemical shift suggesting negligible interaction of Cu cluster and TiO{sub 2} support.

  1. Tin-Platinum catalysts interactions on titania and silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: tnava@imp.mx; Del Angel, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Salmones, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional-ESIQIE UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Brazil); Santiago, P. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico, D. F., 04510 Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-09-30

    Pt-Sn was supported on titania and silica, and the resulting interactions between the components in prepared samples and the resulting interactions between the components before and after treatment with hydrogen were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and catalytic tests data. Results show the presence of Pt and SnO{sub 2} after calcinations, and Pt{sub 3}Sn, PtSn and PtSn{sub 3} after reduction. Rietveld analysis shows that some Ti{sup 4+} are replaced by Sn{sup 4+} atoms in the titania structure. Finally, HRTEM and the practically absence of activity observed confirms that metallic platinum is encapsulated.

  2. Zr-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized via a sol-gel route and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells for thermo-stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Anastasia; Grohe, Bernd; Mittler, Silvia; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2017-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are regarded as one of the most promising solar cells amongst third-generation photovoltaic technologies, particularly due to their low cost, easy preparation, and minor environmental impact compared to earlier-generation devices. However, they have been challenged by thermal energy losses and low cell efficiencies. This work examined the incorporation of zirconium (Zr) into the crystal lattice of titania nanoparticles (nTiO2) for subsequent fabrication into the photo anode of the DSSCs. The results showed that Zr doping of nTiO2 inhibited the anatase-rutile phase transition. Higher calcination temperatures gave increased titania crystallinity, and stabilized the nTiO2 aggregate pore structure and specific surface area, consequently improving the DSSC device performance. A doping concentration of 5 mol % Zr into the nTiO2 demonstrated the best resistance against thermal degradation, achieving an optimized retention of specific surface area. Solar simulation confirmed the results, indicating better heat stability, although lowering the DSSC efficiencies.

  3. Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2-δ grown on (rutile)TiO2 substrates with pulsed laser deposition: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chaka, Anne M.; Kovarik, Libor; Varga, Tamas; Arey, Bruce W.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2015-02-01

    Epitaxial rutile-structured single-crystal MnxTi1-xO2-δ films were synthesized on rutile- (110) and -(001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The films were characterized by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM). Under the present conditions, 400oC and PO2 = 20 mTorr, single crystal epitaxial thin films were grown for x = 0.13, where x is the nominal average mole fraction of Mn. In fact, arbitrarily thick films could be grown with near invariant Mn/Ti concentration profiles from the substrate/film interface to the film surface. In contrast, at x = 0.25, Mn became enriched towards the surface and a secondary nano-scale phase formed which appeared to maintain the basic rutile structure but with enhanced z-contrast in the tunnels, or tetrahedral interstitial sites. Ab initio thermodynamic calculations provided quantitative estimates for the destabilizing effect of expanding the β-MnO2 lattice parameters to those of TiO2-rutile, the stabilizing effect of diluting Mn with increasing Ti concentration, and competing reaction pathways.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of natural hydroxyapatite (recycled) composites with titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Filho, Antonio Alves; Gouveia, Vitor Jose Pinto; Pereira, Renato Alves; Araujo, Fernando Gabriel da Silva; Sousa, Camila Mateus de

    2010-01-01

    Natural hydroxyapatite biphasic ceramics (recycled) with titania (TiO_2-Hap) were studied in this work. For the formation of such ceramic the powders were mixed natural hydroxyapatite obtained from veal bone by the hydrothermal method with titania (TiO_2), forming the composites H9T1. The powders, manually homogenized, were conformed in pellet and sintered at temperatures between 1200 and 1400 deg C The ceramic bodies were characterized by XRD and SEM/EDS. The initial results were not satisfactory and require new studies. (author)

  5. High-density arrays of titania nanoparticles using monolayer micellar films of diblock copolymers as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Lau, King Hang Aaron; Kim, Dong Ha; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2005-05-24

    Highly dense arrays of titania nanoparticles were fabricated using surface micellar films of poly(styrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) diblock copolymers (PS-b-P2VP) as reaction scaffolds. Titania could be introduced selectively within P2VP nanodomains in PS-b-P2VP films through the binary reaction between water molecules trapped in the P2VP domains and the TiCl(4) vapor precursors. Subsequent UV exposure or oxygen plasma treatment removed the organic matrix, leading to titania nanoparticle arrays on the substrate surface. The diameter of the titania domains and the interparticle distance were defined by the lateral scale present in the microphase-separated morphology of the initial PS-b-P2VP films. The typical diameter of titania nanoparticles obtained by oxygen plasma treatment was of the order of approximately 23 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated for films before and after plasma treatment. Both samples showed PL properties with major physical origin due to self-trapped excitons, indicating that the local environment of the titanium atoms is similar.

  6. Solid-state poly(ethylene glycol)-polyurethane/polymethylmethacrylate/rutile TiO2 nanofiber composite electrolyte-correlation between morphology and conducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilaka, Naresh; Ghosh, Sutapa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Semi IPN composite of PEG-PU/PMMA with different wt% of rutile TiO 2 is synthesized. ► Formation of nanocomposite is confirmed by SEM, XRD and IR spectroscopic analysis. ► DSC and TGA confirmed the enhanced thermal stability of the composite. ► Composite with 18 wt% rutile TiO 2 is found to be the best conducting material. - Abstract: A series of lithium electrolyte materials based on hybrid of semi Inter penetrating Polymer Network of [poly(ethylene glycol)-polyurethane-polymethylmethacrylate] [60:40] and TiO 2 nanofibers is described. TiO 2 nanofibers are made by simple solvothermal procedure. Rutile phase of TiO 2 and its fibrous morphology are confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscopy image respectively. Semi Inter penetrating Polymer Network of polyethylene glycol-polyurethane/polymethylmethacrylate with LiClO 4 and its nanocomposite with different weight percent of TiO 2 nano fibers have been synthesized. The formation of Inter penetrating Polymer Network and its amorphous nature are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern and differential scanning calorimetry results. Thermo gravimetric analysis shows enhanced thermal stability of the composite compared to the semi Inter penetrating Polymer Network system. The electrical characterizations of the nanocomposites are done by current–voltage (I–V) measurements and impedance spectroscopy. These results confirm that incorporation of TiO 2 nanofibers by 18% enhances the conductivity of the Inter penetrating Polymer Network system by ten times . The nanoscale structure of the inorganic material is found to be responsible for the bulk properties of the system, especially those that differ from the properties of similar, pure salt-in-polymer electrolytes. Further differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and impedance data confirm the presence of two polymeric phases in the semi Inter penetrating Polymer

  7. Ordered Fe(II)Ti(IV)O3 Mixed Monolayer Oxide on Rutile TiO2(011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpegamage, Sandamali; Ding, Pan; Gong, Xue-Qing; Batzill, Matthias

    2015-08-25

    Oxide monolayers supported or intermixed with an oxide support are potential nanocatalysts whose properties are determined by the interplay with the support. For fundamental studies of monolayer oxides on metal oxide supports, well-defined systems are needed, but so far, the synthesis of monolayer oxides with long-range order on single-crystal oxide surfaces is rare. Here, we show by a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT)-based computational analysis that the rutile TiO2(011) surface supports the formation of an ordered mixed FeTiO3 monolayer. Deposition of iron in a slightly oxidizing atmosphere (10(-8) Torr O2) and annealing to 300 °C results in a well-ordered surface structure with Fe in a 2+ charge state and Ti in a 4+ charge states. Low-energy ion scattering suggests that the cation surface composition is close to half Fe and half Ti. This surface is stable in ultrahigh vacuum to annealing temperatures of 300 °C before the iron is reduced. DFT simulations confirm that a surface structure with coverage of 50% FeO units is stable and forms an ordered structure. Although distinct from known bulk phases of the iron-titanium oxide systems, the FeTiO3 monolayer exhibits some resemblance to the ilmenite structure, which may suggest that a variety of different mixed oxide phases (of systems that exist in a bulk ilmenite phase) may be synthesized in this way on the rutile TiO2(011) substrate.

  8. Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane Photoelectrochemical (PEM-PEC Cell with a Web of Titania Nanotube Arrays as Photoanode and Gaseous Reactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsampas M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Photoanodes of titania nanotube arrays, TNTAs, were developed, for the first time, on a Ti-web of microfiber substrates, by electrochemical anodization. The performance of TNTAs/Ti-web photoanodes were evaluated in both gaseous and liquid reactants. Due to the presence of reliable reference electrode in gas phase direct comparison of the results was possible. Gas phase operation with He or Air as carrier gases and only 2.5% of water content exhibits very promising photoefficiency in comparison with conventional PEC cells.

  9. Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of visible light sensitized N doped TiO2 (rutile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livraghi, S.; Czoska, A.M.; Paganini, M.C.; Giamello, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen doped TiO 2 represents one of the most promising material for photocatalitic degradation of environmental pollutants with visible light. However, at present, a great deal of activity is devoted to the anatase polymorph while few data about rutile are available. In the present paper we report an experimental characterization of N doped polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 prepared via sol-gel synthesis. Nitrogen doping does not affect the valence band to conduction band separation but, generates intra band gap localized states which are responsible of the on set of visible light absorption. The intra band gap states correspond to a nitrogen containing defect similar but not coincident with that recently reported for N doped anatase. - Graphical abstract: Nitrogen doped TiO 2 represents one of the most promising material for photocatalitic degradation of environmental pollutants with visible light. However, at present, a great deal of activity is devoted to the anatase polymorph while few data about rutile are available. In the present paper we report an experimental characterization of N doped polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 prepared via sol-gel synthesis

  10. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio; Enomoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-09-10

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium (IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current Earth, depending on the amount of active surface area for this mechanism. We conclude that titania may act as a potential source of false signs of life on habitable exoplanets.

  11. Photoelectrochemical reactivity of polyoxophosphotungstates embedded in titania tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yibing

    2006-01-01

    A highly ordered and crystallized titania (TiO 2 ) nanotube array is fabricated by a low-voltage anodization plus a post-embedding calcination process. Polyoxophosphotungstate-titania (POPTA-TiO 2 ) composite catalyst is synthesized by embedding POPTA in TiO 2 tubule channels to improve the photoelectrochemical properties. The morphological characteristics and crystal behaviour of POPTA-TiO 2 are examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The stability of the chemical structure has been analysed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy measurements. The photoelectrochemical properties are investigated by means of the polarization current response. Photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic reactivities for the degradation of an endocrine disrupting chemical have also been investigated to examine the photoelectrochemical reaction efficiency of POPTA-TiO 2 composite catalyst

  12. Adherence and scratching resistance of nanometric titania films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoali, S.; Dominguini, L.; Borges, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    TiO 2 films has been used to extend the wear resistance in bearing, seals for pumps and bone prostheses. In this study was analyzed the conventional hardness and scratch toughness. The scratching test equipment used was developed at the Laboratory of materials Labmat / UFSC. The tests were performed on Titania films deposited on glass plates and ceramics via reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited by 10, 15 and 60 min. One of the samples has a titanium metal film of a few nanometers thick between the substrate and the Titania film, the oxide has been deposited for 30 min. At this rang of tests loads the deposited films show good adhesion to substrate, there was no cracking or spalling of the film. (author)

  13. Adsorption and degradation of model volatile organic compounds by a combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangyao; Li Guiying; He Zhigui; An Taicheng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Adsorptive combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalysts synthesized. → All catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities of multinary VOCs. → All catalysts preferred to adsorb the VOCs with higher polarity. → CTMS80 can effectively photocatalytically remove VOCs of various components. - Abstract: A series of adsorptive photocatalysts, combined titania-montmorillonite-silica were synthesized. The resultant photocatalysts consisted of more and more spherically agglomerated TiO 2 particles with increasing of TiO 2 content, and anatase was the only crystalline phase with nano-scale TiO 2 particles. With increasing of the cation exchange capacity to TiO 2 molar ratio, specific surface area and pore volume increased very slightly. In a fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor by choosing toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanethiol as model pollutants, all catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities and preferred to adsorb higher polarity pollutants. Langmuir isotherm model better described equilibrium data compared to Freundlich model. Competitive adsorptions were observed for the mixed pollutants on the catalysts, leading to decrease adsorption capacity for each pollutant. The combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic removal ability to model pollutants of various components. Almost 100% of degradation efficiency was achieved within 120 min for each pollutant with about 500 ppb initial concentration, though the efficiencies of multi-component compounds slightly decreased. All photocatalytic reactions followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Degradation rate constants of multi-component systems were lower than those for single systems, following the order of toluene < ethyl acetate < ethanethiol, and increased with the increase of adsorption capacities for different pollutants of various components.

  14. Photocatalytic polymerization induced by a transparent anatase titania aqueous sol and fabrication of polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of the anatase titania nanoparticles prepared via a controlled nonhydrolytic sol-gel process is achieved by the formation of the bidentate coordination between titania and methacrylic acid (MAA molecules. The in situ photocatalytic polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer is initiated by surface modified anatase titania nanoparticles under Xe lamp irradiation. A variety of techniques including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed to characterize the resulting materials. The glass transition temperatures and the thermal stabilities of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA composite materials prepared via photocatalytic polymerization are enhanced compared with pure polymer. The partial aggregation of titania nanoparticles in PMMA composite films is derived from the surface polymerization of MMA, which makes the inorganic particles hydrophobic and drives them to the water/oil interfaces.

  15. Hydroxyapatite formation on titania-based materials in a solution mimicking body fluid: Effects of manganese and iron addition in anatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euisup; Kim, Ill Yong; Cho, Sung Baek; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite formation on the surfaces of implanted materials plays an important role in osteoconduction of bone substitutes in bone tissues. Titania hydrogels are known to instigate hydroxyapatite formation in a solution mimicking human blood plasma. To date, the relationship between the surface characteristics of titania and hydroxyapatite formation on its surface remains unclear. In this study, titania powders with varying surface characteristics were prepared by addition of manganese or iron to examine hydroxyapatite formation in a type of simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution). Hydroxyapatite formation was monitored by observation of deposited particles with scale-like morphology on the prepared titania powders. The effect of the titania surface characteristics, i.e., crystal structure, zeta potential, hydroxy group content, and specific surface area, on hydroxyapatite formation was examined. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed on the surface of titania powders that were primarily anatase, and featured a negative zeta potential and low specific surface areas irrespective of the hydroxy group content. High specific surface areas inhibited the formation of hydroxyapatite because calcium and phosphate ions were mostly consumed by adsorption on the titania surface. Thus, these surface characteristics of titania determine its osteoconductivity following exposure to body fluid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physicochemical characterization of functionalized-nanostructured-titania as a carrier of copper complexes for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Tessy; Ortiz, Emma; Guevara, Patricia; Gómez, Esteban; Novaro, Octavio

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we report the preparation and characterization of functionalized-TiO 2 (F-TiO 2 ) to obtain a biocompatible material to be used as carrier of alternative anticancer agents: copper acetate and copper acetylacetonate. The sol–gel procedure was used to prepare the fuctionalized titania material through hydrolysis and condensation of the titanium's butoxide. Sulfate, amine and phosphate ions served as functional groups which were anchored to the titania's surface. Mineral acids and gamma amine butyric acid were the precursors and they were added at the initial step of the synthesis. The copper complexes were loaded on titania and were also added to the reactor synthesis from the beginning. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies were the principal techniques used to the characterization of F-TiO 2 and copper complexes loaded on titania materials. Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) was used to complement the characterization's studies. The biocompatibility of F-TiO 2 was evaluated by treating different cancer cell lines with increased concentration of this compound. The amine, the sulfate and the phosphate on the titania's surface, as well as the integral structures of the metal complexes on titania were well identified by infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. The TEM photographs of Cu(acac) 2 /F-TiO 2 and Cu(Oac) 2 /F-TiO 2 materials showed the formation of nanoparticles, which have sizes ranging from 4 to 10 nm, with no morphology alterations in comparison with F-TiO 2 nanoparticles, suggesting that the presence of low quantities of copper do not affect the structure of the nanoparticles. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of copper on the titania's nanoparticles. The biological results indicate that there is more than 90% cell survival, thus suggesting that F-TiO 2 does not cause damage to the cells. Therefore, highly biocompatible titania was obtained by

  17. Iron carbide on titania surface modified with group VA oxides as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachs, I.E.; Fiato, R.A.; Chersich, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described comprising iron carbide supported on a surface modified titania wherein the support comprises an oxide of a metal selected form the group consisting of niobium, vanadium, tantalum or mixture thereof supported on the titania wherein at least a portion of the supported oxide of niobium, vanandium, tantalum or mixture is in a non-crystalline form. The amount of the supported oxide ranges from about 0.5 to 25 weight percent metal oxide on the titania support based on the total support composition and the catalyst contains at least about 2 milligrams of iron, calculated as Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, per square meter of support surface

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Kumar, J. Praveen; Srivastava, A.R.; Singh, Beer

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl (o,o-diethyl o-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate), a well known surrogate of chemical warfare agents, in aqueous solution was studied by using titania nanoparticulate film. Reaction followed pseudo first order behaviour. Photolytic degradation reaction of paraoxon-ethyl demonstrated relatively low rate with a value of rate constant of 2.5 × 10 −3 min −1 . Whereas, degradation reaction in the presence of titania nanoparticulate film and UV light displayed enhanced rate with a value of rate constant of 6.9 × 10 −3 min −1 due to photocatalysis. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the formation of p-nitrophenol, o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, o-ethyl, diphosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, dimerized product of o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide due to photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl. It indicates that, photocatalytic degradation reaction begins with destruction of P–O–C bonds. Subsequently, P, C atoms were found to be oxidized gradually, and contributed to its photocatalytic degradation. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of titania nanoparticles by sol–gel method. ► Fabrication of titania nanoparticulate film by dip coating. ► Paraoxon ethyl degradation reactions followed pseudo first order behaviour. ► Paraoxon-ethyl degraded to non toxic compounds like CO 2 , acetaldehyde, and nitrophenol.

  19. Photocatalysis of sub-ppm limonene over multiwalled carbon nanotubes/titania composite nanofiber under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Kang, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania composite nanofiber (MTCN) was synthesized. • Photocatalytic function of visible-activated MTCN was examined using tubular reactor. • MTCNs could be effectively used for the purification of sub-ppm gas-phase limonene. • The experimental results agreed well with Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. • Certain gas-phase intermediates were determined, but not for adsorbed intermediates. - Abstract: This study was conducted under visible-light exposure to investigate the photocatalytic characteristics of a multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania (TiO 2 ) composite nanofiber (MTCN) using a continuous-flow tubular reactor. The MTCN was prepared by a sol–gel process, followed by an electrospinning technique. The photocatalytic decomposition efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was higher than those obtained from reference TiO 2 nanofibers or P25 TiO 2 , and the experimental results agreed well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The CO concentrations generated during the photocatalysis did not reach levels toxic to humans. The mineralization efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was also higher than that for P25 TiO 2 . Moreover, the mineralization efficiency obtained using the MTCN increased steeply from 8.3 to 91.1% as the residence time increased from 7.8 to 78.0 s, compared to the increase in the decomposition efficiencies for limonene from 90.1 to 99.9%. Three gas-phase intermediates (methacrolein, acetic acid, and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined for the photocatalysis for limonene over the MTCN, whereas only two intermediates (acetic acid and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined over P25 TiO 2 . Other provisional gas-phase intermediates included cyclopropyl methyl ketone and 2-ethylbutanal

  20. Photocatalysis of sub-ppm limonene over multiwalled carbon nanotubes/titania composite nanofiber under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen, E-mail: wkjo@knu.ac.kr; Kang, Hyun-Jung

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • A multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania composite nanofiber (MTCN) was synthesized. • Photocatalytic function of visible-activated MTCN was examined using tubular reactor. • MTCNs could be effectively used for the purification of sub-ppm gas-phase limonene. • The experimental results agreed well with Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. • Certain gas-phase intermediates were determined, but not for adsorbed intermediates. - Abstract: This study was conducted under visible-light exposure to investigate the photocatalytic characteristics of a multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania (TiO{sub 2}) composite nanofiber (MTCN) using a continuous-flow tubular reactor. The MTCN was prepared by a sol–gel process, followed by an electrospinning technique. The photocatalytic decomposition efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was higher than those obtained from reference TiO{sub 2} nanofibers or P25 TiO{sub 2}, and the experimental results agreed well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The CO concentrations generated during the photocatalysis did not reach levels toxic to humans. The mineralization efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was also higher than that for P25 TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the mineralization efficiency obtained using the MTCN increased steeply from 8.3 to 91.1% as the residence time increased from 7.8 to 78.0 s, compared to the increase in the decomposition efficiencies for limonene from 90.1 to 99.9%. Three gas-phase intermediates (methacrolein, acetic acid, and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined for the photocatalysis for limonene over the MTCN, whereas only two intermediates (acetic acid and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined over P25 TiO{sub 2}. Other provisional gas-phase intermediates included cyclopropyl methyl ketone and 2-ethylbutanal.

  1. Absolute band structure determination on naturally occurring rutile with complex chemistry: Implications for mineral photocatalysis on both Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, Xiaoming; Li, Yanzhang; Ding, Cong; Wu, Jing; Lu, Anhuai; Ding, Hongrui; Qin, Shan; Wang, Changqiu

    2018-05-01

    Rutile is the most common and stable form of TiO2 that ubiquitously existing on Earth and other terrestrial planets like Mars. Semiconducting mineral such as rutile-based photoredox reactions have been considered to play important roles in geological times. However, due to the inherent complexity in chemistry, the precision determination on band structure of natural rutile and the theoretical explanation on its solar-driven photochemistry have been hardly seen yet. Considering the multiple minor and trace elements in natural rutile, we firstly obtained the single-crystal crystallography, mineralogical composition and defects characteristic of the rutile sample by using both powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the band gap was accurately determined by synchrotron-based O K-edge X-ray absorption and emission spectra, which was firstly applied to natural rutile due to its robustness on compositions and defects. The absolute band edges of the rutile sample was calculated by considering the electronegativity of the atoms, band gap and point of zero charge. Besides, after detecting the defect energy levels by photoluminescence spectra, we drew the schematic band structure of natural rutile. The band gap (2.7 eV) of natural rutile was narrower than that of synthetic rutile (3.0 eV), and the conduction and valence band edges of natural rutile at pH = pHPZC were determined to be -0.04 V and 2.66 V (vs. NHE), respectively. The defect energy levels located at nearly the middle position of the forbidden band. Further, we used theoretical calculations to verify the isomorphous substitution of Fe and V for Ti gave rise to the distortion of TiO6 octahedron and created vacancy defects in natural rutile. Based on density functional theory, the narrowed band gap was interpreted to the contribution of Fe-3d and V-3d orbits, and the defect energy state was formed by hybridization of O-2p and Fe/V/Ti-3d

  2. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H 2 SO 4 solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H 2 SO 4 solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates

  3. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.L., E-mail: jlxu@nchu.edu.cn; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong.2006@yahoo.com.cn

    2014-04-15

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates.

  4. Development and characterization of ceramic composites alumina-titania based reinforced with lanthanum oxide for fabrication of inert coatings for metallic tanks of the oil industry; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de compositos ceramicos baseados em alumina-titania reforcados com oxido de lantanio para fabricacao de revestimentos inertes em tanques metalicos da industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, J.M.; Yadava, Y.P.; Silva, N.D.G.; Ferreira, R.A.S., E-mail: julianamb91@gmail.com, E-mail: yadava@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2016-07-01

    Crude petroleum is highly corrosive causing superficial degradation in metallic tanks used for storage and transportation of this material, which causes a serious problem in the oil industry. An alternative to solve this problem is to use some kind of coating that is inert to this kind of corrosion. Alumina and titania are interesting materials for several engineering applications because, when compared with other ceramic materials, they present superior mechanical properties, e.g. high mechanical strength, good chemical stability and high fracture toughness combined with good wear resistance and a coefficient of thermal expansion close to the iron's, which makes them fit to use in ceramic hardening process and coating. In this paper, alumina-titania ceramic composites with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of titania (TiO2) and reinforced with 2% of lanthanum oxide of were produced by thermo-mechanical processing and sintering techniques at 1350 deg C. In these composites, microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed using X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers hardness in order to evaluate their applicability. X-ray spectroscopy showed the formation of composite without the presence of other phases. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed a homogeneous microstructure in terms of particle size and distribution. Vickers hardness test showed a gradual decrease in hardness with the addition of titania. The composite with 5% of titania and 2% of lanthanum oxide is the best choice for structural applications. The composites were submerged in crude petroleum for 30 days to study their stability in such environment. Through the analysis of X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers hardness before and after the submersion in crude petroleum, it was not observed structural or microstructural degradation nether alterations in mechanical properties. This way, it was concluded that these composites have

  5. Porous titania surfaces on titanium with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities for enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Guang; Müller, Werner E.G.; Wang, Xiaohong; Lilja, Louise; Shen, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Titanium received a macroporous titania surface layer by anodization, which contains open pores with average pore diameter around 5 μm. An additional mesoporous titania top layer following the contour of the macropores, of 100–200 nm thickness and with a pore diameter of 10 nm, was formed by using the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method with titanium (IV) tetraethoxide as the precursor. A coherent laminar titania surface layer was thus obtained, creating a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface that was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. The interfacial bonding between the surface layers and the titanium matrix was characterized by the scratch test that confirmed a stable and strong bonding of titania surface layers on titanium. The wettability to water and the effects on the osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS-2) proliferation and mineralization of the formed titania surface layers were studied systematically by cell culture and scanning electron microscopy. The results proved that the porous titania surface with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was hydrophilic that significantly promoted cell attachment and spreading. A synergistic role of the hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was revealed in terms of enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization, compared with the titania surface with solo scale topography. - Highlights: • We developed a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface layer on titanium. • New surface layer was strong enough to sustain on implant surface. • New surface owned better surface wettability. • New surface can promote SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. • Synergistic effects on cell responses occur when two porous structures coexist

  6. Porous titania surfaces on titanium with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities for enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Guang [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Müller, Werner E.G.; Wang, Xiaohong [ERC Advanced Grant Research Group at the Institute for Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lilja, Louise [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Titanium received a macroporous titania surface layer by anodization, which contains open pores with average pore diameter around 5 μm. An additional mesoporous titania top layer following the contour of the macropores, of 100–200 nm thickness and with a pore diameter of 10 nm, was formed by using the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method with titanium (IV) tetraethoxide as the precursor. A coherent laminar titania surface layer was thus obtained, creating a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface that was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. The interfacial bonding between the surface layers and the titanium matrix was characterized by the scratch test that confirmed a stable and strong bonding of titania surface layers on titanium. The wettability to water and the effects on the osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS-2) proliferation and mineralization of the formed titania surface layers were studied systematically by cell culture and scanning electron microscopy. The results proved that the porous titania surface with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was hydrophilic that significantly promoted cell attachment and spreading. A synergistic role of the hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was revealed in terms of enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization, compared with the titania surface with solo scale topography. - Highlights: • We developed a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface layer on titanium. • New surface layer was strong enough to sustain on implant surface. • New surface owned better surface wettability. • New surface can promote SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. • Synergistic effects on cell responses occur when two porous structures coexist.

  7. Preparation of rutile TiO(2) coating by thermal chemical vapor deposition for anticoking applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiyun; Wang, Jianli; Zhu, Quan; Chen, Yaoqiang; Li, Xiangyuan

    2014-10-08

    To inhibit the metal catalytic coking and improve the oxidation resistance of TiN coating, rutile TiO2 coating has been directly designed as an efficient anticoking coating for n-hexane pyrolysis. TiO2 coatings were prepared on the inner surface of SS304 tubes by a thermal CVD method under varied temperatures from 650 to 900 °C. The rutile TiO2 coating was obtained by annealing the as-deposited TiO2 coating, which is an alternative route for the deposition of rutile TiO2 coating. The morphology, elemental and phase composition of TiO2 coatings were characterized by SEM, EDX and XRD, respectively. The results show that deposition temperature of TiO2 coatings has a strong effect on the morphology and thickness of as-deposited TiO2 coatings. Fe, Cr and Ni at.% of the substrate gradually changes to 0 when the temperature is increased to 800 °C. The thickness of TiO2 coating is more than 6 μm and uniform by metalloscopy, and the films have a nonstoichiometric composition of Ti3O8 when the deposition temperature is above 800 °C. The anticoking tests show that the TiO2 coating at a deposition temperature of 800 °C is sufficiently thick to cover the cracks and gaps on the surface of blank substrate and cut off the catalytic coke growth effect of the metal substrate. The anticoking ratio of TiO2 coating corresponding to each 5 cm segments is above 65% and the average anticoking ratio of TiO2 coating is up to 76%. Thus, the TiO2 coating can provide a very good protective layer to prevent the substrate from severe coking efficiently.

  8. Slow photon amplification of gas-phase ethanol photo-oxidation in titania inverse opal photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovic, Vedran, E-mail: vjov001@aucklanduni.ac.nz [School of Chemical Sciences, Science Centre, Building 301, 23 Symonds Street, Auckland 92019 (New Zealand); Idriss, Hicham, E-mail: IdrissH@sabic.com [Corporate Research and Development (CRD), Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) at KAUST (Saudi Arabia); Waterhouse, Geoffrey I.N., E-mail: g.waterhouse@auckland.ac.nz [School of Chemical Sciences, Science Centre, Building 301, 23 Symonds Street, Auckland 92019 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Dodd Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies (New Zealand)

    2016-11-10

    Here we describe the successful fabrication of six titania inverse opal (TiO{sub 2} IO) photocatalysts with fcc[1 1 1] pseudo photonic band gaps (PBGs) tuned to span the UV–vis region. Photocatalysts were fabricated by a colloidal crystal templating and sol-gel approach – a robust and highly applicable bottom-up scheme which allowed for precise control over the geometric and optical properties of the TiO{sub 2} IO photocatalysts. Optical properties of the TiO{sub 2} IO thin films were investigated in detail by UV–vis transmittance and reflectance measurements. The PBG along the fcc[1 1 1] direction in the TiO{sub 2} IOs was dependent on the inter-planar spacing in the [1 1 1] direction, the incident angle of light and the refractive index of the medium filling the macropores in the IOs, in agreement with a modified Bragg’s law expression. Calculated photonic band structures for the photocatalysts revealed a PBG along the Γ → L direction at a/λ ∼ 0.74, in agreement with the experimental optical data. By coupling the low frequency edge of the PBG along the [1 1 1] direction with the electronic absorption edge of anatase TiO{sub 2}, a two-fold enhancement in the rate of gas phase ethanol photo-oxidation in air was achieved. This enhancement appears to be associated with a ‘slow photon’ effect that acts to both enhance TiO{sub 2} absorption and inhibit spontaneous emission (i.e. suppress electron-hole pair recombination).

  9. Long Alkyl Chain Organophosphorus Coupling Agents for in Situ Surface Functionalization by Reactive Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Betke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative synthetic approaches should be simple and environmentally friendly. Here, we present the surface modification of inorganic submicrometer particles with long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents without the need of a solvent, which makes the technique environmentally friendly. In addition, it is of great benefit to realize two goals in one step: size reduction and, simultaneously, surface functionalization. A top-down approach for the synthesis of metal oxide particles with in situ surface functionalization is used to modify titania with long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents. A high energy planetary ball mill was used to perform reactive milling using titania as inorganic pigment and long alkyl chain organophosphorus coupling agents like dodecyl and octadecyl phosphonic acid. The final products were characterized by IR, NMR and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal and elemental analysis as well as by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The process entailed a tribochemical phase transformation from the starting material anatase to a high-pressure modification of titania and the thermodynamically more stable rutile depending on the process parameters. Furthermore, the particles show sizes between 100 nm and 300 nm and a degree of surface coverage up to 0.8 mmol phosphonate per gram.

