WorldWideScience

Sample records for ruthenium nuclides produced

  1. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  2. Cosmic-ray produced nuclides in ground level air and in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, G.; Roedel, W.; Stoeppler, M.

    1963-11-15

    There are mainly three kinds of radioactive substances in the atmosphere: emanations from the ground and their daughters, nuclides produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and artificial products originating from nuclear weapon tests (and in a very small amount from other nuclear technical applications). This paper deals in particular with some of the cosmic-ray produced nuclides.

  3. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography, 1939--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christman, D.R.; Karlstrom, K.I.; Fowler, J.; Lambrecht, R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1975-04-01

    A bibliography of more than 1300 references on accelerator-produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine is presented. The information is arranged by subject and by specific nuclide. An author index is included. Appendices are provided of medical uses of specific elements and of radioisotopes not included in the main bibliography. (U.S.)

  4. Estimating cumulative soil accumulation rates with in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclide depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical model relating spatially averaged rates of cumulative soil accumulation and hillslope erosion to cosmogenic nuclide distribution in depth profiles is presented. Model predictions are compared with cosmogenic 21 Ne and AMS radiocarbon data from soils of the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. Rates of soil accumulation and hillslope erosion estimated by cosmogenic 21 Ne are significantly lower than rates indicated by radiocarbon and regional soil-geomorphic studies. The low apparent cosmogenic erosion rates are artifacts of high nuclide inheritance in cumulative soil parent material produced from erosion of old soils on hillslopes. In addition, 21 Ne profiles produced under conditions of rapid accumulation (>0.1 cm/a) are difficult to distinguish from bioturbated soil profiles. Modeling indicates that while 10 Be profiles will share this problem, both bioturbation and anomalous inheritance can be identified with measurement of in situ-produced 14 C

  5. WebCN: A web-based computation tool for in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiuzeng [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)]. E-mail: hongju@purdue.edu; Li Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Bourgeois, Mike [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Caffee, Marc [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Elmore, David [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Granger, Darryl [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Muzikar, Paul [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Smith, Preston [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cosmogenic nuclide techniques are increasingly being utilized in geoscience research. For this it is critical to establish an effective, easily accessible and well defined tool for cosmogenic nuclide computations. We have been developing a web-based tool (WebCN) to calculate surface exposure ages and erosion rates based on the nuclide concentrations measured by the accelerator mass spectrometry. WebCN for {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al has been finished and published at http://www.physics.purdue.edu/primelab/for{sub u}sers/rockage.html. WebCN for {sup 36}Cl is under construction. WebCN is designed as a three-tier client/server model and uses the open source PostgreSQL for the database management and PHP for the interface design and calculations. On the client side, an internet browser and Microsoft Access are used as application interfaces to access the system. Open Database Connectivity is used to link PostgreSQL and Microsoft Access. WebCN accounts for both spatial and temporal distributions of the cosmic ray flux to calculate the production rates of in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides at the Earth's surface.

  6. Light nuclides produced in the proton-induced spallation of {sup 238}U at 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Armbruster, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (ES)] [and others

    2005-09-01

    The production of light and intermediate-mass nuclides formed in the reaction {sup 1}H+{sup 238}U at 1 GeV was measured at the fragment separator (FRS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics, shooting a 1 A GeV {sup 238}U beam on a thin liquid-hydrogen target. 254 isotopes of all elements in the range 7{<=}Z{<=}37 were unambiguously identified, and the velocity distributions of the produced nuclides were determined with high precision. The results show that the nuclides are produced in a very asymmetric binary decay of heavy nuclei originating from the spallation of uranium. All the features of the produced nuclides merge with the characteristics of the fission products as their mass increases. (orig.)

  7. Cosmic-ray-produced stable nuclides: various production rates and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable nuclides, such as 3 He and 4 He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with bromine usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The 130 Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of 130 Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of 15 N, 13 C, and 2 H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of 86 Kr, 134 Xe, and 136 Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles

  8. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography: January 1974--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.I.; Christman, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography (Volume II) follows the format of the first bibliography. Nuclides used therapeutically have not been included. References to medical application of the various nuclides of iodine, gallium, and indium have been excluded as being beyond the scope of this bibliography (and to keep its size to manageable proportions). For nuclides having fifteen or fewer references there is no breakdown into subcategories. For the others they have been subdivided as follows: (1) Production methods, (2) Compound syntheses, and (3) Medical uses. The first part of the bibliography contains references of general interest of various types. Where specific nuclides are involved, these references are also cross-indexed to each nuclide. The original reference number is always used for cross-indexing. The nuclide section is arranged in alphabetical order, and within each section alphabetically by first author. The author index lists each reference once for each author, with no indication of cross-referencing given

  9. New approaches investigating production rates of in-situ produced terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchel, Silke [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France); FZD, Dresden (Germany); Braucher, Regis; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2010-07-01

    In-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides have proved to be valuable tools for environmental and Earth sciences. However, accurate application of this method is only possible, if terrestrial production rates in a certain environment over a certain time period and their depth-dependence within the exposed material are exactly known. Unfortunately, the existing data and models differ up to several tens of percent. Thus, one of the European project CRONUS-EU goals is the high quality calibration of the {sup 36}Cl production rate by spallation at independently dated surfaces. As part of fulfilling this task we have investigated calcite-rich samples from four medieval landslide areas in the Alps: Mont Granier, Le Claps, Dobratsch, and Veliki Vrh (330-1620 m, 1248-1442 AD). For investigating the depth-dependence of the different nuclear reactions, especially, the muon- and thermal neutron-induced contributions, we have analysed mixtures of carbonates and siliceous conglomerate samples - for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 36}Cl - exposed at different shielding depths and taken from a core drilled in 2005 at La Ciotat, France (from surface to 11 m shielding). AMS of {sup 36}Cl was performed at LLNL and ETH, {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al at ASTER.

  10. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.

    1970-01-01

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target ( 238 U and 232 Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 10 25 neutrons /cm 2 . Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 10 10 atoms of 257Fm, which is 10 2 times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., : 254 Cf, 251 Cf, 255 -Es, and 250 Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of 298 114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  11. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, R W; Hulet, E K [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 10{sup 25} neutrons /cm{sup 2}. Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 10{sup 10} atoms of 257Fm, which is 10{sup 2} times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., :{sup 254}Cf, {sup 251}Cf, {sup 255}-Es, and {sup 250}Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of {sup 298}114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  12. Fuel burn-up distribution and transuranic nuclide contents produced at the first cycle operation of AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jati Susilo; Jupiter Sitorus Pane

    2016-01-01

    AP1000 reactor core was designed with nominal power of 1154 MWe (3415 MWth), operated within life time of 60 years and cycle length of 18 months. For the first cycle, the AP1000 core uses three kinds of UO 2 enrichment, they are 2.35 w/o, 3.40 w/o and 4.45 w/o. Absorber materials such as ZrB 2 , Pyrex and Boron solution are used to compensate the excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle. In the core, U-235 fuels are burned by fission reaction and produce energy, fission products and new neutron. Because of the U-238 neutron absorption reaction, the high level radioactive waste of heavy nuclide transuranic such as Pu, Am, Cm and Np are also generated. They have a very long half life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the result of fuel burn-up distribution and heavy nuclide transuranic contents produced by AP1000 at the end of first cycle operation (EOFC). Calculation of ¼ part of the AP1000 core in the 2 dimensional model has been done using SRAC2006 code with the module of COREBN/HIST. The input data called the table of macroscopic cross section, is calculated using module of PIJ. The result shows that the maximum fuel assembly (FA) burn-up is 27.04 GWD/MTU, that is still lower than allowed maximum burn-up of 62 GWD/MTU. Fuel loading position at the center/middle of the core will produce bigger burn-up and transuranic nuclide than one at the edges the of the core. The use of IFBA fuel just give a small effect to lessen the fuel burn-up and transuranic nuclide production. (author)

  13. Analysis of radioactive ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This manual explains the procedures of analysis of radioactive ruthenium in the drain water from atomic energy plants. The most important radioactive ruthenium is 106 Ru, and the method of measurement described in this manual is to measure the beta ray of the daughter nuclide 106 Rh. The samples to be measured are collected from seawater, marine living things, and sediment of sea bottom near atomic energy plants. In case of sea water, the ruthenium is separated by the co-precipitation with magnesium hydroxide and distillation or the extraction with carbon tetrachloride, reduction and precipitation. The beta ray of the obtained sample is measured by a gas-flow type low background β counting system. Alkali dissolution-distillation or nitric acid extraction-distillation, reduction and precipitation are applied for marine living things. The sediment of sea bottom is treated with nitric acid or strong phosphoric acid, and distilled then the ruthenium is reduced and precipitated, and the beta-counting of the precipitation is made. The method to fix radioactive ruthenium on polyethylene films after the co-precipitation is also described for reference. The detectable levels by the present methods are 0.05 pCi/l for sea water, 0.1 pCi/g for marine living things, and 20 pCi/kg for the sediment of sea bottom. (Kato, T.)

  14. Estimate of the intensities of the radioactive nuclides produced at the super-FRS at the future GSI facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.

    2004-11-01

    The principal goal of the new facility is the construction of a worldwide unique and technically innovative accelerator system that will provide an extensive range of particle beams. Proton and antiproton beams will be available and ion beams of all chemical elements up to uranium will be produced with world-record intensities. The main employ of the high-intensity ion beams is the production of energetic beams of short-lived (radioactive) nuclei, in the following referred to as exotic or Rare Isotope Beams (RIBs). RIBs are produced in nuclear reactions experienced by the primary beams of stable particles. We report on the study of the production of radioactive nuclides and of their propagation through the Super-FRS. The study was performed by means of a nuclear-reaction Monte-Carlo code, ABRABLA, opportunely implemented for the above-described purpose. This work offers an overview of the radioactivity production in the Super-FRS area; the latter is the required starting knowledge for the design of the shielding structure. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid TiO2 -Ruthenium Nano-photosensitizer Synergistically Produces Reactive Oxygen Species in both Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Rebecca C; Black, Kvar C L; Lane, Daniel D; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-08-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat diverse diseases, but its dependence on oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) diminishes the therapeutic effect in a hypoxic environment, such as solid tumors. Herein, we developed a ROS-producing hybrid nanoparticle-based photosensitizer capable of maintaining high levels of ROS under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conjugation of a ruthenium complex (N3) to a TiO 2 nanoparticle afforded TiO 2 -N3. Upon exposure of TiO 2 -N3 to light, the N3 injected electrons into TiO 2 to produce three- and four-fold more hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, than TiO 2 at 160 mmHg. TiO 2 -N3 maintained three-fold higher hydroxyl radicals than TiO 2 under hypoxic conditions via N3-facilitated electron-hole reduction of adsorbed water molecules. The incorporation of N3 transformed TiO 2 from a dual type I and II PDT agent to a predominantly type I photosensitizer, irrespective of the oxygen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The incorporation of specific tissue/nuclide attenuation data into the Anderson method for producing brachytherapy volume-dose histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loft, S.M.; Dale, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Anderson (1986) has proposed an analytical method for deriving volume-dose histograms relating to three-dimensional brachytherapy distributions. Because the mathematical transformation allows the otherwise dominant effects of the inverse-square fall-off about individual sources to be effectively suppressed, resulting histograms provide the potential for visually and numerically assessing overall quality of a brachytherapy treatment. In this paper the Anderson equations have been combined with the radial-dose polynomials of Dale, which are applicable to a number of tissue/nuclide combinations, and the predictions of the combined formalism used to further investigate the physical aspects of brachytherapy dosimetry. The problems associated with the dosimetry of low-energy γ-emitters such as 125 I are once again highlighted, as are potential advantages of using a radionuclide with an intermediate γ-ray energy. (author)

  17. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  18. Radiochemistry of ruthenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W W; Metcalf, S G; Barney, G S

    1984-06-01

    Information on ruthenium is presented. Topics include the following; isotopes and nuclear properties of ruthenium; review of the chemistry of ruthenium including metal and alloys, compounds of ruthenium, and solution chemistry; separation methods including volatilization of RuO{sub 4}, precipitation and coprecipitation, solvent extraction, chromatographic techniques, and analysis for radioruthenium. 445 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Radiochemistry of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Metcalf, S.G.; Barney, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Information on ruthenium is presented. Topics include the following; isotopes and nuclear properties of ruthenium; review of the chemistry of ruthenium including metal and alloys, compounds of ruthenium, and solution chemistry; separation methods including volatilization of RuO 4 , precipitation and coprecipitation, solvent extraction, chromatographic techniques, and analysis for radioruthenium. 445 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  20. Chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Y.; Horiguchi, T.; Yamada, M.

    1980-01-01

    In this chart, four colors are use to classify nuclides according to their half-lives. The different symbols are also to show the decay modes and their percentage in each nuclide. Four tables are provided on the back of the chart. Table 1 is the ordinary periodic Table. Table 2 provides fundamental constants used for nuclear physics. Tables 3 lists the physical constants (mean density, ionization potential, melting point, and boiling point) of all elements. Table 4 provides the gamma-ray intensity standards. Half-lives, energy, relative intensity, and intensity per decay are list for 33 nuclides. (J.P.N.)

  1. Identification of short-lived neutron-rich ruthenium and rhodium isotopes in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.; Herrmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Short-lived ruthenium and rhodium isotopes ( 107 Ru, 108 Ru, 108 Rh, 109 Ru, 109 Rh, 110 Ru, 110 Rh, 111 Ru, 111 Rh, 112 Ru, 112 Rh, 113 Ru) have been separated from fission products by a rapid chemical procedure and identified by means of γ-ray spectroscopy. Nuclides with half-lives down to 3 sec were accessible. Ruthenium isotopes up to mass number 113 have been identified. (author)

  2. NNDC Chart of Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center has recently developed an interactive chart of nuclides, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/, that provides nuclear structure and decay data. Since its implementation, it has proven to be one of the most popular web products. The information presented is derived from the ENSDF and Nuclear Wallet Card databases. Experimentally known nuclides are represented by a cell in chart with the number of neutrons on the horizontal axis and the number of protons on the vertical axis. The color of the cell is used to indicate the ground state half-life or the ground state predominant decay mode. (author)

  3. Polarographic determination of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jifu; Duan Shirong; Wu Xi

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested to use 0.5 mol/l HClO 4 -0.5 mol/l NaNO 3 -0.1 mol/l NaClO 4 as supporting electrolyte for determining ruthenium. In the supporting electrolyte there is a clear polarographic wave of ruthenium (IV) at -0.8 V vs. SCE. The wave height of ruthenium(IV) is linear in the range from 0.1 to 0.4 μg. ml -1 . The effect of the component of supporting electroylte and the other ion in the samples on the measurement of ruthenium are studied. The analysis methods for measuring ruthenium in both acidic or basic imitative radioactive waste solutions which is used in study of glass solidification are worked out. Imitative samples are analysised

  4. Synthesis of ruthenium phosphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernogorenko, V.B.; Lynchak, K.A.; Kulik, L.Ya.; Shkaravskij, Yu.F.; Klochkov, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of ampoule synthesis of ruthenium phosphides, Ru 2 P, RuP, and RuP 2 , with stepwise heating of stoichimetric charges in a single-zone furnace is developed. A method for synthesizing ruthenium diphosphide by phosphidization of a ruthenium powder with phosphine at 1150 deg C is worked out. The optimum conditions of its manufacture are found by planning an extremal experiment. Interaction of PH 3 with ruthenium proceeds by the diffusion mechanism and obeys the parabolic law. An extraction-photometric method for determining phosphorus in phosphides is elaborated. Ruthenium phosphides are extremely corrosion-resistant in acids and alkalis. Ru 2 P and RuP exhibit metallic conductivity

  5. The MacNuclide nuclear data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Advance in technology have produced intriguing tools that can be applied to problems in nuclear science. Information management in nuclear science is an example of how technology is not quickly exploited. The U.S. Department of Energy supports an extensive program to evaluate published nuclear properties and store them in an electronic data base. Much of the evaluation effort has focused on producing the journal Nuclear Data Sheets and the publication Table of Isotopes. Although the electronic data base can itself be a valuable source of information, the software used to access is was designed using decades-old technologies. The authors of this paper have developed a novel data-base management system for nuclear properties. The application is known as MacNuclide. It is a nuclear data-base environment that uses the highly interactive and intuitive windowing environmentsof desk-top computers. The environment is designed around that image of the chart of nuclides. Questions are posed to the data base by placing constraints on properties and defining collections of nuclides to be used in data-base seraches. Results are displayed either as a simple list of nuclides that meet the imposed constraints or as a color chart of nuclides

  6. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. WWW chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Zhou Chunmei; Zhuang Youxiang; Zhao Zhixiang; Golashvili, T.V.; Chechev, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    WWW chart of the nuclides was established on the basis of the latest evaluations of nuclear structure and decay data. By viewing WWW chart of the nuclides, one can retrieve the fundamental data of nuclide such as atomic mass, abundance, spin and parity; the decay mode, branching ratio, half-life and Q-value of radioactive nuclide, energy and intensity of strong γ-ray, etc. The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of WWW chart of the nuclides is: http://myhome.py.gd.cn/chart/index,asp

  8. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  9. Ruthenium removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masafumi; Shirado, Katsuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    A processing gas supply system and a NO x supply system for supplying NO x to be mixed with processed gases are connected to the gas plenum in the lower portion of reaction vessel. Further, a cleaning station is disposed above the gas plenum for introducing a mixed gas stream from the gas plenum into a liquid detergent thereby trapping NO x and ruthenium reduction products into the liquid detergent. Volatile ruthenium contained in the processed gases is reduced into ruthenium reduction products and formed as mists. They are trapped in the cleaning liquid and the remaining gases are discharged out of the liquid detergent to the outside of the reaction vessel. Accordingly, solid radioactive wastes are not formed and the decontaminating efficiency for volatile ruthenium can be improved. (T.M.)

  10. NUCLIDES 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclides have many applications in agriculture, medicine, industry and research. For basic information on such radioactive materials, the Chart of the Nuclides has proved to be an indispensable tool for obtaining data on radionuclides and working out qualitatively decay schemes and reaction paths. These Charts are, however, of limited use when one requires quantitative information on the decaying nuclide and its daughters. This was the motivation for the development of the NUCLIDES 2000 software package. The radioactive decay data used in NUCLIDES 2000 is based on the Joint Evaluated File (Jeff) version 2.2. The present version of the program contains decay data on approximately 2700 radionuclides. (authors)

  11. Transmutation of 239Pu and other nuclides using spallation neutrons produced by relativistic protons reacting with massive U- and Pb- targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Balabekyan, A.; Bamblevskij, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies on the transmutation of some long-lived radioactive waste nuclei, such as 129 I, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, as well as on natural uranium and lanthanum (all of them used as sensors) were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (JINR, Dubna). Spallation neutrons were produced by relativistic protons with energies in the range of 0.5 GeV ≤ E(p) ≤ 1.5 GeV interacting with 20 cm long uranium or lead target stacks. The targets were surrounded by 6 cm paraffin moderators. The radioactive sensors mentioned above were positioned on the outside surface of the moderator and contained typically approximately 0.5 up to 1 gram of long-lived isotopes. The highly radioactive targets were produced perfectly well-sealed in aluminium containers by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia. From the experimentally observed transmutation rates one can easily extrapolate, that in a subcritical nuclear power assembly (or 'energy amplifier') using a 10 mA proton beam of 1 GeV onto a Pb-target as used here, one can transmute in one gram samples of the isotope within one month about 3 mg 129 I, 21 mg 237 Np, 3.3 mg 238 U, and 200 mg 239 Pu under the same geometrical conditions. Our observations show, that the transmutation ability of our system increases linearly with the proton energy within the energy interval studied

  12. Transmutation of $^{239}$Pu and Other Nuclides Using Spallation Neutrons Produced by Relativistic Protons Reacting with Massive U- and Pb-Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Bamblevski, V P; Barabanov, M Yu; Bradnova, V; Chaloun, P; Hella, K M; Kalinnikov, V G; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Perelygin, V P; Pronskikh, V S; Pavliouk, A V; Solnyshkin, A A; Sosnin, A N; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Zaverioukha, O S; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Brandt, R; Langrock, E J; Vater, P; Van, J S; Westmeier, W; Dwivedi, K K; Guo Shi Lun; Li Li Qiang; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Modolo, G; Odoj, R; Zamani-Valassiadou, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies on the transmutation of some long-lived radioactive waste nuclei, such as ^{129}I, ^{237}Np, and ^{239}Pu, as well as on natural uranium and lanthanum (all of them used as sensors) were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory for High Energies (JINR, Dubna). Spallation neutrons were produced by relativistic protons with energies in the range of 0.5 GeV\\le E(p)\\le 1.5 GeV interacting with 20 cm long uranium or lead target stacks. The targets were surrounded by 6 cm paraffin moderators. The radioactive sensors mentioned above were positioned on the outside surface of the moderator and contained typically approximately 0.5 up to 1 gram of long-lived isotopes. The highly radioactive targets were produced perfectly well-sealed in aluminum containers by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia. From the experimentally observed transmutation rates one can easily extrapolate, that in a subcritical nuclear power assembly (or "energy amplifier") using a 10 mA pr...

  13. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  14. Application of on-line HPLC-ICP-MS for the determination of the nuclide abundances of lanthanides produced via spallation reactions in an irradiated tantalum target of a spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerl, W.; Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of spallation nuclides in an irradiated tantalum target using HPLC coupled on-line to ICP-MS after dissolution and separation of the tantalum matrix. Pieces of tantalum were taken from different locations of the irradiated tantalum target which had been used as the target material in a spallation neutron source. Tantalum was dissolved in a HNO 3 /HF mixture and the tantalum matrix was separated by liquid-liquid extraction so that only the spallation nuclides were left in the sample solutions. The major fraction of the spallation nuclides in the tantalum target are lanthanide metals in the μg g -1 concentration range determined in the present study. Additional reaction products are formed by the irradiation of trace impurities in the original tantalum target. The nuclide abundances of the lanthanide metals measured in the tantalum target differ significantly from the natural isotopic composition so that a lot of isobaric interferences of long-lived radionuclides and stable isotopes in the mass spectrum are to be expected. Therefore, all the lanthanide metals had to be separated chemically prior to their mass spectrometric determination. The separation of all rare earth elements was performed by ion chromatography on-line to ICP-MS. The nuclide abundances of each lanthanide were determined using a sensitive double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The nuclide abundances of the lanthanides in the irradiated tantalum target calculated theoretically and the experimental results obtained by on-line HPLC-ICP-MS proved to be in good agreement. (orig.)

  15. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  16. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  17. Library correlation nuclide identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, William R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel nuclide identification algorithm, Library Correlation Nuclide Identification (LibCorNID), is proposed. In addition to the spectrum, LibCorNID requires the standard energy, peak shape and peak efficiency calibrations. Input parameters include tolerances for some expected variations in the calibrations, a minimum relative nuclide peak area threshold, and a correlation threshold. Initially, the measured peak spectrum is obtained as the residual after baseline estimation via peak erosion, removing the continuum. Library nuclides are filtered by examining the possible nuclide peak areas in terms of the measured peak spectrum and applying the specified relative area threshold. Remaining candidates are used to create a set of theoretical peak spectra based on the calibrations and library entries. These candidate spectra are then simultaneously fit to the measured peak spectrum while also optimizing the calibrations within the bounds of the specified tolerances. Each candidate with optimized area still exceeding the area threshold undergoes a correlation test. The normalized Pearson's correlation value is calculated as a comparison of the optimized nuclide peak spectrum to the measured peak spectrum with the other optimized peak spectra subtracted. Those candidates with correlation values that exceed the specified threshold are identified and their optimized activities are output. An evaluation of LibCorNID was conducted to verify identification performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. LibCorNID has been shown to perform well compared to standard peak-based analyses

  18. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Projected development of nuclear power up to the year 2000 entails a substantial increase in the number of nuclear power reactors, of irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and of various other supporting facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this period, transuranium elements, especially plutonium, will be produced in substantial quantities as by-products of the fission process and for use as fuel in present and future nuclear power reactors; these elements will have other peaceful applications as well. Growing world-wide interest and a natural desire to protect man and his environment have led to increasing concern in public, scientific and governmental sectors about the, release of such radionuclides into the environment. Although releases of transuranium nuclides from existing nuclear facilities can be controlled to very low levels, it is essential, in view of their long half-lives and high relative radiotoxicities, that their fate in the environment be understood well enough to permit associated potential impacts to be assessed and hence effective control to be provided. Extensive studies for many years have investigated the distribution and behaviour of these elements and potential detriments resulting from their release to the environment. More recently, scientists have begun to make projections for evaluating the degree of control necessary if such materials are to enter the complex chain of commercial activities associated with nuclear power production

  19. Evaluation of Ruthenium Capture Methods for Tritium Pretreatment Off-Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, Denis M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    In the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel, radioactive elements are released into various plant off-gas streams. While much research and development has focused on the abatement of the volatile nuclides 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I, the potential release of semivolatile isotopes that could also report to the off-gas streams in a reprocessing facility has been examined. Ruthenium (as 106Ru) has been identified as one of the semivolatile nuclides requiring the greatest degree of abatement prior to discharging the plant off-gas to the environment.

