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Sample records for rutherford-type superconducting cables

  1. Development of scaling rules for Rutherford type superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    During the R and D phase of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) program, LBL was responsible for establishing the parameters for cables used in SSC dipole and quadrupole magnets. In addition, LBL has collaborated with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory on the design and fabrication of a new cable for use in the Low Beta Quadrupoles. As a result of the development work on these and other cables, we have arrived a set of scaling rules which provide guidelines for choosing the parameters for a wide range of superconducting cables. These parameters include strand size, strand number, keystone angle, percent compaction, cable pitch and compacted cable dimensions. In addition, we have defined the tolerance ranges for the key cable manufacturing parameters such as mandrel size and shape, strand tension, and Turkshead temperature control. In this paper, the authors present the results on cables ranging from 8 strands to 36 strands of 0.65mm wire and from 8 strands to 30 strands of 0.8mm wire. The authors use these results to demonstrate the application of the scaling rules for Rutherford-type cable

  2. Development of scaling rules for Rutherford type superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1990-09-01

    During the R ampersand D phase of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) program, LBL was responsible for establishing the parameters for cables used in SSC dipole and quadrupole magnets. In addition, the design and fabrication of a new cable for use in the Low Beta Quadrupoles. As a result of the development work on these and other cables, we have arrived a set of scaling rules which provide guidelines for choosing the parameters for a wide range of superconducting cables. These parameters include strand size, strand number, keystone angle, percent compaction, cable pitch and compacted cable dimensions. In addition, we have defined the tolerance ranges for the key cable manufacturing parameters such as mandrel size and shape, stand tension, and Turkshead temperature control. In this paper, we present the results on cables ranging from 8 strands to 36 strands of 0.65mm wire and from 8 strands to 30 strands of 0.8mm wire. We use these results to demonstrate the application of the scaling rules for Rutherford-type cable

  3. Study on interstrand coupling losses in Rutherford-type superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.Z.; Shintomi, T.; Terashima, A.; Hirabayashi, H.

    1993-02-01

    Two sets of experimental apparatus for measuring the AC losses in superconducting strands and Rutherford-type cable conductors have been constructed. A few strand samples and a number of compacted cable samples with and without a CuMn matrix have been measured. The hysteresis loss, loss from coupling within strands and loss from coupling between strands in cables have been distinguished from each other. The results show that, even for Rutherford cables without any soldering and coating, their AC losses may be quite different from each other due to the variation of the interstrand coupling loss. For cables without a CuMn matrix, interstrand coupling loss increases nearly according to a geometrical series with an increase of curing temperature simulating coil fabrication. However, cables with the CuMn matrix show a relatively small curing temperature dependence. For most of the samples, losses do not show any evident dependence on the mechanical pressure. Interstrand resistances in one of these cables have also been measured; the results indicate that the tendency for a decrease in the interstrand resistances is consistent with the results of AC loss measurements. (author)

  4. Current distribution inside Rutherford-type superconducting cables and impact on performance of LHC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiner, T

    2002-01-01

    The windings of high--field superconducting accelerator magnets are usually made of Rutherford--type cables. The magnetic field distribution along the axis of such magnets exhibits a periodic modulation with a wavelength equal to the twist pitch length of the cable used in the winding. Such a Periodic Field Pattern (PFP) has already been observed in number of superconducting accelerator magnets. Additional unbalanced currents in individual strands of the cable appear to be causing this effect. The present thesis describes the investigation of the PFPs performed with a Hall probes array inserted inside the aperture of the LHC superconducting dipoles, both in the small--scale model magnets with a length of one meter and in full--scale prototypes and pre--series magnets with fifteen meters of length. The amplitude and the time dependence of this periodic field oscillation have been studied as a function of the magnet current history. One of the main parameters influencing the properties of the PFP is the cross--...

  5. A unique cabling designed to produce Rutherford-type superconducting cable for the SSC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisel, J.; Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.; Armer, R.

    1988-08-01

    Up to 25,000 Km of keystoned flat cable must be produced for the SSC project. Starting from a specification developed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), a special cabling machine has been designed by Dour Metal. It has been designed to be able to run at a speed corresponding to a maximum production rate of 10 m/min. This cabling machine is the key part of the production line which consists of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The main features of the cabling unit to be described are a design with nearly equal path length between spool and assembling point for all the wires, and the possibility to run the machine with several over- or under-twisting ratios between cable and wires. These requirements led Dour Metal to the choice of an unconventional mechanical concept for a cabling machine. 4 refs., 2 figs

  6. Experimental results of current distribution in Rutherford-type LHC cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    2000-01-01

    Current distribution among the wires of multi-strand superconducting cables is an important item for accelerator magnets. A non-uniform distribution could cause additional field distortions in the magnet bore and can as well be one of the reasons of premature quenching. Since two years electrical measurements on superconducting Rutherford-type cables are performed at CERN as part of the reception tests for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Cable samples of 2.4 m length are tested at currents up to 32 kA, temperatures around 1.9 and 4.3 K, and fields up to 10 T, applied perpendicularly as well as parallel to the broad face of the cable. Last year, an array of 24 Hall probes was installed in the test set-up in order to measure the self-field of the cable samples along one cable pitch. Each of the probes measures the local field generated by the current in the strands close by, and the results of the all probes reflect therefore the distribution of the strand currents. Experiments are done varying the applied fie...

  7. Superconducting ac cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-11-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings or = 2000 MVA were developed. The cable design is of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope containing a flexible hollow coaxial cable core. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-A1 composite wires electrically insulated by high pressure polyethylene tape wrappings. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminals rated at 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of this cable design.

  8. Superconducting ac cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-01-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.) [de

  9. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  10. Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) Measurements of LHC Superconducting NbTi Cable Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Charifoulline, Z

    2006-01-01

    The Rutherford-type superconducting NbTi cables of the LHC accelerator are currently manufactured by six industrial companies. As a part of the acceptance tests, the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of superconducting strands is systematically measured on virgin strands to qualify the strands before cabling and on extracted strands to qualify the cables and to check the final heat treatment (controlled oxidation to control interstrand resistance). More than 12000 samples of virgin and extracted strands have been measured during last five years. Results show good correlation with the measurements done by the companies and reflect well the technological process of cable production (strand annealing, cabling, cable heat treatment). This paper presents a description of the RRR-test station and the measurement procedure, the summary of the results over all suppliers and finally the correlation between RRR-values of the cables and the magnets.

  11. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  12. Study of Nb3Sn cables for superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, R.

    1999-10-01

    In particle physics, the quest for higher energies may be satisfied by the use of niobium-tin superconducting magnets. Such magnets are made of Rutherford type cables which are wound from superconducting strands. The strands are made by the 'internal tin' method. The aim of this study is to determine the main parameters for the fabrication of a quadrupole. The two main requirements the cable must fulfill are high critical current and low losses. The main parameters were determined from different measurements and models. Thus, the key parameters for the current transport capacity are the number and the diameter of the filaments, the number of sub-elements, the surface of superconductor and the copper-to-non-copper ratio. For the hysteresis losses, the main parameters appear to be the effective filament diameter and the spacing of the filaments. For intra-strand losses, the main parameters appear to be the filaments' diameter, the filament spacing, the nature of the diffusion barrier and the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper. The interstrand resistances for the cable are the key parameters for the losses. Thus, the nature of the strands coating or the presence of a stainless steel core can strongly diminish the cable losses. Finally, a design, for the strands and the cables for the fabrication of a quadrupole is proposed. (author)

  13. Development of innovative superconducting DC power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Kiuchi, Masaru [Dept. of Computer Science and Electronics Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    It is required to reduce the cost of superconducting cable to realize a superconducting DC power network that covers a wide area in order to utilize renewable energy. In this paper a new concept of innovative cable is introduced that can enhance the current-carrying capacity even though the same superconducting tape is used. Such a cable can be realized by designing an optimal winding structure in such a way that the angle between the tape and magnetic field becomes small. This idea was confirmed by preliminary experiments for a single layer model cable made of Bi-2223 tapes and REBCO coated conductors. Experiments of three and four layer cables of practical sizes were also done and it was found that the current-carrying capacity increased as theoretically predicted. If the critical current properties of commercial superconducting tapes are further improved in a parallel magnetic field, the enhancement will become pronounced and this technology will surely contribute to realization of superconducting DC power network.

  14. Superconducting flat tape cable magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto

    2015-08-11

    A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.

  15. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    The present study discusses the AC loss in high-temperature superconductors. Superconducting materials with a relatively high critical temperature were discovered in 1986. They are presently developed for use in large-scale power-engineering devices such as power-transmission cables, transformers

  16. Study of Nb{sub 3}Sn cables for superconducting quadrupoles; Etude de cables Nb{sub 3}Sn pour quadripoles supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otmani, R

    1999-10-01

    In particle physics, the quest for higher energies may be satisfied by the use of niobium-tin superconducting magnets. Such magnets are made of Rutherford type cables which are wound from superconducting strands. The strands are made by the 'internal tin' method. The aim of this study is to determine the main parameters for the fabrication of a quadrupole. The two main requirements the cable must fulfill are high critical current and low losses. The main parameters were determined from different measurements and models. Thus, the key parameters for the current transport capacity are the number and the diameter of the filaments, the number of sub-elements, the surface of superconductor and the copper-to-non-copper ratio. For the hysteresis losses, the main parameters appear to be the effective filament diameter and the spacing of the filaments. For intra-strand losses, the main parameters appear to be the filaments' diameter, the filament spacing, the nature of the diffusion barrier and the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper. The interstrand resistances for the cable are the key parameters for the losses. Thus, the nature of the strands coating or the presence of a stainless steel core can strongly diminish the cable losses. Finally, a design, for the strands and the cables for the fabrication of a quadrupole is proposed. (author)

  17. Power applications for superconducting cables in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob; Olsen, S. Krüger

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark a growing concern for environmental protection has lead to wishes that the open country is kept free of overhead lines as far as possible. New lines under 100 kV and existing 60/50 kV lines should be established as underground cables. Superconducting cables represent an interesting...... in cases such as transmission of energy into cities and through areas of special interest. The planned large groups of windmills in Denmark generating up to 2000 MVA or more both on dry land and off-shore will be an obvious case for the application of superconducting AC or DC cables. These opportunities...... can be combined with other new technologies such as HVDC light transmission using isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). The network needed in a system with a substantial wind power generation has to be very strong in order to handle energy fluctuations. Such a network will be possible...

  18. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...

  19. Superconducting power cables in Denmark - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    A case study of a 450 MVA, 132 kV high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cable has been carried out. In the study, a superconducting cable system is compared to a conventional cable system which is under construction for an actual transmission line in the Danish grid. The study...... that HTS cables will be less expensive for high power ratings, have lower losses for lines with a high load, and have a reduced reactive power production. The use of superconducting cables in Denmark accommodate plans by the Danish utility to make a substantial conversion of overhead lines to underground...

  20. Young's moduli of cables for high field superconductive dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shunji; Shintomi, Takakazu.

    1983-01-01

    Superconductive dipole magnets for big accelerators are subjected to enormous electro-magnetic force, when they are operated with high field such as 10 Tesla. They should be constructed by means of superconductive cables, which have high Young's modulus, to obtain good performance. To develop such cables we measured the Young's moduli of cables for practical use of accelerator magnets. They are monolithic and compacted strand cables. We measured also Young's moduli of monolithic copper and brass cables for comparison. The obtained data showed the Young's moduli of 35 and 15 GPa for the monolithic and compacted strand cables, respectively. (author)

  1. Improved cable insulation for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kelly, E.; Schmalzle, J.; Willen, E.; Fraivillig, J.; Ochsner, J.; Parish, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago, Brookhaven joined with DuPont in a cooperative effort to develop improved cable insulation for SSC superconducting dipole magnets. The effort was supported by the SSC Central Design Group and later the SSC Laboratory. It was undertaken because turn-to-turn and midplane shorts were routinely being experienced during the assembly of magnets with coils made of the existing Kapton/fiberglass (K/FG) system of Kapton film overwrapped with epoxy-impregnated fiberglass tape. Dissection of failed magnets showed that insulation disruption and punch-through was occurring near the inner edges of turns close to the magnet midplane. Coil pressures of greater than 17 kpsi were sufficient to disrupt the insulation at local high spots where the cable had been strongly compacted in the keystoning operation during cable manufacture. In the joint development program, numerous combinations of polyimide films manufactured by DuPont with varying configurations and properties (including thickness) were subjected to tests at Brookhaven. Early tests were bench trials using wrapped cable samples. The most promising candidates were used in coils and many of these promising candidates were used in coils and many of these assembled and tested as magnets in both the SSC and RHIC magnet programs currently underway. The Kapton CI (CI) system that has been adopted represents a suitable compromise of numerous competing factors. It exhibits improved performance in the critical parameter of compressive punch-through resistance as well as other advantages over the K/FG system

  2. Improved cable insulation for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kelly, E.; Schmalzle, J.; Willen, E.; Fraivillig, J.; Ochsner, J.; Parish, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago, Brookhaven joined with DuPont in a cooperative effort to develop improved cable insulation for SSC superconducting dipole magnets. The effort was supported by the SSC Central Design Group and later the SSC Laboratory. It was undertaken because turn-to-turn and midplane shorts were routinely being experienced during the assembly of magnets with coils made of the existing Kapton/Fiberglass (K/FG) system of Kapton film overwrapped with epoxy-impregnated fiberglass tape. Dissection of failed magnets showed that insulation disruption and punch-through was occurring near the inner edges of turns close to the magnet midplane. Coil pressures of greater than 17 kpsi were sufficient to disrupt the insulation at local high spots where wires in neighboring turns crossed one another and where the cable had been strongly compacted in the keystoning operation during cable manufacture. In the joint development program, numerous combinations of polyimide films manufactured by DuPont with varying configurations and properties (including thickness) were subjected to tests at Brookhaven. Early tests were bench trials using wrapped cable samples. The most promising candidates were used in coils and many of these assembled and tested as magnets in both the SSC and RHIC magnet programs currently underway. The Kapton CI (CI) system that has been adopted represents a suitable compromise of numerous competing factors. It exhibits improved performance in the critical parameter of compressive punch-through resistance as well as other advantages over the K/FG system

  3. Comparison study of cable geometries and superconducting tape layouts for high-temperature superconductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Wurui; Shao, Tianchong; Gao, Yuanwen

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature superconductor (HTS) rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide (REBCO) tapes are very promising for use in high-current cables. The cable geometry and the layout of the superconducting tapes are directly related to the performance of the HTS cable. In this paper, we use numerical methods to perform a comparison study of multiple-stage twisted stacked-tape cable (TSTC) conductors to find better cable structures that can both improve the critical current and minimize the alternating current (AC) losses of the cable. The sub-cable geometry is designed to have a stair-step shape. Three superconducting tape layouts are chosen and their transport performance and AC losses are evaluated. The magnetic field and current density profiles of the cables are obtained. The results show that arrangement of the superconducting tapes from the interior towards the exterior of the cable based on their critical current values in descending order can enhance the cable's transport capacity while significantly reducing the AC losses. These results imply that cable transport capacity improvements can be achieved by arranging the superconducting tapes in a manner consistent with the electromagnetic field distribution. Through comparison of the critical currents and AC losses of four types of HTS cables, we determine the best structural choice among these cables.

  4. Manufacture of keystoned flat superconducting cables for use in SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    The superconducting magnets used in the construction of particle accelerators are mostly built from flat, multistrand cables with rectangular or keystoned cross sections. In this paper we will emphasize the differences between the techniques for cabling conventional wires for cabling superconducting wires. Concepts for the tooling will be introduced. The effects of cabling parameters on critical current degradation are being evaluated in collaboration with NBS-Boulder

  5. Loss and Inductance Investigation in Superconducting Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    An important parameter in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution among single tapes and layers. This distribution is to a large degree determined by inductances, since the resistances are low. The self and mutual inductances...... of transport current and current distribution.This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on prototype superconducting cable conductors. The critical current (1uV/cm) of the conductor at 77K was 1590 A (cable #1) and 3240 A (cable #2) respectively.At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the AC......-loss was measured on cable #2 to 0.6W/mxphase. This is, to our knowledge, the lowest AC-loss (at 2kA and 77K) of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far....

  6. Superconducting Cable Development for Future High Energy Physics Detector Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, I. L.

    1995-11-01

    Under the leadership of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) an international ad hoc collaboration for superconducting cables developed an aluminium stabilised superconducting cable for future detector magnets. With the financial support of the Swiss government, this R&D work was carried out for the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). In this report the manufacturing process is described and results of the quality control measurements are summarised. These tests showed that the industrial manufacturing of an aluminium stabilised superconducting cable is feasible.

  7. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J c in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2's bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J c at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices

  8. Application of Superconducting Power Cables to DC Electric Railway Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Lv, Zhen; Sekino, Masaki; Tomita, Masaru

    For novel design and efficient operation of next-generation DC electric railway systems, especially for their substantial energy saving, we have studied the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to them. In this paper it is assumed that a superconducting power cable is applied to connect substations supplying electric power to trains. An analysis model line was described by an electric circuit, which was analyzed with MATLAB-Simulink. From the calculated voltages and currents of the circuit, the regenerative brake and the energy losses were estimated. In addition, assuming the heat loads of superconducting power cables and the cryogenic efficiency, the energy saving of the total system was evaluated. The results show that the introduction of superconducting power cables could achieve the improved use of regenerative brake, the loss reduction, the decreased number of substations, the reduced maintenance, etc.

  9. Analysis of Electrical Coupling Parameters in Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Rosso, C

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of current distribution and redistribution in superconducting cables requires the knowledge of the electric coupling among strands, and in particular the interstrand resistance and inductance values. In practice both parameters can have wide variations in cables commonly used such as Rutherford cables for accelerators or Cable-in-Conduits for fusion and SMES magnets. In this paper we describe a model of a multi-stage twisted cable with arbitrary geometry that can be used to study the range of interstrand resistances and inductances that is associated with variations of geometry. These variations can be due to cabling or compaction effects. To describe the variations from the nominal geometry we have adopted a cable model that resembles to the physical process of cabling and compaction. The inductance calculation part of the model is validated by comparison to semi-analytical results, showing excellent accuracy and execution speed.

  10. Stability of superconducting cables for use in large magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Hiroshi; Schmidt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of large superconducting magnets requires the development of complicated conductor types, which can fulfill the specific requirements of different types of magnets. A rather hard boundary condition for large magnets is the presence of fast changing magnetic fields. In the Institute of Technical Physics of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Germany, a superconducting cable was developed for use in poloidal field coils in Tokamak experiments. This 'POLO'-cable exhibits low losses in a magnetic ac-field and a high stability margin. In the present article the requirements on a superconducting cable are described, as well as the mechanisms of ac-losses and the calculation of the stability limit. Calculated values are compared with experimental data. Some unresolved problems concerning the stability of large magnets are discussed taking the example of the POLO-cable. (author)

  11. Stationary operational behavior unsymmetrical superconducting three-phase cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iser, R.

    1974-01-01

    A superconducting cable with a coaxial conductor arrangement is electrically unsymmetrical. Voltage and current relationships are analyzed for such a cable where, as a result of reactance and capacitance matrices being unsymmetric, large voltage unsymmetry appears. This limits the practical length of this type of cable. It is shown that a significant gain in symmetry is attained by the use of two cables connected in parallel. The compensating current which then occurs involves no disadvantage. The circuit described permits overloads of up to 100 percent.

  12. Wire rope superconducting cable for diurnal load leveling SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a wire rope cable for a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is discussed. The superconducting wires in the rope permit the passage of large currents in the relatively small conductors of the windings and hence cause large electromagnetic forces to act on the rope. The diameter of the rope, from a strength point of view, can be considerably reduced by supporting the rope at various points along its length

  13. Insulation systems for superconducting transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    the electrical insulation is placed outside both the superconducting tube and the cryostat. The superconducting tube is cooled by liquid nitrogen which is pumped through the hollow part of the tube.2) The cryogenic dielectric design, where the electrical insulation is placed inside the cryostat and thus is kept...

  14. Method and system for controlling chemical reactions between superconductors and metals in superconducting cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tengming

    2018-01-02

    A method, system, and apparatus for fabricating a high-strength Superconducting cable comprises pre-oxidizing at least one high-strength alloy wire, coating at least one Superconducting wire with a protective layer, and winding the high-strength alloy wire and the Superconducting wire to form a high-strength Superconducting cable.

  15. Method and system for controlling chemical reactions between superconductors and metals in superconducting cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tengming

    2016-11-15

    A method, system, and apparatus for fabricating a high-strength Superconducting cable comprises pre-oxidizing at least one high-strength alloy wire, coating at least one Superconducting wire with a protective layer, and winding the high-strength alloy wire and the Superconducting wire to form a high-strength Superconducting cable.

  16. Advanced superconducting power cable for MV urban power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Frank [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Merschel, Frank [RWE Deutschland AG, Essen (Germany); Noe, Mathias [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the technology of superconducting power cable systems has progressed such that the technical hurdles preparing for commercial applications have been mastered. Several field tests of large scale prototypes for the applications of superconducting cables as well as superconducting fault current limiters have been successfully accomplished and the technology of such systems is ready for commercialization. The presentation will give a detailed overview of the German AmpaCity project. An overview will be given on the development, manufacturing and installation of the 10 kV, 40 MVA HTS system consisting of a fault current limiter and of a 1 km cable in the city of Essen. Since it is the first time that a one kilometer HTS cable system is installed together with an HTS fault current limiter in a real grid application between two substations within a city center area, AmpaCity serves as a lighthouse project. In addition it is worldwide the longest installed HTS cable system so far. It is expected that relatively large technical advances will be made in the future of the comparatively new HTS technology, which in turn will bring associated cost reductions. For this reason, the AmpaCity pilot project in the downtown area of Essen in Germany will be an important step on the way to achieving more widespread application of HTS technology.

  17. Southwire's High Temperature Superconducting Cable Development - Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Uday; Lindsay, David

    2005-01-01

    at ORNL for the DC Ic, voltage withstand, ac loss, and other properties using both the Vacuum and Pressure Terminations. The design concept was proven with the 5-m cables and the same design was used for the 30-m cables. Three 30-m cables were constructed during the first two quarters of 1999. The cables were made on flexible formers but they were introduced into three separate rigid vacuum jacketed pipes (VJP). The cables passed the DC Ic tests that were carried out at the manufacturing site. A site was developed at Southwire with a switch yard, liquid nitrogen tank, a cryogenic cooling and delivery system, and a control room with PLC control for the system. The HTS cables were installed by the third quarter of 1999. The HTS cables were energized Jan. 6, 2000. The official opening was carried out on Feb. 18, 2000. As of April 30, 2005 the HTS site has been operating at 100% load for >29,000 hours. Since June 1, 2001 the system has logged over 21,000 hours at full load without an operator on duty at the site. The cryogenic system has been under operation for more than two years and has proven very reliable. Southwire has developed World's First Industrial HTS cable and is continuing to prove its reliability. This report contains several sections outlined below that are related to Southwire's HTS cable development: (1) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Tapes; (2) Hand Wound 1-m Cables; (3) Development of Facilities for Construction and testing of HTS cables; (4) 5-m HTS Cables; (5) 30-m HTS Cables, Installation at Southwire; (6) Continued Developments; and (7) Publications. Each of the above sections provide only a short report. The details are given in separate volumes (Vol. 1 to Vol. 7) with separate appendices for each section. These are available at the Cofer Center Technical Library

  18. Study of Transient Heat Transport Mechanisms in Superfluid Helium Cooled Rutherford-Cables

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100615

    The Large Hadron Collider leverages superconducting magnets to focus the particle beam or keep it in its circular track. These superconducting magnets are composed of NbTi-cables with a special insulation that allows superfluid helium to enter and cool the superconducting cable. Loss mechanisms, e.g. continuous random loss of particles escaping the collimation system heating up the magnets. Hence, a local temperature increase can occur and lead to a quench of the magnets when the superconductor warms up above the critical temperature. A detailed knowledge about the temperature increases in the superconducting cable (Rutherford type) ensures a secure operation of the LHC. A sample of the Rutherford cable has been instrumented with temperature sensors. Experiments with this sample have been performed within this study to investigate the cooling performance of the helium in the cable due to heat deposition. The experiment uses a superconducting coil, placed in a cryostat, to couple with the magnetic field loss m...

  19. Contributions to the study of superconducting multifilamentary composites and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a collection of published papers in French and in English on superconducting composites and cables. All domains concerning the behaviour of superconductors in coils for field generation have been covered: critical current, current distribution, instabilities, losses in varying field. This document provides with expressions and criteria for conductor design, with conditions for achieving given performances and with criteria for design and optimization of structures of multifilamentary composites and cables. These publications have played a determining role in the understanding of the behaviour of superconductors and in their use in high performing magnets

  20. Development of prototype DC superconducting cable for railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masaru; Fukumoto, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Miryala, Muralidhar

    2010-01-01

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTSC) wire has significant potential for railway system applications. HTSC wire is currently a promising candidate for various engineering applications such as transformers and motors for railway system. HTSC direct current (DC) cable is ideal for a feeder of the overhead contact line system between the substation and the electric train. We completed a prototype Bi-2223 tape based direct current cable for trial purposes of several meters length. In the energizing experiment the current of 1720 A successfully constantly flew.

  1. Current Redistribution around the Superconducting-to-normal Transition in Superconducting Nb-Ti Rutherford Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G P; ten Kate, H H J

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient thermal-electromagnetic stability against external heat sources is an essential design criterion for superconducting Rutherford cables, especially if operated close to the critical current. Due to the complex phenomena contributing to stability such as helium cooling, inter-strand current and heat transfer, its level is difficult to quantify. In order to improve our understanding, many stability tests were performed on different cable samples, each incorporating several point-like heaters. The current redistribution around the heat front is measured after inducing a local normal zone in one strand of the cable. By using voltage taps, expansion of the normal zone is monitored in the initially quenched strand as well as in adjacent strands. An array of Hall probes positioned at the cable edge is used to scan the selffield generated by the cable by which it becomes possible to estimate the inter-strand current transfer. In this paper it is demonstrated that two different stability regimes can be disti...

  2. Development and fabrication of superconducting hybrid Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) for indigenous fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Abdulla, K.K.; Singh, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Fuels Division has initiated development and fabrication of Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) of various configurations, for superconducting fusion grade magnets required for their indigenous Fusion Programme. The process involves development of high grade superconducting multifilamentary wire, multi stage cabling of superconducting as well as copper wires and, finally, jacketing of the cables in SS316LN tubes. The overview of the development and fabrication of CICC is presented in this article. (author)

  3. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 \\upmu m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detector wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered aluminum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97 %.

  4. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measure- ment of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 µ m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detec- tor wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered alu- minum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97%.

  5. Status of the LHC Superconducting Cable Mass Production

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J D; Cavallari, Giorgio; Charifoulline, Z; Denarié, C H; Le Naour, S; Leroy, D F; Oberli, L R; Richter, D; Verweij, A P; Wolf, R

    2002-01-01

    Six contracts have been placed with industrial companies for the production of 1200 tons of the superconducting (SC) cables needed for the main dipoles and quadrupoles of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In addition, two contracts have been placed for the supply of 470 tons of NbTi and 26 tons of Nb sheets. The main characteristic of the specification is that it is functional. This means that the physical, mechanical and electrical properties of strands and cables are specified without defining the manufacturing processes. Facilities for the high precision measurements of the wire and cable properties have been implemented at CERN, such as strand and cable critical current, copper to superconductor ratio, interstrand resistance, magnetisation, RRR at 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The production has started showing that the highly demanding specifications can be fulfilled. This paper reviews the organisation of the contracts, the test facilities installed at CERN, the various types of measurements and the results of the ma...

  6. Explosive-emission cathode fabricated from superconducting cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, I.; Korenev, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe on explosive-emission cathode that is based on stock superconducting cable - type NT-50, for example - that is bunched and held in a copper matrix. The copper matrix is partially etched away to create a multipoint structure for the cathode-plasma initiators. With 100-300 kV on the diode and a distance of 1 cm between the anode and cathode, electron currents of 20-80 and 60-300 A are obtained with cathode diameters of 0.5 and 1 cm, respectively

  7. Solid-cryogen-stabilized, cable-in-conduit (CIC) superconducting cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voccio, J. P.; Michael, P. C.; Bromberg, L.; Hahn, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the use of a solid cryogen as a means to stabilize, both mechanically and thermally, magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting strands within a dual-channel cable-in-conduit (CIC) cable for use in AC applications, such as a generator stator winding. The cable consists of two separate channels; the outer channel contains the superconducting strands and is filled with a fluid (liquid or gas) that becomes solid at the device operating temperature. Several options for fluid will be presented, such as liquid nitrogen, hydrocarbons and other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that have a range of melting temperatures and volumetric expansions (from solid at operating temperature to fixed volume at room temperature). Implications for quench protection and conductor stability, enhanced through direct contact with the solid cryogen, which has high heat capacity and thermal conductivity (compared with helium gas), will be presented. Depending on the cryogen, the conductor will be filled initially either with liquid at atmospheric conditions or a gas at high pressure (∼100 atm). After cooldown, the cryogen in the stranded-channel will be solid, essentially locking the strands in place, preventing strand motion and degradation due to mechanical deformation while providing enhanced thermal capacity for stability and protection. The effect of cryogen porosity is also considered. The relatively high heat capacity of solid cryogens at these lower temperatures (compared to gaseous helium) enhances the thermal stability of the winding. During operation, coolant flow through the open inner channel will minimize pressure drop.

  8. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  9. Recent development of the Cu/Nb-Ti superconducting cables for SSC in Hitachi Cable, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, S.; Iwaki, G.; Sawada, Y.; Moriai, H.; Ishigami, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In these few years, Cu/Nb-Ti superconducting cables for the dipole magnets of SSC projects have been developed in the industrial scale in Hitachi Cable, Ltd. The features of these developed conductors are as follows. (1) The diameter of Nb-Ti filaments is very small, 4-6 μm. (2) The critical current density (J c ) is very high, 2,850-3,050 A/mm 2 at 5 T on wires, 2750-2950 A/mm 2 at 5 T on cables in industrial scale. The champion J c of wires is 3,460 A/mm 2 at 5 T in the laboratory scale. (3) The RRR Residual Resistivity Ratio values of developed cables is very high, approximately 200, due to the newly developed high purity Oxygen Free Copper (OFC). (4) The conductors have been wound to the 1 m length dipole magnet in Hitachi Ltd., and it has generated 6.7 T in the central magnetic field at 6,595 A. The Cu/Cu-Mn/Nb-Ti composite wires which avoid the possibility of electrical coupling of the filaments have been produced in laboratory scale. The RRR of the copper stabilizer and J c properties have not degraded because of no metallurgical reactions between Cu and Mn, Nb-Ti and Mn. 7 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Loss and Inductance Investigations in a 4-layer Superconducting Prototype Cable Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    1999-01-01

    One important issue in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution between single tapes and layers. This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on a 4-layer three meter long prototype superconducting cable conductor......-losses are measured as a function of transport current and a given current distribution and compared with the monoblock model. Recommendations for design of future cable conductor prototypes are given....

  11. Elements of a specification for superconducting cable and why they are important for magnet construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.F.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to point out several features of the specification for SSC superconducting cable and its insulation that are important for fabrication of dipole magnet coils. Among these are the dimensions of the cable and insulation and their relevance for obtaining coils with appropriate overall dimensions, Other important cable properties are related to the twist direction of wire used to fabricate it and the opposite twist (or lay) direction of the cable. For some coils it is easier to work with cable of a particular lay direction. In conjunction with the ease of coil winding comes the requirement in the specification for superconducting cable which restricts the cable surface condition. The ease of winding coils is governed by the ability to bend and twist the cable at the coil ends without having wires come out of place, possibly later leading to insulation damage and a turn-to-turn short. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  12. metrological performance improvement of a superconducting cable test station

    CERN Document Server

    Montenero, Giuseppe; Ballarino, Amalia

    The work presented in this PhD thesis concerns the metrological performance improvement of a superconducting cable test station based on superconducting transformers. The main cable’s parameter to be assessed –as a function of temperature and magnetic field– is the critical current, i.e. beyond this limit the phase transition to the normal state occurs. Ramping the current at levels in the order of the tens of kA can be achieved with superconducting transformers at moderate capital and operational cost. But, issues such as (i) accurate/precise measurements and (ii) monitoring of the secondary current during the device operation have to be addressed. In this regard, the goals of the thesis are the design, prototyping, and validation of a new cryogenic current transducer and effective monitoring system for test stations transformer-based. Among the available transducers for current sensing at room temperature, the DC current transformer (DCCT) provides measurement accuracy in the order of the hundreds of ...

  13. Quench Property of Twisted-Pair MgB$_2$ Superconducting Cables in Helium Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Spurrell, J; Falorio, I; Pelegrin, J; Ballarino, A; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    CERN's twisted-pair superconducting cable is a novel design which offers filament transposition, low cable inductance and is particularly suited for tape conductors such as 2G YBCO coated conductors, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes and Ni/Monel-sheathed MgB2 tapes. A typical design of such twistedpair cables consists of multiple superconducting tapes intercalated with thin copper tapes as additional stabilizers. The copper tapes are typically not soldered to the superconducting tapes so that sufficient flexibility is retained for the twisting of the tape assembly. The electrical and thermal contacts between the copper and superconducting tapes are an important parameter for current sharing, cryogenic stability and quench propagation. Using an MgB2 twisted-pair cable assembly manufactured at CERN, we have carried out minimum quench energy (MQE) and propagation velocity (vp) measurements with point-like heat deposition localized within a tape. Furthermore, different contacts between the copper and superconductor aroun...

  14. Rotation analysis on large complex superconducting cables based on numerical modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Jinggang; Yue, Donghua; Zhang, Xingyi; Wu, Yu; Liu, Xiaochuan; Liu, Huajun; Jin, Huan; Dai, Chao; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Devred, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    The conductors used in large fusion reactors, e.g. ITER, CFETR and DEMO, are made of cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) with large diameters up to about 50 mm. The superconducting and copper strands are cabled around a central spiral and then wrapped with stainless-steel tape of 0.1 mm thickness. The

  15. Technical Challenges and Potential Solutions for Cross-Country Multi-Terminal Superconducting DC Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taie, A.; Graber, L.; Pamidi, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Opportunities for applications of high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cables for long distance power transmission in increasing the reliability of the electric power grid and to enable easier integration of distributed renewable sources into the grid are discussed. The gaps in the technology developments both in the superconducting cable designs and cryogenic systems as well as power electronic devices are identified. Various technology components in multi-terminal high voltage DC power transmission networks and the available options are discussed. The potential of ongoing efforts in the development of superconducting DC transmission systems is discussed.