  10. Synthesis of mesoporous titania by homogeneous hydrolysis of titania oxo-sulfate in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Houšková, Vendula; Murafa, Nataliya; Bakardjieva, Snejana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2010), s. 368-378 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : surfactant * titania * mesoporous * photocatalyst Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.297, year: 2010

  11. Design of titania nanotube structures by focused laser beam direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enachi, Mihai; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Sarua, Andrei; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report on electrochemical fabrication of titania films consisting of nanotubes (NTs) and their treatment by focused laser beam. The results of sample characterization by optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, and Raman scattering scanning spectroscopy are compared to those inherent to specimens subjected to thermal treatment in a furnace. The obtained data demonstrate possibilities for controlling crystallographic structure of TiO 2 NTs by focused laser beam direct writing. These findings open new prospects for the design and fabrication of spatial architectures based on titania nanotubes

  12. Oxidations of amines with molecular oxygen using bifunctional gold–titania catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2008-01-01

    titania catalysts can be employed to facilitate the oxidation of amines into amides with high selectivity. Furthermore, we report that pure titania is in fact itself a catalyst for the oxidation of amines with molecular oxygen under very mild conditions. We demonstrate that these new methodologies open up for two......Over the past decades it has become clear that supported gold nanoparticles are surprisingly active and selective catalysts for several green oxidation reactions of oxygen-containing hydrocarbons using molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. We here report that bifunctional gold...

  13. Phase study of titanium dioxide nanoparticle prepared via sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji Araoyinbo, Alaba; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Salleh, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd; Aziz, Nurul Nadia Abdul; Iskandar Azmi, Azwan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide nanoparticles have been prepared via sol-gel process using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor with hydrochloric acid as a catalyst, and ethanol with deionized water as solvents. The value of pH used is set to 3, 7 and 8. The sols obtained were dried at 100 °C for 1 hr and calcined at 350, 550, and 750 °C for 3 hrs to observe the phase transformation of titanium dioxide nanoparticle. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope. The morphology analysis is obtained from field emission scanning electron microscope. The phase transformation was investigated by x-ray diffraction. It was found that the pH of the solution affect the agglomeration of titanium dioxide particle. The x-ray diffraction pattern of titanium dioxide shows the anatase phase most abundant at temperature of 350 °C. At temperature of 550 °C the anatase and rutile phase were present. At temperature of 750 °C the rutile phase was the most abundant for pH 3, 7 and 8. It was confirmed that at higher temperature the rutile phase which is the stable phase are mostly present.

  14. Fabrication and structural characterization of highly ordered titania nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongtao; Ordonez, Rosita

    Titanium (Ti) dioxide nanotubes have drawn much attention in the past decade due to the fact that titania is an extremely versatile material with a variety of technological applications. Anodizing Ti in different electrolytes has proved to be quite successful so far in creating the nanotubes, however, their degree of order is still not nearly as good as nanoporous anodic alumina. In this work, we first deposit a thin layer of aluminum (Al) onto electropolished Ti substrates, using thermal evaporation. Such an Al layer is then anodized in 0.3 M oxalic acid, forming an ordered nanoporous alumina mask on top of Ti. Afterwards, the anodization of Ti is accomplished at 20 V in solutions containing 1 M NaH2PO4 and 0.5% HF or H2SO4, which results in the creation of ordered titania nanotube arrays. The inner pore diameter of the nanotubes can be tuned from ~50 nm to ~75 nm, depending on the anodization voltage applied to Al or Ti. X-ray diffractometry shows the as-grown titania nanotubes are amorphous. Samples annealed at different temperatures in ambient atmosphere will be also reported.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of functionalized-nanostructured-titania as a carrier of copper complexes for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Tessy [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Laboratory, Metropolitan Autonomous University-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, Villa Quietud, Coyoacán, 04960 México D.F. (Mexico); Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans (United States); Ortiz, Emma, E-mail: emma170@hotmail.com [Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Guevara, Patricia [Neuroimmunology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Gómez, Esteban [Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Novaro, Octavio [Institute of Physics-UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica Ciudad Universitaria, CP 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper we report the preparation and characterization of functionalized-TiO{sub 2} (F-TiO{sub 2}) to obtain a biocompatible material to be used as carrier of alternative anticancer agents: copper acetate and copper acetylacetonate. The sol–gel procedure was used to prepare the fuctionalized titania material through hydrolysis and condensation of the titanium's butoxide. Sulfate, amine and phosphate ions served as functional groups which were anchored to the titania's surface. Mineral acids and gamma amine butyric acid were the precursors and they were added at the initial step of the synthesis. The copper complexes were loaded on titania and were also added to the reactor synthesis from the beginning. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies were the principal techniques used to the characterization of F-TiO{sub 2} and copper complexes loaded on titania materials. Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) was used to complement the characterization's studies. The biocompatibility of F-TiO{sub 2} was evaluated by treating different cancer cell lines with increased concentration of this compound. The amine, the sulfate and the phosphate on the titania's surface, as well as the integral structures of the metal complexes on titania were well identified by infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. The TEM photographs of Cu(acac){sub 2}/F-TiO{sub 2} and Cu(Oac){sub 2}/F-TiO{sub 2} materials showed the formation of nanoparticles, which have sizes ranging from 4 to 10 nm, with no morphology alterations in comparison with F-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, suggesting that the presence of low quantities of copper do not affect the structure of the nanoparticles. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of copper on the titania's nanoparticles. The biological results indicate that there is more than 90% cell survival, thus suggesting that F-TiO{sub 2} does not cause damage to the cells. Therefore

  16. Effect of silver on the phase transition and wettability of titanium oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Adolfo A.; Albella, Jose M.; Navarro, Violeta; Bhattacharyya, Debabrata; Endrino, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of silver on the phase transition and microstructure of titanium oxide films grown by pulsed cathodic arc had been investigated by XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Following successive thermal annealing up to 1000 °C, microstructural analysis of annealed Ag-TiO2 films reveals that the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles strongly affects the transition temperature from the initial metastable amorphous phase to anatase and stable rutile phase. An increase of silver content into TiO2 matrix inhibits the amorphous to anatase phase transition, raising its temperature boundary and, simultaneously reduces the transition temperature to promote rutile structure at lower value of 600 °C. The results are interpreted in terms of the steric effects produced by agglomeration of Ag atoms into larger clusters following annealing which hinders diffusion of Ti and O ions for anatase formation and constrains the volume available for the anatase lattice, thus disrupting its structure to form rutile phase. The effect of silver on the optical and wetting properties of TiO2 was evaluated to demonstrate its improved photocatalytic performance. PMID:27571937

  17. Synthesis and characterization of titania-based monodisperse fluorescent europium nanoparticles for biolabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Mingqian; Wang Guilan; Ye Zhiqiang; Yuan Jingli

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid titania-based nanoparticles covalently bound to a fluorescent Eu 3+ chelate of 4,4'-bis(1'',1'',1'',2'',2'',3'',3''-heptafluoro-4'',6''-hexanedion-6''-yl) chlorosulfo-o-terphenyl (BHHCT-Eu 3+ ) were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. A conjugate of BHHCT with 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (APTS) was used as a precursor for the nanoparticle preparation and monodisperse nanoparticles consisting of titania network and silica sub-network covalently bound to the Eu 3+ chelate were prepared by the copolymerization of APTS-BHHCT conjugate, titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and free APTS in EuCl 3 water-alcohol solution. The effects of reaction conditions on size and fluorescence lifetime of the nanoparticles were investigated. The characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and fluorometric methods indicate that the nanoparticles are near spherical and strongly fluorescent having a fluorescence quantum yield of 11.6% and a long fluorescence lifetime of ∼0.4 ms. The direct-introduced amino groups on the nanoparticle's surface by using free APTS in nanoparticle preparation facilitated the biolabeling process of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-labeled streptavidin (SA) was prepared and used in a sandwich-type time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) of human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by using a 96-well microtiter plate as the solid phase carrier. The method gives a detection limit of 66 pg/ml for the PSA assay

  18. Macroscale and Nanoscale Morphology Evolution during in Situ Spray Coating of Titania Films for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Caller-Guzman, Herbert A; Körstgens, Volker; Rui, Yichuan; Yao, Yuan; Saxena, Nitin; Santoro, Gonzalo; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2017-12-20

    Mesoporous titania is a cheap and widely used material for photovoltaic applications. To enable a large-scale fabrication and a controllable pore size, we combined a block copolymer-assisted sol-gel route with spray coating to fabricate titania films, in which the block copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) is used as a structure-directing template. Both the macroscale and nanoscale are studied. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the spray deposition processes are simulated on a macroscale, which shows a good agreement with the large-scale morphology of the spray-coated films obtained in practice. On the nanoscale, the structure evolution of the titania films is probed with in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) during the spray process. The changes of the PS domain size depend not only on micellization but also on solvent evaporation during the spray coating. Perovskite (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ) solar cells (PSCs) based on sprayed titania film are fabricated, which showcases the suitability of spray-deposited titania films for PSCs.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of noble metal–titania core–shell nanostructures with tunable shell thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bartosewicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Core–shell nanostructures have found applications in many fields, including surface enhanced spectroscopy, catalysis and solar cells. Titania-coated noble metal nanoparticles, which combine the surface plasmon resonance properties of the core and the photoactivity of the shell, have great potential for these applications. However, the controllable synthesis of such nanostructures remains a challenge due to the high reactivity of titania precursors. Hence, a simple titania coating method that would allow better control over the shell formation is desired. A sol–gel based titania coating method, which allows control over the shell thickness, was developed and applied to the synthesis of Ag@TiO2 and Au@TiO2 with various shell thicknesses. The morphology of the synthesized structures was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Their sizes and shell thicknesses were determined using tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS technique. The optical properties of the synthesized structures were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy. Ag@TiO2 and Au@TiO2 structures with shell thickness in the range of ≈40–70 nm and 90 nm, for the Ag and Au nanostructures respectively, were prepared using a method we developed and adapted, consisting of a change in the titania precursor concentration. The synthesized nanostructures exhibited significant absorption in the UV–vis range. The TRPS technique was shown to be a very useful tool for the characterization of metal–metal oxide core–shell nanostructures.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Kumar, J. Praveen; Srivastava, A.R.; Singh, Beer

    2012-06-30

    Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl (o,o-diethyl o-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate), a well known surrogate of chemical warfare agents, in aqueous solution was studied by using titania nanoparticulate film. Reaction followed pseudo first order behaviour. Photolytic degradation reaction of paraoxon-ethyl demonstrated relatively low rate with a value of rate constant of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}. Whereas, degradation reaction in the presence of titania nanoparticulate film and UV light displayed enhanced rate with a value of rate constant of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} due to photocatalysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the formation of p-nitrophenol, o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, o-ethyl, diphosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, dimerized product of o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide due to photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl. It indicates that, photocatalytic degradation reaction begins with destruction of P-O-C bonds. Subsequently, P, C atoms were found to be oxidized gradually, and contributed to its photocatalytic degradation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of titania nanoparticles by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of titania nanoparticulate film by dip coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon ethyl degradation reactions followed pseudo first order behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon-ethyl degraded to non toxic compounds like CO{sub 2}, acetaldehyde, and nitrophenol.

  1. First principles study of vibrational dynamics of ceria-titania hybrid clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com; Bibi, Maryam [University of Gujrat, Department of Physics (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    Density functional theory based calculations were performed to study vibrational properties of ceria, titania, and ceria-titania hybrid clusters. The findings revealed the dominance of vibrations related to oxygen when compared to those of metallic atoms in the clusters. In case of hybrid cluster, the softening of normal modes related to exterior oxygen atoms in ceria and softening/hardening of high/low frequency modes related to titania dimmers are observed. The results calculated for monomers conform to symmetry predictions according to which three IR and three Raman active modes were detected for TiO{sub 2}, whereas two IR active and one Raman active modes were observed for CeO{sub 2}. The comparative analysis indicates that the hybrid cluster CeTiO{sub 4} contains simultaneous vibrational fingerprints of the component dimmers. The symmetry, nature of vibrations, IR and Raman activity, intensities, and atomic involvement in different modes of the clusters are described in detail. The study points to engineering of CeTiO{sub 4} to tailor its properties for technological visible region applications in photocatalytic and electrochemical devices.

  2. An Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of Confined Surface Water on Rutile Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Elinor; Levchenko, Andrey; Ross, Nancy; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Woodfield, Brian; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Li, Guangshe

    2009-01-01

    The vibrational density of states (VDOS) for water confined on the surface of rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles has been extracted from low temperature inelastic neutron scattering spectra. Two rutile-TiO2 nanoparticle samples that differ in their respective levels of hydration, namely TiO2 0.37H2O (1) and TiO2 0.22H2O (2) have been studied. The temperature dependency of the heat capacities for the two samples has been quantified from the VDOS. The results from this study are compared with previously reported data for water confined on anatase-TiO2 nanoparticles.

  3. U-Pb thermochronology of rutile from Alpine Corsica: constraints on the thermal evolution of the European margin during Jurassic continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, T. A.; Beltrando, M.; Müntener, O.

    2017-12-01

    U-Pb thermochronology of rutile can provide valuable temporal constraints on the exhumation history of the lower crust, given its moderate closure temperature and the occurrence of rutile in appropriate lithologies. We present an example from Alpine Corsica, in which we investigate the thermal evolution of the distal European margin during Jurassic continental rifting that culminated in the opening of the Alpine Tethys ocean. The Belli Piani unit of the Santa Lucia nappe (Corsica) experienced minimal Alpine overprint and bears a striking resemblance to the renowned Ivrea Zone lower crustal section (Italy). At its base, a 2-4 km thick gabbroic complex contains slivers of granulite facies metapelites that represent Permian lower crust. Zr-in-rutile temperatures and U-Pb ages were determined for rutile from three metapelitic slivers from throughout the Mafic Complex. High Zr-in-rutile temperatures of 850-950 °C corroborate textural evidence for rutile formation during Permian granulite facies metamorphism. Lower Zr-in-rutile temperatures of 750-800 °C in a few grains are partly associated with elongate strings of rutile within quartz ribbons, which record recrystallisation of some rutile during high-temperature shearing. Zr thermometry documents that both crystallisation and re-crystallisation of rutile occurred above the closure temperature of Pb in rutile, such that the U-Pb system can be expected to record cooling ages uncomplicated by re-crystallisation. Our new high-precision single-spot LA-ICPMS U-Pb dates are highly consistent between and within samples. The three samples gave ages from 160 ± 1 Ma to 161 ± 2 Ma, with no other age populations detected. The new data indicate that the Santa Lucia lower crust last cooled through 550-650 °C at 160 Ma, coeval with the first formation of oceanic crust in the Tethys. The new data are compared to previous depth profiling rutile U-Pb data for the Belli Piani unit1, and exploited to cast light on the tectonothermal

  4. Surface characterization of Ag/Titania adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Nair, Sachin; Duin, Evert C.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ag/Titania adsorbent for selective removal of the desulfurization-refractive polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) from liquid hydrocarbon fuels was prepared, its total and the Ag specific surface area were determined and the surface reaction sites in the sorbent that may be active in the adsorptive selective desulfurization were characterized by several spectroscopic and surface science techniques. The sorbent contains Ag, Ti, O and spurious C on its surface, as by the XPS measurements. Silver is present as an oxide, as judged by the XPS Auger parameter (AP). The complementary electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy confirms that the majority of Ag is present in the diamagnetic Ag 1+ form, with the minor concentration (∼0.1% of total Ag) present as Ag 2+ . The findings by XPS and ESR are confirmed by the XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy and thermodynamic considerations. The supported Ag is highly dispersed on the surface of the titania support, with the particle size of ∼30-60 A depending on Ag content, with an Ag specific surface area of ∼7-14 m 2 /g, vs. the total surface area of ∼114-58 m 2 /g.

  5. Lattice defects in rutile, TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Itoh, H.; Nakanishi, S.; Kondo, K.; Okada, M.; Atobe, K.

    1991-01-01

    Rutile, TiO 2 , having a relatively high melting point exhibits strong optical absorption after neutron irradiation (8 x 10 16 n f /cm 2 ) at 15K. The band peak is located near 0.96 μ, having a FWHM of 0.87 eV (at liquid nitrogen temperature). After inverse recovery at 120K, lattice defects due probably to F centers are annealed out at about 220K. (author)

  6. EFFECTS OF SYNTHESIS PARAMETERS ON THE STRUCTURE OF TITANIA NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NORANI MUTI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of hydrogen is crucial for industrial process control and medical applications where presence of hydrogen in breath indicates different type of health problems particularly in infants. A better performed sensor with high sensitivity, selectivity, reliability and faster response time would be critical and sought after especially for medical applications. Titanium dioxide nanotube structure is chosen as an active component in the gas sensor because of its highly sensitive electrical resistance to hydrogen over a wide range of concentrations. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the anodizing conditions on the structure of titania nanotubes produced by anodizing method. The anodizing parameters namely the ambient temperature and separation of electrodes are varied accordingly to find the optimum anodizing conditions for production of good quality titania nanotubes for enhanced properties based on their uniformity, coverage, pore size and crystallinity. Samples of nanotubes produced were subjected to annealing process at varying time and temperature in order to improve the crystallinity of the nanotubes. The highly ordered porous titania nanotubes produced by this method are of tabular shape and have good uniformity and alignment over large areas. The pore size of the titania nanotubes ranges from 47 to 94 nm, while the wall thickness is in the range of 17 to 26 nm. The length of the nanotubes was found to be about 280 nm. The structure of nanotubes changes from amorphous to crystalline after undergoing annealing treatment. Nanotubes have also shown to have better crystallinity if they were subjected to annealing treatment at higher temperature. The characteristics of nanotubes obtained are found to be agreeable to those that have been reported to show improved hydrogen gas sensing properties.

  7. Structural dependence of threshold displacement energies in rutile, anatase and brookite TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, M., E-mail: marc.robinson@curtin.edu.au [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Marks, N.A. [Discipline of Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Lumpkin, G.R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Systematic molecular dynamics simulations of low energy cascades have been performed to examine how threshold displacement events are effected by changes in crystal structure. Exploiting the structural proximity of the rutile, anatase and brookite polymorphs of TiO{sub 2}, a quantitative examination of defect production has been carried out including detailed defect analysis and the determination of values of the threshold displacement energy (E{sub d}). Across all polymorphs comparable values of E{sub d} are reported for oxygen at around 20 eV, with the value for Ti in rutile (73 ± 2 eV) significantly higher than that in brookite (34 ± 1 eV) and anatase (39 ± 1 eV). Quantifying defect formation probability as a function of Primary Knock-on Atom (PKA) energy, simulations in rutile indicate a consistent reduction in defect formation at energies higher than E{sub d} relative to anatase and brookite. Defect cluster analysis reveals a significant proportion of di-Frenkel pairs in anatase at Ti PKA energies around E{sub d}. These clusters, which are stabilised by the localisation of two Frenkel pairs, are associated with a recombination barrier of approximately 0.19 eV. As such, annihilation is likely under typical experimental conditions which suggests an expected increase in the measured Ti value of E{sub d}. Identical O defect populations produced at the threshold by the O PKA in both rutile and anatase explain the comparable values of E{sub d}. At higher O PKA energies, the commencement of defect production on both sublattices in anatase is observed in contrast to the confinement of defects to the O sublattice in rutile. The overall trends reported are consistent with in-situ irradiation experiments and thermal spike simulations, suggesting the contrasting radiation response of the polymorphs of TiO{sub 2} is apparent during the initial stages of defect production. - Highlights: • Systematic calculation of threshold displacement energies (E{sub d

  8. Structurally stabilized organosilane-templated thermostable mesoporous titania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoli, Vipin; Tiwari, Rashmi; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim; Sinha, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-13

    Structurally thermostable mesoporous anatase TiO2 (m-TiO2) nanoparticles, uniquely decorated with atomically dispersed SiO2, is reported for the first time. The inorganic Si portion of the novel organosilane template, used as a mesopores-directing agent, is found to be incorporated in the pore walls of the titania aggregates, mainly as isolated sites. This is evident by transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy, combined with electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This type of unique structure provides exceptional stability to this new material against thermal collapse of the mesoporous structure, which is reflected in its high surface area (the highest known for anatase titania), even after high-temperature (550 °C) calcination. Control of crystallite size, pore diameter, and surface area is achieved by varying the molar ratios of the titanium precursor and the template during synthesis. These mesoporous materials retain their porosity and high surface area after template removal and further NaOH/HCl treatment to remove silica. We investigate their performance for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with bilayer TiO2 electrodes, which are prepared by applying a coating of m-TiO2 onto a commercial titania (P25) film. The high surface area of the upper mesoporous layer in the P25-m-TiO2 DSSC significantly increases the dye loading ability of the photoanode. The photocurrent and fill factor for the DSSC with the bilayer TiO2 electrode are greatly improved. The large increase in photocurrent current (ca. 56%) in the P25-m-TiO2 DSSC is believed to play a significant role in achieving a remarkable increase in the photovoltaic efficiency (60%) of the device, compared to DSSCs with a monolayer of P25 as the electrode. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. (Gold core)/(titania shell) nanostructures for plasmon-enhanced photon harvesting and generation of reactive oxygen species

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Caihong; Jia, Henglei; Chang, Shuai; Ruan, Qifeng; Wang, Peng; Chen, Tao; Wang, Jianfang

    2014-01-01

    Integration of gold and titania in a nanoscale core/shell architecture can offer large active metal/semiconductor interfacial areas and avoid aggregation and reshaping of the metal nanocrystal core. Such hybrid nanostructures are very useful for studying plasmon-enhanced/enabled processes and have great potential in light-harvesting applications. Herein we report on a facile route to (gold nanocrystal core)/(titania shell) nanostructures with their plasmon band synthetically variable from ∼700 nm to over 1000 nm. The coating method has also been applied to other mono- and bi-metallic Pd, Pt, Au nanocrystals. The gold/titania nanostructures have been employed as the scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cells, with the resultant cells exhibiting a 13.3% increase in the power conversion efficiency and a 75% decrease in the scattering-layer thickness. Moreover, under resonant excitation, the gold/titania nanostructures can efficiently utilize low-energy photons to generate reactive oxygen species, including singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals.

  10. Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the potential climatic effects of geoengineering by sulfate, black carbon and titania injection against a baseline RCP8.5 scenario. We use the HadGEM2-CCS model to simulate scenarios in which the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations is offset by sufficient aerosol injection throughout the 2020–2100 period. We find that the global-mean temperature is effectively maintained at historical levels for the entirety of the period for all three aerosol-injection scenarios, though there is a wide range of side-effects which are discussed in detail. The most prominent conclusion is that although the BC injection rate necessary to produce an equivalent global mean temperature response is much lower, the severity of stratospheric temperature changes (> +70 °C and precipitation impacts effectively exclude BC from being a viable option for geoengineering. Additionally, while it has been suggested that titania would be an effective particle because of its high scattering efficiency, it also efficiently absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation producing a significant stratospheric warming (> +20 °C. As injection rates and climatic impacts for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears to be little benefit in terms of climatic influence of using titania when compared to the injection of sulfur dioxide, which has the added benefit of being well-modeled through extensive research that has been carried out on naturally occurring explosive volcanic eruptions.

  11. Phase Equilibrium of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Flame-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changran; Camacho, Joaquin; Wang, Hai

    2018-01-19

    Nano-scale titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) is a material useful for a wide range of applications. In a previous study, we showed that TiO 2 nanoparticles of both rutile and anatase crystal phases could be synthesized over the size range of 5 to 20 nm in flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Rutile was unexpectedly dominant in oxygen-lean synthesis conditions, whereas anatase is the preferred phase in oxygen-rich gases. The observation is in contrast to the 14 nm rutile-anatase crossover size derived from the existing crystal-phase equilibrium model. In the present work, we made additional measurements over a wider range of synthesis conditions; the results confirm the earlier observations. We propose an improved model for the surface energy that considers the role of oxygen desorption at high temperatures. The model successfully explains the observations made in the current and previous work. The current results provide a useful path to designing flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition of TiO 2 nanocrystals with controllable crystal phases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Isotherm studies on Adsorption of Eriochrome Black-T from aqueous solution using Rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, B.; Rath, P. P.; Behera, S. S.; Panda, S. R.; Sahoo, T. R.; Parhi, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, rutile phase of TiO2 particles have been synthesized by co-precipitation method and is used as an adsorbent for removal of toxic azo dye Eriochrome black-T (EBT) from aqueous solution. The rutile phase of TiO2 was confirmed by the X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH, agitation speed and temperature on the adsorption process of EBT was examined. Removal of EBT was increased by increasing in adsorbent dose and decrease in initial dye concentration and pH. The optimum conditions resulted were: 25 ppm initial dye concentration, 20 mg adsorbent dose and pH of 2. Using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models, equilibrium data was determined. The Freundlich model showed the best fit for uptake of the EBT dye, which evident that the process of adsorption of EBT dye onto TiO2 particles was heterogeneous. The kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion equation. The pseudo-second order showed the best fit for the kinetic studies (R2 = 0.999), which ascertains that the adsorption process was of chemisorptions type. The intraparticle diffusion model indicated a linear relationship (R2= 0.99) suggesting the pore diffusion to be a limiting step in the overall adsorption process.

  13. Surface Properties of Photocatalytic Nano-Crystalline Titania Films and Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this work two immobilizations techniques of TiO2 onto glass were investigated; deposition of previously made titania powder (PMTP) and a sol-gel method. The titania powder used in this work was Degussa P25, Hombikat UV100 and a powder prepared in our laboratory SC134. The prepared TiO2 films w...

  14. Dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper B.; Christensen, Erik N.

    2017-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also numerica......We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also...

  15. Nanoscale Phase Stability Reversal During the Nucleation and Growth of Titanium Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummmer, D. R.; Heaney, P. J.; Kubicki, J. D.; Kent, P. R.; Post, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Fine-grained titanium oxide minerals are important in soils, where they affect a variety of geochemical processes. They are also industrially important as catalysts, pigments, food additives, and dielectrics. Recent research has indicated an apparent reversal of thermodynamic stability between TiO2 phases at the nanoscale thought to be caused by an increased contribution of surface energy to the total free energy. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments in which titanium oxides crystallize from aqueous TiCl4 solutions confirm that anatase, a metastable phase, is always the first phase to nucleate under our range of initial conditions. Rutile peaks are observed only minutes after the first appearance of anatase, after which anatase abundance slowly decreases while rutile continues to form. Whole pattern refinement of diffraction data reveals that lattice constants of both phases increase throughout the crystallization process. In addition, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and kinetic modeling indicate that anatase does not undergo a solid-state transformation to the rutile structure as once thought. Instead, anatase appears to re-dissolve and then feed the growth of already nucleated rutile nanocrystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to model 1, 2, and 3 nm particles of both mineral phases. The total surface energies calculated from these models did yield lower values for anatase than for rutile by 8-13 kJ/mol depending on particle size, indicating that surface free energy is sufficient to account for stability reversal. However, these whole-particle surface energies were much higher than the sum of energies of each particle's constituent crystallographic surfaces. We attribute the excess energy to defects associated with the edges and corners of nanoparticles, which are not present on a 2-D periodic surface. This previously unreported edge and corner energy may play a dominant role in the stability reversal

  16. Development and characterization of ceramic composites alumina-titania based reinforced with lanthanum oxide for fabrication of inert coatings for metallic tanks of the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.M.; Yadava, Y.P.; Silva, N.D.G.; Ferreira, R.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Crude petroleum is highly corrosive causing superficial degradation in metallic tanks used for storage and transportation of this material, which causes a serious problem in the oil industry. An alternative to solve this problem is to use some kind of coating that is inert to this kind of corrosion. Alumina and titania are interesting materials for several engineering applications because, when compared with other ceramic materials, they present superior mechanical properties, e.g. high mechanical strength, good chemical stability and high fracture toughness combined with good wear resistance and a coefficient of thermal expansion close to the iron's, which makes them fit to use in ceramic hardening process and coating. In this paper, alumina-titania ceramic composites with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of titania (TiO2) and reinforced with 2% of lanthanum oxide of were produced by thermo-mechanical processing and sintering techniques at 1350 deg C. In these composites, microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed using X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers hardness in order to evaluate their applicability. X-ray spectroscopy showed the formation of composite without the presence of other phases. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed a homogeneous microstructure in terms of particle size and distribution. Vickers hardness test showed a gradual decrease in hardness with the addition of titania. The composite with 5% of titania and 2% of lanthanum oxide is the best choice for structural applications. The composites were submerged in crude petroleum for 30 days to study their stability in such environment. Through the analysis of X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers hardness before and after the submersion in crude petroleum, it was not observed structural or microstructural degradation nether alterations in mechanical properties. This way, it was concluded that these composites have good

  17. Energetic driving force of H spillover between rhodium and titania surfaces : a DFT view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradie, J.; Gracia, J.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen spillover from a rhodium particle, over the most stable (111) surface, to a TiO2 rutile support occurs at low hydrogen coverage because the adsorption energy of H atoms at low hydrogen coverage on rutile is larger than that on rhodium. H diffuses over the support with an activation barrier

  18. Probing the (110)-Oriented plane of rutile ZnF2: A DFT investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamijani, Ali Abbaspour; Ebrahimiaqda, Elham

    2017-12-01

    For many years, rutile-like crystals have given rise to pronounced enthusiasm amongst mineralogists. In this context, rutile-type ZnF2 has found numerous applications across a variety of disciplines, ranging from material sciences to optoelectronics. Surprisingly, very limited literature is concerned with the molecular adsorption on ZnF2 surfaces and related energetics. Additionally, surface probing with small particles is a well-entrenched technique to analyze the interfacial properties. In this regard, small organic species are valuable picks. In the present work, we have employed electronic structure calculations to simulate the adsorption of methane, chloroform, pyrrole, benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene and pentacene at the (110) plane of rutile ZnF2. Dispersion-corrected DFT method was chosen to predict the binding energies and structures of molecule-adsorbed surfaces. Interestingly, a linear proportionality relationship was found between the binding energies of aromatic adsorbates and their respective molecular lengths. By applying this relationship, we were able to predict the adsorption energy of pentacene on ZnF2 to within 2% of our DFT-based result.

  19. Activity of nanosized titania synthesized from thermal decomposition of titanium (IV n-butoxide for the photocatalytic degradation of diuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitlada Klongdee, Wansiri Petchkroh, Kosin Phuempoonsathaporn, Piyasan Praserthdam, Alisa S. Vangnai and Varong Pavarajarn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of anatase titania were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of titanium (IV n-butoxide in 1,4-butanediol. The powder obtained was characterized by various characterization techniques, such as XRD, BET, SEM and TEM, to confirm that it was a collection of single crystal anatase with particle size smaller than 15 nm. The synthesized titania was employed as catalyst for the photodegradation of diuron, a herbicide belonging to the phenylurea family, which has been considered as a biologically active pollutant in soil and water. Although diuron is chemically stable, degradation of diuron by photocatalyzed oxidation was found possible. The conversions achieved by titania prepared were in the range of 70–80% within 6 h of reaction, using standard UV lamps, while over 99% conversion was achieved under solar irradiation. The photocatalytic activity was compared with that of the Japanese Reference Catalyst (JRC-TIO-1 titania from the Catalysis Society of Japan. The synthesized titania exhibited higher rate and efficiency in diuron degradation than reference catalyst. The results from the investigations by controlling various reaction parameters, such as oxygen dissolved in the solution, diuron concentration, as well as light source, suggested that the enhanced photocatalytic activity was the result from higher crystallinity of the synthesized titania.