  20. ZZ REAC-2, Nuclide Activation and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Flux library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group fluxes, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Cross Section library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group cross section, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Decay Data library: Format: special format, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). REAC2 calculates the change in composition of materials in a radiation field and related activation quantities. It is best suited to problems where many variables (e.g. materials, facilities or locations within facilities, power histories) are to be investigated. Where very accurate results are needed, the user must access the accuracy of the cross section base (e.g. source, flux weighting) as in the use of any neutronics code. REAC2 consists of three programs - SREAC, SLSTCOM, and SLIB. SREAC calculates the transmutation of nuclides in a radiation field. SLSTCOM reads the output file produced by SREAC and produces listings of

  1. Titrimetric determination of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, V.V.; Belyaeva, T.I.; Kudinova, V.K.; Usatenko, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    Titration of ruthenium(4) hydrochloric-acid solutions with Mohr's salt, hydroquinone, and thiourea has been studied with the use of biampero- and potentiometric indication of the titration end point (t.e.p.) Potentiometric and amperometric indication of the t.e.p. is applicable when Ru(4) concentration is from 20 to 6000 mkg in 20 ml of the titrated solution; biamperometric indication can be used at a concentration of 5-1000 mkg in the same volume. It has been established that titration of Ru(4) (in the form of the Na 2 RuCl 6 solution) with Mohr's salt is not hindered by the presence of 1000-fold excess of alkaline and alkali-earth metals, Al, Ti(4), Mn(2), Cr(3), Fe(3), Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge(4), As, Se, Mo(6), Cd, In, and Te; 100-fold excess of Rh, Pd, W, Bi, and Sn; 10-fold excess of Ag, Au, Pt, Hg, Os. Along with Ru(4) titrated are Ir(4), Te(3), V(5), and Ce(4). Selectivity of hydroquinone and thiourea is lower. Titrimetric procedure of determining ruthenium has been tested for ruthenium alloy containing cobalt tungsten. It cannot be recommended for analysis of the samples which dissolve in aqua regia

  2. Experiments on the behaviour of ruthenium in air ingress accidents - Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Backman, U.; Auvinen, A.; Ziliacus, R.; Lipponen, M.; Kekki, T.; Tapper, U.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2006-02-01

    During routine nuclear reactor operation, ruthenium will accumulate in the fuel in relatively high concentrations. In an accident in a nuclear power plant it is possible that air gets into contact with the reactor core. In this case ruthenium can oxidise and form volatile ruthenium species, RuO3 and RuO4, which can be transported into the containment. In order to estimate the amount of gaseous ruthenium species it is of interest to know, how it is formed and how it behaves. In our experiments RuO2 is exposed to diverse oxidising atmospheres at a relatively high temperature. In this report, the experimental system for the ruthenium behaviour study is presented. Also preliminary results from experiments carried out during year 2005 are reported. In the experiments gaseous ruthenium oxides were produced in a furnace. Upon cooling RuO2 aerosol particles were formed in the system. They were removed with plane filters from the gas stream. Gaseous ruthenium species were trapped in 1M NaOH-water solution, which is capable of trapping RuO4 totally. Ruthenium in the solution was filtered for analysis. The determination of ruthenium both in aerosol and in liquid filters was made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In order to close mass balance and achieve better time resolution three experiment using radioactive tracer were carried out. (au)

  3. Experiments on the behaviour of ruthenium in air ingress accidents - Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Backman, U.; Auvinen, A.; Ziliacus, R.; Lipponen, M.; Kekki, T.; Tapper, U.; Jokiniemi, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2006-02-15

    During routine nuclear reactor operation, ruthenium will accumulate in the fuel in relatively high concentrations. In an accident in a nuclear power plant it is possible that air gets into contact with the reactor core. In this case ruthenium can oxidise and form volatile ruthenium species, RuO3 and RuO4, which can be transported into the containment. In order to estimate the amount of gaseous ruthenium species it is of interest to know, how it is formed and how it behaves. In our experiments RuO2 is exposed to diverse oxidising atmospheres at a relatively high temperature. In this report, the experimental system for the ruthenium behaviour study is presented. Also preliminary results from experiments carried out during year 2005 are reported. In the experiments gaseous ruthenium oxides were produced in a furnace. Upon cooling RuO2 aerosol particles were formed in the system. They were removed with plane filters from the gas stream. Gaseous ruthenium species were trapped in 1M NaOH-water solution, which is capable of trapping RuO4 totally. Ruthenium in the solution was filtered for analysis. The determination of ruthenium both in aerosol and in liquid filters was made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In order to close mass balance and achieve better time resolution three experiment using radioactive tracer were carried out. (au)

  4. Decay and Transmutation of Nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Aarnio, Pertti A

    1999-01-01

    We present a computer code DeTra which solves analytically the Bateman equations governing the decay, build-up and transmutation of radionuclides. The complexity of the chains and the number of nuclides are not limited. The nuclide production terms considered include transmutation of the nuclides inside the chain, external production, and fission. Time dependent calculations are possible since all the production terms can be re-defined for each irradiation step. The number of irradiation steps and output times is unlimited. DeTra is thus able to solve any decay and transmutation problem as long as the nuclear data i.e. decay data and production rates, or cross sections, are known.

  5. Ruthenium separation device from radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayabe, Osao.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently oxidize ruthenium in radioactive wastes and evaporize ruthenium tetraoxide after oxidization thereof, thereby improve the separation and recovery rate. Constitution: The device comprises an oxidization vessel for supplying an oxidizing agent into radioactive wastes to oxidize ruthenium in the wastes into ruthenium tetraoxide, and a distillation vessel for introducing radioactive wastes after oxidization, distillating under heating ruthenium tetraoxide leached into the wastes and evaporizing ruthenium tetraoxide. By dividing the device into the oxidizing vessel and the distillation vessel, the oxidizing treatment and the distilling treatment can individually be operated optimally to improve the separation and recovery rate of ruthenium. (Takahashi, M.)

  6. Nuclide content in reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Certain corrosion and fission products of importance in reactor waste management cannot be measured by gammaspectrometric techniques. In this study, a method is suggested by which the occurence of such nuclides can be quantitatively related to suitable gamma-emitters of similar origin. The method is tested by statistical analysis on the waste data recorded from two Swedish nuclear power plants. As this method is not applicable for Carbon-14, this nuclide was measured directly in spent ion exchange resins from three Finnish and Swedish power plants. (author)

  7. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, Tor

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered

  8. Nuclides for radiotherapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, R.Y.; Blattmann, H.

    1986-02-01

    With the emergence of new, biological vehicles of great organ specificity (e.g. steroid hormones, antibodies) the concept of systemic tumor therapy with the aid of radiotherapeutica has gained new momentum. In order to assess the options open for optimal adaptation of the radiation properties to the pharmacocinetics of a vehicle, a search was done to identify potentially useful therapeutic radionuclides. Main criteria for selection were half life, low gamma-yield and stable daughter nuclide. The resulting possibilities fall into 4 categories: 1) alpha-emitters (At-211); 2) beta/sup -/-emitters that can be prepared in a carrierfree fashion (P-32, S-35, As-77, Y-90, Ag-111, Pm-149, Tb-161, Lu-177), 3) beta/sup -/-emitters with carrier added (Pd-109, Pr-142, Gd-159, Er-169, Tm-172, Yb-175, Re-188, Ir-194, Pt-197) and 4) electron capture nuclides, emitting Auger-cascades (Cr-51, Ga-67, Ge-71, Br-77, Ru-97, Sb-119, I-123, Cs-129, Nd-140, Er-165, Ta-177, Hg-197, Tl-201). Among the 4th group some well known, diagnostically used nuclides are found. Their therapeutic use necessitates the precise localisation in or very near the genetic material of the cell to be killed; only there the destructive power of the very short range Auger-electrons can be used. For each of the selected nuclides a summary of decay data, possibilities of preparation and chemical reactivity for labelling of vehicles is given. (author)

  9. Method of dissolving metal ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Masao; Soda, Yasuhiko; Kuroda, Sadaomi; Koga, Tadaaki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To dissolve and clean metal ruthenium deposited to the inner surface of a dissolving vessel for spent fuel rods. Method: Metal ruthenium is dissolved in a solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to which potassium permanganate is added. As the alkali metal hydroxide used herein there can be mentioned potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide can be mentioned, which is used as an aqueous solution from 5 to 20 % concentration in view of the solubility of metal ruthenium and economical merit. Further, potassium permanganate is used by adding to the solution of alkali metal hydroxide at a concentration of 1 to 5 %. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soti, Zsolt [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond [Nucleonica GmbH, c/o European Commission, Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  11. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  12. International chart of the nuclides. 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golashvili, T.V.; Kupriyanov, V.M.; Lbov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The International Chart of Nuclides - 2001 has been developed taking into account the data obtained in 1998-2001. Unlike widespread nuclide charts the present Chart of Nuclides contains EVALUATED values of the main characteristics. These values are supplied with the standard deviations. (author)

  13. Nuclides and isotopes. Twelfth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This explanatory booklet was designed to be used with the Chart of the Nuclides. It contains a brief history of the atomic theory of matter: ancient speculations, periodic properties of elements (Mendeleev table), radioactivity, early models of atomic structure, the Bohr atom, quantum numbers, nature of isotopes, artificial radioactivity, and neutron fission. Information on the pre-Fermi (natural) nuclear reactor at Oklo and the search for superheavy elements is given. The booklet also discusses information presented on the Chart and its coding: stable nuclides, metastable states, data display and color, isotopic abundances, neutron cross sections, spins and parities, fission yields, half-life variability, radioisotope power and production data, radioactive decay chains, and elements without names. The Periodic Table of the Elements is appended. 3 figures, 3 tables

  14. Ruthenium oxide resistors as sensitive elements of composite bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benassai, M.; Gallinaro, G.; Gatti, F.; Siri, S.; Vitale, S.

    1988-01-01

    Bolometers for particle detection made with Ruthenium oxide thermistors could be produced by means of a simple technique on a variety of different materials as substrata. Preliminary results on alpha particle detection with devices realized using commercial RuO 2 thick film resistor (Tfr) are considered positive for devices operating between. 3 and .1 k and determined us to pursue further the idea. Ruthenium oxide resistors on sapphire at the moment are being prepared. The behaviour of these devices st temperatures lower than .1 k has to be investigated in more detail

  15. The determination of critical nuclides in PWR waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    A current method for the determination of critical nuclides in the waste streams produced by a nuclear power reactor consists in applying correlation factors or scaling factors between those critical nuclides and so called key radionuclides, which can be easily measured and are representatives for the occurrence of activation products (Co-60) and fission products (Cs-137) in the waste streams. BELGATOM (BA) has developed a code (low level waste Activity Assessment-LLWAA code). The use of the code can clarify the analytical technique lower detection level that has to be achieved for each critical nuclide, in order to accurately measure it's activity in the different types of waste. (1 tab., 1 fig.)

  16. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  17. Thermodynamic behaviour of ruthenium at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, F.

    1988-01-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to determine the chemical speciation of ruthenium under postulated reactor accident conditions. The speciation of ruthenium is determined for various values of temperature, pressure, oxygen partial pressure and ruthenium concentration. The importance of these variables, in particular the oxygen partial pressure, in determining the volatility of ruthenium is clearly demonstrated in this report. Reliable thermodynamic data are required to determine the behaviour of ruthenium using equilibrium calculations. Therefore, it was necessary to compile a thermodynamic database for the ruthenium species that can be formed under reactor accident conditions. The origin of the thermodynamic data for the ruthenium species included in our calculations is discussed in detail in Appendix A. 23 refs

  18. Electro-volatilization of ruthenium in nitric medium: influences of ruthenium species nature and models solutions composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousset, F.

    2004-12-01

    Ruthenium is one of the fission products in the reprocessing of irradiated fuels that requires a specific processing management. Its elimination, upstream by the PUREX process, has been considered. A process, called electro-volatilization, which take advantage of the RuO 4 volatility, has been optimised in the present study. It consists in a continuous electrolysis of ruthenium solutions in order to generate RuO 4 species that is volatilized and easily trapped. This process goes to satisfying ruthenium elimination yields with RuNO(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) 2 synthetic solutions but not with fuel dissolution solutions. Consequently, this work consisted in the speciation studies of dissolved ruthenium species were carried out by simulating fuel solutions produced by hot acid attack of several ruthenium compounds (Ru(0), RuO 2 ,xH 2 O, polymetallic alloy). In parallel with dissolution kinetic studies, the determination of dissolved species was performed using voltammetry, spectrometry and spectro-electrochemistry. The results showed the co-existence of Ru(IV) and RuNO(NO 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 3 . Although these species are different from synthetic RuNO(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) 2 , their electro-oxidation behaviour are similar. The electro-volatilization tests of these dissolution solutions yielded to comparable results as the synthetic RuNO(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) 2 solutions. Then, complexity increase of models solutions was performed by in-situ generation of nitrous acid during ruthenium dissolution. Nitrous acid showed a catalytic effect on ruthenium dissolution. Its presence goes to quasi exclusively RuNO(NO 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 3 species. It is also responsible of the strong n-bond formation between Ru 2+ and NO + . In addition, it has been shown that its reducing action on RuO 4 hinders the electro-volatilization process. Mn 2+ and Ce 3+ cations also reveal, but to a lesser extent, an electro-eater behaviour as well as Pu 4+ and Cr 3+ according to the thermodynamics data. These results allow one to

  19. Measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Meteorites are rocks and pieces of iron-nickel alloy which fall to earth from time to time. They were formed about 4.6 billion years ago when our solar system was started. Thus it has been said that meteorites are the Rosetta stones of our solar system. We use the long-lived radioactive nuclides produced by cosmic ray bombardment, to study the history of the meteorites and also the history of the cosmic rays. When we have these historical facts in our hads, we hope we will be able to understand better how the solar system works, and how it got started. We can also learn more about the nature and origin of the cosmic rays. The accelerator mass spectrometry method helps not only reduce sample size, in most cases by two or three orders of magnitude, but opens another set of cosmogenic nuclides which have not been measured yet. Already 10 Be (t/sub 1/2 = 1.6 x 10 6 y), 36 Cl (3.0 x 10 5 y) and 129 I (1.6 x 10 7 y) in meteorites have been measured by accelerator mass spectrometry [3, 4, 7, 10]. Possible new candidates for measurement in extraterrestrial materials are 26 Al (7.2 x 10 5 y), 41 Ca (1.3 x 10 5 y), 60 Fe (approx. 10 5 y) and 59 Ni (7.6 x 10 4 y). We hope also to measure 146 Sm (1.0 x 10 8 y) and 92 Nb

  20. Cosmogenic nuclide production within the atmosphere and long period comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew C.

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays. These high energy particles collide with target nuclei, producing a shower of secondary particles. These secondaries contribute significantly to the radiation background at sea level and in the atmosphere, as well as producing rare cosmogenic nuclides. This contribution is variable over long time scales as astrophysical events change the cosmic ray flux incident on the Earth. Our work re-examines a previously proposed climate effect of increased cosmic ray flux due to galactic location. Although our work does not support this effect, cosmic ray secondaries remain a threat to terrestrial biota. We calculate the cosmogenic neutron flux within the atmosphere as a function of primary spectrum. This work is pivotal in determining the radiation dose due to any arbitrary astrophysical event where the primary spectrum is known. Additionally, this work can be used to determine the cosmogenic nuclide production from such an event. These neutrons are the fundamental source of cosmogenic nuclides within our atmosphere and extraterrestrial matter. We explore the idea that excursions in 14C and 10Be abundances in the atmosphere may arise from direct deposition by long-period comet impacts, and those in 26Al from any bolide. We find that the amount of nuclide mass on large long-period comets entering the Earth's atmosphere may be sufficient for creating anomalies in the records of 14C and 10Be from past impacts. In particular, the estimated mass of the proposed Younger Dryas comet is consistent with its having deposited sufficient isotopes to account for recorded nuclide increases at that time. The 26Al/10Be ratio is much larger in extraterrestrial objects than in the atmosphere, and so, we note that measuring this ratio in ice cores is a suitable further test for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis. This portion of our work may be used to find possible impact events in the geologic record as well as determination of a large

  1. Quantum chemical studies on electronic structure and photodynamics of ruthenium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, L.

    2015-01-01

    of a series of ruthenium polypyridyl photosensitisers and a hydrogen-producing catalyst is investigated. This thesis demonstrates the applicability of density functional and multiconfigurational methods to ruthenium complexes and provides examples of the ability of these methods to aid the rational design of functional molecules for solar light conversion, photocatalysis and photodynamic therapy. (author) [de

  2. Interaction of ruthenium (4) and osmium (4) with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzoxazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in the presence of edta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Ignat'eva, T.I.; Lomakina, L.N.

    1975-01-01

    Interaction of ruthenium (4) and osmium (4) with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2MBI), 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (2MBO) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2MBT) in the presence of EDTA was studied. The interaction of ruthenium (4) and osmium (4) with EDTA was constidered. Ruthenium complex is formed with constant output at 2-4.5 pH after 30 min.heating. In the lowacid solution (pH 2-4) osmium reacts with EDTA forming soluble compound. Characteristics of ruthenium (4) compound with 2MBI, 2MBO and 2MBT produced in the presence of EDTA are presented. Osmium (4) in the presence of EDTA and above mentioned organic reagents and when heating forms lowsoluble compounds. Possibility of joint determination of ruthenium and osmium with help of 2MBI in the presence of EDTA under conditions of minimum complexing osmium with EDTA was investigated

  3. Interaction of ruthenium (4) and osmium (4) with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzoxazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in the presence of EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busev, A I; Ignat' eva, T I; Lomakina, L N [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Analiticheskoj Khimii

    1975-05-01

    Interaction of ruthenium (4) and osmium (4) with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2MBI), 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (2MBO) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2MBT) in the presence of EDTA was studied. The interaction of ruthenium (4) and osmium (4) with EDTA was considered. Ruthenium complex is formed with constant output at 2-4.5 pH after 30 min. heating. In the low acid solution (pH 2-4) osmium reacts with EDTA forming soluble compound. Characteristics of ruthenium (4) compound with 2MBI, 2MBO and 2MBT produced in the presence of EDTA are presented. Osmium (4) in the presence of EDTA and above mentioned organic reagents and when heating forms low soluble compounds. Possibility of joint determination of ruthenium and osmium with help of 2MBI in the presence of EDTA under conditions of minimum complexing osmium with EDTA was investigated.

  4. Recommendation of ruthenium source for sludge batch flowsheet studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-13

    Included herein is a preliminary analysis of previously-generated data from sludge batches 7a, 7b, 8, and 9 sludge simulant and real-waste testing, performed to recommend a form of ruthenium for future sludge batch simulant testing under the nitric-formic flowsheet. Focus is given to reactions present in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank cycle, given that this cycle historically produces the most changes in chemical composition during Chemical Process Cell processing. Data is presented and analyzed for several runs performed under the nitric-formic flowsheet, with consideration given to effects on the production of hydrogen gas, nitrous oxide gas, consumption of formate, conversion of nitrite to nitrate, and the removal and recovery of mercury during processing. Additionally, a brief discussion is given to the effect of ruthenium source selection under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet. An analysis of data generated from scaled demonstration testing, sludge batch 9 qualification testing, and antifoam degradation testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is presented. Experimental parameters of interest under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet include N2O production, glycolate destruction, conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate, and the conversion of nitrite to nitrate. To date, the number of real-waste experiments that have been performed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is insufficient to provide a complete understanding of the effects of ruthenium source selection in simulant experiments with regard to fidelity to real-waste testing. Therefore, a determination of comparability between the two ruthenium sources as employed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is made based on available data in order to inform ruthenium source selection for future testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  5. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1987-01-01

    Many countries are presently concerned with problems relating to the safe disposal of nuclear waste containing various levels of transuranium nuclides. In this context, a review on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the environment studied at Kanazawa University in Japan is presented. About 17 years ago, a high degree of accumulation of 239 Pu in the surface soil of Nagasaki was found in the Nishiyama area, where 'black rain' occured just after the nuclear bomb explosion. The introduction of newly developed radiochemical methods and instrumentation has enabled studies to be carried out on environmental plutonium isotopes, americium-241 and more recently neptunium-237 with respect to distribution depth profile, variation with time and relationship with organic materials. Valuable information has been obtained on the basis of samples collected from various locations in Japan, including surface soil, sea and lake sediments, atmospheric aerosol, water from the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean, and from material related with the 'Bikini Event' of 1954. (orig.)

  6. Natural radio-nuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorin, O.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the presence of radio-nuclides in Switzerland's drinking water. The article describes research done into the natural radioactivity to be found in various drinking water samples taken from the public water supply in the Canton of Grisons in eastern Switzerland. The various natural nuclides to be expected are listed and the methods used to take the samples are described. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of sketches showing the geographical distribution of the nuclide samples. Diagrams of the cumulative frequency of the quantities of nuclides found are presented, as are such diagrams for the yearly radioactive doses that the population is exposed to. The results and their consequences for the water supply are discussed in detail and further investigations to be made in the region are proposed

  7. Radioactive nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kaoru; Hoshi, Michio.

    1993-09-01

    There are several radioactive nuclides in the living environment, such as those existing since the creation of the earth, those coming from experimental nuclear explosions, and radiations of the cosmic rays. A lesson on these radioactive nuclides was considered useful for understanding the place of nuclear technology, and have been made on the title of 'Radioactive Nuclides in the Living Environment' in the general course of the Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. When the curriculum of the general course was modified in 1993, the lesson was left in a changed form. Thus, the textbook of the lesson is presented in this report. The contents are natural and artificial radioactive nuclides in the living environment and where they have come from etc. (author)

  8. Electrochemical studies of ruthenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Ghosh, B.; Chakravorty, A.

    1989-01-01

    In many ways the chemistry of transition metals is the chemistry of multiple oxidation states and the associated redox phenomena. If a particular element were to be singeld out to illustrate this viewpoint, a model choice would be ruthenium - an element that is directly or indirectly the active centre of a plethora of redox phenomena encompassing ten different oxidation states and a breathtaking diversity of structure and bonding. In the present review the authors are primarily concerned with the oxidation states of certain ligands coordinated to ruthenium. This choice is deliberate since this is one area where the unique power of electrochemical methods is splendidly revealed. Without these methods, development in this area would have been greatly hampered. A brief summary of metal oxidation states is also included as a prelude to the main subject of this review. The authors have generally emphasize the information derived which is of chemical interest leaving the details of formal electrochemical arguments in the background. The authors have reviewed the pattern and systematics of ligand redox in ruthenium complexes. The synergistic combination of electrochemical and spectroscopic methods have vastly increased our understanding of ligand phenomena during the last 15 years or so. This in turn has led to better understanding and new developments in other fields. Photophysics and photochemistry could be cited as examples. (author). 176 refs.; 10 figs.; 10 tabs

  9. Solventless synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Peña, Nidia G. [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Redón, Rocío, E-mail: rredon@unam.mx [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Herrera-Gomez, Alberto [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico); Fernández-Osorio, Ana Leticia [FES-Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Bravo-Sanchez, Mariela; Gomez-Sosa, Gustavo [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of Ru nanoparticles by a cheap, fast and solventless approach was achieved. • The zero-valent state as well as the by-product/impurity free of the mechanochemical obtained Ru nanoparticles was proven by XPS, TEM and XRD. • Compared to two other synthesis strategies, the above-mentioned synthesis was more suitable to obtain smaller particles with fewer impurities in shorter time. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel solventless method for the synthesis of zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles Ru(0). The proposed method, although not entirely new in the nanomaterials world, was used for the first time to synthesize zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles. This new approach has proved to be an environmentally friendly, clean, cheap, fast, and reproducible technique which employs low amounts of solvent. It was optimized through varying amounts of reducing salt on a determined quantity of precursor and measuring the effect of this variation on the average particle size obtained. The resulting products were fully characterized by powder XRD, TEM, HR-TEM, and XPS studies, all of which corroborated the purity of the nanoparticles achieved. In order to verify the advantages of our method over other techniques, we compared our nanoparticles with two common colloidal-synthesized ruthenium nanoparticles.

  10. Local tissue distribution of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Conventional tissue-section autoradiography of alpha-emitting actinide elements may require prohibitively long exposure times. Neutron-induced or fission-track autoradiography can be used for fissile nuclides such as 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu to circumvent this difficulty. The detection limit for these nuclides is about 4 x 10 -13 (weight fraction). This paper describes a specific technique for determining their microdistribution with histologically stained tissue sections

  11. Separation of the noble metals ruthenium and palladium from nitric acid solution of the nuclear fuel reprocessing containing complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.

    1989-06-01

    Two extraction chromatographic techniques have been developed. N'N diethylthiourea (DETU), which forms complexes with ruthenium that can be retained on an AG50W-X2 ion exchanger, has proved to be a suitable reagent. The structures of these complexes were elucidated by electrophoresis, ion exchange and IR spectroscopy. Under the same conditions Pd forms an insoluble DETU-complex of the formula [Pd(DETU) 4 ] 2+ , which allows the separation of this metal quantitatively. With regard to the application of the developed technique for recovery of the mentioned noble metals from dissolver residues of the nuclear fuel reprocessing, comparative studies were carried out for accompanying fission product nuclides and actinides such as Mo, Tc, Zr, Ce, U and Pu. It was found out that no complex between diethylthiourea and the fission products zirconium, molybdenum and cerium and the actinides uranium, plutonium and americium were formed. Technetium, which was originally present as pertechnetate, is reduced to Tc(IV) and retained on the cation exchanger together with ruthenium. Ruthenium was eluted with 6 M HNO 3 . The efficiency of the developed process has been demonstrated with simulated solutions. The achieved decontamination factors ranged from 10 2 to 10 6 depending on the nuclide. (orig./RB) [de

  12. Calculated nuclide production yields in relativistic collisions of fissile nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Grewe, A.; Jong, M. de [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Zhdanov, S. [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1997-11-01

    A model calculation is presented which predicts the complex nuclide distribution resulting from peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions involving fissile nuclei. The model is based on a modern version of the abrasion-ablation model which describes the formation of excited prefragments due to the nuclear collisions and their consecutive decay. The competition between the evaporation of different light particles and fission is computed with an evaporation code which takes dissipative effects and the emission of intermediate-mass fragments into account. The nuclide distribution resulting from fission processes is treated by a semiempirical description which includes the excitation-energy dependent influence of nuclear shell effects and pairing correlations. The calculations of collisions between {sup 238}U and different reaction partners reveal that a huge number of isotopes of all elements up to uranium is produced. The complex nuclide distribution shows the characteristics of fragmentation, mass-asymmetric low-energy fission and mass-symmetric high-energy fission. The yields of the different components for different reaction partners are studied. Consequences for technical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  13. IR-doped ruthenium oxide catalyst for oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for preparing a metal-doped ruthenium oxide material by heating a mixture of a doping metal and a source of ruthenium under an inert atmosphere. In some embodiments, the doping metal is in the form of iridium black or lead powder, and the source of ruthenium is a powdered ruthenium oxide. An iridium-doped or lead-doped ruthenium oxide material can perform as an oxygen evolution catalyst and can be fabricated into electrodes for electrolysis cells.

  14. Nuclides 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides on CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Nuclides 2000' software package is an electronic chart of the nuclides, available on CD-ROM for Microsoft Windows operating systems, which offers extensive basic information on physics and radiology of the familiar nuclides. Moreover, 'Nuclides 2000' contains codes for a number of applications which allow the required data to be computed quickly and reliably by means of interactive user guidance. The data and codes are supplemented by information in the format of contributions on the history of radioactivity and radiochemistry, and on subjects of interest in physics, such as C-14 dating and the generation of Ti-44 in a supernova, and by a link collection of Internet addresses. As a detailed database, 'Nuclides 2000' can be used for teaching, research, and for practical applications. (orig.) [de

  15. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru

    1981-09-01

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3 He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  16. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnerlich, Markus; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Culver, James N.; Ketchum, Douglas R.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional micro-supercapacitor has been developed using a novel bottom-up assembly method combining genetically modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-1Cys), photolithographically defined micropillars and selective deposition of ruthenium oxide on multi-metallic microelectrodes. The three-dimensional microelectrodes consist of a titanium nitride current collector with two functionalized areas: (1) gold coating on the active electrode area promotes TMV-1Cys adhesion, and (2) sacrificial nickel pads dissolve in ruthenium tetroxide plating solution to produce ruthenium oxide on all electrically connected areas. The microfabricated electrodes are arranged in an interdigitated pattern, and the capacitance per electrode has been measured as high as 203 mF cm-2 with solid Nafion electrolyte. The process integration of bio-templated ruthenium oxide with microfabricated electrodes and solid electrolyte is an important advance towards the energy storage needs of mass produced self-sufficient micro-devices.

  17. Utilization of ruthenium volatilization at heating of residue containing phosphates and nitrates for ruthenium separation and for its qualitative proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The volatility of ruthenium during the heating of a residue after evaporation of a solution containing ruthenium, phosphates and nitrates may be utilized for the separation of ruthenium from various substances. Sup(103,106) Ru may be rapidly, selectively, and quantitatively separated from fission products mixture. Ruthenium may be also separated in this way from various inorganic salts or from biological material. The volatility of ruthenium may be used also for its qualitative proof. (author)

  18. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  19. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINN, R.; SCHLYER, D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical

  20. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  1. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1; Nuklidinventariet i SFR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered.