  16. The US market for high-temperature superconducting wire in transmission cable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, D

    1996-04-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 utility engineers concerning the future prospects for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. All have direct responsibility for transmission in their utility, most of them in a management capacity. The engineers represented their utilities as members of the Electric Power Research Institute`s Underground Transmission Task Force (which has since been disbanded). In that capacity, they followed the superconducting transmission cable program and are aware of the cryogenic implications. Nineteen of the 23 engineers stated the market for underground transmission would grow during the next decade. Twelve of those specified an annual growth rate; the average of these responses was 5.6%. Adjusting that figure downward to incorporate the remaining responses, this study assumes an average growth rate of 3.4%. Factors driving the growth rate include the difficulty in securing rights-of-way for overhead lines, new construction techniques that reduce the costs of underground transmission, deregulation, and the possibility that public utility commissions will allow utilities to include overhead costs in their rate base. Utilities have few plans to replace existing cable as preventive maintenance, even though much of the existing cable has exceeded its 40-year lifetime. Ten of the respondents said the availability of a superconducting cable with the same life-cycle costs as a conventional cable and twice the ampacity would induce them to consider retrofits. The respondents said a cable with those characteristics would capture 73% of their cable retrofits.

  17. Operation experiences with a 30 kV/100 MVA high temperature superconducting cable system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Däumling, Manfred; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2004-01-01

    of this demonstration project is to gain experience with HTS cables under realistic conditions in a live distribution network. Approximately 50 000 utility customers have their electric power supplied through the HTS cable. The cable system has delivered 226 GW h of energy and reached a maximum operating current......A superconducting cable based on Bi-2223 tape technology has been developed, installed and operated in the public network of Copenhagen Energy in a two-year period between May 2001 and May 2003. This paper gives a brief overview of the system and analyses some of the operation experiences. The aim...

  18. Superconducting cable cooling system by helium gas at two pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermally contacting, oppositely streaming, cryogenic fluid streams in the same enclosure in a closed cycle changes the fluid from a cool high pressure helium gas to a cooler reduced pressure helium gas in an expander so as to be at different temperature ranges and pressures respectively in go and return legs that are in thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with a longitudinally extending superconducting transmission line enclosed in the same cable enclosure that insulates the line from the ambient at a temperature T 1 . By first circulating the fluid from a refrigerator at one end of the line as a cool gas at a temperature range T 2 to T 3 in the go leg, then circulating the gas through an expander at the other end of the line where the gas becomes a cooler gas at a reduced pressure and at a reduced temperature T 4 and finally by circulating the cooler gas back again to the refrigerator in a return leg at a temperature range T 4 to T 5 , while in thermal contact with the gas in the go leg, and in the same enclosure therewith for compression into a higher pressure gas at T 2 in a closed cycle, where T 2 greater than T 3 and T 5 greater than T 4 , the fluid leaves the enclosure in the go leg as a gas at its coldest point in the go leg, and the temperature distribution is such that the line temperature decreases along its length from the refrigerator due to the cooling from the gas in the return leg

  19. AmpaCity. Superconducting cables and fault current limiters for the energy supply in conurbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merschel, F.; Noe, M.; Stemmle, M.; Hobl, A.; Sauerbach, O.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 RWE Germany is working jointly with cable manufacturer Nexans and with the scientific support of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to install world's longest superconducting cable in the downtown area electricity grid of Essen. The AmpaCity project is partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and is playing an exemplary role in the further development of electricity grids in major cities worldwide. The project consortium presents AmpaCity as a convincing system solution especially with respect to economics and security of supply. Components of the system are a superconducting three-phase AC cable with two terminations and one connection joint in combination with a fault current limiter, which is also based on superconducting materials. The superconducting system is designed for 10 kV nominal voltage and 40 MW nominal power. It will replace a 110 kV cable system of equal capacity. At the same time, the project partners are paving the way for high failsafe performance, as the cable in conjunction with the fault current limiter cannot be overloaded by short circuit currents in the event of faults in the grid. Planning and follow up on the civil works in Essen posed a major challenge. Cable laying in the inner city, with various crossings of major highways, tramways, as well as already dense cable routes necessitated very thorough preparation and coordination. The civil works in Essen started in April 2013. At around the same time, after the cable had passed the type test, it went into production. Cable laying is scheduled for late summer. After commissioning, planned for the end of 2013, the field trial will run for at least two years under real grid conditions, to demonstrate this technology's suitability for wider deployment.

  20. Characteristics of the joint mini-model high temperature superconducting cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Sim, K.; Cho, J.; Kim, S.; Kim, J.H.; Jung, H.Y.

    2008-01-01

    To obtain realistic data on the high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable, 3-phase 100 m long, 22.9 kV class HTS power transmission cable system have been developed by Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) and LS cable Ltd. that is one of 21st Century Frontier Project in Korea. This cable was installed at Go-chang testing site of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). For the application of the HTS power cable joint is very important to ensure the performance. Therefore, this paper gives some investigation of AC loss, critical current and joint resistance in jointed HTS tape. We experimentally showed that the influence of joint resistance on AC loss by using several joint methods. Finally, we are measured critical current, AC loss and jointed resistance for the manufactured mini-model cable

  1. Superconducting coaxial cable as a large capacity transmission medium for communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoshiba, K.; Simohori, Y.; Ohmori, N.; Sone, F.

    1974-01-01

    In order to survey the feasibility of the superconducting communication system, the electrical performance of superconducting coaxial cable has been investigated experimentally. The results are as follows. The transmission loss can be described as a function of the frequency, a(f) = a 1 f 2 + a 2 f. Dielectric loss is dominant up to a few gigahertz. Improvement of the impedance irregularities due to dimensional imperfections along the cable smoothens the transmission loss versus frequency characteristics. The temperature dependence of the transmission loss agrees well with an approximate expression deduced using the Pippard temperature function. (author)

  2. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting power cables may be cooled by a forced flow of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. One way to do this is to circulate the liquid nitrogen (LN2) by means of a mechanical pump through the core of the cable and through a sub-cooler.Besides the cooling station, the cryogenics...... cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  3. A General Model for Thermal, Hydraulic and Electric Analysis of Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Rosso, C

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we describe a generic, multi-component and multi-channel model for the analysis of superconducting cables. The aim of the model is to treat in a general and consistent manner simultaneous thermal, electric and hydraulic transients in cables. The model is devised for most general situations, but reduces in limiting cases to most common approximations without loss of efficiency. We discuss here the governing equations, and we write them in a matrix form that is well adapted to numerical treatment. We finally demonstrate the model capability by comparison with published experimental data on current distribution in a two-strand cable.

  4. Operation experiences with a 30 kV/100 MVA high temperature superconducting cable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennesen, Ole; Daeumling, Manfred; Jensen, Kim H; Kvorning, Svend; Olsen, Soeren K; Traeholt, Chresten; Veje, Erling; Willen, Dag; Oestergaard, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    A superconducting cable based on Bi-2223 tape technology has been developed, installed and operated in the public network of Copenhagen Energy in a two-year period between May 2001 and May 2003. This paper gives a brief overview of the system and analyses some of the operation experiences. The aim of this demonstration project is to gain experience with HTS cables under realistic conditions in a live distribution network. Approximately 50 000 utility customers have their electric power supplied through the HTS cable. The cable system has delivered 226 GW h of energy and reached a maximum operating current of 1157 A. The operation experiences include over-currents of 6 kA due to faults on peripheral lines, commissioning, servicing and failure responses on the cooling system, continuous 24 h, 7 day per week monitoring and performance of the alarm system. The implications of these experiences for the future applications of HTS cable systems are analysed

  5. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects

  6. Advanced refrigeration system for the Brookhaven superconducting cable project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a basic supercritical refrigerator. The present status of the cable enclosure and the types of cooling schemes being considered are presented with some examples of laboratory results and computer analysis. (MOW)

  7. Optimum copper to superconductor ratio in cables for superconducting magnets at 1.9 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the optimum copper to superconducting ratio is calculated to prevent quenching for superconducting cables used in accelerator magnets like the LHC dipoles, operating in superfluid helium at 1.9K. The duration of the perturbations leading to a quench are estimated from flux measurements made with pickup coils in the LHC dipole models. The optimum copper to superconducting ratio is then found by studying the minimum quench energy and the influence of the length and the duration or the perturbation and heat transfer to the surroundings. A comparison is made of the behavior at temperatures of 1.9 and 4.3 K

  8. Detail of photo 7903109 stack of superconducting cables in the modulus measuring device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The picture shows an assembly of insulated superconducting cables of the type used in the Po dipole magnet inserted in the elastic modulus measuring device (photos 7903547X and 7903169) in order to measures its mechanical properties under azimuthal compression. See also 7903547X, 7903169, 8307552X.

  9. Characterization and multi-scales modeling of the thermomechanical behaviour of a superconducting composite cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdin, C.; Reytier, M.; Vedrine, P.

    2000-06-01

    The prediction of the superconducting cable mechanical properties (NbTi and Nb 3 Sn) becomes a great stake for the STCM applications. During the design phase of our magnets, the electromagnetic forces become considerable. Therefore, the control and the accuracy of the structural calculations need well known mechanical properties for each component. But, superconducting cables present, in compression, a non linear mechanical behaviour with a significant hysteresis, which will have to be taken into account in a near future. That is why a study is started in order to understand and to formulate this particular mechanical behaviour. In this paper, the NbTi and Nb 3 Sn cable structure is first presented as well as their manufacturing process. Then, a description of the experimental procedure used to realize the compression tests is made. Finally, the main results obtained at room temperature and also in liquid helium at 4.2 K are discussed. (author)

  10. Development of superconducting wire and cable for the SSC project in Sumitomo Electric Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashida, T.; Saito, S.; Oku, G.; Kurimoto, K.; Yamada, Y.; Yokota, M.; Ohmatsu, K.; Nagata, M.

    1991-01-01

    As a large production volume of NbTi superconducting wire and cable is required for the SSC project, a production process has been developed at Sumitomo Electric to optimize critical variables of wire properties. To achieve high electrical properties and a high overall yield of NbTi alloy in the fabrication process, the authors have employed carefully designed large size multifilament billets weighing more than 350kg to decrease the number of billets in large production scale. The collider dipole magnet consists of inner and outer cables, and the cable should be as uniform as possible to ensure the performance of the magnets. The authors studied two aspects to obtain such uniformity of superconducting wire; one is the selection of unit weight and the other is the property of critical current density of a strand

  11. Development of a superconducting cable for transmission of high electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisson, F.; Leroux, J.M.

    1971-01-01

    The opportunities opened by the use of cryoresistive and superconducting materials in underground transmission systems have led to a cryocable program. A first set of problems associated with the development of cryogenic cables deals with the cable system, i.e., design, safety, terminal equipment including leads, cryogenic equipment, refrigerators, and problems related to overload capability and reliability. A second set concerns the cable itself, i.e., scientific and technological problems associated with the conductor, the electrical insulation, and the thermal exchange between conductor and helium. Useful experience is gained on the design problems and on the technological problems involved in the construction of a cryoconducting cable. A 20-M aluminum cable cooled down to 25 0 K with pressurized helium flow was built and tested with 3500-A dc under 20 Kv; results are presented. On this model the following types of problems were solved. First, mechanical problems concerning cooling of the cable, thermal contraction of the pipes, electrical insulation and conductors, construction of an invariable cable constituted by elementary helically wound conductors were solved. Second, thermal problems of reduction of heat leaks, conception of thermal insulation, and segmentation of vacuum jackets were solved. Third, electrical problems of design of 300 0 to 25 0 K leads were solved; this problem of losses at both ends is, in proportion, more important for the short model than for long cable. Finally, refrigeration problems of helium and nitrogen flows, thermal shields and design of refrigerators (optimal capacity and spacing) were solved

  12. Quality analysis of superconducting wire and cable for SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a critical component of the SSC collider dipole magnets is superconducting cable. The uniformity and reliability requirements for the dipoles place stringent demands on the cable. These needs have been defined as various contract requirements in the material specifications for NbTi alloy, superconducting wire and cable. A supplied qualification program is being started by the SSCL with industry to establish reliable sources of superconductor cable. Key to this qualification program is the establishment by industry of detailed process methods and controls for wire and cable manufacture. To monitor conductor performance, a computer database is being developed by the SSCL Magnet Systems Division Quality Assurance Department. The database is part of a program for ensuring superconductor uniformity by focusing on the understanding and control of variation. A statistical and graphical summary of current data for key performance variables will be presented in light of the specification requirement for uniformity. Superconductor material characteristics to be addressed will include Wire Critical Current (I c ), Copper Ratio (Cu:SC), Wire Diameter, Wire Piece Length, and Cable Dimensional Control

  13. Analysis of eddy current loss in high-Tc superconducting power cables with respect to various structure of stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. J.; Song, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Cho, J. W.; Sim, K. D.

    2005-01-01

    The High-Tc superconducting power cable consists of a multi-layer high-Tc superconducting cable core and a stabilizer which is used to bypass the current at fault time. Eddy current loss is generated in the stabilizer in normal operating condition and affects the whole system. In this paper, the eddy current losses are analyzed with respect to various structure of stabilizer by using opera-3d. Moreover, optimal conditions of the stabilizer are derived to minimize the eddy current losses from the analyzed results. The obtained results could be applied to the design and manufacture of the high-Tc superconducting power cable system.

  14. Cryogenic System for a High-Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed

  15. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnikov, V. E.; Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A.; Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  16. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytnikov, V. E., E-mail: vsytnikov@gmail.com; Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A. [JSC NTTs FSC EES (Russian Federation); Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V. [JSC Irkutskkabel (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  17. Analysis of the electrodynamics of subcable current distribution in the superconducting POLO coil cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihler, C.; Heller, R.; Maurer, W.; Ulbricht, A.; Wuechner, F.

    1995-10-01

    Unexpected ramp rate limitations (RRL) found in superconducting magnets during the development of magnet systems can be attributed to a current imbalance amongst the cabled strands which leads to a lower than expected quench current. In superconducting magnets the current distribution in the cable during ramping depends mainly on the electromagnetic properties of the system. A detailed analysis of principle causes for RRL phenomena was performed with a model for one half of the POLO coil considering the complete inductance matrix of the cable and the fact that all turns are mutually coupled. The main results of these calculations are that unequal contact resistances can not be responsible for RRL phenomena in coils with parameters comparable to those of the POLO coil and that already minor geometrical disturbances in the cable structure can lead to major and lasting imbalances in the current distribution of cables with insulated and non-insulated strands. During the POLO experiment the half-coil model was employed to get a better understanding of the measured compensated subcable voltages during quench. The good agreement of the calculated and measured results demonstrates the validity of the model for RRL analyses. (orig.)

  18. Protection for low current superconducting coils wound with insulated strand cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.

    1980-09-01

    The insulated strand cable concept for winding of low current superconducting coil leads to an ideal quench protection by induction coupling. A superconducting secondary loop was made within a cable of a 6.2 Henry dipole coil. When quenching occurred, current was induced in the secondary strand above the critical value. The normal strand quenched the whole cable due to good thermal contact. The secondary loop works as a heater turned on as the wire becomes normal throughout the coil. With a well spread quench, the energy dissipation density is decreased thus preventing local burnout. The mechanism is possible because of close coupling that is present in the insulated cable as in bifilar winding. For the coil tested a 12 strand cable was used, thus a favorable 11 to 1 turn ratio was obtained for the primary to secondary. The superconductor in the secondary had a lower resistance until the critical current was achieved. A theoretical explanation is described for a simplified circuit. Test on the dipole coil with four individual shells showed that the one shell protected with the induced coupling heater always had a more rapid reduction of current. The induced coupling heater tested and explained in this paper works automatically and does not rely on mechanical or electrical devices

  19. Experiment of 200-meter superconducting DC cable system in Chubu University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Kawahara, T.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Ivanov, Yu.; Sun, J.; Iiyoshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We designed and constructed the experimental device of 200-meter superconducting DC cable system in the beginning of 2010 and did the first experiment until March, 2010, and the second experiment has been done from August to October 2010. This experimental device is called CASER-2, and the main aim of the experiment is to demonstrate high performance of DC superconducting cable system for comparing the copper cable system. Thermal contraction and expansion during the thermal cycle are discussed in the paper because if the thermal stress of the HTS tape conductor is high, the critical current of the HTS tape is reduced. Therefore, it is the first priority to keep the system in high performance and safety. We also mentioned several experiments and ideas in the paper, such as the low heat leaks of the terminal cryostat and the cryogenic pipe, and the low circulation power, energy storage function of the cable system. In this paper, we present the experimental results of the CASER-2, and discuss and estimate the performance of the system and several ideas. These discussions include the specification of the future long cable system, and show the subjects to solve for the future system.

  20. Feasibility study of superconducting power cables for DC electric railway feeding systems in view of thermal condition at short circuit accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Daisuke; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    A superconducting power cable has merits of a high power transmission capacity, transmission losses reduction, a compactness, etc., therefore, we have been studying the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to DC electric railway feeding systems. However, a superconducting power cable is required to be cooled down and kept at a very low temperature, so it is important to reveal its thermal and cooling characteristics. In this study, electric circuit analysis models of the system and thermal analysis models of superconducting cables were constructed and the system behaviors were simulated. We analyzed the heat generation by a short circuit accident and transient temperature distribution of the cable to estimate the value of temperature rise and the time required from the accident. From these results, we discussed a feasibility of superconducting cables for DC electric railway feeding systems. The results showed that the short circuit accident had little impact on the thermal condition of a superconducting cable in the installed system.

  1. Design of a termination for a high temperature superconduction power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Tønnesen, Ole

    1999-01-01

    ). This assembly is electrically insulated with an extruded polymer dielectric kept at room temperature. Cooling is provided by a flow of liquid nitrogen inside the former. The purpose of the termination is to connect the superconducting cable conductor at cryogenic temperature to the existing power grid at room...... temperatures, the transfer of liquid nitrogen over a high voltage drop and that of providing a well defined atmosphere inside the termination and around the cable conductor. Designs based on calculations and experiments will be presented. The solutions are optimized with respect to a low heat in-leak....

  2. Flux-transfer losses in helically wound superconducting power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, John R; Malozemoff, A P

    2013-01-01

    Minimization of ac losses is essential for economic operation of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) ac power cables. A favorable configuration for the phase conductor of such cables has two counter-wound layers of HTS tape-shaped wires lying next to each other and helically wound around a flexible cylindrical former. However, if magnetic materials such as magnetic substrates of the tapes lie between the two layers, or if the winding pitch angles are not opposite and essentially equal in magnitude to each other, current distributes unequally between the two layers. Then, if at some point in the ac cycle the current of either of the two layers exceeds its critical current, a large ac loss arises from the transfer of flux between the two layers. A detailed review of the formalism, and its application to the case of paramagnetic substrates including the calculation of this flux-transfer loss, is presented. (paper)

  3. Tests of high gradient superconducting quadrupole magnets for the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Carson, J.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koepke, K.; Mantsch, P.; McInturff, A.D.; Riddiford, A.; Strait, J.

    1989-09-01

    Tests have been completed on three prototype magnets and two production magnets to be used for the Tevatron Dφ/Bφ low- β insertion. These cold iron, two shell quadrupoles are made of 36 strand Rutherford type NbTi superconducting cable. Magnet field gradients well in excess of the design 1.41 T/cm have been achieved at a transfer function of 0.291 T/cm/kA. Quench performance at 4.2 K and 3.7 K and magnetic multipole measurement data are presented and discussed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Stability of superconducting Rutherford cables for accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willering, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of superconducting magnets has a high priority for particle accelerators, since the operational time and operational collision energy depend strongly on it. Local heat dissipation due to beam loss and conductor movement is inevitable, causing local hot spots in the conductor, possibly

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of two cabling machines for the manufacture of superconducting cable for the LHC main magnets

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of two cabling machines for the production of superconducting cable for the LHC main magnets. These cables are of two different types, hereafter referred as Cable 1 and Cable 2. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with SETIC (FR) for the supply of two cabling machines, for a total amount not exceeding 3 200 000 euros (4 948 800 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  6. Characteristic Analysis of DC Electric Railway Systems with Superconducting Power Cables Connecting Power Substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, H.; Matsushita, N.; Koseki, T.; Tomita, M.

    2014-05-01

    The application of superconducting power cables to DC electric railway systems has been studied. It could leads to an effective use of regenerative brake, improved energy efficiency, effective load sharing among the substations, etc. In this study, an electric circuit model of a DC feeding system is built and numerical simulation is carried out using MATLAB-Simulink software. A modified electric circuit model with an AC power grid connection taken into account is also created to simulate the influence of the grid connection. The analyses have proved that a certain amount of energy can be conserved by introducing superconducting cables, and that electric load distribution and concentration among the substations depend on the substation output voltage distribution.

  7. Characteristic analysis of DC electric railway systems with superconducting power cables connecting power substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsaki, H; Matsushita, N; Koseki, T; Tomita, M

    2014-01-01

    The application of superconducting power cables to DC electric railway systems has been studied. It could leads to an effective use of regenerative brake, improved energy efficiency, effective load sharing among the substations, etc. In this study, an electric circuit model of a DC feeding system is built and numerical simulation is carried out using MATLAB-Simulink software. A modified electric circuit model with an AC power grid connection taken into account is also created to simulate the influence of the grid connection. The analyses have proved that a certain amount of energy can be conserved by introducing superconducting cables, and that electric load distribution and concentration among the substations depend on the substation output voltage distribution.

  8. A new scheme for critical current measurements on straight superconducting cables in a large solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; Volpini, G.

    1991-01-01

    The precision of I c measurement of straight superconducting cables in solenoids can be limited by the magnetic field inhomogeneity. A solution in order to improve the field homogeneity based on iron shims is presented here. A conceptual design for the experimental lay-out of a test station to be used in connection with the SOLEMI-I solenoid at the Milan INFN Section (LASA Laboratory) is given

  9. Normal state resistance and low temperature magnetoresistance of superconducting cables for accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, W.B.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The normal state resistivity of the superconducting NbTi cable used in accelerator magnets is usually specified by the resistance per unit length at room temperature (295 K) and the residual resistance ratio (RRR). Using these resistance parameters, the amount of copper in the multifilamentary wire can be calculated. This method is consistent with the traditional etch and weigh technique, and as such is a alternative and convenient way of specifying the copper to superconductor ratio. In principle the magnetoresistance can be calculated from the RRR and the ''Kohler Plot'', for copper. In practice however, measurements of magnetoresistance for a wide variety of SSC inner cables show considerable disagreement with calculation. In this paper the magnetoresistance data on cables with RRR ranging from 50 to 175 are analyzed taking into account the conductor geometry and the effect of the small interfilamentary spacing on the resistivity of copper. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  11. Electrical Insulation of 500-m High-Tc Superconducting Power Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T; Ichikawa, M; Suzuki, H; Okamoto, T; Akita, S; Mukoyama, S; Yagi, M; Maruyama, S; Kimura, A

    2006-01-01

    Electrical insulation is one of the essential technologies for the electric power apparatus. Determination of testing voltages and design method of the electrical insulation layer are inextricably linked each other, and are critical to developing and realizing a cold dielectric (CD) type high-Tc superconducting (HTS) power cable. The authors had proposed the electrical insulation design method with concepts of partial discharge-free designs for ac voltage condition. This paper discusses the testing voltages for a 77 kV 1000 A HTS power cable with a length of 500 m, and describes results of various voltage withstand test. As a result, it is concluded that the proposed electrical insulation design method is appropriate for the HTS power cable

  12. Steady-state heat transfer in He II through porous superconducting cable insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouy, B.J.P.; Juster, F.P.; Meuris, C.; Vieillard, L.

    1996-01-01

    The LHC program includes the study of thermal behavior of the superconducting cables wound in the dipole magnet cooled by superfluid helium (He II). Insulation of these superconducting cables forms the major thermal shield hindering the He II cooling. This is particularly a problem in magnets which are subjected to thermal loads. To investigate He II heat transfer processes an experimental model has been realized which creates a one-dimensional heat transfer in such media. Insulation is generally realized by wrapping around the superconducting cable a combination of different kind of Kapton reg-sign tapes, fiber-glass impregnated by epoxy resin or Kevlar reg-sign fiber tapes. Steady-state heat transfer in He II through these multi-layer porous slabs has been analyzed. Experimental results for a range of heat flux show the existence of different thermal regimes related to He II. It is shown that the parameters of importance are a global geometrical factor which could be considered as an equivalent open-quotes permeabilityclose quotes related to He II heat transfer, the transfer function f(T) of He II and the thermal conductivity of the slab. The authors present and analyze results for different insulations as a function of the temperature

  13. The Electrical Aspects of the choice of Former in a High T-c Superconducting Power Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Däumling, Manfred; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Olsen, Søren Krüger

    1999-01-01

    Centrally located in a superconducting power cable the former supplies a rigid means onto which to wind the superconducting tapes and enables a continuous supply of cooling power via a flow of liquid cryogen through it. Therefore, the choice of former has a broad impact on the construction and de...

  14. Materials, Strands, and Cables for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumption, Mike D. [Ohio State University, Columbia, OH (United States); Collings, Edward W. [Ohio State University, Columbia, OH (United States)

    2014-09-19

    This report focuses on Materials, Strands and Cables for High Energy Physics Particle accelerators. In the materials area, work has included studies of basic reactions, diffusion, transformations, and phase assemblage of Nb3Sn. These materials science aspects have been married to results, in the form of flux pinning, Bc2, Birr, and transport Jc, with an emphasis on obtaining the needed Jc for HEP needs. Attention has also been paid to the “intermediate-temperature superconductor”, magnesium diboride emphasis being placed on (i) irreversibility field enhancement, (ii) critical current density and flux pinning, and (iii) connectivity. We also report on studies of Bi-2212. The second area of the program has been in the area of “Strands” in which, aside from the materials aspect of the conductor, its physical properties and their influence on performance have been studied. Much of this work has been in the area of magnetization estimation and flux jump calculation and control. One of the areas of this work was strand instabilities in high-performance Nb3Sn conductors due to combined fields and currents. Additionally, we investigated quench and thermal propagation in YBCO coated conductors at low temperatures and high fields. The last section, “Cables”, focussed on interstrand contact resistance, ICR, it origins, control, and implications. Following on from earlier work in NbTi, the present work in Nb3Sn has aimed to make ICR intermediate between the two extremes of too little contact (no current sharing) and too much (large and unacceptable magnetization and associated beam de-focussing). Interstrand contact and current sharing measurements are being made on YBCO based Roebel cables using transport current methods. Finally, quench was investigated for YBCO cables and the magnets wound from them, presently with a focus on 50 T solenoids for muon collider applications.

  15. The effect of transverse loads up to 300 MPa on the critical currents of Nb3Sn cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschman, H.; Verweij, A.P.; Wessel, S.; ten Kate, H.H.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of the development of an experimental 10 T Nb 3 Sn dipole coil for the LHC at CERN the effects of transverse stress on Rutherford type of Nb 3 Sn cables have been investigated. For this purpose a special facility was designed and taken into operation in which the voltage-current behavior of short pieces of Nb 3 Sn cables can be investigated in a background field up to 11 T and an applied stress of 300 MPa. The repulsive Lorentz force of 250 kN, generated by a set of superconducting coils, is used to impress the cable over an area of 20 x 42 mm 2 maximum, in presence of a transport current up to 40 kA. In this paper the testing equipment is described and the first results of the observed critical current degradation of two Nb 3 Sn cables are discussed

  16. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoux, N; Jiménez, C; Chaudouët, P; Rapenne, L; Sarigiannidou, E; Robaut, F; Petit, S; Garaudée, S; Porcar, L; Soubeyroux, J L; Odier, P; Bruzek, C E; Decroux, M

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) on La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. J c reached 0.3 MA cm −2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  17. Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, M; Muralidhar, M; Suzuki, K; Fukumoto, Y; Ishihara, A; Akasaka, T; Kobayashi, Y

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (I c ) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y or YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed. (paper)

  18. Supercritical helium cooled, cabled, superconducting hollow conductors for large high field magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, M.O.; Iwasa, Y.; Montgomery, D.B.; Bejan, A.

    1976-01-01

    Within the last two years a new concept of cabled superconducting hollow conductors has been developed which are able to recover from transient instabilities by virtue of on-going, single-phase helium cooling. It has been possible to correlate small scale experimental results with an iterative computer program. The latter has been recently upgraded to include axial as well as radial heat transfer and predict more closely the chances of recovery. Nearly 1 g/s of supercritical helium has been circulated in a closed loop using a high speed centrifugal fan and up to 10 g/s using a reciprocating single pulse bellows pump. The loop is now being adapted to a 3 m length of a tightly wound 5000 A cabled hollow conductor equipped with pulse coils designed to fit inside a water cooled Bitter magnet. The combination will allow for a steady background field of 7.5 t with a 2 t superimposed pulse. (author)

  19. Analytical Model of Thermo-electrical Behaviour in Superconducting Resistive Core Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Breschi, M; Coccoli, M; Granieri, P; Iriart, G; Lecci, F; Siemko, A

    2006-01-01

    High field superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn accelerators magnets above 14 T, for future High Energy Physics applications, call for improvements in the design of the protection system against resistive transitions. The longitudinal quench propagation velocity (vq) is one of the parameters defining the requirements of the protection. Up to now vq has been always considered as a physical parameter defined by the operating conditions (the bath temperature, cooling conditions, the magnetic field and the over all current density) and the type of superconductor and stabilizer used. It is possible to enhance the quench propagation velocity by segregating a percent of the stabilizer into the core, although keeping the total amount constant and tuning the contact resistance between the superconducting strands and the core. Analytical model and computer simulations are presented to explain the phenomenon. The consequences with respect to minimum quench energy are evidenced and the strategy to optimize the cable designed is di...

  20. Contributions to the study of superconducting multifilamentary composites and cables; Contributions a l`etude du comportement des composites et cables supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck, B

    1992-03-01

    This report is a collection of published papers in French and in English on superconducting composites and cables. All domains concerning the behaviour of superconductors in coils for field generation have been covered: critical current, current distribution, instabilities, losses in varying field. This document provides with expressions and criteria for conductor design, with conditions for achieving given performances and with criteria for design and optimization of structures of multifilamentary composites and cables. These publications have played a determining role in the understanding of the behaviour of superconductors and in their use in high performing magnets.

  1. First tests of twisted-pair HTS 1 kA range cables for use in superconducting links

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Hurte, J; Sitko, M; Willering, G

    2011-01-01

    The requirement at CERN for 1 kA range High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables optimized for long electrical transfer has led to the design and assembly of a novel type of cable that can be made from pre-reacted MgB2, Bi-2223 or YBCO tapes. The cable consists of an assembly of twisted pairs, each of which is made from three superconducting tapes with the required copper stabilizer. The twisted pair cable is designed to transfer a DC current of ± 600 A in helium gas environment. The paper reports on the results of the electrical tests performed on twisted-pair cables of identical structure and made from commercially available MgB2, Bi-2223 and YBCO tapes. The twist pitch of the cables is adapted to match the mechanical properties of the different superconductors. Critical current tests were performed at both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperature. The electrical performance of several cables made from different conductors is reported and compared.

  2. The quality assurance of superconducting wire and cable for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.; Baggett, P.; Capone, D.

    1991-03-01

    The success of the SSC depends on the consistency and uniformity of the superconducting magnets used in the main collider rings and the high energy booster. To a great extent the success of the magnets depends upon the quality of the superconductor wire and cable used in coil windings. As the SSC project has begun its transition from Research to Development, a new laboratory organization has been established to carry the design requirements from concept to reality. The SSCL Magnet Systems Division Quality Assurance Group has been working on the development of a quality management and analysis system for insuring superconductor uniformity through the understanding and control of manufacturing variation. Key areas of the QA activity include: the design and development of a computer database and analysis system for the collection and statistical analysis of superconductor materials data (containing: source physical and chemical properties, billet process history, and final product performance data); and the development of wire and cable product specifications which focus on the control of variation. As a result of this work several new concepts have been developed which will affect the traditional approach to superconductor wire and cable production. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Measuring ac losses in superconducting cables using a resonant circuit:Resonant current experiment (RESCUE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Däumling, Manfred; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Rasmussen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    be recorded using, for example, a digital oscilloscope. The amplitude decay of the periodic voltage or current accurately reflects the power loss in the system. It consists of two components-an ohmic purely exponential one (from leads, contacts, etc.), and a nonexponential component originating from......A simple way to obtain true ac losses with a resonant circuit containing a superconductor, using the decay of the circuit current, is described. For the measurement a capacitor is short circuited with a superconducting cable. Energy in the circuit is provided by either charging up the capacitors...... with a certain voltage, or letting a de flow in the superconductor. When the oscillations are started-either by opening a switch in case a de is flowing or by closing a switch to connect the charged capacitors with the superconductor-the current (via a Rogowski coil) or the voltage on the capacitor can...

  4. Theory and modelling of quench in cable-in-conduit superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajii, A.

    1994-04-01

    A new simple, self consistent theoretical model is presented that describes the phenomena of quench propagation in Cable-In-Conduit superconducting magnets. The model (Quencher) circumvents many of the difficulties associated with obtaining numerical solutions in more general existing models. Specifically, a factor of 30-50 is gained in CPU time over the general, explicit time dependent codes used to study typical quench events. The corresponding numerical implementation of the new model is described and the numerical results are shown to agree very well with those of the more general models, as well as with experimental data. Further, well justified approximations lead to the MacQuench model that is shown to be very accurate and considerably more efficient than the Quencher model. The MacQuench code is suitable for performing quench studies on a personal computer, requiring only several minutes of CPU time. In order to perform parametric studies on new conductor designs it is required to utilize a model such as MacQuench because of the high computational efficiency of this model. Finally, a set of analytic solutions for the problem of quench propagation in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors is presented. These analytic solutions represent the first such results that remain valid for the long time scales of interest during a quench process. The assumptions and the resulting simplifications that lead to the analytic solutions are discussed, and the regimes of validity of the various approximations are specified. The predictions of the analytic results are shown to be in very good agreement with numerical as well as experimental results. Important analytic scaling relations are verified by such comparisons, and the consequences of some of these scalings on currently designed superconducting magnets are discussed

  5. Thermo-Hydraulic behaviour of dual-channel superconducting Cable-In-Conduit Conductors for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, B.