  20. Rutile vanadium antimonates. A new class of catalysts for selective reduction of NO with ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazdil, James F.; Ebner, Ann M.; Cavalcanti, Fernando A.P. [BP Chemicals Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a new class of vanadium containing oxide catalysts that are active and selective for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia. Vanadium antimony oxide based catalysts were found to be effective in the conversion of NO with little or no ammonia slippage when tested using gas mixtures containing between 300 and 700ppm NO. X-ray diffraction analyses of the catalysts show that the dominant phase present in the catalyst is vanadium antimonate having a defect rutile crystal structure. The catalysts are active and selective in the ranges of 400-460C and gas hourly space velocities of 3000-8000h{sup -1}

  1. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and niobium doped titanium dioxide composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Subodh K., E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Chettah, Abdelhak [LGMM Laboratory, Université 20 Août 1955-Skikda, BP 26, 21000 Skikda (Algeria); Singh, R.G. [Department of Physics, Bhagini Nivedita College, Delhi University, Delhi 110043 (India); Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Study reports the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and Niobium doped anatase TiO{sub 2} composite thin films. Investigations were carried out at different densities of electronic excitations (EEs) using 120 MeV Ag and 130 MeV Ni ions irradiations. Films were initially annealed at 900 °C and results revealed that undoped films were highly stable in anatase phase, while the Nb doped films showed the composite nature with the weak presence of Niobium penta-oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phase. The effect at low density of EEs in undoped film show partial anatase to rutile phase transformation; however doped film shows only further growth of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase beside the anatase to rutile phase transformation. At higher density of EEs induced by Ag ions, registered continuous ion track of ∼3 nm in lattice which leads to nano-crystallization followed by decomposition/amorphization of rutile TiO{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases in undoped and doped films, respectively. However, Ni ions are only induced discontinuous sequence of ion tracks with creation of damage and disorder and do not show amorphization in the lattice. The in-elastic thermal spike calculations were carried out for anatase TiO{sub 2} phase to understand the effect of EEs on anatase to rutile phase transformation followed by amorphization in NTO films in terms of continuous and discontinuous track formation by SHI irradiation.

  2. Defect annealing in Mn/Fe-implanted TiO2(rutile)

    CERN Document Server

    Gunnlaugsson, H P; Masenda, H; Mølholt, T E; Johnston, K; Bharuth-Ram, K; Gislason, H; Langouche, G; Naidoo, D; Ólafsson, S; Svane, A; Weyer, G

    2014-01-01

    A study of the annealing processes and charge state of dilute Fe in rutile TiO2 single crystals was performed in the temperature range 143-662 K, utilizing online 57Fe emission Mossbauer spectroscopy following low concentrations ( 350 K.

  3. FP-LAPW Calculations of the EFG at Cd Impurities in Rutile SnO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, L. A.; Fabricius, G.; Renteria, M.

    2001-01-01

    We report an ab initio study of the electric-field gradient (EFG) at Cd impurities located at the cation site in the semiconductor SnO 2 (rutile phase). The study was performed with the WIEN97 implementation of the FP-LAPW method. In order to simulate the diluted Cd-impurity in the SnO 2 host and to calculate the electronic structure of the system we used a 72-atoms super-cell, studying the relaxation introduced by the impurity in the lattice. The free-relaxation process performed shows that the relaxations of the oxygen nearest-neighbors of the impurity are not isotropic. Our prediction for the EFG tensor are compared with experimental results and point-charge model predictions

  4. Synthesis and characterization of silica–titania core–shell particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reactants (titanium butoxide and water) and the amount of added silica particles. Differ- ... of titania onto silica can enhance its stability and catalytic activity. It is also an .... This work has been supported by DST India under the Nanomaterials,.

  5. Ion-pair in-tube solid-phase microextraction and capillary liquid chromatography using a titania-based column: application to the specific lauralkonium chloride determination in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; Moliner-Martínez, Y; López-Mahía, P; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2012-07-27

    A quick, miniaturized and on-line method has been developed for the determination in water of the predominant homologue of benzalkonium chloride, dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride or lauralkonium chloride (C(12)-BAK). The method is based on the formation of an ion-pair in both in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) and capillary liquid chromatography. The IT-SPME optimization required the study of the length and nature of the stationary phase of capillary and the processed sample volume. Because to the surfactant character of the analyte both, the extracting and replacing solvents, have played a decisive role in the IT-SPME optimized procedure. Conditioning the capillary with the mobile phase which contains the counter ion (acetate), using an organic additive (tetrabutylammonium chloride) added to the sample and a mixture water/methanol as replacing solvent (processed just before the valve is switched to the inject position), allowed to obtain good precision of the retention time and a narrow peak for C(12)-BAK. A reversed-phase capillary based TiO(2) column and a mobile phase containing ammonium acetate at pH 5.0 for controlling the interactions of cationic surfactant with titania surface were proposed. The optimized procedure provided adequate linearity, accuracy and precision at the concentrations interval of 1.5-300 μg L(-1) .The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 μg L(-1) using diode array detection (DAD). The applicability of proposed IT-SPME-capillary LC method has been assessed in several water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption of CO, CO2, H2, and H2O on titania surfaces with different oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, G.B.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorptive properties of titania surfaces with different oxidation states were proved by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO, H 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 O. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that vacuum annealing an oxidized titanium foil at temperatures from 300 to 800 K was an effective means of systematically varying the average surface oxidation state from Ti 4+ to Ti 2+ . Carbon monoxide weakly adsorbed (desorption energy of 44-49 kJ x mol -1 ) in a carbonyl fashion on coordinatively unsaturated cation sites. Titania surfaces were inert with respect to H 2 adsorption and dissociation. Carbon dioxide adsorbed in a linear molecular fashion. Water adsorbed both molecularly and dissociatively. Results are discussed in terms of the role of titania oxidation state in CO hydrogenation over titania-supported metal catalysts. 74 references, 7 figures

  7. Visible-Light Degradation of Dyes and Phenols over Mesoporous Titania Prepared by Using Anthocyanin from Red Radish as Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photocatalysis is able to operate effectively to eliminate organic compounds from wastewater in the presence of semiconductor photocatalyst and a light source. Although photosensitization of titania by organic dyes is one of the conventional ways for visible-light utilization of titania, previous studies have not yet addressed the use of natural food coloring agents as templates in the synthesis of mesostructured materials, let alone the simultaneous achievement of highly crystalline mesoscopic framework and visible-light photocatalytic activity. In this work, anthocyanin, a natural pigment from red radish was directly used as template in synthesis of highly crystalline mesoporous titania. The synthesized mesoporous titania samples were characterized by a combination of various physicochemical techniques, such as XRD, SEM, HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis. The prepared mesoporous titania photocatalyst exhibited significant activity under visible-light irradiation for the degradation of dyes and phenols due to its red shift of band-gap-absorption onset and visible-light response as a result of the incorporation of surface carbon species.

  8. Adsorption properties versus oxidation states of rutile TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Umberto; Hammer, Bjørk

    2011-01-01

    Using density functional theory we have studied the adsorption properties of different atoms and molecules deposited on a stoichiometric, reduced, and oxidized rutile TiO2(110) surface. Depending on the oxidation state of the surface, electrons can flow from or to the substrate and, therefore...... of the charge flow depends on the oxidation state of the rutile surface and on the adsorption site. Generally, the charging effect leads to more stable complexes. However, the increase in the binding energy of the adsorbates is highly dependent on the electronic states of the surface prior to the adsorption...... event. In this work we have analyzed in details these mechanisms and we have also established a direct correlation between the enhanced binding energy of the adsorbates and the induced gap states...

  9. Multistack integration of three-dimensional hyperbranched anatase titania architectures for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Rao, Hua-Shang; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2014-04-30

    An unprecedented attempt was conducted on suitably functionalized integration of three-dimensional hyperbranched titania architectures for efficient multistack photoanode, constructed via layer-by-layer assembly of hyperbranched hierarchical tree-like titania nanowires (underlayer), branched hierarchical rambutan-like titania hollow submicrometer-sized spheres (intermediate layer), and hyperbranched hierarchical urchin-like titania micrometer-sized spheres (top layer). Owing to favorable charge-collection, superior light harvesting efficiency and extended electron lifetime, the multilayered TiO2-based devices showed greater J(sc) and V(oc) than those of a conventional TiO2 nanoparticle (TNP), and an overall power conversion efficiency of 11.01% (J(sc) = 18.53 mA cm(-2); V(oc) = 827 mV and FF = 0.72) was attained, which remarkably outperformed that of a TNP-based reference cell (η = 7.62%) with a similar film thickness. Meanwhile, the facile and operable film-fabricating technique (hydrothermal and drop-casting) provides a promising scheme and great simplicity for high performance/cost ratio photovoltaic device processability in a sustainable way.

  10. Integration of epitaxial Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} films on GaN/AlGaN/GaN/Si(111) substrates using rutile TiO{sub 2} buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elibol, K. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Nguyen, M.D. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522NB Enschede (Netherlands); International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Hueting, R.J.E. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Gravesteijn, D.J. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 46, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Koster, G., E-mail: g.koster@utwente.nl [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Rijnders, G. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-09-30

    The integration of ferroelectric layers on gallium nitride (GaN) offers a great potential for various applications. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in particular Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}, is an interesting candidate. For that a suitable buffer layer should be grown on GaN in order to prevent the reaction between PZT and GaN, and to obtain PZT with a preferred orientation and phase. Here, we study pulsed laser deposited (100) rutile titanium oxide (R-TiO{sub 2}) as a potential buffer layer candidate for ferroelectric PZT. For this purpose, the growth, morphology and the surface chemical composition of R-TiO{sub 2} films were analyzed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find optimally (100) oriented R-TiO{sub 2} growth on GaN (0002) using a 675 °C growth temperature and 2 Pa O{sub 2} deposition pressure as process conditions. More importantly, the R-TiO{sub 2} buffer layer grown on GaN/Si substrates prevents the unwanted formation of the PZT pyrochlore phase. Finally, the remnant polarization and coercive voltage of the PZT film on TiO{sub 2}/GaN/Si with an interdigitated-electrode structure were found to be 25.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and 8.1 V, respectively. - Highlights: • Epitaxial rutile TiO{sub 2} films were grown on GaN layer buffered Si substrate using pulsed laser deposition. • The rutile-TiO{sub 2} layer suppresses the formation of the pyrochlore phase in the epitaxial PZT film grown on GaN/Si. • An epitaxial PZT film on GaN/Si substrate with rutile TiO{sub 2} buffer layer exhibits good ferroelectric properties.

  11. The role of nanocrystalline titania coating on nanostructured austenitic stainless steel in enhancing osteoblasts functions for regeneration of tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, J.S.; Venkatsurya, P.K.C.; Thein-Han, W.W. [Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Research Laboratory, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Research Laboratory, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Pesacreta, T.C. [Department of Biology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 42451, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Somani, M.C.; Karjalainen, L.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2011-03-12

    In the context of osseointegration of metallic implants, while nanostructuring the surface favorably modulates cellular response, the disinfective attributes required during the healing process are not available. Thus, in the present study, we demonstrate that nanocrystalline titania provides cumulative benefit of enhancing osteoblasts functions to promote the efficacy of metal implants together with the disinfective attributes. To this end, the primary objective here is to examine the select functions of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) on electrocrystallized nanonodular titania-coated nanograined/ultrafine grained (NG/UFG) austenitic stainless steel. The accompanying objective is to study the disinfective/antimicrobial activity. To the best of our understanding this is the first study of nanophase titania on a non-titanium substrate. The osteoblasts functions were investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and quantitative analysis of proteins, actin and vinculin. In comparison to the bare NG/UFG substrate, the nanophase titania-coated substrate exhibited higher degree of cell attachment and proliferation which are regulated via cellular and molecular interactions with proteins, actin and vinculin. The enhanced functions of osteoblasts suggest that nanophase titania adsorbs extracellular matrix proteins, fibronectin and vitronectin from serum enhancing protein, with subsequent binding of integrins and osteoblasts precursor to titania. The antimicrobial attributes assessed in terms of degradation of methyl orange and effectiveness in killing E. coli supports the viewpoint that large surface area of titania would be instrumental in reducing the detrimental effect of biologically reactive oxygen species produced by macrophages in the vicinity of the metal bone/implant interface. In summary, the study provides some new insights concerning nanostructuring of metallic substrates with specific physical and surface properties for medical devices with

  12. Photocatalytic inactivation of hospital-associated bacteria using titania nanoparticle coated textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, T.; Qazi, I.A.; Hashmi, I.; Baig, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Modification in hospital textiles to include disinfection properties may help in the reduction of nosocomial infections. In this study, antibacterial properties were imparted to cotton fabric by modifying it with pure and (1%) silver doped titania nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by liquid impregnation process and characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). These nanoparticles were attached to cotton fabric using a cross linking agent succinic acid. Samples were washed at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 90 degree C), with and without detergent and for different number of cycles to test the durability of nanoparticles to the fabric. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used for studying surface topography of fabric. Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometer was used to detect the titanium present on the fabric. Catalytic spectrophotometry using UV/visible spectrophotometer was used to determine titania concentration in washing effluent. The antibacterial activity of the modified fabric was examined against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) under UV and fluorescent light. The maximum durability of titania nanoparticles to the fabric was retained after washing without detergent at 30 degree C. The overall results of durability testing showed that coating of nanoparticles on fabric was durable against washing at various conditions, hence suitable from an environmental perspective. Antibacterial testing showed 100% photocatalytic inactivation of MRSA after 4 and 24 h of UV and fluorescent light exposure respectively. The potential of using such textiles in hospital environment was validated through the use of modified bed linen in a local hospital for a period of three days consecutively. The viable count indicated the reduced bacterial contamination on nano-coated fabric as compared to uncoated fabric. Bed linen, curtains

  13. Influence of vanadium doping on the electrochemical behaviour of MnO{sub 2} rutile; Influence du dopage par le vanadium sur le comportement electrochimique de MnO{sub 2} rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Pessac (France). Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux; Capitaine, F.; Majastre [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Baudry, P. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1996-12-31

    Vanadium doped manganese bi-oxide has been obtained from a solution containing both cations. The X-ray diffraction of this material indicates a rutile-type phase but the enlargement of some lines supports the existence of several lattice defects. Also the particle size of the doped material is significantly smaller than the one of the non-doped material obtained in the same conditions. The presence of pentavalent vanadium inside the lattice leads to a small amount of trivalent manganese. Electron microscopy shows the existence of defects which have a tendency of becoming well-ordered and to stabilize a sur-structure. At ambient temperature, the electrochemical behaviour of doped manganese bi-oxide is greatly improved when compared to the non-doped phase. This behaviour is due to the presence of numerous lattice defects and to the smaller size of crystallites. In polymer batteries, the behaviour is similar the one of the non-doped material for which the kinetics performances are improved by the cycling at 100 deg. C. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  14. Influence of vanadium doping on the electrochemical behaviour of MnO{sub 2} rutile; Influence du dopage par le vanadium sur le comportement electrochimique de MnO{sub 2} rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Pessac (France). Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux; Capitaine, F; Majastre, [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Baudry, P [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    Vanadium doped manganese bi-oxide has been obtained from a solution containing both cations. The X-ray diffraction of this material indicates a rutile-type phase but the enlargement of some lines supports the existence of several lattice defects. Also the particle size of the doped material is significantly smaller than the one of the non-doped material obtained in the same conditions. The presence of pentavalent vanadium inside the lattice leads to a small amount of trivalent manganese. Electron microscopy shows the existence of defects which have a tendency of becoming well-ordered and to stabilize a sur-structure. At ambient temperature, the electrochemical behaviour of doped manganese bi-oxide is greatly improved when compared to the non-doped phase. This behaviour is due to the presence of numerous lattice defects and to the smaller size of crystallites. In polymer batteries, the behaviour is similar the one of the non-doped material for which the kinetics performances are improved by the cycling at 100 deg. C. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  15. An iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic study of titania-supported iron- and iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1992-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that titania-supported iron is reduced by treatment in hydrogen at significantly lower temperatures than corresponding silica- and alumina-supported catalysts. The metallic iron formed under hydrogen at 600deg C is partially converted to carbide by treatment in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In contrast to its alumina- and silica-supported counterparts, the remainder of the titania-supported iron is unchanged by this gaseous mixture. The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of EXAFS show that iron and iridium in the titania-supported iron-iridium catalysts are reduced in hydrogen at even lower temperatures and, after treatment at 600deg C, are predominantly present as the iron-iridium alloy. The treatment of these reduced catalysts in carbon monoxide and hydrogen is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy and EXAFS to induce the segregation of iron from the iron-iridium alloy and its conversion to iron oxide. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of sodium phenytoin co-gelled with titania for a controlled drug-release system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, T.; Quintana, P.; Ortiz-Islas, E.; Vinogradova, E.; Manjarrez, J.; Aguilar, D.H.; Castillo-Ocampo, P.; Magana, C.; Azamar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium phenytoin, C 15 H 11 N 2 NaO 2 , in several concentrations was co-gelled with titania (TiO 2 ), by a sol-gel process. This technique is a promising method to encapsulate several drugs, in this case, phenytoin is an anticonvulsant used to control epileptic seizures. Samples were prepared by adding different concentrations (X = 50, 100, 200 and 250 mg per 20 g of titania matrix) of sodium phenytoin (Ph) to a solution of titanium n-butoxide. The resulting titania-Ph-X materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface areas. The porous nanomaterials showed a wide range of particle size, from 10 to 210 nm, with a mean pore diameter of 5 nm. X-ray diffraction showed an amorphous structure of the prepared samples

  17. Template-free synthesis of two-dimensional titania/titanate nanosheets as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Hasi Rani; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Joo, Sang Woo

    2017-12-01

    Template-free two-dimensional (2D) titania/titanate nanosheets on Ti metal foil (TiNS/Ti) is prepared by a hydrothermal method at 150 °C assisted by KOH(aq.),followed by sintering at 500 °C. A single thin layer of TiNS is grown with 2D morphology when using low concentrations of KOH(aq.) (0.25 and 0.5 M). However, the morphology is transformed to 1D when using a high concentration of KOH(aq.). The TiNS is a mixture of rutile TiO2 and K-titanate (K2Ti3O7 and K2Ti2O5) with the formation of Ti3+ interstitials. The optimized TiNS/Ti electrode exhibits quasi-rectangular cyclic voltammograms (CVs) in a wide potential range. The specific capacitance (Cs) are 6.8 × 103 and 4.7 × 103 μF/cm2 according to the CV (scan rate, 5 mV/s) and charge-discharge measurements (CD, current density, 50 μA/cm2), respectively. These values are much higher than those reported for pure 0D and 1D TiO2 nanostructures.The higher Cs for the TiNS/Ti electrode can be ascribed to the increased rate of K+ intercalation and de-intercalation during charging and discharging, as well as enhanced conductivity enable by the K in the crystal lattice (10.30%) and Ti3+ interstitials (5.2%), respectively. The TiNS/Ti electrode shows excellent stability with the Cs retention of 89% even after 5000 CD cycles.

  18. Exsolution in niobian rutile from the pegmatite deposit at greenbushes, Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klementová, Mariana; Rieder, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2004), s. 1859-1870 ISSN 0008-4476 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/01/1126 Keywords : rutile * ferrocolumbite * ixiolite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2004

  19. Preparation and characterization of titania based nanowires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Večerníková, Eva; Šubrt, Jan; Balek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2007), s. 455-470 ISSN 1388-0764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/04/0467; GA MŠk 1M0577; GA MPO FD-K3/086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : anatase * rutile * sodium titanate Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.338, year: 2007

  20. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2, obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  1. On the determining role of network structure titania in silicone against bacterial colonization: Mechanism and disruption of biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Silicone-based biomedical devices are prone to microbial adhesion, which is the primary cause of concern in the functioning of the artificial device. Silicone exhibiting long-term and effective antibacterial ability is highly desirable to prevent implant related infections. In this regard, nanophase titania was incorporated in silicone as an integral part of the silicone network structure through cross-link mechanism, with the objective to reduce bacterial adhesion to a minimum. The bacterial adhesion was studied using crystal violet assay, while the mechanism of inhibition of biofilm formation was studied via electron microscopy. The incorporation of nanophase titania in silicone dramatically reduced the viability of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the capability to adhere on the surface of hybrid silicone by ∼ 93% in relation to stand alone silicone. The conclusion of dramatic reduction in the viability of S. aureus is corroborated by different experimental approaches including biofilm inhibition assay, zone of inhibition, and through a novel experiment that involved incubation of biofilm with titania nanoparticles. It is proposed that the mechanism of disruption of bacterial film in the presence of titania involves puncturing of the bacterial cell membrane. - Highlights: • Network structure titania in silicone imparts antimicrobial activity. • Ability to microbial adhesion is significantly reduced. • Antimicrobial mechanism involves rupture of biofilm

  2. Dispersed-nanoparticle loading synthesis for monodisperse Au-titania composite particles and their crystallization for highly active UV and visible photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nagao, Daisuke; Noba, Masahiro; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2014-06-24

    Submicrometer-sized amorphous titania spheres incorporating Au nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in a one-pot synthesis consisting of a sol-gel reaction of titanium(IV) isopropoxide in the presence of chloroauric acid and a successive reduction with sodium borohydride in a mixed solvent of ethanol/acetonitrile. The synthesis was allowed to prepare monodisperse titania spheres that homogeneously incorporated Au NPs with sizes of ca. 7 nm. The Au NP-loaded titania spheres underwent different crystallization processes, including 500 °C calcination in air, high-temperature hydrothermal treatment (HHT), and/or low-temperature hydrothermal treatment (LHT). Photocatalytic experiments were conducted with the Au NP-loaded crystalline titania spheres under irradiation of UV and visible light. A combined process of LHT at 80 °C followed by calcination at 500 °C could effectively crystallize titania spheres maintaining the dispersion state of Au NPs, which led to photocatalytic activity higher than that of commercial P25 under UV irradiation. Under visible light irradiation, the Au NP-titania spheres prepared with a crystallization process of LHT at 80 °C for 6 h showed photocatalytic activity much higher than a commercial product of visible light photocatalyst. Structure analysis of the visible light photocatalysts indicates the importance of prevention of the Au NPs aggregation in the crystallization processes for enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  3. Excited State Dynamics and Semiconductor-to-Metallic Phase Transition of VO2 Thin Film

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Huimin

    2004-01-01

    .... Vanadium dioxide shows an ultrafast, passive phase transition (PT) from a monoclinic semiconductor phase to a metallic tetragonal rutile structure when the sample temperature is above 68 degrees C...

  4. Optimizing sol-gel infiltration for the fabrication of high-quality titania inverse opal and its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weijie; Zou Bo; Zhao Jing; Cui Haining

    2010-01-01

    This article reports an optimized sol-gel opal infiltration technique for the fabrication of high-quality titania inverse opal. Different from previous reports, the presently proposed method is facile, efficient and suitable for other inorganic oxide. We have compared two different infiltration strategies and their influences on the structure, photonic properties and photocatalytic activity. The obtained titania inverse opal displays excellent photonic properties with photonic band gap at 320 nm and better photocatalytic effect, which is attributed to its high-quality inverse opal nanostructure. Reproducibility tests prove that the photocatalytic activity of the resultant titania inverse opal remains intact even after five repeated photocatalytic reactions under the same procedure and experimental conditions.

  5. Impedance response of carbon nanotube-titania electrodes dried under modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordenana-Martinez, A.S.; Rincon, M.E.; Vargas, M.; Ramos, E.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and impregnation of porous titania films by commercial multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanotube rich carbon soot are reported. The samples were dried under terrestrial gravity g and in a centrifuge accelerated at 13 g. X-Ray Diffraction data and Scanning Electron Microscopy images indicated differences in the crystal structure and tendency to agglomeration in both carbon types, providing different microstructures of functionally graded electrodes. Drying the samples in a centrifuge helps to the distribution of carbon nanoparticles and to the decrement of the impedance at the contact interfaces. The presence of titania weakens the differences observed in both drying protocols, but not the differences due to the carbon source. Superior capacitance and network conductivity were observed in electrodes based on commercial carbon nanotubes.

  6. Development of a dielectric ceramic based on diatomite-titania. Part one: powder preparation and sintering study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Elcio Correia de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents powder preparation and sintering experiments of a mixture diatomite-titania. X-ray diffraction, DTA, TGA as well as chemical and microstructural analyses were made. The sintering process was investigated as a function of sintering temperature and time, mass variation, linear shrinkage and activation energy. The results show that sintering of diatomite-titania could be described by a viscous flow mechanism.

  7. Titania nanotubes with adjustable dimensions for drug reservoir sites and enhanced cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çalışkan, Nazlı; Bayram, Cem; Erdal, Ebru; Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Denkbaş, Emir Baki, E-mail: denkbas@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to generate a bactericidal agent releasing surface via nanotube layer on titanium metal and to investigate how aspect ratio of nanotubes affects drug elution time and cell proliferation. Titania nanotube layers were generated on metal surfaces by anodic oxidation at various voltage and time parameters. Gentamicin loading was carried out via simple pipetting and the samples were tested against S. aureus for the efficacy of the applied modification. Drug releasing time and cell proliferation were also tested in vitro. Titania nanotube layers with varying diameters and lengths were prepared after anodization and anodizing duration was found as the most effective parameter for amount of loaded drug and drug releasing time. Drug elution lasted up to 4 days after anodizing for 80 min of the samples, whereas release completed in 24 h when the samples were anodized for 20 min. All processed samples had bactericidal properties against S. aureus organism except unmodified titanium, which was also subjected to drug incorporation step. The anodization also enhanced water wettability and cell adhesion results. Anodic oxidation is an effective surface modification to enhance tissue–implant interactions and also resultant titania layer can act as a drug reservoir for the release of bactericidal agents. The use of implants as local drug eluting devices is promising but further in vivo testing is required. - Highlights: • Titanium surfaces were anodized and a nanotubular titania layer was obtained. • Drug eluting time was found to be increasing with anodizaton time. • Varying nanotube diameters has no effect in drug elution time but amount of incorporated drug.

  8. Titania nanotubes with adjustable dimensions for drug reservoir sites and enhanced cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çalışkan, Nazlı; Bayram, Cem; Erdal, Ebru; Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to generate a bactericidal agent releasing surface via nanotube layer on titanium metal and to investigate how aspect ratio of nanotubes affects drug elution time and cell proliferation. Titania nanotube layers were generated on metal surfaces by anodic oxidation at various voltage and time parameters. Gentamicin loading was carried out via simple pipetting and the samples were tested against S. aureus for the efficacy of the applied modification. Drug releasing time and cell proliferation were also tested in vitro. Titania nanotube layers with varying diameters and lengths were prepared after anodization and anodizing duration was found as the most effective parameter for amount of loaded drug and drug releasing time. Drug elution lasted up to 4 days after anodizing for 80 min of the samples, whereas release completed in 24 h when the samples were anodized for 20 min. All processed samples had bactericidal properties against S. aureus organism except unmodified titanium, which was also subjected to drug incorporation step. The anodization also enhanced water wettability and cell adhesion results. Anodic oxidation is an effective surface modification to enhance tissue–implant interactions and also resultant titania layer can act as a drug reservoir for the release of bactericidal agents. The use of implants as local drug eluting devices is promising but further in vivo testing is required. - Highlights: • Titanium surfaces were anodized and a nanotubular titania layer was obtained. • Drug eluting time was found to be increasing with anodizaton time. • Varying nanotube diameters has no effect in drug elution time but amount of incorporated drug

  9. Volcano Relations for Oxidation of Hydrogen Halides over Rutile Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftelund, Anja; Man, Isabela C.; Hansen, Heine A.

    2012-01-01

    over a range of different rutile oxide surfaces. Based on the scaling relations, two descriptors are identified that describe the reactions uniquely. By combining scaling with the micro-kinetic model, activity volcanoes for the three different oxidation reactions are derived. It is found...

  10. Synthesis, characterizations and photocatalytic studies of mesoporous titania prepared by using four plant skins as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao Yingchun [Department of Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Faculty of Chemical and Life Sciences, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655000 (China); Zhai Zhongbiao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Kunming Metallurgy Research Institute, Kunming 650031 (China); He Jiao; Li Bin; Li Junjie [Department of Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Wang Jiaqiang, E-mail: jqwang@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2010-07-20

    Anatase mesoporous titania with novel morphologies were synthesized by using the skins of tomatoes, bulb onions, grapes, and garlic bulbs, respectively, as templates and used for the photodegradation of Gentian violet, methyl violet, xylenol orange, and Rhodamine B under UV light. The samples were characterized by a combination of various physicochemical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, SEM, HRTEM, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis, and FT-IR. It was found that all of the synthesized mesoporous titania samples exhibited similar morphologies to those of the original templates. The photoactivity of P25 TiO{sub 2} for the four dyes is nearly the same while the mesoporous titania samples synthesized by using the four skins as templates exhibited varied photoactivities for the four dyes.

  11. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol through a microporous support, gelation and sintering to desired temperature.

  12. Surface speciation of yttrium and neodymium sorbed on rutile: Interpretations using the charge distribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Moira K.; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J.; van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2012-10-01

    The adsorption of Y3+ and Nd3+ onto rutile has been evaluated over a wide range of pH (3-11) and surface loading conditions, as well as at two ionic strengths (0.03 and 0.3 m), and temperatures (25 and 50 °C). The experimental results reveal the same adsorption behavior for the two trivalent ions onto the rutile surface, with Nd3+ first adsorbing at slightly lower pH values. The adsorption of both Y3+ and Nd3+ commences at pH values below the pHznpc of rutile. The experimental results were evaluated using a charge distribution (CD) and multisite complexation (MUSIC) model, and Basic Stern layer description of the electric double layer (EDL). The coordination geometry of possible surface complexes were constrained by molecular-level information obtained from X-ray standing wave measurements and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies. X-ray standing wave measurements showed an inner-sphere tetradentate complex for Y3+ adsorption onto the (1 1 0) rutile surface (Zhang et al., 2004b). The MD simulation studies suggest additional bidentate complexes may form. The CD values for all surface species were calculated based on a bond valence interpretation of the surface complexes identified by X-ray and MD. The calculated CD values were corrected for the effect of dipole orientation of interfacial water. At low pH, the tetradentate complex provided excellent fits to the Y3+ and Nd3+ experimental data. The experimental and surface complexation modeling results show a strong pH dependence, and suggest that the tetradentate surface species hydrolyze with increasing pH. Furthermore, with increased surface loading of Y3+ on rutile the tetradentate binding mode was augmented by a hydrolyzed-bidentate Y3+ surface complex. Collectively, the experimental and surface complexation modeling results demonstrate that solution chemistry and surface loading impacts Y3+ surface speciation. The approach taken of incorporating molecular-scale information into surface complexation models

  13. The effect of the deposition parameters on size, distribution and antimicrobial properties of photoinduced silver nanoparticles on titania coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonski, Ireneusz, E-mail: irek@uni.lodz.pl [University of Lodz, Department of Technology and Chemistry of Materials, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Kadziola, Kinga; Kisielewska, Aneta; Soliwoda, Katarzyna [University of Lodz, Department of Technology and Chemistry of Materials, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Wolszczak, Marian [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz (Poland); Lisowska, Katarzyna; Wronska, Natalia; Felczak, Aleksandra [University of Lodz, Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Pilarskiego 14/16, 90-231 Lodz (Poland)

    2011-06-01

    Controlled photodeposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on titania coatings using two different sources of UV light is described. Titania (anatase) thin films were prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating method on silicon wafers. AgNPs were grown on the titania surface as a result of UV illumination of titania films immersed in aqueous solutions of silver nitrate. UV xenon lamp or excimer laser, both operating at the wavelength 351 {+-} 5 nm, was used as illumination sources. The AFM topography of AgNP/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites revealed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by both sources of illumination, however the photocatalysis carried out by UV light from xenon lamp illumination leads to larger AgNP than those synthesized using the laser beam. It was found that the increasing concentration of silver ions in the initial solution increases the number of Ag nanoparticles on the titania surface, while longer time of irradiation results the growth of larger size nanoparticles. Antibacterial tests performed on TiO{sub 2} covered by Ag nanoparticles revealed that increasing density of nanoparticles enhances the inhibition of bacterial growth. It was also found that antibacterial activity drops by only 10-15% after 6 cycles compared to the initial use.