  2. Chart of the nuclides - Strasbourg 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Data were compiled for a nuclide chart over the last two years. The compilation is complete to the end of September 1990. The chart includes about 30000 data. Decay modes are represented by colours. Announcement capabilities and prices are given. (G.P.) 3 refs

  3. Recalculation of measured fuel nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and concentration ratios of heavy fuel nuclides determined in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research Rossendorf on the basis of destructive burnup measurements are compared with the results of microburnup calculations. The possibility is discussed to improve the results by taking into account the spectral characteristics at the positions of the measuring samples. (author)

  4. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  5. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  6. Interface behaviour and electrical performance of ruthenium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; Raman spectroscopy; oxidation; silicide; Schottky barrier diodes; ruthenium ... water and then dried with nitrogen gas before being loaded into the vacuum ... laser of wavelength 514.6 nm. Full I–V and ...

  7. Accelerator based production of fissile nuclides, threshold uranium price and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, D.; Knapp, V.

    1988-01-01

    Accelerator breeder system characteristics are considered in this work. One such system which produces fissile nuclides can supply several thermal reactors with fissile fuel, so this system becomes analogous to an uranium enrichment facility with difference that fissile nuclides are produced by conversion of U-238 rather than by separation from natural uranium. This concept, with other long-term perspective for fission technology on the basis of development only one simpler technology. The influence of basic system characteristics on threshold uranium price is examined. Conditions for economically acceptable production are established. (author)

  8. Estimation of very low concentrations of Ruthenium by spectrophotometric method using barbituric acid as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna Reddy, S.; Srinivasan, R.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method employing numerous chromogenic reagents like thiourea, 1,10-phenanthroline, thiocyanate and tropolone is reported in the literature for the estimation of very low concentrations of Ru. A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of ruthenium in the concentration range 1.5 to 6.5 ppm in the present work. This method is based on the reaction of ruthenium with barbituric acid to produce ruthenium(ll)tris-violurate, (Ru(H 2 Va) 3 ) -1 complex which gives a stable deep-red coloured solution. The maximum absorption of the complex is at 491 nm due to the inverted t 2g → Π(L-L ligand) electron - transfer transition. The molar absorptivity of the coloured species is 9,851 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1

  9. NON-CONVENTIONAL PET NUCLIDES: PRODUCTION AND IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical cyclotrons are now commonly used for the production of PET nuclides by the (pn) reaction. These devices are typically capable of delivering 10-15 MeV protons beams at sufficiently high intensity for timely production of β+ decaying nuclides. Non-conventional PET nuclides have emerged recently and offers new opportunities for diagnostic and therapy drug discovery. In this paper, we will review the production capabilities for such nuclides at Washington University Medical Schoo...

  10. Ruthenium (4) and ruthenium (3) state in hydrochloric acid solutions under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A.V.; Kuz'min, N.M.; Nesterov, A.A.; Runov, V.K.

    2000-01-01

    Reactions of hydration, poly- and depolymerization, oxidation-reduction processes with ruthenium (4) and ruthenium (3) participation are investigated in hydrochloric acid solutions under microwave irradiation by the methods of molecular absorption spectroscopy in UV visible region taking K 4 [Ru 2 OCl 10 ] as an example. Content of state forms of ruthenium (4) and ruthenium (3), absorption characteristics of forming complexes are calculated. Variation of microwave irradiation parameters and HCl concentration permits to prepare solutions containing [RuCl 6 ] 2+ (95 %) and [(RuOH) 2 (H 2 O) 6 (OH) 2 ] 4+ (98 %) preeminently predominant forms. The role of microwave effect directly is established taking as an example the process of ruthenium (4) hydration [ru

  11. Highly dispersed supported ruthenium oxide as an aerobic catalyst for acetic acid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Gorbanev, Yury; Cavalca, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for shifting to renewable feedstocks in the chemical industry has driven research toward using green aerobic, selective oxidation reactions to produce bulk chemicals. Here, we report the use of a ruthenium mixed oxide/hydroxide (RuOx) on different support materials for the sel...

  12. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-01-01

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 97 Mo, and 90 Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the 99 Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup

  13. Cyclotron production of ruthenium-97 for radiopharmaceutical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Gessner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is of interest for clinical practice in nuclear medicine. The combination of the excellent physical and chemical properties of Ruthenium-97 make this isotope worth evaluating. Ruthenium-97 has been prepared by irradiation of a sheet of molybdenum with the internal alpha-beam of the Ruthenium-97 as a function of the alpha particle energy has been measured. The radiochemical separation and its possible clinical applications have been discussed. (author)

  14. Overview of Task 4 nuclide transport data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A multi-year program plan is presented to collect the necessary data on nuclide sorption-desorption interactions with geologic media. Detailed activities which need to be performed in each of the six subtasks are described. The general areas in which each subcontractor performed work in FY 77 were presented in the overview. Detailed technical discussions of each subcontractor's work will be presented in ensuing presentations

  15. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  16. Apparatus for eliminating electrodeposition of radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Ichiro; Ishibe, Tadao; Matsunaga, Masaaki; Konuki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Minoru; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional device for eliminating by radioactive nuclides electrodeposition, a liquid containing radioactive nuclides is electrolyzed under a presence of non-radioactive heavy metals and removing radioactive nuclides by electrodepositing them together with the heavy metals. Two anode plates are opposed in an electrolysis vessel of this device. A plurality (4 to 6) of cathode plates are arranged between the anodes in parallel with them and the cathode surfaces opposed to the anodes are insulated. Further, such a plurality of cathode plates are grouped into respective units. Alternatively, the anode plate is made of platinum-plated titanium material and the cathode plate is made of stainless steel. In the thus constituted electrodeposition eliminating device, since the cathode surface directed to the anodes on both ends are insulated, all of electric current from the anode reach the core cathode after flowing around the cathodes at both ends. As a result, there is no substantial difference in the flowing length of the electrolyzing current to each of the cathodes and these is neither difference in the electrodeposition amount. The electrodeposited products are adhered uniformly and densely to the electrodes and, simultaneously, Co-60 and Mn-54, etc. are also electrodeposited. (I.S.)

  17. Analysis of uranium and its compounds. Ruthenium spectrographic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Ruthenium determination in uranium and its compounds, suitable for content greater than 0.1 ppm with respect to uranium, by dissolution in sulfuric acid and addition of palladium as an internal standard, separation of the precipitated ruthenium, in the presence of gold, by reduction with zinc, the precipitate is calcined and ruthenium is determined by spectrography [fr

  18. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.; Kunz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for 239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed delayed neutrons

  19. Production and Separation of T = 1/2 Nuclides for {beta}--{nu} angular correlation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P.; Bajeat, O.; Saint Laurent, M. G.; Thomas, J. C.; Traykov, E. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Couratin, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Lienard, E.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [NSCL, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); Stora, T. [ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Collaboration: GANISOL Group

    2011-11-30

    The SPIRAL facility at GANIL, which uses the so-called ISOL method to produce radioactive ion beams, is being upgraded to extend its production capabilities to the metallic beams of neutron deficient isotopes. We discuss here the potentialities offered by this upgrade for the measurement of the {beta}--{nu} angular correlation in the {beta}--decay of mirror nuclides.

  20. Standards of compounds labeled with positron nuclides approved as established techniques for medical use (2001 revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The subcommittee on Medical Application of Cyclotron-Produced Radionuclides, Medical Science and Pharmaceutical Committee, Japan Radioisotope Association, revised the Standards in the title for their manufacturing, quality, manufacturing work environment etc. The facilities must have the individual committee for the organization and its responsibility is for the control and hygiene in manufacturing the nuclides, for the quality control and for the medical use. Based on this, the Standard defined such pharmaceutical items as the general rule; gas agents and injection formulations; test methods involving γ-ray measurement including spectrometry and derived determination, determination with well-type scintillation counter and ionization chamber, method to measure half-time and determination of the nuclide purity; individual definition of [ 18 F]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 15 O gas and 15 O-carbon monoxide and 15 O-carbon dioxide; and guideline of manufacturing the nuclides and its environment involving monitoring and records. (K.H.)

  1. Method of suppressing evaporation loss of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muromura, Tadazumi; Sato, Tadashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporation loss of ruthenium from liquid wastes by adding an aluminum compound upon applying evaporating and drying to solid treatment to reprocessing liquid wastes for spent fuels. Method: An aluminum compound such as aluminum nitrate or aluminum hydroxide to reprocessing liquid wastes of spent fuels such that aluminum/ruthenium mixing ratio corresponds to 1.3 - 70.0 by g/atom ratio (0.34 - 187 by weight ratio), and the liquid mixture is heated to a temperature of about 130 deg C to be evaporated and dried to solidness. This enables to recover ruthenium without settling and depositing insoluble matters in the liquid wastes and without decomposing nitric acid. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Adsorption of aliphatic alcohols on ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, L.B.; Zakumbaeva, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption is studied of allyl-, propyl- and propargyl alcohols on a ruthenium catalyst-electrode at 20, 30 and 40 deg C in H 2 SO 4 in helium. Above adsorption has been found to grow with increased concentration of the alcohols in the solution. In solutions with the same concentration, propargyl alcohol has been noted to show highest sorptive capacity, followed by that of allyl- and propyl alcohols. With variations in the ruthenium electrode potential, alcohol adsorption occurs via maximum at potential = 0.18

  3. Processing of radioactive ruthenium with aluminosilicate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takuji; Ichinose, Yasuhiro; Ito, Katsuo

    1979-01-01

    Coprecipitation of radioactive Ru with hydroxides has been studied for the purpose of the management of the high level waste from the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Aluminosilicate gel used as coprecipitant was prepared by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide to sodium aluminate-sodium silicate solution containing ruthenium nitrate. Ruthenium quantitatively precipitates under the conditions, aluminate > 4 x 10 -2 M, Al/Si 0 C. However, volatilization rate of Ru is suppressed by coating with mullite phase into which aluminosilicate gel transformes above 900 0 C. The amount of Ru volatilized in Ar-flow was reduced to about 10% of that in air-flow. (author)

  4. Nuclide-specific monitoring of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.; Neu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the end of the seventies the Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg ist operating two radioaerosol monitoring stations at the border in the opposite of foreign nuclear power plants. Since the end of the eighties six similar monitoring stations were built up for measuring activity in breathing air in the common environment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A special filtersystem allows measuring the activity concentration of up to 99 nuclides. The measuring system was optimized by advanced PC-technology, a multitasking operating system and a special software for users and gamma-spectroscopy. These increased the average availability of all monitoring stations to 96% in 1996. (orig.) [de

  5. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented

  6. Behavior of nuclides at plasma melting of TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Adachi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Arc plasma heating technique can easily be formed at super high temperature, and can carry out stable heating without any effect of physical and chemical properties of the wastes. By focussing to these characteristics, this technique was experimentally investigated on behavior of TRU nuclides when applying TRU wastes forming from reprocessing process of used fuels to melting treatment by using a mimic non-radioactive nuclide. At first, according to mechanism determining the behavior of TRU nuclides, an element (mimic nuclide) to estimate the behavior was selected. And then, to zircaloy with high melting point or steel can simulated to metal and noncombustible wastes and fly ash, the mimic nuclide was added, prior to melting by using the arc plasma heating technique. As a result, on a case of either melting sample, it was elucidated that the nuclides hardly moved into their dusts. Then, the technique seems to be applicable for melting treatment of the TRU wastes. (G.K.)

  7. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki.

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ( 19 F+ 209 Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient 228 U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by 19 F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous γ-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  8. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ({sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient {sup 228}U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by {sup 19}F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous {gamma}-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  9. Ruthenium nanocatalysis on redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Pitchaimani; Ramdass, Arumugam; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2013-07-01

    Nanoparticles have generated intense interest over the past 20 years due to their high potential applications in different areas such as catalysis, sensors, nanoscale electronics, fuel and solar cells and optoelectronics. As the large fractions of metal atoms are exposed to the surface, the use of metal nanoparticles as nanocatalysts allows mild reaction conditions and high catalytic efficiency in a large number of chemical transformations. They have emerged as sustainable heterogeneous catalysts and catalyst supports alternative to conventional materials. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterization and catalytic role of ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) on the redox reactions of heteroatom containing organic compounds with the green reagent H2O2, a field that has attracted immense interest among the chemical, materials and industrial communities. We intend to present a broad overview of Ru nanocatalysts for redox reactions with an emphasis on their performance, stability and reusability. The growth in the chemistry of organic sulfoxides and N-oxides during last decade was due to their importance as synthetic intermediates for the production of a wide range of chemically and biologically active molecules. Thus design of efficient methods for the synthesis of sulfoxides and N-oxides becomes important. This review concentrates on the catalysis of RuNPs on the H2O2 oxidation of organic sulfides to sulfoxides and amines to N-oxides. The deoxygenation reactions of sulfoxides to sulfides and reduction of nitro compounds to amines are fundamental reactions in both chemistry and biology. Here, we also highlight the catalysis of metal nanoparticles on the deoxygenation of sulfoxides and sulfones and reduction of nitro compounds with particular emphasis on the mechanistic aspects.

  10. Nuclide transfer test device in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The device comprises a pressure-proof vessel having a perforated port, a compression vessel having a sample-containing chamber with circumferential walls having a plurality of small holes being gastightly engaged to the perforated port, a mechanically pressurizing means for vertically compressing the compression chamber, a pressurizing gas supply system for supplying a pressurizing gas to compress the soil specimen in a lateral direction and a sample water-supply system for supplying sample water to the sample containing chamber. The soil sample is pressurized so that the sample water is caused to permeate by isotropic pressure due to equilibrium of vertical compression by mechanical force and lateral compression by the pressurizing gas. The transfer state of radioactive nuclides in the soil can be tested easily in a state where the sample water is caused to permeate in a vertical direction in parallel, to simulate an actual processing circumstance. Namely, since the sample water is caused to permeate to the soil sample in the pressure-proof vessel, a desired test can easily be conducted in a restricted space without undergoing influences of the kind and the dose rate of the radioactive nuclides. (N.H.)

  11. Structure and reactivity of Ruthenium nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, Jeppe; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for obtaining detailed structural information of ruthenium nanoparticles in at least the diameter range from 1.5 to 5 nm. The method is based on an ensemble approach where a large number of low-energy structures are collected in an ensemble, from which average properties can...

  12. Thermodynamic properties of gaseous ruthenium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miradji, Faoulat; Souvi, Sidi; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent; Vallet, Valérie

    2015-05-21

    The review of thermodynamic data of ruthenium oxides reveals large uncertainties in some of the standard enthalpies of formation, motivating the use of high-level relativistic correlated quantum chemical methods to reduce the level of discrepancies. The reaction energies leading to the formation of ruthenium oxides RuO, RuO2, RuO3, and RuO4 have been calculated for a series of reactions. The combination of different quantum chemical methods has been investigated [DFT, CASSCF, MRCI, CASPT2, CCSD(T)] in order to predict the geometrical parameters, the energetics including electronic correlation and spin-orbit coupling. The most suitable method for ruthenium compounds is the use of TPSSh-5%HF for geometry optimization, followed by CCSD(T) with complete basis set (CBS) extrapolations for the calculation of the total electronic energies. SO-CASSCF seems to be accurate enough to estimate spin-orbit coupling contributions to the ground-state electronic energies. This methodology yields very accurate standard enthalpies of formations of all species, which are either in excellent agreement with the most reliable experimental data or provide an improved estimate for the others. These new data will be implemented in the thermodynamical databases that are used by the ASTEC code (accident source term evaluation code) to build models of ruthenium chemistry behavior in severe nuclear accident conditions. The paper also discusses the nature of the chemical bonds both from molecular orbital and topological view points.

  13. Enyne Metathesis Catalyzed by Ruthenium Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Enyne metathesis combines an alkene and an alkyne into a 1,3-diene. The first enyne metathesis reaction catalyzed by a ruthenium carbene complex was reported in 1994. This review covers the advances in this transformation during the last eight years with particular emphasis on methodology...

  14. Support Effect in Hydrodesulfurization over Ruthenium Sulfide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gulková, Daniela; Kaluža, Luděk; Vít, Zdeněk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2009), s. 146-149 ISSN 1337-7027 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/06/0705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ruthenium sulfide * hydrodesulfurization * support effect Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  15. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-01-01

    the composition of the produced material at A = 99. It has been shown that the mass of 99 Cd strongly affects the A = 99 production in an X-ray burst model, and that uncertainties have been significantly reduced from more than an order of magnitude to about a factor of 3. The dominant source of uncertainty is now the mass of 100 In. In principle, other uncertainties will also contribute. These include those of masses of lighter Cd isotopes, where similar rp-process branchpoints occur and which might affect feeding into the 99 Cd branchpoint. In addition, nuclear reaction rate uncertainties will also play a role. However, as reaction rates affect branchings in a linear fashion, while mass differences enter exponentially, mass uncertainties will tend to dominate [Sch06]. Also, which reaction rates are important depends largely on nuclear masses. For example, for low S p ( 100 In) a (p,γ)-(γ,p) equilibrium will be established between 99 Cd and 100 In and the 100 In(p,γ) reaction rate would affect the A = 99 production, while for larger S p ( 100 In) the 99 Cd(p,γ) reaction rate might be more relevant. Therefore, the mass uncertainties should be addressed first. Once they are under control, further improvements might be possible by constraining proton capture rates. The presented results are relevant for any rp-process scenario with a reaction flow through the 99 Cd region. Here, an X-ray burst model has been used to investigate in detail the impact of the present measurements on such an rp process. The νp process in core collapse supernovae might be another possible scenario for an rp process in the 99 Cd region. It it is planed to also explore whether in that case mass uncertainties have a similar impact on the final composition. On the neutron-rich side of the valley of stability for the Cd and Ag chains of nuclides, the r process has not yet been reached. Further technical development on suppression of contaminants are required. This includes improvements on the

  16. Ruthenium transport experiments in air ingress accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teemu, Karkele; Ulrika, Backman; Ari, Auvinen; Unto, Tapper; Jorma, Jokiniemi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fine Particles (Finland); Riitta, Zilliacus; Maija, Lipponen; Tommi, Kekki [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Accident Management (Finland); Jorma, Jokiniemi [Kuopio Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Lab. (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    In this study the release, transport and speciation of ruthenium in conditions simulating an air ingress accident was studied. Ruthenium dioxide was exposed to oxidising environment at high temperature (1100-1700 K) in a tubular flow furnace. At these conditions volatile ruthenium species were formed. A large fraction of the released ruthenium was deposited in the tube as RuO{sub 2}. Depending on the experimental conditions 1-26 wt% of the released ruthenium was trapped in the outlet filter as RuO{sub 2} particles. In stainless steel tube 0-8.8 wt% of the released ruthenium reached the trapping bottle as gaseous RuO{sub 4}. A few experiments were carried out, in which revaporization of ruthenium deposited on the tube walls was studied. In these experiments, oxidation of RuO{sub 2} took place at a lower temperature. During revaporization experiments 35-65 % of ruthenium was transported as gaseous RuO{sub 4}. In order to close mass balance and achieve better time resolution 4 experiments were carried out using a radioactive tracer. In these experiments ruthenium profiles were measured. These experiments showed that the most important retention mechanism was decomposition of gaseous RuO{sub 3} into RuO{sub 2} as the temperature of the furnace was decreasing. In these experiments the transport rate of gaseous ruthenium was decreasing while the release rate was constant.

  17. Increased electrochemical properties of ruthenium oxide and graphene/ruthenium oxide hybrid dispersed by polyvinylpyrrolidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yao; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Dacheng; Ma, Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A good dispersion of RuO 2 and graphene/RuO 2 is obtained by polyvinylpyrrolidone. ► PVP as a dispersant also can prevent the formation of metal Ru in graphene/RuO 2 . ► The max capacitances of the hybrid and RuO 2 reach 435 and 597 F g −1 at 0.2 A g −1 . ► The hybrid shows the best rate capability of 39% at 50 A g −1 . - Abstract: Ruthenium oxide has been prepared by a sol–gel method. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an excellent polymeric dispersant is adopted to prevent aggregation of ruthenium oxide. In order to enhance the rate capability of ruthenium oxide, graphene with residual oxygen functional groups as a 2D support has been merged into ruthenium oxide. These oxygen functional groups not only favor to form stable few layers of graphene colloids, but also offer the sites to anchor ruthenium oxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction infers that PVP can also hinder the partial formation of Ru by blocking the direct contact between the Ru 3+ and the graphene in the sol–gel synthesis of the hybrids. The ruthenium oxide and the graphene/ruthenium oxide hybrids dispersed by PVP have superior electrochemical properties due to good dispersing and protecting ability of PVP. Especially, the hybrids using PVP exhibit the best rate capability, indicating that the composites possess an advanced structure of combining sheets and particles in nano-scale.

  18. Modelling indoor exposure to natural radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Daschil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Radon enters buildings from several sources primarily from building materials and from the soil or rocks that underlie or surround building fundaments. A multicompartment model was developed which describes the fate of radon and attached or free radon decay products in a model room by a set of linear time-dependent differential equations. Time-dependent coefficients allow to model temporal parameter changes, e.g. the opening of windows, or a sudden pressure drop leading to enhanced exhalation. While steady-state models were used to study the effect of parameter changes on steady state nuclide concentrations, the time-dependent models provided additional information on the time scale of these changes. (author)

  19. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in soils: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Fowler, E.B.

    1976-01-01

    The literature is reviewed to ascertain the degree of movement and the distribution patterns for transuranic and uranium nuclides in soils. Typical plutonium and uranium profiles are presented and an attempt is made to identify unique characteristics causing deviation from an ideal distribution pattern. By far most of the distribution observations are with plutonium and little is reported for uranium and other transuranic nuclides

  20. Contribution to the study of ruthenium fluorides, oxyfluorides and oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, Odile.

    1982-08-01

    Studies on the dry processing of spent fuels reveal a poor ruthenium decontamination of plutonium. For a better understanding of this result a study of ruthenium fluorides, oxyfluorides and oxides is carried out here as follows: - bibliographical review; - thermochromatographic identification of the number and nature of compounds formed by fluorination of microquantities of ruthenium; - confirmation of the thermochromatographic results by two other analytical methods: thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy [fr

  1. In-situ XPS analysis of oxidized and reduced plasma deposited ruthenium-based thin catalytic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, Jacek; Redzynia, Wiktor; Tyczkowski, Jacek

    2017-12-01

    A novel in-situ study of the surface molecular structure of catalytically active ruthenium-based films subjected to the oxidation (in oxygen) and reduction (in hydrogen) was performed in a Cat-Cell reactor combined with a XPS spectrometer. The films were produced by the plasma deposition method (PEMOCVD). It was found that the films contained ruthenium at different oxidation states: metallic (Ru0), RuO2 (Ru+4), and other RuOx (Ru+x), of which content could be changed by the oxidation or reduction, depending on the process temperature. These results allow to predict the behavior of the Ru-based catalysts in different redox environments.

  2. Accelerator based production of fissile nuclides, threshold uranium price and perspectives; Akceleratorska proizvodnja fisibilnih nuklida, granicna cijena urana i perspektive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, D [INIS-Inzenjering, Sarajevo (Yugoslavia); Knapp, V [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Accelerator breeder system characteristics are considered in this work. One such system which produces fissile nuclides can supply several thermal reactors with fissile fuel, so this system becomes analogous to an uranium enrichment facility with difference that fissile nuclides are produced by conversion of U-238 rather than by separation from natural uranium. This concept, with other long-term perspective for fission technology on the basis of development only one simpler technology. The influence of basic system characteristics on threshold uranium price is examined. Conditions for economically acceptable production are established. (author)

  3. Ruthenium-catalysed decomposition of formic acid: Fuel cell and catalytic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Piola, Lorenzo

    2017-08-08

    The decomposition of formic acid into H2 and CO2 was successfully performed using a ruthenium hydride catalyst, without any concomitant CO evolution. The reaction mechanism is investigated by means of density functional theory calculations (DFT). The generated H2 was further exploited in a fuel cell to produce electricity. The catalytic hydrogenation of conjugated olefins, using this dihydrogen generation procedure, is also reported.

  4. Ruthenium-catalysed decomposition of formic acid: Fuel cell and catalytic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Piola, Lorenzo; Ferná ndez-Salas, José A.; Nahra, Fady; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Nolan, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    The decomposition of formic acid into H2 and CO2 was successfully performed using a ruthenium hydride catalyst, without any concomitant CO evolution. The reaction mechanism is investigated by means of density functional theory calculations (DFT). The generated H2 was further exploited in a fuel cell to produce electricity. The catalytic hydrogenation of conjugated olefins, using this dihydrogen generation procedure, is also reported.

  5. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ritwika; Hazari, Arijit Singha; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar; Maiti, Debabrata

    2018-01-18

    Amine oxidation is one of the fundamental reactions in organic synthesis as it leads to a variety of value-added products such as oximes, nitriles, imines, and amides among many others. These products comprise the key N-containing building blocks in the modern chemical industry, and such transformations, when achieved in the presence of molecular oxygen without using stoichiometric oxidants, are much preferred as they circumvent the production of unwanted wastes. In parallel, the versatility of ruthenium catalysts in various oxidative transformations is well-documented. Herein, this review focuses on aerobic oxidation of amines specifically by using ruthenium catalysts and highlights the major achievements in this direction and challenges that still need to be addressed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cosmogenic nuclides principles, concepts and applications in the earth surface sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dunai, Tibor J

    2010-01-01

    This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and...

  7. Light nuclides observed in the fission and fragmentation of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Schmidt, K.H.; Benlliure, J.

    2001-05-01

    Light nuclides produced in collisions of 1 A.GeV 238 U with protons and titanium have been fully identified with a high-resolution forward magnetic spectrometer, the fragment separator (FRS), at GSI, and for each nuclide an extremely precise determination of the velocity has been performed. The so-obtained information on the velocity shows that the very asymmetric fission of uranium, in the 238 U + p reaction, produces neutron-rich isotopes of elements down to around charge 10. New important features of the fragmentation of 238 U, concerning the velocity and the N/Z-ratio of these light fragments, and a peculiar even-odd structure in N=Z nuclei, have also been observed. (orig.)

  8. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  9. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  10. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  11. Characterization of self-assembled monolayers on a ruthenium surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaheen, Amrozia; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Ricciardi, R.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    We have modified and stabilized the ruthenium surface by depositing a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 1-hexadecanethiol on a polycrystalline ruthenium thin film. The growth mechanism, dynamics, and stability of these monolayers were studied. SAMs, deposited under ambient conditions, on

  12. Application of the chemical properties of ruthenium to decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, A.; Berger, D.