    2006-09-01

    In an effort to optimise the cryogenics of large superconducting coils for fusion applications (ITER), dual channel Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) are designed with a central channel spiral to provide low hydraulic resistance and faster helium circulation. The qualitative and economic rationale of the conductor central channel is here justified to limit the superconductor temperature increase, but brings more complexity to the conductor cooling characteristics. The pressure drop of spirals is experimentally evaluated in nitrogen and water and an explicit hydraulic friction model is proposed. Temperatures in the cable must be quantified to guarantee superconductor margin during coil operation under heat disturbance and set adequate inlet temperature. Analytical one-dimensional thermal models, in steady state and in transient, allow to better understand the thermal coupling of CICC central and annular channels. The measurement of a heat transfer characteristic space and time constants provides cross-checking experimental estimations of the internal thermal homogenization. A simple explicit model of global inter-channel heat exchange coefficient is proposed. The risk of thermosyphon between the two channels is considered since vertical portions of fusion coils are subject to gravity. The new hydraulic model, heat exchange model and gravitational risk ratio allow the thermohydraulic improvement of CICC central spirals. (author)

  6. Pareto optimal design of sectored toroidal superconducting magnet for SMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhunia, Uttam, E-mail: ubhunia@vecc.gov.in; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The optimization approach minimizes both the magnet size and necessary cable length of a sectored toroidal SMES unit. • Design approach is suitable for low temperature superconducting cable suitable for medium size SMES unit. • It investigates coil parameters with respect to practical engineering aspects. - Abstract: A novel multi-objective optimization design approach for sectored toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage coil has been developed considering the practical engineering constraints. The objectives include the minimization of necessary superconductor length and torus overall size or volume, which determines a significant part of cost towards realization of SMES. The best trade-off between the necessary conductor length for winding and magnet overall size is achieved in the Pareto-optimal solutions, the compact magnet size leads to increase in required superconducting cable length or vice versa The final choice among Pareto optimal configurations can be done in relation to other issues such as AC loss during transient operation, stray magnetic field at outside the coil assembly, and available discharge period, which is not considered in the optimization process. The proposed design approach is adapted for a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system using low temperature niobium–titanium based Rutherford type cable. Furthermore, the validity of the representative Pareto solutions is confirmed by finite-element analysis (FEA) with a reasonably acceptable accuracy.

  7. Pareto optimal design of sectored toroidal superconducting magnet for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, Uttam; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization approach minimizes both the magnet size and necessary cable length of a sectored toroidal SMES unit. • Design approach is suitable for low temperature superconducting cable suitable for medium size SMES unit. • It investigates coil parameters with respect to practical engineering aspects. - Abstract: A novel multi-objective optimization design approach for sectored toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage coil has been developed considering the practical engineering constraints. The objectives include the minimization of necessary superconductor length and torus overall size or volume, which determines a significant part of cost towards realization of SMES. The best trade-off between the necessary conductor length for winding and magnet overall size is achieved in the Pareto-optimal solutions, the compact magnet size leads to increase in required superconducting cable length or vice versa The final choice among Pareto optimal configurations can be done in relation to other issues such as AC loss during transient operation, stray magnetic field at outside the coil assembly, and available discharge period, which is not considered in the optimization process. The proposed design approach is adapted for a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system using low temperature niobium–titanium based Rutherford type cable. Furthermore, the validity of the representative Pareto solutions is confirmed by finite-element analysis (FEA) with a reasonably acceptable accuracy

  8. Alternating current losses of a 10 metre long low loss superconducting cable conductor determined from phase sensitive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger Olsen, S.; Kuehle, A.; Traeholt, C.; C Rasmussen, C.; Toennesen, O.; Daeumling, M.; Rasmussen, C.N.; Willen, D.W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ac loss of a superconducting cable conductor carrying an ac current is small. Therefore the ratio between the inductive (out-of-phase) and the resistive (in-phase) voltages over the conductor is correspondingly high. In vectorial representations this results in phase angles between the current and the voltage over the cable close to 90 degrees. This has the effect that the loss cannot be derived directly using most commercial lock-in amplifiers due to their limited absolute accuracy. However, by using two lock-in amplifiers and an appropriate correction scheme the high relative accuracy of such lock-in amplifiers can be exploited. In this paper we present the results from ac-loss measurements on a low loss 10 metre long high temperature superconducting cable conductor using such a correction scheme. Measurements were carried out with and without a compensation circuit that could reduce the inductive voltage. The 1 μV cm -1 critical current of the conductor was 3240 A at 77 K. At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the ac loss was derived to be 0.6±0.15 W m -1 . This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value of ac loss of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far at these high currents. (author)

  9. Analytical approximations for thermophysical properties of supercritical nitrogen (SCN) to be used in futuristic high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondapati, Raja Sekhar, E-mail: drsekhar@ieee.org [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401 (India); Ravula, Jeswanth [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401 (India); Thadela, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India); Usurumarti, Preeti Rao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.V.K. Institute of Technology, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-12-15

    Future power transmission applications demand higher efficiency due to the limited resources of energy. In order to meet such demand, a novel method of transmission is being developed using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. However, these HTS cables need to be cooled below the critical temperature of superconductors used in constructing the cable to retain the superconductivity. With the advent of new superconductors whose critical temperatures having reached up to 134 K (Hg based), a need arises to find a suitable coolant which can accommodate the heating loads on the superconductors. The present work proposes, Supercritical Nitrogen (SCN) to be a feasible coolant to achieve the required cooling. Further, the feasibility of proposed coolant to be used in futuristic HTS cables is investigated by studying the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature (T{sub C} + 10 K) and pressure (P{sub C} + 10 bar). In addition, few temperature dependent analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of SCN which are useful in predicting thermohydraulic performance (pressure drop, pumping power and cooling capacity) using numerical or computational techniques. Also, the developed analytical functions are used to calculate the pumping power and the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of HTS cable. These results are compared with those of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and found that the circulating pumping power required to pump SCN is significantly smaller than that to pump LN2. Further, it is found that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is smaller as compared to that when LN2 is used, SCN can be preferred to cool long length Hg based HTS cables. - Highlights: • Analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Nitrogen. • Error analysis shows extremely low errors in the developed analytical functions.

  10. Analytical approximations for thermophysical properties of supercritical nitrogen (SCN) to be used in futuristic high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Ravula, Jeswanth; Thadela, S.; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2015-01-01

    Future power transmission applications demand higher efficiency due to the limited resources of energy. In order to meet such demand, a novel method of transmission is being developed using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. However, these HTS cables need to be cooled below the critical temperature of superconductors used in constructing the cable to retain the superconductivity. With the advent of new superconductors whose critical temperatures having reached up to 134 K (Hg based), a need arises to find a suitable coolant which can accommodate the heating loads on the superconductors. The present work proposes, Supercritical Nitrogen (SCN) to be a feasible coolant to achieve the required cooling. Further, the feasibility of proposed coolant to be used in futuristic HTS cables is investigated by studying the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature (T_C + 10 K) and pressure (P_C + 10 bar). In addition, few temperature dependent analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of SCN which are useful in predicting thermohydraulic performance (pressure drop, pumping power and cooling capacity) using numerical or computational techniques. Also, the developed analytical functions are used to calculate the pumping power and the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of HTS cable. These results are compared with those of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and found that the circulating pumping power required to pump SCN is significantly smaller than that to pump LN2. Further, it is found that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is smaller as compared to that when LN2 is used, SCN can be preferred to cool long length Hg based HTS cables. - Highlights: • Analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Nitrogen. • Error analysis shows extremely low errors in the developed analytical functions.

  11. Statistical correlations for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Argon (SCAR) used in cooling of futuristic High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsia, Mohit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144 401 (India); Dondapati, Raja Sekhar, E-mail: drsekhar@ieee.org [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144 401 (India); Usurumarti, Preeti Rao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PVK Institute of Technology, Anantpur, 515 001 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The developed correlations can be integrated into thermohydraulic analysis of HTS cables. • This work also explains the phenomenon of flow with less pumping power and maximum heat transfer in HTS cables. • Pumping power required to circulate the SCAR for cooling of HTS cables would be significantly lower. • For Hg-based high temperature superconductors (T{sub c} > 134 K), SCAR found to be a suitable coolant. - Abstract: High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables are emerging as an alternative to conventional cables in efficient power transmission. However, these HTS cables require cooling below the critical temperature of superconductors used to transmit larger currents. With the invention of high temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are up to 134 K (Hg based), it is a great challenge to identify a suitable coolant which can carry away the heating load on the superconductors. In order to accomplish such challenge, an attempt has been made in the present work to propose supercritical Argon (SCAR) as the alternative to cool the HTS cables. Further, a statistical correlation has been developed for the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of SCAR. In addition, the accuracy of developed correlations is established with the help of few statistical parameters and validated with standard database available in the literature. These temperature dependent accurate correlations are useful in predicting the pressure drop and heat transfer behaviour in HTS cables using numerical or computational techniques. In recent times, with the sophistication of computer technology, solving of various complex transport equations along with the turbulence models became popular and hence the developed correlations would benefit the technological community. It is observed that, a decrease in pressure, density and viscosity are found to be decreasing whereas the thermal conductivity and specific

  12. Statistical correlations for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Argon (SCAR) used in cooling of futuristic High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsia, Mohit; Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The developed correlations can be integrated into thermohydraulic analysis of HTS cables. • This work also explains the phenomenon of flow with less pumping power and maximum heat transfer in HTS cables. • Pumping power required to circulate the SCAR for cooling of HTS cables would be significantly lower. • For Hg-based high temperature superconductors (T_c > 134 K), SCAR found to be a suitable coolant. - Abstract: High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables are emerging as an alternative to conventional cables in efficient power transmission. However, these HTS cables require cooling below the critical temperature of superconductors used to transmit larger currents. With the invention of high temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are up to 134 K (Hg based), it is a great challenge to identify a suitable coolant which can carry away the heating load on the superconductors. In order to accomplish such challenge, an attempt has been made in the present work to propose supercritical Argon (SCAR) as the alternative to cool the HTS cables. Further, a statistical correlation has been developed for the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of SCAR. In addition, the accuracy of developed correlations is established with the help of few statistical parameters and validated with standard database available in the literature. These temperature dependent accurate correlations are useful in predicting the pressure drop and heat transfer behaviour in HTS cables using numerical or computational techniques. In recent times, with the sophistication of computer technology, solving of various complex transport equations along with the turbulence models became popular and hence the developed correlations would benefit the technological community. It is observed that, a decrease in pressure, density and viscosity are found to be decreasing whereas the thermal conductivity and specific heat

  13. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting conductor on round core cables in magnetic fields up to 20 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Laan, D. C.; Noyes, P. D.; Miller, G. E.; Weijers, H. W.; Willering, G. P.

    2013-02-13

    The next generation of high-ï¬eld magnets that will operate at magnetic ï¬elds substantially above 20 T, or at temperatures substantially above 4.2 K, requires high-temperature superconductors (HTS). Conductor on round core (CORC) cables, in which RE-Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (RE = rare earth) (REBCO) coated conductors are wound in a helical fashion on a flexible core, are a practical and versatile HTS cable option for low-inductance, high-field magnets. We performed the first tests of CORC magnet cables in liquid helium in magnetic fields of up to 20 T. A record critical current I{sub c} of 5021 A was measured at 4.2 K and 19 T. In a cable with an outer diameter of 7.5 mm, this value corresponds to an engineering current density J{sub e} of 114 A mm{sup -2} , the highest J{sub e} ever reported for a superconducting cable at such high magnetic fields. Additionally, the first magnet wound from an HTS cable was constructed from a 6 m-long CORC cable. The 12-turn, double-layer magnet had an inner diameter of 9 cm and was tested in a magnetic field of 20 T, at which it had an I{sub c} of 1966 A. The cables were quenched repetitively without degradation during the measurements, demonstrating the feasibility of HTS CORC cables for use in high-field magnet applications.

  14. Alternating current losses of a 10 metre long low loss superconducting cable conductor determined from phase sensitive measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    The ac loss of a superconducting cable conductor carrying an ac current is small. Therefore the ratio between the inductive (out-of-phase) and the resistive (in-phase) voltages over the conductor is correspondingly high. In vectorial representations this results in phase angles between the current......-in amplifiers can be exploited. In this paper we present the results from ac-loss measurements on a low loss 10 metre long high temperature superconducting cable conductor using such a correction scheme. Measurements were carried out with and without a compensation circuit that could reduce-the inductive...... voltage. The 1 mu V cm(-1) critical current of the conductor was 3240 A at 77 K. At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the ac loss was derived to be 0.6 +/- 0.15 W m(-1). This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value of ac loss of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far...

  15. The Consequence of Self-field and Non-uniform Current Distribution on Short Sample Tests of Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    1998-01-01

    Electrical measurements on samples of superconducting cables are usually performed in order to determine the critical current $I_c$ and the n-value, assuming that the voltage U at the transition from the superconducting to the normal state follows the power law, U\\sim($I/I_c$)$^n$. An accurate measurement of $I_c$ and n demands, first of all, good control of temperature and field, and precise measurement of current and voltage. The critical current and n-value of a cable are influenced by the self-field of the cable, an effect that has to be known in order to compare the electrical characteristics of the cable with those of the strands from which it is made. The effect of the self-field is dealt with taking into account the orientation and magnitude of the applied field and the n-value of the strands. An important source of inaccuracy is related to the distribution of the currents among the strands. Non-uniform distributions, mainly caused by non-equal resistances of the connections between the strands of the...

  16. Design and optimization of superconducting magnet system for energy storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    In view of developing superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) technology that will mitigate voltage sag/dip in the utility line, VEC centre has taken up a leading role in the country. In the first phase a solenoid-type 0.6 MJ SMES system using cryo-stable NbTi superconductor has been designed, developed and tested successfully with resistive load to mitigate power line voltage dips. The cryogenic test results of 0.6 MJ SMES coil will be highlighted. Further, effort is underway to develop a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system with toroidal coil configuration. The lecture will also cover the superconducting coil development for SMES application with special emphasis on design aspects and the optimization issue of the toroidal system using NbTi based Rutherford-type cable. (author)

  17. Alternating current loss calculation in a high-TC superconducting transmission cable considering the magnetic field distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, H; Haji, K; Hamada, T

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the alternating current (ac) losses of a 114 MVA high-T C superconducting (HTS) transmission cable using an electric-circuit (EC) model. The HTS cable is fabricated by Tokyo Electric Power Company and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. The EC model is comprised of a resistive part and an inductive part. The resistive part is obtained by the approximated Norris equation for a HTS tape. The Norris equation indicates hysteresis losses due to self-fields. The inductive part has two components, i.e. inductances related to axial fields and those related to circumferential fields. The layer currents and applied fields of each layer were calculated by the EC model. By using both values, the ac losses of the one-phase HTS cable were obtained by calculation considering the self-field, the axial field and the circumferential field of the HTS tape. The measured ac loss transporting 1 kA rms is 0.7 W m -1 ph -1 , which is equal to the calculation. The distribution of each layer loss resembles in shape the distribution of the circumferential field in each layer, which indicates that the circumferential fields strongly influence the ac losses of the HTS cable

  18. Low AC-Loss Superconducting Cable Technology for Electric Aircraft Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The availability of low AC loss magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting wires enables much lighter weight superconducting stator coils than with any other metal or...

  19. Helium flow dynamics and heat transfer in a cable in conduit conductor of superconducting magnets: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaghela, Hitensinh; Sarkar, Biswanath; Lakhera, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) magnets with Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) winding, cooled by helium at 4 K temperature are employed for many applications which require high magnetic field and high current densities. The construction of CICC aims to maintain superconductivity state by optimization of various parameters, i.e., thermal stability, ratio of normal conductor to superconductor material, mechanical strength, low hydraulic impedance, current density, magnetic field, etc. The cryogenic thermal stability of the CICC is of prime importance for the safe, stable and reliable operation of SC magnets. The prediction of thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CICC in large SC magnets is difficult due to the complex geometry, variation of fluid properties, various heat in-flux incidences over the long length of CICC and a complex heat transport phenomenon. A systematic review of the thermal and hydraulic studies of CICC has been presented in the paper highlighting the challenges and opportunities for further improvement in its design and performance. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic analysis of a superconducting transformer for high current characterization of cable in conduit conductors in background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Tan, Yunfei; Fang, Zhen; Jiang, Donghui; Chen, Zhiyou; Chen, Wenge; Kuang, Guangli

    2017-10-01

    A large cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) test facility has been designed and fabricated at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CHMFL) in order to meet the test requirement of the conductors which are applied to the future fusion reactor. The critical component of the test facility is an 80 kA superconducting transformer which consists of a multi-turn primary coil and a minor-turn secondary coil. As the current source of the conductor samples, the electromagnetic performance of the superconducting transformer determines the stability and safety of the test facility. In this paper, the key factors and parameters, which have much impact on the performance of the transformer, are analyzed in detail. The conceptual design and optimizing principles of the transformer are discussed. An Electromagnetic-Circuit coupled model built in ANSYS Multiphysics is successfully used to investigate the electromagnetic characterization of the transformer under the dynamic operation condition.

  1. Steady state heat transfer experimental studies of LHC superconducting cables operating in cryogenic environment of superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Santandrea, Dario; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Granieri, Pier Paolo

    The heat management is a basic and fundamental aspect of the superconducting magnets used in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Indeed, the coil temperature must be kept below the critical value, despite the heat which can be generated or deposited in the magnet during the normal operations. Therefore, this thesis work aims at determining the heating power which can be extracted from the superconducting cables of the LHC, specially through their electrical insulation which represents the main thermal barrier. An experimental measurement campaign in superfluid helium bath was performed on several samples reproducting the main LHC magnets. The heating power was generated in the sample by Joule heating and the temperature increase was measured by means of Cernox bare chip and thermocouples. An innovative instrumentation technique which also includes the in-situ calibration of the thermocouples was developed. A thorough uncertainty analysis on the overall measurement chain concluded the experimental setup. The prese...

  2. Model for electromagnetic field analysis of superconducting power transmission cable comprising spiraled coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Katsutoku; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Taketsune; Maruyama, Osamu; Ohkuma, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Since the superconductor layers of YBCO-coated conductors are very thin, the ac loss of coated conductors is dominated by the magnetic flux density normal to the conductor face. In cables, most of the normal magnetic flux component is generated near gaps between coated conductors. Although the effects of gaps are significant, there are few reports on the electromagnetic field analysis of cables with spiral structures carried out while taking the gap effect into consideration. In a finitely long cable with a spiral structure, the electromagnetic field is naturally periodic along the cable axis. In a two-layer cable, the simplest period along the cable axis is the least common multiple of the spiral pitches in the inner and outer layers. However, we verified that there is a shorter period, and the same electromagnetic field distribution appears in all conductors of the same layer. Using these periodicities, we developed a three-dimensional model for the analysis of two-layer cables with a spiral structure. Current distributions of cables were analyzed using this model, and ac losses were calculated. In addition, these results were compared with ac losses calculated by two-dimensional analysis performed on the cross section of a cable. It was verified that the ac loss in a cable is correctly calculated by the 2D model when the spiral pitch is long enough. However, in the case of a tightly twisted cable, the ac losses calculated by the 2D model include some errors caused by an approximation in which the spiral structure is ignored.

  3. Development of a Novel Method for the Exploration of the Thermal Response of Superfluid Helium Cooled Superconducting Cables to Pulse Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, T.; Koettig, T.; van Weelderen, R.; Bremer, J.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    Management of transient heat deposition in superconducting magnets and its extraction from the aforementioned is becoming increasingly important to bring high energy particle accelerator performance to higher beam energies and intensities. Precise knowledge of transient heat deposition phenomena in the magnet cables will permit to push the operation of these magnets as close as possible to their current sharing limit, without unduly provoking magnet quenches. With the prospect of operating the Large Hadron Collider at CERN at higher beam energies and intensities an investigation into the response to transient heat loads of LHC magnets, operating in pressurized superfluid helium, is being performed. The more frequently used approach mimics the cable geometry by resistive wires and uses Joule-heating to deposit energy. Instead, to approximate as closely as possible the real magnet conditions, a novel method for depositing heat in cable stacks made out of superconducting magnet-cables has been developed. The goal is to measure the temperature difference as a function of time between the cable stack and the superfluid helium bath depending on heat load and heat pulse length. The heat generation in the superconducting cable and precise measurement of small temperature differences are major challenges. The functional principle and experimental set-up are presented together with proof of principle measurements.

  4. Thermal Conductance and High-Frequency Properties of Cryogenic Normal or Superconducting Semi-rigid Coaxial Cables in the Temperature Range of 1-8 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushino, A.; Kasai, S.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the characteristics of thin semi-rigid cables composed of different conductors and with outer diameters ranging from 0.86 to 1.19 mm were investigated at low temperatures. The thermal conductance was measured between approximately 1 and 8 K, and the frequency dependence of the attenuation in the cables was obtained at 3 K. The electrical conductors used in the cables were alloys: beryllium copper, brass, stainless steel (SUS304), phosphor bronze, cupronickel (CuNi), and niobium-titanium (NbTi). The thermal conductance of a commercial miniature coaxial cable with braided wires forming the outer electrical conductor was also examined for reference. The measured thermal conductance was compared to published data and that generated from material libraries and databases. Among the measured cables using normal metals, the semi-rigid cable composed of SUS304 conductors and a polytetrafluoroethylene insulator showed the lowest thermal conductance. The transmission performance of the semi-rigid cables using SUS304 or CuNi was improved by plating the central conductors with a silver coating of approximately 3 μm thickness, and their thermal conductance with the plating increased by approximately one order of magnitude. The superconducting NbTi semi-rigid cable exhibited the lowest thermal conductance of all the cables considered in the present study along with very small attenuation up to above 5 GHz.

  5. Study of heat transfer in superconducting cable electrical insulation of accelerator magnet cooled by superfluid helium; Etude des transferts de chaleur dans les isolations electriques de cables supraconducteurs d'aimant d'accelerateur refroidi par helium superfluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudouy, B

    1996-10-04

    Heat transfer studies of electrical cable insulation in superconducting winding are of major importance for stability studies in superconducting magnets. This work presents an experimental heat transfer study in superconducting cables of Large Hadron Collider dipoles cooled by superfluid helium and submitted to volume heat dissipation due to beam losses. For NbTi magnets cooled by superfluid helium the most severe heat barrier comes from the electrical insulation of the cables. Heat behaviour of a winding is approached through an experimental model in which insulation characteristics can be modified. Different tests on insulation patterns show that heat transfer is influenced by superfluid helium contained in insulation even for small volume of helium (2 % of cable volume). Electrical insulation can be considered as a composite material made of a solid matrix with a helium channels network which cannot be modelled easily. This network is characterised by another experimental apparatus which allows to study transverse and steady-state heat transfer through an elementary insulation pattern. Measurements in Landau regime ({delta}T{approx}10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} K) and in Gorter-Mellink regime ({delta}T>10{sup -3} K) and using assumptions that helium thermal paths and conduction in the insulation are decoupled allow to determine an equivalent channel area (10{sup -6} m{sup 2}) and an equivalent channel diameter (25 {mu}). (author)

  6. Study of heat transfer in superconducting cable electrical insulation of accelerator magnet cooled by superfluid helium; Etude des transferts de chaleur dans les isolations electriques de cables supraconducteurs d'aimant d'accelerateur refroidi par helium superfluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudouy, B

    1996-10-04

    Heat transfer studies of electrical cable insulation in superconducting winding are of major importance for stability studies in superconducting magnets. This work presents an experimental heat transfer study in superconducting cables of Large Hadron Collider dipoles cooled by superfluid helium and submitted to volume heat dissipation due to beam losses. For NbTi magnets cooled by superfluid helium the most severe heat barrier comes from the electrical insulation of the cables. Heat behaviour of a winding is approached through an experimental model in which insulation characteristics can be modified. Different tests on insulation patterns show that heat transfer is influenced by superfluid helium contained in insulation even for small volume of helium (2 % of cable volume). Electrical insulation can be considered as a composite material made of a solid matrix with a helium channels network which cannot be modelled easily. This network is characterised by another experimental apparatus which allows to study transverse and steady-state heat transfer through an elementary insulation pattern. Measurements in Landau regime ({delta}T{approx}10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} K) and in Gorter-Mellink regime ({delta}T>10{sup -3} K) and using assumptions that helium thermal paths and conduction in the insulation are decoupled allow to determine an equivalent channel area (10{sup -6} m{sup 2}) and an equivalent channel diameter (25 {mu}). (author)

  7. FY 2000 research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices. R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables and faults current limiters, R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications, and study on the total systems and related subjects; 2000 nendo koryu chodendo denryoku kiki kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chodendo soden cable kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chodendo genryuki kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, denryokuyo chodendo magnet no kenkyu kaihatsu, total system nado no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project for research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices has been started, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables include grasping the mechanical characteristics associated with integration necessary for fabrication of large current capacity and long cables; development of barrier cable materials by various methods; and development of short insulated tubes as cooling technology for long superconducting cables, and grasping its thermal/mechanical characteristics. The R and D of faults current limiters include introduction of the unit for superconducting film fabrication, determination of the structures and layouts for large currents, and improvement of performance of each device for high voltages. R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications include grasping the fundamental characteristics of insulation at cryogenic temperature, completion of the insulation designs for high voltage/current lead bushing, and development of prototype sub-cooled nitrogen cooling unit for cooling each AC power device. Study on the total systems and related subjects include analysis for stabilization of the group model systems, to confirm improved voltage stability when the superconducting cable is in service. (NEDO)

  8. Final Report: MATERIALS, STRANDS, AND CABLES FOR SUPERCONDUCTING ACCELERATOR MAGNETS [Grant Number DE-SC0010312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumption, Mike D. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials (CSMM); Collings, Edward W. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials (CSMM)

    2014-10-29

    Our program consisted of the two components: Strand Research and Cable Research, with a focus on Nb3Sn, Bi2212, and YBCO for accelerator magnet applications. We demonstrated a method to refine the grains in Nb3Sn by a factor of two, reaching 45 nm grain sizes, and layer Jcs of 6 kA/mm2 at 12 T. W also measured conductor magnetization for field quality. This has been done both with Nb3Sn conductor, as well as Bi:2212 strand. Work in support of quench studies of YBCO coils was also performed. Cable loss studies in Nb3Sn focused on connecting and comparing persistent magnetization and coupling magnetization for considering their relative impact on HEP machines. In the area of HTS cables, we have investigated both the quench in multistrand YBCO CORC cables, as well as the magnetization of these cables for use in high field magnets. In addition, we examined the magnetic and thermal properties of large (50 T) solenoids.

  9. DC Cable for Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  10. Improvement of a high current DC power supply system for testing the large scaled superconducting cables and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Tanahashi, Shugo

    1993-11-01

    A dc 75 kA power supply system was constructed to test the superconducting (SC) R and D cables and magnets for the Large Helical Device. It consists of three 25 kA unit banks. A unit bank has two double-star-rectifier connections with the inter-phase reactors. A digital feedback control method is applied to the automatic current regulation (ACR) in each unit bank. For shortening the dead time of the feedback process, a new algorithm of a digital phase controller for the ACR is investigated. A Bode diagram of the feedback process is directly measured. It is confirmed that the dead time of the feedback process is reduced to one sixth, and that the feedback gain of PID compensation is improved by a factor of two from the original method. (author)

  11. Construction and Qualification of the Pre-Series MQM Superconducting Quadrupoles for the LHC Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R; Lucas, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Landgrebe, D

    2004-01-01

    The LHC insertions will be equipped with individually powered MQM superconducting quadrupoles, produced in three versions with magnetic lengths of 2.4 m, 3.4 m, and 4.8 m. The quadrupoles feature a 56 mm aperture coil, designed on the basis of an 8.8 mm wide Rutherford-type NbTi cable for a nominal gradient of 200 T/m at 1.9 K and 5390 A. A total of 96 quadrupoles are in production in Tesla Engineering, UK. In this report we describe the construction of the pre-series MQM quadrupoles and present the results of the qualification tests.

  12. Superconductivity - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the following subjects: 1) Electronics and high-frequency technology, 2) Superconductors for energy technology, 3) Superconducting magnets and their applications, 4) Electric machinery, 5) Superconducting cables. (WBU) [de

  13. Short-circuit experiments on a high Tc-superconducting cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, E.H.; Traholt, C.

    2002-01-01

    A high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable conductor (CC) with a critical current of 2.1 kA was tested over a range of short-circuit currents up to 20 kA. The duration of the short-circuit currents is 1 s. Between each short-circuit test the critical current of the HTS CC was measured in order...

  14. Quench characteristics of a two-strand superconducting cable and the influence of its length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.B.J.; Mulder, G.B.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Vysotski, V.S.; Vysotski, V.S.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The quench process of a multi-strand cable was investigated using the simplest system: two twisted wires. Several properties of the quench, such as the commutation of currents, the time scale, the resistance rate, and the maximum voltage, were determined experimentally or by calculation. Particular

  15. Electromagnetic losses in a three-phase high temperature superconducting cable determined by calorimetric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traeholt, C.; Veje, E.; Tønnesen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    conventional phases (600 mm2 Cu) could be moved in the plane. It was possible to vary the inter-phase distance (centre to centre distance) from 9 to 48 cm. The HTS cable conductor was placed in a stainless steel cryostat and cooled with flowing liquid nitrogen (LN2). The losses were determined using...

  16. Design optimization of superconducting magnetic energy storage coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhunia, Uttam, E-mail: ubhunia@vecc.gov.in; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • We modeled the optimization formulation that minimizes overall refrigeration load into the SMES cryostat. • Higher the operating current reduces the dynamic load but increases static heat load into the cryostat. • Higher allowable hoop stress reduces both coil volume and refrigeration load. • The formulation can be in general be utilized for any arbitrary specification of SMES coil and conductor type. - Abstract: An optimization formulation has been developed for a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) solenoid-type coil with niobium titanium (Nb–Ti) based Rutherford-type cable that minimizes the cryogenic refrigeration load into the cryostat. Minimization of refrigeration load reduces the operating cost and opens up the possibility to adopt helium re-condensing system using cryo-cooler especially for small-scale SMES system. Dynamic refrigeration load during charging or discharging operational mode of the coil dominates over steady state load. The paper outlines design optimization with practical design constraints like actual critical characteristics of the superconducting cable, maximum allowable hoop stress on winding, etc., with the objective to minimize refrigeration load into the SMES cryostat. Effect of design parameters on refrigeration load is also investigated.

  17. Pareto optimal design of sectored toroidal superconducting magnet for SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Uttam; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-10-01

    A novel multi-objective optimization design approach for sectored toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage coil has been developed considering the practical engineering constraints. The objectives include the minimization of necessary superconductor length and torus overall size or volume, which determines a significant part of cost towards realization of SMES. The best trade-off between the necessary conductor length for winding and magnet overall size is achieved in the Pareto-optimal solutions, the compact magnet size leads to increase in required superconducting cable length or vice versa The final choice among Pareto optimal configurations can be done in relation to other issues such as AC loss during transient operation, stray magnetic field at outside the coil assembly, and available discharge period, which is not considered in the optimization process. The proposed design approach is adapted for a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system using low temperature niobium-titanium based Rutherford type cable. Furthermore, the validity of the representative Pareto solutions is confirmed by finite-element analysis (FEA) with a reasonably acceptable accuracy.

  18. Development of superconducting strand and cable with improved properties for use in SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1989-02-01

    The critical current requirement for the NbTi superconductor strand was set at 2750 A/mm 2 (5 T, 4.2 K) in the SSC Conceptual Design, compared with a value of 1800 A/mm 2 which was specified for the strand used in the Tevatron dipoles. In addition, a filament diameter of 5 μm, instead of the 9 μm diameter used in the Tevatron, was chosen to reduce field distortion at injection. In order to meet the requirements for field homogeneity, the dimensional requirements for both strand and cable were also tightened. The technical solutions employed to achieve these improved properties and the resulting specifications will be discussed. 9 refs

  19. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Verhaege, T.; Bonnet, P.

    1990-01-01

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated [fr

  20. A continuous winding scheme for superconducting tokamak coils with cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-ho; Chung, Kie-hyung; Lee, Deok Kyo

    2001-01-01

    Superconducting magnet coils are essential for steady-state or long-pulse operation of tokamaks. In an advanced tokamak, the central solenoid (CS) coils are usually divided into several pairs of modules to provide for an extra plasma shaping capability in addition to those available from the shaping (poloidal field) coils. In the conventional pancake winding scheme of superconducting coils, each coil consists of separate superconducting 'double-pancake' coils connected together in series; however, such joints are not superconducting, which is one of the major disadvantages, especially in pulsed operations. A new type of winding was adopted for the ITER CS coil, which consists of cylindrical shell 'layers' joined in series. A disadvantage of this layer winding is its inability to yield modular coils that can provide certain degree of plasma shaping. Joints can be removed in a coil winding pack with the conventional pancake winding scheme, if the conductor is sufficiently long and the winding machine is properly equipped. The compactness, however, cannot be preserved with this scheme. The winding compactness is important since the radial build of the CS coils is one of the major parameters that determine the machine size. In this paper, we present a continuous winding scheme that requires no joints, allows coil fabrication at minimum dimension, and meets the flux swing requirement and other practical aspects

  1. AC loss in the superconducting cables of the CERN Fast Cycled Magnet Prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgnolutti, F.; Bottura, L.; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Bo; Miyoshi, Y.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Richter, D.

    2011-01-01

    Fast Cycled Superconducting Magnets (FCM's) are an option of interest for the long-term consolidation and upgrade plan of the LHC accelerator complex. The economical advantage of FCM's in the range of 2 T bore field, continuously cycled at 0.5 Hz repetition rate, depends critically on the AC loss

  2. Design of epoxy-free superconducting dipole magnets and performance in both Helium I and pressurized Helium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Althaus, R.; Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.; Warren, R.

    1981-03-01

    Three model superconducting dipole magnets 1m long, without iron, having a bore diameter of 76 mm have been built without epoxy resins or other adhesives and tested in He I and He II. The conductor is the 23-strand Rutherford-type cable used in the Fermilab Doubler Saver magnets, and is insulated with Mylar and Kapton. The two-layer winding is highly compressed by a system of structural support rings and tapered collets. Little training was required to reach quench currents greater than 95% of short sample in Helium I. The maximum quench current in He II is increased 20 to 30%, compared with He I operation at 4.4 K. Test results are given on cyclic losses, heater-induced quenches, and charge-rate effects

  3. Realisation and instrumentation of high current power station for superconducting cables testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnaud, S.