  14. The effect of the deposition parameters on size, distribution and antimicrobial properties of photoinduced silver nanoparticles on titania coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwonski, Ireneusz; Kadziola, Kinga; Kisielewska, Aneta; Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Wolszczak, Marian; Lisowska, Katarzyna; Wronska, Natalia; Felczak, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Controlled photodeposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on titania coatings using two different sources of UV light is described. Titania (anatase) thin films were prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating method on silicon wafers. AgNPs were grown on the titania surface as a result of UV illumination of titania films immersed in aqueous solutions of silver nitrate. UV xenon lamp or excimer laser, both operating at the wavelength 351 ± 5 nm, was used as illumination sources. The AFM topography of AgNP/TiO 2 nanocomposites revealed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by both sources of illumination, however the photocatalysis carried out by UV light from xenon lamp illumination leads to larger AgNP than those synthesized using the laser beam. It was found that the increasing concentration of silver ions in the initial solution increases the number of Ag nanoparticles on the titania surface, while longer time of irradiation results the growth of larger size nanoparticles. Antibacterial tests performed on TiO 2 covered by Ag nanoparticles revealed that increasing density of nanoparticles enhances the inhibition of bacterial growth. It was also found that antibacterial activity drops by only 10-15% after 6 cycles compared to the initial use.

  15. UV-Irradiated Photocatalytic Degradation of Nitrobenzene by Titania Binding on Quartz Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thou-Jen Whang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for UV-irradiated degradation of nitrobenzene by titania photocatalysts was proposed, titania nanoparticles were coated on a quartz tube through the introduction of tetraethyl orthosilicate into the matrix. The dependence of nitrobenzene photodegradation on pH, temperature, concentration, and air feeding was discussed, and the physical properties such as the activation energy, entropy, enthalpy, adsorption constant, and rate constant were acquired by conducting the reactions in a variety of experimental conditions. The optimum efficiency of the photodegradation with the nitrobenzene residue as low as 8.8% was achieved according to the experimental conditions indicated. The photodegradation pathways were also investigated through HPLC, GC/MS, ion chromatography (IC, and chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses.

  16. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in water: Influence of pulse energy and duration on the crystalline phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, E., E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC) CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Muniz Miranda, M.; Caporali, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Canton, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari, Via Torino, 30170 Venezia-Mestre (Italy); Marsili, P. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC) CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Vergari, C.; Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Laser ablation of Ti in water at 1064 nm and comparison of ns and ps temporal regimes. • Structural and spectroscopic characterization of the colloids: TiO{sub 2} is the predominant phase. • Determination of an energy window where ps ablation produces more anatase than rutile. • Modelling of the experimental dependence of anatase/rutile yield on pulse length and energy. - Abstract: We fabricated Ti oxide nanoparticles by laser ablation of a Ti target in doubly deionized water with ps or ns pulses at a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. Electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that, while with ns pulses the dominant oxide phase is rutile, with ps pulses anatase is the most abundant form in an intermediate energy window centered around 25 mJ per pulse. This experimental behavior can be described by a theoretical model which calculates the pressure and temperature evolution of the ablated material and, from this, the rutile and anatase yield.

  17. Phase stability of TiO2 polymorphs from diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Ye; Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Krogel, Jaron T; Heinonen, Olle; Kent, Paul R C

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide, TiO 2 , has multiple applications in catalysis, energy conversion and memristive devices because of its electronic structure. Most of these applications utilize the naturally existing phases: rutile, anatase and brookite. Despite the simple form of TiO 2 and its wide uses, there is long-standing disagreement between theory and experiment on the energetic ordering of these phases that has never been resolved. We present the first analysis of phase stability at zero temperature using the highly accurate many-body fixed node diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. We also include the effects of temperature by calculating the Helmholtz free energy including both internal energy and vibrational contributions from density functional perturbation theory based quasi harmonic phonon calculations. Our QMC calculations find that anatase is the most stable phase at zero temperature, consistent with many previous mean-field calculations. However, at elevated temperatures, rutile becomes the most stable phase. For all finite temperatures, brookite is always the least stable phase. (paper)

  18. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, T.J.; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx), obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, ...

  19. FP-LAPW Calculations of the EFG at Cd Impurities in Rutile SnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errico, L. A.; Fabricius, G.; Renteria, M. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP-CONICET) - Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2001-11-15

    We report an ab initio study of the electric-field gradient (EFG) at Cd impurities located at the cation site in the semiconductor SnO{sub 2}(rutile phase). The study was performed with the WIEN97 implementation of the FP-LAPW method. In order to simulate the diluted Cd-impurity in the SnO{sub 2} host and to calculate the electronic structure of the system we used a 72-atoms super-cell, studying the relaxation introduced by the impurity in the lattice. The free-relaxation process performed shows that the relaxations of the oxygen nearest-neighbors of the impurity are not isotropic. Our prediction for the EFG tensor are compared with experimental results and point-charge model predictions.

  20. Effect of titania on the characteristics of a Tin-Platinum catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Gil, P., E-mail: moralesp@imp.mx; Nava, N. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (Mexico); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Pt-Sn bimetallic catalysts dispersed on alumina are commonly used for reforming and dehydrogenation reactions. In this research work, Pt and Sn were supported on titania. The resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples, before and after treatment with hydrogen, were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. The results show the presence of Pt and SnO{sub 2} after calcinations. After the reduction process, metallic Pt, PtSn, and Pt{sub 3}Sn alloys were identified. The Rietveld refinement analysis shows that some Ti{sup 4+} atoms were replaced by Sn{sup 4+} atoms in the titania structure. Finally, the Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results indicate that metallic platinum and SnO{sub 2} are encapsulated by a TiOx layer.

  1. Structure and Optical Properties of Titania-PDMS Hybrid Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Non-Aqueous Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine R. M. Dalod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are attractive due to the combination of properties from the two distinct types of materials. In this work, transparent titania-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid materials with up to 15.5 vol. % TiO2 content were prepared by an in situ non-aqueous method using titanium (IV isopropoxide and hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane as precursors. Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared, Raman, Ultraviolet-visible, ellipsometry and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis allowed to describe in detail the structure and the optical properties of the nanocomposites. Titanium alkoxide was successfully used as a cross-linker and titania-like nanodomains with an average size of approximately 4 nm were shown to form during the process. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites exhibit high transparency and tunable refractive index from 1.42 up to 1.56, depending on the titania content.

  2. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol through a microporous support, gelation and sintering to desired temperature. The binder plays ...

  3. Cyto-genotoxic and DNA methylation changes induced by different crystal phases of TiO{sub 2}-np in bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Manosij, E-mail: gmanosij@gmail.com [K.U.Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Öner, Deniz; Duca, Radu-Corneliu [K.U.Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Cokic, Stevan M. [Department of Oral Health Sciences, KU Leuven BIOMAT, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Seys, Sven [K.U.Leuven, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Leuven (Belgium); Kerkhofs, Stef [Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200f, Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Van Landuyt, Kirsten [Department of Oral Health Sciences, KU Leuven BIOMAT, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Hoet, Peter [K.U.Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Godderis, Lode, E-mail: lode.godderis@med.kuleuven.be [K.U.Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Idewe, External Service for Prevention and Protection at Work, B-3001, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of TiO{sub 2}-np. • TiO{sub 2}-np induces cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. • Anatase form induces more cyto-genotoxic effect compared to rutile and anatase-rutile mixture. • Significant hypomethylation were observed at for anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture. - Abstract: With the increase in use of TiO{sub 2}-np, a better understanding of their safety is important. In the present study the effect of different crystal phases of TiO{sub 2}-np (anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture; 20–26 nm) were studied for cyto-genotoxicity and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Cytotoxic response was observed at a concentration of 25 μg/ml for the particles tested. Results of comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of these particles. Flow cytometry revealed cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Based on the results, toxicity of the particles could be correlated with their physico-chemical properties (i.e. smaller size and hydrodynamic diameter and larger surface area), anatase form being the most toxic. From the results of the cyto-genotoxicity assays, concentrations were determined for the epigenetic study. Effect on global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels were studied at cyto-genotoxic (25 μg/ml), genotoxic (12.5 μg/ml) and sub cyto-genotoxic (3.25 μg/ml) concentrations using LC–MS/MS analysis. Though no significant changes were observed for 3 h treatment schedule; significant hypomethylation were observed at 24 h for anatase (significant at 3.25 and 25 μg/ml), rutile (significant at 3.25 and 25 μg/ml) and anatase: rutile mixture (significant at 25 μg/ml) forms. The results suggest that epigenetic changes could occur at sub cyto-genotoxic concentrations. And hence for complete characterization of nanoparticle toxicity, epigenetic studies should be performed along with

  4. Assessment of antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of orthodontic stainless steel brackets coated with different phases of titanium oxide: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Roshen Daniel; Subramaniam, Siva; Arumugam, Ilakkiya; Padmanabhan, Sridevi

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of orthodontic stainless steel brackets coated with different phases of photocatalytic titanium oxide. From a total sample of 115 brackets, 68 orthodontic stainless steel brackets were coated with titanium oxide using a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering machine. The coated brackets were then converted into 34 each of the anatase and rutile phases of titanium oxide. These brackets were subdivided into 4 groups for antibacterial study and 3 groups for cytotoxicity study. Brackets for the antibacterial study were assessed against the Streptococcus mutans species using microbiologic tests. Three groups for the cytotoxicity study were assessed using the thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The antibacterial study showed that both phases were effective, but the rutile phase of photocatalytic titanium oxide had a greater bactericidal effect than did the anatase phase. The cytotoxicity study showed that the rutile phase had a greater decrease in viability of cells compared with the anatase phase. It is recommended that orthodontic brackets be coated with the anatase phase of titanium oxide since they exhibited a significant antibacterial property and were only slightly cytotoxic. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies of Dye Sensitisation Kinetics and Sorption Isotherms of Direct Red 23 on Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Holliman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption kinetics and isotherms have been measured for a commercial dye (Direct Red 23 on different samples of powdered Titania, and the data were analysed to better understand the dye sensitization process for dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs. For the sorption kinetics, the data show rapid initial sorption (<1 hour followed by slower rate of increasing uptake between 1 and 24 hours. While higher initial concentrations of dye correspond to higher sorption overall, less dye is absorbed from higher initial dye concentrations when considered as percentage uptake. The correlation between the sorption data and model isotherms has been considered with time. The Langmuir model shows better correlations compared to the Freundlich isotherm. The dye uptake data has also been correlated with Titania characterization data (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, BET and zero point charge analysis. Kinetic data show significantly better fits to second-order models compared to first order. This suggests that chemisorption is taking place and that the interaction between the dye sorbate and the Titania sorbent involves electron sharing to form an ester bond.

  6. Effect of solution composition on anatase to rutile transformation of sprayed TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juma, Albert Owino, E-mail: albert.juma@ttu.ee [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Acik, Ilona Oja [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Mikli, Valdek [Chair of Semiconductor Materials Technology, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Mere, Arvo; Krunks, Malle [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2015-11-02

    Acetylacetone is used as a chelating agent for titanium(IV) isopropoxide to inhibit hydrolysis and stabilize the precursor solution. The effect of the molar ratio between titanium(IV) isopropoxide and acetylacetone of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 in the precursor solution on the morphological, structural and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin film was investigated. These properties were studied using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV–vis spectroscopy as a function of the molar ratios for the as-deposited thin films and films annealed at temperatures of 700, 800 and 950 °C. Mixed anatase and rutile phases were detected after annealing at 800 °C for 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios and at 700 °C for 1:3 and 1:4 molar ratios. The optical band gap decreased from 3.45 to 3.02 eV with an increase in the annealing temperature in agreement with corresponding structural changes. - Highlights: • The grain sizes of TiO{sub 2} thin films could be varied over the range of 20 to 210 nm. • TTIP and AcacH ratio affects the transformation process from anatase to rutile. • TiO{sub 2} bandgap decreased from 3.45 to 3.02 eV with an increase in annealing temperature.

  7. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon–titania nanocomposite films as solar selective absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B.; Wang, K.K.; Wang, K.P.; Li, M.; Jiang, W.; Cong, B.J.; Song, C.L.; Jia, S.H.; Han, G.R.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposites porous C/TiO 2 film were fabricated via PIPS method. • The HRTEM reveals the size of carbon nanoparticles is about 1.1 nm. • The PVP advantages residual carbon content but suppresses its crystallization. • The film exhibits high α (0.928–0.959) with low ε (0.074–0.105) for single layer. - Abstract: Newly proposed selective solar absorbers of porous carbon–titania nanocomposite films with a well-defined interconnected macropores structure were prepared via a polymer-assisted photopolymerization-induced phase-separation method. The microstructure and optical properties of as-deposited nanocomposite films were characterized and discussed in detail. The results show that non-ionic water-soluble polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone works as a sol modifier advantaging the mean size of the interconnected macropores, residual carbon content, and films thickness, but suppresses the order degree of the carbon remained in the films. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that a small amount of graphite particles with size of around 1.1 nm embedded in the cavity of the porous while the wall of the porous consists of amorphous carbon and titania composites. The single layer of as-prepared porous C/TiO 2 nanocomposite films exhibits high solar absorptance (α = 0.928–0.959) with low thermal emittance (ε = 0.074–0.105), yielding an optimized photothermal conversion efficiency η = α − ε of 0.864 corresponding to a film thickness of around 338 nm, indication of such film is fair enough to serve as an excellent solar absorber

  8. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous nanocrystalline Fe-doped titanium dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Synthesis of mesoporous nanocrystalline iron-doped titania following the sol-gel method is presented in this work. Samples with various molar ratios (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20%) of Fe to Ti were prepared. The particle size was found to be in the range of ∼12 nm while mesopores were approximately near to ∼5.5 nm. The effect of Fe as doping element on titania properties, such as crystallite size, surface area, pore size, pore volume and d-spacing was investigated. Moreover, distribution of Fe in TiO2 matrix was determined by elemental mapping whereas change in absorption properties was evaluated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. It was observed that as the Fe content was increased, a partial phase transformation from anatase to rutile and pseudorutile took place. Effect of ultraviolet, ultraviolet-visible and visible radiations on the photocatalytic activity of these catalysts was studied by removal of Methyl Orange as model pollutant. As results, it was found that the photocatalytic activity of such catalysts depends strongly on Fe amount and type of radiation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Structural and vibrational investigations of Nb-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyanga, E.; Gibaud, A.; Daniel, P.; Sangaa, D.; Sevjidsuren, G.; Altantsog, P.; Beuvier, T.; Lee, Chih Hao; Balagurov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the evolutions of structure for TiO 2 thin film as changes with Nb doping and temperatures. • Up to 800 °C, the grain size of Nb 0.1 Ti 0.9 O 2 is smaller than for pure TiO 2 because doped Nb hinders the growth of the TiO 2 grains. • There was no formation of the rutile phase at high temperature. • Nb doped TiO 2 films have high electron densities at 400–700 °C. • Nb dope extends the absorbance spectra of TiO 2 which leads to the band gap reduce. - Abstract: Acid-catalyzed sol–gel and spin-coating methods were used to prepare Nb-doped TiO 2 thin film. In this work, we studied the effect of niobium doping on the structure, surface, and absorption properties of TiO 2 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy at various annealing temperatures. EDX spectra show that the Nb:Ti atomic ratios of the niobium-doped titania films are in good agreement with the nominal values (5 and 10%). XPS results suggest that charge compensation is achieved by the formation of Ti vacancies. Specific niobium phases are not observed, thus confirming that niobium is well incorporated into the titania crystal lattice. Thin films are amorphous at room temperature and the formation of anatase phase appeared at an annealing temperature close to 400 °C. The rutile phase was not observed even at 900 °C (XRD and Raman spectroscopy). Grain sizes and electron densities increased when the temperature was raised. Nb-doped films have higher electron densities and lower grain sizes due to niobium doping. Grain size inhibition can be explained by lattice stress induced by the incorporation of larger Nb 5+ ions into the lattice. The band gap energy of indirect transition of the TiO 2 thin films was calculated to be about 3.03 eV. After niobium doping, it decreased to 2.40 eV

  10. [Synthesis of hollow titania microspheres by using microfluidic droplet-template].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyun; Jiang, Lei; Qin, Jianhu

    2011-09-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics is of great interest due to its particular characteristics compared with the conventional methods, such as reduced reagent consumption, rapid mixing, high-throughput, shape controlled, etc. A novel method using microfluidic droplet as soft template for the synthesis of hollow titania microspheres was developed. A typical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device containing "flow-focusing" geometry was used to generate water/oil (W/O) droplet. The mechanism for the hollow structure formation was based on the interfacial hydrolysis reaction between the continuous phase containing titanium butoxide precursor and the dispersed containing water. The continuous phase mixed with butanol was added in the downstream of the channel after the hydrolysis reaction. This step was used for drawing the water out of the microgels for further hydrolysis. The microgels obtained through a glass pipe integrated were washed, dried under vacuum and calcined after aging for a certain time. The fluorescence and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the microspheres indicated the hollow structure and the thickness of the shell. In addition, these microspheres with thin shell (about 2 microm) were apt to rupture and collapse. Droplet-based microfluidic offered a gentle and size-controllable manner to moderate this problem. Moreover, it has potential applications in photocatalysis combined with some modification realized on the chip simultaneously.

  11. Measurement of 238U and 232Th radionuclides in ilmenite and synthetic rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, M. I.; Siong, K. K.; Fadzil, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The only factory that currently processes ilmenite to produce synthetic rutile is Tor Minerals in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. These two minerals contain radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium. Furthermore, this factory was built close to the residential areas. Thus, the primary issues are radiation exposure attributed to the decay of the radionuclides. Hence, the objectives of this study are to measure the dose and to evaluate activity levels of uranium and thorium. Dose rates from surrounding area of factory indicate the normal range for both on the surface and 1 meter above the ground (0.3-0.7 μSv/hr) lower than the global range of 0.5-1.3 μSv/hr set by UNSCEAR. The mean activity levels of uranium and thorium for ilmenite are 235 Bq/kg and 503 Bq/kg while for synthetic rutile are 980 Bq/kg and 401 Bq/kg, respectively. The result shows that uranium activity levels of synthetic rutile is 4 times higher than ilmenite but it is still lower than the regulatory exemption limit of 1000 Bq/kg set by IAEA Basic Safety Standards. Even though the dose rates at the factory and the activity levels are within safe limits, safety precautions must be followed by the factory management to prevent any unwanted accident to occur.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of titania powders and their photocatalyc properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Houšková, Vendula

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2008), s. 278-290 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : anatase * rutile * hydrothermal synthesis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.644, year: 2008

  13. Fabrication of porous silver/titania composite hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sa; Halperin, Shakked O.; Wang, Chang-An

    2015-01-01

    Silver/titania composite hollow spheres were first synthesized through an in-situ chemical reaction using functional-grouped carbon spheres as the template in this study. The prepared samples were characterized through an X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of Methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution at ambient temperature under UV light. We found a structure with an optimal Ag:TiO 2 composition that exhibited a photodecomposition rate constant more than twice as high as titania hollow spheres lacking silver, and over three times higher than a commercial photocatalyst. - Highlights: • Ag/silver composites. • Hollow spheres. • Photocatalysis enhancement

  14. Gas sensor based on photoconductive electrospun titania nanofibres operating at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampetti, E., E-mail: emiliano.zampetti@artov.imm.cnr.it; Macagnano, A.; Bearzotti, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR IMM) (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    An important drawback of semiconductor gas sensors is their operating temperature that needs the use of heaters. To overcome this problem a prototyping sensor using titania nanofibres (with an average diameter of 50 nm) as sensitive membrane were fabricated by electrospinning directly on the transducer of the sensor. Exploiting the effect of titania photoconductivity, resistance variations upon gas interaction under continuous irradiation of ultra violet light were measured at room temperature. The resistive sensor response was evaluated towards ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and humidity. The sensor exhibited a higher response to ammonia than to nitrogen dioxide, especially for concentrations larger than 100 ppb. For 200 ppb of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide, the responses were {approx}2.8 and 1.5 %, respectively.

  15. Soft template strategy to synthesize iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joohyun; Um, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Jihoon; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2015-05-18

    Yolk-shell-structured nanoparticles with iron oxide core, void, and a titania shell configuration are prepared by a simple soft template method and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. The iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles (IO@void@TNPs) exhibit a higher and more stable capacity than simply mixed nanoparticles of iron oxide and hollow titania because of the unique structure obtained by the perfect separation between iron oxide nanoparticles, in combination with the adequate internal void space provided by stable titania shells. Moreover, the structural effect of IO@void@TNPs clearly demonstrates that the capacity retention value after 50 cycles is approximately 4 times that for IONPs under harsh operating conditions, that is, when the temperature is increased to 80 °C. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Magnetic behaviour of arrays of Ni nanowires by electrodeposition into self-aligned titania nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prida, V.M.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Cervera, M.; Pirota, K.; Sanz, R.; Navas, D.; Asenjo, A.; Aranda, P.; Ruiz-Hitzky, E.; Batallan, F.; Vazquez, M.; Hernando, B.; Menendez, A.; Bordel, N.; Pereiro, R.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of Ni nanowires electrodeposited into self-aligned and randomly disordered titania nanotube arrays grown by anodization process are investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM, rf-GDOES and VSM magnetometry. The titania nanotube outer diameter is about 160 nm, wall thickness ranging from 60 to 70 nm and 300 nm in depth. The so-obtained Ni nanowires reach above 100 nm diameter and 240 nm length, giving rise to coercive fields of 98 and 200 Oe in the perpendicular or parallel to the nanowires axis hysteresis loops, respectively. The formation of magnetic vortex domain states is also discussed

  17. Comparative studies of photoelectrochemical behaviours of rutile and anatase electrodes prepared by OMCVD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minoura, H; Nasu, M; Takahashi, Y

    1985-10-01

    Photoelectrochemical behaviours of two kinds of polymorphic form of TiO2, rutile and anatase, prepared by the organometallic chemical vapour deposition from isopropyl titanate have been comparatively studied. Photoelectrochemical characteristics of these TiO2 electrodes depend strongly upon the crystal structure and the deposition temperature. Their bandgap energies have been determined to be 3.0 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively, by the analysis of the photocurrent action spectra. The conduction band-edge and the valence band-edge of the anatase electrode, which have been estimated from photocurrent-potential curves, locate at the energy level about 0.1 eV higher and lower, respectively, than those of the rutile electrode. (orig.).

  18. Enhanced visible-light activity of titania via confinement inside carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2011-09-28

    Titania confined inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was synthesized using a restrained hydrolysis method. Raman spectra and magnetic measurements using a SQUID magnetometer suggested the formation of remarkable oxygen vacancies over the encapsulated TiO 2 in comparison with nanoparticles dispersed on the outer surface of CNTs, extending the photoresponse of TiO 2 from the UV to the visible-light region. The CNT-confined TiO 2 exhibited improved visible-light activity in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) relative to the outside titania and commercial P25, which is attributed to the modification of the electronic structure of TiO 2 induced by the unique confinement inside CNTs. These results provide further insight into the effect of confinement within CNTs, and the composites are expected to be promising for applications in visible-light photocatalysis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. [11]Anthrahelicene on TiO2 surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Godlewski, S.; Prauzner-Bechcicki, J. S.; Budzioch, J.; Walczak, L.; Stará, Irena G.; Starý, Ivo; Sehnal, Petr; Szymonski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 606, 21/22 (2012), s. 1600-1607 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2207 Grant - others:Polish Ministry of Science nad Higher Education (PL) NN202 180238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : [11] anthrahelicene * chiral molecules * LT-STM * LT-ncAFM * rutile titania Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2012

  20. Micro-Arc oxidation of Ti in a solution of sulfuric acid and Ti+3 salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragalevicius, Rimas; Stalnionis, Giedrius; Niaura, Gediminas; Jagminas, Arunas

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was performed on the behavior of titanium electrode in a sulfuric acid solution with and without Ti +3 during micro-arc oxidation under the constant current density control regime. The composition and microstructure of the obtained micro-arc films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, glancing-angle X-ray diffractometry, Raman and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. We have shown that addition of a Ti +3 salt extends the region of current densities (j a ) can be used for micro-arc oxidation of Ti and results in an obvious change of sparking behavior from extensive, large and long-played sparks to numerous, small and short sparks. As a consequence, the titania films formed in the Ti +3 -containing solutions are relatively thick, more uniform, composed of almost pure crystalline anatase and rutile phases of TiO 2 , and contain a network of evenly distributed small pores. It has also been shown that these films are promising for applications in catalysis, sensors and optoelectronics. The Raman spectra indicate that an increase in the electrolysis time of titanium in the Ti +3 -containing solution leads to the increase in rutile content, as expected

  1. On the relationship between rutile/anatase ratio and the nature of defect states in sub-100 nm TiO2 nanostructures: experimental insights

    KAUST Repository

    Soliman, Moamen M.

    2018-02-02

    Black TiO2 is being widely investigated due to its superior optical activity and potential applications in photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Herein, the limitations of the hydrogenation process of TiO2 nanostructures are unraveled by exploiting the fundamental tradeoffs affecting the overall efficiency of the water splitting process. To control the nature and concentration of defect states, different reduction rates are applied to sub-100 nm TiO2 nanotubes, chosen primarily for their superiority over their long counterparts. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy disclosed changes in the stoichiometry of TiO2 with the reduction rate. UV-vis and Raman spectra showed that high reduction rates promote the formation of the rutile phase in TiO2, which is inactive towards water splitting. Furthermore, electrochemical analysis revealed that such high rates induce a higher concentration of localized electronic defect states that hinder the water splitting performance. Finally, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) highlighted the optimum reduction rate that attains a relatively lower defect concentration as well as lower rutile content, thereby achieving the highest conversion efficiency.

  2. Electron-irradiation induced changes in the phases and photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapnar, K.B.; Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N., E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-04-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phases of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been changed by electron irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} gets enhanced after electron irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The brookite phase has appeared in TiO{sub 2} after electron irradiation. - Abstract: Samples of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, with mixed anatase and rutile phases, were irradiated with 6.5 MeV electrons at fluences, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} e cm{sup -2} and characterized by several methods. With increasing electron fluence, a continuous decrease in the average particle size from {approx}80 nm to around 30 nm were observed along with a decrease in the rutile and the anatase phases of TiO{sub 2}, but at different rates, and growth of the TiO{sub 2} brookite phase at slow rate. The photocatalytic activities of different electron irradiated TiO{sub 2} samples, in the photodegradation of methylene blue, were studied by recording UV-Vis absorption spectra of the respective solutions. On electron irradiation, even though the rutile phase in the TiO{sub 2} was decreasing, the photocatalytic activity of the nanoparticles increased continuously with fluence up to {approx}3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} e cm{sup -2}, but decreased at 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} e cm{sup -2}. The energy levels introduced by the brookite phase and the electron induced defects in TiO{sub 2} could have effectively reduced the electron-hole recombination rate in the absence of the rutile phase. The observed enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of the irradiated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the formation of small size particles, the introduction of the oxygen related vacancies and other defects, the growth of the brookite phase, and increased absorption of radiation over the ultraviolet and visible range.

  3. Modification of the microstructure and electronic properties of rutile TiO_2 thin films with 79 MeV Br ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Haripriya; Dash, P.; Singh, U.P.; Avasthi, D.K.; Kanjilal, D.; Mishra, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Modifications induced by 79 MeV Br ions in rutile titanium dioxide thin films, synthesized by dc magnetron sputtering are presented. Irradiations did not induce any new XRD peak corresponding to any other phase. The area and the width of the XRD peaks were considerably affected by irradiation, and peaks shifted to lower angles. But the samples retained their crystallinity at the highest fluence (1 × 10"1"3 ions cm"−"2) of irradiation even though the electronic energy loss of 79 MeV Br ions far exceeds the reported threshold value for amorphization of rutile TiO_2. Fitting of the fluence dependence of the XRD peak area to Poisson equation yielded the radius of ion tracks as 2.4 nm. Ion track radius obtained from the simulation based on the thermal spike model matches closely with that obtained from the fluence dependence of the area under XRD peaks. Williamson–Hall analysis of the XRD spectra indicated broadening and shifting of the peaks are a consequence of irradiation induced defect accumulation leading to microstrains, as was also indicated by Raman and UV–Visible absorption study.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and performance of NiMo catalysts supported on titania modified alumina for the hydroprocessing of different gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, D.; Bakhshi, N.N.; Dalai, A.K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reactor Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Sask. (Canada); Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton Research Center, No. 9421, 17th Avenue, Edmonton, Alta. (Canada)

    2007-03-08

    In this work, a series of NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared using different Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supports modified by titania (0-9 wt%). All modified supports and fresh catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, pore volume and pore diameter measurement, TPR, TPD, XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy analyses. The initial activity of these catalysts were tested in a trickle-bed reactor using three different gas oils such as light gas oil (LGO), blended gas oil (blended: 50% LGO and 50% HGO) and heavy gas oil (HGO), all derived from Athabasca bitumen. Little structural change in alumina was observed with the incorporation of titania. XRD analysis showed the well dispersion of Ni and Mo on the support. Titania in alumina increased the formation of polymolybdenum oxide on the catalyst as evident from TPR and Raman analyses. Weak-intermediate-strong acid sites on the catalyst were observed at all titania concentrations. The Lewis and Bronsted acidity on the catalyst surface increased with the increase in titania concentration from 0 to 9 wt%. Nitrogen conversion increased from 57 to 71 wt%, from 83 to 93 wt% and from 75 to 80 wt% for LGO, blended and HGO, respectively and also sulfur conversion of LGO increased from 86 to 92 wt% when titania concentration was increased from 0 to 9 wt%. For blended and HGO, sulfur conversion was in the range 96-99 wt% at all titania concentrations. (author)

  5. Silica sacrificial layer-assisted in-plane incorporation of Au nanoparticles into mesoporous titania thin films through different reduction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Peng; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Liu, Chia-Hung; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2013-06-28

    This study focuses on the incorporation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) into our previously synthesized mesoporous titania thin films consisting of titania nanopillars and inverse mesospace (C. W. Wu, T. Ohsuna, M. Kuwabara and K. Kuroda, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 4544-4545, denoted as MTTFs). Recently, mesoporous titania materials doped with noble metals such as gold have attracted considerable attention because noble metals can enhance the efficiency of mesoporous titania-based devices. In this research, we attempted to use four different reduction methods (i.e., thermal treatment, photo irradiation, liquid immersion, and vapor contacting) to introduce gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) into MTTFs. The synthesized Au@MTTFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We further systematically investigated the formation mechanism of gold nanoparticles on the external and internal surfaces of the MTTFs. With the assistance of a silica sacrificial layer, well-dispersed Au NPs with sizes of 4.1 nm were obtained inside the MTTF by photo irradiation. The synthesized Au@MTTF materials show great potential in various photo-electronic and photo-catalytic applications.

  6. Direct view at colossal permittivity in donor-acceptor (Nb, In) co-doped rutile TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Suman; Pal, Somnath; Hazarika, Abhijit; Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.; Rioult, Maxime; Belkhou, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Topical observations of colossal permittivity (CP) with low dielectric loss in donor-acceptor cations co-doped rutile TiO 2 have opened up several possibilities in microelectronics and energy-storage devices. Yet, the precise origin of the CP behavior, knowledge of which is essential to empower the device integration suitably, is highly disputed in the literature. From spectromicroscopic approach besides dielectric measurements, we explore that microscopic electronic inhomogeneities along with the nano-scale phase boundaries and the low temperature polaronic relaxation are mostly responsible for such a dielectric behavior, rather than electron-pinned defect-dipoles/grain-boundary effects as usually proposed. Donor-acceptor co-doping results in a controlled carrier-hopping inevitably influencing the dielectric loss while invariably upholding the CP value.