    1965-01-01

    The chemical properties of ruthenium in the form of an aqueous solution of the nitrate and of organic tributylphosphate solution are reviewed. From this data, some known examples are given: they demonstrate the processes of separation or of elimination of ruthenium from radioactive waste. (authors) [fr

  13. Volatilization and trapping of ruthenium in high temperature processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Weyers, C.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This experimental study has indicated the importance of moisture and NO/sub x/ vapors on the volatility and trapping conditions of ruthenium in high temperature processes. Also the process operating conditions have a great influence on the ruthenium behavior in the off-gas purification units. Of particular interest is the observation that the ruthenium release during direct vitrification of simulated high-level liquid waste is a factor of about 5 smaller than the ruthenium release during calcination of this type of waste. Moreover, in the direct vitrification case the ruthenium escapes mostly in the form of an aerosol whereas in the calcination case a volatile ruthenium compound is dominating. Consequently, a specific ruthenium filter is not needed in the off-gas line of a direct vitrifier simplifying in this way the number of units in this off-gas line and avoiding the handling and controlling problems of such a ruthenium filter. In the future, a similar program will be started on the volatility of cesium and antimony in a liquid fed melter and on the technical reliability of the liquid fed melter and its associated gas purification units on a semi-pilote scale under simulated conditions

  14. The biokinetics of ruthenium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of ruthenium (Ru) in the human body is of interest due mainly to the potential for occupational or environmental exposure to 106Ru (T1/2 = 373.6 d) and 103Ru (T1/2 = 39.3 d), which typically represent a significant portion of the fission products in a reactor inventory. During reactor operations or nuclear fuel reprocessing these ruthenium isotopes may be present as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) vapor, a highly mobile form of ruthenium that has been involved in a number of cases of accidental exposure to 106Ru or 103Ru. This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for ruthenium and proposes a new respiratory model for inhaled RuO4 vapor, a new biokinetic for systemic (absorbed) ruthenium, and material-specific gastrointestinal absorption fractions for ruthenium. The proposed respiratory model for RuO4 differs from the current ICRP model mainly in that it depicts slower clearance of deposited activity from the respiratory tract and lower absorption to blood than depicted in the current ICRP model. The proposed systemic biokinetic model depicts more realistic paths of movement of absorbed ruthenium in the body than the current ICRP model and, in contrast to the present model, a less uniform distribution of systemic activity. Implications of the proposed models with regard to inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients for 106Ru are examined.

  15. Determination and declaration of critical nuclide inventories in Belgian NPP radwaste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, A.; Centner, B.; Beguin, P.; Mannaerts, K.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear power plants (NPPs) managed by ELECTRABEL are located at the Doel (4 units) and the Tihange (3 units) sites and have a total capacity of 5700 MW(e). All the units are of the PWR type. Taking into account the need for retrievability and reliability of all requested waste data, the operator ELECTRABEL has subcontracted a complete study to the engineering company TRACTEBEL ENERGY ENGINEERING (TEE) in order to elaborate a computer code for the determination of critical nuclides in the different waste streams. This program should guarantee retrievability and reliability of all information related to the waste packages produced at the NPP. Two computer codes, LLWAA and DECL, have therefore been developed by TEE. The first code (LLWAA: low level waste activity assessment code), enables to predict the global inventories and/or the scaling factors of the critical nuclides in the conditioned and in the non-conditioned waste generated by the operation of a PWR. This code is site-specific as it takes into account the plant design characteristics and operating conditions. A version for BWR plants is under development. The second code 'DECL', deals mainly with the complete database management of each waste package produced in order to guarantee full retrievability. LLWAA and DECL are implemented as an integrated software package called 'DECLARE' at the sites of Doel and Tihange. Furthermore, the LLWAA-code has been extended for the determination of the critical nuclides activities in ashes produced by incineration (LLWAA-Ashes) and for the assessment of the critical nuclides activities deposited on equipment of the nuclear auxiliary systems (LLWAA-Decom). (author)

  16. Square chart of nuclides with the best coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuying

    2001-01-01

    It analyzes upper limiting feature of even Z=60-82 in different charts of nuclides. It has illustrated that the break line of upper limiting Z=60-82 in the chart of nucleus with proton number Z and neutron number N, parameters Z and H (=N-Z), two new parameters S(=2Z-N) and H, and parameters K (=S-H) and H, in proper order, it shows that the break line trends from the left lower to the right upper, the line alternates with horizontal and vertical, and the line trends from the right lower to the left upper. Here it finds that the square chart of nuclides places the middle among these charts. It shows that nuclei distribution is concentrated, so are scope of whole region of nuclides in the different charts of nuclides

  17. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste

  18. Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance

  19. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and γ ray spectrum. FPGS90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting γ ray and β ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted γ ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library 'JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -', which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author)

  20. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and {gamma} ray spectrum. FPGS90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting {gamma} ray and {beta} ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted {gamma} ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library `JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -`, which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author).

  1. The method study for nuclide analysis of waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The principle of waste drum nuclide analysis system and the principle of the detector chosen are introduced. The linear attenuation coefficient and mass attenuation coefficient of five environmental medium (water, soil, red brick, concrete and sands) have been measured with γ transmission method simulative equipment. The absorption coefficient and nuclide activity of three measuring conditions (collimation-columnar source, un-collimation-columnar source, and un-collimation-rotation-drum source) have been calculated

  2. Catalogue of gamma rays from radionuclides ordered by nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, L.P.; Andersson, P.; Sheppard, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    A catalogue of about 28500 gamma-ray energies from 2338 radionuclides is presented. The nuclides are listed in order of increasing (A,Z) of the daughter nuclide. In addition the gamma-ray intensity per 100 decays of the parent (if known) and the decay half-life are given. All data are from a computer processing of a recent ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) file. (authors)

  3. [The fate of nuclides in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented

  4. Librarian driven analysis with graphic user interface for nuclides quantification by gamma spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashov, V.S. E-mail: vlkondra@cdrewu.edu; Rothenberg, S.J.; Petersone, I

    2001-09-11

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma-ray line(s). An a priori determined list of nuclides is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of the database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma-ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma-energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by ICRP.

  5. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  6. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  7. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    the rp process that will enable a more reliable determination of the composition of the produced material at A = 99. It has been shown that the mass of {sup 99}Cd strongly affects the A = 99 production in an X-ray burst model, and that uncertainties have been significantly reduced from more than an order of magnitude to about a factor of 3. The dominant source of uncertainty is now the mass of {sup 100}In. In principle, other uncertainties will also contribute. These include those of masses of lighter Cd isotopes, where similar rp-process branchpoints occur and which might affect feeding into the {sup 99}Cd branchpoint. In addition, nuclear reaction rate uncertainties will also play a role. However, as reaction rates affect branchings in a linear fashion, while mass differences enter exponentially, mass uncertainties will tend to dominate [Sch06]. Also, which reaction rates are important depends largely on nuclear masses. For example, for low S{sub p}({sup 100}In) a (p,{gamma})-({gamma},p) equilibrium will be established between {sup 99}Cd and {sup 100}In and the {sup 100}In(p,{gamma}) reaction rate would affect the A = 99 production, while for larger S{sub p}({sup 100}In) the {sup 99}Cd(p,{gamma}) reaction rate might be more relevant. Therefore, the mass uncertainties should be addressed first. Once they are under control, further improvements might be possible by constraining proton capture rates. The presented results are relevant for any rp-process scenario with a reaction flow through the {sup 99}Cd region. Here, an X-ray burst model has been used to investigate in detail the impact of the present measurements on such an rp process. The {nu}p process in core collapse supernovae might be another possible scenario for an rp process in the {sup 99}Cd region. It it is planed to also explore whether in that case mass uncertainties have a similar impact on the final composition. On the neutron-rich side of the valley of stability for the Cd and Ag chains of nuclides

  8. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  9. Experiments on the behaviour of ruthenium in air ingress accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Backman, Ul; Auvinen, A.; Zilliacus, R.; Lipponen, M.; Kekki, T.; Tapper, U.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2007-03-01

    During routine nuclear reactor operation, ruthenium will accumulate in the fuel in relatively high concentrations. In a severe accident in a nuclear power plant it is possible that air gets into contact with the reactor core. In this case ruthenium may oxidise and form volatile ruthenium species, RuO3 and RuO4, which can be transported into the containment. In order to estimate the amount of gaseous ruthenium species, it is of interest to know, how they are formed and how they behave. In our experiments the formation and transport of volatile ruthenium oxides was studied by exposing RuO2 powder to diverse oxidising atmospheres at a relatively high temperature. Transport of gaseous RuO4 was further investigated by injecting it into the facility in similar conditions. Upon cooling of the gas flow RuO2 aerosol particles were formed in the system. They were removed from the gas stream with plane filters. Gaseous ruthenium species were trapped in 1M NaOH-water solution, which is capable of trapping RuO4 totally. Ruthenium in the solution was filtered for analysis. The determination of ruthenium both in aerosol and in liquid filters was made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In order to close the mass balance and to achieve better time resolution seven experiment were carried out using radioactive tracer. In this report, the facility for the ruthenium behaviour study and results from experiments are presented. Preliminary conclusions from the experiments are reported as well. Final conclusions will be made after modelling of the facility is completed in a continuation work of this study. (au)

  10. Experiments on the behaviour of ruthenium in air ingress accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Backman, Ul; Auvinen, A.; Zilliacus, R.; Lipponen, M.; Kekki, T.; Tapper, U.; Jokiniemi, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT (Finland)

    2007-03-15

    During routine nuclear reactor operation, ruthenium will accumulate in the fuel in relatively high concentrations. In a severe accident in a nuclear power plant it is possible that air gets into contact with the reactor core. In this case ruthenium may oxidise and form volatile ruthenium species, RuO3 and RuO4, which can be transported into the containment. In order to estimate the amount of gaseous ruthenium species, it is of interest to know, how they are formed and how they behave. In our experiments the formation and transport of volatile ruthenium oxides was studied by exposing RuO2 powder to diverse oxidising atmospheres at a relatively high temperature. Transport of gaseous RuO4 was further investigated by injecting it into the facility in similar conditions. Upon cooling of the gas flow RuO2 aerosol particles were formed in the system. They were removed from the gas stream with plane filters. Gaseous ruthenium species were trapped in 1M NaOH-water solution, which is capable of trapping RuO4 totally. Ruthenium in the solution was filtered for analysis. The determination of ruthenium both in aerosol and in liquid filters was made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In order to close the mass balance and to achieve better time resolution seven experiment were carried out using radioactive tracer. In this report, the facility for the ruthenium behaviour study and results from experiments are presented. Preliminary conclusions from the experiments are reported as well. Final conclusions will be made after modelling of the facility is completed in a continuation work of this study. (au)

  11. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  12. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Martian surface: constraints for sample recovery and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects such as cosmic ray tracks can provide information on the surface history of Mars. A recent overview on developments in cosmogenic nuclide research for historical studies of predominantly extraterrestrial materials was published previously. The information content of cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects produced in the Martian surface is based on the different ways of interaction of the primary galactic and solar cosmic radiation (GCR, SCR) and the secondary particle cascade. Generally the kind and extent of interactions as seen in the products depend on the following factors: (1) composition, energy and intensity of the primary SCR and GCR; (2) composition, energy and intensity of the GCR-induced cascade of secondary particles; (3) the target geometry, i.e., the spatial parameters of Martian surface features with respect to the primary radiation source; (4) the target chemistry, i.e., the chemical composition of the Martian surface at the sampling location down to the minor element level or lower; and (5) duration of the exposure. These factors are not independent of each other and have a major influence on sample taking strategies and techniques

  13. Development and application of the generator for the short-living nuclides production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsejner, A.

    1979-01-01

    The results are stated of investigations by means of radioisotopes on the substance transfer in technological equipment. For these purposes, in most cases, nuclides with high gamma-activity are used and, if possible, having short half-life because the short half-life gives certain advantages in the cases when it is impossible to store radioactive substances in the technological equipment for a long time. It is noted that in connection with short half-life of the nucludes used for labelling and for the economic and radiation safety reasons, activity of these nuclides can not be high. It has been established that the most suitable nuclide for the labelling purpose is lanthanum-140 produced either in a nuclear reactor, or by means of separation from barium=-140 transforming into lanthanum-140 in an isotopic generator. Some methods of lanthanum separation from barium are described, in particular, in the isotopic generator described, barium is adsorbed on the cation-exchanger KPS-200 having high enough stability with respect to the ionozing radiations. As an eluent the 10 -2 M solution of the complexone (Na 2 - EDTA) was used. The complexone solution can be easely obtained and, because of the hydrolysis, it serves as a buffer solution. The data are given for radiation purity and yield of lanthanum-=140 [ru

  14. Characterization of ultrasonic spray pyrolysed ruthenium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.S.; Ennaoui, E.A.; Lokhande, C.D.; Mueller, M.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1997-11-21

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique was employed to deposit ruthenium oxide thin films. The films were prepared at 190 C substrate temperature and further annealed at 350 C for 30 min in air. The films were 0.22 {mu} thick and black grey in color. The structural, compositional and optical properties of ruthenium oxide thin films are reported. Contactless transient photoconductivity measurement was carried out to calculate the decay time of excess charge carriers in ruthenium oxide thin films. (orig.) 28 refs.

  15. Hazards and control of ruthenium in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of present information on the possible hazards of radioruthenium in the nuclear fuel cycle and its behaviour in nuclear operations and in the environment. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: basic chemical and nuclear properties of ruthenium; chemistry (including the ruthenium-nitric acid system, electrochemistry, extraction processes); ruthenium toxicity; generation of radioruthenium (fallout sources, reactor sources, fuel reprocessing operations); waste treatment (cementation and bitumenization, calcining processes, vitrification); movement in the environment (movement of airborne effluents, liquid effluents and the freshwater environment, marine environment, bottom sediments, marine organisms, terrestrial environments, uptake in vegetation and animals); conclusion. (U.K.)

  16. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  17. Influence of Groundwater Flow Rate on Nuclide Releases from Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 2000s several template programs for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository as well as a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository systems have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. Very recently, another template program for a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels has been developed and are to be disposed of by separate disposal strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and 500m depth, believed to be in the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste package and canister. To quantify a nuclide release and transport through the possible various pathways especially in the near-fields of the A-KRS repository system, some illustrative evaluations have been made through the study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  18. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2012-01-01

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  19. Electro-volatilization of ruthenium in nitric medium: influences of ruthenium species nature and models solutions composition; Electro-volatilisation du ruthenium en milieu nitrique: influence de la nature des formes chimiques du ruthenium et de la composition des solutions modeles de dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousset, F

    2004-12-15

    Ruthenium is one of the fission products in the reprocessing of irradiated fuels that requires a specific processing management. Its elimination, upstream by the PUREX process, has been considered. A process, called electro-volatilization, which take advantage of the RuO{sub 4} volatility, has been optimised in the present study. It consists in a continuous electrolysis of ruthenium solutions in order to generate RuO{sub 4} species that is volatilized and easily trapped. This process goes to satisfying ruthenium elimination yields with RuNO(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} synthetic solutions but not with fuel dissolution solutions. Consequently, this work consisted in the speciation studies of dissolved ruthenium species were carried out by simulating fuel solutions produced by hot acid attack of several ruthenium compounds (Ru(0), RuO{sub 2},xH{sub 2}O, polymetallic alloy). In parallel with dissolution kinetic studies, the determination of dissolved species was performed using voltammetry, spectrometry and spectro-electrochemistry. The results showed the co-existence of Ru(IV) and RuNO(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}. Although these species are different from synthetic RuNO(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, their electro-oxidation behaviour are similar. The electro-volatilization tests of these dissolution solutions yielded to comparable results as the synthetic RuNO(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} solutions. Then, complexity increase of models solutions was performed by in-situ generation of nitrous acid during ruthenium dissolution. Nitrous acid showed a catalytic effect on ruthenium dissolution. Its presence goes to quasi exclusively RuNO(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} species. It is also responsible of the strong n-bond formation between Ru{sup 2+} and NO{sup +}. In addition, it has been shown that its reducing action on RuO{sub 4} hinders the electro-volatilization process. Mn{sup 2+} and Ce{sup 3+} cations also reveal, but to a lesser

  20. Constraining local subglacial bedrock erosion rates with cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig, Christian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Reitner, Jürgen; Reindl, Martin; Bichler, Mathias; Vockenhuber, Christof; Akcar, Naki; Schlüchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The constant buildup of cosmogenic nuclides, most prominently 10Be, in exposed rock surfaces is routinely employed for dating various landforms such as landslides or glacial moraines. One fundamental assumption is that no cosmogenic nuclides were initially present in the rock, before the event to be dated. In the context of glacially formed landscapes it is commonly assumed that subglacial erosion of at least a few meters of bedrock during the period of ice coverage is sufficient to remove any previously accumulated nuclides, since the production of 10Be ceases at a depth of 2-3 m. Insufficient subglacial erosion leads to overestimation of surface exposure ages. If the time since the retreat of the glacier is known, however, a discordant concentration of cosmogenic nuclides delivers information about the depth of subglacial erosion. Here we present data from proglacial bedrock at two sites in the Alps. Goldbergkees in the Hohe Tauern National Park in Austria and Gruebengletscher in the Grimsel Pass area in Switzerland. Samples were taken inside as well as outside of the glaciers' Little Ice Age extent. Measured nuclide concentrations are analyzed with the help of a MATLAB model simulating periods of exposure or glacial cover of user-definable length and erosion rates.

  1. Improvement of WWW chart of the nuclides interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsutomu; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The booklet 'chart of the nuclides' is issued every 4 years since 1976 from Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The chart of the nuclides for WWW (World Wide Web) was developed in 1999 in order to be available from the Internet browser. The Internet connection speeds, browser functions and JavaScript libraries has, however, progressed at present compared with the Internet technology in those days. In connection with the release of the 2014 edition of the chart of the nuclides, the interface of the WWW chart of the nuclides has been improved by introducing new Internet technologies aiming at enhancing convenience on accessibilities via browsers. We introduced a scrolling screen that would make capabilities of easy screen movement on a map with the addition of the drag scrolling function. Considering smart phone access, the light-weight edition which introduced automatic switch was prepared. The new system results in reduction in access time and usefulness in mobile environment. The method of making figures of the chart was reconsidered due to addition of new decay schemes to the 2014 edition. SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) was adopted so as to make figures easily. It is concluded that the accessibilities of WWW chart of the nuclides are substantially improved from the previous version by introducing the new technologies. (author)

  2. Scaling-resistance of ruthenium- and ruthenium phosphides powders in argon and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernogorebko, V.B.; Semenov-Kobzar', A.A.; Kulik, L.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal stability of ruthenium phosphides in air diminishes as the content of phosphorus in the compound increases. The temperatures at which active oxidation of the powders starts are as follows: Ru-600, Ru 2 P-590, RuP-390, and RuP 2 -270 0 C. The oxidation of phosphorus in the phosphides proceeds in steps. The atoms of phosphorus which are most accessible to oxygen are first oxidated. Phosphorus atoms in the octahedral spaces are oxidated less easily, simultaneously with the oxidation of the ruthenium atoms. When heated in argon, Ru 2 P and RuP fuse congruently at 1,500 and 1,555 0 C respectively, while RuP 2 dissociates at 950 0 C. (author)

  3. Nuclide inventories of spent fuels from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Okamoto, Tsutomu

    2012-02-01

    Accurate information on nuclide inventories of spent fuels from Light Water Reactors (LWRs) is important for evaluations of criticality, decay heat, radioactivity, toxicity, and so on, in the safety assessments of storage, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal of the spent fuels. So, a lot of lattice burn-up calculations were carried out for the possible fuel specifications and irradiation conditions in Japanese commercial LWRs by using the latest nuclear data library JENDL-4.0 and a sophisticated lattice burn-up calculation code MOSRA-SRAC. As a result, burn-up changes of nuclide inventories and their possible ranges were clarified for 21 heavy nuclides and 118 fission products, which are important from the viewpoint of impacts to nuclear characteristics and nuclear fuel cycle and environment. (author)

  4. Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-L.; Light, W.B.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-temperature dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs

  5. Nuclide migration from a bedrock repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.

    1978-08-01

    A study of the migration of radionuclides from a repository for spent, unprocessed fuel is presented. The study makes use of a unidimensional dispersion model developed at BNWL. The results show that a number of nuclides decay significantly during the migration. The doses to future man was calculated in a separate study performed at Studsvik. The dose calculations are based on the activity in-flows, presented in this report, and show that the predominant dose contribution comes from the nuclide radium-226. This nuclide is formed mainly by the decay of uranium-238 which means that the main part of the dose would arise even from a repository for non-irradiated fuel

  6. Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of polypyridyl ligands ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Discipline of Silicates and Catalysis, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals ... However, synthetic methods have also been developed to prepare complexes with ... 3.2 Synthesis and characterisation of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes18, ...

  7. Unsaturated carbone and allenylidene ruthenium complexes from alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, Yu.L.; Diznev, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author's studies aimed at activation of terminal alkynes by metal complexes, reactivity patterns and selective preparations of unsaturated carbene, allenylidene and cumulenylidene derivatives of (arene)ruthenium complexes are reviewed. 48 refs

  8. Synthesis of ruthenium (III) complexes with benzimidazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, P.C.; Chahar, Yogesh K.; Garg, Yajula; Seth, Gita

    2003-01-01

    Complexes of ruthenium with biologically important benzimidazole derivatives, viz. 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazole (HOPBI), 2-2'- mercaptophenyl) benzimidazole (HSPBI), 2- (2'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzimidazole (HONBI) have been synthesized and characterized. (author)

  9. Supercapacitive performance of hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gel method have been employed to prepare ruthenium oxide thin films. Recently ... the potentiostat (263A EG&G, Princeton Applied Research. Potentiostat). .... is a mixed conductor that conducts protons and electrons in acidic solution (as ...

  10. The stochastic nuclide transport model for buffer/backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liping; Han Yongguo

    2014-01-01

    Currently, study on nuclide migration law in geological disposal repository of high level waste is assumed buffer/backfill layer to be continuous medium, utilized the continuity equation, equation of state, the equations of motion, etc, formed a set of theory and method to estimate nuclide concentration distribution in buffer/backfill layer, and provided an important basis for nuclide migration rules of repository. However, it is necessary to study the buffer/backfill layer microstructure and subtly describe the pore structure and fracture system of the buffer/backfill layer, and reflect the changes in connectivity and in different directions of the buffer/backfill layer. Through using random field theory, the nuclide transport for the buffer/backfill layer in geological disposal repository of nuclear waste is described in the paper. This paper mainly includes that, t represents the time, ξ t ⊂ Z d = d represents the integer lattice, Z represents collectivity integers, d = l, 2, 3, for instance, d = 2, Z d = {(m, n) : m, n ∈ Z} the state point of ξ t is typically considered to be occupied by the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer, ξ t also represents random set in the diagram of two dimensional integer lattice, namely, t ∈ [0, T], {ξ t ,0 ≤ t ≤ ⊂ T} Consequently, according to the stochastic process obtained above, the changes of the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer or the buffer/backfill laboratory materials in the repository with the time can be known. (authors)

  11. Rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Sebastian; Kersting, Marcel; Heletta, Lukas; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    2017-07-01

    Eight new intermetallic rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium compounds have been synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules using different annealing sequences in muffle furnaces. The compounds have been characterized by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Sm{sub 9.2}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.8} (a=939.6(2), c=1779(1) pm), Gd{sub 11}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16} (a=951.9(2), c=1756.8(8) pm), and Tb{sub 10.5}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16.5} (a=942.5(1), c=1758.3(4) pm) crystallize with the tetragonal Nd{sub 9.34}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.66} type structure, space group I4/mmm. This structure exhibits a complex condensation pattern of square-prisms and square-antiprisms around the magnesium and ruthenium atoms, respectively. Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=344.0(1), c=2019(1) pm) and Tb{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=341.43(6), c=2054.2(7) pm) adopt the Er{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} structure and Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg (a=337.72(9), c=1129.8(4) pm) is isotypic with Sc{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg. Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=337.35(9), c=2671(1) pm) and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=335.83(5), c=2652.2(5) pm) are the first ternary ordered variants of the Ti{sub 3}Cu{sub 4} type, space group I4/mmm. These five compounds belong to a large family of intermetallics which are completely ordered superstructures of the bcc subcell. The group-subgroup scheme for Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} is presented. The common structural motif of all three structure types are ruthenium-centered rare earth cubes reminicent of the CsCl type. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} samples revealed Pauli paramagnetism of the conduction electrons.

  12. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. 3 figures, 2 tables

  13. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. (3 figures, 1 table)

  14. Mechanistic studies of the oxidation of soluble species of ruthenium in nitric acid solutions. Application to the removal of ruthenium from nuclear fuel dissolution solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, V.

    2001-01-01

    Ruthenium is one of the most troublesome fission products during nuclear fuel reprocessing. His removal from nitric acid fuel dissolution solutions, above the PUREX process, is under consideration. Electro-volatilization could be a possible way to eliminate this element. It consists in the oxidation of soluble ruthenium species coupled with the volatilization of formed RuO 4 . Soluble species are nitrate and nitro complexes of nitrosyl ruthenium RuNO 3+ . The first part of this work deals with the direct oxidation of RuNO 3+ at a golden or a platinum anode. It has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and infrared and UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy. The oxidation of RuNO 3+ begins with an adsorption step, which precedes the formation of RuO 4 . Then a reaction between RuO 4 and RuNO 3+ occurs to produce a Ru IV compound, which is also electro-oxidized to RuO 4 . The second part concerns potentiostatic electro-volatilization experiences. The rate of electro-volatilization decreases with increasing HNO 3 concentration. At low concentrations, kinetic is controlled by the volatilization of RuO 4 . The rate-determining step is the oxidation of RuNO 3+ at concentrations higher than 1 M. In HNO 3 4 M, the addition of AgNO 3 is required to accelerate the oxidation of RuNO 3+ . The last part is devoted to the study of the indirect oxidation of RuNO 3+ . The electrocatalytic power of electro-generated Ag II is illustrated by voltammetric techniques and potentiostatic electrolysis. The existence of a limit concentration of AgNO 3 is shown (which value depends on experimental conditions) beyond which kinetic is controlled by the RuO 4 volatilization step. These results indicate that the electro-volatilization kinetic could be increased by optimizing the volatilization conditions. (author)

  15. General synthesis of (salen)ruthenium(III) complexes via N...N coupling of (salen)ruthenium(VI) nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wai-Lun; Kwong, Hoi-Ki; Lam, William W Y; Xiang, Jing; Wong, Tsz-Wing; Lam, Wing-Hong; Wong, Wing-Tak; Peng, Shie-Ming; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2008-07-07

    Reaction of [Ru (VI)(N)(L (1))(MeOH)] (+) (L (1) = N, N'-bis(salicylidene)- o-cyclohexylenediamine dianion) with excess pyridine in CH 3CN produces [Ru (III)(L (1))(py) 2] (+) and N 2. The proposed mechanism involves initial equilibrium formation of [Ru (VI)(N)(L (1))(py)] (+), which undergoes rapid N...N coupling to produce [(py)(L (1))Ru (III) N N-Ru (III)(L (1))(py)] (2+); this is followed by pyridine substituion to give the final product. This ligand-induced N...N coupling of Ru (VI)N is utilized in the preparation of a series of new ruthenium(III) salen complexes, [Ru (III)(L)(X) 2] (+/-) (L = salen ligand; X = H 2O, 1-MeIm, py, Me 2SO, PhNH 2, ( t )BuNH 2, Cl (-) or CN (-)). The structures of [Ru (III)(L (1))(NH 2Ph) 2](PF 6) ( 6), K[Ru (III)(L (1))(CN) 2] ( 9), [Ru (III)(L (2))(NCCH 3) 2][Au (I)(CN) 2] ( 11) (L (2) = N, N'-bis(salicylidene)- o-phenylenediamine dianion) and [N ( n )Bu 4][Ru (III)(L (3))Cl 2] ( 12) (L (3) = N, N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine dianion) have been determined by X-ray crystallography.

  16. Role of Core-collapse Supernovae in Explaining Solar System Abundances of p Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglio, C.; Rauscher, T.; Heger, A.; Pignatari, M.; West, C.