    2000-05-01

    This report deals with the designing of a high current station able to test electric properties of superconductors. This test station will be used for testing the superconducting wires of large hadron collider detectors in CERN. The high current test station will have to generate high intensity continuous current in a magnetic field of 0 to 5 tesla and in temperature conditions of 4.2 K. The length of wire samples submitted to the uniform magnetic field is 300 mm and the installation is fitted with equipment able to measure the magnetic field perpendicular to either faces of the wire. The peculiarity of this station is to use a superconducting transformer in order to generate the high current. The first part of this work recalls important notions concerning superconductivity. The second part presents the high current station by describing the superconducting transformer and the sample-holder. We have studied the designing of a transformer able to yield a secondary current whose intensity reaches 100 kA, such intensity generates powerful electromagnetic forces (566 kN/m) in case of defect, so the sample-holder has to be carefully design to bear them. The third part presents the cryogenic component of the station, the instrumentation of the sample-holder and the method used to measure secondary currents. In the last part we present the performance of a prototype transformer, this prototype is able to deliver a 22 kA secondary current for a 160 A primary current, the uncertainty on the measured value of the secondary current is about 3%

  4. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.W.B.; Noakes, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    This book is an elementray introduction into superconductivity. The topics are the superconducting state, the magnetic properties of superconductors, type I superconductors, type II superconductors and a chapter on the superconductivity theory. (WL)

  5. Heat transfer through the flat surface of Rutherford superconducting cable samples with novel pattern of electrical insulation immersed in He II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychalski, M.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.

    2014-05-01

    Future accelerator magnets will be exposed to heat loads that exceed even by an order of magnitude presently observed heat fluxes transferred to superconducting magnet coils. To avoid the resistive transition of the superconducting cables, the efficiency of heat transfer between the magnet structure and the helium must be significantly increased. This can be achieved through the use of novel concepts of the cable’s electrical insulation wrapping, characterized by an enhanced permeability to helium while retaining sufficient electrical resistivity. This paper presents measurement results of the heat transfer through Rutherford NbTi cable samples immersed in a He II bath and subjected to the pressure loads simulating the counteracting of the Lorentz forces observed in powered magnets. The Rutherford cable samples that were tested used different electrical insulation wrapping schemes, including the scheme that is presently used and the proposed scheme for future LHC magnets. A new porous polyimide cable insulation with enhanced helium permeability was proposed in order to improve the evacuation of heat form the NbTi coil to He II bath. These tests were performed in a dedicated Claudet-type cryostat in pressurized He II at 1.9 K and 1 bar.

  6. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  7. Manufacturing experience for the LHC inner triplet quadrupole cables

    CERN Document Server

    Scanlan, R M; Bossert, R; Kerby, J S; Ghosh, A K; Boivin, M; Roy, T

    2002-01-01

    The design for the U.S. LHC Inner Triplet Quadrupole magnet requires a 37 strand (inner layer) and a 46 strand (outer layer) cable. This represents the largest number of strands attempted to date for a production quantity of Rutherford-type cable. The cable parameters were optimized during the production of a series of short prototype magnets produced at FNAL. These optimization studies focused on critical current degradation, dimensional control, coil winding, and interstrand resistance. After the R&D phase was complete, the technology was transferred to NEEW and a new cabling machine was installed to produce these cables. At present, about 60 unit lengths, out of 90 required for the entire production series of magnets, have been completed for each type of cable. The manufacturing experience with these challenging cables will be reported. Finally, the implications for even larger cables, with more strands, will be discussed. (8 refs).

  8. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of superconducting cables for the LHC low-current insertion (mqm) and wide-aperture insertion (mqy) quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of the superconducting cables for the LHC low-current insertion (MQM) and wide-aperture insertion (MQY) quadrupoles. A call for tenders (IT-2631/LHC/LHC) was sent to four firms in four Member States, three firms in Japan and two firms in the USA on 3 June 1999. By the closing date, CERN had received seven tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm VACUUMSCHMELZE (DE) for the supply of all superconducting cables for the LHC MQM and MQY quadrupoles for a total net price of 3 240 257 euros, subject to revision after 31 December 2000, with an option to procure additional cables representing 10% of the initial quantity for a total net price of 324 026 euros, bringing the total to an amount of 3 564 283 euros, subject to revision after 31 December 2000. At the exchange rate given in the tender, these amounts correspond to 5 192 720 Swiss francs, 519 272 Swiss francs and 5 711 992 Swiss francs respect...

  9. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langone, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book explains the theoretical background of superconductivity. Includes discussion of electricity, material fabrication, maglev trains, the superconducting supercollider, and Japanese-US competition. The authors reports the latest discoveries

  10. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onnes, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The author traces the development of superconductivity from 1911 to 1986. Some of the areas he explores are the Meissner Effect, theoretical developments, experimental developments, engineering achievements, research in superconducting magnets, and research in superconducting electronics. The article also mentions applications shown to be technically feasible, but not yet commercialized. High-temperature superconductivity may provide enough leverage to bring these applications to the marketplace

  11. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs

  12. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on superconductivity the absence of electrical resistance has always fascinated the mind of researchers with a promise of applications unachievable by conventional technologies. Since its discovery superconductivity has been posing many questions and challenges to solid state physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry and material science. Simulations arrived to superconductivity from particle physics, astrophysic, electronics, electrical engineering and so on. In seventy-five years the original promises of superconductivity were going to become reality: a microscopical theory gave to superconductivity the cloth of the science and the level of technological advances was getting higher and higher. High field superconducting magnets became commercially available, superconducting electronic devices were invented, high field accelerating gradients were obtained in superconductive cavities and superconducting particle detectors were under study. Other improvements came in a quiet progression when a tornado brought a revolution in the field: new materials had been discovered and superconductivity, from being a phenomenon relegated to the liquid Helium temperatures, became achievable over the liquid Nitrogen temperature. All the physics and the technological implications under superconductivity have to be considered ab initio

  13. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  14. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakani, S.L.; Kakani, Shubhra

    2007-01-01

    The monograph provides readable introduction to the basics of superconductivity for beginners and experimentalists. For theorists, the monograph provides nice and brief description of the broad spectrum of experimental properties, theoretical concepts with all details, which theorists should learn, and provides a sound basis for students interested in studying superconducting theory at the microscopic level. Special chapter on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates is devoted

  15. Effect of transverse loads up to 300 MPa on the critical currents of Nb3Sn cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, H.; Verweij, A.P.; Verweij, A.P.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of the development of an experimental 10-T Nb3Sn dipole coil for the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, the effects of transverse stress on Rutherford-type Nb3Sn cable were investigated. For this purpose a special facility was designed and put into operation in which the

  16. Design and study of new cables for superconducting accelerator magnets: Synchrotron SIS 100 at GSI and NICA collider at JINR*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhibagiyan, H G; Drobin, V M; Kovalenko, A D; Vladimirova, N M; Fischer, E; Pantsyrny, V I; Potanina, L V; Shikov, A K

    2010-01-01

    Recent data from the design of new optimized options of NbTi composite wires and hollow cables for fast cycling synchrotron SIS100 at GSI and NICA collider at JINR are presented. The SIS100 new cable is proposed to be used for manufacturing of single-layer coil for dipole magnet with maximal amplitude of pulsed magnetic field up to 2 T. The cable should provide continues pulsed operation at the current amplitude of I = 13 kA and magnetic field ramp rate of dB/dt = 4 T/s. The results of experimental study of energy losses in the new wire and cable samples for SIS100 magnets are presented. The design cable parameters for the NICA 4 T dipole magnet are fixed at the level of I = 17 kA and dB/dt = 1 T/s. The status of the work is presented and discussed.

  17. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Despite reports of new, high-temperature superconductive materials almost every day, participants at the First Congress on Superconductivity do not anticipate commercial applications with these materials soon. What many do envision is the discovery of superconducting materials that can function at much warmer, perhaps even room temperatures. Others hope superconductivity will usher in a new age of technology as semiconductors and transistors did. This article reviews what the speakers had to say at the four-day congress held in Houston last February. Several speakers voiced concern that the Reagan administration's apparent lack of interest in funding superconductivity research while other countries, notably Japan, continue to pour money into research and development could hamper America's international competitiveness

  18. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  19. Ultra high-current superconducting cables for a 2.2-Tesla, 300-kilojoule energy storage magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, G.A.; Rhodenizer, R.; Rackov, P.; Punchard, W.F.B.; de Winter, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    These 2.2-T, 300-kJ magnets are to operate at 10 to 12 kA with a safety factor in critical current of about 50 percent at 10 kA. The conductor must exhibit low losses in addition to being stable. Magnetic Corporation of America (MCA) designed a flat conductor using 1224 copper-matrix, monofilament wires combined in two stages of cabling followed by two stages of flat braiding. Two of these conductors were constructed, one with wire already on hand and the second using wire made specifically for this application. Intermagnetics General Corporation (IGC) designed two rectangular conductors using 315 and 319 mixed-matrix multifilament wires combined in three stages of cabling followed by compaction in a Turk's head. The maximum transport current capabilities (I/sub t/) of these cables were measured in hairpin shaped samples with the straight section under test in perpendicularly applied fields. The measured results at 2.5 T for the two MCA cables were 11.7 kA and 15.4 kA, and for the IGC cables were 18.2 kA and 19.3 kA (extrapolated). In addition, samples of the compacted and uncompacted major strands from the IGC cables were tested. The results of these measurements are compred with values of I/sub t/ from the single-wire critical currents taking into account the adjacent conductor fields and the cable self-fields.Several causes of degradation of I/sub t/ in the compacted cable are discussed including those due to experimental factors

  20. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  1. Semiannual report for the period April 1 to September 30, 1978 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project technical note No. 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-07

    Progress in the development, fabrication and testing of superconductors for HVAC power transmission systems is reported. Information is included on the materials evaluation of superconducting alloys, production of tapes from these alloys, principally Nb/sub 3/Sn cable insulation requirements and development, and the cryogenic equipment used in this research program. (LCL)

  2. Magnet cable manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1985-07-01

    The superconducting magnets used in the construction of particle accelerators are mostly built from flat, multistrand cables with rectangular or keystoned cross sections. The superconducting strands are mostly circular but a design of a cable made of preflattened wires was proposed a few years ago under the name of Berkeley flat; such cable shows some interesting characteristics. Another design consists of a few smaller precabled wires (e.g. 6 around 1). This configuration allows smaller filaments and a better transposition of the current elements. The Superconducting Super Collider project involves the largest amount of superconducting cable ever envisaged for a single machine. Furthermore, the design calls for exceptional accuracy and improved characteristics of the cable. A part of the SSC research and development program is focused on these important questions. In this paper we emphasize the difference between the conventional cabling and wires with superconducting. A new concept for the tooling will be introduced as well as the necessary characteristics of a specialized cabler. 5 figs

  3. Experimental and analytical study of the DC breakdown characteristics of polypropylene laminated paper with a butt gap condition considering the insulation design of superconducting cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, In-jin; Choi, Won; Seong, Jae-gyu; Lee, Bang-wook; Koo, Ja-yoon

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported that the insulation design under DC stress is considered as one of the critical factors in determining the performance of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) superconducting cable. Therefore, it is fundamentally necessary to investigate the DC breakdown characteristics of the composite insulation system consisting of liquid nitrogen (LN2)/polypropylene-laminated-paper (PPLP). In particular, the insulation characteristics under DC polarity reversal condition should be verified to understand the polarity effect of the DC voltage considering the unexpected incidents taking place at line-commutated-converters (LCC) under service at a DC power grid. In this study, to examine the variation of DC electric field strength, the step voltage and polarity reversal breakdown tests are performed under DC stress. Also, we investigate the electric field distributions in a butt gap of the LN2/PPLP condition considering the DC polarity reversal by using simulation software.

  4. Construction and 1st Experiment of the 500-meter and 1000-meter DC Superconducting Power Cable in Ishikari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Koshiduka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Sawamura, T.

    Ishikari project constructs two lines. The length of the Line 1 is 500 m, and connects the photovoltaic cell to the internet-data center. The other line is 1 km length, and it is a test facility and called Line 2. The structures of the cable systems are not same to test their performance. The construction was started from 2014 in the field, the Line 1 was completed in May 2015, and it was cooled down and do the current experiment, and warmed up. The Line 2 is almost complete in October 2015. It will be tested in November and December, 2015. In order to reduce the stress of the cable induced by the thermal expansion and contraction, we adopted the way of the helical deformation of the cable. The force of the cable is reduced to 1/3 of an usual cable test. Because the cryogenic pipes are welded in the field and we cannot use the baking of the vacuum chamber of the cryogenic pipe, a new vacuum pumping method was proposed and tested for the cryogenic pipe. Since the straight pipes are used to compose the cryogenic pipe, the pressure drop of the circulation would be 1/100 of the corrugated pipe in the present condition, and it is suitable for longer cable system. The heat leak of the cryogenic pipe is ∼1.4W/m including the cable pipe's and the return pipe's. The heat leak of the current lead is ∼30W/kA in the test bench. Finally the current of 6kA/3 sec and the current of 5kA/15 min were achieved in Line 1. The reduction of heat leak will be a major subject of the longer cable system. The cost of the construction will be almost twice higher than that of the copper and aluminum over-head line with the iron tower in the present Japan. The cost construction of the over-head line is an average value, and depends on the newspaper.

  5. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  6. The Effect of CuSn Intermetallics on the Interstrand Contact Resistance in Superconducting Cables for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Jacob, P; Leroy, D; Oberli, L R; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    The LHC superconducting cables are submitted to a 200°C heat-treatment in air in order to increase the resistance between the crossing strands (RC) within the cable. During this treatment the as-applied Sn-Ag alloy strand coating is transformed into a CuSn intermetallic compound layer. The microstructure, the surface topography and the surface chemistry of the non-reacted and reacted coatings have been characterised by different techniques, notably focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the results obtained by these techniques the different influences that the intermetallics have on RC are discussed. The desired RC is obtained only when a continuous Cu3Sn layer is formed, i.e. a sufficient wetting of the Cu substrate by the tinning alloy is crucial. Among other effects the formation of the comparatively hard intermetallics roughens the surface and, thus, reduces the true contact area and i...

  7. Ceramic insulation for superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn cables; Isolation ceramique pour cables supraconducteurs en Nb{sub 3}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigsegur, A

    2005-01-15

    Nb{sub 3}Sn is the best superconductor candidate for the realization of high field magnets (>11 Tesla), its implementation remains delicate because of the great brittleness of material after the heat treatment necessary to the formation of Nb{sub 3}Sn compounds. The conventional insulation for Nb{sub 3}Sn requires to perform, after the heat treatment, a vacuum resin impregnation, which adds to the cost and raises failure risk. We have proposed an innovating ceramic insulation deposited directly on the unreacted conducting cable. After the heat treatment of the niobium tin, we obtain a coil having a mechanical cohesion, while maintaining a proper conductor positioning and a suitable electric insulation. After a rheological study, to characterize the impregnated suspension, we have shown that using this insulation in a coil manufacture process does not affect the electrical properties of the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires. A solenoid of small dimensions was tested with success in high external magnetic fields and has produced a magnetic field of 3.8 T under 740 A. (author)

  8. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Amongst the numerous scientific discoveries that the 20th century has to its credit, superconductivity stands out as an exceptional example of having retained its original dynamism and excitement even for more than 80 years after its discovery. It has proved itself to be a rich field by continually offering frontal challenges in both research and applications. Indeed, one finds that a majority of internationally renowned condensed matter theorists, at some point of their career, have found excitement in working in this important area. Superconductivity presents a unique example of having fetched Nobel awards as many as four times to date, and yet, interestingly enough, the field still remains open for new insights and discoveries which could undeniably be of immense technological value. 1 fig

  9. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book profiles the research activity of 42 companies in the superconductivity field, worldwide. It forms a unique and comprehensive directory to this emerging technology. For each research site, it details the various projects in progress, analyzes the level of activity, pinpoints applications and R and D areas, reviews strategies and provides complete contact information. It lists key individuals, offers international comparisons of government funding, reviews market forecasts and development timetables and features a bibliography of selected articles on the subject

  10. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, L.; Carrillo, F.; Dietert, R.; Kotziapashis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are materials which combine the property of zero electric resistance with the capability to exclude any adjacent magnetic field. This leads to many large scale applications such as the much publicized levitating train, generation of magnetic fields in MHD electric generators, and special medical diagnostic equipment. On a smaller-scale, superconductive materials could replace existing resistive connectors and decrease signal delays by reducing the RLC time constants. Thus, a computer could operate at much higher speeds, and consequently at lower power levels which would reduce the need for heat removal and allow closer spacing of circuitry. Although technical advances and proposed applications are constantly being published, it should be recognized that superconductivity is a slowly developing technology. It has taken scientists almost eighty years to learn what they now know about this material and its function. The present paper provides an overview of the historical development of superconductivity and describes some of the potential applications for this new technology as it pertains to the electronics industry

  11. Production and qualification of 40 km of Al-stabilized NbTi cable for the ATLAS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaglioni, G; Cartegni, G C; Horváth, I L; Neuenschwander, J; Pedrini, D; Rossi, L; Volpini, G

    2002-01-01

    The production of the conductor for the superconducting toroids of the ATLAS experiment at LHC (CERN) is now in progress. The toroid system, composed of one barrel toroid (BT) and two end cap toroids (ECTs), exploits aluminum-clad Rutherford-type NbTi conductors of large size (57 * 12 mm for BT, 42 * 12 mm for ECTs) and high critical current (Ic) (58 kA for BT and 60 kA for ECTs @ 4.2 K, 5 T). Some 55 km of conductor are required for the BT and 26 km for the ECTs, respectively. An Italian-Swiss (ETH Zurich and INFN) consortium is in charge of the delivery of half of the whole amount. This paper describes the results of this production with particular emphasis to the quality control system developed to monitor the production with both on-line controls and the post-production quality assessment protocols. The main result is the confirmation that the technologies selected and the whole process are reliable and reproducible over large production quantities. The overall degradation due to the cabling and the co-ex...

  12. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with

  13. A two-dimensional finite element method to calculate the AC loss in superconducting cables, wires and coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Ye, L [Department of Electrical Power Engineering, CAU, P. O. Box 210, Beijing 100083 (China); Campbell, A M [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zh223@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    In order to utilize HTS conductors in AC electrical devices, it is very important to be able to understand the characteristics of HTS materials in the AC electromagnetic conditions and give an accurate estimate of the AC loss. A numerical method is proposed in this paper to estimate the AC loss in superconducting conductors including MgB{sub 2} wires and YBCO coated conductors. This method is based on solving a set of partial differential equations in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable to get the current and electric field distributions in the cross sections of the conductors and hence the AC loss can be calculated. This method is used to model a single-element and a multi-element MgB{sub 2} wires. The results demonstrate that the multi-element MgB{sub 2} wire has a lower AC loss than a single-element one when carrying the same current. The model is also used to simulate YBCO coated conductors by simplifying the superconducting thin tape into a one-dimensional region where the thickness of the coated conductor can be ignored. The results show a good agreement with the measurement.

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of polyimide film for cable and ground insulation of the LHC superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of up to 79 tonnes of polyimide film, of three different types, for cable and ground insulation of the LHC superconducting magnets. A call for tenders (IT-2679/LHC/LHC) was sent on 21 September 1999 to two firms in Japan and one firm in the USA. By the closing date, CERN had received three tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm KANEKA (JP), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 79 tonnes of polyimide film of three different types for an amount of 5 425 541 USD (8 123 284 Swiss francs) for the polyimide film produced in the USA, not subject to revision, and 725 726 546 Japanese yen (10 109 020 Swiss francs) for the polyimide film produced in Japan, not subject to revision, with an option for the supply of up to 20% additional polyimide film of each type, for an amount of 1 085 108 USD (1 624 657 Swiss francs) and 145 145 309 Japanese yen (2 021 804 Swiss francs) respectively, not subject to r...

  15. Effect of thermo-mechanical processing on the material properties at low temperature of a large size Al-Ni stabilized Nb-Ti/Cu superconducting cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, S. A. E.; Curé, B.; Sgobba, S.; Dudarev, A.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Neuenschwander, J.; Jerjen, I.

    2014-01-01

    For future high-resolution particle experiments, a prototype for a 60 kA at 5 T, 4.2 K class conductor is realized by co-extrusion of a large, 40-strand Nb-Ti/Cu superconducting cable with a precipitation type Al-0.1wt.%Ni stabilizer. Microalloying with nickel contributes to the strength of the stabilizer, and avoids significant degradation in residual resistivity ratio, owing to its low solid solubility in aluminum. Sections of the conductor are work hardened to increase the mechanical properties of the as-extruded temper. Mechanical and resistivity characteristics are assessed as function of the amount of work hardening, at room temperature as well as at 4.2 K. Thermal treatments, like resin curing after coil winding, can cause partial annealing of the cold-worked material and reverse the strengthening effect. However, targeted thermal treatments, applied at relatively low temperature can result in precipitation hardening. The depletion of nickel in the aluminum-rich matrix around the precipitates results in an increased strength and a decreased effect of nickel on the thermal and electrical resistivity of the material. The present work aims at identifying an optimal work hardening sequence, and an optimal thermal treatment, possibly coinciding with a suitable coil resin curing cycle, for the Al-Ni stabilized superconductor.

  16. Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    Research on superconductivity at ENEA is mainly devoted to projects related to the ITER magnet system. In this framework, ENEA has been strongly involved in the design, manufacturing and test campaigns of the ITER toroidal field model coil (TFMC), which reached a world record in operating current (up to 80 kA). Further to this result, the activities in 2004 were devoted to optimising the ITER conductor performance. ENEA participated in the tasks launched by EFDA to define and produce industrial-scale advanced Nb3Sn strand to be used in manufacturing the ITER high-field central solenoid (CS) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. As well as contributing to the design of the new strand and the final conductor layout, ENEA will also perform characterisation tests, addressing in particular the influence of mechanical stress on the Nb3Sn performance. As a member of the international ITER-magnet testing group, ENEA plays a central role in the measurement campaigns and data analyses for each ITER-related conductor and coil. The next phase in the R and D of the ITER magnets will be their mechanical characterisation in order to define the fabrication route of the coils and structures. During 2004 the cryogenic measurement campaign on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by-pass diode stacks was completed. As the diode-test activity was the only LHC contract to be finished on schedule, the 'Centre Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire' (CERN) asked ENEA to participate in an international tender for the cold check of the current leads for the LHC magnets. The contract was obtained, and during 2004, the experimental setup was designed and realised and the data acquisition system was developed. The measurement campaign was successfully started at the end of 2004 and will be completed in 2006.

  17. Assessment and study of existing concepts and methods of cryogenic refrigeration for superconducting transmission cables. Final report. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadi, F.J.; Longsworth, R.C.

    1976-02-01

    A review of current programs to develop superconducting power transmission shows that current plans require helium refrigerators operating at 5 to 13 0 K and 3 to 15 atm pressure with compressor power input in the range of 1300 to 3500 HP. Future requirements will probably trend towards slightly higher temperatures and larger refrigerators. Present large helium refrigerators and APCI standard nitrogen plants were studied and average outage frequency of about 18 per year is found to be typical for both. Cost and reliability studies of alternate refrigeration systems based on studies of components shows that the best current system which would have a failure rate of once in 20 y would consist of two full size oil flooded screw compressors in parallel, manifolded to two full size cold boxes and a liquid helium back up dewar. The principal area of development needed to implement this system is in the switch over mechanisms. These include switching to an auxillary power source in the event of power interruption, switching to the standby compressor, and switching to the back up liquid helium dewar. Costs are projected as being only slightly greater than preliminary estimates

  18. Assessment and study of existing concepts and methods of cryogenic refrigeration for superconducting transmission cables. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadi, F.J.; Longsworth, R.C.

    1976-02-01

    A review of current programs to develop superconducting power transmission shows that current plans require helium refrigerators operating at 5 to 13 0 K and 3 to 15 atm pressure with compressor power input in the range of 1,300 to 3,500 HP. Future requirements will probably trend toward slightly higher temperatures and larger refrigerators. Present large helium refrigerators and APCI standard nitrogen plants were studied and an average outage frequency of about 18 per year is found to be typical for both. Cost and reliability studies of alternate refrigeration systems based on studies of components shows that the best current system which would have a failure rate of once in 20 years would consist of two full size oil flooded screw compressors in parallel, manifolded to two full size cold boxes and a liquid helium back up dewar. The principal area of development needed to implement this system is in the switch over mechanisms. These include switching to an auxillary power source in the event of power interruption, switching to the standby compressor, and switching to the back up liquid helium dewar. Costs are projected as being only slightly greater than preliminary estimates

  19. Superconducting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)

  20. Problems with conductors and dielectrics for cryogenic cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, G; Penczynski, P [Siemens A.G., Erlangen (F.R. Germany). Abt. Reaktortechnik

    1976-06-01

    The most important problems which need to be solved if superconducting power cables are to be used on a large scale are connected with the superconducting cable materials and the dielectrics used for insulation. Research work on superconducting materials for ac and dc cables is briefly reviewed together with stabilization problems for these materials. Three types of insulation are considered - vacuum, subcooled or supercritical helium, and foil wound insulation. The merits and problems encountered in each case are discussed.

  1. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-07

    Progress is reported in a program whose objective is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, and would supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  2. ac superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface

  3. Superconducting magnets 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Superconducting Magnets; SSC Magnet Industrialization; Collider Quadrupole Development; A Record-Setting Magnet; D20: The Push Beyond 10T; Nonaccelerator Applications; APC Materials Development; High-T c at Low Temperature; Cable and Cabling-Machine Development; and Analytical Magnet Design

  4. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  5. Development of a novel method for the exploration of the thermal response of superfluid helium cooled superconducting cables to pulse heat loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, Tiemo; Koettig, T.; van Weelderen, R.; Bremer, J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Management of transient heat deposition in superconducting magnets and its extraction from the aforementioned is becoming increasingly important to bring high energy particle accelerator performance to higher beam energies and intensities. Precise knowledge of transient heat deposition phenomena in

  6. Superconductors for the medium-voltage grid. A superconducting power cable running through the inner city of Essen passes a two-year field test; Supraleiter fuer das Mittelspannungsnetz. Ein supraleitendes Stromkabel quer durch die Essener Innenstadt besteht zweijaehrigen Feldtest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Franz

    2017-04-01

    Scientists are testing the longest high-temperature superconducting cable in the world under real conditions in Essen. One kilometre long, it connects two substations in the inner city. It replaces a conventional 110 kV line and renders one substation in the inner city obsolete. After two years of testing, it has passed the field test. It could be a blueprint for the future power supply system in urban areas. [German] Wissenschaftler testen in Essen das laengste Hochtemperatur-Supraleiterkabel der Welt unter realen Bedingungen. Mit einer Laenge von einem Kilometer verbindet es zwei Umspannstationen quer durch die Innenstadt. Es ersetzt eine konventionelle 110-kV-Leitung und macht eine Umspannanlage im Stadtzentrum ueberfluessig. In einer zweijaehrigen Erprobung hat es den Praxistest bestanden. Es koennte eine Blaupause fuer die kuenftige Stromversorgung in Ballungsraeumen sein.

  7. High-field superconducting nested coil magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, C.; Lobell, G. M.

    1970-01-01

    Superconducting magnet, employed in conjunction with five types of superconducting cables in a nested solenoid configuration, produces total, central magnetic field strengths approaching 70 kG. The multiple coils permit maximum information on cable characteristics to be gathered from one test.

  8. Superconductivity in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This proceedings volume presents 24 conference papers and 15 posters dealing with the following aspects: 1) Principles and elementary aspects of high-temperature superconductivity (3 plenary lectures); 2) Preparation, properties and materials requirements of metallic or oxide superconductors (critical current behaviour, soldered joints, structural studies); 3) Magnet technology (large magnets for thermonuclear fusion devices; magnets for particle accelerators and medical devices); 4) Magnetic levitation and superconductivity; 5) Cryogenics; 6) Energy storage systems using superconducting coils (SMES); 7) Superconducting power transmission cables, switches, transformers, and generator systems for power plant; 8) Supporting activities, industrial aspects, patents. There are thirty-eight records in the ENERGY database relating to individual conference papers. (MM) [de

  9. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  10. Low AC Loss in a 3 kA HTS Cable of the Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for a 6km long high temperature superconducting (HTS) AC power cable of the Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160mm, with two cooling stations at the cable ends only. Existing solutions for HTS cables would lead to excessively high coolant pressure drop in th...

  11. Superconductivity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Kircher, F.; Leveque, J.; Tixador, P.

    2008-01-01

    This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)

  12. Superconducting devices at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1978-04-01

    The various ongoing programs in applied superconductivity supported by BNL are summarized, including the development of high field ac and dc superconducting magnets for accelerators and other applications, of microwave deflecting cavities for high energy particle beam separators, and of cables for underground power transmission, and materials research on methods of fabricating new superconductors and on metallurgical properties affecting the performance of superconducting devices

  13. Simulation of the cabling process for Rutherford cables: An advanced finite element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, J.; Garlasche, M.; Bordini, B.; Dallocchio, A.

    2016-12-01

    In all existing large particle accelerators (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) the main superconducting magnets are based on Rutherford cables, which are characterized by having: strands fully transposed with respect to the magnetic field, a significant compaction that assures a large engineering critical current density and a geometry that allows efficient winding of the coils. The Nb3Sn magnets developed in the framework of the HL-LHC project for improving the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are also based on Rutherford cables. Due to the characteristics of Nb3Sn wires, the cabling process has become a crucial step in the magnet manufacturing. During cabling the wires experience large plastic deformations that strongly modify the geometrical dimensions of the sub-elements constituting the superconducting strand. These deformations are particularly severe on the cable edges and can result in a significant reduction of the cable critical current as well as of the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the stabilizing copper. In order to understand the main parameters that rule the cabling process and their impact on the cable performance, CERN has developed a 3D Finite Element (FE) model based on the LS-Dyna® software that simulates the whole cabling process. In the paper the model is presented together with a comparison between experimental and numerical results for a copper cable produced at CERN.

  14. An industrial cabling machine for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.; Armer, R.; Hannaford, R.; Scanlan, R.

    1989-02-01

    The SSC project will need the manufacturing of some 25,000 kilometers of keystoned flat cable. The technical specifications of the various cables to be produced are the result of five years of research and development work at LBL. An experimental cable machine was built and run in the laboratory; many improvements were implemented and tested. Semi-industrial production of the various cables was performed, and the resulting cables were used and tested in the one-meter model magnets and 17.5 meter dipole prototypes. From these experiments an industrial cabler specification was generated and used for an international RFQ. The winner of the contract is Dour Metal, a Belgium company that built the first industrial prototype which is now in a production line at New England Electric Wire Company. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the machine and give the first industrial production results of superconducting keystoned cable for the SSC project. 4 refs

  15. Superconductivity in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.

    1976-01-01

    Physics, especially high energy physics and solid state physics was the first area in which superconducting magnets were used but in the long run, the most extensive application of superconductivity will probably be in energy technology. Superconducting power transmission cables, magnets for energy conversion in superconducting electrical machines, MHD-generators and fusion reactors and magnets for energy storage are being investigated. Magnets for fusion reactors will have particularly large physical dimensions, which means that much development effort is still needed, for there is no economic alternative. Superconducting surfaces in radio frequency cavities can give Q-values up to a factor of 10 6 higher than those of conventional resonators. Particle accelerators are the important application. And for telecommunication, simple coaxial superconducting radio frequency cables seem promising. The tunnel effect in superconducting junctions is now being developed commercially for sensitive magnetometers and may soon possibly feature in the memory cells of computer devices. Hence superconductivity can play an important role in the technological world, solving physical and technological problems and showing economic advantages as compared with possible conventional techniques, bearing also in mind the importance of reliability and safety. (author)

  16. Code Development and Validation Towards Modeling and Diagnosing Current Redistribution in an ITER-Type Superconducting Cable Subject to Current Imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.; Gille, P.E.; Gonzales, C.; Kuppel, S.; Torre, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of ITER magnet R and D activities, a significant number of conductor short-samples or inserts were tested throughout the past decades, either for development on cable layouts or for industrial qualifications. On a certain number of them critical properties degradations were encountered, some of which were identified to be caused by current imbalance between the different strands bundles twisted inside the cable. In order to address the analyses of those samples as reliably as possible, CEA developed a dedicated home code named Coupled Algorithm Resistive Modelling Electrical Network (CARMEN) having basically two specific functionalities: -a first routine which is devoted to compute strand bundles trajectories, with bundles down to the individual strand scale. This point allows to obtain a realistic E(J) law over the full conductor length -a second routine which is devoted to model inter-bundle currents redistribution, taking into account the magnetic field map. It basically makes use of a relevant discrete electrical network with defined sections including E(J) law obtained from the above-mentioned subroutine As a result, the E-J or E-T curves can be calculated and compared to the experimental data, provided adapted inputs on sample features are considered, such as strand contact resistances in joints, inter-bundles resistances or cable geometry. In a first part, the paper describes the different hypotheses that built the code structure, and in a second part, the application to the ITER TFCl insert coil is presented, focusing particularly on the validation of the potential use of the code to stand as a diagnostic tool for currents imbalance probing

  17. Long-term test of the 22.9kV HTS power cable system in LS Cable Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Man; Lee, Chang Young; Kim, Choon Dong; Kim, Do Hyung; Park, In Son; Ji, Bong Ki; Kim, Dong Wook; Cho, Jeonwook

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, LS cable Ltd. has been developing the design, manufacturing and evaluation technologies for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system as a member of DAPAS (Dream for Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technology) program in Korea. The 30 m HTS cable system that is rated at 22.9 kV and 1.2 kA giving a rated capacity of 50 MVA had been developed and tested. The cable was designed as a cold dielectric type employing Bi-2223 HTS tapes and polypropylene (PP) laminated paper as the conductor and electrical insulation, respectively. The cable is cooled with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at temperature from 75 to 77 K. The manufacturing and the installation of the cable system were completed in 2004. Long-term performance test of the cable system has been conducted for six months to verify its electric and mechanical properties in 2005

  18. Cable handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In computerized axial tomography scanning, problems arise in exchanging electrical signals between fixed and rotating assemblies. A novel method of overcoming this problem is described in detail for both signal and high voltage cables. Apparatus using a sequence of drums and pulleys is used to maintain the interconnecting cables in a neat arrangement and free from mechanical strain. The apparatus is simple and relatively easy and inexpensive to assemble and maintain. (UK)

  19. Superconducting energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de

  20. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Heinz, W.; Hofmann, A.; Koefler, H.J.; Komarek, P.; Maurer, W.; Nahar, A.