  7. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  8. Understanding the effect of surface/bulk defects on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2: anatase versus rutile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junqing; Wu, Guangjun; Guan, Naijia; Li, Landong; Li, Zhuoxin; Cao, Xingzhong

    2013-07-14

    The sole effect of surface/bulk defects of TiO2 samples on their photocatalytic activity was investigated. Nano-sized anatase and rutile TiO2 were prepared by hydrothermal method and their surface/bulk defects were adjusted simply by calcination at different temperatures, i.e. 400-700 °C. High temperature calcinations induced the growth of crystalline sizes and a decrease in the surface areas, while the crystalline phase and the exposed facets were kept unchanged during calcination, as indicated by the characterization results from XRD, Raman, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, TEM and UV-Vis spectra. The existence of surface/bulk defects in calcined TiO2 samples was confirmed by photoluminescence and XPS spectra, and the surface/bulk defect ratio was quantitatively analyzed according to positron annihilation results. The photocatalytic activity of calcined TiO2 samples was evaluated in the photocatalytic reforming of methanol and the photocatalytic oxidation of α-phenethyl alcohol. Based on the characterization and catalytic results, a direct correlation between the surface specific photocatalytic activity and the surface/bulk defect density ratio could be drawn for both anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2. The surface defects of TiO2, i.e. oxygen vacancy clusters, could promote the separation of electron-hole pairs under irradiation, and therefore, enhance the activity during photocatalytic reaction.

  9. Ab initio study of the elastic properties of single and polycrystal TiO2, ZrO2 and HfO2 in the cotunnite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravaca, M A; Mino, J C; Perez, V J; Casali, R A; Ponce, C A

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study theoretically the elastic properties of the orthorhombic (Pnma) high-pressure phase of IV-B group oxides: titania, zirconia and hafnia. By means of the self-consistent SIESTA code, pseudopotentials, density functional theory in the LDA and GGA approximations, the total energies, hydrostatic pressures and stress tensor components are calculated. From the stress-strain relationships, in the linear regime, the elastic constants C ij are determined. Derived elastic constants, such as bulk, Young's and shear modulus, Poisson coefficient and brittle/ductile behavior are estimated with the polycrystalline approach, using Voigt-Reuss-Hill theories. We have found that C 11 , C 22 and C 33 elastic constants of hafnia and zirconia show increased strength with respect to the experimental values of the normal phase, P 2 1 /c. A similar situation applies to titania if these constants are compared with its normal phase, rutile. However, shear elastic constants C 44 , C 55 and C 66 are similar to the values found in the normal phase. This fact increases the compound anisotropy as well as its ductile behavior. The dependence of unit-cell volumes under hydrostatic pressures is also analyzed. P-V data, fitted to third-order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state, provide the bulk modulus B 0 and its pressure derivatives B' 0 . In this case, LDA estimations show good agreement with respect to recent measured bulk moduli of ZrO 2 and HfO 2 . Thermo-acoustic properties, e.g. the propagation speed of transverse, longitudinal elastic waves together with associated Debye temperatures, are also estimated.

  10. Hazard reduction for the application of titania nanoparticles in environmental technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytically active titania (TiO2) nanoparticles are applied, and considered for application, in the degradation of hazardous substances. However, these nanoparticles are also hazardous by themselves. High efficiency immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles on large inorganic supports that are not

  11. In situ EPR studies of reaction pathways in Titania photocatalyst-promoted alkylation of alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhydderch, Shona; Howe, Russell F

    2015-03-03

    In situ EPR spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures has been used to observe and identify paramagnetic species produced when titania is irradiated in the presence of reactants used in the photocatalytic alkylation of maleimide with t-butyl carboxylic acid or phenoxyacetic acid. It is shown that maleimide acts as an acceptor of conduction band electrons. Valence band holes oxidise t-butyl carboxylic acid to the t-butyl radical and phenoxyacetic acid to the phenoxyacetic acid radical cation. In the presence of maleimide, the phenoxymethyl radical is formed from phenoxyacetic acid. The relevance of these observations to the mechanisms of titania photocatalyst-promoted alkylation of alkenes is discussed.

  12. Correlative Raman spectroscopy and focused ion beam for targeted phase boundary analysis of titania polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangum, John S.; Chan, Lisa H.; Schmidt, Ute; Garten, Lauren M.; Ginley, David S.; Gorman, Brian P.

    2018-05-01

    Site-specific preparation of specimens using focused ion beam instruments for transmission electron microscopy is at the forefront of targeting regions of interest for nanoscale characterization. Typical methods of pinpointing desired features include electron backscatter diffraction for differentiating crystal structures and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy for probing compositional variations. Yet there are situations, notably in the titanium dioxide system, where these techniques can fail. Differentiating between the brookite and anatase polymorphs of titania is either excessively laborious or impossible with the aforementioned techniques. However, due to differences in bonding structure, Raman spectroscopy serves as an ideal candidate for polymorph differentiation. In this work, a correlative approach utilizing Raman spectroscopy for targeted focused ion beam specimen preparation was employed. Dark field imaging and diffraction in the transmission electron microscope confirmed the region of interest located via Raman spectroscopy and demonstrated the validity of this new method. Correlative Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and focused ion beam is shown to be a promising new technique for identifying site-specific preparation of nanoscale specimens in cases where conventional approaches do not suffice.

  13. Ion Adsorption at the Rutile-Water Interface: Linking Molecular and Macroscopic Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, Z.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Předota, Milan; Bandura, A.; Kubicki, J. D.; Lvov, S. N.; Cummings, P. T.; Chialvo, A. A.; Ridley, M. K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 12 (2004), s. 4954-4969 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/03/P083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : ion adsorption rutile Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2004

  14. A DFT study on the effect of supporting titania on silica graphene epoxy graphene and carbon nanotubes - Interfacial properties and optical response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kiarii, EM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A first principles study of the Titania is done as used in photo-catalysis to generate charge carries. Models of titania, silica, graphene, epoxy graphene monoxide, single wall Carbon nanotubes and their respective layer were studied in order...

  15. Dielectric Properties and Characterisation of Titanium Dioxide Obtained by Different Chemistry Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wypych

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made comparison of titanium dioxide powders obtained from three syntheses including sol-gel and precipitation methods as well as using layered (tetramethylammonium titanate as a source of TiO2. The obtained precursors were subjected to step annealing at elevated temperatures to transform into rutile form. The transformation was determined by Raman measurements in each case. The resulting products were characterised using Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The main goal of the studies performed was to compare the temperature of the transformation in three titania precursors obtained by different methods of soft chemistry routes and to evaluate dielectric properties of rutile products by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Different factors affecting the electrical properties of calcinated products were discussed. It was found that sol-gel synthesis provided rutile form after annealing at 850°C with the smallest particles size about 20 nm, the highest value of dielectric permittivity equal to 63.7, and loss tangent equal to 0.051 at MHz frequencies. The other powders transformed to rutile at higher temperature, that is, 900°C, exhibit lower value of dielectric permittivity and had a higher value of particles size. The correlation between the anatase-rutile transformation temperature and the size of annealed particles was proposed.

  16. Titania Supported Pt and Pt/Pd Nano-particle Catalysts for the Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutsopoulos, Sotiris; Johannessen, Tue; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    2006-01-01

    Several types of titania (anatase) were used as supports for pure platinum and Pt–Pd bimetallic alloy catalysts. The preparation methods, normal wet impregnation technique and flame aerosol synthesis, obtained metal loadings of 2% by weight. The prepared catalysts were tested for SO2 oxidation...... activity at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range 250–600 °C. The SO2 to SO3 conversion efficiency of the Pt–Pd alloy was significantly higher than that of the individual metals. The effects of the preparation method and the titania type used on the properties and activity of the resulting catalyst...

  17. Influence of anodization parameters in the TiO2 nanotubes formation on Ti-7.5Mo alloy surface for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escada, Ana Lúcia; Nakazato, Roberto Zenhei; Claro, Ana Paula Rosifini Alves

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the parameters such as applied potential difference, time and annealing temperature in the titania nanotubes formation were evaluated. The morphology of the nanotubes was evaluated by using Field Emission Gun - Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), contact angle and X-rays diffraction (XRD). Self-organized nano-structures were formed on the Ti-7.5Mo alloy surface from the same electrolyte (glycerol/NH4F) for all conditions. It was observed that the potential influenced the diameter while the length was changed according to the anodization time length. The presence of the phases anatase and rutile was altered by annealing temperature. Results showed that 20V-48h-450 deg C was the better than other conditions for application as biomaterial. (author)

  18. Influence of anodization parameters in the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes formation on Ti-7.5Mo alloy surface for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escada, Ana Lúcia; Nakazato, Roberto Zenhei; Claro, Ana Paula Rosifini Alves, E-mail: analuciaescada@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2017-10-15

    In this study, the effects of the parameters such as applied potential difference, time and annealing temperature in the titania nanotubes formation were evaluated. The morphology of the nanotubes was evaluated by using Field Emission Gun - Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), contact angle and X-rays diffraction (XRD). Self-organized nano-structures were formed on the Ti-7.5Mo alloy surface from the same electrolyte (glycerol/NH4F) for all conditions. It was observed that the potential influenced the diameter while the length was changed according to the anodization time length. The presence of the phases anatase and rutile was altered by annealing temperature. Results showed that 20V-48h-450 deg C was the better than other conditions for application as biomaterial. (author)

  19. Photodegradation of Reactive Golden Yellow R Dye Catalyzed by Effective Titania (TiO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedurus, E.A.; Marinah Mohd Ariffin; Mohd Hasmizam Razali

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, Microwave Assisted Synthesis (MAS) method was applied to synthesize titania (TiO 2 ) at 150 degree Celsius in a range of 2-6 hours heating time. Each prepared TiO 2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen gas (N 2 ) sorption analysis (Brunaeur-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) calculation) techniques. The TiO 2 prepared by MAS 150 degree Celsius (4 hours) has emerged with the highest photo catalytic activity. Within 4 hours, the TiO 2 managed to catalyze the degradation of Reactive Golden Yellow R dye up to 98.51 %. This is because of the TiO 2 possessed high crystallinity of anatase phase, small crystallite size and high pore volume compared to other prepared TiO 2 . (author)

  20. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yige; Wang Li; Li Huanrong; Liu Peng; Qin Dashan; Liu Binyuan; Zhang Wenjun; Deng Ruiping; Zhang Hongjie

    2008-01-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data. - Graphical abstract: Novel stable luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid titania thin film with high transparency activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes have been obtained at room temperature via a simple one-pot synthesis approach by using TTFA-modified titanium precursor with amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123. The obtained hybrid thin film displays bright red (or green), near-monochromatic luminescence due to the in-situ formed lanthanide complex

  1. Double-sided anodic titania nanotube arrays: a lopsided growth process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Sun, Xiao Wei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cai, Yanli

    2010-12-07

    In the past decade, the pore diameter of anodic titania nanotubes was reported to be influenced by a number of factors in organic electrolyte, for example, applied potential, working distance, water content, and temperature. All these were closely related to potential drop in the organic electrolyte. In this work, the essential role of electric field originating from the potential drop was directly revealed for the first time using a simple two-electrode anodizing method. Anodic titania nanotube arrays were grown simultaneously at both sides of a titanium foil, with tube length being longer at the front side than that at the back side. This lopsided growth was attributed to the higher ionic flux induced by electric field at the front side. Accordingly, the nanotube length was further tailored to be comparable at both sides by modulating the electric field. These results are promising to be used in parallel configuration dye-sensitized solar cells, water splitting, and gas sensors, as a result of high surface area produced by the double-sided architecture.

  2. Self-assembly of protein-based biomaterials initiated by titania nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstater, Jacob H; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2013-12-03

    Protein-based biomaterials are a promising strategy for creating robust highly selective biocatalysts. The assembled biomaterials must sufficiently retain the near-native structure of proteins and provide molecular access to catalytically active sites. These requirements often exclude the use of conventional assembly techniques, which rely on covalent cross-linking of proteins or entrapment within a scaffold. Here we demonstrate that titania nanotubes can initiate and template the self-assembly of enzymes, such as ribonuclease A, while maintaining their catalytic activity. Initially, the enzymes form multilayer thick ellipsoidal aggregates centered on the nanotube surface; subsequently, these nanosized entities assemble into a micrometer-sized enzyme material that has enhanced enzymatic activity and contains as little as 0.1 wt % TiO2 nanotubes. This phenomenon is uniquely associated with the active anatase (001)-like surface of titania nanotubes and does not occur on other anatase nanomaterials, which contain significantly fewer undercoordinated Ti surface sites. These findings present a nanotechnology-enabled mechanism of biomaterial growth and open a new route for creating stable protein-based biomaterials and biocatalysts without the need for chemical modification.

  3. Characterization of vanadium-doped mesoporous titania and its adsorption of gaseous benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Song, Myoung Bock; Yun, Hyunran; Kim, Eui Jung; Oh, Eun-Suok [School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Ulsan, Mugeo-dong, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Eun Woo, E-mail: ewshin@mail.ulsan.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Ulsan, Mugeo-dong, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    A series of vanadium-doped mesoporous titania with different metal contents was synthesized in the study via a sol-gel process with the assistance of a dodecylamine surfactant. The existence of vanadium ions not only suppressed crystallization and sintering but also enhanced the porosity of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2}. Varying the vanadium concentration led to significant changes in the chemical oxidation state of each component. The presence of metal dopants significantly improved the removal efficiency of benzene and the doping the titania with 5 mol% vanadium removed the most benzene, regardless of the adsorption temperature. The adsorption behavior was elucidated by the specific surface area, the interactions between surface hydroxyl groups and the {pi}-electrons of benzene, and the formation of {sigma}-bonding and d-{pi}* back-donation between the adsorbent and organic compounds.

  4. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  5. Rutile TiO{sub 2} active-channel thin-film transistor using rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Heo, Kwan-Jun; Yoo, Su-Chang; Choi, Seong-Gon [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Seung-Wook [Samsung Display, Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    TiO{sub 2} active-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs), in which the bottom-gate top-contact architecture was prepared with atomic layer deposition grown TiO{sub 2} as the semiconducting layer, were fabricated and then investigated based on key process parameters, such as the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature. Structural analyses suggested that TiO{sub 2} films annealed at temperatures above 500 .deg. C changed from an amorphous to a rutile phase. The TFT with a TiO{sub 2} semiconductor annealed at 600 .deg. C exhibited strongly-saturated output characteristics, a much higher on/off current ratio of 4.3 x 10{sup 5}, and an electron mobility of 0.014 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Moreover, the potential for manipulating TiO{sub 2}-based TFTs with RTA methodology was demonstrated through the realization of a simple resistive-load inverter.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a novel stationary phase, Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS), based upon ternary oxide support for high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amparo, Maura R.; Marques, Fabiana A.; Faria, Anizio M., E-mail: anizio@pontal.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (FACIP/UFU), Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal

    2013-09-15

    A new stationary phase based on the thermal immobilization of poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane) (PMTDS) on silica particles coated with a mixture of zirconia and titania was prepared and evaluated for the chromatographic separation of test mixtures. The spherical particles were characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and {sup 29}Si NMR. The physicochemical properties of PMTDS phase supported on Si-Zr/Ti were intermediate between PMTDS phases supported on titanized silica and zirconized silica. The chromatographic performance of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase was similar to PMTDS phases based on metal oxide coated silica having only one metal oxide and the preparation of a Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase allowed evaluation of the effect of each oxide, zirconia and titania, on the separation process and on the stability of the immobilized polymer phase. The hydrolytic stability of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) stationary phase was similar to the Si-Ti(PMTDS) phase, improving the chemical stability of the silica-based PMTDS phase by about 100%. (author)

  7. The mobility of Nb in rutile-saturated NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids from 1–6.5 GPa and 300–800 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanis, Elizabeth A.; Simon, Adam; Tschauner, Oliver; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Burnley, Pamela; Cline II, Christopher J.; Hanchar, John M.; Pettke, Thomas; Shen, Guoyin; Zhao, Yusheng (MUN); (Michigan); (CIW); (UNLV); (Bern)

    2015-08-26

    Rutile (TiO₂) is an important host phase for high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb in metamorphic and subduction zone environments. The observed depletion of Nb in arc rocks is often explained by the hypothesis that rutile sequesters HFSE in the subducted slab and overlying sediment, and is chemically inert with respect to aqueous fluids evolved during prograde metamorphism in the forearc to subarc environment. However, field observations of exhumed terranes, and experimental studies, indicate that HFSE may be soluble in complex aqueous fluids at high pressure (i.e., >0.5 GPa) and moderate to high temperature (i.e., >300 °C). In this study, we investigated experimentally the mobility of Nb in NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids in equilibrium with Nb-bearing rutile at pressure-temperature conditions applicable to fluid evolution in arc environments. Niobium concentrations in aqueous fluid at rutile saturation were measured directly by using a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) at 2.1 to 6.5 GPa and 300–500 °C, and indirectly by performing mass loss experiments in a piston-cylinder (PC) apparatus at ~1 GPa and 700–800 °C. The concentration of Nb in a 10 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid increases from 6 to 11 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 2.1 to 2.8 GPa, consistent with a positive temperature dependence. The concentration of Nb in a 20 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid varies from 55 to 150 μg/g at 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 1.8 to 6.4 GPa; however, there is no discernible temperature or pressure dependence. The Nb concentration in a 4 wt% NaF-bearing aqueous fluid increases from 180 to 910 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C over the pressure range 2.1 to 6.5 GPa. The data for the F-bearing fluid indicate that the Nb content of the fluid exhibits a dependence on temperature between 300 and 500 °C at ≥2 GPa, but there is no observed

  8. Direct view at colossal permittivity in donor-acceptor (Nb, In) co-doped rutile TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Suman, E-mail: suman.mandal@sscu.iisc.ernet.in; Pal, Somnath; Hazarika, Abhijit [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012 (India); Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Rioult, Maxime; Belkhou, Rachid [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-08-29

    Topical observations of colossal permittivity (CP) with low dielectric loss in donor-acceptor cations co-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} have opened up several possibilities in microelectronics and energy-storage devices. Yet, the precise origin of the CP behavior, knowledge of which is essential to empower the device integration suitably, is highly disputed in the literature. From spectromicroscopic approach besides dielectric measurements, we explore that microscopic electronic inhomogeneities along with the nano-scale phase boundaries and the low temperature polaronic relaxation are mostly responsible for such a dielectric behavior, rather than electron-pinned defect-dipoles/grain-boundary effects as usually proposed. Donor-acceptor co-doping results in a controlled carrier-hopping inevitably influencing the dielectric loss while invariably upholding the CP value.

  9. Titania nanotubes with adjustable dimensions for drug reservoir sites and enhanced cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Nazlı; Bayram, Cem; Erdal, Ebru; Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to generate a bactericidal agent releasing surface via nanotube layer on titanium metal and to investigate how aspect ratio of nanotubes affects drug elution time and cell proliferation. Titania nanotube layers were generated on metal surfaces by anodic oxidation at various voltage and time parameters. Gentamicin loading was carried out via simple pipetting and the samples were tested against S. aureus for the efficacy of the applied modification. Drug releasing time and cell proliferation were also tested in vitro. Titania nanotube layers with varying diameters and lengths were prepared after anodization and anodizing duration was found as the most effective parameter for amount of loaded drug and drug releasing time. Drug elution lasted up to 4 days after anodizing for 80 min of the samples, whereas release completed in 24 h when the samples were anodized for 20 min. All processed samples had bactericidal properties against S. aureus organism except unmodified titanium, which was also subjected to drug incorporation step. The anodization also enhanced water wettability and cell adhesion results. Anodic oxidation is an effective surface modification to enhance tissue-implant interactions and also resultant titania layer can act as a drug reservoir for the release of bactericidal agents. The use of implants as local drug eluting devices is promising but further in vivo testing is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Au-coated 3-D nanoporous titania layer prepared using polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) block copolymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Won-Jeong; Basarir, Fevzihan; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2009-04-09

    New nanoporous structures of Au-coated titania layers were prepared by using amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles as a template. A 3-D template composed of self-assembled quaternized polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (Q-PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer nanoparticles below 100 nm was prepared. The core-shell-type nanoparticles were well ordered three-dimensionally using the vertical immersion method on the substrate. The polar solvents were added to the polymer solution to prevent particle merging at 40 degrees C when considering the interaction between polymer nanoparticles and solvents. Furthermore, Au-coated PS-b-P2VP nanoparticles were prepared using thiol-capped Au nanoparticles (3 nm). The 3-D arrays with Au-coated PS-b-P2VP nanoparticles as a template contributed to the preparation of the nanoporous Au-coated titania layer. Therefore, the nanoporous Au-coated titania layer was fabricated by removing PS-b-P2VP block copolymer nanoparticles by oxygen plasma etching.

  11. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in- situ formed lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yige; Wang, Li; Li, Huanrong; Liu, Peng; Qin, Dashan; Liu, Binyuan; Zhang, Wenjun; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie

    2008-03-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data.

  12. Study of hybrid solar cells made of multilayer nanocrystalline titania and poly(3-octylthiophene) or poly-(3-(2-methylhex-2-yl)-oxy-carbonyldithiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniadou, Maria; Stathatos, Elias; Boukos, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid solar cells have been constructed by using nanocrystalline titania and hole-transporting polymers. Titania was deposited on fluorine-doped tin-oxide transparent electrodes in three layers: a blocking layer and two nanostructured layers, giving densely packed or open structures. Open...

  13. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on hemoglobin entrapped in titania sol-gel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiuhong; Ju Huangxian

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was entrapped in a titania sol-gel matrix and used as a mimetic peroxidase to construct a novel amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide. The Hb entrapped titania sol-gel film was obtained with a vapor deposition method, which simplified the traditional sol-gel process for protein immobilization. The morphologies of both titania sol-gel and the Hb films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and proved to be chemically clean, porous, homogeneous. This matrix provided a biocompatible microenvironment for retaining the native structure and activity of the entrapped Hb and a very low mass transport barrier to the substrates. H 2 O 2 could be reduced by the catalysis of the entrapped hemoglobin at -300 mV without any mediator. The reagentless H 2 O 2 sensor exhibited a fast response (less than 5 s) and sensitivity as high as 1.29 mA mM -1 cm -2 . The linear range for H 2 O 2 determination was from 5.0x10 -7 to 5.4x10 -5 M with a detection limit of 1.2x10 -7 M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the encapsulated hemoglobin was calculated to be 0.18±0.02 mM. The stability of the biosensor was also evaluated

  14. Electrostatic Self-Assembly Enabling Integrated Bulk and Interfacial Sodium Storage in 3D Titania-Graphene Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Xiao, Lisong; Sheng, Tian; Liu, Jianzhao; Hu, Yi-Xin; Ma, Tianyuan; Amine, Rachid; Xie, Yingying; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Yuzi; Ren, Yang; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Heald, Steve M; Kovacevic, Jasmina; Sehlleier, Yee Hwa; Schulz, Christof; Mattis, Wenjuan Liu; Sun, Shi-Gang; Wiggers, Hartmut; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2018-01-10

    Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage due to the natural abundance of sodium. However, it remains a huge challenge to develop versatile electrode materials with favorable properties, which requires smart structure design and good mechanistic understanding. Herein, we reported a general and scalable approach to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) titania-graphene hybrid via electrostatic-interaction-induced self-assembly. Synchrotron X-ray probe, transmission electron microscopy, and computational modeling revealed that the strong interaction between titania and graphene through comparably strong van der Waals forces not only facilitates bulk Na + intercalation but also enhances the interfacial sodium storage. As a result, the titania-graphene hybrid exhibits exceptional long-term cycle stability up to 5000 cycles, and ultrahigh rate capability up to 20 C for sodium storage. Furthermore, density function theory calculation indicated that the interfacial Li + , K + , Mg 2+, and Al 3+ storage can be enhanced as well. The proposed general strategy opens up new avenues to create versatile materials for advanced battery systems.

  15. Electrostatic Self-Assembly Enabling Integrated Bulk and Interfacial Sodium Storage in 3D Titania-Graphene Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Gui-Liang [Chemical; Xiao, Lisong [Center; Sheng, Tian [Collaborative; Liu, Jianzhao [Chemical; Hu, Yi-Xin [Chemical; Department; Ma, Tianyuan [Chemical; Amine, Rachid [Materials; Xie, Yingying [Chemical; Zhang, Xiaoyi [X-ray Science; Liu, Yuzi [Nanoscience; Ren, Yang [X-ray Science; Sun, Cheng-Jun [X-ray Science; Heald, Steve M. [X-ray Science; Kovacevic, Jasmina [Center; Sehlleier, Yee Hwa [Center; Schulz, Christof [Center; Mattis, Wenjuan Liu [Microvast Power Solutions, 12603; Sun, Shi-Gang [Collaborative; Wiggers, Hartmut [Center; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical; Amine, Khalil [Chemical

    2017-12-15

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage due to the natural abundance of sodium. However, it remains a huge challenge to develop versatile electrode materials with favorable properties, which requires smart structure design and good mechanistic understanding. Herein, we reported a general and scalable approach to synthesize 3D titania-graphene hybrid via electrostatic-interaction-induced self-assembly. Synchrotron X-ray probe, transmission electron microscopy and computational modeling revealed that the strong interaction between Titania and graphene through comparably strong van-der-Waals forces not only facilitates bulk Na+ intercalation but also enhances the interfacial sodium storage. As a result, the titania-graphene hybrid exhibits exceptional long-term cycle stability up to 5000 cycles, and ultrahigh rate capability up to 20 C for sodium storage. Furthermore, density function theory calculation indicated that the interfacial Li+, K+, Mg2+ and Al3+ storage can be enhanced as well. The proposed general strategy opens up new avenues to create versatile materials for advanced battery systems.

  16. Quantification of rutile in anatase by means of X-ray diffraction technique; Cuantificacion de rutilo en anatasa por medio de la tecnica de difraccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R.; Palacios G, J.; Garcia C, R.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this work, making use of the X-ray diffraction technique, it was determined the quantification of two phases which are mixed in a crystalline sample of rutile and anatase also it is indicated the method to proceed in its evaluation, so that in the end it will be had as result of a semi-quantitative analysis of the phases that are found in the sample. The conclusion is that this method performs in samples which are presented as powders and since the different parameters with which they must be fulfilled then this should not be called quantitative but semi-quantitative and it has a margin of error in its evaluation. (Author)

  17. Titania-Coated Silica Alone and Modified by Sodium Alginate as Sorbents for Heavy Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodyńska, D.; Gęca, M.; Skwarek, E.; Goncharuk, O.

    2018-04-01

    The novel organic-inorganic biohybrid composite adsorbent was synthesized based on nanosized silica-titania modified with alginate within the development of effective adsorbent for heavy metal ions. Effects of metal species Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II); concentrations; pH; temperature; and adsorption onto titania-coated silica (ST20) initial or modified by sodium alginate (ST20-ALG) were studied. The equilibrium and kinetic data of metal ions adsorption were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and kinetic models: pseudo first order, pseudo second order, intraparticle kinetic model, and Elovich. The maximum sorption capacities observed were higher for the ST20-ALG composite compared to the initial ST20 oxide for all studied metal ions, namely their values for ST20-ALG were 22.44 mg g- 1 for Cu(II) adsorption, 19.95 mg g- 1 for Zn(II), 18.85 mg g- 1 for Cd(II), and 32.49 mg g- 1 for Pb(II). Structure and properties of initial silica-titania ST20 and modified by sodium alginate ST20-ALG adsorbents were analyzed using nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, ATR-FTIR, SEM-EDS, and pHpzc techniques.

  18. Basic Principle of Advanced Oxidation Technology : Hybrid Technology Based on Ozone and Titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdi Usada; Agus Purwadi

    2007-01-01

    One of problems in health environment is organic liquid waste from many pollutant resources. Environmental friendly technology for degrading this waste is ozone which produced by plasma discharge technology, but its capability is limited. However, it is needed a new environmental friendly technology which has stronger capability. This new technology is so called advanced oxidation technology. Advanced oxidation technology is a hybrid of ozone, peroxide, UV light and photo catalyst. In this paper, it is introduced basic principle of hybrid of ozone and titania photo catalyst semiconductor. The capability of organic liquid degradation will be stronger because there is new radical which is produced by chemical reaction between electron-hole pair from photo catalyst titania and water or oxygen. This new radical then degrades this organic pollutant. This technology is used to degrade phenol. (author)

  19. The effect of doping titanium dioxide nanoparticles on phase transformation, photocatalytic activity and anti-bacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, Scott Edward

    Nanosized titanium dioxide has a variety of important applications in everyday life including a photocatalyst for pollution remediation, photovoltaic devices, sunscreen, etc. This study focuses on the various properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with various cation and anion species. Samples were produced by various methods including metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), plasma assisted metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PA-MOCVD) and sol-gel. Numerous techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopy both scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) were used for physical characterization. Photocatalytic properties were determined by the oxidation of methylene blue dye and 2-chlorophenol in water as well as gaseous formic acid with results analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultra violet - visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). For the purpose of enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, the effect of anion doping and the anatase-rutile phase ratio were studied. Although anatase, rutile and mixed crystallite phases all show some degree of activity in photocatalytic reactions, these results show that anatase is better suited for the degradation of organic compounds in an aqueous medium any advantage in photocatalytic activity gained through the enhancement in optical response from the smaller band gap by addition of rutile was overcome by the negatives associated with the rutile phase. Furthermore substitutional nitrogen doping showed significant improvement in UV photocatalysis as well as allowing for visible light activation of the catalyst. Further studies on the phase transitions in titanium dioxide nanoparticles were carried out by synthesizing various cation doped samples by sol-gel. Analysis of the phases by XRD showed an inverse relationship between dopant size and rutile percentage

  20. In-situ X-ray diffraction activation study on an Fe/TiO2 pre-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Matthew K; Billing, David G; Coville, Neil J

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on the use of in situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method to monitor the structural properties of a titania-supported iron (10% Fe/TiO2) pre-catalyst during calcination (oxidation) and activation (reduction) in the temperature range 25-900°C. The TiO2 oxidation study revealed an increase in anatase particle size before the anatase to rutile phase transformation, lending credibility to the bridging mechanism proposed by Kim et al. [(2007), Mater. Sci. Forum, 534-536, 65-68]. Pre-catalyst oxidation experiments allowed for the determination of a suitable calcination temperature (450°C) of the pre-catalyst in terms of maximum hematite concentration and appropriate particle size. These experiments also confirmed that the anatase to rutile phase transformation occurred at higher temperatures after Fe addition and that anatase was the sole donor of Ti(4+) ions, which are known to migrate into hematite (Gennari et al., 1998), during the formation of pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) at temperatures above 690°C. Using the results from the oxidation experiments, two pre-catalyst samples were calcined at different temperatures; one to represent the preferred case and one to represent a case where the pre-catalyst had been excessively heated. Samples of the excessively heated catalysts were exposed to different reducing gas atmospheres (5, 10 and 100% H2/N2) and heated in the in situ PXRD reactor, so that diffraction data could be collected during the activation process. The results show that reduction with gases containing low concentrations of H2 (5 and 10%) led to the formation of ilmenite (FeTiO3) and we were able to show that both anatase and rutile are consumed in the reaction. Higher concentrations of H2 led to the formation of magnetite (Fe3O4) and metallic iron (Fe(0)). We also noted a decrease in the anatase to rutile transformation temperature under reducing atmospheres when compared with the pre

  1. EPR study of 17O-enriched titania nanopowders under UV irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brezová, V.; Barbieriková, Z.; Zukalová, Markéta; Dvoranová, D.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 112-118 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : anatase * rutile * charge carriers generation Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  2. Phase Transformation of Hydrothermally Synthesized Nanoparticle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mild hydrothermal hydrolysis of TiCl4 produces nanorods of the rutile phase of titanium dioxide in high yield, while in the presence of organic acids (citric, acetic, D-tartaric and benzoic acids) anatase is the only product. The effect of these organic acids on the products of the hydrolysis reaction as well as the reaction kinetics ...