    2018-02-01

    The production of the heavy stable proton-rich isotopes between 74Se and 196Hg—the p nuclides—is due to the contribution from different nucleosynthesis processes, activated in different types of stars. Whereas these processes have been subject to various studies, their relative contributions to Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) are still a matter of debate. Here we investigate for the first time the nucleosynthesis of p nuclides in GCE by including metallicity and progenitor mass-dependent yields of core-collapse supernovae (ccSNe) into a chemical evolution model. We used a grid of metallicities and progenitor masses from two different sets of stellar yields and followed the contribution of ccSNe to the Galactic abundances as a function of time. In combination with previous studies on p-nucleus production in thermonuclear supernovae (SNIa), and using the same GCE description, this allows us to compare the respective roles of SNeIa and ccSNe in the production of p-nuclei in the Galaxy. The γ process in ccSN is very efficient for a wide range of progenitor masses (13 M ⊙–25 M ⊙) at solar metallicity. Since it is a secondary process with its efficiency depending on the initial abundance of heavy elements, its contribution is strongly reduced below solar metallicity. This makes it challenging to explain the inventory of the p nuclides in the solar system by the contribution from ccSNe alone. In particular, we find that ccSNe contribute less than 10% of the solar p nuclide abundances, with only a few exceptions. Due to the uncertain contribution from other nucleosynthesis sites in ccSNe, such as neutrino winds or α-rich freeze out, we conclude that the light p-nuclides 74Se, 78Kr, 84Sr, and 92Mo may either still be completely or only partially produced in ccSNe. The γ-process accounts for up to twice the relative solar abundances for 74Se in one set of stellar models and 196Hg in the other set. The solar abundance of the heaviest p nucleus 196Hg is

  17. Prompt neutron fission spectrum mean energies for the fissile nuclides and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The international standard for a neutron spectrum is that produced from the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf, while the thermal neutron induced fission neutron spectra for the four fissile nuclides, 233 U, 235 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu are of interest from the standpoint of nuclear reactors. The average neutron energies of these spectra are tabulated. The individual measurements are recorded with the neutron energy range measured, the method of detection as well as the average neutron energy for each author. Also tabulated are the measurements of the ratio of mean energies for pairs of fission neutron spectra. 75 refs., 9 tabs

  18. Migration studies of fission product nuclides in rocks. Pt.5: Diffusion and permeability of nuclide 125I in marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ruiyuan; Gao Hongcheng; Wang Xiangyun

    1996-01-01

    The migration behaviour of nuclide 125 I, as a simulation of the long lived fission product 129 I, in marble is studied in self-designed cells. A series of the most important parameters of diffusion and permeability (e.g., intrinsic diffusion coefficient, dispersion coefficient and interstitial flow velocity, etc.) are determined. Based on the differential equation of the nuclide migration, the distribution function and numerical solution of 125 I in marble are presented. The results show that the migration velocity of 125 I in marble is fast, indicating that it is not suitable to dispose nuclear waste in marble

  19. Analytical basis for neutron-activation analysis measuring nuclides with a half-life of second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Ichimura, Shigeju; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-01-01

    An analytical basis for a neutron-activation analysis (NAA) for measuring nuclides of second-order half-lives produced by the (n, γ) reaction has been studied using a neutron-activation analysis facility (PN-3) of JRR-3M. The NAA facility, comprising a fast pneumatic irradiation system and a high count-rate gamma-ray spectrometer, is able to automatically conduct NAA with short-lived nuclides. Basic experimental conditions, such as a high count-rate gamma-ray measurement, the effects of irradiation-capsule material and the stability of the neutron flux, were examined. The analytical sensitivities and detection limits for 20 elements of which activated radionuclide having half-lives from 0.7 to 100 s were obtained. Scandium, In, Dy and Hf were elements having the highest analytical sensitivity, with detection limits down to 4.2 to 14 ng. Fluorine, which is difficult to determine by other methods, can be detected at above 530 ng. Analytical applications of NAA with short-lived nuclides have been carried out for F, Se, Sc, Hf, In and Dy in various materials, including reference materials. The accuracy, precision and detection limits of NAA with short-lived nuclides have been evaluated. (author)

  20. A nuclear data library for activity determinations of selected nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baard, J.H.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the GAMLIB 1-5 library, which is used in the calculation of the activity of radionuclides present in the gamma-ray spectra of irradiated neutron fluence detectors. The library contains all constants needed to calculate the activity for reactions normally applied in neutron fluence determinations, performed in irradiation experiments in the HFR. It also contains the nuclide constants for the activity calculation of gamma-ray measurements of U and Pu samples. The library consists of two kinds of tables, the first containing gamma-ray energies and gamma-ray emission probabilities with their uncertainties and the nuclide code, the other the nuclide code, decay constant, gamma -ray energies and gamma-ray emission probabilities. No cross-section data are stored in this library. All the relevant dat of the Nuclear Data Guide (Dordrecht, Kluwer 1989) have been used as base for this library. Other data have been obtained from recent literature. This library comprises 155 nuclides and 1115 gamma-ray energies. (author). 9 refs

  1. FISPIN - a computer code for nuclide inventory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstall, R.F.

    1979-10-01

    The code is used for assessment of three groups of nuclides, the actinides, the fission products, and structural materials. The methods of calculation are described, together with the input and output of the code and examples of both. Recommendations are given for the best use of the code. (author)

  2. Retardation of escaping nuclides from a final depository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1977-09-01

    study has been made on retardation of radionuclides in various materials, which could be suited for use in the final repository. A literature survey has shown that except for Cs and Sr very little is known on ion exchange equilibria in ground water surroundings. Measurements were made to determine equilibrium data for Cs, Sr, Eu and U in five natural zeolites, which could be used as filling material. Diffusivities in zeolite particles and bbeds as well as clay beds were also determined. With the aid of these data the function of the ion exchange barrier was investigated. The barrier is so short that the nuclide transport is by diffusion. An 0.2 m barrier of a zeolite will delay Cs and Sr so long that they will decay totally. Am 241 will also be considerably delayed. An 0.2 m clay-quartz barrier will have very little effect on these nuclides. A 1 m clay-quartz barrier will have about the same effect as an 0.2 m zeolite barrier. Most other nuclides have so long lives that they will only be delayed, but not sufficiently long to decay. He rock itself interacts with many of the radionuclides. A simple model has been made to describe the nuclide retardation and dispersion in fissured rock. With the aid of this, tracer experiments in actual underground rock have been analysed

  3. U-Th series nuclides in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of U and Th series nuclides is being conducted on sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Uranium concentrations as a function of depth have been determined, as well as changes in the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. The geochemical behavior of uranium in shelf sediments is discussed

  4. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  5. Sampling of soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  6. The analyses of measured nuclide concentration in project ISTC 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article are analyzed experiments for WWER-440 fuel and compared with theoretical results by new version of the SCALE 5 code: nuclide compositions - measurement in Kurchatov institute for 3.6% - measurement in Dimitrovgrad for 3.6% (project ISTC 2670) The focus is on modules TRITON and ORIGEN-S (Authors)

  7. IVO's nuclide removal system takes to the road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    The successful and routine use of IVO's treatment system for the removal of cesium from the evaporator concentrates at the Loviisa WER plant in Finland is described. The system uses a granular inorganic hexacyanoferate-based ion exchanger to separate cesium from liquid radioactive wastes. The compactness of the original systems at Loviisa suggested the development of a transportable unit. A combined nuclide removal system was created which included a highly efficient ultrafiltration unit to separate nearly all particulate material carrying radionuclides, as well as the cesium removal capability. A 20ft long container carrying the removal package was completed in 1994. This NUclide REmoval System (NURES) was used for the first time in January 1995 to purify liquid waste accumulating at training reactors in Estonia and has performed well. As an extension of nuclide removal, a process has been created to recover boron from liquid wastes. A system for boron recovery and nuclide removal has been designed for use at the Paks plant in Hungary. The removal process has been shown to improve the safety of final waste disposal compared with the alternative treatment by cementation because the cesium is very tightly bound into the ion exchange material. (UK)

  8. Ruthenium-catalyzed reactions--a treasure trove of atom-economic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Frederiksen, Mathias U; Rudd, Michael T

    2005-10-21

    The demand for new chemicals spanning the fields of health care to materials science combined with the pressure to produce these substances in an environmentally benign fashion pose great challenges to the synthetic chemical community. The maximization of synthetic efficiency by the conversion of simple building blocks into complex targets remains a fundamental goal. In this context, ruthenium complexes catalyze a number of non-metathesis conversions and allow the rapid assembly of complex molecules with high selectivity and atom economy. These complexes often exhibit unusual reactivity. Careful consideration of the mechanistic underpinnings of the transformations can lead to the design of new reactions and the discovery of new reactivity.

  9. Rapid visual and spectrophotometric nitrite detection by cyclometalated ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Shing; Lo, Ka-Wai; Yeung, Chi-Fung; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2017-10-16

    Quantitative determination of nitrite ion (NO 2 - ) is of great importance in environmental and clinical investigations. A rapid visual and spectrophotometric assay for NO 2 - detection was developed based on a newly designed ruthenium complex, [Ru(npy)([9]aneS3)(CO)](ClO 4 ) (denoted as RuNPY; npy = 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine, [9]aneS3 = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane). This complex traps NO + produced in acidified NO 2 - solution, and yields observable color change within 1 min at room temperature. The assay features excellent dynamic range (1-840 μmol L -1 ) and high selectivity, and its limit of detection (0.39 μmol L -1 ) is also well below the guideline values for drinking water recommended by WHO and U.S. EPA. Practical use of this assay in tap water and human urine was successfully demonstrated. Overall, the rapidity and selectivity of this assay overcome the problems suffered by the commonly used modified Griess assays for nitrite determination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of soluble nuclide dissolution rates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the potential release behavior of water-soluble radionuclides is the focus of new laboratory spent fuel dissolution studies being planned in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous studies have suggested that maximum release rates for actinide nuclides, which account for most of the long-term radioactivity in spent fuel, should be solubility-limited and should not depend on the characteristics or durability of the spent fuel waste form. Maximum actinide concentrations should be sufficiently low to meet the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) annual release limits. Potential release rates for soluble nuclides such as 99 Tc, 135 Cs, 14 C and 129 I, which account for about 1-2% of the activity in spent fuel at 1,000 years, are less certain and may depend on processes such as oxidation of the fuel in the repository air environment. Dissolution rates for several soluble nuclides have been measured from spent fuel specimens using static and semi-static methods. However, such tests do not provide a direct measurement of fuel matrix dissolution rates that may ultimately control soluble-nuclide release rates. Flow-through tests are being developed as a potential supplemental method for determining the matrix component of soluble-nuclide dissolution. Advantages and disadvantages of both semi-static and flow-through methods are discussed. Tests with fuel specimens representing a range of potential fuel states that may occur in the repository, including oxidized fuel, are proposed. Preliminary results from flow-through tests with unirradiated UO 2 suggesting that matrix dissolution rates are very sensitive to water composition are also presented

  11. Ruthenium Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. The DSSCs-based ruthenium complexes as sensitizers show high efficiency and excellent stability, implying potential practical applications. This review focuses on recent advances in design and preparation of efficient ruthenium sensitizers and their applications in DSSCs, including thiocyanate ruthenium sensitizers and thiocyanate-free ruthenium sensitizers.

  12. Tailoring Ruthenium Exposure to Enhance the Performance of fcc Platinum@Ruthenium Core-Shell Electrocatalysts in the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    AlYami, Noktan

    2016-05-17

    The catalytic properties of noble metal nanocrystals are a function of their size, structure, and surface composition. In particular, achieving high activity without sacrificing stability is essential for designing commercially viable catalysts. A major challenge in designing state-of-the-art Ru-based catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is a key step in water splitting, is the poor stability and surface tailorability of these catalysts. In this study, we designed rapidly synthesizable size-controlled, morphology-selective, and surface-tailored platinum-ruthenium core-shell (Pt@Ru) and alloy (PtRu) nanocatalysts in a scalable continuous-flow reactor. These core-shell nanoparticles with atomically precise shells were produced in a single synthetic step with carbon monoxide as the reducing agent. By varying the metal precursor concentration, a dendritic or layer-by-layer ruthenium shell can be grown. The catalytic activities of the synthesized Pt@Ru and PtRu nanoparticles exhibit noticeably higher electrocatalytic activity in the OER compared to that of pure Pt and Ru nanoparticles. Promisingly, Pt@Ru nanocrystals with a ~2-3 atomic layer Ru cuboctahedral shell surpass conventional Ru nanoparticles in terms of both durability and activity.

  13. Tailoring Ruthenium Exposure to Enhance the Performance of fcc Platinum@Ruthenium Core-Shell Electrocatalysts in the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    AlYami, Noktan; LaGrow, Alec P.; Joya, khurram; Hwang, Jinyeon; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Sinatra, Lutfan; Kim, Jin Young; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic properties of noble metal nanocrystals are a function of their size, structure, and surface composition. In particular, achieving high activity without sacrificing stability is essential for designing commercially viable catalysts. A major challenge in designing state-of-the-art Ru-based catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is a key step in water splitting, is the poor stability and surface tailorability of these catalysts. In this study, we designed rapidly synthesizable size-controlled, morphology-selective, and surface-tailored platinum-ruthenium core-shell (Pt@Ru) and alloy (PtRu) nanocatalysts in a scalable continuous-flow reactor. These core-shell nanoparticles with atomically precise shells were produced in a single synthetic step with carbon monoxide as the reducing agent. By varying the metal precursor concentration, a dendritic or layer-by-layer ruthenium shell can be grown. The catalytic activities of the synthesized Pt@Ru and PtRu nanoparticles exhibit noticeably higher electrocatalytic activity in the OER compared to that of pure Pt and Ru nanoparticles. Promisingly, Pt@Ru nanocrystals with a ~2-3 atomic layer Ru cuboctahedral shell surpass conventional Ru nanoparticles in terms of both durability and activity.

  14. Kinetics and Photochemistry of Ruthenium Bisbipyridine Diacetonitrile Complexes: An Interdisciplinary Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Teresa L.; Phillips, Susan R.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes can be widely applied across disciplines in the undergraduate curriculum. Ruthenium photochemistry has advanced many fields including dye-sensitized solar cells, photoredox catalysis, lightdriven water oxidation, and biological electron transfer. Equally promising are ruthenium polypyridyl complexes…

  15. Age determination of meteorites using radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the precise isotope ratios of some refractory elements in meteorites have been reported using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The in situ decay of 182 Hf (T 1/2 =9 Myr), which was produced at the latest nucleosynthesis, is recognized in many meteorites as isotopic anomalies of its daughter isotope, 182 W. The degrees of relative 182 W isotopic deviation in extra-terrestrial and terrestrial silicate samples vary from +0.3% to ±0% related to the size of their parent bodies. One ready interpretation of its correlation is the difference in timing of metal-silicate separation in the parent bodies. Between the earth and meteorite parent bodies, the difference is calculated to be about four times of the half-life of 182 Hf, equivalent to 36 Myr. (author)

  16. Nuclides.net: A computational environment for nuclear data and applications in radioprotection and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Galy, J.; Leutzenkirchen, K.

    2004-01-01

    An interactive multimedia tool, Nuclides.net, has been developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The Nuclides.net 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclides chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The product is particularly suitable for environmental radioprotection and radioecology. (authors)

  17. Cosmogenic nuclide shielding corrections determined via MCNPX radiation transport and spallation cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    Cosmogenic Nuclides (CNs) are a critical new tool for geomorphology, allowing researchers to date Earth surface events and measure process rates [1]. Prior to CNs, many of these events and processes had no absolute method for measurement and relied entirely on relative methods. Reliable absolute measurement methods impact research constraining ice age extents and provide important climatic data via well constrained erosion rates, etc. [2]. Continuing to improve CN methods is critical for these sciences. Significant progress has been made in the last two decades in refining the method and reducing analytic uncertainties [1,3]. CRONUS-Earth, a collaboration of cosmogenic nuclide researchers, has been developing calibration data and scaling methods to provide a self-consistent platform for use in interpreting nuclide concentration values into geologic data. However, several aspects of the radiation cascade have been exceedingly difficult to measure empirically with either accuracy or spatial extent. One such aspect is the angular distribution of secondary cosmic rays that are energetic enough to produce cosmogenic nuclides via spallation. Researchers studying the angular distribution of such cosmic rays have usually described the distribution as (cos(Θ))^m. Currently, the standard corrections, assume an m of 2.3, which is based on very sparse data sets with very limited spatial and altitude variation [1,4,5]. Researchers using CNs must know the production rate at the sample location, and then make corrections for the portion of the sky that is blocked by nearby topography. If the shielding correction model currently used is too simplistic, this introduces error into the final results. In this study, a Monte Carlo method radiation transport code, MCNPX is used to model the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) radiation impinging on the upper atmosphere and tracks the resulting secondary particles through a model of the Earth's atmosphere. Angle and energy distributions are

  18. Influence of waste solid on nuclide dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The method most often considered for permanent disposal of radioactive waste is to incorporate the waste into a solid, which is then placed in a geologic formation. The solid is made of waste and nonradioactive additives, with the formulation selected to produce a durable solid that will minimize the potential for dispersal of the radionuclides. Leach rates of radionuclides incorporated in the solid waste indicate the quantity of radioactivity available for dispersal at any time; but leach rates of stable constituents can be just as important to radionuclide dispersal by groundwater. The constituents of the solid will perturb the chemical character of the groundwater and, thereby, profoundly affect the interaction of radionuclides with the geologic medium. An explicit example of how the solid waste can affect radionuclide dispersal is illustrated by the results of experiments that measure cesium adsorption in the presence of rubidium. The experiments were performed with granulated oolitic limestone that absorbed cesium from groundwater solutions to which various concentrations of stable rubidium chloride had been added. The results are expressed as partition coefficients. Large coefficients indicate strong adsorption by the rock and, hence, slow migration. The partition coefficient for cesium decreases as the rubidium concentration in solution is increased. Because the coeficient for cesium depends on the amount of rubidium in solution, it will depend on the leach rate of rubidium from the solid. Rubidium has no radionuclides of concern for long-term isolation of nuclear waste, so its leach rate from a waste solid is rarely ever reported

  19. The cancerogenicity of fall out nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Agnar

    1986-01-01

    One of the more than 400 radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear reactor only a few of these have features such as solubility, long physical and biological half life and specific affinity to a certain tissue - which could classify them as biologically hazardous. Therefore in this context only radio-iodine-cesium and -strontium are discussed briefly as regards their biological effects. It is pointed out that tumours are not easily induced by radioiodine in experimental systems and that this is also valid for humans. Radiocesium is not very extensively studied experimentally as regards its biological action but available data indicate a low - if any - cancerogenic potentiality in contrast to radiostrontium with its high yield of tumours in various tissues. The extrapolation of experimental data to man as well as a comparison between cancerogenic irradiation doses between man and animals are discussed and considered as a necessity because of the ill defined irradiation situation and data which are connected with most accidental exposure of man. Furthermore it is also pointed out that the general idea that irradiation risks always are represented by a linear dose-effect relationship in most cases has no support from scientific data and therefore give an overestimation of the true risk. This should not be considered as a plea for the abandonment of the 'linear philosophy' but it is necessary to point out that as long as other environmental risks are calculated in a more liberal way, irradiation will always be victimized and discriminated against in the large flora of environmental dangers. The necessity of giving a clear reference to the spontaneous incidence of tumours during the time covered by the calculation must also be presented as well as that the estimate is founded on a hypothesis which is not scientifically proven. (author)

  20. The cancerogenicity of fall out nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Agnar [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1986-07-01

    One of the more than 400 radionuclides which are produced in a nuclear reactor only a few of these have features such as solubility, long physical and biological half life and specific affinity to a certain tissue - which could classify them as biologically hazardous. Therefore in this context only radio-iodine-cesium and -strontium are discussed briefly as regards their biological effects. It is pointed out that tumours are not easily induced by radioiodine in experimental systems and that this is also valid for humans. Radiocesium is not very extensively studied experimentally as regards its biological action but available data indicate a low - if any - cancerogenic potentiality in contrast to radiostrontium with its high yield of tumours in various tissues. The extrapolation of experimental data to man as well as a comparison between cancerogenic irradiation doses between man and animals are discussed and considered as a necessity because of the ill defined irradiation situation and data which are connected with most accidental exposure of man. Furthermore it is also pointed out that the general idea that irradiation risks always are represented by a linear dose-effect relationship in most cases has no support from scientific data and therefore give an overestimation of the true risk. This should not be considered as a plea for the abandonment of the 'linear philosophy' but it is necessary to point out that as long as other environmental risks are calculated in a more liberal way, irradiation will always be victimized and discriminated against in the large flora of environmental dangers. The necessity of giving a clear reference to the spontaneous incidence of tumours during the time covered by the calculation must also be presented as well as that the estimate is founded on a hypothesis which is not scientifically proven. (author)

  1. Production of heavy nuclides in nuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Samuel F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Since the last Plowshare Symposium in 1964 a number of experiments have been carried out to study the production of heavy nuclei by rapid multiple neutron capture in specially designed nuclear devices. These experiments listed below were conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site and data were obtained radiochemically after sample recovery by drillback. The main characteristics of these experiments are 1) higher neutron fluxes than in the early events, 2) a variety of targets, including 238-U, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 243-Am, 232-Th, 3) the occurrence of an interesting 'reversal of the odd-even effect' in the mass yield curves, and 4) the absence of nuclei in the debris with (Z,A) greater than (100,257). Analysis of data from these experiments have led to capture cross sections for neutron-rich uranium isotopes (out to 249-U), and capture-to-fission ratios for the odd-A neutron-rich plutonium isotopes (out to 253-Pu). General studies of the fission process in neutron-rich nuclei have also been undertaken using the data from these experiments. The large amounts of 250Cm and 257Fm made in the recent Hutch experiment ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} and {approx}5 x 10{sup 17} atoms, respectively) make it scientifically exciting, and economically feasible, to mine and recover enough material to produce laboratory targets of these isotopes. These targets would be used in investigations of yet-undiscovered, short-lived isotopes of Fm, Md, and No, as well as the possible production of new isotopes of element 104 and even element 105. (author)

  2. Production of heavy nuclides in nuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, Samuel F.

    1970-01-01

    Since the last Plowshare Symposium in 1964 a number of experiments have been carried out to study the production of heavy nuclei by rapid multiple neutron capture in specially designed nuclear devices. These experiments listed below were conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site and data were obtained radiochemically after sample recovery by drillback. The main characteristics of these experiments are 1) higher neutron fluxes than in the early events, 2) a variety of targets, including 238-U, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 243-Am, 232-Th, 3) the occurrence of an interesting 'reversal of the odd-even effect' in the mass yield curves, and 4) the absence of nuclei in the debris with (Z,A) greater than (100,257). Analysis of data from these experiments have led to capture cross sections for neutron-rich uranium isotopes (out to 249-U), and capture-to-fission ratios for the odd-A neutron-rich plutonium isotopes (out to 253-Pu). General studies of the fission process in neutron-rich nuclei have also been undertaken using the data from these experiments. The large amounts of 250Cm and 257Fm made in the recent Hutch experiment (∼1 x 10 20 and ∼5 x 10 17 atoms, respectively) make it scientifically exciting, and economically feasible, to mine and recover enough material to produce laboratory targets of these isotopes. These targets would be used in investigations of yet-undiscovered, short-lived isotopes of Fm, Md, and No, as well as the possible production of new isotopes of element 104 and even element 105. (author)

  3. Uncertainties in the production of p nuclides in thermonuclear supernovae determined by Monte Carlo variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N.; Rauscher, T.; Hirschi, R.; Murphy, A. St J.; Cescutti, G.; Travaglio, C.

    2018-03-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae originating from the explosion of a white dwarf accreting mass from a companion star have been suggested as a site for the production of p nuclides. Such nuclei are produced during the explosion, in layers enriched with seed nuclei coming from prior strong s processing. These seeds are transformed into proton-richer isotopes mainly by photodisintegration reactions. Several thousand trajectories from a 2D explosion model were used in a Monte Carlo approach. Temperature-dependent uncertainties were assigned individually to thousands of rates varied simultaneously in post-processing in an extended nuclear reaction network. The uncertainties in the final nuclear abundances originating from uncertainties in the astrophysical reaction rates were determined. In addition to the 35 classical p nuclides, abundance uncertainties were also determined for the radioactive nuclides 92Nb, 97, 98Tc, 146Sm, and for the abundance ratios Y(92Mo)/Y(94Mo), Y(92Nb)/Y(92Mo), Y(97Tc)/Y(98Ru), Y(98Tc)/Y(98Ru), and Y(146Sm)/Y(144Sm), important for Galactic Chemical Evolution studies. Uncertainties found were generally lower than a factor of 2, although most nucleosynthesis flows mainly involve predicted rates with larger uncertainties. The main contribution to the total uncertainties comes from a group of trajectories with high peak density originating from the interior of the exploding white dwarf. The distinction between low-density and high-density trajectories allows more general conclusions to be drawn, also applicable to other simulations of white dwarf explosions.

  4. Capability of minor nuclide confinement in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Mineo, Hideaki; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide

    1999-01-01

    Experiment with spent fuels has started with the small scale reprocessing facility in NUCEF-BECKY αγ cell. Primary purpose of the experiment is to study the capability of long-lived nuclide confinement both in the PUREX flow sheet applied to the large scale reprocessing plant and also in the PARC (Partitioning Conundrum key process) flow sheet which is our proposal as a simplified reprocessing of one cycle extraction system. Our interests in the experiment are the behaviors of minor long-lived nuclides and the behaviors of the heterogeneous substances, such as sedimentation in the dissolver, organic cruds in the extraction banks. The significance of those behaviors will be assessed from the standpoint of the process safety of reprocessing for high burn-up fuels and MOX fuels. (author)

  5. A GoldSim Model for Colloid Facilitated Nuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-01-01

    Recently several total system performance assessment (TSPA) programs, called 'template' programs, ready for the safety assessment of radioactive waste repository systems which are conceptually modeled have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. It is generally believed that chelating agents (chelators) that could be disposed of together with radioactive wastes in the repository and natural colloids available in the geological media affect on nuclides by enhancing their transport in the geological media. A simple GoldSim module to evaluate such quantitative effects, by which colloid and chelator-facilitated nuclide release cases could be modeled and evaluated is introduced. Effects of the chelators alone are illustrated with the case associated with well pumping scenario in a hypothetical repository system

  6. Towards PSII analogs driven by ruthenium photophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    A number of model complexes have been prepared in an attempt to develop models for photosystem II (PSII) in green plants. As replacement for the chlorophyll photosensitizer, we have used Ru(ll) tris-2,2-bipyridyl or Ru(ll) bis-2,2';6',2 - terpyridyl complexes linked to a pendant 2,2'-bipyridyl or 2,2';6',2''-terpyridyl moieties via spacers of varying lengths. Manganese (ll) has been covalently linked to the pendant 2,2'-bipyridyl /2,2';6',2''-terpyridyl moieties. The use of different ruthenium centres and spacers has made it possible to make assumptions about the way and how easily manganese is coordinated through self-assembly to the pendant 2,2'-bipyridyl or 2,2';6',2''-terpyridyl groups. Several polynuclear complexes containing a photoactive centre (Ru(ll) tris-2,2'-bipyridine or Ru(ll) bis-2,2';6',2''-terpyridine) or other metal ions (Co 2+ , Fe 2+ , Mn 2= ) have been prepared and characterised. The main work has been focused on organic synthesis and characterisation of polypyridine ligands and coordinated to different metal centres. The complexes have been investigated electrochemically and photophysically. Several new phenol-based ligands have been prepared by organic synthetic methods and characterised by various different methods. (author)

  7. Reactions of dihydridotetrakis(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II) with olefins and isolation of new ruthenium-olefin complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Sanshiro; Yamamoto, Akio

    1976-01-01

    Dihydridotetrakis(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium (II), RuH 2 (PPh 3 ) 4 , reacts with olefins (ethylene, propylene, stylene and butadiene) to give olefin-coordinated complexes of the type, Ru(olefin)(PPh 3 ) 3 and equimolar amounts of their hydrogenation products per mol of the dihydride complex. The olefin coordinated with ruthenium can be exchanged with other olefins. Olefin-coordinated complexes easily react with molecular hydrogen to afford tetrahydridotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium, RuH 4 (PPh 3 ) 3 , releasing alkane at room temperature, Under hydrogen atmosphere catalytic hydrogenation of the olefins smoothly takes place with RuH 2 (PPh 3 ) 4 . (Ethylene)tris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(0) reacts with methyl iodide to give propylene and a trace of butadiene along with methane, ethylene, and small amounts of ethane and butenes. The formation of propylene suggests that oxidative addition involving cleavage of the C-H bond of ethylene to ruthenium giving a hydridovinyl complex may be taking place. Reactions of Ru(C 2 H 4 )(PPh 3 ) 3 with methyl-d 3 iodide and ethyl iodide, and of Ru(C 3 H 6 )(PPh 3 ) 3 with methyl iodide were examined to test the generality of this type of reaction. The reaction of Ru(C 2 H 4 )(PPh 3 ) 3 with CD 3 I released CD 4 and CD 2 H 2 together with CD 3 H suggesting the involvement of α-hydrogen abstraction. (auth.)