    1975-09-01

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF 6 -cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.) [de

  1. High temperature superconductors as a technological discontinuity in the power cable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beales, T.P.; McCormack, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The advent of superconductivity above 77 K represents to the power cable industry a technological discontinuity analogous to that seen in the copper telecommunications industry by the arrival of optical fibres. This phenomenon is discussed along with technical criteria and performance targets needed for high temperature superconducting wire to have an economic impact in transmission cables

  2. High temperature superconductors as a technological discontinuity in the power cable industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beales, T.P.; McCormack, J.S. [BICC Cables Ltd., Hebburn (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The advent of superconductivity above 77 K represents to the power cable industry a technological discontinuity analogous to that seen in the copper telecommunications industry by the arrival of optical fibres. This phenomenon is discussed along with technical criteria and performance targets needed for high temperature superconducting wire to have an economic impact in transmission cables.

  3. Cable Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottura, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  4. Power cables now and in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanser, G

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the problems to be faced with the underground supply of electric power to large, urban areas and of the contributions that improvements in power cable technology will make to solving these problems. It is concluded that the increase in population densities and the rising demand for energy on the part of individual consumers bring up problems for electricity supply and thus have a direct influence on development trends in cable engineering. During the last few years the increasing capacities required in power transmission have led to the use of higher voltages and to the application of special methods of cooling for the oil-filled cable. When the technical and economic possibilities with present-day cable techniques have been exhausted, we must anticipate the introduction of new types of cable, i.e., gas-insulated cables and superconducting cables. The problems involved in power distribution are being solved successfully by resorting to larger conductor cross-sectional areas and by raising the voltage levels. The advantages of plastic cables are also being utilized on a wide scale. The requirement that there be freedom from partial discharges in plastic cables operating at medium and higher voltages is becoming increasingly more widely adopted as a new quality criterion in cable engineering. New materials from the polymer range are permitting the introduction of fittings which are easier to install and which reduce costs. Cable engineering has already, to a considerable extent, adapted itself to face future problems. Even so, there are still a large number of problems in cable engineering requiring research, development and operation.

  5. Interaction between current imbalance and magnetization in LHC cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, M.; Kuijper, A.; Kuijper, A.; den Ouden, A.; ten Haken, Bernard; Bottura, L.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The quality of the magnetic field in superconducting accelerator magnets is associated with the properties of the superconducting cable. Current imbalances due to coupling currents ¿I, as large as 100 A, are induced by spatial variations of the field sweep rate and contact resistances. During

  6. Superconducting generators and motors and methods for employing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsic, Michael J.; Long, Larry

    2017-08-29

    A superconducting electrical generator or motor having a plurality of cryostats is described. The cryostats contain coolant and a first cryostat encloses at least one of a plurality of superconducting coils. A first coil is in superconducting electrical communication with a second coil contained in a second cryostat through a superconducting conduction cooling cable enclosing a conductor. The first cryostat and the second cryostat may be in fluid communication through at least one cryogen channel within the at least one superconducting conduction cooling cable. In other embodiments, none of the plurality of cryostats may be in fluid communication and the cable may be cooled by conduction along the conductor from the first or second cryostat, or from both. The conductor may have different segments at temperatures equal to or above the temperature of the coolant and the superconducting conduction cooling cables may be connected through quick connect fittings.

  7. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

    1987-07-01

    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  8. Strand critical current degradation in $Nb_{3}$ Sn Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Higley, H C; Scanlan, R M; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing 11 Tesla superconducting accelerator magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn strands produced using the modified jelly roll, internal tin, and powder-in-tube technologies were used for the development and test of the prototype cable. To optimize the cable geometry with respect to the critical current, short samples of Rutherford cable with packing factors in the 85 to 95% range were fabricated and studied. In this paper, the results of measurements of critical current, n-value and RRR made on the round virgin strands and on the strands extracted from the cable samples are presented. (5 refs).

  9. Superconductivity is pair work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenmayr, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Electric cables that routinely conduct electricity without loss - physicists have been motivated by this idea ever since superconductivity was discovered 100 years ago. Researchers working with Bernhard Keimer at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart and Frank Steglich at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids in Dresden want to gain a detailed understanding of how unconventional superconductors lose their resistivity. (orig.)

  10. Field quality of LHC superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The author reports here the main results of field measurements performed so far on the LHC superconducting dipoles at superfluid helium temperature. The main field strength at injection, collision conditions and higher order multipoles are discussed. Superconducting magnets exhibit additional field imperfections due to diamagnetic properties of superconducting cables, apart from geometric error, saturation of iron yoke and eddy currents error. Dynamic effects on field harmonics, such as field decay at injection and subsequent snap back are also discussed. (author)

  11. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  12. CABLES MUSCULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez

    Full Text Available Los cables musculares o fibras de nitinol presentan una excelente alternativa a los actuadores convencionales, con una fuerza de actuación muy alta, equivalente a la de los actuadores hidráulicos, proporcionalmente a su peso, además de su acción silenciosa. Este material, inventado en 1963, aún no es muy conocido y de ahí que se haya realizado una recopilación de sus propiedades. Entre ellas, la temperatura de transición es la más importante, por ser la que activa la aleación. Muchos sistemas se han creado para alcanzar adecuadamente la temperatura de transición, y también se continúa en la investigación de métodos que ayuden a lograr un control preciso del movimiento de la aleación con memoria de forma (SMA.

  13. Sudden flux change studies in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.; Makulski, A.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet Program at Fermilab many magnets have been tested which utilize multi strand Rutherford type cable made of state-of-the art Nb 3 Sn strands. During these magnet tests we observed sudden flux changes by monitoring coil voltages and the magnetic field close to the magnets. These flux changes might be linked to magnet instabilities. The voltage spike signals were correlated with quench antenna signals, a strong indication that these are magnet phenomena. With a new high resolution voltage spike detection system, we were able to observe the detailed structure of the spikes. Two fundamentally different signal shapes were distinguished, most likely generated by different mechanisms

  14. Design, processing, and properties of Bi 2212\\/Ag Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Collings, E W; Scanlan, R M; Dietderich, D R; Motowidlo, L R; Sokolowski, R S; Aoki, Y; Hasegawa, T

    1999-01-01

    In a program intended to explore the use of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cables in high field synchrotron dipole magnets model Bi:2212/Ag Rutherford cables were designed bearing in mind the needs for mechanical integrity, relatively high tensile strength, and low coupling losses. To satisfy these needs a core-type cable design was selected and a readily available heat-resistant core material acquired. Cables were wound for critical current- and AC loss measurement. Both winding-induced (mechanical) and core-induced (chemical) critical current degradation was examined. Interstrand coupling loss was measured calorimetrically on model cable samples with bare- and oxide-coated cores. From the results it was predicted that the losses of full-scale Bi:2212/Ag-wound LHC-type Rutherford cables would fall close to the acceptability range for the windings of high-field accelerator dipoles. (10 refs).

  15. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistan...

  16. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resista...

  17. Detection of Local Temperature Change on HTS Cables via Time-Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Su Sik; Lee, Geon Seok; Kwon, Gu-Young; Lee, Yeong Ho; Ji, Gyeong Hwan; Sohn, Songho; Park, Kijun; Shin, Yong-June

    2017-07-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are drawing attention as transmission and distribution cables in future grid, and related researches on HTS cables have been conducted actively. As HTS cables have come to the demonstration stage, failures of cooling systems inducing quench phenomenon of the HTS cables have become significant. Several diagnosis of the HTS cables have been developed but there are still some limitations of the experimental setup. In this paper, a non-destructive diagnostic technique for the detection of the local temperature change point is proposed. Also, a simulation model of HTS cables with a local temperature change point is suggested to verify the proposed diagnosis. The performance of the diagnosis is checked by comparative analysis between the proposed simulation results and experiment results of a real-world HTS cable. It is expected that the suggested simulation model and diagnosis will contribute to the commercialization of HTS cables in the power grid.

  18. Universal Cable Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvalkenburgh, C.

    1985-01-01

    Concept allows routing easily changed. No custom hardware required in concept. Instead, standard brackets cut to length and installed at selected locations along cable route. If cable route is changed, brackets simply moved to new locations. Concept for "universal" cable brackets make it easy to route electrical cable around and through virtually any structure.

  19. Numerical analysis of the stability of HTS power cable under fault current considering the gaps in the cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Li, H.F.; Zhu, J.H.; Zhou, Z.N.; Li, Y.X.; Shen, Z.; Dong, D.L.; Yu, T.; Li, Z.M.; Qiu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The equivalent circuit equations and the heat balance equations were established. •The current distributions of the HTS cable under fault current were obtained. •The temperature curves of conductor layers under fault current were obtained. •The effect of the gap liquid nitrogen on the thermal characteristics was studied. -- Abstract: During the operation of a high temperature superconducting power cable in a real grid, the power cable can be impacted inevitably by large fault current. The study on current distribution and thermal characteristics in the cable under fault current is the foundation to analyze its stability. To analyze the operation situation of 110 kV/3 kA class superconducting cable under the fault current of 25 kA rms for 3 s, the equivalent circuit equations and heat balance equations were established. The current distribution curves and the temperature distribution curves were obtained. The liquid nitrogen which exists in the gaps of HTS cable was taken into consideration, the influence of gap liquid nitrogen on the thermal characteristics was investigated. The analysis results can be used to estimate the security and stability of the superconducting cable

  20. Numerical analysis of the stability of HTS power cable under fault current considering the gaps in the cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J., E-mail: fangseer@sina.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Li, H.F. [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhu, J.H.; Zhou, Z.N. [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China); Li, Y.X.; Shen, Z.; Dong, D.L.; Yu, T. [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Li, Z.M.; Qiu, M. [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The equivalent circuit equations and the heat balance equations were established. •The current distributions of the HTS cable under fault current were obtained. •The temperature curves of conductor layers under fault current were obtained. •The effect of the gap liquid nitrogen on the thermal characteristics was studied. -- Abstract: During the operation of a high temperature superconducting power cable in a real grid, the power cable can be impacted inevitably by large fault current. The study on current distribution and thermal characteristics in the cable under fault current is the foundation to analyze its stability. To analyze the operation situation of 110 kV/3 kA class superconducting cable under the fault current of 25 kA{sub rms} for 3 s, the equivalent circuit equations and heat balance equations were established. The current distribution curves and the temperature distribution curves were obtained. The liquid nitrogen which exists in the gaps of HTS cable was taken into consideration, the influence of gap liquid nitrogen on the thermal characteristics was investigated. The analysis results can be used to estimate the security and stability of the superconducting cable.

  1. Reviews of large superconducting machines: Metallurgy, fabrication, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews large superconducting machines presently in place or in experiment. The ''Cello'' particle detector magnet for the positron-electron colliding beam facility PETRA at DESY in Hamburg is shown, and the Fermi Lab, and the Brookhaven ISABELLE also described. Electrodynamic levitation systems are specified, as researched and developed in Germany and Japan. Of superconducting coils for magnetic separation, a high gradient magnetic separator with superconducting magnet and steel wool, and a Jones type high gradient magnetic separator are schematicized. Turbogenerators with superconductor field winding are studied. Superconducting high power cables include the flexible coaxial cable core consisting of a perforated polyethylene tube and test cables at Siemens and at Brookhaven. Magnet systems for fusion reactors include tokamaks and tandem mirrors, and the toroidal coil experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described, among others. Superconducting magnets for MHD plants, and superconducting magnet energy storage (SME storage) are also discussed

  2. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  3. Superconducting accelerator magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles and correction magnets are necessary to achieve the high magnetic fields required for big accelerators presently in construction or in the design phase. Different designs of superconducting accelerator magnets are described and the designs chosen at the big accelerator laboratories are presented. The most frequently used cosθ coil configuration is discussed in detail. Approaches for calculating the magnetic field quality including coil end fields are presented. Design details of the cables, coils, mechanical structures, yokes, helium vessels and cryostats including thermal radiation shields and support structures used in superconducting magnets are given. Necessary material properties are mentioned. Finally, the main results of magnetic field measurements and quench statistics are presented. (orig.)

  4. Welding superalloy sheet for superconducting cable jackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, L.T.; Strum, M.J.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Autogenous gas tungsten arc welds produced in A-286 exhibit significantly lower yield and ultimate tensile strengths than comparably heat-treated base metal. Deformation in the aged weld metal is highly localized and delineates the dendritic microstructure. The observed mechanical properties are caused by the formation of precipitate-free regions located at the dendrite cores. These regions form as the result of titanium segregation during weld pool solidification which yields dendrite cores sufficiently lean in titanium as to prevent nucleation of the hardening phase

  5. Automated installations for reeling up of superconducting magnet windings of the accelerating-storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolzhenkov, V.I.; Elistratov, V.V.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Petrov, V.B.; Popov, V.V.; Savel'ev, A.V.; Sokolov, B.V.; Sytnik, V.V.; Tarakanov, N.M.; Ustinov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    An automated facility for reeling up the windings of model and full-scale superconducting magnets of the accelerating-storage complex is described. The control system monitors superconducting cable tension, transport carriage linear velocity and some other parameters. Maximum length of the winded coils is 6 m. Cable tension stability - 5%

  6. Fabrication of Nb3Sn cables for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Takaaki; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Hideo; Ishibashi, Tatsuji; Sato, Go; Chida, Kenji; Suzuki, Rikio; Tanji, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER toroidal field (TF) coils will be operated at 68 kA and 11.8 T. The cable is composed of 1,422 strands with a diameter of 0.82 mm. There were two options for initial procurement. For option 2, the twist pitches at lower stages are longer than in option 1. Trials were performed to assess the feasibility of these options. In the trials for option 1, the nominal outer diameter of sub-cables and reduction schedule of final cables were evaluated and finalized. In the trials for option 2, problems were encountered at the third stage cabling. These problems were resolved through increasing the die size in that stage and improving the tension balance of the second-stage cables to reduce friction between the die and the cable, and also through avoiding loose twisting at both edges of the third cables. Option 2 was finally selected in 2009 based on superconducting performance enhancement of the cable. After the qualification of the fabrication procedure using fabrication of a 760-m dummy cable and a 415-m superconducting cable, mass production of the cables started in March 2010. (author)

  7. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  8. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-11-01

    The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  9. Energy cable engineering. Energiekabeltechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecking, H W

    1981-01-01

    This textbook intends to explain cable elements and common cable constructions according to VDE, and in a second part, to review the theoretical fundamentals and their consequences with a view to the construction of cables for higher voltages and powers. It will give the student a picture of the variety of problems and solutions which make cable engineering so interesting and show the practising engineer how to derive a theoretical system from their extensive everyday experience.

  10. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  11. Difference in Stability Between Edge and Center in a Rutherford Cable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willering, G.P.; Verweij, A.P.; Scheuerlein, C.; den Ouden, A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    Keystoned superconducting Rutherford cables are widely used in accelerator magnets like in the LHC at CERN. An essential requirement in the cable design is its stability against local heat releases in the magnet windings originating from for example, strand movement or beam loss. Beam loss is the

  12. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  13. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  14. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  15. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  16. Electromagnetic design of superconducting quadrupoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rossi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We study how the critical gradient depends on the coil layout in a superconducting quadrupole for particle accelerators. We show that the results relative to a simple sector coil are well representative of the coil layouts that have been used to build several quadrupoles in the past 30 years. Using a semianalytical approach, we derive a formula that gives the critical gradient as a function of the coil cross-sectional area, of the magnet aperture, and of the superconducting cable parameters. This formula is used to evaluate the efficiency of several types of coil layouts (shell, racetrack, block, open midplane.

  17. Applied superconductivity. Handbook on devices and applications. Vol. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Paul (ed.) [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, AG Tieftemperaturphysik

    2015-07-01

    The both volumes contain the following 12 chapters: 1. Fundamentals; 2. Superconducting Materials; 3. Technology, Preparation, and Characterization (bulk materials, thin films, multilayers, wires, tapes; cooling); 4, Superconducting Magnets; 5. Power Applications (superconducting cables, superconducting current leads, fault current limiters, transformers, SMES and flywheels; rotating machines; SmartGrids); 6. Superconductive Passive Devices (superconducting microwave components; cavities for accelerators; superconducting pickup coils; magnetic shields); 7. Applications in Quantum Metrology (superconducting hot electron bolometers; transition edge sensors; SIS Mixers; superconducting photon detectors; applications at Terahertz frequency; detector readout); 8. Superconducting Radiation and Particle Detectors; 9. Superconducting Quantum Interference (SQUIDs); 10. Superconductor Digital Electronics; 11. Other Applications (Josephson arrays as radiation sources. Tunable microwave devices) and 12. Summary and Outlook (of the superconducting devices).

  18. Applied superconductivity. Handbook on devices and applications. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The both volumes contain the following 12 chapters: 1. Fundamentals; 2. Superconducting Materials; 3. Technology, Preparation, and Characterization (bulk materials, thin films, multilayers, wires, tapes; cooling); 4, Superconducting Magnets; 5. Power Applications (superconducting cables, superconducting current leads, fault current limiters, transformers, SMES and flywheels; rotating machines; SmartGrids); 6. Superconductive Passive Devices (superconducting microwave components; cavities for accelerators; superconducting pickup coils; magnetic shields); 7. Applications in Quantum Metrology (superconducting hot electron bolometers; transition edge sensors; SIS Mixers; superconducting photon detectors; applications at Terahertz frequency; detector readout); 8. Superconducting Radiation and Particle Detectors; 9. Superconducting Quantum Interference (SQUIDs); 10. Superconductor Digital Electronics; 11. Other Applications (Josephson arrays as radiation sources. Tunable microwave devices) and 12. Summary and Outlook (of the superconducting devices).

  19. Mechanical study of 20 MJ superconducting pulse coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuhide; Shimamoto, Susumu

    1985-09-01

    This paper describes calculation methods and computer codes of stress distribution in a circular-shaped superconducting pulsed coils. The stress problems of a large sized superconducting coil, for example, are discussed for 20 MJ pool-cooled pulse coil. Young's modulus of a stranded flat cable, low rigidity, is measured and evaluated. (author)

  20. Cable aging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results from aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of class 1E electrical cables, per NUREG/CR-5772. This test was designed to test the performance of cables which had been aged with simultaneous radiation and thermal exposure. The tested cables included crosslinked polyolefin cables, ethylene propylene rubber cables, and miscellaneous cable types. Cables were exposed to 20, 40, and 60 years equivalent aging, and then exposed to LOCA tests at the end of their qualified life to determine the minimum insulation thickness needed for survival of the test. Failures were found in a large number of the tested cables. As a result the NRC has sent information notices to the industry regarding potential insulation problems. The results have raised the question of whether the artificial aging methods provide adequate testing methods. As a result of this testing the NRC is reviewing the artificial aging procedures, the adequacy of environmental qualification requirements for cable safety, and reexamining data from condition monitoring of installed cables

  1. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  2. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor. Procede de fabrication d'un conducteur a brins multifilamentaires supraconducteurs, et conducteur en resultant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fevrier, A; Verhaege, T; Bonnet, P

    1990-10-05

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated.

  3. Sizewell 'B' cable installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    N G Bailey and Co. Ltd., UK were awarded the contract for the procurement, manufacture, works testing, works finishing, supply, delivery, off-loading, storage, installation, site finishing, preservation, setting to work and site testing of the following; the main cable installation throughout the Station including the addition of the Radioactive Waste Building, earthing and lightning protection installation, cable supporting steelwork and carriers and glanding and termination of cables. The cabling installation comprises power distribution, control and instrumentation cabling including all the associated cabling accessories, terminal boxes and similar components. The way that the contract was set-up, awarded and is now being carried out is described. Planning and industrial relations have been key features of the contract. (Author)

  4. Cable support arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, E.; Murray, A.

    1983-01-01

    A cable support arrangement extending from a refuelling level floor of a nuclear reactor to the inner shield of a double rotatable shield comprises a linearly extensible cable support and disciplining boom, reaching from the floor to the main shield, and a circumferentially extensible cable support and disciplining means running from the end of the boom to a fixed end on the inner shield. (author)

  5. High voltage dc cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjustrom, B

    1965-12-01

    How stress distribution in dc cables varies with temperature and stress level, influence of polarity reversals and space charges, and different types of overvoltage to which dc cable may be subjected are discussed. Design problems, especially as related to corrosion protection and to mechanical stress caused by wire armoring during manufacturing and laying, accessories and work done on test methods, and the possibility of designing 400 to 600 kV dc cables for transmitting 2000 to 4000 MW are described.

  6. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  7. Superconducting current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    The construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor is described. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil. The C shaped half toroids can be separated and brought precisely together from outside the cryostat. The Hall probe is energized and sensed by a lock-in amplifier whose output drives a bipolar power supply which feeds the compensating coil. The output is the voltage across a resistor in this feedback circuit. Currents of up to 10 kA can be measured with a precision of 150 mA. 3 refs., 4 figs

  8. Development of superconducting power devices in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Europe celebrated last year (2008) the 100-year anniversary of the first liquefaction of helium by H. Kammerling Onnes in Leiden. It led to the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Europe is still active in the development of superconducting (SC) devices. The discovery of high critical temperature materials in 1986, again in Europe, has opened a lot of opportunities for SC devices by broking the 4 K cryogenic bottleneck. Electric networks experience deep changes due to the emergence of dispersed generation (renewable among other) and to the advances in ICT (Information Communication Technologies). The networks of the future will be 'smart grids'. Superconductivity will offer 'smart' devices for these grids like FCL (Fault Current Limiter) or VLI (Very Low Inductance) cable and would certainly play an important part. Superconductivity also will participate to the required sustainable development by lowering the losses and enhancing the mass specific powers. Different SC projects in Europe will be presented (Cable, FCL, SMES, Flywheel and Electrical Machine) but the description is not exhaustive. Nexans has commercialized the first two FCLs without public funds in the European grid (UK and Germany). The Amsterdam HTS cable is an exciting challenge in term of losses for long SC cables. European companies (Nexans, Air Liquide, Siemens, Converteam, ...) are also very active for projects outside Europe (LIPA, DOE FCL, ...).

  9. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  10. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  11. Cryogenic cooling system for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeru [Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, Research and development activity of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power application is very progressive worldwide. Especially, HTS cable system and HTSFCL (HTS Fault current limiter) system are proceeding to practical stages. In such system and equipment, cryogenic cooling system, which makes HTS equipment cooled lower than critical temperature, is one of crucial components. In this article, cryogenic cooling system for HTS application, mainly cable, is reviewed. Cryogenic cooling system can be categorized into conduction cooling system and immersion cooling system. In practical HTS power application area, immersion cooling system with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is preferred. The immersion cooling system is besides grouped into open cycle system and closed cycle system. Turbo-Brayton refrigerator is a key component for closed cycle system. Those two cooling systems are focused in this article. And, each design and component of the cooling system is explained.

  12. Automated Cable Preparation for Robotized Stator Cable Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for robotized cable winding of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator stator has previously been presented and validated. The purpose of this study is to present and validate further developments to the method: automated stand-alone equipment for the preparation of the winding cables. The cable preparation consists of three parts: feeding the cable from a drum, forming the cable end and cutting the cable. Forming and cutting the cable was previously done manually and only small cable drums could be handled. Therefore the robot cell needed to be stopped frequently. The new equipment was tested in an experimental robot stator cable winding setup. Through the experiments, the equipment was validated to be able to perform fully automated and robust cable preparation. Suggestions are also given on how to further develop the equipment with regards to performance, robustness and quality. Hence, this work represents another important step towards demonstrating completely automated robotized stator cable winding.

  13. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A model of an HTS DC power cable was developed using real time digital simulator. •The simulations of the HTS DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system were performed. •The transient analysis results of the HTS DC power cable were presented. -- Abstract: The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system

  14. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau, E-mail: thanchau7787@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@cwnu.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeongmo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 105 Munji-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A model of an HTS DC power cable was developed using real time digital simulator. •The simulations of the HTS DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system were performed. •The transient analysis results of the HTS DC power cable were presented. -- Abstract: The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  15. Hall probe magnetometer for SSC magnet cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Goldfarb, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper constructed a Hall probe magnetometer to measure the magnetization hysteresis loops of Superconducting Super Collider magnet cables. The instrument uses two Hall-effect field sensors to measure the applied field H and the magnetic induction B. Magnetization M is calculated from the difference of the two quantities. The Hall probes are centered coaxially in the bore of a superconducting solenoid with the B probe against the sample's broad surface. An alternative probe arrangement, in which M is measured directly, aligns the sample probe parallel to the field. The authors measured M as a function of H and field cycle rate both with and without a dc transport current. Flux creep as a function of current was measured from the dependence of ac loss on the cycling rate and from the decay of magnetization with time. Transport currents up to 20% of the critical current have minimal effect on magnetization and flux creep

  16. Cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandkumaran, A.; Sedding, H.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, due to the age of the majority of nuclear generating stations significant attention is being paid to the condition of the major components, e.g., reactor, steam generator, turbine generator, transformer, etc., with respect to relicensing and life extension. However, there is recognition that cable systems are critical to the safe, reliable and economic operation of nuclear power plants. Consequently, there is great interest in ageing management of low and medium voltage cables in the nuclear environment. Successful implementation of such programs requires an understanding of how the materials associated with cables and their accessories behave under normal operating and accident conditions. However, there is also a great need to determine the actual condition of the materials and systems in order to make rational decisions on whether or not to replace cables to ensure long term assurance of reliable operation. This proposed contribution describes an approach to cable ageing management of low and medium voltage cables based on measurements of material and electrical properties obtained in the laboratory and in the field. The effectiveness of various chemical, mechanical and electrical test methods are discussed in the context of, • Cable configuration, i.e., low or medium voltage, shielded or unshielded • Material type, i.e., PVC, XLPE, EPR, etc., • Ageing stress, i.e., electrical, thermal, radiation, thermal plus radiation, etc. These factors are key to identifying the most appropriate test method (or methods) to enable understanding of the current condition of the cable. While electrical test methods, e.g., ac withstand testing, partial discharge and various dielectric loss measurement techniques have been found effective for medium voltage cables, they are of very limited use on low voltage cables that constitute the majority of cables in nuclear power plants. This limited effectiveness is due to the lack of a well defined ground plane that is a

  17. Structured Cable for High-Current Coils of Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Christopher; McIntyre, Peter; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Mann, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The 45 kA superconducting cable for the ITER central solenoid coil has yielded questionable results in two recent tests. In both cases the cable Tc increased after cycling only a fraction of the design life, indicating degradation due to fatigue and fracture among the superconducting strands. The Accelerator Research Lab at Texas A&M University is developing a design for a Nb3Sn structured cable suitable for such tokamak coils. The superconductor is configured in 6 sub-cables, and each subcable is supported within a channel of a central support structure within a high-strength armor sheath. The structured cable addresses two issues that are thought to compromise opposition at high current. The strands are supported without cross-overs (which produce stress concentration); and armor sheath and core structure bypass stress through the coil and among subcables so that the stress within each subcable is only what is produced directly upon it. Details of the design and plans for development will be presented.

  18. Proposed superscreened cables and connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1975-11-01

    The paper summarises the present availability of superscreened cables and proposes the specification of a family of cables to meet the foreseeable needs of the nuclear power industry. The cable numbering system is described, special tests outlined and important details given for the chosen cables. Appropriate connectors are also discussed and listed with an outline of their required screening performance. (author)

  19. Superconductivity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.

  20. Costly cables; Lange Leitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautmann, Daniel

    2012-08-15

    Connection of offshore wind turbines to the onshore power supply grid requires costly cables for HV DC power transmission. The technology is mature enough to enable low-loss power transmission, but construction times may last several years.

  1. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    to a categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...... been conducted. The two current prevailing systems consisting of helically filleted cables and cables with a pattern-indented surface were directly compared under the same conditions and both applications were found with attractive properties. The pattern-indented surface maintained a low supercritical...... of reducing the intensity of the axial flow and disrupting the near wake flow structures. Similar studies during wet conditions with artificial simulation of light rain in the wind tunnel showed that the plain cable suffered from severe rain-wind induced vibrations. But despite the presence of both upper...

  2. submitter Geometrical Behavior of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables During Heat Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Maria; Ferracin, Paolo; Manil, Pierre; Perez, Juan Carlos; Rifflet, Jean-Michel; Rondeaux, Francoise

    2016-01-01

    In Nb$_{3}$Sn accelerator magnets, non-superconducting precursor cables are wound into their final coil shape and then heat treated at a high temperature to form the A15 superconducting phase. The growth of cable strands during reaction and the differential thermal dilatation in the coil components lead to both stress in the cable and geometrical deformations of the winding, with possible consequences on magnet performances. An experimental campaign on different types of Rutherford cables has been carried out at CEA Saclay, in collaboration with CERN, in order to measure cable dimension changes in all directions, with respect to cable configuration and winding geometry. A 700-mm-long versatile test bench has been designed for several cable topologies up to 22 mm in width. This paper describes the tooling and presents the results of the experimental campaign led on the cables, made of powder-in-tube and restacked-rod-process strands, of FRESCA2, a 13-T dipole magnet

  3. AC losses in superconductors: a multi-scale approach for the design of high current cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escamez, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The work reported in this PhD deals with AC losses in superconducting material for large scale applications such as cables or magnets. Numerical models involving FEM or integral methods have been developed to solve the time transient electromagnetic distributions of field and current densities with the peculiarity of the superconducting constitutive E-J equation. Two main conductors have been investigated. First, REBCO superconductors for applications operating at 77 K are studied and a new architecture of conductor (round wires) for 3 kA cables. Secondly, for very high current cables, 3-D simulations on MgB_2 wires are built and solved using FEM modeling. The following chapter introduced new development used for the calculation of AC losses in DC cables with ripples. The thesis ends with the use of the developed numerical model on a practical example in the european BEST-PATHS project: a 10 kA MgB_2 demonstrator [fr

  4. Superconducting cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Funkenbusch, P.D.; Chang, G.C.S.; Burns, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two distant classes of superconducting cermets can be distinguished, depending on whether or not a fully superconducting skeleton is established. Both types of cermets have been successfully fabricated using non-noble metals, with as high as 60wt% of the metal phase. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical behavior of these composites is discussed

  5. Cabling for an SSC silicon tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.; Boissevain, J.; Cooke, B.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) funded silicon tracking subsystem R ampersand D program, we examine the problems associated with cabling such a system. Different options for the cabling plant are discussed. A silicon microstrip tracking detector for an SSC experiment is an extremely complex system. The system consists of approximately 10 7 detector channels, each of which requires a communication link with the outside world and connections to the detector bias voltage supply, to a DC power supply for the onboard electronics, and to an adjustable discrimination level. The large number of channels and the short time between beam interactions (16 nanoseconds) dictates the need for high speed and large bandwidth communication channels, and a power distribution system that can handle the high current draw of the electronics including the large AC component due to their switching. At the same time the constraints imposed by the physics measurements require that the cable plant have absolutely minimal mass and radiation length. 4 refs., 2 figs

  6. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  7. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  8. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  9. The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansang; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •It is important to study thermal characteristics of the HTS cable. •The thermal relay in the Icheon substation has been developed. •Well-designed thermal relay has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation

  10. The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: hslee80@kiu.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeong-Mo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •It is important to study thermal characteristics of the HTS cable. •The thermal relay in the Icheon substation has been developed. •Well-designed thermal relay has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation.

  11. Cable laying methods in a multi-cable elevator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornikov, V.I.; Makhinyan, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the solution of differential equations describing the stress and deformation state of cables during rolling on the drum, a conclusion is made concerning a rational method for hanging cables with a free-spinning end.

  12. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  13. Superconductivity: materials and applications; La supraconductivite: materiaux et apllications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchateau, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Kircher, F. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Leveque, J. [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, GREEN - UHP, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Tixador, P. [INP/Institut Neel, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)

  14. Overview of Superconductivity and Challenges in Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flükiger, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved during the last few decades in the various fields of applied superconductivity, while the related low temperature technology has reached a high level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are so far the most successful applications, with tens of thousands of units worldwide, but high potential can also be recognized in the energy sector, with high energy cables, transformers, motors, generators for wind turbines, fault current limiters and devices for magnetic energy storage. A large number of magnet and cable prototypes have been constructed, showing in all cases high reliability. Large projects involving the construction of magnets, solenoids as well as dipoles and quadrupoles are described in the present book. A very large project, the LHC, is currently in operation, demonstrating that superconductivity is a reliable technology, even in a device of unprecedented high complexity. A project of similar complexity is ITER, a fusion device that is presently under construction. This article starts with a brief historical introduction to superconductivity as a phenomenon, and some fundamental properties necessary for the understanding of the technical behavior of superconductors are described. The introduction of superconductivity in the industrial cycle faces many challenges, first for the properties of the base elements, e.g. the wires, tapes and thin films, then for the various applied devices, where a number of new difficulties had to be resolved. A variety of industrial applications in energy, medicine and communications are briefly presented, showing how superconductivity is now entering the market.

  15. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  16. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, R.; Loiseau, R.; Marcilhac, B.

    1989-01-01

    The invention concerns superconducting ceramics containing essentially barium, calcium and copper fluorinated oxides with close offset and onset temperatures around 97 K and 100 K and containing neither Y nor rare earth [fr

  17. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  18. Superconducted tour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Superconductivity - the dramatic drop in electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures - has grown rapidly in importance over the past two or three decades to become a key technology for high energy particle accelerators. It was in this setting that a hundred students and 15 lecturers met in Hamburg in June for a week's course on superconductivity in particle accelerators, organized by the CERN Accelerator School and the nearby DESY Laboratory.

  19. Superconductivity: Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect

  20. AC Losses in Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x Tapes and a 3.15-m-Long Single-Phase Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jeppe Søgaard; Mølgaard, Esben Tore; Jensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The alternating-current losses in superconducting multifilament BiSCCO-2223 tapes and a 3.15-m single-phase test cable were measured at 77 K using an electrical transport method. The cable had an inner diameter of 42 mm; it was composed of a single layer of 31 multifilament tapes and had a critic...