  3. Optical studies of cobalt implanted rutile TiO2 (110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Shalik Ram; Padmanabhan, B.; Chanda, Anupama; Mishra, Indrani; Malik, V.K.; Mishra, N.C.; Kanjilal, D.; Varma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study displays formation of nanostructures after Co implantation on TiO 2 surfaces. • Preferential sputtering leads to the creation of oxygen vacancies on the surface. • A large enhancement in visible light absorbance (nearly 5 times compared to pristine) is observed. • Creation of self-organized nanostructures and Ti 3+ oxygen vacancies promote photoabsorption. • Formation of Co-nanoclusters and Co–Ti–O phase play concerted role in enhancing photo-absorption. - Abstract: Present study investigates the photoabsorption properties of single crystal rutile TiO 2 (110) surfaces after they have been implanted with low fluences of cobalt ions. The surfaces, after implantation, demonstrate fabrication of nanostructures and anisotropic nano-ripple patterns. Creation of oxygen vacancies (Ti 3+ states), development of cobalt nano-clusters as well as band gap modifications have also been observed. Results presented here demonstrate that fabrication of self organized nanostructures, upon implantation, along with the development of oxygen vacancies and ligand field transitions of cobalt ion promote the enhancement of photo-absorbance in both UV (∼2 times) and visible (∼5 times) regimes. These investigations on nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces can be important for photo-catalysis.

  4. Colloidal titania-silica-iron oxide nanocomposites and the effect from silica thickness on the photocatalytic and bactericidal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanhom, Padtaraporn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Charoenlap, Nisanart [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Tomapatanaget, Boosayarat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Insin, Numpon, E-mail: Numpon.I@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    New types of colloidal multifunctional nanocomposites that combine superparamagnetic character and high photocatalytic activity were synthesized and investigated. The superparamagnetic nanocomposites composed of anatase titania, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles (TSI) were synthesized using thermal decomposition method followed by microemulsion method, without calcination at high temperature. Different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize and confirm the structure of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites showed high photocatalytic activity when used in the photodegradation of methylene blue under irradiation with a black light lamp. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited high antibacterial properties. From our study, the nanocomposites can be useful in various applications such as removal of pollutants with readily separation from the environment using an external magnetic field. These composites could effectively photo-degrade the dye at least three cycles without regeneration. The effects of silica shell thickness on the photocatalytic activity was investigated, and the thickness of 6 nm of the silica interlayer is enough for the inhibition of electron translocation between titania and iron oxide nanoparticles and maintaining the efficiency of photocatalytic activity of titania nanoparticles. - Highlights: • New colloidal nanocomposites of iron oxide-silica-titania were prepared. • The nanocomposites exhibited high photocatalytic activity with magnetic response. • The effects of silica thickness on photocatalytic activity were investigated. • Bactericidal activity of the nanocomposites was demonstrated.

  5. Bonding of gold nanoclusters to oxygen vacancies on rutile TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Nuria; schaub, R.; Thostrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    Through an interplay between scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that bridging oxygen vacancies are the active nucleation sites for Au clusters on the rutile TiO2(110) surface. We find that a direct correlation exists between a decrease in...

  6. Colossal Dielectric Behavior of Ga+Nb Co-Doped Rutile TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Hu, Wanbiao; Berlie, Adam; Lau, Kenny; Chen, Hua; Withers, Ray L; Liu, Yun

    2015-11-18

    Stimulated by the excellent colossal permittivity (CP) behavior achieved in In+Nb co-doped rutile TiO2, in this work we investigate the CP behavior of Ga and Nb co-doped rutile TiO2, i.e., (Ga(0.5)Nb(0.5))(x)Ti(1-x)O2, where Ga(3+) is from the same group as In(3+) but with a much smaller ionic radius. Colossal permittivity of up to 10(4)-10(5) with an acceptably low dielectric loss (tan δ = 0.05-0.1) over broad frequency/temperature ranges is obtained at x = 0.5% after systematic synthesis optimizations. Systematic structural, defect, and dielectric characterizations suggest that multiple polarization mechanisms exist in this system: defect dipoles at low temperature (∼10-40 K), polaronlike electron hopping/transport at higher temperatures, and a surface barrier layer capacitor effect. Together these mechanisms contribute to the overall dielectric properties, especially apparent observed CP. We believe that this work provides comprehensive guidance for the design of new CP materials.

  7. Time-resolved shock compression of porous rutile: Wave dispersion in porous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.U.; Graham, R.A.; Holman, G.T.

    1993-08-01

    Rutile (TiO{sub 2}) samples at 60% of solid density have been shock-loaded from 0.21 to 6.1 GPa with sample thickness of 4 mm and studied with the PVDF piezoelectric polymer stress-rate gauge. The technique uses a copper capsule to contain the sample which has PVDF gauge packages in direct contact with front and rear surfaces. A precise measure is made of the compressive stress wave velocity through the sample, as well as the input and propagated shock stress. Initial density is known from sample preparation, and the amount of shock-compression is calculated from the measurement of shock velocity and input stress. Shock states and re-shock states are measured. Observed data are consistent with previously published high pressure data. It is observed that rutile has a ``crush strength`` near 6 GPa. Propagated stress-pulse rise times vary from 234 to 916 nsec. Propagated stress-pulse rise times of shock-compressed HMX, 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3Ni + Al, and 5Ti + 3Si are presented.

  8. Super/Subcritical Fluid Extractions for Preparation of the Crystalline Titania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějová, Lenka; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Matěj, Z.; Benada, Oldřich; Klusoň, Petr; Šolcová, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2010), s. 215-221 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP104/09/P290; GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : titania * supercritical fluid extraction * pressurised fluid extraction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2010

  9. Lamellar Micelles - Mediated Synthesis of Nanoscale Thick Sheets of Titania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, P.; Lusková, H.; Šolcová, Olga; Matějová, Lenka; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 61, 14-15 (2007), s. 2931-2934 ISSN 0167-577X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0963; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/03/H140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nanostructures * lamellar titania * templating Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.625, year: 2007

  10. Ion adsorption on oxides : surface charge formation and cadmium binding on rutile and hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, L.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The adsorption of charge-determining (H +and OH -) and cadmium ions on rutile (TiO 2 ) and hematite (α-Fe

  11. Highly-ordered mesoporous titania thin films prepared via surfactant assembly on conductive indium-tin-oxide/glass substrate and its optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Patel, Mehul N.; May, R. Alan; Gupta, Gaurav; Stevenson, Keith J.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2010-01-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous titanium dioxide (titania, TiO 2 ) thin films on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass were prepared via a Pluronic (P123) block copolymer template and a hydrophilic TiO 2 buffer layer. The contraction of the 3D hexagonal array of P123 micelles upon calcination merges the titania domains on the TiO 2 buffer layer to form mesoporous films with a mesochannel diameter of approximately 10 nm and a pore-to-pore distance of 10 nm. The mesoporous titania films on TiO 2 -buffered ITO/glass featured an inverse mesospace with a hexagonally-ordered structure, whereas the films formed without a TiO 2 buffer layer had a disordered microstructure with submicron cracks because of non-uniform water condensation on the hydrophobic ITO/glass surface. The density of the mesoporous film was 83% that of a bulk TiO 2 film. The optical band gap of the mesoporous titania thin film was approximately 3.4 eV, larger than that for nonporous anatase TiO 2 (∼ 3.2 eV), suggesting that the nanoscopic grain size leads to an increase in the band gap due to weak quantum confinement effects. The ability to form highly-ordered mesoporous titania films on electrically conductive and transparent substrates offers the potential for facile fabrication of high surface area semiconductive films with small diffusion lengths for optoelectronics applications.

  12. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  13. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-02-18

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  14. Comparison of the cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina and titania ultrathin protective coatings deposited at 200 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Sadeghi-Tohidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of ultrathin protective coatings on silicon thin films were investigated. The cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of 22 nm-thick atomic-layered-deposited (ALD titania were characterized and compared to that of 25 nm-thick alumina. Both coatings were deposited at 200 °C. The fatigue rates are comparable at 30 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH while they are one order of magnitude larger for alumina compared to titania at 80 °C, 90% RH. The improved fatigue performance is believed to be related to the improved stability of the ALD titania coating with water compared to ALD alumina, which may in part be related to the fact that ALD titania is crystalline, while ALD alumina is amorphous. Static fatigue crack nucleation and propagation was not observed. The underlying fatigue mechanism is different from previously documented mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking, and appears to result from the presence of compressive stresses and a rough coating–substrate interface.

  15. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Norio Narita; Takafumi Enomoto; Shigeyuki Masaoka; Nobuhiko Kusakabe

    2015-01-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium (IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet ...

  16. Quantification of rutile in anatase by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez R, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays the discovering of new and better materials required in all areas of the industry has been lead to the human being to introduce him to this small and great world. The crystalline materials, have properties markedly directional. When it is necessary to realize a quantitative analysis to these materials the task is not easy. The main objective of this work is the research of a real problem, its solution and perfecting of a technique involving the theoretical and experimental principles which allow the quantification of crystalline phases. The chapter 1 treats about the study of crystalline state during the last century, by means of the X-ray diffraction technique. The chapter 2 studies the nature and production of X-rays, the chapter 3 expounds the principles of the diffraction technique which to carry out when it is satisfied the Bragg law studying the powder diffraction method and its applications. In the chapter 4 it is explained how the intensities of the beams diffracted are determined by the atoms positions inside of the elemental cell of the crystal. The properties of the crystalline samples of anatase and rutile are described in the chapter 5. The results of this last analysis are the information which will be processed by means of the auxiliary software: Diffrac AT, Axum and Peakfit as well as the TAFOR and CUANTI software describing this part with more detail in the chapters 6 and 7 where it is mentioned step by step the function of each software until to reach the quantification of crystalline phases, objective of this work. Finally, in the chapter 8 there are a results analysis and conclusions. The contribution of this work is for those learned institutions of limited resources which can tackle in this way the characterization of materials. (Author)

  17. Effective coating of titania nanoparticles with alumina via atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizpour, H.; Talebi, M.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, R.; Guo, J.; van Ommen, J. R.; Mostoufi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Alumina films were deposited on titania nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at 180 °C and 1 bar. Online mass spectrometry was used for real time monitoring of effluent gases from the reactor during each reaction cycle in order to determine the optimal dosing time of precursors. Different oxygen sources were used to see which oxygen source, in combination with trimethyl aluminium (TMA), provides the highest alumina growth per cycle (GPC). Experiments were carried out in 4, 7 and 10 cycles using the optimal dosing time of precursors. Several characterization methods, such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), were conducted on the products. Formation of the alumina film was confirmed by EDX mapping and EDX line profiling, FTIR and TEM. When using either water or deuterium oxide as the oxygen source, the thickness of the alumina film was greater than that of ozone. The average GPC measured by TEM for the ALD of TMA with water, deuterium oxide and ozone was about 0.16 nm, 0.15 nm and 0.11 nm, respectively. The average GPC calculated using the mass fraction of aluminum from INAA was close to those measured from TEM images. Excess amounts of precursors lead to a higher average growth of alumina film per cycle due to insufficient purging time. XRD analysis demonstrated that amorphous alumina was coated on titania nanoparticles. This amorphous layer was easily distinguished from the crystalline core in the TEM images. Decrease in the photocatalytic activity of titania nanoparticles after alumina coating was confirmed by measuring degradation of Rhodamine B by ultraviolet irradiation.

  18. Photocatalytic Activity and Characterization of Carbon-Modified Titania for Visible-Light-Active Photodegradation of Nitrogen Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of carbon-modified titania powders were prepared by impregnation method using a commercial available titania powder, Hombikat UV100, as matrix material while a range of alcohols from propanol to hexanol were used as precursors of carbon sources. Rising the carbon number of alcoholic precursor molecule, the modified titania showed increasing visible activities of NOx photodegradation. The catalyst modified with cyclohexanol exhibited the best activities of 62%, 62%, 59%, and 54% for the total NOx removal under UV, blue, green, and red light irradiation, respectively. The high activity with long wavelength irradiation suggested a good capability of photocatalysis in full visible light spectrum. Analysis of UV-visible spectrum indicated that carbon modification promoted visible light absorption and red shift in band gap. XPS spectroscopic analysis identified the existence of carbonate species (C=O, which increased with the increasing carbon number of precursor molecule. Photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that the carbonate species suppressed the recombination rate of electron-hole pair. As a result, a mechanism of visible-light-active photocatalyst was proposed according to the formation of carbonate species on carbon-modified TiO2.

  19. Hyperparametric effects in a whispering-gallery mode rutile dielectric resonator at liquid helium temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nand, Nitin R.; Goryachev, Maxim; Floch, Jean-Michel le; Creedon, Daniel L.; Tobar, Michael E. [ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-10-07

    We report the first observation of low power drive level sensitivity, hyperparametric amplification, and single-mode hyperparametric oscillations in a dielectric rutile whispering-gallery mode resonator at 4.2 K. The latter gives rise to a comb of sidebands at 19.756 GHz. Whereas, most frequency combs in the literature have been observed in optical systems using an ensemble of equally spaced modes in microresonators or fibers, the present work represents generation of a frequency comb using only a single-mode. The experimental observations are explained by an additional 1/2 degree-of-freedom originating from an intrinsic material nonlinearity at optical frequencies, which affects the microwave properties due to the extremely low loss of rutile. Using a model based on lumped circuits, we demonstrate that the resonance between the photonic and material 1/2 degree-of-freedom, is responsible for the hyperparametric energy transfer in the system.

  20. Ab initio study of the elastic properties of single and polycrystal TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2} in the cotunnite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, M A; Mino, J C; Perez, V J [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNNE, Avenida Las Heras 727, CP 3500, Resistencia (Argentina); Casali, R A; Ponce, C A [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura UNNE, Avenida Libertad 5600, CP 3400, Corrientes (Argentina)

    2009-01-07

    In this work, we study theoretically the elastic properties of the orthorhombic (Pnma) high-pressure phase of IV-B group oxides: titania, zirconia and hafnia. By means of the self-consistent SIESTA code, pseudopotentials, density functional theory in the LDA and GGA approximations, the total energies, hydrostatic pressures and stress tensor components are calculated. From the stress-strain relationships, in the linear regime, the elastic constants C{sub ij} are determined. Derived elastic constants, such as bulk, Young's and shear modulus, Poisson coefficient and brittle/ductile behavior are estimated with the polycrystalline approach, using Voigt-Reuss-Hill theories. We have found that C{sub 11}, C{sub 22} and C{sub 33} elastic constants of hafnia and zirconia show increased strength with respect to the experimental values of the normal phase, P 2{sub 1}/c. A similar situation applies to titania if these constants are compared with its normal phase, rutile. However, shear elastic constants C{sub 44}, C{sub 55} and C{sub 66} are similar to the values found in the normal phase. This fact increases the compound anisotropy as well as its ductile behavior. The dependence of unit-cell volumes under hydrostatic pressures is also analyzed. P-V data, fitted to third-order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state, provide the bulk modulus B{sub 0} and its pressure derivatives B'{sub 0}. In this case, LDA estimations show good agreement with respect to recent measured bulk moduli of ZrO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2}. Thermo-acoustic properties, e.g. the propagation speed of transverse, longitudinal elastic waves together with associated Debye temperatures, are also estimated.

  1. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, P.; Kuráň, P.; Šťastný, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 344, JUL (2015), s. 9-16 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Titania-iron oxides * Homogeneous hydrolysis * Degradation of organophosphates * Parathion methyl Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  2. Plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeper, T.J.; Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E.; Riggs, W.L. II; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the air plasma spraying (APS) of alumina-titania powder using argon-hydrogen working gases. This powder system is being used in the fabrication of heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coatings. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, surface profilometry, image analysis, optical metallography, and x-ray diffraction. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. attempts are made to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters

  3. Commercial and home-made nitrogen modified titanias. A short reflection about the advantageous/disadvantageous properties of nitrogen doping in the frame of their applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Zs.; Mogyorósi, K.; Veréb, G.; Dombi, A.; Hernádi, K.; Danciu, V.; Baia, L.

    2014-09-01

    As visible light driven photocatalysis became more and more intensively studied, the first commercial products showed up on the market. Simultaneously controversial results appeared in the literature generating an intensive debate regarding the advantages and draw-backs of nitrogen doping of titania. Hence, the present work focuses on two commercially available and four sol-gel made nitrogen modified titania powders regarding their structure and activity. It is demonstrated that the interstitial nitrogen entities “leak out” from the catalysts if the material is irradiated with UV light, while substitutional nitrogen remains stable. However, the latter one was proven to be less important in the photocatalytic point of view. These observations were also valid in the case of sol-gel made nitrogen modified titanias. Furthermore, the results obtained after applying different spectroscopic methods (IR, XPS and DRS) shown that the yellow color of the titanias, does not necessary mean that a successful doping is achieved.

  4. Hybrid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Consisting of Double Titania Layers for Harvesting Light with Wide Range of Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadamasu, Kengo; Inoue, Takafumi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S.; Hayase, Shuzi

    2011-02-01

    We report a hybrid dye-sensitized solar cell consisting of double titania layers (top and bottom layers) stained with two dyes. A top layer fabricated on a glass was mechanically pressed with a bottom layer fabricated on a glass cloth. The glass cloth acts as a supporter of a porous titania layer as well as a holder of electrolyte. The incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) curve had two peaks corresponding to those of the two dyes, which demonstrates that electrons are collected from both the top and bottom layers.

  5. Ab-initio calculation and experimental observation of room temperature ferromagnetism in 50 keV nitrogen implanted rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Homnath; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sarkar, A.; Dechoudhury, S.; Bhowmick, D.; Naik, V.; Sanyal, D.

    2018-02-01

    Room temperature magnetic properties of 50 keV N4+ ion beam implanted rutile TiO2 have been theoretically and experimentally studied. Ab-initio calculation under the frame work of density functional theory has been carried out to study the magnetic properties of the different possible nitrogen related defects in TiO2. Spin polarized density of states calculation suggests that both Ninst and NO can induce ferromagnetic ordering in rutile TiO2. In both cases the 2p orbital electrons of nitrogen atom give rise to the magnetic moment in TiO2. The possibility of the formation of N2 molecule in TiO2 system is also studied but in this case no significant magnetic moment has been observed. The magnetic measurements, using SQUID magnetometer, results a ferromagnetic ordering even at room temperature for the 50 keV N4+ ion beam implanted rutile TiO2.

  6. The effect of different rutile electrodes on mechanical properties of underwater wet welded AH-36 steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Purnama, Dewin; Churniawan, Iwan

    2018-04-01

    Underwater welding is an important role in the rescue of ships and underwater structures, in case of emergency. In this study, the marine steel plates used are AH-36 steel as parent material. This type of steel is included in the High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA). Electrodes used for welding AH-36 steel plates are commonly the E6013 and E 7024 which are the type of based rutile electrodes. Those electrodes are widely available on the market and they would be compared with the original electrode for underwater which is the type of E7014 with the trade name of Broco UW-CS-1. Welding method used is Shielding Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) with the variation of 5 m and 10 m underwater depth and also varied with the electric current of 120A, 140A and 250A. It was found that hardness value of increased in the area of weld metal and HAZ. HAZ also tends to have the highest hardness compared to both of weld metal and base metal. Non destructive test by radiographed test (RT) on welds showed that there are found welding defects in the form of incomplete penetration on all variations of welding parameters, but there is no porosity defect detected. The results of the hardness tests of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the hardness value of both rutile electrodes (E6013 and E 7024) is apparently similar hardness value compared with the existing commercial electrode (E7014 of Broco UW-CS- 1). The tensile test results of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the use of rutile electrode of E6013 gives a better tensile properties than other rutile electrodes.

  7. Thermal stability of titanate nanorods and titania nanowires formed from titanate nanotubes by heating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brunátová, T.; Matěj, Z.; Oleynikov, P.; Vesely, J.; Danis, S.; Popelková, Daniela; Kuzel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 98, December (2014), s. 26-36 ISSN 1044-5803 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : titania nanowires * titanate nanorods * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.845, year: 2014

  8. A Convenient and Templated Method for the Fabrication of Monodisperse Micrometer Hollow Titania Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and widely applicable methodology was presented to synthesize monodisperse micrometer hollow titania spheres (HTS based on the templating method. It was performed by using the preformed poly(styrene-acrylic acid (PSA as template spheres which was mixed with tetrabutyltitanate (TBOT in an ethanol solvent under steam treatment. The HTS which were obtained by the calcination of PSA/TiO2 composite core-shell spheres had a narrow particle size distribution and commendable surface topography characterized by SEM. The calcined HTS at 500°C displayed crystalline reflection peaks that were characteristic to the anatase phase by XRD. Moreover, some key influencing factors including TBOT concentration and reaction time were analyzed. As expected, the diameter of HTS could be readily controlled by altering the size of PSA template spheres. In addition, the approach was also applied to fabricate hollow zirconia spheres and other inorganic spheres.

  9. Picosecond charge transport in rutile at high carrier densities studiedby transient terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajac, Vít; Němec, Hynek; Kužel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 115206. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * charge transport * TiO 2 * rutile * ultrafast spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  10. H2O-EG-assisted synthesis of uniform urchinlike rutile TiO2 with superior lithium storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun Song; Liang, Yen Nan; Li, Yongmei; Yan, Qingyu; Hu, Xiao

    2013-10-23

    A facile green method to synthesize uniform nanostructured urchinlike rutile TiO2 is demonstrated. Titanium trichloride was selected as the TiO2 precursor, and a mixed solvent containing H2O and ethylene glycol was used. By using this binary medium, the nucleation and crystal growth of rutile TiO2 can be regulated, giving rise to very uniform urchinlike structures with tailorable sizes. As confirmed by the SEM and TEM analysis, large particles with dense aggregation of needle-like building blocks or small ones with loosely packed subunits could be obtained at different reaction conditions. The as-prepared samples were applied as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, and they were shown to have superior properties with a high reversible capacity of 140 mA h g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 C for up to 300 cycles, which is almost unmatched by other rutile TiO2-based electrodes. A stable capacity of 88 mA h g(-1) can also be delivered at an extremely high rate of 50 C, suggesting the great potential of the as-prepared product for high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Controlling drug delivery kinetics from mesoporous titania thin films by pore size and surface energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Johan Karlsson, Saba Atefyekta, Martin Andersson Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: The osseointegration capacity of bone-anchoring implants can be improved by the use of drugs that are administrated by an inbuilt drug delivery system. However, to attain superior control of drug delivery and to have the ability to administer drugs of varying size, including proteins, further material development of drug carriers is needed. Mesoporous materials have shown great potential in drug delivery applications to provide and maintain a drug concentration within the therapeutic window for the desired period of time. Moreover, drug delivery from coatings consisting of mesoporous titania has shown to be promising to improve healing of bone-anchoring implants. Here we report on how the delivery of an osteoporosis drug, alendronate, can be controlled by altering pore size and surface energy of mesoporous titania thin films. The pore size was varied from 3.4 nm to 7.2 nm by the use of different structure-directing templates and addition of a swelling agent. The surface energy was also altered by grafting dimethylsilane to the pore walls. The drug uptake and release profiles were monitored in situ using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and it was shown that both pore size and surface energy had a profound effect on both the adsorption and release kinetics of alendronate. The QCM-D data provided evidence that the drug delivery from mesoporous titania films is controlled by a binding–diffusion mechanism. The yielded knowledge of release kinetics is crucial in order to improve the in vivo tissue response associated to therapeutic treatments. Keywords: mesoporous titania, controlled drug delivery, release kinetics, alendronate, QCM-D

  12. Precipitation of Oriented Rutile and Ilmenite Needles in Garnet, Northeastern Connecticut, USA: Evidence for Extreme Metamorphic Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    We report the discovery of oriented needles of rutile and, less commonly, ilmenite in the cores of garnets from northeastern CT, USA. The rocks preserve granulite facies mineral assemblages, form part of the Merrimack Synclinorium, and underwent metamorphism and deformation during the Acadian orogeny. The needles appear identical to those reported from a number of extreme P-T environments worldwide, including UHP metamorphic rocks, high-P granulites, and garnet peridotites. The needles are predominantly oriented along directions in garnet. The long axes of the rutile needles commonly do not go extinct parallel to the cross hairs under cross-polarized light (e.g., Griffin et al., 1971). This anomalous extinction indicates that the needles do not preserve a specific crystallographic relationship with their garnet hosts (e.g., Hwang et al., 2007). The needles range from a few hundred nm to a few um in diameter, and can be mm-scale in length. Micrometer-scale plates of rutile, srilankite and crichtonite have also been observed in some garnets together with the Fe-Ti oxide needles. Several origins for the needles have been proposed in the literature; we investigate the hypothesis that they precipitated in situ from originally Ti-rich garnet. Chemical profiles across garnets indicate that some retain Ti zoning, with elevated-Ti concentrations in the cores dropping to low values in the rims. For these zoned garnets, high-resolution, 2-D chemical mapping using the JEOL JXA-8530F field emission gun electron microprobe at Yale University reveals that the needles are surrounded by well-defined Ti-depletion halos. Chemical profiles also document strong depletions of Cr (which is present in both rutile and ilmenite) directly adjacent to needles. The observed Ti-depletions demonstrate that the needles precipitated from Ti-bearing garnet, probably during cooling and/or decompression associated with exhumation. The rutile precipitates must be largely incoherent with respect to the

  13. Effect of Mn doped-titania on the activity of metallocene catalyst by in situ ethylene polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Kaleel, S. H.

    2012-09-01

    Ethylene polymerization was carried out using highly active metallocene catalysts (Cp 2ZrCl 2 and Cp 2TiCl 2) in combination with methylalumoxane. Titanium(IV) oxide containing 1% Mn as dopant was used as nanofillers. The influence of filler concentration, reaction temperature and pressure on the catalytic activity and polymer properties was investigated. There was a fourfold increase in the activity of zirconocene catalyst by addition of doped-titania. The morphology indicates that the doped-titania nanoparticles have a nucleus effect on the polymerization and caused a homogeneous PE shell around them. The optimum condition for polymerization was found to be 30°C. © 2012 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.

  14. Relation between crystallinity and chemical nature of surface on wettability: A study on pulsed laser deposited TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Phase, Deodatta; Sathe, Vasant; Choudhary, Ram Janay; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Kulkarni, Sulabha K.

    2011-01-01

    Pure titania (TiO 2 ) polycrystalline thin films in rutile, anatase and mixed phase have been grown on amorphous glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition method at various oxygen gas pressure. Wettability investigations have been carried out on these films. Consistent with our previous report [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155308 (2008)] it has been observed that for nearly same surface roughness large contact angle or superhydrophobicity is present when sample has a pure single phase and lower contact angle or hydrophobicity when mixed phases were present. Structural characterizations suggest that in addition to roughness, pure phase film surface associated with hydrophobic sites and mixed phase film surface show association of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites, which might be inducing specific wetting character. UV treatment induces superhydrophilicity in the films. It was observed that UV irradiation causes nonequilibrium state on the TiO 2 surface, leading to changes in the electron density, which in turn produces decrement in the crystallinity and lattice expansion. Reversible changes in the wetting state on the pure phase surfaces were observed to be faster than those on the mixed phase surfaces. We tried to establish the possible relation between crystalline phases, chemical nature of surface on reversible wettability besides the main governing parameter viz. surface roughness.

  15. Determination of Food Oxalates Using Silica–Titania Xerogel Modified with Eriochrome Cyanine R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Morosanova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of silica–titania xerogel with triphenylmethane dyes (pyrocatechol violet, chrome azurol S, eriochrome cyanine R has been investigated to create a new sensor material for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of food oxalates. The complex forming reaction between xerogel incorporated titanium(IV and triphenylmethane dyes has been studied; half-reaction periods, complex composition, equilibrium constants, and xerogel sorption capacity have been calculated for each dye. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR is characterized by the shortest half-reaction period, the smallest equilibrium constant, and the greatest capacity; it has been chosen for the sensor material construction because titanium(IV-ECR complex is formed faster and can be destroyed easier than other studied complexes. The interaction of this sensor material with oxalates has been described: the presence of oxalates causes sensor material discoloration and the absorbance is used as analytical signal. The analytical range is 35–900 mg/L (LOD 10.5 mg/L, n = 7. High concentrations of interfering inorganic anions, organic acids, and sucrose did not affect oxalate determination. Proposed solid phase spectrophotometric procedure has been successfully applied for the determination of oxalates in food samples (sorrel, spinach, parsley, ginger, and black pepper and the results are in good agreement with HPLC oxalate determination.

  16. Rutile TiO2 thin films grown by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnarsson, B.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T.K.; Ingason, A.S.; Leosson, K.; Olafsson, S.; Gudmundsson, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Thin TiO 2 films were grown on Si(001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Optical and structural properties of films were compared both before and after post-annealing using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray reflection (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both dcMS- and HiPIMS-grown films reveal polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 , even prior to post-annealing. The HiPIMS-grown films exhibit significantly larger grains compared to that of dcMC-grown films, approaching 100% of the film thickness for films grown at 700 °C. In addition, the XRR surface roughness of HiPIMS-grown films was significantly lower than that of dcMS-grown films over the whole temperature range 300–700 °C. Dispersion curves could only be obtained for the HiPIMS-grown films, which were shown to have a refractive index in the range of 2.7–2.85 at 500 nm. The results show that thin, rutile TiO 2 films, with high refractive index, can be obtained by HiPIMS at relatively low growth temperatures, without post-annealing. Furthermore, these films are smoother and show better optical characteristics than their dcMS-grown counterparts. - Highlights: • We demonstrate growth of rutile TiO 2 on Si (111) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • The films exhibit significantly larger grains than dc magnetron sputtered films • TiO 2 films with high refractive index are obtained without post-growth annealing

  17. PREPARATION OF TITANIA SOL-GEL COATINGS CONTAINING SILVER IN VARIOUS FORMS AND MEASURING OF THEIR BACTERICIDAL EFFECTS AGAINST E. COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Horkavcova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work describes titania coatings containing various forms of silver applied on a titanium substrate by a dip-coating sol-gel technique. Silver was added into the basic titania sol in form of colloid particles of Ag, crystals of AgNO3, particles of AgI, particles of Ag3PO4 and Ag3PO4 developed in situ (in the sol by reaction of AgNO3 with added calcium phosphate (brushite or monetite. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped at a constant rate into individual types of sols. Subsequently, they were slowly fired. The fired coatings contained microcracks. All over the surface there were evenly distributed spherical nanoparticles of silver (Ag, AgNO3 or microcrystals of AgI and Ag3PO4. The prepared coatings were tested under static conditions for their bactericidal effects against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli. The coated substrates were immersed into a suspension of E. coli in physiological solution for 24 and 4 hours. The basic titania coatings with no silver demonstrated no bactericidal properties. Very good bactericidal effect against E. coli in both types of bactericidal test showed the titania coatings with AgNO3, Ag3PO4 crystals and Ag3PO4 developed in situ.