  8. Ruthenium Dioxide Catalysts for the Selective Oxidation of Benzylamine to Benzonitrile: Investigating the Effect of Ruthenium Loading on Physical and Catalytic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Emily Catherine; Schill, Leonhard; Riisager, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of benzylamine to benzonitrile was studied in batch and continuous flow processes using ruthenium dioxide catalysts with varying ruthenium loadings. Increased conversions were observed in the continuous flow process compared with the batch process (up to 100% in the ......The oxidative dehydrogenation of benzylamine to benzonitrile was studied in batch and continuous flow processes using ruthenium dioxide catalysts with varying ruthenium loadings. Increased conversions were observed in the continuous flow process compared with the batch process (up to 100......% in the flow process compared with up to 92% in the batch process), with increased selectivity to benzonitrile (82 and 65%, respectively) and benzonitrile yields (84 and 58%, respectively). The major by-product was N-benzylidenebenzylamine. The ruthenium loading in the catalyst was successfully optimised...... and the most active catalyst had a ruthenium loading of 2.5-3.5 wt%....

  9. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  10. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  11. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant

  12. Long-term behaviour of radioactive nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Report of recent advances in Europe, regarding the long-term development of radioactive nuclides in the environment. The corresponding scientific findings from three projects - Peace, Landscape and Epora (involving 18 European laboratories) - have been collected together. These projects were managed by the IPSN for the European Commission (DG XII) in the framework of the programme 'Surete de la fission nucleaire' (Nuclear fission safety programme). (author)

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and physicochemical properties of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikhtiarenko, A., E-mail: dikhtiarenkoalla@uniovi.es [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Khainakov, S.A.; Garcia, J.R.; Gimeno, J. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Pedro, I. de; Fernandez, J. Rodriguez [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Blanco, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ruthenium nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average size of the nanoparticles are depend on the reducing agent used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic response seems to be dominated by a paramagnetic contribution characteristic of the band electronic magnetism of the ruthenium(0) nanoparticles. - Abstract: The synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles in hydrothermal conditions using mild reducing agents (succinic acid, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate) is reported. The shape of the nanoparticles depends on the type of the reducing agent, while the size is more influenced by the pH of the medium. The magnetic response seems to be dominated by a paramagnetic contribution characteristic of the band electronic magnetism of the nanoparticles.

  14. Confinement of ruthenium oxides volatilized during nuclear fuels reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, E.T. Jr.; Longo, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    While many materials have been suggested and employed as trapping agents for gaseous oxides of fission product ruthenium volatilized during nuclear fuels reprocessing, none that is known to form thermodynamically stable compounds with rutheniunm has been utilized. We have employed alkaline earth metal compounds for this purpose because of their ability to form stable mixed metal oxide phases with ruthenium. Results of experiments in which RuO 4 was volatilized from either a solid source (RuO 2 .xH 2 O) or from solution [Ru(NO)(NO 3 ) 3 ] in HNO 3 and passed through beds of alkaline earth metal carbonates and calcium oxide held at 600 to 750 0 C have demonstrated that compounds of formulation MRuO 3 (M = calcium, strontium, barium) are formed. Under oxidizing conditions, these materials exist as stable ceramic phases, whereas under reducing conditions, they are transformed into intimate mixtures of the alkaline earth metal oxide and nonvolatile ruthenium metal

  15. Device for separating ruthenium ion from spent fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Sasahira, Akira; Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Fumio.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To separate plutonium ions efficiently and selectively from organic solvent containing tributyl phosphate used in the main step of reprocessing process. Constitution: The device comprises, as the main constituent factor, a liquid-liquid contact device for bringing not water soluble organic solvent into contact with a nitric acid solution of spent fuel substances and a liquid-liquid contact-separation device for bringing an organic solvent solution containing spent fuel substances separated with nitric acid into contact again with nitric acid. Then, a device is disposed between two liquid-liquid contact devices for staying ruthenium ions and organic solvent for a sufficient time. In this way, ruthenium ions in the organic solvent containing butyl phosphate are gradually converted into complex compounds combined with tributyl phosphate thereby enabling to separate ruthenium ions efficiently and remarkably reduce the corrosion of equipments. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B F [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A P [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  17. Method of processing radioactive nuclide-containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Masahide; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo; Suzuki, Kazunori; Todo, Fukuzo; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive nuclides in to a much compact state and facilitate the storage. Method: Liquid wastes such as drain liquids generated from a nuclear power plant at a low density of 1 x 10 -6 - 10 -4 μCi/ml are previously brought into contact with a chelate type ion exchange resin such as of phenolic resin or ion exchange resin to adsorb the radioactive nuclides on the resin and the nuclides are eluted with sulfuric acid or the like to obtain liquid concentrates. The liquid concentrates are electrolyzed in an ordinary electrolytic facility using platinum or the like as the anode, Al or the like as the cathode, under the presence of 1 - 20 g/l of non-radioactive heavy metals such as Co and Ni in the liquid and while adjusting pH to 2 - 8. The electrolysis liquid residue is returned again to the electrolysis tank as it is or in the form of precipitates coagulated with a polymeric floculant. The supernatant liquid upon floculating treatment is processed with the chelate type ion exchange resin into hazardless liquid. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Modelling the reactive-path between pyrite and radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Wu Shijun; Dou Shunmei; Chen Fanrong; Yang Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of redox sensitive nuclides is largely dependent on their valence state. The radionuclides that make the dominant contributions to final dose calculations are redox sensitive. Almost all the radionuclides (except 129 I) have higher mobility at high valence state, and correspond to immobilization at low valence state due to the much lower solubility. Pyrite is an ubiquitous and stable mineral in geological environment, and would be used as a low-cost long time reductant for the immobilization of radionuclides. However, pyrite oxidation is supposed to generate acid, which will enhance the mobility of nuclides. In this paper, the reaction path of the reactions between radionuclides (U, Se and Tc) and pyrite in the groundwater from Wuyi well in Beishan area of China has been simulated using geochemical modeling software. According to the results, pyrite can reduce high valence nuclides to a dinky-level effectively, with the pH slightly increasing under anaerobic condition that is common in deep nuclear waste repositories. (authors)

  19. Transient nuclide release through the bentonite barrier -SKB 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, A.; Widen, H.

    1991-05-01

    A study of near-field radionuclide migration is presented. The study has been performed in the context of the SKB91 study which is a comprehensive performance assessment of disposal of spent fuel. The objective of the present study has been to enable the assessment of which nuclides can be screened out because they decay to insignificant levels already in the near-field of the repository. A numerical model has been used which describes the transient transport of radionuclides through a small hole in a HLW canister imbedded in bentonite clay into a fracture in the rock outside the bentonite. Calculations for more than twenty nuclides, nuclides with both high and low solubility have been made. The effect of sorption in the bentonite backfill is included. The size of the penetration hole was assumed to be constant up to time when the calculations were terminated, 500000 year after the deposition. The mass transport rate is controlled by diffusion. The model is three dimensional. The report describes the geometry of the modelled system, the assumptions concerning the transport resistances at the boundary conditions, the handling of the source term and obtained release curves. (au)

  20. Soil nuclide distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Beals, D.I.; Thibault, D.H.; O'Connor, P.

    1984-12-01

    Environmental assessments of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analysis of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the disposal vault, the buffer and backfill, the plutonic rock, and the consolidated and unconsolidated overburden use models requiring distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the geological and man-made materials. This report presents element-specific soil distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions, based on a detailed survey of the literature. Radioactive elements considered were actinium, americium, bismuth, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, iodine, lead, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, plutonium, polonium, protactinium, radium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, terbium, thorium, tin, uranium and zirconium. Stable elements considered were antimony, boron, cadmium, tellurium and zinc. Where sufficient data were available, distribution coefficients and their distributions are given for sand, silt, clay and organic soils. Our values are recommended for use in assessments for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  1. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the 'Mayak' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  2. Thermodynamic data bases for multivalent elements: An example for ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rard, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A careful consideration and understanding of fundamental chemistry, thermodynamics, and kinetics is absolutely essential when modeling predominance regions and solubility behavior of elements that exhibit a wide range of valence states. Examples of this are given using the ruthenium-water system at 298.15 K, for which a critically assessed thermochemical data base is available. Ruthenium exhibits the widest range of known aqueous solution valence states. Known solid anhydrous binary oxides of ruthenium are crystalline RuO 2 , RuO 4 , and possibly RuO 3 (thin film), and known hydroxides/hydrated oxides (all amorphous) are Ru(OH) 3 . H 2 O, RuO 2 . 2H 2 O, RuO 2 . H 2 O, and a poorly characterized Ru(V) hydrous oxide. Although the other oxides, hydroxides, and hydrous oxides are generally obtained as precipitates from aqueous solutions, they are thermodynamically unstable with regard to RuO 2 (cr) formation. Characterized aqueous species of ruthenium include RuO 4 (which slowly oxidizes water and which dissociates as a weak acid), RuO 4 - and RuO 4 2- (which probably contain lesser amounts of RuO 3 (OH) 2 - and RuO 3 (OH) 2 2- , respectively, and other species), Ru(OH) 2 2+ , Ru 4 (OH) 12 4+ , Ru(OH) 4 , Ru 3+ , Ru(OH) 2+ , Ru(OH) 2 + , Ru 2+ , and some hydroxytetramers with formal ruthenium valences of 3.75 ≥ Z ≥ 2.0. Potential pH diagrams of the predominance regions change significantly with concentration due to polymerization/depolymerization reactions. Failure to consider the known chemistry of ruthenium can yield large differences in predicted solubilities

  3. Method of removing clogging materials due to ruthenium precipitates and sealing them in device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Sasahira, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    In a facility, such as a reprocessing facility, for processing a solution containing a great amount of ruthenium, precipitates due to evaporated ruthenium and cooled NO x are brought into contact with each other to decompose the precipitates due to the evaporated ruthenium. Precipitates due to ruthenium evaporated from the solution are reacted with cooled NO x , and the precipitates of ruthenium are decomposed and returned to the solution in the form of extremely fine particles together with recycling flow from the inner wall of the device. Since the precipitates of ruthenium returned to the solution are stable, they are no more evaporated and precipitated on the inner wall of the device. In the solution processing device having a possibility of clogging, clogging can be prevented and the precipitates of ruthenium can be sealed by decomposing them. (T.M.)

  4. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R., E-mail: r.colomaribera@utwente.nl; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-08-07

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO{sub 2} films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  5. Computer programs to make a Chart of the nuclides for WWW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Horiguchi, Takayoshi

    1999-06-01

    Computer programs to make a chart of the nuclides for World Wide Web (WWW) have been developed. The programs make a data file for WWW chart of the nuclides from a data file containing nuclide information in the format similar to ENSDF, by filling unknown half-lives with calculated ones. Then, the WWW chart of the nuclides in the gif format is created from the data file. The programs to make html files and image map files, to select a chart of selected nuclides, and to show various information of nuclides are included in the system. All the programs are written in C language. This report describes the formats of files, the programs and 1998 issue of Chart of the Nuclides made by means of the present programs. (author)

  6. Development of a method for analyzing traces of ruthenium in plant materials and determination of the transfer factors soil/plant for ruthenium compounds from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasius, E.; Huth, R.; Neumann, W.

    1988-01-01

    In an artificial humous and sandy soil spiked with 106 Ru as RuO 2 and RuCl 3 , pasture grass was grown under artificial illumination in our laboratory. The amounts of ruthenium taken up by the plants were determined by γ-spectrometry. For open-air investigations with pasture grass, wheat and potatoes inactive ruthenium(III) chloride and ruthenium nitrosylchloride were used. Ruthenium was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) after destroying the organic material and concentrating the solution. The concentration and chemical form of the ruthenium exert an unimportant influence on the transfer factor. For the pasture-grass, the stems of wheat and the weed of potatoes it amounts to 0.00005 to 0.0015, for the ear of wheat to about 0.00005. In peeled potatoes there was no ruthenium detectable, therefore the limit of detection leads to a transfer factor ≤ 0.00001. So it is evident that ruthenium is little available for the roots of the plants. In the event of an accident in a nuclear plant the uptake of radioactive ruthenium by roots has only negligible radioecological consequences. This applies even if 50 years of ruthenium enrichment in the soil are assumed. (orig./RB)

  7. Application of the chemical properties of ruthenium to decontamination processes; L'application des proprietes chimiques du ruthenium a des procedes de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, A.; Berger, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The chemical properties of ruthenium in the form of an aqueous solution of the nitrate and of organic tributylphosphate solution are reviewed. From this data, some known examples are given: they demonstrate the processes of separation or of elimination of ruthenium from radioactive waste. (authors) [French] Les proprietes chimiques du ruthenium en solutions aqueuses nitriques et en solutions organiques de tributylphosphate, sont passees en revue. A partir de ces donnees, quelques exemples connus sont cites: ils exposent des procedes de separation ou d'elimination du ruthenium de dechets radioactifs. (auteurs)

  8. Application of the chemical properties of ruthenium to decontamination processes; L'application des proprietes chimiques du ruthenium a des procedes de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, A; Berger, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The chemical properties of ruthenium in the form of an aqueous solution of the nitrate and of organic tributylphosphate solution are reviewed. From this data, some known examples are given: they demonstrate the processes of separation or of elimination of ruthenium from radioactive waste. (authors) [French] Les proprietes chimiques du ruthenium en solutions aqueuses nitriques et en solutions organiques de tributylphosphate, sont passees en revue. A partir de ces donnees, quelques exemples connus sont cites: ils exposent des procedes de separation ou d'elimination du ruthenium de dechets radioactifs. (auteurs)

  9. Isomers in neutron-rich A ∼ 190 nuclides from 208Pb fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Caamano, M.; Banu, A.; Walker, P.M.; Morton, N.H.; Regan, P. H.; Regan, Patrick H; Pfutzner, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Gerl, J.; Hellstrom, M.; Mayet, P.; Miernik, K.; Mineva, M.N.; Aprahamian, A.; Benlliure, J.; Bruce, A.M.; Butler, P.A.; Cortina Gil, D.; Cullen, D.M.; Doring, J.; Enqvist, T.; Fox, C.; Garces Narro, J.; Geissel, H.; Gelletly, W.; Giovinazzo, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Grzywacz, R.; Kleinbohl, A.; Korten, W.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lucas, R.; Mach, H.; O'Leary, C.D.; De Oliveira, F.; Pearson, C.J.; Rejmund, F.

    2004-01-01

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of 208 Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A ∼ 190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of gamma-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in 188 Ta, 190 W, 192 Re, 193 Re, 195 Os, 197 Ir, 198 Ir, 200 Pt, 201 Pt, 202 Pt and 203 Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for 174 Er, 175 Er, 185 Hf, 191 Re, 194 Re and 199 Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles gamma-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In 200 Pt and 201 Pt, the assignments are supported by gamma-gamma coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics

  10. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Song, Byung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2011-01-01

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241 Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  11. Cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by metallo-intercalator ruthenium(II) complexes containing chloro-substituted phenylazopyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhukeaw, Tidarat; Temboot, Pornvichai; Hansongnern, Kanidtha; Ratanaphan, Adisorn

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Breast cancers with a BRCA1 mutation are also frequently triple-negative. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies and known specific molecular targets for this aggressive breast cancer subtype. To address this concern, we have explored the cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells, and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by the ruthenium(II) complexes containing the bidentate ligand, 5-chloro-2-(phenylazo)pyridine. Triple-negative MDA-MB-231, BRCA1-defective HCC1937 and BRCA1-competent MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were treated with ruthenium(II) complexes. The cytoxoxicity of ruthenium-induced breast cancer cells was evaluated by a real time cellular analyzer (RTCA). Cellular uptake of ruthenium complexes was determined by ICP-MS. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed using propidium iodide and Annexin V flow cytometry. The N-terminal BRCA1 RING protein was used for conformational and functional studies using circular dichroism and in vitro ubiquitination. HCC1937 cells were significantly more sensitive to the ruthenium complexes than the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Treatment demonstrated a higher degree of cytotoxicity than cisplatin against all three cell lines. Most ruthenium atoms were retained in the nuclear compartment, particularly in HCC1937 cells, after 24 h of incubation, and produced a significant block at the G2/M phase. An increased induction of apoptotic cells as well as an upregulation of p53 mRNA was observed in all tested breast cancer cells. It was of interest that BRCA1 mRNA and replication of BRCA1-defective cells were downregulated. Changes in the conformation and binding constants of ruthenium-BRCA1 adducts were observed, causing inactivation of the RING heterodimer BRCA1/BARD1-mediated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity

  12. Ruthenium porphyrin-induced photodamage in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoeva, Vanya; Siksjø, Monica; Sæterbø, Kristin G; Melø, Thor Bernt; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Lindgren, Mikael; Gederaas, Odrun A

    2016-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment for solid malignant and flat tumors. Light activated sensitizers catalyze photochemical reactions that produce reactive oxygen species which can cause cancer cell death. In this work we investigated the photophysical properties of the photosensitizer ruthenium(II) porphyrin (RuP), along with its PDT efficiency onto rat bladder cancer cells (AY27). Optical spectroscopy verified that RuP is capable to activate singlet oxygen via blue and red absorption bands and inter system crossing (ISC) to the triplet state. In vitro experiments on AY27 indicated increased photo-toxicity of RuP (20μM, 18h incubation) after cell illumination (at 435nm), as a function of blue light exposure. Cell survival fraction was significantly reduced to 14% after illumination of 20μM RuP with 15.6J/cm(2), whereas the "dark toxicity" of 20μM RuP was 17%. Structural and morphological changes of cells were observed, due to RuP accumulation, as well as light-dependent cell death was recorded by confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry verified that PDT-RuP (50μM) triggered significant photo-induced cellular destruction with a photoxicity of (93%±0.9%). Interestingly, the present investigation of RuP-PDT showed that the dominating mode of cell death is necrosis. RuP "dark toxicity" compared to the conventional chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin was higher, both evaluated by the MTT assay (24h). In conclusion, the present investigation shows that RuP with or without photoactivation induces cell death of bladder cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of branched fcc/hcp ruthenium nanostructures and their catalytic activity in ammonia borane hydrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlYami, Noktan

    2018-01-30

    Several systems have shown the ability to stabilize uncommon crystal structures during the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. By tailoring the nanoparticle crystal structure, the physical and chemical properties of the particles can also be controlled. Herein, we first synthesized branched nanoparticles of mixed hcp/fcc ruthenium, which were formed using tungsten carbonyl [W(CO)6] as both a reducing agent and a source of carbon monoxide. The branched particles were formed from multiple particulates off a central core. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) clearly showed that the branched structures consisted of aligned hcp crystal domains, a mixture of fcc and hcp crystal domains with several defects and misalignments, and particles that contained multiple cores and branches. Branched particles were also formed with molybdenum carbonyl [Mo(CO)6], and faceted particles of hcp and fcc particles were formed with Re2(CO)10 as a carbon monoxide source. Without metal carbonyls, small particles of spherical hcp ruthenium were produced, and their size could be controlled by the selection of the precursor. The ruthenium nanoparticles were tested for ammonia borane hydrolysis; the branched nanoparticles were more reactive for catalytic hydrogen evolution than the faceted hcp/fcc nanoparticles or the spherical hcp nanoparticles. This work showcases the potential of crystal phase engineering of transition metal nanoparticles by different carbon monoxide precursors for tailoring their catalytic reactivity.

  14. Disposable biosensor based on cathodic electrochemiluminescence of tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) for uric acid determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesta-Claver, J.; Rodríguez-Gómez, R. [ECsens, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Campus Fuentenueva, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Capitán-Vallvey, L.F., E-mail: lcapitan@ugr.es [ECsens, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Campus Fuentenueva, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Cathodic ECL offers conventional and non-aggressive analysis conditions. ► The ECL hydrogen peroxide/ruthenium complex system for uric acid determination is novel. ► The ruthenium complex is electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed electrodes. ► The quantification of the uric acid is based on a Stern–Volmer type equation. ► The use of the cathodic ECL working methodology reduces interferences during analysis. -- Abstract: A new method for uric acid (UA) determination based on the quenching of the cathodic ECL of the tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)–uricase system is described. The biosensor is based on a double-layer design containing first tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}) electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed cells and uricase in chitosan as a second layer. The uric acid biosensing is based on the ECL quenching produced by uric acid over the cathodic ECL caused by immobilized Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} in the presence of uricase. The use of a −1.1 V pulse for 1 s with a dwelling time of 10 s makes it possible to estimate the initial enzymatic rate, which is used as the analytical signal. The Stern–Volmer type calibration function shows a dynamic range from 1.0 × 10{sup −5} to 1.0 × 10{sup −3} M with a limit of detection of 3.1 × 10{sup −6} M and an accuracy of 13.6% (1.0 × 10{sup −4} M, n = 5) as relative standard deviation. Satisfactory results were obtained for urine samples, creating an affordable alternative for uric acid determination.

  15. Disposable biosensor based on cathodic electrochemiluminescence of tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) for uric acid determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesta-Claver, J.; Rodríguez-Gómez, R.; Capitán-Vallvey, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cathodic ECL offers conventional and non-aggressive analysis conditions. ► The ECL hydrogen peroxide/ruthenium complex system for uric acid determination is novel. ► The ruthenium complex is electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed electrodes. ► The quantification of the uric acid is based on a Stern–Volmer type equation. ► The use of the cathodic ECL working methodology reduces interferences during analysis. -- Abstract: A new method for uric acid (UA) determination based on the quenching of the cathodic ECL of the tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)–uricase system is described. The biosensor is based on a double-layer design containing first tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ) electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed cells and uricase in chitosan as a second layer. The uric acid biosensing is based on the ECL quenching produced by uric acid over the cathodic ECL caused by immobilized Ru(bpy) 3 2+ in the presence of uricase. The use of a −1.1 V pulse for 1 s with a dwelling time of 10 s makes it possible to estimate the initial enzymatic rate, which is used as the analytical signal. The Stern–Volmer type calibration function shows a dynamic range from 1.0 × 10 −5 to 1.0 × 10 −3 M with a limit of detection of 3.1 × 10 −6 M and an accuracy of 13.6% (1.0 × 10 −4 M, n = 5) as relative standard deviation. Satisfactory results were obtained for urine samples, creating an affordable alternative for uric acid determination

  16. The influence of a new fabrication procedure on the catalytic activity of ruthenium-selenium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Yuan, W.; Scott, K.

    2006-01-01

    A new procedure has been introduced to enhance catalytic activity of ruthenium-selenium electro-catalysts for oxygen reduction, in which materials are treated under hydrogen atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The characterisation using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy or energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy exhibited that the treatment at 400 deg. C made catalysts denser while their porous nature remained, led to a good degree of crystallinity and an optimum Se:Ru ratio. The half cell test confirms feasibility of the new procedure; the catalyst treated at 400 deg. C gave the highest reduction current (55.9 mA cm -2 at -0.4 V) and a low methanol oxidation effect coefficient (3.8%). The direct methanol fuel cell with the RuSe 400 deg. C cathode catalyst (2 mg RuSe cm -2 ) generated a power density of 33.8 mW cm -2 using 2 M methanol and 2 bar oxygen at 90 deg. C. The new procedure produced the catalysts with low decay rates. The best sample was compared to the Pt and to the reported ruthenium-selenium catalyst. Possible reasons for the observations are discussed

  17. The trans influence in mer-trichloronitridobis(triphenylarsine)ruthenium(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The title compound, mer-[RuCl(3)N(C(18)H(15)As)(2)], is the first structurally characterized example of a nitride complex in which ruthenium is six-coordinated to monodentate ligands only. The Ru[triple-bond]N bond length [1.6161 (15) A] is relatively long, and the trans influence of the nitride...

  18. Polystyrene with pendant mixed functional ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M.; Schubert, U.S.

    2002-01-01

    A vinyl substituted 2,2:6,2-terpyridine and a mixed, bifunctional ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complex bearing a vinyl and a hydroxymethyl group are utilized as comonomers for radical copolymerization with styrene. The resulting polymers are characterized by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and gel

  19. Electroerosion method for preparation of saturated solutions of ruthenium hydroxochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalev, V.A.; Andrianov, G.A.; Zhadanov, B.V.; Ryazanov, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pilot plant for carrying out electroerosion processes using pulse current of high unit power is developed. The solution process of metallic Ru in concentrated HCl is investigated. The possibility of preparation of ruthenium hydroxochloride solutions of 300 g/l concentration is established; it gives the possibility of Ru solution under conditions similar to the process of salting out

  20. A new approach to synthesize supported ruthenium phosphides for hydrodesulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingfang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yin, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Linxi; Zhang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We bring out a new method to synthesize noble metal phosphides at low temperature. • Both RuP and Ru_2P were synthesized using triphenylphosphine as phosphorus sources. • Ru_2P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. • RuP/SiO_2 prepared by new method had better HDS activity to that by TPR method. - Abstract: Supported noble metal ruthenium phosphides were synthesized by one-step H_2-thermal treatment method using triphenylphosphine (TPP) as phosphorus sources at low temperatures. Two phosphides RuP and Ru_2P can be prepared by this method via varying the molar ratio of metal salt and TPP. The as-prepared phosphides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-temperature N_2 adsorption, CO chemisorption and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The supported ruthenium phosphides prepared by new method and conventional method together with contradistinctive metallic ruthenium were evaluated in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The catalytic results showed that metal-rich Ru_2P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. Besides this, ruthenium phosphide catalyst prepared by new method exhibited superior HDS activity to that prepared by conventional method.