  1. Method of constructing a superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, John A.

    1981-01-01

    A superconducting magnet designed to produce magnetic flux densities of the order of 4 to 5 Webers per square meter is constructed by first forming a cable of a plurality of matrixed superconductor wires with each wire of the plurality insulated from each other one. The cable is shaped into a rectangular cross-section and is wound with tape in an open spiral to create cooling channels. Coils are wound in a calculated pattern in saddle shapes to produce desired fields, such as dipoles, quadrupoles, and the like. Wedges are inserted between adjacent cables as needed to maintain substantially radial placement of the long dimensions of cross sections of the cables. After winding, individual strands in each of the cables are brought out to terminals and are interconnected to place all of the strands in series and to maximize the propagation of a quench by alternating conduction from an inner layer to an outer layer and from top half to bottom half as often as possible. Individual layers are separated from others by spiraled aluminum spacers to facilitate cooling. The wound coil is wrapped with an epoxy tape that is cured by heat and then machined to an interference fit with an outer aluminum pipe which is then affixed securely to the assembled coil by heating it to make a shrink fit. In an alternate embodiment, one wire of the cable is made of copper or the like to be heated externally to propagate a quench.

  2. Overview of Superconductivity and Challenges in Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flükiger, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved during the last few decades in the various fields of applied superconductivity, while the related low temperature technology has reached a high level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are so far the most successful applications, with tens of thousands of units worldwide, but high potential can also be recognized in the energy sector, with high energy cables, transformers, motors, generators for wind turbines, fault current limiters and devices for magnetic energy storage. A large number of magnet and cable prototypes have been constructed, showing in all cases high reliability. Large projects involving the construction of magnets, solenoids as well as dipoles and quadrupoles are described in the present book. A very large project, the LHC, is currently in operation, demonstrating that superconductivity is a reliable technology, even in a device of unprecedented high complexity. A project of similar complexity is ITER, a fusion device...

  3. SCMS-1, Superconducting Magnet System for an MHD generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenkevich, V.B.; Kirenin, I.A.; Tovma, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The research and development effort connected with the building of the superconducting magnet systems for MHD generators at the Institute for High Temperatures of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences included the designing, fabrication and testing of the superconducting magnet system for an MHD generator (SCMS-1), producing a magnetic field up to 4 Tesla in a warm bore tube 300 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long (the nonuniformity of the magnetic field in the warm bore did not exceed +-5%. The superconducting magnet system is described. The design selected consisted of a dipole, saddle-form coil, wound around a tube. The cooling of the coils is of the external type with helium access to each layer of the winding. For winding of the superconducting magnet system a 49-strand cable was used consisting of 42 composition conductors, having a diameter of 0.3 mm each, containing six superconducting strands with a niobium-titanium alloy base (the superconducting strands were 70 microns in diameter), and seven copper conductors of the same diameter as the composite conductors. The cable is made monolithic with high purity indium and insulated with lavsan fiber. The cable diameter with insulation is 3.5 mm

  4. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS workshop on superconductivity and its application in electrical systems: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This workshop aims to provide an opportunity for young scientists and researchers to interact with eminent scientists and specialists working in frontier areas of science and technology of superconductivity, superconducting cable developments, superconducting magnets, superconducting radio frequency cavity for particle accelerators, power applications and detectors using superconductor. Superconductivity plays an important role in modern scientific applications starting from modern accelerators to medical diagnostics. It has great potential in future electrical systems to minimize losses and increase efficiency in the system. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Cable indenter aging monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements

  6. Analysis of Voltage Signals from Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizarazo, J.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A. F.; Sabbi, G. L.; Wang, X.

    2009-10-30

    We present two techniques used in the analysis of voltage tap data collected during recent tests of superconducting magnets developed by the Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The first technique was used on a quadrupole to provide information about quench origins that could not be obtained using the time-of-flight method. The second technique illustrates the use of data from transient flux imbalances occurring during magnet ramping to diagnose changes in the current-temperature margin of a superconducting cable. In both cases, the results of this analysis contributed to make improvements on subsequent magnets.

  7. Superconducting magnet technology for particle accelerators and detectors seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    This lecture is an introduction to superconducting magnets for particle accelerators and detectors, the aim being to explain the vocabulary and describe the basic technology of modern superconducting magnets, and to explore the limits of the technology. It will include the following: - Why we need superconducting magnets - Properties of superconductors, critical field, critical temperature - Why accelerators need fine filaments and cables; conductor manufacture - Temperature rise and temperature margin: the quench process, training - Quench protection schemes. Protection in the case of the LHC. - Magnets for detectors - The challenges of state-of-the-art magnets for High Energy Physics

  8. Analysis of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cable production and strand deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Peggiani, Sonia; Beghi, Marco

    The development of cutting-edge 11-12 T superconducting magnets made from Nb$_{3}$Sn technology is one of the major milestones for the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The upgrade, called High Luminosity LHC Project, was planned in order to reach higher luminosity and discover new particles. Replacing the NbTi superconductor with the Nb$_{3}$Sn makes it possible to reach a practical operating magnetic field limit of up to 16 T. The superconducting coils are formed by Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables with a trapezoidal cross section and composed of 40 strands. Since the superconducting phase of Nb$_{3}$Sn is very brittle and it is reached after a thermal cycle, the Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cable needs to be wound in a coil before the thermal treatment. The cabling process is a delicate step in the production of high performing cables that need different systems to control their quality. This work aims to provide practical tools to analyze the Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cable production and the strands defo...

  9. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  10. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  11. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  12. Low AC Loss in a 3 kA HTS Cable of the Dutch Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan; Willén, Dag; Lentge, Heidi; Thidemann, Carsten; Traeholt, Chresten; Melnik, Irina; Geschiere, Alex

    Requirements for a 6 km long high temperature superconducting (HTS) AC power cable of the Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with two cooling stations at the cable ends only. Existing solutions for HTS cables would lead to excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, potentially affecting public acceptance of the project. A way out would be to substantially reduce AC losses from 1 down to about 0.1 W/m per phase at rated current of 3 kArms, frequency of 50 Hz and temperature of 77 K. In this paper we discuss a strategy towards this ambitious goal, a concept design of the single phase cable 3 kA conductor made of YBCO tapes and present corresponding experimental and simulation data supporting the developed approach leading directly to this goal. HTS cable model was made that show a drastically reduced AC loss. The low loss was achieved by using appropriate pitch angles for two-layer cable conductor of relatively large diameter, by minimizing the gaps between the HTS tapes, and by using narrow HTS tapes that conform well to the roundness of the underlying former. AC loss of 0.12 W/m at 3 kArms was measured at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a temperature of 77 K.

  13. The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: Hansang80@korea.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dong-Hee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Ryul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Naeson-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-080 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeong-Mo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► It is necessary to study lightning response of the HTS cable. ► The analytic model has been developed for the HTS cable in the Icheon substation. ► Well-designed surge arrester has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

  14. Numerical calculation of transient field effects in quenching superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwerg, Nikolai; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    The maximum obtainable magnetic induction of accelerator magnets, relying on normal conducting cables and iron poles, is limited to around 2 T because of ohmic losses and iron saturation. Using superconducting cables, and employing permeable materials merely to reduce the fringe field, this limit can be exceeded and fields of more than 10 T can be obtained. A quench denotes the sudden transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state. The drastic increase in electrical resistivity causes ohmic heating. The dissipated heat yields a temperature rise in the coil and causes the quench to propagate. The resulting high voltages and excessive temperatures can result in an irreversible damage of the magnet - to the extend of a cable melt-down. The quench behavior of a magnet depends on numerous factors, e.g. the magnet design, the applied magnet protection measures, the external electrical network, electrical and thermal material properties, and induced eddy current losses. The analysis and optimizat...

  15. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 ; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors

  16. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  17. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets for high energy colliders are discussed. As an example, the magnets recently built for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are reviewed. Their technical performance and the cost for the industry-built production dipoles are given. The cost data is generalized in order to extrapolate the cost of magnets for a new machine

  18. Bipolar superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A model of bipolaron superconductivity suggested by Soviet scientist Alexandrov A.S. and French scientist Ranninger is presentes in a popular way. It is noted that the bipolaron theory gives a good explanation of certain properties of new superconductors, high critical temperature, in particular

  19. Superconducting transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    A three film superconducting tunneling device, analogous to a semiconductor transistor, is presented, including a theoretical description and experimental results showing a current gain of four. Much larger current gains are shown to be feasible. Such a development is particularly interesting because of its novelty and the striking analogies with the semiconductor junction transistor

  20. Cable networks, services, and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Cable Networks, Services, and Management is the first book to cover cable networks, services, and their management, in-depth, for network operators, engineers, researchers, and students. Thirteen experts in various fields have contributed their knowledge of network architectures and services, Operations, Administration, Maintenance, Provisioning, Troubleshooting (OAMPT) for residential and business services, cloud, Software Defined Networks (SDN), as well as virtualization concepts and their applications as part of the future directions of cable networks. The book begins by introducing architecture and services for Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0/ 3.1, Converged Cable Access Platform (CCAP), Content Distribution Networks (CDN, IP TV, and Packet Cable and Wi-Fi for Residential Services. Topics that are discussed in proceeding chapters include: operational systems and management architectures, service orders, provisioning, fault manageme t, performance management, billing systems a...

  1. 14 CFR 23.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in cable tension throughout the range of travel under operating conditions and temperature variations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 23.689 Section 23.689... Systems § 23.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley used must...

  2. Fine filament NbTi superconductive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.; Grabinsky, G.; Marancik, W.; Pattanayak, D.

    1986-01-01

    The large superconducting magnet for the high energy physics accelerator requires fine filament composite to minimize the field error due to the persistent current in the filaments. New concepts toward the fine filament composite and its cable fabrication are discussed. Two-stage cables of fine wire with intermediate number of filaments were introduced. The first stage was six wires cables around one and in the second stage this was used to produce a Rutherford cable. The advantage of this process is in the ease of billet fabrication since the number of filaments in a single wire is within the range of easy billet fabrication. The disadvantage is in the cable fabrication. One of the major concerns in the fabrication of fine NbTi filaments composite in a copper matrix is the intermetallic compound formation during the extrusion and heat treatment steps. The hard intermetallic particles degrade the uniformity of the filaments and reduce the critical current density. The process of using Nb barrier between the filaments and copper matrix in order to prevent this CuTi intermetallic particle formation is described

  3. One-dimensional model of cable-in-conduit superconductors under cyclic loading using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefik, M.; Schrefler, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    An artificial neural network with two hidden layers is trained to define a mechanical constitutive relation for superconducting cable under transverse cyclic loading. The training is performed using a set of experimental data. The behaviour of the cable is strongly non-linear. Irreversible phenomena result with complicated loops of hysteresis. The performance of the ANN, which is applied as a tool for storage, interpolation and interpretation of experimental data is investigated, both from numerical, as well as from physical viewpoints

  4. Theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisan, M.

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up to the 1987 results on high temperature superconductivity. Contents: Phenomenological Theory of Superconductivity; Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity; Theory of Superconducting Alloys; Superconductors in a Magnetic Field; Superconductivity and Magnetic Order; Superconductivity in Quasi-One-Dimensional Systems; and Non-Conventional Superconductivity

  5. Dynamic testing of cable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.

  6. System considerations for airborne, high power superconducting generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southall, H.L.; Oberly, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The design of rotating superconducting field windings in high power generators is greatly influenced by system considerations. Experience with two superconducting generators designed to produce 5 and 20 Mw resulted in a number of design restrictions. The design restrictions imposed by system considerations have not prevented low weight and high voltage power generation capability. The application of multifilament Nb;sub 3;Sn has permitted a large thermal margin to be designed into the rotating field winding. This margin permits the field winding to remain superconducting under severe system operational requirements. System considerations include: fast rotational startup, fast ramped magnetic fields, load induced transient fields and airborne cryogen logistics. Preliminary selection of a multifilament Nb;sub 3;Sn cable has resulted from these considerations. The cable will carry 864 amp at 8.5K and 6.8 Tesla. 10 refs

  7. Development of Nb3Sn AC superconducting wire. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Hobun; Torii, Shinji; Akita, Shirabe; Ueda, Kiyotaka; Kubota, Yoji; Yasohama, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Ogasawara, Takeshi.

    1993-01-01

    For the realization of superconducting power apparatus, it is important that the development of highly stable superconducting cables. Nb 3 Sn wire has higher critical temperature than NbTi wire. Therefore, it is possible to make highly stable superconducting wires. In this report, we examine a manufacturing process of Ac Nb 3 Sn wire. This manufacturing process has four times higher critical current density than conventional processes. We have made a 400 kVA class AC coil with React and Wind method. The loss density of this coil was 20MW/m 3 at just before the quench. In this case, the temperature of cable increased about 3.8 K. This means that the Nb 3 Sn coil has a very high stability. (author)

  8. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  9. Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed apparatus produces constant tension in superconducting electrical cable, or some other strand, under conditions of intermittent demand, as the cable is unreeled from a reel or reeled thereon. The apparatus comprises a pivotally supported swing frame on which the reel is rotatably supported, a rotary motor, a drive train connected between the motor and the reel and including an electrically controllable variable torque slip clutch, a servo transducer connected to the swing frame for producing servo input signals corresponding to the position thereof, a servo control system connected between the transducer and the clutch for regulating the torque transmitted by the clutch to maintain the swing frame in a predetermined position, at least one air cylinder connected to the swing frame for counteracting the tension in the cable, and pressure regulating means for supplying a constant air pressure to the cylinder to establish the constant tension in the cable, the servo system and the clutch being effective to produce torque on the reel in an amount sufficient to provide tension in the cable corresponding to the constant force exerted by the air cylinder. The drive train also preferably includes a fail-safe brake operable to its released position by electrical power in common with the servo system, for preventing rotation of the reel if there is a power failure. A shock absorber and biasing springs may also be connected to the swing frame, such springs biasing the frame toward its predetermined position. The tension in the cable may be measured by force measuring devices engageable with the bearings for the reel shaft, such bearings being supported for slight lateral movement. The reel shaft is driven by a Shmidt coupler which accommodates such movement.

  10. Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed apparatus produces constant tension in superconducting electrical cable, or some other strand, under conditions of intermittent demand, as the cable is unreeled from a reel or reeled thereon. The apparatus comprises a pivotally supported swing frame on which the reel is rotatably supported, a rotary motor, a drive train connected between the motor and the reel and including an electrically controllable variable torque slip clutch, a servo transducer connected to the swing frame for producing servo input signals corresponding to the position thereof, a servo control system connected between the transducer and the clutch for regulating the torque transmitted by the clutch to maintain the swing frame in a predetermined position, at least one air cylinder connected to the swing frame for counteracting the tension in the cable, and pressure regulating means for supplying a constant air pressure to the cylinder to establish the constant tension in the cable, the servo system and the clutch being effective to produce torque on the reel in an amount sufficient to provide tension in the cable corresponding to the constant force exerted by the air cylinder. The drive train also preferably includes a fail-safe brake operable to its released position by electrical power in common with the servo system, for preventing rotation of the reel if there is a power failure. A shock absorber and biasing springs may also be connected to the swing frame, such springs biasing the frame toward its predetermined position. The tension in the cable may be measured by force measuring devices engageable with the bearings for the reel shaft, such bearings being supported for slight lateral movement. The reel shaft is driven by a Shmidt coupler which accommodates such movement

  11. The first cable for the HL-LHC produced at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    A Rutherford cabling machine is operated in the superconducting laboratory in building 163. The machine was used for the production of the Nb-Ti cables in the LHC magnets. Today, it is operated for the assembly of the high-performance cables, made from state-of-the-art Nb3Sn conductor, for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. Key elements of the machine are of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The video shows the production of a long length Rutherford cable, made from 40 Nb3Sn strands, that will be use in a 11 T LHC High Luminosity dipole magnet. The wiring machine is the only one left in Europe able to do such a job.

  12. The first cable for the HL-LHC produced at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    A Rutherford cabling machine is operated in the superconducting laboratory in building 163. The machine was used for the production of the Nb-Ti cables in the LHC magnets. Today, it is operated for the assembly of the high-performance cables, made from state-of-the-art Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor, for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. Key elements of the machine are of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The video shows the production of a long length Rutherford cable, made from 40 Nb$_{3}$Sn strands, that will be use in a 11 T LHC High Luminosity dipole magnet. The wiring machine is the only one left in Europe able to do such a job.

  13. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  14. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  15. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  16. Maximum field capability of energy saver superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkot, F.; Cooper, W.E.; Hanft, R.; McInturff, A.

    1983-01-01

    At an energy of 1 TeV the superconducting cable in the Energy Saver dipole magnets will be operating at ca. 96% of its nominal short sample limit; the corresponding number in the quadrupole magnets will be 81%. All magnets for the Saver are individually tested for maximum current capability under two modes of operation; some 900 dipoles and 275 quadrupoles have now been measured. The dipole winding is composed of four individually wound coils which in general come from four different reels of cable. As part of the magnet fabrication quality control a short piece of cable from both ends of each reel has its critical current measured at 5T and 4.3K. In this paper the authors describe and present the statistical results of the maximum field tests (including quench and cycle) on Saver dipole and quadrupole magnets and explore the correlation of these tests with cable critical current

  17. Superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.

  18. Melt formed superconducting joint between superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.G.; Knudsen, B.A.; Rumaner, L.E.; Zaabala, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting joint between contiguous superconducting tapes having an inner laminate comprised of a parent-metal layer selected from the group niobium, tantalum, technetium, and vanadium, a superconductive intermetallic compound layer on the parent-metal layer, a reactive-metal layer that is capable of combining with the parent-metal and forming the superconductive intermetallic compound, the joint comprising: a continuous precipitate of the superconductive intermetallic compound fused to the tapes forming a continuous superconducting path between the tapes

  19. Cable deterioration analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masahiko; Nitta, Makoto.

    1997-01-01

    At first, a hardness of a minute region and an elongation at break are measured relative to a plurality of reference samples having deterioration which is different stepwise, to obtain a relation between the hardness of the minute region and the elongation at break. They are obtained as information of correlation showing the degree of deterioration of cables. Then, samples are collected. The samples are collected from a PVC sheath. In this case, the samples to be used for the measurement are extremely small piece having the size of one side of about several hundred μm. Then, the hardness of the minute region of the samples is measured. The measured hardness of the minute region is corresponded to the previously obtained information of the correlation for deteriorations to judge the state of deterioration for the collected samples. With such procedures, the state of deterioration for electric wires and cables to be used in nuclear facilities such as power plants can easily be diagnosed substantially non destructively. (I.N.)

  20. Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

    A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

  1. The optimum spanning catenary cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A heavy cable spans two points in space. There exists an optimum cable length such that the maximum tension is minimized. If the two end points are at the same level, the optimum length is 1.258 times the distance between the ends. The optimum lengths for end points of different heights are also found.

  2. AC losses in multilayer power transmission cables comprised of YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, H.

    2011-01-01

    I calculate AC properties in YBCO cable by an electric circuit model. The optimal helical pitches are determined by the calculation. The layer's current distribution is uniform on the optimal helical pitches. The calculation is useful as a first approximation of AC losses. AC losses in multilayer power transmission cables can be reduced by adjusting the helical winding pitch of each layer to make the layer's current distribution uniform. The optimum helical pitch can be estimated using an electric circuit (EC) model based on the expression that calculates the losses in the superconducting tapes composing the cable. It is known that the losses in a monolayer cable depend on the cable parameters (i.e., the gap between neighboring tapes, number of tapes N, diameter of the cable former and width of the tape). However, regarding Amemiya et al.'s measurement on the losses in monolayer cables, the numerical results of the losses calculated using the Norris formula for an isolated thin strip N times are close to the experimental results. Then, to determine the losses in a three-layer cable that Mukoyama et al. have reported, the losses are calculated by the EC model based on the Norris formula. The helical pitch of each layer is adjusted to make the layer's current distribution uniform in the cable reported by Mukoyama et al. The optimum helical pitches are calculated using the condition where the standard deviation of the layer currents is minimum, and the losses of the cable at the optimum helical pitches are calculated at 1 kA rms . By comparing the results of these calculations with the previously measured results, it was found that the mean error of the calculated values relative to the measured values is 23.7%, which indicates that the calculation using the EC model is useful as a first approximation.

  3. Study on AC loss measurements of HTS power cable for standardizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Mido, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Morimura, Toshiya; Oya, Masayoshi; Nakano, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature superconducting power cables (HTS cables) have been developed for more than 20 years. In addition of the cable developments, the test methods of the HTS cables have been discussed and proposed in many laboratories and companies. Recently the test methods of the HTS cables is required to standardize and to common in the world. CIGRE made the working group (B1-31) for the discussion of the test methods of the HTS cables as a power cable, and published the recommendation of the test method. Additionally, IEC TC20 submitted the New Work Item Proposal (NP) based on the recommendation of CIGRE this year, IEC TC20 and IEC TC90 started the standardization work on Testing of HTS AC cables. However, the individual test method that used to measure a performance of HTS cables hasn’t been established as world’s common methods. The AC loss is one of the most important properties to disseminate low loss and economical efficient HTS cables in the world. We regard to establish the method of the AC loss measurements in rational and in high accuracy. Japan is at a leading position in the AC loss study, because Japanese researchers have studied on the AC loss technically and scientifically, and also developed the effective technologies for the AC loss reduction. The JP domestic commission of TC90 made a working team to discussion the methods of the AC loss measurements for aiming an international standard finally. This paper reports about the AC loss measurement of two type of the HTS conductors, such as a HTS conductor without a HTS shield and a HTS conductor with a HTS shield. The AC loss measurement method is suggested by the electrical method..

  4. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  5. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  6. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  7. Current distribution characteristics of superconducting parallel circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Hara, N.; Kitamura, M.; Tominaka, T.

    1994-01-01

    In order to increase the current carrying capacity of the current path of the superconducting magnet system, the portion of parallel circuits such as insulated multi-strand cables or parallel persistent current switches (PCS) are made. In superconducting parallel circuits of an insulated multi-strand cable or a parallel persistent current switch (PCS), the current distribution during the current sweep, the persistent mode, and the quench process were investigated. In order to measure the current distribution, two methods were used. (1) Each strand was surrounded with a pure iron core with the air gap. In the air gap, a Hall probe was located. The accuracy of this method was deteriorated by the magnetic hysteresis of iron. (2) The Rogowski coil without iron was used for the current measurement of each path in a 4-parallel PCS. As a result, it was shown that the current distribution characteristics of a parallel PCS is very similar to that of an insulated multi-strand cable for the quench process

  8. Sample of superconducting wiring from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable to the weight of a jumbo jet. Coil winding requires great care to prevent movements as the field changes. Friction can create hot spots wh...

  9. Analytical studies on hotspot temperature of cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Takigami, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Hiroatsu

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study to review the hotspot temperature design criteria of the cable-in-conduit conductors for the ITER magnet system. The ITER magnet system uses three kinds of cable-in-conduit conductors for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and the Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The amount of copper in the superconducting cable has been defined by using the classical hotspot temperature design criteria that is based on the adiabatic condition. In the current design, ITER superconducting cables include a large amount of pure copper strands to satisfy the classical criteria. However, temperature and stress in the conduit and insulations after quench can be simulated with the quench simulation program and stress analysis program using the latest analysis tools. This analysis shows that the strand temperature is dominated by the conduction along strands and the heat capacity of other conductor materials and coolant. The hotspot temperature depends strongly on the delay time for quench detection. This analysis provides an estimation of delay times for quench detection. The thermal and stress analysis can provide the maximum allowable temperature after quench by determination of a failure or a functional disorder condition of the jacket material and turn insulation. In conclusion, it is found that the current density of the cable space can be increased, by reducing the extra copper strand, thereby, allowing a reduction of the coil radial build. (author)

  10. Status of high temperature superconductor cable and fault current limiter projects at American Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, J.F.; Yuan, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will describe the status of three key programs currently underway at American Superconductor Corp. The first program is the LIPA project which is a transmission voltage high temperature superconducting cable program, with funding support from the US Department of Energy. The 600 m cable, capable of carrying 574 MVA, was successfully installed and commissioned in LIPA grid on April 22, 2008. An overview of the project, system level design details and operational data will be provided. In addition, the status of the newly awarded LIPA II project will be described. The second program is Project Hydra, with funding support from the US Department of Homeland Security, to design, develop and demonstrate an HTS cable with fault current limiting functionality. The cable is 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The cable will be permanently installed and energized in Manhattan, New York in 2010. The initial status of Project Hydra will be presented. The final program to be discussed is a transmission voltage, high temperature superconducting fault current limiter funded by the US DOE. The project encompasses the design, construction and test of a 115 kV FCL for power transmission within a time frame of 4-5 years. Installation and testing are planned for a Southern California Edison substation. A project overview and progress under the first phase will be reported.

  11. Status of high temperature superconductor cable and fault current limiter projects at American Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.F., E-mail: jmaguire@amsc.co [American Superconductor Co., 64 Jackson Road, Devens, MA 01434 (United States); Yuan, J. [American Superconductor Co., 64 Jackson Road, Devens, MA 01434 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    This paper will describe the status of three key programs currently underway at American Superconductor Corp. The first program is the LIPA project which is a transmission voltage high temperature superconducting cable program, with funding support from the US Department of Energy. The 600 m cable, capable of carrying 574 MVA, was successfully installed and commissioned in LIPA grid on April 22, 2008. An overview of the project, system level design details and operational data will be provided. In addition, the status of the newly awarded LIPA II project will be described. The second program is Project Hydra, with funding support from the US Department of Homeland Security, to design, develop and demonstrate an HTS cable with fault current limiting functionality. The cable is 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The cable will be permanently installed and energized in Manhattan, New York in 2010. The initial status of Project Hydra will be presented. The final program to be discussed is a transmission voltage, high temperature superconducting fault current limiter funded by the US DOE. The project encompasses the design, construction and test of a 115 kV FCL for power transmission within a time frame of 4-5 years. Installation and testing are planned for a Southern California Edison substation. A project overview and progress under the first phase will be reported.

  12. Status of high temperature superconductor cable and fault current limiter projects at American Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, J. F.; Yuan, J.

    2009-10-01

    This paper will describe the status of three key programs currently underway at American Superconductor Corp. The first program is the LIPA project which is a transmission voltage high temperature superconducting cable program, with funding support from the US Department of Energy. The 600 m cable, capable of carrying 574 MVA, was successfully installed and commissioned in LIPA grid on April 22, 2008. An overview of the project, system level design details and operational data will be provided. In addition, the status of the newly awarded LIPA II project will be described. The second program is Project Hydra, with funding support from the US Department of Homeland Security, to design, develop and demonstrate an HTS cable with fault current limiting functionality. The cable is 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The cable will be permanently installed and energized in Manhattan, New York in 2010. The initial status of Project Hydra will be presented. The final program to be discussed is a transmission voltage, high temperature superconducting fault current limiter funded by the US DOE. The project encompasses the design, construction and test of a 115 kV FCL for power transmission within a time frame of 4-5 years. Installation and testing are planned for a Southern California Edison substation. A project overview and progress under the first phase will be reported.

  13. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  14. 2008 LHC Open Days: Super(-conducting) events and activities

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Superconductivity will be one of the central themes of the programme of events and discovery activities of the forthcoming LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. Visitors will be invited to take part in a range of activities, experiments and exchanges all about this amazing aspect of the LHC project. Why superconductivity? Simply because it’s the principle on which the very operation of the LHC is based. At the heart of the LHC magnets lie 7000 kilometres of superconducting cables, each strand containing between 6000 and 9000 filaments of the superconducting alloy niobium-titanium in a copper coating. These cables, cooled to a temperature close to absolute zero, are able to conduct electricity without resistance. 12000 amp currents - an intensity some 30000 times greater than that of a 100 watt light bulb - pass through the cables of the LHC magnets.   Programme:   BLDG 163 (Saturday 5 and Sunday 6 April): See weird and wonderful experiments with your own eyes In the workshop where the 2...

  15. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, Mathias; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willen, Dag; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  16. Quench protection in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajii, A.; Freidberg, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this obviously non-plasma physics research is to demonstrate that many of the powerful and sophisticated theoretical techniques widely used by the plasma physics community can be applied to engineering problems of direct interest to the magnetic fusion program. Quench protection is such a problem. If a sudden pulse of energy is delivered (usually by accident) to a small section of a superconducting magnet, it may go normal. Under such conditions, the magnet current flows in the surrounding copper matrix, which is essentially in parallel with the superconductor. Although the copper is a good conductor, it still dissipates ohmic power, further adding to the energy input. It is important to detect the quench as early as possible in order to shut off the current, thereby preventing irreversible damage to the conductor. This a non-trivial problem since the cables comprising a coil can be as long as one kilometer. The theory presented here starts with a set of multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes and heat transport equations for the coupled system of helium coolant, superconducting/copper cable, and surrounding jacket. A combination of multiple time scale expansions and asymptotic analysis reduces the problem to a nonlinear fourth order system of 1-D plus time equations. A code has been written whose numerical results are in excellent agreement with more complex engineering codes. There is at least an order of magnitude savings in CPU over the existing codes where a typical run requires one hour Cray CPU. By investigating a number of different cases the authors have been able to introduce further analytic approximations which reduce the problem to quasi-analytic form, a set of three ODE's in time. The results here too are in excellent agreement with the engineering code and requires only several seconds of CPU time. More important, the critical dimensionless parameters have been identified, as well as practical scaling information for the magnet design

  17. The state of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    The present status of applications based on the phenomena of superconductivity are reviewed. Superconducting materials, large scale applications, the Josephson effect and its applications, and superconductivity in instrumentation, are considered. The influence that superconductivity has had on modern theories of elementary particles, such as gauge symmetry breaking, is discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Quench Propagation in the Superconducting 6 kA Flexible Busbars of the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Calvi, M; Herzog, R; Pelegrin-Carcelen, J M; Sonnemann, F

    2001-01-01

    Flexible superconducting cables with currents up to 6 kA will be used to power magnets individually in the insertion regions of the LHC. In case of a quench, the currents in these circuits will decay very fast (with time constants of about 200 ms) such that relatively small copper cross sections are sufficient for these busbars. Quench propagation experiments on a prototype cable and corresponding simulations led to a detailed understanding of the quench behavior of these busbars and to recom...

  19. Investigation of the mechanical and electrical properties of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Yamagiwa, T.; Hara, K.; Kojima, Y.; Hosoyama, K.; Mori, A.; Nojima, K.; Okamoto, Y.; Takabayashi, S.; Tanaka, T.

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of elastic (Young's) modulus of the superconducting coil and electrical punch-through test have been performed at LBL to understand the mechanical and electrical properties of the superconducting coils. The authors have investigated the elastic modulus of the superconducting coils with six kinds of insulators (made with polyimide-fiberglass-epoxy and all polyimide insulation with epoxy/polyimide adhesive) at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures using samples made of 10 stacks of superconducting cables. The samples are cured under varying compression to investigate the curing pressure dependence of Young's modulus of the coils with six kinds of the insulation system. The electrical punch-through test has also performed under compression at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures to investigate electrical integrity of the insulated coils. The tensile strength test of four kinds of polyimide films has been performed at various temperatures (between cryogenic and coil curing temperatures) to understand the mechanical properties of the films

  20. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  1. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  2. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and locomotives shall maintain positive tension on the portable cable during reeling and unreeling. Such tension shall only be high enough to prevent a machine from running over its own cable(s). (e... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable reels. 18.45 Section 18.45 Mineral...

  3. 14 CFR 25.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cable system must be designed so that there will be no hazardous change in cable tension throughout the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 25.689 Section 25.689... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.689 Cable systems. (a...

  4. Superconducting power transmission: the perils and promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, E B

    1976-06-01

    The development of bulk electricity transmission systems must be considered in the light of changing growth rates, increasing resistances to ehv overhead transmission and the tendency to concentrate generation in fewer sites. Helium-cooled or superconducting cables possess technical characteristics which will make them suitable as utility network components for power transmission over distances of ten to several hundred miles. These properties are illustrated by considering two applications in existing electrical networks. The first is a 43 mile system to transmit 4800 MVA and the second is a potential application under study in Pennsylvania to transmit 10,000 MVA over a distance of 350 miles or so. Helium-cooled versions of these transmission systems were designed to permit technical and economic evaluations. The major groups and institutions throughout the world engaged in the development of helium-cooled cables are listed and aspects of the technical approaches are briefly described.

  5. Cables - a question of custom-design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doig, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Electrical equipment such as cabling can often be the limiting factor as far as machine operations in radioactive environments are concerned. Electronic and electrical equipment will degrade if exposed to ionising radiation, affecting equipment reliability, or causing complete failure. However, several companies provide custom-designed products directed specifically at the nuclear industry. One such company is Habia Cable which has built up its business in submarine cables, internal engine cables, and cables for high fire risk situations. It began supplying custom-designed cables to the nuclear industry in 1986, and has since then supplied cables throughout Europe from its plant in Sweden. (Author)

  6. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  7. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  9. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  10. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for CA Weapons Systems Engineering

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  11. Air flow around suspended cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołębiowska Irena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of wind on construction structures is essential issue in design and operation. In particular, the wind can cause the dengerous vibrations of slender structures with low rigidity, eg. vibrations of cables of suspension and cable-stayed bridges or high voltage transmision lines, thus understanding of wind flow around such constructions is significant. In the paper the results of the analysis of wind flow around the cables for different Reynolds number is presented. The analysed flow meets the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The circle and elipse section of the cable is analysed. The discusion of vorticity, drag and lift coefficients and cases due to different angle of wind flow action is presented. The boundary layer and its infuence on total flow is analysed.

  12. Technical and economic feasibility of superconducting power transmission: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, E.B.; Mulligan, G.A.; Beck, J.W.; Williams, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The long-range plans of the Long Island Lighting Company include the installation of 4600 MW of generation capacity at nuclear sites on eastern Long Island by the 1990's. A single site, Shoreham, was chosen for this study which would require transmission facilities to the Ruland Road substation, 43 miles away. Conventional 345 kV overhead and underground circuits are planned for this service. For the case study three superconducting cable schemes have been investigated which reflect various technical options. The superconducting cables have been designed to meet acceptable normal and contingency load flow conditions and to withstand maximum short circuit faults. A cost analysis has been made of the complete installation, providing a valuable comparison of the estimated cost of this new technology with conventional methods. The most favorable cost comparison is a two-circuit 345 kV superconducting system, which appears to be about one-half the cost of an all underground 345 kV high pressure oil-filled cable system. No reactive compensation will be required for the superconducting system, whereas extensive compensation is required for HPOF cables over the same distance. The cost estimate for the two-circuit superconducting system is about twice that of 345 kV overhead transmission, which would consist of two double circuits and one single circuit, assuming right-of-way could be obtained. (U.S.)