  18. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Pure and Metal-Doped Titania Nanoparticles Coated on Glass Beads: Adsorption and Column Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ihsan Danish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized metal oxide, Titania, provides high surface area and specific affinity for the adsorption of heavy metals, including arsenic (As, which is posing a great threat to the world population due to its carcinogenic nature. In this study, As(III adsorption was studied on pure and metal- (Ag- and Fe- doped Titania nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by liquid impregnation method with some modifications, with crystallite size in the range of 30 to 40 nm. Band gap analysis, using Kubelka-Munk function showed a shift of absorption band from UV to visible region for the metal-doped Titania. Effect of operational parameters like dose of nanoparticles, initial As(III concentration, and pH was evaluated at 25°C. The data obtained gave a good fit with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics. In batch studies, over 90% of arsenic removal was observed for both types of metal-doped Titania nanoparticles from a solution containing up to 2 ppm of the heavy metal. Fixed bed columns of nanoparticles, coated on glass beads, were used for As(III removal under different operating conditions. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to predict the breakthrough curves and to find the characteristic column parameters useful for process design. The columns were regenerated using 10% NaOH solution.

  19. Kinetics of the water formation in the propene epoxidation over gold-titania catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, T.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation were determined for a number of different gold catalysts supported on titania, silica, and silicalite-1. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model was able to describe the reaction well. The kinetic parameters are independent of the support. Water was

  20. Hydrothermal crystallization of amorphous titania films deposited using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.R.G. [Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: drm@ansto.gov.au; Triani, G.; Zhang, Z. [Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-10-01

    A two stage process (atomic layer deposition, followed by hydrothermal treatment) for producing crystalline titania thin films at temperatures compatible with polymeric substrates (< 130 deg. C) has been assessed. Titania thin films were deposited at 80 deg. C using atomic layer deposition. They were extremely flat, uniform and almost entirely amorphous. They also contained relatively high levels of residual Cl from the precursor. After hydrothermal treatment at 120 deg. C for 1 day, > 50% of the film had crystallized. Crystallization was complete after 10 days of hydrothermal treatment. Crystallization of the film resulted in the formation of coarse grained anatase. Residual Cl was completely expelled from the film upon crystallization. As a result of the amorphous to crystalline transformation voids formed at the crystallization front. Inward and lateral crystal growth resulted in voids being localized to the film/substrate interface and crystallite perimeters resulting in pinholing. Both these phenomena resulted in films with poor adhesion and film integrity was severely compromised.

  1. Selective epoxidation of allylic alcohols with a titania-silica aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, M.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    An amorphous mesoporous titania-silica aerogel (20 wt%TiO{sub 2} - 80 wt% SiO{sub 2}) and tert.-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) have been used for the epoxidation of various allylic alcohols. Allylic alcohols possessing an internal double bond were more reactive than those with a terminal C=C bond. Epoxide selectivities could be improved by addition of (basic) zeolite 4 A and NaHCO{sub 3} to the reaction mixture. (orig.)

  2. Radiological impact assessment of arc welding supplies rutile; Evaluacion del impacto radiologico de la soldadura por arco con consumibles de rutilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozas Guinea, S.; Herranz Soler, M.; Perez Marin, C.; Idoeta Hermandorena, R.; Alegria gutierrez, N.; Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.; Legarda Ibanez, F.

    2013-07-01

    Consumables for welding containing rutile, the coating of the electrode or the filling of tubular thread, are the most widely used and also the most radioactive since the rutile is a mineral containing traces of natural radionuclides, and is therefore considered Normal Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As these electrodes and wire are consumed, small particles, aerosols and gases are emitted to the atmosphere of work, and may be inhaled by the welder. Therefore, and also according to the current regulatory framework and work carried out previously by the author on the radiological impact of the process of manufacture and storage of coated rutile electrodes, the objectives are: 1Calcular the internal dose for inhalation during two types of welding, one with electrodes coated and the other with thread. 2 calculate the external dose due to the deposition of particles in the work environment, slag and the immersion of the soldering iron in the cloud of smoke. 3 to assess the radiological impact. (Author)

  3. Optical, mechanical and TEM assessment of titania-doped Bi2V1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 7. Optical, mechanical and TEM assessment of titania-doped Bi2V1−TiO5.5−δ bismuth vanadate oxides. Gurbinder Kaur Gary Pickrell Vishal Kumar Om Prakash Pandey Kulvir Singh Daniel Homa. Volume 37 Issue 7 December 2014 pp ...

  4. Correlating oxygen vacancies and phase ratio/interface with efficient photocatalytic activity in mixed phase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ranjana; Samdarshi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The correlation of interfacial behavior and oxygen vacancies in mixed phase titania nanoparticles on their performance as photocatalyst has been investigated to explain the impact of photoactivity under UV and visible irradiation compared to pristine counterparts. The defects at the junction effectively reduce the band gap as well decrease the carrier recombination to enhance the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Pristine and mixed phases (A/R ratio) TiO 2 synthesized by sol gel route. • Photoactivity variation has been correlated with the changes in the phase ratio. • Enhanced UV and visible activity attributable to oxygen vacancy present at the interface. • Role of A/R ratio and oxygen vacancy in the photoactivity of mixed TiO 2 depicted through a model. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity is a result of the synergy of a succession of phenomena-photogeneration, separation, and participation of the charge carriers in redox reaction at the catalyst surface. While the extent of photogeneration is assessable in terms of absorption spectrum (band gap), the redox reaction can be correlated to specific surface area. However the respective change in the photocatalytic activity has not been rationally and consistently correlated with the above mentioned parameters. A satisfactory explanation of suppression of recombination based on separation of carriers due to differential mobility/diffusivity in the material phase(s) and/or intrinsic potential barrier exists but its correlation with common identifiable parameter/characteristics is still elusive. This paper attempts to address this issue by correlating the carrier separation with the phase ratio (phase interface) in mixed phase titania and generalizing it with the presence of oxygen vacancy at the phase interface. It essentially appears to complete the quest for identifiable parameters in the sequence of phenomena, which endow a photocatalyst with an efficient activity level. It has

  5. Light modulation in phase change disordered metamaterial - A smart cermet concept

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar , Sunil; Maury , Francis; Bahlawane , Naoufal

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Cermet coatings are popular solar selective absorbers as they allow capturing most of the solar energywhile minimising radiative losses. Embedded metallic nanoparticles in dielectric matrices promotemultiple internal reflection of light and provide an overall low emissivity. VO2 in the metamaterial stateis regarded in this study as a responsive mixed phase comprising metallic rutile VO2 inclusions insemiconducting monoclinic VO2 phase mimicking cermet. The smart cermet...

  6. Structural properties of Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt heterostructure grown on sapphire substrate—Influence of annealing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roch, Tomas, E-mail: roch@fmph.uniba.sk; Durina, Pavol; Grancic, Branislav; Gregor, Maros; Plecenik, Tomas; Truchly, Martin; Mikula, Marian; Satrapinskyy, Leonid; Kus, Peter; Plecenik, Andrej

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt, Pt/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Pt stacks were grown on (c-cut) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and annealed at 600 °C. • Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt contains both TiO{sub 2}-anatase (27%) and rutile (73%) phases after annealing. • Pt/TiO{sub 2} contains both anatase and rutile, TiO{sub 2}/Pt anatase phase only. • Epitaxial relationship of bottom platinum: Pt(1 1 1)[1–10]||sub(0 0 0 1)[11{sup ¯}00]. • Platinum top layer is uniaxially oriented: Pt(1 1 1)||sub(0 0 0 1). - Abstract: Simple gas sensors based on resistivity change of TiO{sub 2} thin films using combined top and bottom metallic contacts are very promising. In this work influence of ex situ annealing in ambient air on structure of TiO{sub 2} thin film stacked between two platinum contact layers has been studied. The layers were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering on unheated c-cut sapphire substrates. For lowering of the Schottky barrier at the Pt–TiO{sub 2} interfaces and for improved crystalline stability, ex situ annealing at 600 °C in air was carried out. In order to study separately influence of top and bottom platinum layers on crystal structure, also reference samples Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}/Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been prepared. Non-ambient X-ray diffraction measurement during annealing process and X-ray pole figures after annealing has been measured. Near epitaxial relationship was observed for bottom Pt layer grown on c-cut sapphire substrate: Pt(1 1 1)[11{sup ¯}0]||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1)[11{sup ¯}00]. Inner titania layer shows randomly oriented both TiO{sub 2}-rutile (R) and anatase (A) phases with the volumetric ratio of R/A ∼ 2.7. If prepared without top Pt contact layer, the TiO{sub 2} transforms during annealing to random single anatase phase. The TiO{sub 2} layer overgrown with only single Pt top contact layer shows randomly oriented both rutile and anatase phases with volumetric ratio R/A ∼ 2.3. The top Pt layer on TiO{sub 2

  7. Few layer graphene wrapped mixed phase TiO2 nanofiber as a potential electrode material for high performance supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanam, Lavanya; Sundara, Ramaprabhu

    2018-06-01

    A combination of favorable composition and optimized anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 (MPTNF)/Hydrogen exfoliated graphene (HEG) composite nanofibers (MPTNF/HEG) and anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite nanofibers (MPTNF/rGO) have been reported to enhance the electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications. These composite nanofibers have been synthesized by an efficient route of electrospinning together with the help of easy chemical methods. Both the composites exhibit good charge storage capability with enhanced pseudocapacitance and electric double-layer capacitance (EDLC) as confirmed by cyclic voltammetry studies. MPTNF/HEG composite showed maximum specific capacitance of 210.5 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g, which was mainly due to its availability of the more active sites for ions adsorption on a few layers of graphene wrapped TiO2 nanofiber surface. The synergistic effect of anatase/rutile mixed phase with one dimensional nanostructure and the electronic interaction between TiO2 and few layer graphene provided the subsequent improvement of ion adsorption capacity. Also exhibit excellent electrochemical performance to improve the capacitive properties of TiO2 electrode materials which is required for the development of flexible electrodes in energy storage devices and open up new opportunities for high performance supercapacitors.

  8. Polaron-mediated surface reconstruction in the reduced Rutile TiO2 (110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reticcioli, Michele; Setvin, Martin; Hao, Xianfeng; Diebold, Ulrike; Franchini, Cesare

    The role of polarons is of key importance for the understanding of the fundamental properties and functionalities of TiO2. We use density functional theory with an on-site Coulomb interaction and molecular dynamics to study the formation and dynamics of small polarons in the reduced rutile (110) surface. We show that excess electrons donated by oxygen-vacancies (VO) form mobile small polarons that hop easily in subsurface and surface Ti-sites. The polaron formation becomes more favorable by increasing the VO concentration level (up to 20%) due to the progressively lower energy cost needed to distort the lattice. However, at higher VO concentration the shortening of the averaged polaron-polaron distance leads to an increased Coulomb repulsion among the trapped charges at the Ti-sites, which weakens this trend. This instability is overtaken by means of a structural 1 × 2 surface reconstruction, characterized by a distinctively more favorable polaron distribution. The calculations are validated by a direct comparison with experimental AFM and STM data. Our study identifies a fundamentally novel mechanism to drive surface reconstructions and resolves a long standing issue on the origin of the reconstruction in rutile (110) surface.

  9. Rutile IrO2/TiO2 superlattices: A hyperconnected analog to the Ruddelsden-Popper structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Jason K.; Baek, David; Paik, Hanjong; Nair, Hari P.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2018-05-01

    Dimensionality and connectivity among octahedra play important roles in determining the properties, electronic structure, and phase transitions of transition-metal oxides. Here we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of (110)-oriented alternating layers of IrO2 and TiO2, both of which have the rutile structure. These (IrO2)n/(TiO2)2 superlattices consist of IrO6 and TiO6 octahedra tiled in a hyperconnected, edge- and corner-sharing network. Despite the large lattice mismatch between constituent layers (Δ d∥=-2.1 % and Δ c =+6.6 % ), our reactive molecular-beam epitaxy-grown superlattices show high structural quality as determined by x-ray diffraction and sharp interfaces as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The large strain at the interface is accommodated by an ordered interfacial reconstruction. The superlattices show persistent metallicity down to n =3 atomic layers, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal quantized sub-bands with signatures of IrO2-IrO2 interlayer coupling.

  10. Defect annealing in Mn/Fe-implanted TiO2 (rutile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H P; Svane, A; Weyer, G; Mantovan, R; Masenda, H; Naidoo, D; Mølholt, T E; Gislason, H; Ólafsson, S; Johnston, K; Bharuth-Ram, K; Langouche, G

    2014-01-01

    A study of the annealing processes and charge state of dilute Fe in rutile TiO 2 single crystals was performed in the temperature range 143–662 K, utilizing online 57 Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following low concentrations (<10 −3  at%) implantation of 57 Mn (T 1/2  = 1.5 min). Both Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ were detected throughout the temperature range. Three annealing stages were distinguished: (i) a broad annealing stage below room temperature leading to an increased Fe 3+ fraction; (ii) a sharp annealing stage at ∼330 K characterized by conversion of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ and changes in the hyperfine parameters of Fe 2+ , attributed to the annealing of Ti vacancies in the vicinity of the probe atoms; and (iii) an annealing stage in the temperature range from 550 to 600 K, where all Fe ions are transformed to Fe 3+ , attributed to the annealing of the nearby O vacancies. The dissociation energy of Mn Ti –V O pairs was estimated to be 1.60(15) eV. Fe 2+ is found in an environment where it can probe the lattice structure through the nuclear quadrupole interaction evidencing the extreme radiation hardness of rutile TiO 2 . Fe 3+ is found in a paramagnetic state with slow spin–lattice relaxation which follows a ∼T n temperature dependence with 4.1 < n < 6.3 at T > 350 K. (paper)

  11. Titania Supported Co-Mn-Al Oxide Catalysts in Total Oxidation of Ethanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, Jana; Jirátová, Květa; Klempa, Jan; Böhmová, Vlasta; Obalová, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 1 (2012), s. 164-169 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762; GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : mixed oxide catalysts * voc oxidation * titania Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2012

  12. Mechanisms of impurity diffusion in rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.; Sasaki, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 63 Ni, and 95 Zr, was measured as functions of crystal orientation, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in rutile single crystals using the radioactive tracer sectioning technique. Compared to cation self-diffusion, divalent impurities (e.g., Co and Ni) diffuse extremely rapidly in TiO 2 and exhibit a large anisotropy in the diffusion behavior; divalent-impurity diffusion parallel to the c-axis is much larger than it is perpendicular to the c-axis. The diffusion of trivalent impurity ions (Sc and Cr) and tetravalent impurity ions (Zr) is similar to cation self-diffusion, as a function of temperature and of oxygen partial pressure. The divalent impurity ions Co and Ni apparently diffuse as interstitial ions along open channels parallel to the c-axis. The results suggest that Sc, Cr, and Zr ions diffuse by an interstitialcy mechanism involving the simultaneous and cooperative migration of tetravalent interstitial titanium ions and the tracer-impurity ions. Iron ions diffused both as divalent and as trivalent ions. 8 figures

  13. Engineering the surface of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles with quantum pits towards excellent lithium storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jinglu; Fang, Fang; Huang, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Engineering the surface structure of nanomaterials is of great importance for applications in energy conversion and storage. Herein, unique rutile TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a facile solution and subsequent thermal annealing method. Each particle surface has been...

  14. Tuning the Phase and Microstructural Properties of TiO2 Films Through Pulsed Laser Deposition and Exploring Their Role as Buffer Layers for Conductive Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Haseman, M. S.; Leedy, K. D.; Winarski, D. J.; Saadatkia, P.; Doyle, E.; Zhang, L.; Dang, T.; Vasilyev, V. S.; Selim, F. A.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a semiconducting oxide of increasing interest due to its chemical and thermal stability and broad applicability. In this study, thin films of TiO2 were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire and silicon substrates under various growth conditions, and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. XRD patterns revealed that a sapphire substrate is more suitable for the formation of the rutile phase in TiO2, while a silicon substrate yields a pure anatase phase, even at high-temperature growth. AFM images showed that the rutile TiO2 films grown at 805°C on a sapphire substrate have a smoother surface than anatase films grown at 620°C. Optical absorption spectra confirmed the band gap energy of 3.08 eV for the rutile phase and 3.29 eV for the anatase phase. All the deposited films exhibited the usual high resistivity of TiO2; however, when employed as a buffer layer, anatase TiO2 deposited on sapphire significantly improves the conductivity of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films. The study illustrates how to control the formation of TiO2 phases and reveals another interesting application for TiO2 as a buffer layer for transparent conducting oxides.

  15. Effects of donor doping and acceptor doping on rutile TiO2 particles for photocatalytic O2 evolution by water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Fumiaki; Tosaki, Ryosuke; Sato, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Yamato

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline defects of photocatalyst particles may be considered to be the recombination center of photoexcited electrons and holes. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic activity of cation-doped rutile TiO2 photocatalysts for O2 evolution from an aqueous silver nitrate solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 was enhanced by donor doping of Ta5+ and Nb5+ with a valence higher than that of Ti4+, regardless of increased density of electrons and Ti3+ species (an electron trapped in Ti4+ sites). Conversely, acceptor doping of lower valence cations such as In3+ and Ga3+ decreased photocatalytic activity for O2 evolution by water oxidation. The doping of equal valence cations such as Sn4+ and Ge4+ hardly changed the activity of non-doped TiO2. This study demonstrates that Ti3+ species, which is a crystalline defect, enhanced the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor oxides, for example rutile TiO2 with large crystalline size.

  16. Construction of hydrophobic wood surfaces by room temperature deposition of rutile (TiO2) nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongbo Zheng; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Qingyu Li; Hongyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    A convenient room temperature approach was developed for growing rutile TiO2 hierarchical structures on the wood surface by direct hydrolysis and crystallization of TiCl3 in saturated NaCl aqueous solution.The morphology and the crystal structure of TiO2 coated on the wood surface were characterized...

  17. Polyaniline nanowire array encapsulated in titania nanotubes as a superior electrode for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Keyu; Li, Jie; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhi'an; Liu, Yexiang; Zhang, Guoge; Huang, Haitao

    2011-05-01

    Conducting polymer with 1D nanostructure exhibits excellent electrochemical performances but a poor cyclability that limits its use in supercapacitors. In this work, a novel composite electrode made of polyaniline nanowire-titania nanotube array was synthesized via a simple and inexpensive electrochemical route by electropolymerizing aniline onto an anodized titania nanotube array. The specific capacitance was as high as 732 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, which remained at 543 F g-1 when the current density was increased by 20 times. 74% of the maximum energy density (36.6 Wh kg-1) was maintained even at a high power density of 6000 W kg-1. An excellent long cycle life of the electrode was observed with a retention of ~86% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance was attributed to the unique microstructure of the electrode with disordered PANI nanowire arrays encapsulated inside the TiO2 nanotubes, providing high surface area, fast diffusion path for ions and long-term cycle stability. Such a nanocomposite electrode is attractive for supercapacitor applications.

  18. Fabrication of Self-Cleaning, Reusable Titania Templates for Nanometer and Micrometer Scale Protein Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxey, Mark; Johnson, Alexander; El-Zubir, Osama; Cartron, Michael; Dinachali, Saman Safari; Hunter, C Neil; Saifullah, Mohammad S M; Chong, Karen S L; Leggett, Graham J

    2015-06-23

    The photocatalytic self-cleaning characteristics of titania facilitate the fabrication of reuseable templates for protein nanopatterning. Titania nanostructures were fabricated over square centimeter areas by interferometric lithography (IL) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). With the use of a Lloyd's mirror two-beam interferometer, self-assembled monolayers of alkylphosphonates adsorbed on the native oxide of a Ti film were patterned by photocatalytic nanolithography. In regions exposed to a maximum in the interferogram, the monolayer was removed by photocatalytic oxidation. In regions exposed to an intensity minimum, the monolayer remained intact. After exposure, the sample was etched in piranha solution to yield Ti nanostructures with widths as small as 30 nm. NIL was performed by using a silicon stamp to imprint a spin-cast film of titanium dioxide resin; after calcination and reactive ion etching, TiO2 nanopillars were formed. For both fabrication techniques, subsequent adsorption of an oligo(ethylene glycol) functionalized trichlorosilane yielded an entirely passive, protein-resistant surface. Near-UV exposure caused removal of this protein-resistant film from the titania regions by photocatalytic degradation, leaving the passivating silane film intact on the silicon dioxide regions. Proteins labeled with fluorescent dyes were adsorbed to the titanium dioxide regions, yielding nanopatterns with bright fluorescence. Subsequent near-UV irradiation of the samples removed the protein from the titanium dioxide nanostructures by photocatalytic degradation facilitating the adsorption of a different protein. The process was repeated multiple times. These simple methods appear to yield durable, reuseable samples that may be of value to laboratories that require nanostructured biological interfaces but do not have access to the infrastructure required for nanofabrication.

  19. Interaction of fibrinogen and albumin with titanium dioxide nanoparticles of different crystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, Arianna; Fenoglio, Ivana; Turci, Francesco; Fubini, Bice

    2013-01-01

    TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) are contained in different kinds of industrial products including paints, self-cleaning glasses, sunscreens. TiO 2 is also employed in photocatalysis and it has been proposed for waste water treatment. Micrometric TiO 2 is generally considered a safe material, while there is concern on the possible health effects of nanometric titania. Due to their small size NPs may migrate within the human body possibly entering in the blood stream. Therefore studies on the interaction of NPs with plasma proteins are needed. In fact, the interaction with proteins is believed to ultimately influences the NPs biological fate. Fibrinogen and albumin are two of the most abundant plasma proteins. They are involved in several important physiological functions. Furthermore, fibrinogen is known to trigger platelet adhesion and inflammation. For these reasons the study of the interaction between these protein and nanoparticles is an important step toward the understanding of the behavior of NPs in the body. In this study we investigated the interaction of albumin and fibrinogen with TiO 2 nanoparticles of different crystal phases (rutile and anatase) using an integrated set of techniques. The amount of adsorbed fibrinogen and albumin for each TiO 2 surface was investigated by using the bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA). The variation of the surface charge of the NP-protein conjugates respect to the naked NPs was used to indirectly estimate both surface coverage and reversibility of the adsorption upon dilution. Surface charge was monitored by measuring the ζ potential with a conventional electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) system. The extent of protein deformation was evaluated by Raman Spectroscopy. We found that both proteins adsorb irreversibly against electrostatic repulsion, likely undergoing conformational changes or selective orientation upon adsorption. The size of primary particles and the particles aggregation rather than the crystal phase modulate the

  20. Nanostructured titanium dioxide: a control of crystallite size and content of polymorphic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boery, Mirella N. de O.; Ono, Eduardo; Manfrim, Tarcio P.; Santos, Juliana S.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 (titanium dioxide) powders and nanoparticles have been largely used in toners and cosmetics. Nowadays, they are mainly focused in photocatalysis, antibacterial coatings, dye-sensitized solar cells, etc. The efficiency is related to photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 nanoparticles, such as crystallite size and phase (anatasio/rutile). In this research, flame aerosol method was used to synthesize TiO 2 nanoparticles by hydrolysis and oxidation of TiCl 4 (titanium tetrachloride). The oxy-hydrogen flame was provided by a five concentric nozzle silica burner. X-ray diffraction was used to identify each TiO 2 nanoparticles phase and scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the size and morphology of nanoparticles. Pure anatase was obtained with H 2 /O 2 ratio ≤ 1.0, and up to 52 wt% of rutile was obtained with H 2 /O 2 ratio > 2.0. Anatase crystal grain size varied from 25 to 38 nm, estimated by Scherrer formula.(author)

  1. Efficacy of radiosensitizing doped titania nanoparticles under hypoxia and preparation of an embolic microparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison RA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rachel A Morrison,1,* Malgorzata J Rybak-Smith,1,* James M Thompson,2 Bénédicte Thiebaut,3 Mark A Hill,2 Helen E Townley1,4 1Department of Engineering Science, 2Gray Laboratories, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, 3Johnson Matthey, Technology Centre, Reading, Berkshire, 4Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a manufacturing protocol for large-scale production of doped titania radiosensitizing nanoparticles (NPs to establish their activity under hypoxia and to produce a multimodal radiosensitizing embolic particle for cancer treatment. We have previously shown that radiosensitizing NPs can be synthesized from titania doped with rare earth elements, especially gadolinium. To translate this technology to the clinic, a crucial step is to find a suitable, scalable, high-throughput method. Herein, we have described the use of flame spray pyrolysis (FSP to generate NPs from titanium and gadolinium precursors to produce titania NPs doped with 5 at% gadolinium. The NPs were fully characterized, and their capacity to act as radiosensitizers was confirmed by clonogenic assays. The integrity of the NPs in vitro was also ascertained due to the potentially adverse effects of free gadolinium in the body. The activity of the NPs was then studied under hypoxia since this is often a barrier to effective radiotherapy. In vitro radiosensitization experiments were performed with both the hypoxia mimetics deferoxamine and cobalt chloride and also under true hypoxia (oxygen concentration of 0.2%. It was shown that the radiosensitizing NPs were able to cause a significant increase in cell death even after irradiation under hypoxic conditions such as those found in tumors. Subsequently, the synthesized NPs were used to modify polystyrene embolization

  2. Platinum–Rhenium synergy on reducible oxide supports in aqueous-phase glycerol reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftci, A.; Eren, S.; Ligthart, D.A.J.M.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant support effect was observed for the aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of glycerol over a series of Pt- and PtRe-loaded ceria-, ceria–zirconia-, zirconia-, and titania-supported catalysts. Glycerol conversion rates decreased in the order Pt/TiO2>Pt/ZrO2>Pt/CeZrO2>Pt/CeO2. Upon addition of

  3. New sol-gel bioactive glass and titania composites with enhanced physico-chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Justyna; Widziołek, Magdalena; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Łączka, Maria; Osyczka, Anna Maria

    2014-07-01

    We developed TiO2 matrix composites modified by sol-gel bioactive glasses (SBG) of either high CaO content (A2) or high SiO2 content (S2). The latter were mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) at 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 weight ratios and sintered at 1250°C for 2 h. We examined the effects of various types (A2 or S2) and compositional TiO2 :SBG ratios on the mechanical properties of resulting composites, their bioactivity and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) response. The chemistry of SBGs influenced the phase composition, mechanical and biological properties of the composites. Rutile and titanite prevailed in A2-TiO2 composites, and rutile and crystobalite in S2-TiO2 composites. Compressive strength increased significantly for 25A2-TiO2 composites (140 MPa) compared to matrix TiO2 (58 MPa). Composites containing 50-75 wt % of either SBG displayed bioactive properties as determined by simulated body fluid test. Compared to TiO2, human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) viability was enhanced on the composites containing 25 wt % of either SBG, whereas the composites modified by 25 wt % of S2 enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in cultures treated with osteogenic inducers-dexamethasone (Dex) or bone morphogenetic protein. Increasing amounts of A2 in TiO2 matrix decreased cell viability but increased collagen deposition and mineralized matrix production by BMSC. Considering the physico-chemical and biological properties of the presented composites, the modification of TiO2 with SBG may prove useful strategy in several bone tissue related regeneration strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. How phase composition influences optoelectronic and photocatalytic properties of TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Savenije, Tom J.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the ratio of rutile and anatase phases in sol−gel-synthe-sized TiO2 was varied by calcination at temperatures ranging from 500 to 900 °C. Changes in opto-electronic properties were analyzed by time-resolved microwave conductance measurements (TRMC) and evaluated by comparison of

  5. Novel sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)/phosphonic acid-functionalized titania nanohybrid membrane by an in situ method for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Cao, Ying; Li, Zhen; He, Guangwei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)/phosphonic acid-functionalized titania nanohybrid membranes are prepared by an in situ method using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as inorganic precursor and amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) as modifier. Phosphonic acid-functionalized titania nanoparticles with a uniform particle size of ∼50 nm are formed and dispersed homogeneously in the SPEEK matrix with good interfacial compatibility. Accordingly, the nanohybrid membranes display remarkably enhanced proton conduction property due to the incorporation of additional sites for proton transport and the formation of well-connected channels by bridging the hydrophilic domains in SPEEK matrix. The nanohybrid membrane with 6 wt. % of phosphonic acid-functionalized titania nanoparticles exhibits the highest proton conductivity of 0.334 S cm-1 at 65 °C and 100% RH, which is 63.7% higher than that of pristine SPEEK membrane. Furthermore, the as-prepared nanohybrid membranes also show elevated thermal and mechanical stabilities as well as decreased methanol permeability.

  6. Preparation of Nanocrystalline Titania Thin Films by Using Pure and Water-modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Cerhová, Marie; Dřínek, Vladislav; Daniš, S.; Matějová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, NOV 2016 (2016), s. 289-296 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23274S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titania thin films * supercritical carbon dioxide * crystallization Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  7. Comment on Parts 1 and 2 of the Series “Electric Double Layer at the Rutile (110) Surface”

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Předota, Milan; Vlček, Lukáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 5 (2007), s. 1245-1247 ISSN 1520-6106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : rutile * simulation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2007

  8. Photovoltaic behaviour of titanyl phthalocyanine thin films and titania bilayer films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Zachary, A. M.; Choi, Y.; Hanuš, J.; Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Cimrová, Věra; Slavinská, D.; Biederman, H.; Hanley, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2008), s. 57-60 ISSN 1022-1360. [Microsymposium on Advanced Polymer Materials for Photonics and Electronics /47./. Prague, 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE0241425; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conjugated polymers * photovoltaics * phthalocyanine * thin films * titania Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx

  10. Transmission electron microscopy of carbon-coated and iron-doped titania nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-08-02

    We present a study on the properties of iron (Fe)-doped and carbon (C)-coated titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) which has been compiled by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These TiO2 NPs were prepared by using the flame synthesis method. This method allows the simultaneous C coating and Fe doping of TiO2 NPs. XRD investigations revealed that the phase of the prepared NPs was anatase TiO2. Conventional TEM analysis showed that the average size of the TiO2 NPs was about 65 nm and that the NPs were uniformly coated with the element C. Furthermore, from the x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry analysis, it was found that about 8 at.% Fe was present in the synthesized samples. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) revealed the graphitized carbon structure of the layer surrounding the prepared TiO2 NPs. HRTEM analysis further revealed that the NPs possessed the crystalline structure of anatase titania. Energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) analysis showed the C coating and Fe doping of the NPs. The ratio of L3 and L2 peaks for the Ti-L23 and Fe-L23 edges present in the core loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed a +4 oxidation state for the Ti and a +3 oxidation state for the Fe. These EELS results were further confirmed with XPS analysis. The electronic properties of the samples were investigated by applying Kramers-Kronig analysis to the low-loss EELS spectra acquired from the prepared NPs. The presented results showed that the band gap energy of the TiO2 NPs decreased from an original value of 3.2 eV to about 2.2 eV, which is quite close to the ideal band gap energy of 1.65 eV for photocatalysis semiconductors. The observed decrease in band gap energy of the TiO2 NPs was attributed to the presence of Fe atoms at the lattice sites of the anatase TiO2 lattice. In short, C-coated and Fe-doped TiO2 NPs were synthesized with a rather cost-effective and comparatively easily scalable method. The

  11. Potassium effects on kinetics of propane oxydehydrogenation on vanadia-titania catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, R.; Samson, K.