  1. A new approach to synthesize supported ruthenium phosphides for hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingfang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Zhiqiang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yin, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Linxi [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Minghui, E-mail: zhangmh@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Kashgar University, Kashgar 844006 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We bring out a new method to synthesize noble metal phosphides at low temperature. • Both RuP and Ru{sub 2}P were synthesized using triphenylphosphine as phosphorus sources. • Ru{sub 2}P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. • RuP/SiO{sub 2} prepared by new method had better HDS activity to that by TPR method. - Abstract: Supported noble metal ruthenium phosphides were synthesized by one-step H{sub 2}-thermal treatment method using triphenylphosphine (TPP) as phosphorus sources at low temperatures. Two phosphides RuP and Ru{sub 2}P can be prepared by this method via varying the molar ratio of metal salt and TPP. The as-prepared phosphides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-temperature N{sub 2} adsorption, CO chemisorption and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The supported ruthenium phosphides prepared by new method and conventional method together with contradistinctive metallic ruthenium were evaluated in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The catalytic results showed that metal-rich Ru{sub 2}P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. Besides this, ruthenium phosphide catalyst prepared by new method exhibited superior HDS activity to that prepared by conventional method.

  2. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  3. An XPS study on ruthenium compounds and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, C.L.; Ragaini, V.; Cattania, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The binding energy (BE) of the relevant peaks of several ruthenium compounds have been measured with a monochromatic small spot XPS. The BE of the 3d 5/2 level of ruthenium is in the range 279.91-282.88 eV. The variation of BE is due either to the variation of the oxidation state or to the different counter-ion. A series of catalysts with varying amounts of ruthenium supported on alumina and prepared using different precursors was also analyzed. The presence of more ruthenium species other than the metal was observed. On the basis of the values previously obtained on unsupported compounds, the species with higher BE were assigned to oxides. On all the samples prepared from RuCl 3 , an additional peak at a very high BE (283.79 eV) has been observed. This peak is related to the presence of chlorine on the surface: it is suggested that it is related to a charge transfer interaction. The influence of this species on the CO reactivity in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Oxidation of ruthenium thin films using atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, A.P.; Bogan, J.; Brady, A.; Hughes, G.

    2015-12-31

    In this study, the use of atomic oxygen to oxidise ruthenium thin films is assessed. Atomic layer deposited (ALD) ruthenium thin films (~ 3 nm) were exposed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and the results were compared to the impact of exposures to molecular oxygen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal substantial oxidation of metallic ruthenium films to RuO{sub 2} at exposures as low as ~ 10{sup 2} L at 575 K when atomic oxygen was used. Higher exposures of molecular oxygen resulted in no metal oxidation highlighting the benefits of using atomic oxygen to form RuO{sub 2}. Additionally, the partial oxidation of these ruthenium films occurred at temperatures as low as 293 K (room temperature) in an atomic oxygen environment. - Highlights: • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxidation of Ru thin films • Oxidation of Ru thin films using atomic oxygen • Comparison between atomic oxygen and molecular oxygen treatments on Ru thin films • Fully oxidised RuO{sub 2} thin films formed with low exposures to atomic oxygen.

  5. The use of ruthenium in various fields of industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsin, N.M.

    1990-03-01

    Metallic ruthenium, its alloys, and compounds with other metals have a number of valuable and specific properties which allow the usage of ruthenium in various fields of modern technology, which is described here. In the atomic technology, Ru can be used in the building of reactors as a material of construction since its isotopes don't possess a high neutron capture cross section. Ruthenium is used for the preparation of γ- and β-ray emission sources. Isotopes Ru-103 and Ru-106 are widely used as tracers. They are successfully used for the monitoring of production, for the development of new technological and analytical methods of the extraction of Ru, for the cleansing of other valuable metals from Ru, for the monitoring of the thickness of Ru microfilm on the substrate, and for the monitoring of Ru losses in various processes. In the nuclear reactor, during the process of uranium and plutonium decay, large amounts of stable Ru isotopes are formed together with radioactive isotopes. In such a manner, a nuclear reactor can supply Ru. Special attention must be paid to the usage of direct coordination Ru compounds. Ru and its compounds possess a large number of very valuable properties, many of the secrets of Ru must still be discovered. It can be presumed that the demand for ruthenium will grow in the forthcoming years and the range and volume of its applications will increase

  6. Calculation device for amount of heavy element nuclide in reactor fuels and calculation method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Munenari.

    1995-01-01

    When there are two or more origins of deuterium nuclides in reactor fuels, there are disposed a memory device for an amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin in a noted fuel segment at a certain time point, a device for calculating the amount of nuclides for every origin and current neutron fluxes in the noted fuel segment, and a device for separating and then displaying the amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin. Equations for combustion are dissolved for every origin of the deuterium nuclides based on the amount of the deuterium nuclides for every origin and neutron fluxes, to calculate the current amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin. The amount of deuterium nuclides originated from uranium is calculated ignoring α-decay of curium, while the amount of deuterium nuclides originated from plutonium is calculated ignoring the generation of plutonium formed from neptunium. Deuterium nuclides can be measured and controlled accurately for every origin of the reactor fuels. Even when nuclear fuel materials have two or more nationalities, the measurement and control thereof can be conducted for every country. (N.H.)

  7. Ruthenium based redox flow battery for solar energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Roberts, Edward Pelham Lindfield; Bae, Chulheung; Saleem, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undivided redox flow battery employing porous graphite felt electrodes was used. → Ruthenium acetylacetonate dissolved in acetonitrile was the electrolyte. → Charge/discharge conditions were determined for both 0.02 M and 0.1 M electrolytes. → Optimum power output of 0.180 W was also determined for 0.1 M electrolyte. → 55% voltage efficiency was obtained when battery was full of electrolytes. -- Abstract: The technical performance for the operation of a stand alone redox flow battery system for solar energy storage is presented. An undivided reactor configuration has been employed along with porous graphite felt electrodes and ruthenium acetylacetonate as electrolyte in acetonitrile solvent. Limiting current densities are determined for concentrations of 0.02 M and 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate. Based on these, operating conditions for 0.02 M ruthenium acetylacetonate are determined as charging current density of 7 mA/cm 2 , charge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0072 cm/s (through the porous electrodes), discharge current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and discharge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0045 cm/s. An optimum power output of 35 mW is also obtained upon discharge at 2.1 mA/cm 2 . With an increase in the concentration of ruthenium species from 0.02 M to 0.1 M, the current densities and power output are higher by a factor of five approximately (at same superficial velocities) due to higher mass transport phenomenon. Moreover at 0.02 M concentration the voltage efficiency is better for battery full of electrolytes prior to charging (52.1%) in comparison to an empty battery (40.5%) due to better mass transport phenomenon. Voltage efficiencies are higher as expected at concentrations of 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate (55% when battery is full of electrolytes and 48% when empty) showing that the all-ruthenium redox flow battery has some promise for future applications in solar energy storage. Some improvements for the

  8. Notre Dame Nuclear Database: A New Chart of Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Khouw, Timothy; Fasano, Patrick; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. We are creating a database, the Notre Dame Nuclear Database, which can store theoretical and experimental datasets. We place emphasis on storing metadata and user interaction with the database. Users are able to search in addition to the specific nuclear datum, the author(s), the facility where the measurements were made, the institution of the facility, and device or method/technique used. We also allow users to interact with the database by providing online search, an interactive nuclide chart, and a command line interface. The nuclide chart is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We achieve this by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the nuclides and color them accordingly. Search capabilities can be applied dynamically to the chart by using Python to communicate with MySQL, allowing for customization. Users can save the customized chart they create to any image format. These features provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before in a manner that is much easier and fully detailed. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.

  9. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.; Scheler, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  10. Atomic and nuclear parameters of single electron capture decaying nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic and nuclear parameters of the following nuclides which decay by electron capture have been calculated: 37 A r, 41 C a, 49 V , 53 M n, 55 F e,59 N i, 68Ge,82 S r, 97 T c, 118 T e, 131 C s, 137 L a, 140 N d, 157 T b, 165 E r, 193 p t, 194 H g, and 205 P h The evaluation rules are included in the first part of the paper. The values and the associated uncertainties of the following parameters have been tabulated: decay energy, electron capture probabilities, fluorescence yield, electron emission and X-ray emission. (Author) 27 refs

  11. On the measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in cometary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, G.F.; Englert, P.A.J.; Reedy, R.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C.P.; Arnold, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Determinations of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in cometary material will help to define the recent surface history of the comet and its exposure to cosmic rays. In particular, the rates for the removal or mixing of surface material could be studied, and any variations in cosmic-ray intensity implied by the data could be used to infer orbital changes during the last few million years. The measurement of the shorter-lived isotopes poses technical challenges that should be addressed now. The measurement of longer-lived isotopes will be straightforward provided that rates of mass loss are not too high. 46 refs., 2 figs

  12. Chemical concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide from solutions with low salt background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, Yu.S.; Ter-Akop'yan, G.M.; Popeko, A.G.; Drobina, T.P.; Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experiments on further concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide, the concentrates of which form the Cheleken geothermal brines have been obtained, are presented. The conclusions are drown about the chemical nature of a new spontaneously fissionable nuclide. It is a chalcophile element which copreipitates with sulphides of copper, lead, arsenic and mercury from weakly acid solutions. The behaviour of the new nuclide in sulphide systems in many respects is similar to the behaviour of polonium, astatine and probably of bismuth. The most probable stable valence of the new nuclide varies from +1 up to +3. The data available on the chemical behaviour of the new nuclide as well as the analysis over contamination by spontaneously fissionable isotopes permit to state that the new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide does not relate to the known isotopes

  13. Multi-pathway model of nuclide transport in fractured media and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Yang Zeping; Li Jinxuan

    2010-01-01

    In order to know the law of nuclide transport in fracture system, the basic differential equations of nuclide transport in fracture and matrix were obtained based on the dual media theory, and the general analytic solutions of nuclide transport in single fractured media with exponential attenuation source in fracture were deduced by Laplace transform, and one-dimensional multi-pathway model of nuclide transport was proposed based on dual media theory and stochastic distribution of fracture parameters. The transport of Th-229, Cs-135 and Se-79 were simulated with this model, the relative concentration of these nuclides in fracture system were predicted. Further more, it was deduced that aperture and velocity can distinctly influence transport of nuclide by comparing with the results which were simulated by single fracture model. (authors)

  14. Water hyacinth : the suitable aquatic weed for radioactive nuclide absorption in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalermsuk, Somporn; Jungpattanawadee, Komgrid; Tongrong, Thanachai

    2003-06-01

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by aquatic weeds in Khon Kaen Province. The best aquatic weed would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities in natural water resources. Seven kinds of aquatic weeds in the same site were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450 οC. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of aquatic weeds. According to this study, water hyacinth, from seven aquatic weeds, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The water hyacinth with 30 cm leaves in length can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  15. Heavy nuclide synthesis by neutrons in astrophysics and by screened protons in host metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.; Miley, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    The similarity of the abundance of heavy nuclei in the Universe with that of the nuclei produced in the fully reproducible reactions of protons in host metals like palladium, nickel or others is evident and can be described by the same exponential function of the distribution probability N(Z) depending on the proton number Z of the nuclides. This agrees with the earlier derived consequence of a 3 n relation for magic numbers and an alternative foundation of the nuclear shell model. Compared to femtometer-attosecond reactions in the big bang, the low energy nuclear reactions in the host metals have picometer distances and megasecond duration. For this picometer distance, a combination of the swimming electron layer and Debye screening model with a metal-plasma dielectric model is presented. (author)

  16. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, I.J. E-mail: i.graham@gns.cri.nz; Barry, B.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Whitehead, N.E

    2000-10-01

    {sup 7}Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  17. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides in the fuel cycle of Brest-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Filin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived nuclides produced as a result of nuclear generation, should be set up proceeding from the principle of reasonable sufficiency, expressed as radiation equivalence between the radwaste sent to disposal and source natural uranium. In this case, introduction of fast reactors of new generation (such as BREST or other reactors based on similar philosophy) will resolve transmutation problems even with the thermal-to-fast reactor capacity ratio of 2:1. The authors of the 'Strategy of nuclear power development in Russia' foresee, and substantiate their prediction, that fast reactors of the new generation will account for no less than 2/3 of nuclear capacity in future large-scale nuclear power sector. Fast reactors will be the basis of a transmutation fuel cycle, which will remove the need of creating additional transmutation facilities. (author)

  18. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  19. ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code

  20. Exact error estimation for solutions of nuclide chain equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachihara, Hidekazu; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The exact solution of nuclide chain equations within arbitrary figures is obtained for a linear chain by employing the Bateman method in the multiple-precision arithmetic. The exact error estimation of major calculation methods for a nuclide chain equation is done by using this exact solution as a standard. The Bateman, finite difference, Runge-Kutta and matrix exponential methods are investigated. The present study confirms the following. The original Bateman method has very low accuracy in some cases, because of large-scale cancellations. The revised Bateman method by Siewers reduces the occurrence of cancellations and thereby shows high accuracy. In the time difference method as the finite difference and Runge-Kutta methods, the solutions are mainly affected by the truncation errors in the early decay time, and afterward by the round-off errors. Even though the variable time mesh is employed to suppress the accumulation of round-off errors, it appears to be nonpractical. Judging from these estimations, the matrix exponential method is the best among all the methods except the Bateman method whose calculation process for a linear chain is not identical with that for a general one. (author)

  1. WIS decontamination factor demonstration test with radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive Waste Incineration System (WIS) with suspension combustion is noticed as effective volume reduction technology of low level radiactive wastes that are increasing every year. In order to demonstrate the decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter used on WIS, this test has been carried out with the test facilities as joint research of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Miscellaneous combustible waste and power resin, to which 5 nuclides (Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-137) were added, were used as samples for incineration. As the result of the test, it was verified that Decontamination Factor (DF) of the single stage ceramic filter was usually kept over 10 5 for every nuclide, and from the results of above DF, over 10 8 is expected for real commercial plant as a total system. Therefore, it is realized that the off-gas clean up system of the WIS composed of only single stage of ceramic filter is capable of sufficiently efficient decontamination of exhaust gas to be released to stack. (author)

  2. The clinical application of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Tang Mingdeng; Lin Duanyu; Ni Leichun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application value of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphoma. Methods: 71 cases of patients were diagnosed by pathology as malignant lymphoma, among whom there were 8 cases of Hodgkin disease (HL) and 63 cases of non-Hodgkin disease (NHL). The examinations were performed from 2.5 to 6 hours later after the intravenous injection of 99m Tc-MDP (555-925 MBq). Results: 31 cases were bone-infiltrating lesions, including 3 cases of HL and 28 cases of NHL. The total number of the focus was 103, except 2 cases of bone lack, including 35 foci in vertebral column (34.65%), 30 foci in limb and joint (29.70%), 14 foci in rib (13.86%), 13 foci in elvis (12.0%), 5 foci in skull (4.95%) and 4 foci in sternum (3.96%). Conclusion: The nuclide bone imaging has a high value in the clinical stage, therapeutic observation and prognosis of bone-infiltrating malignant lymphoma. (authors)

  3. Contribution of short-lived nuclides to decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi

    1987-01-01

    Comments are made on the calculation of decay heat, centering on evaluation of average decay energy. It is difficult to obtain sufficiently useful decay diagrams of short lived nucleides. High-energy levels are often missing in inferior decay diagrams, leading to an overestimation of the intensity of beta-rays at low-energy levels. Such an overestimation or underestimation due to the inferiority of a decay diagram is referred to as pandemonium effect. The pandemonium effect can be assessed by means of the ratio of the measured energy of the highest level of the daughter nuclide to the Q β -value of the beta-decay. When a satisfactory decay diagram cannot be obtained, the average decay energy has to be estimated by theoretical calculation. The gross theory for beta-decay proposed by Yamada and Takahashi is employed for the calculation. To carry out the calculation according to this theory, it is required to determine the value for the parameter Q 00 , the lowest energy of the daughter nuclide that meets the selection rule for beta-decay. Currently, Q 00 to be used for this purpose is estimated from data on the energy of the lowest level found in a decay diagram, even if it is inferior. Some examples of calculation of decay heat using the average beta- or gamma-ray energy are shown and compared with measurements. (author)

  4. Comparative test on nuclide migration in aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Zhao Yingjie; Wu Qinghua; Wang Zhiming; Hao Janzhong; Ji Shaowei; Guo Liangtian; Guo Zhiming

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the influence of different tracer source layer material on nuclide migration behavior, the comparative test on stable elements Sr, Nd and Ce migration in aerated loess zone was carried out using loess and arenaceous quartz as the tracer source layer materials respectively. The test lasted 470 days. During the test, four times of sampling were done. The testing results indicate that under artificial sprinkling of 5 mm/h and 3 h/d, Nd and Ce not only in loess tracer source layer but also in arenaceous quartz tracer source layer did not obviously downwards migrated. Concentration peak of Sr for loess layer migrated down about 15 cm in 470 d (mass center moved down about 10 cm) but for arenaceous quartz layer the concentration peak of Sr did not obviously migrated down (mass center moved down about 2.7 cm). The test results show that very thin arenaceous quartz layer with thickness of 7 mm is also able to shield unsaturated water flow obviously. This is the main reason why the nuclides in arenaceous quartz layer migrate down slowly

  5. Calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.Q.; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a previous paper. A fit to the calculated minimum critical mass data using the extended criticality parameter is the basis of the revised method. The solution density (grams/liter) for the minimum critical mass is also obtained by a fit to calculated values. Input to the calculation consists of the Maxwellian averaged fission and absorption cross sections and the thermal values of nubar. The revised method gives more accurate values than the original method does for both the minimum critical mass and the solution densities. The OB-1 method has been extended to calculate the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass for 12 different fissile nuclides. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass, either in percent or grams. Results have been obtained for U-233, U-235, Pu-236, Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-242m, Cm-243, Cm-245, Cf-249, Cf-251, Cf-253, and Es-254. Eight of these 12 nuclides are included in the ANS-8.15 standard.

  6. Validation of spent nuclear fuel nuclide composition data using percentage differences and detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2017-06-15

    Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.

  7. Study on volatilization mechanism of ruthenium tetroxide from nitrosyl ruthenium nitrate by using mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Tetsuya, E-mail: tkato@criepi.denken.or.jp [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Usami, Tsuyoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Shibata, Yuki; Kodama, Takashi [Safety Technology Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    In a cooling malfunction accident of a high-level liquid waste (HLLW) tank, behavior of ruthenium (Ru) attracts much attention, since Ru could be oxidized to a volatile chemical form in the boiling and drying of HLLW, and part of radioactive Ru can potentially be released to the environment. In this study, nitrosyl Ru nitrate (Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) dissolved in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), which is commonly contained in a simulated HLLW, was dried and heated up to 723 K, and the evolved gas was introduced into a mass spectrometer. The well-known volatile species, ruthenium tetroxide (RuO{sub 4}) was detected in a temperature range between 390 K and 500 K with the peak top around 440 K. Various gases such as HNO{sub 3}, nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitrogen monoxide (NO) also evolved due to evaporation of the nitric acid and decomposition of the nitrate ions. The ion current of RuO{sub 4} seems to increase with the increasing decomposition of nitrate, while the evaporation of HNO{sub 3} decreases. More volatilization of RuO{sub 4} was observed from the HNO{sub 3} solution containing not only Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} but also cerium nitrate (Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O) which was added for extra supply of nitrate ion, compared with that from the HNO{sub 3} solution containing only Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. These experimental results suggest that Ru could be oxidized to form RuO{sub 4} by the nitrate ion as well as HNO{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: Ion current intensities of the mass numbers corresponding to O, NO, O{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, and RuO{sub 4} obtained in mass spectrometry for dried nitric acid solution containing Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. Heating rate: 5 K min{sup −1}, sample solution weight: 6.61 mg, contained Ru weight: 0.56 mg. The ion current of RuO{sub 4} increases with the increasing decomposition of nitrate, while the evaporation of HNO{sub 3} decreases. - Highlights: • Nitrosyl Ru nitrate (Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) dissolved in

  8. C-N bond cleavage of anilines by a (salen)ruthenium(VI) nitrido complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wai-Lun; Xie, Jianhui; Pan, Yi; Lam, William W Y; Kwong, Hoi-Ki; Ip, Kwok-Wa; Yiu, Shek-Man; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2013-04-17

    We report experimental and computational studies of the facile oxidative C-N bond cleavage of anilines by a (salen)ruthenium(VI) nitrido complex. We provide evidence that the initial step involves nucleophilic attack of aniline at the nitrido ligand of the ruthenium complex, which is followed by proton and electron transfer to afford a (salen)ruthenium(II) diazonium intermediate. This intermediate then undergoes unimolecular decomposition to generate benzene and N2.

  9. Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  10. Synthesis of PVP-stabilized ruthenium colloids with low boiling point alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Yu, Jiulong; Niu, Haijun; Liu, Hanfan

    2007-09-15

    A route to the preparation of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized ruthenium colloids by refluxing ruthenium(III) chloride in low boiling point alcohols was developed. Deep purple colloids with shuttle-like ruthenium particles were also synthesized. XPS measurement verified the nanoparticles were in the metallic state. The morphology of metal nanoparticles was characterized by UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, TEM and XRD.

  11. Optimization of screen-printed ruthenium dioxide electrodes for pH measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyzkiewicz, I.

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of disposable, screen-printed pH-sensors based on ruthenium dioxide is described in this paper. The electrodes were prepared with the use of thick-film technology. The pH-sensitive layers were deposited onto polyester foil. Polymer graphite paste containing ruthenium dioxide from 0% to 90% has been investigated. The dependence of the pH-sensitive layers related to ruthenium dioxide content is presented. The investigation proved that the electrodes containing 40-60% ruthenium dioxide exhibit linear high sensitivity (∼ 50 mV/pH) in the wide range of pH (2 - 11) as well as very good reproducibility. (author)

  12. Ruthenium determination in new composite materials by coulometric titration with generated iron(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butakova, N.A.; Oganesyan, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    A coulometric technique is developed for ruthenium (4) titration with generated iron (2) in a mixture of hydrochloric-, sulfuric- and phosphoric acids with potentiometric and biammetric indication of the final titration point. Bi (3), Pd (2), Nb (5), Pt (4) Pb (2), Rh (3) do not interfere with the titration. Together with Ru (4) titrated are Ir (4), V (5), Au (3). The method is applied to analyze commercial samples of ruthenium dioxides, lead- and bismuth ruthenites, ruthenium pentafluorides containing 30-80% of ruthenium. The Ssub(r) values do not exceed 0.002

  13. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E. [FOM Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-09-29

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low density and high density oxides. Nano-columns grow at the surface of the low density oxide layer, with the growth rate being limited by diffusion of ruthenium through the formed oxide film. Simultaneously, with the growth of the columns, sub-surface high density oxide continues to grow limited by diffusion of oxygen or ruthenium through the oxide film.

  14. Dose coefficients for radionuclides produced in high energy proton accelerator facilities. Coefficients for radionuclides not listed in ICRP publications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, K; Noguchi, H

    2002-01-01

    Effective dose coefficients, the committed effective dose per unit intake, by inhalation and ingestion have been calculated for 304 nuclides, including (1) 230 nuclides with half-lives >= 10 min and their daughters that are not listed in ICRP Publications and (2) 74 nuclides with half-lives < 10 min that are produced in a spallation target. Effective dose coefficients for inhalation of soluble or reactive gases have been calculated for 21 nuclides, and effective dose rates for inert gases have been calculated for 9 nuclides. Dose calculation was carried out using a general-purpose nuclear decay database DECDC developed at JAERI and a decay data library newly compiled from the ENSDF for the nuclides abundantly produced in a spallation target. The dose coefficients were calculated with the computer code DOCAP based on the respiratory tract model and biokinetic model of ICRP. The effective dose rates were calculated by considering both external irradiation from the surrounding cloud and irradiation of the lun...

  15. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia); Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kanwal, S. [ICCBS, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi (Pakistan)

    2015-04-16

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g{sup −1} respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g{sup −1}, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  16. Multifaceted catalytic hydrogenation of amides via diverse activation of a sterically confined bipyridine-ruthenium framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takashi; Naruto, Masayuki; Toda, Katsuaki; Shimomura, Taiki; Saito, Susumu

    2017-05-16

    Amides are ubiquitous and abundant in nature and our society, but are very stable and reluctant to salt-free, catalytic chemical transformations. Through the activation of a "sterically confined bipyridine-ruthenium (Ru) framework (molecularly well-designed site to confine adsorbed H 2 in)" of a precatalyst, catalytic hydrogenation of formamides through polyamide is achieved under a wide range of reaction conditions. Both C=O bond and C-N bond cleavage of a lactam became also possible using a single precatalyst. That is, catalyst diversity is induced by activation and stepwise multiple hydrogenation of a single precatalyst when the conditions are varied. The versatile catalysts have different structures and different resting states for multifaceted amide hydrogenation, but the common structure produced upon reaction with H 2 , which catalyzes hydrogenation, seems to be "H-Ru-N-H."

  17. Evaluation of radiolabeled ruthenium compounds as tumor-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.; Rasey, J.S.; Clarke, M.H.; Dowling, M.

    1979-01-01

    This work introduces a new class of radiopharmaceuticals based on ruthenium-97. The excellent physical properties of Ru-97, the high chemical reactivity of Ru, the potential antitumor activity of several Ru coordination compounds, and BLIP production of Ru-97, provide a unique combination for the application of this isotope in nuclear oncology. A systematic study was undertaken on the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of a number of ruthenium-labeled compounds. In a variety of animal tumor models, several compounds show considerable promise as tumor-localizing agents when compared to gallium-67 citrate. The compounds studied (with Ru in different oxidation states) include ionic Ru, a number of hydrophilic and lipophilic chelates, and various ammine derivatives

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Jinhong; Waheed, Abdul; Winkenwerder, Wyatt A.; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Agapiou, Kyriacos; Jones, Richard A.; Hwang, Gyeong S.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition growth of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus films on SiO 2 containing ∼ 15% phosphorus is reported. cis-Ruthenium(II)dihydridotetrakis-(trimethylphosphine), cis-RuH 2 (PMe 3 ) 4 (Me = CH 3 ) was used at growth temperatures ranging from 525 to 575 K. Both Ru and P are zero-valent. The films are metastable, becoming increasingly more polycrystalline upon annealing to 775 and 975 K. Surface studies illustrate that demethylation is quite efficient near 560 K. Precursor adsorption at 135 K or 210 K and heating reveal the precursor undergoes a complex decomposition process in which the hydride and trimethylphosphine ligands are lost at temperatures as low at 280 K. Phosphorus and its manner of incorporation appear responsible for the amorphous-like character. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to suggest the local structure in the films and the causes for phosphorus stabilizing the amorphous phase

  19. Ruthenium Complexes as NO Donors for Vascular Relaxation Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Galvão de Lima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO donors are substances that can release NO. Vascular relaxation induction is among the several functions of NO, and the administration of NO donors is a pharmacological alternative to treat hypertension. This review will focus on the physicochemical description of ruthenium-derived NO donor complexes that release NO via reduction and light stimulation. In particular, we will discuss the complexes synthesized by our research group over the last ten years, and we will focus on the vasodilation and arterial pressure control elicited by these complexes. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC and potassium channels are the main targets of the NO species released from the inorganic compounds. We will consider the importance of the chemical structure of the ruthenium complexes and their vascular effects.