  13. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Brown, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is described. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates

  14. A success story LHC cable production at ALSTOM-MSA

    CERN Document Server

    Mocaer, P; Köhler, C; Verwaerde, C

    2005-01-01

    ITER, when constructed, will be the equipment using the largest amount of superconductor strands ever built (Nb$_{3}$Sn and NbTi). ALSTOM- MSA Magnets and Superconductors SA, "ALSTOM-MSA" received in 1998 the largest orders to date for the delivery of superconducting strands and cables (3100 km of cables for dipole and quadrupole magnets and various strands) for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) being built at CERN Geneva. These orders to ALSTOM-MSA correspond to more than 600 metric tons of superconducting strands, an amount to be compared to around 600 metric tons of Nb$_{3}$Sn strands and 250 metric tons of NbTi strands necessary for ITER. Starting from small and short R&D programs in the early nineties, ALSTOM-MSA has reached its industrial targets and has, as of September 2004, delivered around 74% of the whole orders with products meeting high quality standards. Production is going on at contractual delivery rate and with satisfactory financial results to finish deliveries around end 2005, taking into...

  15. Superconductive crossbar system for communication applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, B.; Kwong, Y.K.; Gimlett, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews current efforts toward the integration of a high-speed crossbar switch for digital communication applications. This system is an intelligent switching matrix for 128 inputs and 128 outputs, each capable of 2 Gbs (10 9 bits per second). An array of Josephson junction integrated circuits are interconnected with the use of a superconductive multichip module maintained at 4.2 K. This module is connected to room-temperature electronics by means of flexible cables, each containing impedance-matched microstrip transmission lines. Room-temperature interface electronics will permit interconversion between standard level input/output signals and Josephson junction logic levels. (orig.)

  16. TNS superconducting ohmic-heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Fuja, R.; Kim, S.H.; Kustom, R.L.; Praeg, W.F.; Thompson, K.; Turner, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) system is the selected design for the General Atomics Co./Argonne National Laboratory TNS tokamak design studies. The key features of the OH system design are: (1) parallel coil connection, (2) better utilization of flux core by embedding support cylinder of the toroidal-field coil within the OH inner radius, (3) independent trim coils for correcting the stray fields, (4) low-loss high-current cryostable cable design and (5) OH coil cycling circuit using a reversing bridge. Detailed designs are presented

  17. Superconducting Coil Winding Machine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J. M. [Fermilab; Kotelnikov, S. [Fermilab; Makulski, A. [Fermilab; Walbridge, D. [Fermilab; Trombly-Freytag, K. [Fermilab

    2016-10-05

    The Spirex coil winding machine is used at Fermilab to build coils for superconducting magnets. Recently this ma-chine was equipped with a new control system, which al-lows operation from both a computer and a portable remote control unit. This control system is distributed between three layers, implemented on a PC, real-time target, and FPGA, providing respectively HMI, operational logic and direct controls. The system controls motion of all mechan-ical components and regulates the cable tension. Safety is ensured by a failsafe, redundant system.

  18. Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /Oxford Supercond. Tech., Carteret

    2006-08-01

    The high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing.

  19. Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pishalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Field, M.; Hong, S.; Parrell, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The high performance Nb 3 Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R and D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing

  20. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  1. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xu; Li, Xiaozhang; Shen, Yonggang

    2014-06-23

    In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  2. Mechanical thermal and electric measurements on materials and components of the main coils of the Milan superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, E.; Rossi, L.

    1988-01-01

    The coils of the Milan Superconducting Cyclotron are the largest superconducting devices built up to now in Italy and constitute the first superconducting magnet for accelerator in Europe. Because of the large stored energy (more than 40 MJ), of the high stresses and of of the need of reliability, a lot of measurements were carried out as well on materials used for the coils, both on superconducting cable and structural materials, as on the main components of the coils and on two double pancakes prototypes (wound with full copper cable). In this paper the results on these measurements are reported and the results of tests on the prototypes are discussed. The aim is to provide an easy source of data for superconducting coils useful to verify calculations or to improve the performances

  3. Study and realization of a power circuit of a superconducting dipole generator of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouanet, E.

    1993-01-01

    The project of experimental reactor building on controlled fusion (I.T.E.R) needed the development of a superconducting cable made of niobium-tin. Tested with a current of fifty kilo amperes under a twelve tesla constant field, this cable has to be tested under a variable field. The installation of the power circuit of the dipole field generator, consisted to the study and realization of the four following points: an important power cable; a tension protection organ of the dipole, under a seventeen milli Henrys inductance and four kilo amperes; a current regulating system given by the generator; a complete pilot system of the test station

  4. Design and development of 500 m long HTS cable system in the KEPCO power grid, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, B. M.; Lee, S. K.; Jang, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, H. R.; Yim, S. W.; Won, Y. J.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    In Korea, two long-term field demonstrations for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable have been carried out for several years; Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) and LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) independently. Encouraged at the result of the projects performed in parallel, a new project targeting the real grid operation was launched in the fourth quarter of 2008 with the Korean government's financial support. KEPCO and LSC are jointly collaborating in the selection of substation, determination of cable specification, design of cryogenic system, and the scheme of protection coordination. A three phase 500 m long HTS cable at a distribution level voltage of 22.9 kV is to be built at 154/22.9 kV Icheon substation located in near Seoul. A hybrid cryogenic system reflecting the contingency plan is being designed including cryocoolers. The HTS cable system will be installed in the second quarter of 2010, being commissioned by the fall of 2010. This paper describes the objectives of the project and design issues of the cable and cryogenic system in detail.

  5. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  6. Understanding and application of superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byeong Mu; Lee, Chun Heung

    1997-02-01

    This book deals with superconducting materials, which contains from basic theory to application of superconducting materials. The contents of this book are mystery of superconducting materials, properties of superconducting materials, thermodynamics of superconducting materials, theoretical background of superconducting materials, tunnelling and quantum interference, classification and properties of superconducting materials, high temperature superconducting materials, production and analysis of superconducting materials and application of superconducting materials.

  7. Lattice parameters guide superconductivity in iron-arsenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, Lance M. N.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2017-03-01

    The discovery of superconducting materials has led to their use in technological marvels such as magnetic-field sensors in MRI machines, powerful research magnets, short transmission cables, and high-speed trains. Despite such applications, the uses of superconductors are not widespread because they function much below room-temperature, hence the costly cooling. Since the discovery of Cu- and Fe-based high-temperature superconductors (HTS), much intense effort has tried to explain and understand the superconducting phenomenon. While no exact explanations are given, several trends are reported in relation to the materials basis in magnetism and spin excitations. In fact, most HTS have antiferromagnetic undoped ‘parent’ materials that undergo a superconducting transition upon small chemical substitutions in them. As it is currently unclear which ‘dopants’ can favor superconductivity, this manuscript investigates crystal structure changes upon chemical substitutions, to find clues in lattice parameters for the superconducting occurrence. We review the chemical substitution effects on the crystal lattice of iron-arsenide-based crystals (2008 to present). We note that (a) HTS compounds have nearly tetragonal structures with a-lattice parameter close to 4 Å, and (b) superconductivity can depend strongly on the c-lattice parameter changes with chemical substitution. For example, a decrease in c-lattice parameter is required to induce ‘in-plane’ superconductivity. The review of lattice parameter trends in iron-arsenides presented here should guide synthesis of new materials and provoke theoretical input, giving clues for HTS.

  8. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  9. Straight ends for superconducting dipole magnet using constant perimeter geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ends of the SSC Dipole magnets are a very critical aspect of the superconducting cable windings needed for this large project. The internal coils, where the radius at the pole is as small as 3/10 of an inch for the first turn, are difficult to form with the very stiff cable, and a high tension is needed. The curing operation on the coils is performed in a heated forming press which applies an important additional stress on the superconducting wire and insulation. A new design of this sensitive region of the magnets was performed at LBL, and several prototypes were built and tested. In this paper the construction method used to solve some of the most critical problems is exposed along with a description of the experimental work in progress. 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. Dimensional Changes of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables During Heat Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Rochepault, E; Ambrosio, G; Anerella, M; Ballarino, A; Bonasia, A; Bordini, B; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D R; Felice, H; Garcia Fajardo, L; Ghosh, A; Holik, E F; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Schmalzle, J; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    In high field magnet applications, Nb$_{3}$Sn coils undergo a heat treatment step after winding. During this stage, coils radially expand and longitudinally contract due to the Nb$_{3}$Sn phase change. In order to prevent residual strain from altering superconducting performances, the tooling must provide the adequate space for these dimensional changes. The aim of this paper is to understand the behavior of cable dimensions during heat treatment and to provide estimates of the space to be accommodated in the tooling for coil expansion and contraction. This paper summarizes measurements of dimensional changes on strands, single Rutherford cables, cable stacks, and coils performed between 2013 and 2015. These samples and coils have been performed within a collaboration between CERN and the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program to develop Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets for the HiLumi LHC. The results are also compared with other high field magnet projects.

  11. Cycle Design of Reverse Brayton Cryocooler for HTS Cable Cooling Using Exergy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudeep Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi

    2017-02-01

    The reliability and price of cryogenic refrigeration play an important role in the successful commercialization of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. For cooling HTS cable, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) circulation system is used. One of the options to maintain LN2 in its sub-cooled state is by providing refrigeration with the help of Reverse Brayton Cryo-cooler (RBC). The refrigeration requirement is 10 kW for continuously sub-cooling LN2 from 72 K to 65 K for cooling 1 km length of HTS cable [1]. In this paper, a parametric evaluation of RBC for sub-cooling LN2 has been performed using helium as a process fluid. Exergy approach has been adopted for this analysis. A commercial process simulator, Aspen HYSYS® V8.6 has been used for this purpose. The critical components have been identified and their exergy destruction and exergy efficiency have been obtained for a given heat load condition.

  12. Cryogenic system with the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for cooling HTS power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y.F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gong, L.H.; Xu, X.D.; Li, L.F.; Zhang, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry; Xiao, L.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Electrical Engineering

    2005-04-01

    A 10 m long, three-phase AC high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable had been fabricated and tested in China August 2003. The sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) was used to cool the HTS cable. The sub-cooled LN{sub 2} circulation was built by means of a centrifugal pump through a heat exchanger in the sub-cooler, the three-phase HTS cable cryostats and a LN{sub 2} gas-liquid separator. The LN{sub 2} was cooled down to 65 K by means of decompressing, and the maximum cooling capacity was about 3.3 kW and the amount of consumed LN{sub 2} was about 72 L/h at 1500 A. Cryogenic system design, test and some experimental results would be presented in this paper. (author)

  13. The RHIC transfer line cable database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholl, E.H.; Satogata, T.

    1995-01-01

    A cable database was created to facilitate and document installation of cables and wiring in the RHIC project, as well as to provide a data source to track possible wiring and signal problems. The eight tables of this relational database, currently implemented in Sybase, contain information ranging from cable routing to attenuation of individual wires. This database was created in a hierarchical scheme under the assumption that cables contain wires -- each instance of a cable has one to many wires associated with it. This scheme allows entry of information pertinent to individual wires while only requiring single entries for each cable. Relationships to other RHIC databases are also discussed

  14. Optical Measurement of Cable and String Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Achkire

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non contacting measurement technique for the transverse vibration of small cables and strings using an analog position sensing detector. On the one hand, the sensor is used to monitor the cable vibrations of a small scale mock-up of a cable structure in order to validate the nonlinear cable dynamics model. On the other hand, the optical sensor is used to evaluate the performance of an active tendon control algorithm with guaranteed stability properties. It is demonstrated experimentally, that a force feedback control law based on a collocated force sensor measuring the tension in the cable is feasible and provides active damping in the cable.

  15. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges Using CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Kuihua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic modulus and deadweight of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP cables are different from those of steel cables. Thus, the static and dynamic behaviors of cable-stayed bridges using CFRP cables are different from those of cable-stayed bridges using steel cables. The static and dynamic performances of the two kinds of bridges with a span of 1000 m were studied using the numerical method. The effects of geometric nonlinear factors on static performance of the two kinds of cable-stayed bridges were analyzed. The live load effects and temperature effects of the two cable-stayed bridges were also analyzed. The influences of design parameters, including different structural systems, the numbers of auxiliary piers, and the space arrangement types of cable, on the dynamic performance of the cable-stayed bridge using CFRP cables were also studied. Results demonstrate that sag effect of the CFRP cable is much smaller than that of steel cable. The temperature effects of CFRP cable-stayed bridge are less than those of steel cable-stayed bridge. The vertical bending natural vibration frequency of the CFRP cable-stayed bridge is generally lower than that of steel cable-stayed bridge, whereas the torsional natural vibration frequency of the former is higher than that of the latter.

  16. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991

  17. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-01-15

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991.

  18. Development of partially-stabilized pulsed superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Hiroshi; Onishi, Toshitada; Komuro, Kazuo; Koyama, Kenichi

    1987-01-01

    Two types of pulsed superconducting cables and four pulsed superconducting magnets have been developed in order to investigate basic problems in constructing ohmic heating coils of a tokamak-type fusion reactor. We found that a compacted cable is superior in mechanical rigidity and a braided cable is superior in cooling capacity as a conductor of a pulsed magnet. Stored energy and a maximum field of the magnets are 78 kJ and 6 T, 68 kJ and 4 T, 375 kJ and 6 T, and 363 kJ and 3 T, respectively. Some of these magnets quenched in pulsive operations due to excessive ac losses or macroscopic wire motions. Therefore, main conditions for operating pulsed magnets without quenching are (1) to make ac losses low enough to be cooled with liquid helium existing near at the conductor surface by reducing filament diameter to the order of 10 μm and utilizing CuNi as matrix effectively, and (2) to prevent macroscopic wire motions by partial solderfilling of a cable or winding a magnet with strong tension. (author)

  19. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  20. Cable fire tests in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [de

  1. Improvement of superconducting cylindrical linear induction motor; Chodendo entokeitan ichiji rinia yudo mota no tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuma, T.; Tomita, M.; Ishiyama, A. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    For the purpose of we examining the effect of characteristics and ac loss under real machine operating environment of the alternating current superconductivity winding for a realization of the superconductive AC machine vessel, cylindrical shortness first linear guiding motor which used NbTi/CuNi superconducting cable for the primary winding was produced experimentally. The coil number was increased from 6 in 14 this time, and the optimization of the primary current was done, and the improvement on characteristics was attempted. Here, starting torque characteristics, quenching detection protection control circuit are reported. (NEDO)

  2. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  3. Superconducting current in a bisoliton superconductivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, V.N.; Kruchinin, S.P.; Ponezha, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the transition into a superconducting state with the current which is described by a bisoliton superconductivity model is accompanied by the deformation of the spectrum of one-particle states of the current carriers. The deformation value is proportional to the conducting current force. The residuaby resistance in such state is absent

  4. Data Base On Cables And Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Arlen R.; Oliver, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes Connector Adapter Cable Information Data Base (CONNAID) computer program, managing data base containing necessary information concerning electrical connectors, breakout boxes, adapter cables, backshells, and pertinent torque specifications for engineering project.

  5. OTEC riser cable model and prototype testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, J. P.; Schultz, J. A.; Roblee, L. H. S.

    1981-12-01

    Two different OTEC riser cables have been developed to span the distance between a floating OTEC power plant and the ocean floor. The major design concerns for a riser cable in the dynamic OTEC environment are fatigue, corrosion, and electrical/mechanical aging of the cable components. The basic properties of the cable materials were studied through tests on model cables and on samples of cable materials. Full-scale prototype cables were manufactured and were tested to measure their electrical and mechanical properties and performance. The full-scale testing was culminated by the electrical/mechanical fatigue test, which exposes full-scale cables to simultaneous tension, bending and electrical loads, all in a natural seawater environment.

  6. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of electric... material and 21/2 inches of conductor insulation. The type, amperage, voltage rating, and construction of...

  7. Trenchless Replacement of Buried Cable Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous amount of underground electricity and telecommunication cables have been worn over the time with technical defects or need capacity increases. Thus, new lines need to be installed. In urban areas, even in smaller communities and in natural reserves, open trenching is difficult and often not permitted.In response, new patented methods of trenchless cable replacement using the HDD equipment have been developed by the TT Group. The new technology is called “Wash-over-cable-replacement” and applies specially designed drill heads, cutting around the old cable string in various configurations (completely closed, U-shape or S-shape embracing, depending to the coating type of the old cable. This special cable replacement drill head separates the cable from the surrounding adhesive soil or the sand bedding by creating a very small annular space around the cable thus enabling the pulling or dragging out of the old cable section between the start and the exit pit. After the old cable has been loosened from the surrounding soil by means of the wash over process and pulled out, the new cable can be smoothly pulled into the void using the drill rods and embedding the new cable in a rich bed of Bentonite.The wash-over drill heads are slim and have inner and outer nozzles for Bentonite and bits to handle roots, pebbles, gravel and the like. These drill heads perform very quickly (up to 3 meters per minute to effectively wash over existing cables without damaging the cable coating and prepare the ground for a fast new laying of a new cable in the existing line. Network owners also benefit from the fact that new geodetic or topographic surveys and documentations of the new cable are not necessary. Only the documents, remarks, technical codes and existing geodetic data need to be updated.The paper will outline the technological background and include several practical job examples.

  8. Design of MgB2 Superconducting coils for the Ignitor Experiment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, G.; Penco, R.; Berta, S.; Coppi, B.; Giunchi, G.

    2009-11-01

    A feasibility study for the adoption of MgB2 superconducting cables for the largest (about 5 m in diameter) of the poloidal field coils of the Ignitor machine is being carried out. This initiative was prompted by the progress made in the fabrication of MgB2 long cables, and related superconducting magnets of relatively large dimensions. These magnets will be cryocooled at the operating temperature of 10-15 K that is compatible with the He-gas cryogenic cooling system of Ignitor as well as with the projected superconducting current density of the MgB2 material, at the magnetic field values (˜4-5 T) in which these coils are designed to operate. The optimal cable configuration has been identified that can provide an efficient cooling of the MgB2 conductors over times compatible with the machine duty cycles. MgB2 superconductors hold the promise of becoming suitable for high field magnets by appropriate doping of the material and of replacing gradually the normal conducting coils adopted, by necessity, in high field experiments. Therefore, an appropriate R&D program on the development of improved MgB2 material and related superconducting cabling options has been undertaken, involving different institutions.

  9. The tests at Saclay of the stellarator W7X superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemet, M.

    2000-05-01

    The tests on the superconducting magnets should allow to check at ambient or cryogenic temperature, the mechanical behaviour and the lack of leak from the conductor, the correct configuration of the cable in the pipe, the electric insulation, the magnet behaviour during a transition, the buckling and mechanical constraints on the whole. (N.C.)

  10. Nexan receives two CMS Awards of the Year 2002 for its work in superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Nexans has received one Crystal and one Gold CMS award for its contribution to the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector project. The CMS detector is designed to study the fundamental constituents of matter. The prizes recompense the excellent quality of Nexans' service in the supply of the necessary low-temperature superconducting cables sheathed in extruded aluminium.

  11. Critical Current and Stability of MgB$_2$ Twisted-Pair DC Cable Assembly Cooled by Helium Gas

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069632; Ballarino, Amalia; Yang, Yifeng; Young, Edward Andrew; Bailey, Wendell; Beduz, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Long length superconducting cables/bus-bars cooled by cryogenic gases such as helium operating over a wider temperature range are a challenging but exciting technical development prospects, with applications ranging from super-grid transmission to future accelerator systems. With limited existing knowledge and previous experiences, the cryogenic stability and quench protection of such cables are crucial research areas because the heat transfer is reduced and temperature gradient increased compared to liquid cryogen cooled cables. V-I measurements on gas-cooled cables over a significant length are an essential step towards a fully cryogenic stabilized cable with adequate quench protection. Prototype twisted-pair cables using high-temperature superconductor and MgB2 tapes have been under development at CERN within the FP7 EuCARD project. Experimental studies have been carried out on a 5-m-long multiple MgB$_2$ cable assembly at different temperatures between 20 and 30 K. The subcables of the assembly showed sim...

  12. Active optical cable for intrasatellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, J.; Cano, D.; Navasquillo, O.; Esteban, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    DAS Photonics and Airbus Defence and Space (Spain) have been working for more than six years in the concept of an Active Optical Cable (AOC) for copper cable substitution. The main advantages that AOC offers are significant mass and size saving, better flexibility and routing of the cable and immunity to EMI.

  13. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  14. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  15. ANL experimental program for pulsed superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Krieger, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) had recognized the clear advantage of a superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coil and started in aggressive development program in FY 1977. The main objectives for FY 1977 are to develop cryostable basic cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to develop 12 kA cryostable cable, using it to design and build a 1.5 MJ pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat for the 1.5 MJ pulsed coil. The principal objective in building the 1.5 MJ ac coil is to demonstrate ac cryostability of a large coil ranging from 2 T/s up to 12 T/s. Another objective in the pulsed coil program is to determine the feasibility of parallel coil operation in order to avoid excessive voltage and current requirements and to minimize the number of turns for the equilibrium field (EF) coils, should the EF coils be connected in parallel with the OH coils. A two-coil section model using the 11 kA cable will be built and tested

  16. ANL experimental program for pulsed superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Krieger, C.I.

    1977-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) had recognized the clear advantage of a superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coil and started an aggressive development program in FY 1977. The main objectives for FY 1977 are to develop cryostable basic cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to develop 12 kA cryostable cable, using it to design and build a 1.5 MJ pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat for the 1.5 MJ pulsed coil. The principal objective in building the 1.5 MJ ac coil is to demonstrate ac cryostability of a large coil ranging from 2 T/s up to 12 T/s. Another objective in the pusled coil program is to determine the feasibility of parallel coil operation in order to avoid excessive voltage and current requirements and to minimize the number of turns for the equilibrium field (EF) coils, should the EF coils be connected in parallel with the OH coils. A two-coil section model using the 11 kA cable will be built and tested

  17. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-06-20

    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  18. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  19. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  20. Arrangement for guiding transport cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent relates especially to x-ray equipment such as that used for computerized tomography, and in particular to an arrangement for guiding and supporting a plurality of power transmission cables and cooling hoses in a flexible manner. (U.K.)

  1. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  2. Powering and Machine Protection of the Superconducting LHC Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, M

    2004-01-01

    A very large number of magnets, both superconducting and conventional copper conductor magnets, are installed in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) for the guidance of the two proton beams around the circumference. In total, the LHC counts 1614 different electrical circuits with 1712 power converters for DC powering of the superconducting and normal conducting magnets. Besides the electrical circuits connecting main magnets for bending and focusing of the two counter-rotating beams, the demanding requirements on the quality of the magnetic fields require a large number of circuits for corrector magnets distributed around the circumference. In total, more than 10000 magnets will need to be connected to the power converters via a large inventory of electrical components such as normal conducting cables and tubes, energy extraction systems, current feedthroughs and superconducting busbars. Depending on the complexity and importance of these electrical circuits and their components, various systems will interact for...

  3. State-of-the-art superconducting accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2002-01-01

    With the LHC the technology of NbTi-based accelerator magnets has been pushed to the limit. By operating in superfluid helium, magnetic fields in excess of 10 T have been reached in various one meter-long model magnets while full scale magnets, 15 meter-long dipoles, have demonstrated possibility of safe operation in the 8.3-9 tesla range, with the necessary, very tight, field accuracy. The paper reviews the key points of the technology that has permitted the construction of the largest existing superconducting installations (Fermilab, Desy and Brookhaven), highlighting the novelties of the design of the LHC dipoles, quadrupoles and other superconducting magnets. All together the LHC project will need more than 5000 km of fine filament superconducting cables capable of 14 kA @ 10 T, 1.9 K. (13 refs).

  4. CLIQ. A new quench protection technology for superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, Emmanuele; ten Kate, H H J

    CLIQ, the Coupling-Loss Induced Quench system, is a new method for protecting superconducting magnets after a sudden transition to the normal state. It offers significant advantages over the conventional technology due to its effective mechanism for heating the superconductor relying on coupling loss and its robust electrical design, which makes it more reliable and less interfering with the coil winding process. The analysis of the electro-magnetic and thermal transients during and after a CLIQ discharge allows identifying the system parameters that affect the system performance and defining guidelines for implementing this technology on coils of various characteristics. Most existing superconducting magnets can be protected by CLIQ as convincingly shown by test results performed on magnets of different sizes, superconductor types, geometries, cables and strand parameters. Experimental results are successfully reproduced by means of a novel technique for modeling non-linear dynamic effects in superconducting...

  5. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Power supply system for the superconducting outsert of the CHMFL hybrid magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z.; Zhu, J.; Chen, W.; Jiang, D.; Huang, P.; Chen, Z.; Tan, Y.; Kuang, G.

    2017-12-01

    The construction of a new hybrid magnet, consisting of a 11 T superconducting outsert and a 34 T resistive insert magnet, has been finished at the Chinese High Magnetic Field Laboratory (CHMFL) in Hefei. With a room temperature bore of 800 mm in diameter, the hybrid magnet superconducting outsert is composed of four separate Nb3Sn-based Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) coils electrically connected in series and powered by a single power supply system. The power supply system for the superconducting outsert consists of a 16 kA DC power supply, a quench protection system, a pair of 16 kA High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads, and two Low Temperature Superconducting bus-lines. The design and manufacturing of the power supply system have been completed at the CHMFL. This paper describes the design features of the power supply system as well as the current fabrication condition of its main components.

  7. Transient analysis for alternating over-current characteristics of HTSC power transmission cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, the transient analysis for the alternating over-current distribution in case that the over-current was applied for a high-TC superconducting (HTSC) power transmission cable was performed. The transient analysis for the alternating over-current characteristics of HTSC power transmission cable with multi-layer is required to estimate the redistribution of the over-current between its conducting layers and to protect the cable system from the over-current in case that the quench in one or two layers of the HTSC power cable happens. For its transient analysis, the resistance generation of the conducting layers for the alternating over-current was reflected on its equivalent circuit, based on the resistance equation obtained by applying discrete Fourier transform (DFT) for the voltage and the current waveforms of the HTSC tape, which comprises each layer of the HTSC power transmission cable. It was confirmed through the numerical analysis on its equivalent circuit that after the current redistribution from the outermost layer into the inner layers first happened, the fast current redistribution between the inner layers developed as the amplitude of the alternating over-current increased.

  8. The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.D.; Bulmer, R.J.; Chaplin, M.R.; O'Connor, T.G.; Slack, D.S.; Wong, R.L.; Zbasnik, J.P.; Schultz, J.H.; Diatchenko, N.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics eXperiment (TPX) will be the first all superconducting magnet system for a Tokamak, where the poloidal field coils, in addition to the toroidal field coils are superconducting. The magnet system is designed to operate in a steady state mode, and to initiate the plasma discharge ohmically. The toroidal field system provides a peak field of 4.0 Tesla on the plasma axis at a plasma major radius of 2.25 m. The peak field on the niobium 3-tin, cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is 8.4 Tesla for the 16 toroidal field coils. The toroidal field coils must absorb approximately 5 kW due to nuclear heating, eddy currents, and other sources. The poloidal field system provides a total of 18 volt seconds to initiate the plasma and drive a plasma current up to 2 MA. The poloidal field system consists of 14 individual coils which are arranged symmetrically above and below the horizontal mid plane. Four pairs of coils make up the central solenoid, and three pairs of poloidal ring coils complete the system. The poloidal field coils all use a cable-in-conduit conductor, using either niobium 3-tin (Nb 3 Sn) or niobium titanium (NbTi) superconducting strands depending on the operating conditions for that coil. All of the coils are cooled by flowing supercritical helium, with inlet and outlet connections made on each double pancake. The superconducting magnet system has gone through a conceptual design review, and is in preliminary design started by the LLNL/MIT/PPPL collaboration. A number of changes have been made in the design since the conceptual design review, and are described in this paper. The majority of the design and all fabrication of the superconducting magnet system will be ,accomplished by industry, which will shortly be taking over the preliminary design. The magnet system is expected to be completed in early 2000

  9. Numerical solution of critical state in superconductivity by finite element software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    A numerical method is proposed to analyse the electromagnetic behaviour of systems including high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in time-varying external fields and superconducting cables carrying AC transport current. The E-J constitutive law together with an H-formulation is used to calculate the current distribution and electromagnetic fields in HTSCs, and the magnetization of HTSCs; then the forces in the interaction between the electromagnet and the superconductor and the AC loss of the superconducting cable can be obtained. This numerical method is based on solving the partial differential equations time dependently and is adapted to the commercial finite element software Comsol Multiphysics 3.2. The advantage of this method is to make the modelling of the superconductivity simple, flexible and extendable.

  10. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar [Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  11. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.; Malozemoff, Alexis P.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Significant improvements in the properties of superconducting materials have occurred recently. These improvements are being incorporated into the latest generation of wires, cables, and tapes that are being used in a broad range of prototype devices. These devices include new, high field accelerator and NMR magnets, magnets for fusion power experiments, motors, generators, and power transmission lines. These prototype magnets are joining a wide array of existing applications that utilize the unique capabilities of superconducting magnets:accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, fusion experiments such as ITER, 930 MHz NMR, and 4 Tesla MRI. In addition, promising new materials such as MgB2 have been discovered and are being studied in order to assess their potential for new applications. In this paper, we will review the key developments that are leading to these new applications for superconducting materials. In some cases, the key factor is improved understanding or development of materials with significantly improved properties. An example of the former is the development of Nb3Sn for use in high field magnets for accelerators. In other cases, the development is being driven by the application. The aggressive effort to develop HTS tapes is being driven primarily by the need for materials that can operate at temperatures of 50 K and higher. The implications of these two drivers for further developments will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss the areas where further improvements are needed in order for new applications to be realized

  12. [Fluid dynamics of supercritical helium within internally cooled cabled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sciver, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Applied Superconductivity Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison proposes to conduct research on low temperature helium fluid dynamics as it applies to the cooling of internally cooled cabled superconductors (ICCS). Such conductors are used in fusion reactor designs including most of the coils in ITER. The proposed work is primarily experimental involving measurements of transient and steady state pressure drop in a variety of conductor configurations. Both model and prototype conductors for actual magnet designs will be investigated. The primary goal will be to measure and model the friction factor for these complex geometries. In addition, an effort will be made to study transient processes such as heat transfer and fluid expulsion associated with quench conditions

  13. Cable-in-conduit conductor optimization for fusion magnet applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Kerns, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Careful design of the toroidal-field (TF) and poloidal-field (PF) coils in a tokamak machine using cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) can result in quite high overall winding-pack current densities - even with the high nuclear heat loads that may be imposed in operating a fusion reactor - and thereby help reduce the overall machine size. In our design process, we systematically examined the operational environment of a magnet, e.g., mechanical stresses, current, field, heat load, coolant temperature, and cooldown stresses, to determine the optimum amounts of copper, superconductor, helium, and sheath material for the CICC. This process is being used to design the superconducting magnet systems that comprise the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II). 13 refs., 2 figs

  14. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  15. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  16. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    . The chapter ends by proposing a systematic method that can be used when doing the insulation co-ordination study for a line, as well as the modelling requirements, both modelling depth and modelling detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic...... typically used for the screens of cables (both-ends bonding and cross-boding) and also presents methods that can be used to estimate the maximum current of a cable for different types of soils, i.e. thermal calculations. The end of the chapter introduces the shunt reactor, which is an important element...... detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic example....

  17. Mounting power cables on SOLEIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The power couplers are mounted on the SOLEIL cryomodule in a clean room. The cryomodule will allow superconducting technology to be used at SOLEIL, the French national synchrotron facility. This work is carried out as part of a collaboration between CERN and CEA Saclay, the French National Atomic Energy Commission.

  18. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  19. Superconductivity and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, António; Sousa, Duarte M.; Fernão Pires, Vítor; Margato, Elmano

    2017-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado em International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’17), 4 a 6 de Abril de 2017, Málaga, Espanha The research in the field of superconductivity has led to the synthesis of superconducting materials with features that allow you to expand the applicability of this kind of materials. Among the superconducting materials characteristics, the critical temperature of the superconductor is framing the range and type of industrial applications that can b...

  20. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Superconductivity in the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Lawson, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The trends in the occurrence of superconductivity in actinide materials are discussed. Most of them seem to show simple transition metal behavior. However, the superconductivity of americium proves that the f electrons are localized in that element and that ''actinides'' is the correct name for this row of elements. Recently the superconductivity of UBe 13 and UPt 3 has been shown to be extremely unusual, and these compounds fall in the new class of compounds now known as heavy fermion materials

  2. WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    The Second Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity was held at CERN from 23-27 July, four years after the first, organized at Karlsruhe. 35 invited talks were presented to the about 80 participants from Australia, Brazil, Europe, Japan and the United States. For the first time, ten Laboratories operating or planning superconducting accelerators for heavy ions participated and shared their experience with the community proposing the use of superconducting accelerating sections for electron accelerators.

  3. WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity was held at CERN from 23-27 July, four years after the first, organized at Karlsruhe. 35 invited talks were presented to the about 80 participants from Australia, Brazil, Europe, Japan and the United States. For the first time, ten Laboratories operating or planning superconducting accelerators for heavy ions participated and shared their experience with the community proposing the use of superconducting accelerating sections for electron accelerators

  4. Superconductivity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadoni, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper, after a short introduction to superconductivity and to multifilamentary superconducting composites is aiming to review the state of the art and the future perspective of some of the applications of the superconducting materials. The main interest is focussed to large scale applications like, for istance, magnets for accelerators or fusion reactors, superconducting system for NMR thomography, etc. A short paragraph is dedicated to applications for high sensitivity instrumentation. The paper is then concluded by some considerations about the potentialities of the newly discovered high critical temperature materials

  5. Superconducting quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, V.

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews recent accomplishments, presents new results and discusses possible future developments of superconducting quantum electronics and high T c superconductivity. The three main parts of the book deal with fundamentals, sensitive detectors, and precision metrology. New results reported include: correct equivalent circuits modelling superconducting electronic devices; exact solution of the Mattis-Bardeen equations describing various experiments for thin films; complete theoretical description and experimental results for a new broad band spectrum analyzer; a new Josephson junction potentiometer allowing tracing of unknown voltage ratios back to well-known frequency ratios; and fast superconducting SQUID shift registers enabling the production of calculable noise power spectra in the microwave region

  6. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  7. Basic Study of Superconductive Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    涌井, 和也; 荻原, 宏康

    2000-01-01

    There are two kinds of electromagnetic propulsion ships : a superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship and a superconductive electricity propulsion ship. A superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship uses the electromagnetic force (Lorenz force) by the interaction between a magnetic field and a electric current. On the other hand, a superconductive electricity propulsion ship uses screws driven by a superconductive motor. A superconductive propulsion ship technique has the merits of ...