    2003-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODH) over V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 and V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 doped with K was carried out by measuring conversions and selectiveness for various feed compositions, contact times and temperatures. The results obtained for both catalysts were interpreted on the basis of the mechanism, in which propene is formed through Eley-Rideal sequence of steps, i.e. without participation of the adsorbed propane species. Kinetic constants (activation energies, pre-exponential factors) for the model of ODH reaction of propane on these catalysts, obtained on the basis of steady-state results, are given. Addition of K to vanadia-titania catalysts leads to decrease of total combustion of propane and consecutive combustion of propene. It has been found that the direct propane total oxidation is 5 - 9 times lower than that of the consecutive propene oxidation and is almost temperature independent for potassium doped catalyst, whereas it quickly decreases with temperature for a non-doped catalyst. Secondly, the addition of K to a vanadia-titania catalyst decreases the activation energies for propene formation (k 1 ), parallel formation of CO x (k 3 ) and reoxidation of the catalyst (k os ). Potassium exhibits a stronger inhibitory effect on the secondary propene combustion, what reflects the lower activity of V 5+ cations modified by the strongly basic alkali oxide species. (author)

  12. Photoactivity of brookite-rutile TiO(2) nanocrystalline mixtures obtained by heat treatment of hydrothermally prepared brookite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Králová, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 3 (2011), s. 794-801 ISSN 0254-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : oxides * heat treatment * titania * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2011

  13. Anodic fabrication of advanced titania nanotubes photocatalysts for photoelectrocatalysis decolorization of Orange G dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Yaju; Liu, Yijin; Nurhayati, Ervin; Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Huang, Chihpin; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-02-01

    Titania nanotubes (TNTs) were fabricated on Ti mesh substrates by the anodizing technique. The effects of preparation variables, such as anodizing voltage, time and calcination temperature on the textural characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TNTs were investigated. The surface morphology, crystalline phase, and chemical composition were analyzed using field emission-scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The photo-electrochemical properties of TNTs were examined by voltammetry. The TNTs were tested as a photoanode for advanced oxidation processes, such as photocatalytic, electrocatalytic, and photoelectrocatalytic decolorization of Orange G dye. The well-arranged TNTs electrode prepared in this work showed a high photocurrent density of 101 µA cm(-2) at an optimum length-to-diameter aspect ratio of 31.2. In dye decolorization tests, the electrochemical photocatalytic system using TNTs as the photoanode achieved total decolorization and 64% mineralization under extended reaction time. These results show that TNTs prepared by this method is greatly stable in prolonged use and suitable as a photoanode in the photocatalytic/photoelectrocatalytic treatments of dye wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitization of Xanthophylls-Chlorophyllin Mixtures on Titania Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriana Kartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-sensitization of natural dyes on TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was proposed between chlorophyllin (C and xanthophylls (X at various volume ratios of C/X. Chlorophyllin is chlorophyll derivative providing -COOH groups essential for binding to TiO2. The chlorophyll was extracted from dried spinach (amaranthus viridis leaves in a mixture of methanol-acetone (70%:30%. Chlorophyll extract dye was obtained after partition of the crude extracts in diethyl ether solution. Then, it was hydrolyzed under alkaline condition to get chlorophyllin. Xanthophyll was extracted from fresh petal of chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum flowers. Blending of chlorophyllin and xanthophyll was carried out at various volume ratios of C to X (1:0, 5:1, 1:1, 1:5, 0:1. Titania solar cells were constructed in sandwich system of conducting glass-titania/dyes as the photoanode and conducting glass-platinum as the photocathode. Electrolyte solution containing I-/I3- was inserted between the electrodes by capillary action. All dye extracts and blending solutions were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It is shown that the absorption spectra of blending dyes are complimentary in the visible region resulted in a panchromatic response of the dyes. From the cyclic voltammogram of the dyes and blended-dyes, it is found that the energy level of xanthophyll is the lowest. The I-V test at 100 mw/cm2 irradiation confirmed that the energy conversion efficiency (h of the blended dyes of xanthophyll and chlorophyllin-sensitized solar cell resulted in significant improvement than those of the single dye. Beneficially, the mixed dyes can be adsorbed from solution blend using single dipping step.

  15. Rare earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinhuan; Yang Xia; Yu Xiaodan; Xu, Leilei; Kang Wanli; Yan Wenhua; Gao Hongfeng; Liu Zhonghe; Guo Yihang

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites (RE 3+ /TiO 2 , where RE = Eu 3+ , Pr 3+ , Gd 3+ , Nd 3+ , and Y 3+ ) were prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method. The products exhibited anatase phase structure, mesoporosity, and interesting surface compositions with three oxygen species and two titanium species. The products were used as the photocatalysts to degrade a partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide (HPAM) under UV-light irradiation, a very useful polymer in oil recovery. For comparison, Degussa P25 and as-prepared pure TiO 2 were also tested under the same conditions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was obtained on as-prepared Eu 3+ (Gd 3+ , Pr 3+ )/TiO 2 composites, and the reasons were explained. Finally, the degradation pathway of HPAM over the RE 3+ /TiO 2 composite was put forward based on the intermediates produced during the photocatalysis procedure.

  16. Adsorbate-induced lifting of substrate relaxation is a general mechanism governing titania surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, David; Kowalski, Piotr M; Traeger, Franziska; Buchholz, Maria; Bebensee, Fabian; Meyer, Bernd; Wöll, Christof

    2016-09-30

    Under ambient conditions, almost all metals are coated by an oxide. These coatings, the result of a chemical reaction, are not passive. Many of them bind, activate and modify adsorbed molecules, processes that are exploited, for example, in heterogeneous catalysis and photochemistry. Here we report an effect of general importance that governs the bonding, structure formation and dissociation of molecules on oxidic substrates. For a specific example, methanol adsorbed on the rutile TiO 2 (110) single crystal surface, we demonstrate by using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques that strongly bonding adsorbates can lift surface relaxations beyond their adsorption site, which leads to a significant substrate-mediated interaction between adsorbates. The result is a complex superstructure consisting of pairs of methanol molecules and unoccupied adsorption sites. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the paired methanol molecules remain intact and do not deprotonate on the defect-free terraces of the rutile TiO 2 (110) surface.

  17. Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Efficiency Using Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanoparticles as Photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is a potential candidate to replace conventional silicon-based solar cells because of high efficiency, cheap cost, and lower energy consumption in comparison with silicon chip manufacture. In this report, mixed-phase (anatase and rutile nanoparticles TiO2 photoanode was synthesized to investigate material characteristics, carriers transport, and photovoltaic performance for future DSSC application. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to characterize mixed TiO2 particles. Subsequently, various mixed-phase TiO2 anodes in DSSC devices were measured by electrical impedance spectra (EIS and energy efficiency conversion. The overall energy conversion efficiency of DSSC chip was improved as a result of the increase of rutile phase of TiO2 (14% in anatase matrix. Synergistic effects including TiO2 crystallization, reduction of defect density level in energy band, longer lifetime of photoexcited electrons, and lower resistance of electron pathway all contributed to high efficiency of light energy conversion.

  18. On the “possible” synergism of the different phases of TiO 2 in photo-catalysis for hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Wahab, A.K.

    2017-05-19

    The effect of TiO2 phase composition on the photocatalytic hydrogen production of water/ethanol (95/5 volume ratio) has been studied in order to understand the structural effect (and associated electronic properties) on the reaction within the so called “synergistic effect” concept. Within the investigated series of 1wt.% Pt/TiO2 with initial particle dimension of ca. 15nm the highest hydrogen production rate per unit area was observed for catalysts composed of 80% anatase, 18% rutile and 2% brookite. The associated particle sizes for this catalyst were 44, 82 and 33nm for the three phases, respectively. XRD patterns analyzed by the Rietveld method as well as X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) of the Ti K-edge mapped the phase transformation from anatase/brookite to rutile where it appears that the brookite phase is initially transformed to anatase phase. XRD patterns and Raman shift were found to be more sensitive to subtle changes in phase composition when compared to UV-vis absorbance or XANES of the Ti K-edge. The photocatalytic reaction for the complete series was conducted in identical condition and with excess photon flux in order to extract accurate reaction rates. In addition to the observed multi-phase effects on the reaction rate, other parameters extracted from the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns were found to be useful. In particular, at the narrow window where the reaction rate was found to be maximum, the c-dimension of the anatase phase had values in the range 9.510–9.515Å. These c-dimension values are between those observed for nanoparticles with less than 20nm in size and those for larger particles with a size above 50nm. Results from this work indicate that the synergism between anatase and rutile on the photocatalytic reaction for hydrogen production, often attributed to increase the charge carrier life time, may be linked to the lattice expansion of the anatase phase which in turn would affect its electronic

  19. Series-Interconnected Plastic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Prepared by Low- Temperature Binder-Free Titania Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlyta Septa Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. This was implemented on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a mixture of transparent and scattered mesoporous anatase-titania as the electron transport layer for the photoelectrode. This mixture of anatase titania performed a dual function of light scattering and efficient dye absorption. In this study, a porous nano-TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET by using a binder-free titania paste; on it, a DSSC was fabricated. The paste which contained a mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles, acid chloride, and ethanol was printed on two patterns of 1x6 cm2 active areas followed by sintered at 120 ºC to form TiO2 films. A commercial dye, N719, was adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 films and assembled to two platinized conductive plastic patterns to form a counter electrode and thus a sandwich-type dye cell. Finally, a solution of KI/I2 electrolytes was injected into the cell in which a couple of sandwich-type dye cells with an active area of 6 cm2 for each cell were series interconnected with a z-type interconnection between the photoelectrode of one cell and the counter electrode of another cell. The cell performance was characterized by employing simulated solar light at an intensity of 50 mW/cm2. The results showed interconnected cells generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 2.34 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 1.10 volt, and overall 0.172% power conversion efficiency.

  20. Remarkable optical red shift and extremely high optical absorption coefficient of V-Ga co-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quanrong; Han, Xiaoping; Gao, Yun; Shao, Guosheng

    2012-07-01

    A first attempt has been made to study the effect of codoping of transition metal and sp metal on the electronic structure and associated optical properties of TiO2, through V-Ga codoped thin films. V-Ga codoped rutile TiO2 films were fabricated on fused quartz substrates using pulsed laser ablation, followed by heat treatment at high temperatures. Gigantic redshift in the optical absorption edge was observed in V-Ga co-doped TiO2 materials, from UV to infrared region with high absorption coefficient. Through combined structural characterization and theoretical modeling, this is attributed to the p-d hybridization between the two metals. This leads to additional energy bands to overlap with the minimum of the conduction band, leading to remarkably narrowed band gap free of mid-gap states. The direct-gap of the co-doped phase is key to the remarkably high optical absorption coefficient of the coped titania.

  1. Electrospun ceramic fibermats for filtration applications in lunar missions for in-habitat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Apratim

    associated with general handling and fixture used for holding the filtration media. Electrospinning was selected as the fabrication method due to superior performance towards fiber diameter uniformity and the ability to decrease fiber diameters to the nm level. Filtration tests have been carried out on such fibermats concerning a number of key variables such as fiber diameter, particle size, pressure drop and more. Multifunctionality, as filter material and as photocatalyst, allows the filters to be regenerable. Furthermore, organic vapors (odors) and plant super hormones (ethylene gas) can be oxidized. This is key for a sustainable human base where food needs to be grown and the level of odors in habitat has to be minimized. Ceramic materials based on TiO2 and titania composites where selected. To enhance the catalytic properties doping with a pentavalent ion, viz. niobium, with varying concentrations was done. Materials were electrospun and characterized. An increase of niobium yields stabilization of the anatase phase at 600°C as evident from XRD patterns. Higher treatment temperatures allow a transformation to rutile. This is important since the semiconductor junction of anatase to rutile decreases electron-hole recombination rate, which enhances the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, doping anatase with niobium increases the porosity and with it the catalytically active area. In fact the specific surface area of titania fibers increases by almost 6 times when doped with only 2.5 at% niobium. However, in this work reduced photocatalytic activity was observed. It is hypothesized that phase separation of the niobium rather than doping in a solid solution occurred which will change the properties of the semiconductor junction in an unfavorable way. The other possible explanation is the decrease in the anatase -- rutile semiconductor junction in niobium doped titania.

  2. Titania-coated manganite nanoparticles: synthesis of the shell, characterization and MRI properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirák, Zdeněk; Kuličková, Jarmila; Herynek, Vít; Maryško, Miroslav; Koktan, Jakub; Kaman, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 427, Apr (2017), s. 245-250 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10088S; GA ČR GA16-04340S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : magnetic nanoparticles * core-shell nanoparticles * titania coating * perovskite manganite * magnetic resonance imaging * transverse relaxivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  3. Synthesis of high purity rutile nanoparticles from medium-grade Egyptian natural ilmenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Shahien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian magmatic ilmenite is classified as a medium-grade ore. The present work is an attempt to produce a high-quality TiO2 that can be used in several industries from this medium-grade raw material using the mechanical activation, carbothermic reduction, hydrochloric acid leaching and calcination. A mixture from the ilmenite (FeTiO3 and activated carbon was milled for 30 h. This mixture was annealed at 1200 °C for one hour and the product was leached by hydrochloric acid and calcined at 600 °C for two hours. The role of the ball milling was to grind the raw ilmenite to obtain the nano size, and the carbothermic reduction was to reduce all the Fe-Ti phases to a mixture from Fe metal and TiO2. Leaching procedure was carried out to remove all the Fe metal and obtain a high-grade TiO2. After leaching and calcination of the milled and annealed mixture of FeTiO3/C under the optimal conditions, TiO2 nanoparticles with a size of 10–100 nm and purity more than 95% were obtained. The qualifications of the synthesized high purity rutile nanoparticles from the Egyptian natural ilmenite match the conditions of many industrial applications.

  4. Stability and catalytic performance of vanadia supported on nanostructured titania catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kootenaei, A.H. Shahbazi; Towfighi, J.; Khodadadi, A.; Mortazavi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadia supported on titanate nanotube shows enhanced dispersion of vanadia. • Deactivatoin during propane ODH related to the rutile development. • Titanate nanotube transfers to anatase due to calcinations and presence of vanadia. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the simple hydrothermal method and investigated as support for V 2 O 5 catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODP). The structures of pristine nanotubes as well as the prepared catalysts were investigated by XRD, Raman, FTIR, HRTEM, SEM, EDS, BET, and XPS techniques. The characterization of the as-synthesized nanotubes showed the synthesis of hydrogen titanate nanotube. The incipient wetness impregnation method was utilized to prepare VTNT-x (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.% vanadia supported on nanotube) together with VTi5 (5 wt.% vanadia supported on Degussa P25). The anatase phase was developed in VTNT-x catalysts upon calcination along with specific surface area loss. Higher vanadia loading resulted in the lowering of support capacity in maintaining vanadia in dispersed state such that eventually crystalline vanadia appeared. The measured catalyst activity demonstrates that in spite of major support surface area loss in VTNT-5 catalyst, the propylene yield is superior in comparison with VTi5 catalyst. The catalyst activity can be correlated with maximum reduction temperature. Deactivation of VTi5 and VTNT-5 as well as VTNT-15 were studied for 3,000 min time-on-stream. It was found that the activity of VTNT-5 catalyst remain unchanged while a decline in catalytic activity observed in VTi5 and VTNT-15 catalysts. The development of rutile was considered as being a major element in the deactivation of the investigated catalysts which is influenced by the presence of vanadium and reaction atmosphere

  5. Stability and catalytic performance of vanadia supported on nanostructured titania catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kootenaei, A.H. Shahbazi [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Towfighi, J., E-mail: towfighi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, A.; Mortazavi, Y. [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Laboratory, Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Vanadia supported on titanate nanotube shows enhanced dispersion of vanadia. • Deactivatoin during propane ODH related to the rutile development. • Titanate nanotube transfers to anatase due to calcinations and presence of vanadia. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the simple hydrothermal method and investigated as support for V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODP). The structures of pristine nanotubes as well as the prepared catalysts were investigated by XRD, Raman, FTIR, HRTEM, SEM, EDS, BET, and XPS techniques. The characterization of the as-synthesized nanotubes showed the synthesis of hydrogen titanate nanotube. The incipient wetness impregnation method was utilized to prepare VTNT-x (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.% vanadia supported on nanotube) together with VTi5 (5 wt.% vanadia supported on Degussa P25). The anatase phase was developed in VTNT-x catalysts upon calcination along with specific surface area loss. Higher vanadia loading resulted in the lowering of support capacity in maintaining vanadia in dispersed state such that eventually crystalline vanadia appeared. The measured catalyst activity demonstrates that in spite of major support surface area loss in VTNT-5 catalyst, the propylene yield is superior in comparison with VTi5 catalyst. The catalyst activity can be correlated with maximum reduction temperature. Deactivation of VTi5 and VTNT-5 as well as VTNT-15 were studied for 3,000 min time-on-stream. It was found that the activity of VTNT-5 catalyst remain unchanged while a decline in catalytic activity observed in VTi5 and VTNT-15 catalysts. The development of rutile was considered as being a major element in the deactivation of the investigated catalysts which is influenced by the presence of vanadium and reaction atmosphere.

  6. Fabrikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC Berdasarkan Fraksi Volume TiO2 Anatase-Rutile dengan Garcinia mangostana dan Rhoeo Spathacea sebagai Dye Fotosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustia Agustini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sejak pertama kali dikembangkan, usaha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC terus dilakukan. Mulai dari pemilihan bahan pewarna, jenis semikonduktor yang digunakan, desain counter elektroda, struktur sandwich atau yang lainnya. Anatase dan rutile adalah fase dari TiO2 yang sering digunakan untuk fabrikasi DSSC. Penelitian ini menggunakan kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea yang diekstrak menggunakan ethanol sebagai pewarna alami yang mengandung antosianin. Pewarna tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan UV-Vis dan FTIR, dan menunjukkan absorpsi pada panjang gelombang 392 nm untuk kulit manggis dan 413 nm untuk Rhoeo spathacea. TiO2 disintesis menggunakan metode co-precipitation. Ukuran partikel yang dihasilkan adalah 11 nm untuk anatase and 54,5 nm untuk rutile dengan menggunakan persamaan Scherrer. DSSC difabrikasi dengan variasi fraksi volume TiO2 anatase dan rutile. DSSC diuji dibawah cahaya matahari dengan daya sebesar 17 mW/cm2. Kurva arus-tegangan (I-V DSSC yang dihasilkan fraksi volume 75%:25% memperlihatkan hasil terbaik dibanding yang lain. Efisiensi tertinggi adalah 0.037% dan 0.013% dihasilkan oleh DSSC dengan pewarna alami dari kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea.

  7. Electronic hole localization in rutile and anatase TiO2 - Self-interaction correction in Delta-SCF DFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zawadzki, Pawel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We study electronic hole localization in rutile and anatase titanium dioxide by means of Δ-Self-Consistent Field Density Functional Theory. In order to compare stabilities of the localized and the delocalized hole states we introduce a simple correction to the wrong description of the localizatio...

  8. Direct dynamic synthesis of nanodispersed phases of titanium oxides upon sputtering of electrodischarge titanium plasma into an air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Gerasimov, D. Yu.; Nikitin, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the possibility of directly synthesizing nanodispersed crystalline phases of titanium dioxides with rutile and anatase structures in a hypervelocity jet of electroerosion plasma generated by a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with titanium electrodes are presented. A powder product containing nanosized polymorphic phases of titanium dioxide with a spherical shape of particles has been manufactured.

  9. Gold Cluster Diffusion Kinetics on Stoichiometric and Reduced Surfaces of Rutile TiO 2 (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Nir; Browning, Nigel D.

    2011-06-16

    Gold clusters on rutile TiO2 are known to serve as efficient oxidation catalysts for pollutants and environmental contaminants. However, the mechanism by which highly mobile small clusters migrate and aggregate into larger species relevant to gold’s catalytic activity remains unresolved. We report herein on ab initio simulations of the diffusion of atomic gold clusters up to the trimer on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces. We show that, on the stoichiometric surface, both the dimer and the trimer can exhibit relatively low surface mobility due to high energetic barriers for diffusion out of their energetic minima coupled with low barriers for the reverse motion. On the reduced surface, these clusters can diffuse relatively quickly between energetic minima within the oxygen vacancy site due to the large degree of vibrational entropy in their transition states. Our computed diffusion times provide a point of comparison for future experiments and will aid in development of models of gold cluster island sintering.

  10. Surface Protonation at the Rutile (110) Interface: Explicit Incorporation of Solvation Structure within the Refined MUSIC Model Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machesky, Michael L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL; Predota, M. [University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The detailed solvation structure at the (110) surface of rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) in contact with bulk liquid water has been obtained primarily from experimentally verified classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the ab initio-optimized surface in contact with SPC/E water. The results are used to explicitly quantify H-bonding interactions, which are then used within the refined MUSIC model framework to predict surface oxygen protonation constants. Quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations in the presence of freely dissociable water molecules produced H-bond distributions around deprotonated surface oxygens very similar to those obtained by CMD with nondissociable SPC/E water, thereby confirming that the less computationally intensive CMD simulations provide accurate H-bond information. Utilizing this H-bond information within the refined MUSIC model, along with manually adjusted Ti-O surface bond lengths that are nonetheless within 0.05 {angstrom} of those obtained from static density functional theory (DFT) calculations and measured in X-ray reflectivity experiments (as well as bulk crystal values), give surface protonation constants that result in a calculated zero net proton charge pH value (pHznpc) at 25 C that agrees quantitatively with the experimentally determined value (5.4 {+-} 0.2) for a specific rutile powder dominated by the (110) crystal face. Moreover, the predicted pH{sub znpc} values agree to within 0.1 pH unit with those measured at all temperatures between 10 and 250 C. A slightly smaller manual adjustment of the DFT-derived Ti-O surface bond lengths was sufficient to bring the predicted pH{sub znpc} value of the rutile (110) surface at 25 C into quantitative agreement with the experimental value (4.8 {+-} 0.3) obtained from a polished and annealed rutile (110) single crystal surface in contact with dilute sodium nitrate solutions using second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity measurements as a function of ionic

  11. Surface Protonation at the Rutile (110) Interface: Explicit Incorporation of Solvation Structure within the Refined MUSIC Model Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machesky, Michael L.; Predota, M.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The detailed solvation structure at the (110) surface of rutile (α-TiO 2 ) in contact with bulk liquid water has been obtained primarily from experimentally verified classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the ab initio-optimized surface in contact with SPC/E water. The results are used to explicitly quantify H-bonding interactions, which are then used within the refined MUSIC model framework to predict surface oxygen protonation constants. Quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations in the presence of freely dissociable water molecules produced H-bond distributions around deprotonated surface oxygens very similar to those obtained by CMD with nondissociable SPC/E water, thereby confirming that the less computationally intensive CMD simulations provide accurate H-bond information. Utilizing this H-bond information within the refined MUSIC model, along with manually adjusted Ti-O surface bond lengths that are nonetheless within 0.05 (angstrom) of those obtained from static density functional theory (DFT) calculations and measured in X-ray reflectivity experiments (as well as bulk crystal values), give surface protonation constants that result in a calculated zero net proton charge pH value (pHznpc) at 25 C that agrees quantitatively with the experimentally determined value (5.4 ± 0.2) for a specific rutile powder dominated by the (110) crystal face. Moreover, the predicted pH znpc values agree to within 0.1 pH unit with those measured at all temperatures between 10 and 250 C. A slightly smaller manual adjustment of the DFT-derived Ti-O surface bond lengths was sufficient to bring the predicted pH znpc value of the rutile (110) surface at 25 C into quantitative agreement with the experimental value (4.8 ± 0.3) obtained from a polished and annealed rutile (110) single crystal surface in contact with dilute sodium nitrate solutions using second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity measurements as a function of ionic strength. Additionally, the H

  12. Nb-doped rutile TiO₂: a potential anode material for Na-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Sho; Wasada, Kuniaki; Shimizu, Masahiro; Sakaguchi, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical properties of the rutile-type TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 were investigated for the first time as Na-ion battery anodes. Ti(1-x)Nb(x)O2 thick-film electrodes without a binder and a conductive additive were prepared using a sol-gel method followed by a gas-deposition method. The TiO2 electrode showed reversible reactions of Na insertion/extraction accompanied by expansion/contraction of the TiO2 lattice. Among the Ti(1-x)Nb(x)O2 electrodes with x = 0-0.18, the Ti(0.94)Nb(0.06)O2 electrode exhibited the best cycling performance, with a reversible capacity of 160 mA h g(-1) at the 50th cycle. As the Li-ion battery anode, this electrode also attained an excellent rate capability, with a capacity of 120 mA h g(-1) even at the high current density of 16.75 A g(-1) (50C). The improvements in the performances are attributed to a 3 orders of magnitude higher electronic conductivity of Ti(0.94)Nb(0.06)O2 compared to that of TiO2. This offers the possibility of Nb-doped rutile TiO2 as a Na-ion battery anode as well as a Li-ion battery anode.

  13. Application of microscopy methods to the understanding of mechanisms involved in ilmenite reduction by hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.; Grey, I.; Fitzgerald, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Titania pigment is one of the major drivers of the mineral sands industry with production of over 4 million tpa in 2002 for paints, plastics, paper and ceramics applications. The main feedstock for titania pigment production is ilmenite, FeTiO 3 . It is used either directly or after it has been upgraded to a higher titania content. The major commercial upgrading processes are electro smelting (titania slag) or high temperature char reduction followed by iron removal (synthetic rutile SR). Future ilmenite upgrading processes are likely to use low temperature hydrogen reduction according to reaction, followed by aeration of the metallic iron and acid leaching to produce a high grade SR (Nicholson et al, 2000). The commercial application of such a process requires a detailed knowledge of the kinetics of reaction. FeTiO 3 + H 2 = Fe(m) + TiO 2 + H 2 O. The kinetics of ilmenite reduction has been studied at CSIRO Minerals using a specially designed thermogravimetric apparatus built around a Cahn pressurised symmetrical beam balance. The kinetics have been measured as a function of different operating parameters such as temperature, gas velocity and pressure. The parameters were set so as to minimise mass transport effects and increase chemical reaction control and to ensure the reduction kinetics are outside the gas starvation region. Small samples were used that had been sintered at close to melting point to form large grains with low unconnected porosity. High flow rates of reactant gas were also used. The application of a range of microscopy techniques to the reduced samples at various stages of reaction conversion has been critical to the development of an understanding of the reaction mechanisms. From analysis of TEM, IFESEM and optical microscopy results it appears that initially, chemical reaction is rate controlling at the surface and as the reaction proceeds topochemically inwards then diffusion mechanisms increase their control. Reaction proceeds

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of structural transformation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at water/rutile interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangzhi; Zhang, Meiyi; Zhou, Qin; Pan, Gang

    2015-09-01

    Concentration and salinity conditions are the dominant environmental factors affecting the behavior of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) on the surfaces of a variety of solid matrices (suspended particles, sediments, and natural minerals). However, the mechanism has not yet been examined at molecular scales. Here, the structural transformation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at water/rutile interfaces induced by changes of the concentration level of PFOS and salt condition was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. At low and intermediate concentrations all PFOS molecules directly interacted with the rutile (110) surface mainly by the sulfonate headgroups through electrostatic attraction, yielding a typical monolayer structure. As the concentration of PFOS increased, the molecules aggregated in a complex multi-layered structure, where an irregular assembling configuration was adsorbed on the monolayer structure by the van der Waals interactions between the perfluoroalkyl chains. When adding CaCl2 to the system, the multi-layered structure changed to a monolayer again, indicating that the addition of CaCl2 enhanced the critical concentration value to yield PFOS multilayer assemblies. The divalent Ca(2+) substituted for monovalent K(+) as the bridging counterion in PFOS adsorption. MD simulation may trigger wide applications in study of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) from atomic/molecular scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hierarchical architectures TiO2: Pollen-inducted synthesis, remarkable crystalline-phase stability, tunable size, and reused photo-catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Lingling; Gao, Lishuang; Yang, Xiaohui; Song, Xiuqin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The synthetic method is much milder and simpler than that of conventional methods. ► The obtained hierarchical TiO 2 shows three interesting hierarchical morphology. ► The products have tunable crystal phase structures. ► The pure phase of anatase can be retained after being annealed at 900 °C. ► The product exhibits higher and reused photo-catalytic activity. - Abstract: TiO 2 with hierarchical architectures, tunable crystalline phase and thermal stability is successfully fabricated on a large scale through a facile hydrolysis process of TiCl 4 combining with inducing of pollen. The structure of the as-prepared TiO 2 is characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectra, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results indicate that different phases (anatase, rutile or mixed crystallite) of TiO 2 can be synthesized by controlling the experimental conditions. The pure phase of rutile or anatase can be obtained at 100 °C, while the pure phase of anatase can be retained after being annealed at 900 °C. The hierarchical structures TiO 2 are constitute through self-assembly of nanoparticles or nanorods TiO 2 , which exhibit high and reused photo-catalytic properties for degradation of methylene blue.

  16. Optimization of SHINE Process: Design and Verification of Plant-Scale AG 1 Anion-Exchange Concentration Column and Titania Sorbent Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Abdul, Momen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a Mo-recovery and -purification system for the SHINE medical technologies process, which uses a uranyl sulfate solution for the accelerator-driven production of Mo-99. The objective of this effort is to reduce the processing time for the acidification of the Mo-99 product prior to loading onto a concentration column and concentration of the Mo-99 product solution. Two methods were investigated: (1) the replacement of the titania concentration column by an anion-exchange column to decrease processing time and increase the radioiodine-decontamination efficiency and (2) pretreatment of the titania sorbent to improve its effectiveness for the Mo-recovery and -concentration columns. Promising results are reported for both methods.

  17. Induction plasma-sprayed photocatalytically active titania coatings and their characterisation by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burlacov, I.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Muller, M.; Heimann, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 201, 1-2 (2006), s. 255-264 ISSN 0257-8972 Grant - others:European Communities(XE) EVKI-2002-30025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : titania (anatase) coatings * induction plasma spraying * suspension plasma spraying * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2006

  18. Computer simulation of threshold radiation damage in rutile, TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation methods have been used to study threshold radiation damage structures in rutile. It was found Ti ions have threshold energies much larger than O ions. Basal plane displacements for oxygen were shown to be complex, and focuson behaviour was only found at energies several times the threshold energy. Oxygen ions do not have simple interstitials or vacancies, but rather a three-ion crowdion and divacancy-interstitial combination were found, respectively. Threshold energies were found to be highly dependent on crystallographic direction, being as low as 10 eV in one instance, but often much higher. Oxygen ions were seen to defocus along the c-axis. (author)

  19. An Enthusiastic Glance in to the Visible Responsive Photocatalysts for Energy Production and Pollutant Removal, with Special Emphasis on Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padikkaparambil Silija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the rapid growth of industry, major problems are created related to energy and environment. Sunlight being one of the most potential alternative source of energy, the development of efficient solar-energy storage systems is an important subject in the fields of science and technology. Here we have reviewed and summarized some of the recent reports on visible responsive photocatalysts. In this review, the influence of various metal oxide photocatalysts on energy production and pollutant removal are presented with special emphasis on titania based photocatalysts. The photoactivity of titania for various pollutant degradation, modified titania (TiO2 systems, their physical and chemical characteristics, and so forth, are described in detail at this juncture. Different methods used to enhance the visible light absorption of TiO2, like doping with metals and nonmetals, coupling with other metal oxides, and so forth, have been discussed. Various applications of photocatalysts including photocatalytic treatment of waste water, pesticide degradation and water splitting to produce hydrogen are summarized. The development of photocatalysts that function under visible light for the efficient utilization of sunlight is an area of current interest and thus the different methods of preparation for the visible active photocatalysts are also explored.

  20. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  1. Atomic Origins of Monoclinic-Tetragonal (Rutile) Phase Transition in Doped VO 2 Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Asayesh-Ardakani, Hasti

    2015-10-12

    There has been long-standing interest in tuning the metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO) via the addition of chemical dopants. However, the underlying mechanisms by which doping elements regulate the phase transition in VO are poorly understood. Taking advantage of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we reveal the atomistic origins by which tungsten (W) dopants influence the phase transition in single crystalline WVO nanowires. Our atomically resolved strain maps clearly show the localized strain normal to the (122¯) lattice planes of the low W-doped monoclinic structure (insulator). These strain maps demonstrate how anisotropic localized stress created by dopants in the monoclinic structure accelerates the phase transition and lead to relaxation of structure in tetragonal form. In contrast, the strain distribution in the high W-doped VO structure is relatively uniform as a result of transition to tetragonal (metallic) ph