  8. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  9. Design and Manufacture of the Superconducting Bus-bars for the LHC Main Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Belova, L M; Perinet-Marquet, J L; Ivanov, P; Urpin, C

    2002-01-01

    The main magnets of the LHC are series-connected electrically in different powering circuits by means of superconducting bus-bars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting bus-bars consist of a superconducting cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper profile all along the length. The function of the copper profile is essentially to provide an alternative path for the current in case the superconducting cable loses its superconducting state and returns to normal state because of a transient disturbance or of a normal zone propagation coming from the neighbouring magnets. When a superconducting bus-bar quenches to normal state its temperature must always stay below a safe values of about 100°C while the copper is conducting. When a resistive transition is detected, the protection systems triggers the ramping down of the current from 13000 A to 0. The ramp rate must not exceed a maximum value to avoid the transition of magnets series-connected in the circuit. This paper concerns th...

  10. Laminated NbTi-on-Kapton Microstrip Cables for Flexible Sub-Kelvin RF Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alex B.; Bockstiegel, Clinton; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Daal, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Large arrays of superconducting devices such as microwave kinetic inductance detectors require high density interconnects from higher temperatures with minimal heat load, low loss, and negligible crosstalk capable of carrying large and overlapping bandwidth signals. We report the fabrication of superconducting 53 wt% Nb-47 wt% Ti (Nb-47Ti) microstrip transmission lines laminated onto flexible polyimide substrates with lengths up to 40 cm and up to ten traces. The 50 Ω traces terminate in G3PO coaxial push-on connectors. We found transmission losses of 2.5 dB and a nearest-neighbor forward crosstalk of -25 dB at 8 GHz on a typical 5 trace, 1.8-cm-wide, 0.198-mm-thick, 22-cm-long flex cable at 30 mK. A simple two-port analytical model and subsequent Sonnet simulations indicate that this loss is mainly due to a complex impedance mismatch from wirebonds at the end connector without which the insertion loss would be data show that the 0.198-mm-thick flex cables tested have roughly equivalent thermal conductance per trace below 4 K compared to the 0.86 mm Nb-47Ti coaxial cables.

  11. Initial tension loss in cerclage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Jérémie; Émard, Maxime; Canet, Fanny; Brailovski, Vladimir; Petit, Yvan; Laflamme, George Y

    2013-10-01

    Cerclage cables, frequently used in the management of fractures and osteotomies, are associated with a high failure rate and significant loosening during surgery. This study compared the capacity to maintain tension of different types of orthopaedic cable systems. Multifilament Cobalt-Chrome (CoCr) cables with four different crimp/clamp devices (DePuy, Stryker, Zimmer and Smith&Nephew) and one non-metallic Nylon (Ny) cable from Kinamed were instrumented with a load cell to measure tension during insertion. Significant tension loss was observed with crimping for all cables (Ptensioner led to an additional unexpected tension loss (CoCr-DePuy: 18%, CoCr-Stryker: 29%, CoCr-Smith&Nephew: 33%, Ny: 46%, and CoCr-Zimmer: 52%). The simple CoCr (DePuy) cable system outperformed the more sophisticated locking devices due to its significantly better ability to prevent tension loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatigue of cable anchorage of large cable stayed bridge; Daikibo shachokyo cable teichaku kozo no hiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T.; Matsumoto, T. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan); Tsukahara, H. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miki, C. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-21

    Design considerations such as design schemes, the assemblage and welding of steel plates, and safety for fatigue of welded connections have to be taken for the cable anchorages of the steel cable stayed bridges. In this study, two full scale models, which have different shape of box anchorages welded to the web of the main girder, were made to investigate fatigue characteristics as well as assemblage of plate and gelding details. Finite element analyses for both test models and actual bridges here carried out to compare stress distribution. It was confirmed that the assemblage and welding of both types of box anchorage were attainable kith required quality and accuracy. According to the fatigue test, fatigue cracks originated from the weldings of the bearing plate to which the load from cable socket applied directly were caused by out-of-plane bending of the bearing plate. It was proved that the slight modifications of the details around the bearing plate resulted in sufficient fatigue strength in both types of anchorage. 1 ref., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  14. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.; Zuijderduin, R.; Smit, J.; Willen, D.; Lentge, H.; Thidemann, C.; Traeholt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulars of 6 km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly

  15. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Chan [Korea Maintance Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  16. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee; Lee, Eun Chan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  17. High-voltage polymeric insulated cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, A

    1987-01-01

    Reviews developments in high-voltage (here defined as 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV) polymeric insulated cables in the UK over the period 1979-1986, with particular reference to the experience of the Eastern Electricity Board. Outlines the background to the adoption of XPLE-insulated solid cable, and the design, testing, terminations, jointing and costs of 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV cables.

  18. Device for guiding various diameter size cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, I.M.; Klauzer, L.P.; Yeganov, L.I.; Zaripov, A.M.

    1982-01-30

    A design is submitted for a device to guide cable of various diameters. This device consists of a profiled multiple-pass roller, and clamps for uniting cut cable. This design is simplified by allowing both the rollers and their supports to rotate on the roller axis thus facilitating interaction with the clamps. The working surface of the supports is evolute while the outside surfaces have screw-channels for transfering the cable from one roller pass to the other.

  19. Vincennes University: Pioneer in Cable TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckes, Isaac K.

    1972-01-01

    The development of cable educational television at Vincennes University (Indiana) is discussed in terms of the financing, securing of franchises, educational goals and plans for future expansion. (RN)

  20. How do you like them cables?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sergei Malyukov

    Cabling work is not for clautrophobic people! Cables are like the blood vessels and nervous system of ATLAS. With the help of all these cables, we can power ATLAS, control the detector and read out the data. Like the human blood vessels, they penetrate inside the ATLAS volume, reaching each of its elements. The ATLAS developers started to think about design of services, cables and pipes at the very first stages of the project. The cabling project has been developing most intensively during the last five years, passing through the projection and CAD design phases, then the installation of cable trays and finally the cables. The cable installation itself took two and a half years and was done by teams of technicians from several institutes from Russia, the Czech Republic and Poland. Here are some numbers to illustrate the scale of the ATLAS cabling system. More than 25000 optical fiber channels are used for reading the information from the sub-detectors and delivering the timing signals. The total numbe...

  1. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick D.

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  2. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  3. Radiation effects on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references

  4. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  5. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  6. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  7. Superconductivity in bad metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'' with such a poor conductivity that the usual mean-field theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. Some consequences for high temperature superconductors are described

  8. Quench simulations for superconducting elements in the LHC accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, F.; Schmidt, R.

    2000-08-01

    The design of the protection system for the superconducting elements in an accelerator such as the large Hadron collider (LHC), now under construction at CERN, requires a detailed understanding of the thermo-hydraulic and electrodynamic processes during a quench. A numerical program (SPQR - simulation program for quench research) has been developed to evaluate temperature and voltage distributions during a quench as a function of space and time. The quench process is simulated by approximating the heat balance equation with the finite difference method in presence of variable cooling and powering conditions. The simulation predicts quench propagation along a superconducting cable, forced quenching with heaters, impact of eddy currents induced by a magnetic field change, and heat transfer through an insulation layer into helium, an adjacent conductor or other material. The simulation studies allowed a better understanding of experimental quench data and were used for determining the adequate dimensioning and protection of the highly stabilised superconducting cables for connecting magnets (busbars), optimising the quench heater strip layout for the main magnets, and studying quench back by induced eddy currents in the superconductor. After the introduction of the theoretical approach, some applications of the simulation model for the LHC dipole and corrector magnets are presented and the outcome of the studies is compared with experimental data.

  9. Superconductive technologies for the Large Hadron collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project is the largest plant based on superconductivity and cryogenics: 27 km of tunnel filled with superconducting magnets and other equipment that will be kept at 1.9 K. The dipole magnets have to generate a minimum magnetic field of 8.3 T to allow collisions of proton beams at an energy of 14 TeV in the centre of mass. The construction of LHC started in 1997 at CERN in Geneva and required 10 years of research and development on fine- filament NbTi superconducting wires and cables, on magnet technology and on He-II refrigerators. In particular the project needs the production of about 1000 tons of high-homogeneity NbTi with current densities of more than 2000 A mm/sup -2/ at 9 T and 1.9 K, with tight control also of all other cable properties such as magnetization, interstrand resistance and copper resistivity. The paper describes the main dipole magnets and reviews the most significant steps in the research and development, focusing on the issues related to the conductor, to...

  10. Dependence of the ac loss on the aspect ratio in a cable in conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau, F; Bruzzone, P

    2010-01-01

    The coupling current loss in rectangular superconducting cables is strictly dependent on their aspect ratio, which has an impact on the area linked by the field variation and consequently on the currents induced between strands. The relation between the ac loss and aspect ratio is studied with reference to the testing of three short cable in conduit conductor (CICC) samples at the SULTAN test facility. The first conductor is a 25 kA NbTi cable for the JT60-SA tokamak; the second is a 20 kA Nb 3 Sn cable for the HZB hybrid magnet. The last CICC is a 68 kA Nb 3 Sn cable with layout similar to that of the ITER toroidal field (TF) conductor (called the 'European toroidal field (EUTF) alternate'). All the samples are assembled with two conductor sections differing only in their orientation with respect to the external variable field. In the first and third samples, the cable of one leg is rotated by 90 0 , while in the HZB sample it is rotated by 45 0 with respect to the other leg. The ac loss is measured at the SULTAN test facility using a gas flow calorimetric method. A sample length of 39 cm is exposed to a sinusoidal field with an amplitude of ± 0.3 or ± 0.2 T (depending on the superconductor) and frequency variable in the range 0.1-0.8 Hz. A background field of 2 T perpendicular both to the sinusoidal field and to the sample axis is also applied. The ac loss is assessed by measuring the variation of the He enthalpy, assuming the metal enthalpy to be negligible. The loss curve for both legs is discussed in terms of the respective aspect ratios and the results, including data from former test campaigns, are compared with the aim of finding an analytical relation between the loss and the conductor dimensions.

  11. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... or splices that heat or spark under load shall not be used. ...

  12. Switching Restrikes in HVAC Cable Lines and Hybrid HVAC Cable/OHL Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Balle Holst, Per

    2011-01-01

    The disconnection of HV underground cables may, if unsuccessful, originate a restrike in the circuit breaker, leading to high overvoltages, and potentially damaging the cable and near equipment. Due to the cable high capacitance and low resistance the voltage damping is slow, resulting, half a cy...

  13. Measurement and Numerical Evaluation of AC-Losses in a ReBCO Roebel Cable at 4.5 K

    CERN Document Server

    van Nugteren, J.; Gao, P.; Bottura, L,; Dhallé, M.; Goldacker, W.; Kario, A.; ten Kate, H.; Kirby, G.; Krooshoop, E.; de Rijk, G.; Rossi, L.; Senatore, C.; Wessel, S.; Yagotintsev, K.; Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    EUCARD2 aims to research ReBCO superconducting magnets for future accelerator applications. The properties of ReBCO conductors are very different from low temperature superconductors. To investigate dynamic field quality, stability and normal zone propagation an electrical network model for coated conductor cables was developed. To validate the model two identical samples were prepared at CERN after which measurements were taken at the University of Twente and Southampton University. The model predicts that for Roebel cable, in a changing magnetic field applied in the perpendicular direction, the hysteresis loss is much larger than the coupling loss. In the case of a changing magnetic field applied parallel to the cable coupling loss is dominant. In the first case the experiment is in good agreement with the model. In the second case the data can only be compared qualitatively because the calibration for the inductive measurement is not available.

  14. Trends in Cable Magnetization and Persistent Currents during the Production of the Main Dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Granata, V; Le Naour, S; Oberli, L; Sanfilippo, S; Santoni, C; Scandale, Walter; Schwerg, N; Todesco, Ezio; Völlinger, C

    2005-01-01

    The production of more than 60% of superconducting cables for the main dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider has been completed. The results of the measurements of cable magnetization and the dependence on the manufacturers are presented. The strand magnetization produces field errors that have been measured in a large number of dipoles (approximately 100 to date) tested in cold conditions. We examine here the correlation between the available magnetic measurements and the large database of cable magnetization. The analysis is based on models documented elsewhere in the literature. Finally, a forecast of the persistent current effects to be expected in the LHC main dipoles is presented, and the more critical parameters for beam dynamics are singled out.

  15. Submicron superconducting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovashkin, A.I.; Lykov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of works concerning superconducting structures of submicron dimensions and a system of such structures is given. It is noted that usage of the above structures in superconducting microelectronics permits, first, to increase the element packing density, to decrease the signal transmission time, capacity, power dissipated in high-frequency applications. Secondly, negligible coherence length in transition metals, their alloys and high-temperature compounds also restrict the dimensions of superconducting weak couplings when the 'classical' Josephson effect is displayed. The most effective methods for production of submicron superconducting structures are the following: lithography, double scribering. Recently the systems of superconducting submicron elements are extensively studied. It is shown that such systems can be phased by magnetic field

  16. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  17. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  18. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.

    1987-09-01

    To minimize cost of the SSC facility, small-bore high field dipole magnets have been developed;some of the new technology that has been developed at several U.S. national laboratories and in industry is summarized. Superconducting wire with high J/sub c/ and filaments as small as 5μm diameter is not produced iwht mechanical properties suitable for reliable cable production. A variety of collar designs of both aluminum and stainless steel have been used in model magnets. A low-heat leak post-type cryostat support system is used and a system for accurate alignment of coil-collar-yoke in the cryostat has been developed. Model magnets of 1-m, 1.8 m, 4.5 m, and 17 m lengths have been build during the past two years. 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Argonne National Laboratory superconducting pulsed coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The main objectives are to develop high current (approx. 100 kA) cryostable cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to build a demonstration pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat. A 1.5-MJ cryostable pulsed superconducting coil has been developed and constructed at ANL. The coil has a peak field of 4.5 T at an operating current of 11.0 kA. A large inexpensive plastic cryostat has been developed for testing the pulsed coil. The coil has been pulsed with a maximum dB/dt of 11 T/s. The coil was pulsed more than 4000 cycles. Detailed results of the ac loss measurements and the current sharing of the cryostability will be described

  20. Low coupling loss core-strengthened Bi 2212\\/Ag Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Collings, E W; Scanlan, R M; Dietderich, D R; Motowidlo, L R

    1999-01-01

    In a comprehensive "vertically integrated" program multifilamentary (MF) high temperature superconducting (HTSC) Bi:2212/Ag strand was fabricated using the powder-in-tube process and heat treated in oxygen by a modified standard $9 procedure. The reaction-heat-treatment (HT) was adjusted to maximize critical current (density), I/sub c/ (J /sub c/), as measured in various magnetic fields, B. A series of Rutherford cables was designed, each of which included a $9 metallic (Nichrome-80) core for strengthening and reduction of coupling loss. Prior to cable winding a series of tests examined the possibility of strand "poisoning" by the core during HT. Small model Rutherford cables were wound, $9 and after HT were prepared for I/sub c/(B) measurement and calorimetric measurement of AC loss and hence interstrand contact resistance I/sub c/(B). It was deduced that, if in direct contact with the strand during HT, the core $9 material can degrade the I/sub c/ of the cable; but steps can be taken to eliminate this probl...

  1. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore......, measurements conducted within the cable industry have shown that an armoured three core cable has higher losses than equal unarmoured three core cables. It is also suggested that the inaccuracy in the IEC armour’s loss factor (λ2) is the main responsible for the conservatism in the IEC cable rating method...

  2. ''Football'' test coil: a simulated service test of internally-cooled, cabled superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, P.G.; Iwasa, Y.; Thome, R.J.; Hoenig, M.O.

    1981-01-01

    Internally-cooled, cabled superconductor, (ICCS), appears from small-scale tests to be a viable alternative to pool-boiling cooled superconductors for large superconducting magnets. Potential advantages may include savings in helium inventory, smaller structure and ease of fabrication. Questions remain, however, about the structural performance of these systems. The ''football'' test coil has been designed to simulate the actual ''field-current-stress-thermal'' operating conditions of a 25 ka ICCS in a commercial scale MHD magnet. The test procedure will permit demonstration of the 20 year cyclic life of such a magnet in less than 20 days. This paper describes the design, construction and test of that coil which is wound of copper-stabilized niobium-titanium cable in steel conduit. 2 refs

  3. Detection of the normal zone with cowound sensors in cable-in conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, N.N.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Tokamaks in the future will use superconducting cable-in-conduit- conductors (CICC) in all poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. Conventional quench detection, the measurement of small resistive normal zone voltages ( 4 kV). In the quench detection design for TPX, we have considered several different locations for internal co-wound voltage sensors in the cable cross-section as the primary mechanism to cancel this inductive noise. The Noise Rejection Experiment (NRE) at LLNL has been designed to evaluate which internal locations will produce the best inductive- noise cancellation, and provide us with experimental data for comparison with previously developed theory. The details of the experiments and resulting data are presented and analyzed

  4. Measurement of time dependent fields in high gradient superconducting quadrupoles for the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Coulter, K.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been performed on prototype and production magnets from two high gradient superconducting quadrupoles designs. One design is a double shell quadrupole with 36 strand Rutherford cable. The other design is a single shell quadrupole with 5 individually monolithic strands connected in series. These magnets have similar bore diameters and cable dimensions. However, there are significant differences between the two designs, as well as differences between prototype and production magnets within each design, with regard to Cu to superconductor ratio, filament diameter and filament spacing to strand diameter. The time dependence of fixed currents of the measured magnetic fields is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Studies on Nb3Sn field coils for superconducting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, H.; Nose, S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies on several coils wound with multifilamentary (MF) Nb 3 Sn cables with reinforcing strip for superconducting rotating machine application. To use a Nb 3 Sn superconductor to field winding of a rotating machine, several coil performances of pre-reacted, bronze processed and stranded MF Nb 3 Sn cables were investigated, mainly in relation to stress effect. Bending strain up to 0.64% in strand and winding stress of 5 kg/mm 2 have resulted in nondegradation in coil performance. A pair of impregnated race-track coils designed for a 30 MVA synchronous condenser was energized successfully up to 80% of critical current without quench. 8 refs

  6. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  7. Cable Television: Citizen Participation After the Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Monroe E.; Botein, Michael

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has incorporated several allowances in its regulations pertaining to cable television. Some of these enable citizen groups and communities to intervene in the cable franchise after the final issuance in order to correct deficiencies in the franchising process and the administration of the franchise.…

  8. Cable Technology: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchinsky, Jo

    The penetration of cable television throughout American communities makes it a potentially significant tool for improving the quality and accessibility of adult education. As cities begin to include in the cable franchise allotment monies for access by community members, adult educators need to become actively involved during the development of a…

  9. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  10. An ACLU Guide to Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powledge, Fred

    Proceeding from the hypothesis that cable television (CATV) is one of the most significant developments in modern America, this booklet examines the medium itself and then devotes special attention to the capacity of CATV to serve the First Amendment interest in diversity of expression. The opening section deals with the size and growth of cable,…

  11. Cable Television: The Process of Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leland L.; Botein, Michael

    In an effort to insure that cable television franchising procedures at the local level are based on a competitive and well-conceived selection process, this report discusses some of the most important steps of the franchising process. Not only does it show how the community should assess its needs and appraise the merits of the cable operator, but…

  12. Cables for nuclear power generating stations, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Asakawa, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Watanabe, Mikio; Shingo, Yoshioki.

    1981-01-01

    New inorganic material insulated flexible triaxial cables have been developed for the purpose of applying around the primary circuit of fast breeder reactor (FBR). These cables were tested at high temperature and high #betta#-ray radiation environment, and they showed good electrical properties. Other noted results were that they showed good fire proof and flame resistant properties. (author)

  13. Cable Television and Educational Access: A Reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lee R.; Greene, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the possible impact of recent federal legislation on educational utilization of cable television. Stresses the importance of educators understanding the law's provisions and acting to initiate relationships with cable companies. Reviews public educational or governmental access provisions. Presents strategies for promoting reciprocity…

  14. Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the

  15. Superconductivity and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.; Valdre, U.

    1977-01-01

    In this review article, two aspects of the role of superconductivity in electron microscopy are examined: (i) the development of superconducting devices (mainly lenses) and their incorporation in electron microscopes; (ii) the development of electron microscope techniques for studying fundamental and technological problems associated with superconductivity. The first part opens with a brief account of the relevant properties of conventional lenses, after which the various types of superconducting lenses are described and their properties compared. The relative merits and inconveniences of superconducting and conventional lenses are examined, particular attention being paid to the spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients at accelerating voltages above a megavolt. This part closes with a survey of the various microscope designs that have been built or proposed, incorporating superconducting components. In the second part, some methods that have been or might be used in the study of superconductivity in the electron microscope are described. A brief account of the types of application for which they are suitable is given. (author)

  16. A new multiconstraint method for determining the optimal cable stresses in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, B; Osman, S A; Adnan, A

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  17. Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Vibration of a Multispan Cable-Stayed Bridge under Transverse Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear vibrations of cable in a multispan cable-stayed bridge subjected to transverse excitation are investigated. The MECS (multielements cable system model, where multielements per cable stay are used, is built up and used to analyze the model properties of the multispan cable-stayed bridges. Then, a simplified two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs model, where the tower or the deck is reduced to a beam, is proposed to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the beam and cable. The results of MECS model analysis show that the main tower in the multispan cable-stayed bridge is prone to the transverse vibration, and the local vibration of cables only has a little impact on the frequency values of the global modes. The results of simplified model analysis show that the energy can be transformed between the modes of the beam and cable when the nature frequencies of them are very close. On the other hand, with the transverse excitation changing, the cable can exhibit richer quasi-periodic or chaotic motions due to the nonlinear terms caused by the coupled mode between the beam and cable.

  18. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Asgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM. The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  19. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  20. Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan Pawel

    This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified...... associated with variable loading, and different testing procedures. As most of the contemporary stay cables are comprised of a number of individual highstrength steel monostrands, the research study started with an extensive experimental work on the fatigue response of a single monostrand to cyclic flexural...

  1. Development of radiation resistant PEEK insulation cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Keigo; Ogiwara, Norio; Hikichi, Yusuke; Furukori, Hisayoshi; Arai, Hideyuki; Nishizawa, Daiji; Nishidono, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Material characterization and development has been carried out for cable insulation suitable for use in the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS radiation environment. In spite of its high cost, PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone) has emerged as the leading candidate satisfying requirements of being non-halogen based, highly incombustible and with radiation resistant at least 10 MGy, along with the usual mechanical characteristics such as good elongation at break, which are needed in a cable insulation. Gamma-ray irradiation tests have been done in order to study radiation resistance of PEEK cable. Further, mechanical, electrical and fire retardant characteristics of a complete cable such as would be used at the J-PARC RCS were investigated. As a result, PEEK cables were shown to be not degraded by radiation up to at least 10 MGy, and thus could be expected to operate stably under the 3-GeV RCS radiation environment. (author)

  2. Behaviour of electrical cables under fire conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Chaussard, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Lacoue, J.; Mattei, J.M.; Such, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment - called the Fire PSA - is being carried out by the French Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to be used in the framework of the safety assessment of operating 900 MWe PWRs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the core damage conditional probability which could result from a fire. A fire can induce unavailability of safety equipment, notably damaging electrical cables introducing a significant risk contributor. The purpose of this paper is to present the electrical cable fire tests carried out by IPSN to identify the failure modes and to determine the cable damage criteria. The impact of each kind of cable failure mode and the methodology used to estimate the conditional probability of a failure mode when cable damage occurred is also discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Superconducting materials and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Superconducting Materials and Magnets was convened by the IAEA and held by invitation of the Japanese government on September 4-6, 1989 in Tokyo. The meeting was hosted by the National Research Institute for Metals. Topics of the conference related to superconducting magnets and technology with particular application to fusion and the superconducting supercollider. Technology using both high and low-temperature superconductors was discussed. This document is a compendium of the papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  5. ESCAR superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.S.; Meuser, R.B.; Pope, W.L.; Green, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four superconducting dipoles, each about 1 meter long, provide the guide field for the Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring proton accelerator--storage ring. Injection of 50 MeV protons corresponds to a 3 kG central dipole field, and a peak proton energy of 4.2 GeV corresponds to a 46 kG central field. Thirty-two quadrupoles provide focusing. The 56 superconducting magnets are contained in 40 cryostats that are cryogenically connected in a novel series ''weir'' arrangement. A single 1500 W refrigeration plant is required. Design and testing of the magnet and cryostat system are described. (U.S.)

  6. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  7. Superconductivity in doped insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'', with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described

  8. Superconducting active impedance converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures

  9. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will address physicists, such as particle and nuclear physicists, familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics but not with solid state physics. The aim of this introduction to low temperature superconductivity is to give sufficient bases to the student for him/her to be able to access the scientific literature on this field. The five lectures will cover the following topics : 1. Normal metals, free electron gas, chambers equation. 2. Cooper pairs, the BCS ground state, quasi particle excitations. 3. DC superconductivity, Meissner state, dirty superconductors.4. Self consistent approach, Ginsburg Landau equations, Abrikosov fluxon lattice. 5. Josephson effects, high temperature superconductivity.

  10. Physical degradation assessment of generator station cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonkus, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary studies of fossil-fired and nuclear generator station cables indicate that the low voltage PVC insulated cables are in relatively good condition. The insulation is flexible and in the case of nuclear cables can withstand a design basis event after nearly 15 years of service. Cables insulated with styrene butadiene rubber have been found embrittled and cables insulated with SBR should be closely inspected in any plant assurance program. Thermal analysis using oxidative induction technique shows promise to indicate cable insulation degradation. Long term reliability assurance and plant life extension studies are being actively pursued at Ontario Hydro. A major study is currently underway to extend the life of the oldest operating fossil-fuel station, the 8-unit, 2400 MW Lakeview TGS in operation since the 1960s. Plant life assurance programs have been initiated at the 2000 MW Lambton TGS in operation since 1969, and for the oldest operating nuclear plant, Pickering NGS A in operation since the early 1970s. As cables are considered one of the critical components in a generator station due to the extreme difficulty and cost of cable replacement, test programs have been initiated to evaluate the physical degradation of the cables and relate the results to electrical diagnostic tests and to chemical changes. The decommissioning of two small nuclear stations, the 20 MW Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) and the 200 MW Douglas Point NGS, which were placed in service in 1962 and 1967 respectively, will provide an opportunity to perform destructive electrical and physical evaluation on field aged cables

  11. Po Superconducting Magnet:detail of the windings

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam Po. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8307552X.

  12. University's role in research on superconducting power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, E.B.

    1974-01-01

    Power transmission by superconducting cables appears to have enormous potential for the utility industry. It has still to be demonstrated that it will become a viable and economically competitive technology, however, development aimed at this goal by major research establishments has already exposed numerous research problems suitable for investigation by well qualified university departments without requiring large expenditures for equipment. What is missing in an organizational structure to relate work to the primary goals, monitor progress and influence the funding decisions of the major agencies. This does not seem difficult to set up, but continued success will require a long-term commitment from the participants

  13. Once upon a time, there was a brittle but superconducting niobium-tin…

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    The production of the new niobium-tin cables for the high-performance superconducting magnets of the HL-LHC is now in full swing at CERN.   The Rutherford cabling machine is operating in the superconducting laboratory, in Building 163. (Photo: Max Brice/CERN) Extraordinary research needs extraordinary machines: the upgrade project of the LHC, the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), has the goal of achieving instantaneous luminosities a factor of five larger than the LHC nominal value, and it relies on magnetic fields reaching the level of 12 Tesla. The superconducting niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti) used in the LHC magnets can only bear magnetic fields of up to 9-10 Tesla. Therefore, an alternative solution for the superconducting magnets materials was needed. The key innovative technology to develop superconducting magnets beyond 10 Tesla has been found in the niobium-tin (Nb3Sn)  compound. This compound was actually discovered in 1954, eight years before Nb-Ti, but when the LHC was built, ...

  14. Investigation of transient electrical, magnetic, and mechanical phenomena in large superconducting magnet coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihler, C.

    1996-07-01

    The progress in the field of technology for superconducting magnets led to the necessity of transferring existing calculation methods from electrical power engineering, modifying these tools to satisfy the boundary conditions for superconducting magnets, and also developing new calculation methods for special purposes. In this work suitable calculation methods are elaborated. Their validity and applicability is demonstrated in employing these scientific engineering tools to actual developments of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In detail this work deals with: 1. calculating eddy current and force densities in the conducting environment of a superconducting magnet or magnet system. 2. the effects of eddy current forces in experimental engineering; 3. transient effects of electrical surges acting on new coil designs; and 4. the electrical and magnetic properties of superconducting cables. Especially, the magnetic properties can lead to an inhomogeneous current distribution in the cable and, thus, to a considerable reduction of the current carrying capacity of the whole magnet. These investigations demonstrate that a detailed analysis of electrodynamic phenomena is indispensable in order to find the optimum technical way to make use of the physical potential of superconductivity. (orig./MM) [de

  15. Wind-induced cable vibrations and countermeasures of cables of PC cable-stayed bridge. PC syachokyo keburu no kaze ni yoru shindo to sono taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    In recent years, long span of cable-stayed bridges is remarkable. The wind-induced cable vibration called as line vibration and wake galloping was given as an important problem not only in the steel cable-stayed bridges but also in the PC cable-stayed bridges. The technical engineers in design of the cable-stayed bridges have many times to confront the problems on the vibration control of cables, it is considered that sufficient understand of the wind-induced vibration and countermeasures for cables of the PC cable-stayed bridges is necessary. Many reports on the countermeasure examples and trend of vibration control centred on cables of the cable-stayed bridges have been published. In this paper, the wind-induced vibration of cables in the cable-stayed bridges was reviewed, the examples of countermeasures of vibration control on cables in the PC cable-stayed bridges was mainly introduced. The remaining tasks and future prospects on vibration control of the PC cable-stayed bridges were described. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Self-similarity in applied superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Lawrence

    1981-09-01

    Self-similarity is a descriptive term applying to a family of curves. It means that the family is invariant to a one-parameter group of affine (stretching) transformations. The property of self-similarity has been exploited in a wide variety of problems in applied superconductivity, namely, (i) transient distribution of the current among the filaments of a superconductor during charge-up, (ii) steady distribution of current among the filaments of a superconductor near the current leads, (iii) transient heat transfer in superfluid helium, (iv) transient diffusion in cylindrical geometry (important in studying the growth rate of the reacted layer in A15 materials), (v) thermal expulsion of helium from quenching cable-in-conduit conductors, (vi) eddy current heating of irregular plates by slow, ramped fields, and (vii) the specific heat of type-II superconductors. Most, but not all, of the applications involve differential equations, both ordinary and partial. The novel methods explained in this report should prove of great value in other fields, just as they already have done in applied superconductivity. (author)

  17. A superconducting shield to protect astronauts

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Superconductors team in the Technology department is involved in the European Space Radiation Superconducting Shield (SR2S) project, which aims to demonstrate the feasibility of using superconducting magnetic shielding technology to protect astronauts from cosmic radiation in the space environment. The material that will be used in the superconductor coils on which the project is working is magnesium diboride (MgB2), the same type of conductor developed in the form of wire for CERN for the LHC High Luminosity Cold Powering project.   Image: K. Anthony/CERN. Back in April 2014, the CERN Superconductors team announced a world-record current in an electrical transmission line using cables made of the MgB2 superconductor. This result proved that the technology could be used in the form of wire and could be a viable solution for both electrical transmission for accelerator technology and long-distance power transportation. Now, the MgB2 superconductor has found another application: it wi...

  18. Brittle superconducting magnets: an equivilent strain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, E.; Danuso, M.

    2010-01-01

    To exceed fields of 10 T in accelerator magnets, brittle superconductors like A15 Nb 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al or ceramic High Temperature Superconductors have to be used. For such brittle superconductors it is not their maximum tensile yield stress that limits their structural resistance as much as strain values that provoke deformations in their delicate lattice, which in turn affect their superconducting properties. Work on the sensitivity of Nb 3 Sn cables to strain has been conducted in a number of stress states, including uniaxial and multi-axial, producing usually different results. This has made the need of a constituent design criterion imperative for magnet builders. In conventional structural problems an equivalent stress model is typically used to verify mechanical soundness. In the superconducting community a simple scalar equivalent strain to be used in place of an equivalent stress would be an extremely useful tool. As is well known in fundamental mechanics, there is not one single way to reduce a multiaxial strain state as represented by a 2nd order tensor to a scalar. The conceptual experiment proposed here will help determine the best scalar representation to use in the identification of an equivalent strain model.

  19. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.; Malozemoff, Alexis P.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2004-05-06

    Significant improvements in the properties ofsuperconducting materials have occurred recently. These improvements arebeing incorporated into the latest generation of wires, cables, and tapesthat are being used in a broad range of prototype devices. These devicesinclude new, high field accelerator and NMR magnets, magnets for fusionpower experiments, motors, generators, and power transmission lines.These prototype magnets are joining a wide array of existing applicationsthat utilize the unique capabilities of superconducting magnets:accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, fusion experiments suchas ITER, 930 MHz NMR, and 4 Tesla MRI. In addition, promising newmaterials such as MgB2 have been discovered and are being studied inorder to assess their potential for new applications. In this paper, wewill review the key developments that are leading to these newapplications for superconducting materials. In some cases, the key factoris improved understanding or development of materials with significantlyimproved properties. An example of the former is the development of Nb3Snfor use in high field magnets for accelerators. In other cases, thedevelopment is being driven by the application. The aggressive effort todevelop HTS tapes is being driven primarily by the need for materialsthat can operate at temperatures of 50 K and higher. The implications ofthese two drivers for further developments will be discussed. Finally, wewill discuss the areas where further improvements are needed in order fornew applications to be realized.

  20. Superconducting racetrack booster for the ion complex of MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filatov, Yu [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kondratenko, A. M. [Science and Technique Laboratory ' Zaryad' , 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia; Kondratenko, M. A. [Science and Technique Laboratory ' Zaryad' , 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia; Kovalenko, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The current design of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) project at Jefferson lab features a single 8 GeV/c figure-8 booster based on super-ferric magnets. Reducing the circumference of the booster by switching to a racetrack design may improve its performance by limiting the space charge effect and lower its cost. We consider problems of preserving proton and deuteron polarizations in a superconducting racetrack booster. We show that using magnets based on hollow high-current NbTi composite superconducting cable similar to those designed at JINR for the Nuclotron guarantees preservation of the ion polarization in a racetrack booster up to 8 GeV/c. The booster operation cycle would be a few seconds that would improve the operating efficiency of the MEIC ion complex.