  20. Committee's report on ruthenium fall-out incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Crawford, J.H.; Livingston, R.; Ritchie, R.H.; Rupp, A.F.; Taylor, E.H.

    1983-07-01

    Investigations of the fall-out incident of November 11 and 12, 1959, by responsible parties (Health Physics Division and Operations Division personnel) established beyond reasonable doubt that the incident had its origin in the expulsion of particles, heavily contaminated with ruthenium, which had been detached from the walls of the electric fan housing and ducts in the off-gas system associated with the brick stack. All available evidence indicates that the particles were loosened during maintenance work on the exhaust damper and the bearings of the electric fan and were carried up the stack in two bursts as particulate fall-out when this fan was put back into service. Radiographic and chemical analysis showed the activity to be almost entirely ruthenium (Ru 106 ) and its daughter rhodium (Rh 106 ) with very little, if any, strontium being present. This report summarizes the findings and sets forth the conclusions and recommendations of the Committee asked to investigate the incident

  1. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  2. Nuclide creation and annealing reactor waste in neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.N.; Kadenko, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    We consider chemical elements in the Universe (their properties and transmutations) as a fuel powering an evolution of stars, galaxies, etc. The nuclear fusion reactions represent an energy source of stars and, in particular, the Sun fitting the life on the Earth. This brings a question on an origin and conditions for creation of life. We discuss some specific features of nuclear reaction chains at the hydrostatic burning of nuclides in stars and treaties for development of thermonuclear fusion reactors at the Earth based environment. The nova and supernova give promising astrophysical site candidates for synthesis of heavy atomic nuclei and renewing other nuclear components. Such an explosive nucleosynthesis yields the actinides containing basic fuel for nuclear fission reactors, among others. We briefly outline the e-, s-, and r-processes while accounting for ultra-strong stellar magnetization, and discuss some ideas for annealing the radioactive toxic nuclear waste

  3. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijk, A. van der.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes the analytical and technical procedures that are required for routine application of both the 230 Th/ 234 U disequilibrium dating method for peat and the 210 Pb dating method for lake sediments. Its principal aim is to test, refine and discuss the reliability and validity of these methods. On the other hand, the analytical procedures that were introduced open a wide range of other interesting fields of research that are not necessarily restricted to geological problems only. Chapter 5 reports an obviously not foreseen application: detection of alpha emitting nuclides released in the first weeks of May, 1986 during the accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR. 128 refs.; 43 figs.; 15 tabs

  4. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  5. Difficulty in the usage of nuclides in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    In Japan, the uses of radioisotopes in hospitals are increasing year after year. Therefore, the problems of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are important. The liquid and gaseous wastes with radioactivity concentrations below the maximum permissible levels are allowed to be disposed of on the sites by the law. However, high-level liquid wastes and solid wastes cannot be disposed of on the sites. These wastes stored in steel drums are collected by Japan Radioisotope Association, and finally treated and disposed of on the site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The nuclides used in hospitals are principally Tc-99m, and also 131 I, 198 Au, 125 I and 3 H. The following matters are described: the present situation, radioactive wastes from medical treatments, and the management of radioactive solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from hospitals. (J.P.N.)

  6. The Biological Side of Water-Soluble Arene Ruthenium Assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Therrien, Bruno; Furrer, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This review article covers the synthetic strategies, structural aspects, and host-guest properties of ruthenium metalla-assemblies, with a special focus on their use as drug delivery vectors. The two-dimensional metalla-rectangles show interesting host-guest possibilities but seem less appropriate for being used as drug carriers. On the other hand, metalla-prisms allow encapsulation and possible targeted release of bioactive molecules and consequently show some potential as drug delivery vect...

  7. THE SYNTHESIS AND THE REACTIVITY OF ARENE RUTHENIUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    [RuCl(η6-p-cymene)(η2-dppm)][PF6] ruthenium complexes with C2O4(Me4N)2 in the ... the Service de Microanalyse du CNRS (Vernaison/France). .... Once bonded to the Ru(II), the characterization of the oxalato ligand by infrared .... The 1H NMR spectrum shows signals of the aromatic proton resonances at 5.45 and 5.15,.

  8. Allenylidene Complexes of Ruthenium: Synthesis, Spectroscopy and Electron Transfer Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winter, R. F.; Záliš, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 248, 15/16 (2004), s. 1565-1583 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0821; GA MŠk OC D14.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : spectroscopy * allenylidine complexes of ruthenium * electron transfer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.446, year: 2004

  9. Behaviour of ruthenium (3) bromocomplexes in nonaqueous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, O.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Pichkov, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Behaviour of K 3 [RuBr 6 ] · H 2 O and K 3 [Ru 2 Br 9 ] in solutions of dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide is investigated by absorption and ESR spectroscopy. Complexes are shown to be labile in solutions, interact easily with solvents. Formation of ruthenium (3) and (2) bromide-dimethylsulfoxide complexes occurs gradually in DMSO, final product is trans-[Ru(DMSO) 4 Br 2

  10. Role of ligands in controlling the regioselectivity in ruthenium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Hay and Wadt (LANL2DZ)11 for ruthenium atom and 6-31G(d)12 for other .... C2 atom in 3x/3′ x. To understand the wider role of lig- ands in modulating the regio-selectivity of product for- mation, we have studied the benzoic acid addition to the selected .... at C1 and the localization of electron density in the. M=C double ...

  11. Mechanism of ruthenium dioxide crystallization during high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucetta, H.

    2012-01-01

    Ruthenium, arising from the reprocessing of spent uranium oxide fuel, has a low solubility in glass melt. It crystallizes in the form of particles of RuO 2 of acicular or polyhedral morphology dispersed in fission product and actinides waste containment glass. Since the morphology of these particles strongly influences the physico-chemical properties, the knowledge and the control of their mechanism of formation are of major importance. The goal of this work is to determine the chemical reactions responsible for the formation of RuO 2 particles of acicular or polyhedral shape during glass synthesis. Using a simplification approach, the reactions between RuO 2 -NaNO 3 , and more complex calcine RuO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O and a sodium borosilicate glass are studied. In situ scanning electron microscopy and XANES at increasing temperatures are used to follow changes in composition, speciation and morphology of the ruthenium intermediate species. Those compounds are thoroughly characterised by SEM, XRD, HRTEM, and ruthenium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This combined approach allows us to show that the ruthenium speciation modification during vitrification is the key of control of the morphology of RuO 2 particles in the glass. In particular, the formation of a specific intermediate compound (Na 3 RuO 4 ) is one of the main steps that lead to the precipitation of needle-shaped RuO 2 particles in the melt. The formation of polyhedral particles, on the contrary, results from the direct incorporation of RuO 2 crystals in the melt followed by an Ostwald ripening mechanism. (author) [fr

  12. Trace elements of coal, coal ashes and fly ashes by activation analysis with shor-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Sarac, I.; Grass, F.

    1981-01-01

    On irradiation with neutrons, some of the interesting trace elements in coal, coal ash and fly ash produce short-lived nuclides which may be determined - together with some of the matrix elements - by activation analysis. This enables the characterization of samples. To find out the distribution of elements in the gaseous or aerosol exhaust of fossil-fired power plants, the authors simulated the combustion in a quartz apparatus containing a cold trap, using the combustion temperature (780 deg C) employed for the standard ash determination. High Se values were found in the cold trap deposits of black coal from Poland. Halogens were also found in the deposits. (authors)

  13. Behaviour of ruthenium dioxide particles in borosilicate glasses and melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflieger, Rachel [DEN/DTCD-SCDV/CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR5257, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)], E-mail: rachel_pflieger@yahoo.fr; Lefebvre, Leila [DEN/DTCD-SCDV/CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Malki, Mohammed [CNRS/CEMHTI-1D Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, 45701 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Polytech Orleans, Universite d' Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Allix, Mathieu [CNRS/CEMHTI-1D Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, 45701 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Grandjean, Agnes [DEN/DTCD-SCDV/CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR5257, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2009-06-01

    Ruthenium-glass systems are formed during the vitrification of nuclear waste. They are also widely used in micro-electronics because of their unique electrical properties. However, the interaction of this element with the glass matrix remains poorly understood. This work focuses on a RuO{sub 2} particles-nuclear alumino-borosilicate glass system in which the electrical conductivity is known to vary considerably with the RuO{sub 2} content and to become electronic above about 0.5-0.7 vol.% RuO{sub 2} [R. Pflieger, M. Malki, Y. Guari, J. Larionova, A. Grandjean, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., accepted for publication]. Some RuO{sub 2} segregation was observed in SEM/TEM investigations but no continuous chain of RuO{sub 2} particles could be seen. Electron relays between the particles are then necessary for a low-rate percolation, such as the nanoclusters suggested by Adachi et al. [K. Adachi, S. Iida, K. Hayashi, J. Mater. Res. 9 (7) (1994) 1866; K. Adachi, H. Kuno, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83 (10) (2000) 2441], which could consist in dissolved ruthenium. Indeed, several observations made here clearly indicate the presence of dissolved ruthenium in the glass matrix, like the modification of the glass density in presence of RuO{sub 2} particles or the diffusion-limited growth of RuO{sub 2} particles in the melt.

  14. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti Corcuera, R.; Moraes Cunha, M. de; Jayanthi, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  15. A nuclide transfer model for barriers of the seabed repository using response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hahn, Pil Soo

    1996-01-01

    A nuclide transfer by utilizing mass transfer coefficient and barrier response function defined for each barrier is proposed, by which the final nuclide transfer rate into the sea water can be evaluated. When simple and immediate quantification of the nuclide release is necessary in the conservative aspect, using this kind of approach may be advantageous since each layered barrier can be treated separately from other media in series in the repository system, making it possible to apply separate solutions in succession to other various media. Although one disadvantage is that while flux continuity can be maintained at the interface by using the exit nuclide flux from the first medium as the source flux for the next one, there may be no guarantee for concentration continuity, this problem could be eliminated assuming that there is no boundary resistance to mass transfer across the interface. Mass transfer coefficient can be determined by the assumption that the nuclide concentration gradient at the interface between adjacent barriers remains constant and barrier response function is obtained from an analytical expression for nuclide flow rate out of each barrier in response to a unit impulse into the barrier multiplied by mass transfer coefficient. Total time-dependent nuclide transfer rate from the barrier can then be obtained by convoluting the response function for the barrier with a previously calculated set of time-varying input of nuclide flow rate for the previous barrier. 18 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  16. Final results of the 'Benchmark on computer simulation of radioactive nuclides production rate and heat generation rate in a spallation target'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Pohorecki, W.; Domanska, G.; Maiorino, R.J.; David, J.C.; Velarde, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark has been organized to assess the computer simulation of nuclide production and heat generation in a spallation lead target. The physical models applied for the calculation of thick lead target activation do not produce satisfactory results for the majority of analysed nuclides, however one can observe better or worse quantitative compliance with the experimental results. Analysis of the quality of calculated results show the best performance for heavy nuclides (A: 170 - 190). For intermediate nuclides (A: 60 - 130) almost all are underestimated while for A: 130 - 170 mainly overestimated. The shape of the activity distribution in the target is well reproduced in calculations by all models but the numerical comparison shows similar performance as for the whole target. The Isabel model yields best results. As for the whole target heating rate, the results from all participants are consistent. Only small differences are observed between results from physical models. As for the heating distribution in the target it looks not quite similar. The quantitative comparison of the distributions yielded by different spallation reaction models shows for the major part of the target no serious differences - generally below 10%. However, in the most outside parts of the target front layers and the part of the target at its end behind the primary protons range, a spread higher than 40 % is obtained

  17. A Study of the r-Process Path Nuclides,$^{137,138,139}$Sb using the Enhanced Selectivity of Resonance Ionization Laser Ionization

    CERN Multimedia

    Walters, W

    2002-01-01

    The particular features of the r-process abundances with 100 < A < 150 have demonstrated the close connection between knowledge of nuclear structure and decay along the r-process path and the astrophysical environement in which these elements are produced. Key to this connection has been the measurement of data for nuclides (mostly even-N nuclides) that lie in the actual r-process path. Such data are of direct use in r-process calculations and they also serve to refine and test the predictive power of nuclear models where little or no data now exist. In this experiment we seek to use the newly developed ionization scheme for the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) to achieve selective ionization of neutron-rich antimony isotopes in order to measure the decay properties of r-process path nuclides $^{137,138,139}$Sb. These properties include the half-lives, delayed neutron branches, and daughter $\\gamma$-rays. The new nuclear structure data for the daughter Te nuclides is also of considerable in...

  18. Evaluation of nuclides with closely spaced values of depletion constants in transmutation chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.S.

    1977-01-01

    New method of calculating nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is developed in this thesis. Method is based on originally derived recurrence formulas for expansion series of depletion functions and on originally obtained, nonsingular, Bateman coefficients. Explicit expression for the nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is obtained. This expression can be used as it stands for arbitrary values of nuclides depletion constants. By computing hypothetical transmutation chains and neptunium series, method is compared with the Bateman analytical solution, with the approximate solutions and with the matrix exponential method. It comes out that the method presented in this thesis is suitable for calculating very long depletion chains even in the case of some closely spaced and/or equal values of nuclide depletion constants. Though, presented method is of great practical applicability in a number of nuclear physics problems that are dealing with the nuclide transmutations: starting from the studies of the stellar evolution up to the design of nuclear reactors (author) [sr

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition of Ruthenium with TiN Interface for Sub-10 nm Advanced Interconnects beyond Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Liang Gong; Roussel, Philippe; Pedreira, Olalla Varela

    2016-01-01

    . These extremely scaled ruthenium lines show excellent electromigration behavior. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown measurements reveal negligible ruthenium ion drift into low-kappa dielectrics up to 200 degrees C, demonstrating that ruthenium can be used as a barrierless metallization in interconnects...

  20. Ruthenium release from thermally overheated nitric acid solution containing ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate and sodium nitrate to solidify

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Kayo; Ueda, Yasuyuki; Enokida, Youichi [Nuclear Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648603 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Radioactive ruthenium (Ru) is one of the dominant elemental species released into the environment from a fuel reprocessing plant in a hypothetical design accident due to its relatively higher fission yield and longer half-life. After the hypothetical accident assuming the loss of all electric power and cooling functions, high-level liquid waste (HLLW) may be overheated by the energetic decays of many fission products in it, and Ru may be oxidized to the volatile tetroxide, RuO{sub 4}, which is released through the off-gas pathway. At a reprocessing plant in Japan, alkaline solution from the solvent scrubbing stream is sometimes mixed with the HLLW followed by vitrification, which can be influenced by the addition of sodium nitrate to a simulated HLLW containing ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate that was experimentally evaluated on a small scale using the overheated nitric acid solution of 2 mol/dm{sup 3}, which was kept at 180 Celsius degrees in a glass evaporator placed in a thermostatic bath. The release fraction of Ru increased by approximately 30% by the addition of sodium nitrate. This may be partially explained by the existence of relatively highly concentrated nitrate ions in the liquid phase that oxidize the ruthenium species to RuO{sub 4} during the drying process. (authors)

  1. Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition Over Ruthenium Nanoparticles Supported on Nano-Titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Nanosized Na2Ti3O7, K2Ti6O13 and Cs2Ti6O13 materials were prepared and used as supports of ruthenium nanoparticles for catalytic ammonia decomposition. It is shown that these catalysts exhibit higher catalytic activity than ruthenium supported on TiO2 nanoparticles promoted with cesium. The diffe...

  2. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E.; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low

  3. Synthesis and characterization of novel heteroleptic ruthenium sensitizer for nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivakumar, R.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Anandan, S.

    2009-01-01

    A novel heteroleptic ruthenium complex of the type [Ru(bpin)(dcbpyH2)Cl]Cl (where bpin is 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)isonicotinic acid and dcbpyH2 is 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine) was synthesized and characterized for tuning the LUMO level of the ruthenium sensitizer to achieve greater stabilization in

  4. Ruthenium on chitosan: A recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for aqueous hydration of nitriles to amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthenium has been immobilized over chitosan by simply stirring an aqueous suspension of chitosan in water with ruthenium chloride and has been utilized for the oxidation of nitriles to amides; the hydration of nitriles occurs in high yield and excellent selectivity, which procee...

  5. Method of improving the decontaminating efficiency of ruthenium in evaporating treatment of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kanya; Yamana, Hajime; Takeda, Seiichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve the ruthenium removing efficiency in a nitric acid solution in an acid recovery system for the recovery of nitric acid from nitric acid liquid wastes through evaporating condensation. Method: Upon evaporating treatment of nitric acid solution containing ruthenium by supplying and heating the solution to a nitric acid evaporating device, hydrazine is previously added to the nitric acid solution. Hydrazine and intermediate reaction product of hydrazine such as azide causes a reduction reaction with intermediate reaction product of ruthenium tetraoxide to suppress the oxidation of ruthenium and thereby improve the decontaminating efficiency of ruthenium. The amount of hydrazine to be added is preferably between 20 - 500 mg/l and most suitably between 200 - 2000 mg/l per one liter of the liquid in the evaporating device. (Seki, T.)

  6. Bis(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) complexes with an aliphatic sulfinato donor: synthesis, characterization, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoshi; Tsuge, Kiyoshi; Igashira-Kamiyama, Asako; Konno, Takumi

    2011-06-06

    Treatment of a thiolato-bridged Ru(II)Ag(I)Ru(II) trinuclear complex, [Ag{Ru(aet)(bpy)(2)}(2)](3+) (aet = 2-aminoethanthiolate; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), with NaI in aqueous ethanol under an aerobic condition afforded a mononuclear ruthenium(II) complex having an S-bonded sulfinato group, [1](+) ([Ru(aesi-N, S)(bpy)(2)](+) (aesi = 2-aminoethanesulfinate)). Similar treatment of optically active isomers of an analogous Ru(II)Ag(I)Ru(II) trinuclear complex, Δ(D)Δ(D)- and Λ(D)Λ(D)-[Ag{Ru(d-Hpen-O,S)(bpy)(2)}(2)](3+) (d-pen = d-penicillaminate), with NaI also produced mononuclear ruthenium(II) isomers with an S-bonded sulfinato group, Δ(D)- and Λ(D)-[2](+) ([Ru(d-Hpsi-O,S)(bpy)(2)](+) (d-psi = d-penicillaminesulfinate)), respectively, retaining the bidentate-O,S coordination mode of a d-Hpen ligand and the absolute configuration (Δ or Λ) about a Ru(II) center. On refluxing in water, the Δ(D) isomer of [2](+) underwent a linkage isomerization to form Δ(D)-[3] (+) ([Ru(d-Hpsi-N,S)(bpy)(2)](+)), in which a d-Hpsi ligand coordinates to a Ru(II) center in a bidentate-N,S mode. Complexes [1](+), Δ(D)- and Λ(D)-[2](+), and Δ(D)-[3](+) were fully characterized by electronic absorption, CD, NMR, and IR spectroscopies, together with single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The electrochemical properties of these complexes, which are highly dependent on the coordination mode of sulfinate ligands, are also described. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Nuclide release from the near-field of a L/ILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Pers, K.

    1986-12-01

    For Project Gewaehr 1985, the release of nuclides from a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is calculated. The calculations are made for a reference design repository located in the marl host rock at the Oberbauen Stock reference site. The results are limited to the release of the nuclides from the waste through the engineered barriers into the surrounding host rock and will, therefore, constitute a source term for the far-field and biosphere calculations. The most probable nuclide transport mechanism is diffusion and releases are thus influenced by the nuclide diffusivities in the barriers, nuclide sorption and nuclide solubility limits. Degradation of the engineered concrete barriers is taken into account. The effects of convective flow through the barriers are described elsewhere. A near-field release model is presented. It consists of a set of computer programs suited to handel different repository designs, solubility limitations and the different waste categories. The release calculations were made for a base case in which best estimates of the parameters were used. Sensitivity to the choice of the most important parameters was tested by parameter variations. The numerical models used were checked by comparative calculations with different codes and similar data. The results of the base calculations show that near-field barriers will cause both a delay of the release to the far-field and a reduced rate of release. The sorbed nuclides, comprising the actinides and some activation and fission products, will be delayed by 10'000 years and have a maximum release rate of less than 10 -3 Ci/a each. The non-sorbed nuclides are delayed by only about 100 years and the maximum release rate is less than 10 -2 Ci per year and nuclide. The parameter variations and the design model tests gave only limited deviations from the base case results. (author)

  10. Survey of reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Bel-Amakeletch, T.; Zeisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in co-operation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), has recently prepared a survey on internationally available analytical reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic contaminants in biological, environmental and related matrices. The purpose is to help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be measured. The present version of the survey, which is available in the form of two cost-free printed volumes [1], contains over 10,000 certified and information values in 650 reference materials from 27 different producers. The 455 measurands listed include trace elements, major and minor elements, organic contaminants, organometallic compounds, radionuclides and stable isotopes. Currently, the database from which the survey has been produced is being modified and extended so as to make the data available in electronic form via the Internet. (orig.)

  11. Fission-nuclide concentrations of ambient aerosol separated by size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csepregi, T.; Kovacs, L.; Maschek, I.; Szterjopulos, K.

    1984-01-01

    Examinations were carried on the radionuclides in aerosol deposited on filters of an air-conditioning plant with high air flow rate. For nuclide concentration of ambient air qualitative and quantitative analyses were made by gamma spectrometry. Methods have been developed for sample preparation, size fractionation by sedimentation technique and measurement of air flow. The collected aerosol particles was separated into five size fractions from 1 to 5 μm and the aerosol fractions were analysed. The mass/size distribution of the particles processed by sedimentation has been compared with that of the ambient aerosol separated by a slot impactor Hungarian type. Because the aggregation caused by the resuspensationtechnique would be assumed, electronmicrophotos were made on processed and unprocessed aerosols. On the basis of them the particle aggregation may be negligible. Otherwise, the derivation of concentration needs to know the exact air volume. For this aim the technical parameters of the aerodynamic system have also been measured in two different ways. The paper reports on the size dependence of fission products originating from the present global late fallout for a two years monitoring period. The results are compared with the daily beta activity concentration of aerosol samples taken by an other sampling unit. (Author)

  12. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez R, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  13. User manual of nuclide dispersion in phreatic aquifers model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclide Dispersion in Phreatic Aquifers (DRAF) model was developed in the 'Division Estudios Ambientales' of the 'Gerencia de Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica' (1991), for the Safety Assessment of Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Afterwards, it was modified in several opportunities, adapting it to a number of application conditions. The 'Manual del usuario del codigo DRAF' here presented is a reference document for the use of the last three versions of the code developed for the 'Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear' between 1995 and 1996. The DRAF model solves the three dimension's solute transport equation for porous media by the finite differences method. It takes into account the advection, dispersion, radioactive decay, and retention in the solid matrix processes, and has multiple possibilities for the source term. There are three versions of the model, two of them for the saturated zone and one for the unsaturated zone. All the versions have been verified in different conditions, and have been applied in exercises of the International Atomic Energy Agency and also in real cases. (author)

  14. Simultaneous determination of actinide and strontium nuclides by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.

    1999-01-01

    A relatively fast and simple separation procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and strontium radionuclides. Most of the isotopes of these elements are long-lived, pure alpha and beta emitters regarded as 'difficult to determine' ones in the literature. Our major goal was to develop a combined procedure capable for the analysis of all these nuclides in the same sample aliquot so that correlations can be revealed without the errors arising due to inhomogeneity of samples when the radionuclides are determined from different sub-samples. The combined procedure has the advantage that sample destruction becomes simpler and faster, too. The chemical procedure consists of co-precipitations for the pre-concentration of groups of chemically similar elements and extraction chromatographic separations for the purification of individual elements. By means of pre-concentration relatively big samples can be treated offering the possibility of low activity measurements that cannot be performed by analysing small sample amounts. Pre-concentration techniques were always chosen in order to improve the selectivity of the following separation steps. (authors)

  15. Development of radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    A radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement is developed to integrate the established codes and the code system for decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor (FBR). The former are the codes for estimation of radioactivity movement in sodium coolant of fast reactor which are named SAFFIRE, PSYCHE and TTT. The latter code system is to estimate neutron irradiation activity (COSMARD-RRADO). It is paid special attention to keep the consistency of input data used among these codes and also the simplification of their interface. A new function is added to the estimation system, to estimate minor FP inventory caused by the fission of impurities contained in the coolant and slight fuel material attached on the fuel cladding. To check the evaluation system, the system is applied with radioactivity data of the preceding FBR such as BN-350, JOYO and Monju. Agreement between the analysis results and the measurement is well satisfactory. The uncertainty of the code system is within several tens per cent for the activation of primary coolant (Na-22) and factor of 2-4 for the estimation of radioactivity inventory in sodium coolant. (author)

  16. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-01-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  17. A comprehensive fuel nuclide analysis at the reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenz, H.J.; Koch, L.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of spent fuel can be determined by various methods. They rely partially on different information. Therefore the synopsis of the results of all methods permits a detection of systematic errors and their explanation. Methods for determining the masses of fuel nuclides at the reprocessing input point range from pure calculations (shipper data) to mere experimental determinations (volumetric analysis). In between, a mix of ''fresh'' experimental results and ''historical'' data is used to establish a material balance. Deviations in the results obtained by the individual methods can be attributed to the information source, which is unique for the method in question. The methodology of the approach consists of three steps: by paired comparison of the operator analysis (usually volumetric or gravimetric) with remeasurements the error components are determined on a batch-by-batch basis. Using the isotope correlation technique the operator data as well as the remeasurements are checked on an inter-batch basis for outliers, precision and bias. Systematic errors can be uncovered by inter-lab comparison of remeasurements and confirmed by using historical information. Experience collected during the reprocessing of LWR fuel at two reprocessing plants prove the flexibility and effectiveness of this approach. An example is presented to demonstrate its capability in detecting outliers and determining systematic errors. (author)

  18. PRODUCTION AND RECOIL LOSS OF COSMOGENIC NUCLIDES IN PRESOLAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappitsch, Reto; Leya, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Presolar grains are small particles that condensed in the vicinity of dying stars. Some of these grains survived the voyage through the interstellar medium (ISM) and were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies at the formation of the Solar System. An important question is when these stellar processes happened, i.e., how long presolar grains were drifting through the ISM. While conventional radiometric dating of such small grains is very difficult, presolar grains are irradiated with galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the ISM, which induce the production of cosmogenic nuclides. This opens the possibility to determine cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, i.e., how long presolar grains were irradiated in the ISM. Here, we present a new model for the production and loss of cosmogenic 3 He, 6,7 Li, and 21,22 Ne in presolar SiC grains. The cosmogenic production rates are calculated using a state-of-the-art nuclear cross-section database and a GCR spectrum in the ISM consistent with recent Voyager data. Our findings are that previously measured 3 He and 21 Ne CRE ages agree within the (sometimes large) 2 σ uncertainties and that the CRE ages for most presolar grains are smaller than the predicted survival times. The obtained results are relatively robust since interferences from implanted low-energy GCRs into the presolar SiC grains and/or from cosmogenic production within the meteoroid can be neglected.

  19. Baseline concentrations of nuclear fuel waste nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1992-04-01

    Protection of the environment is a key issue in the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. To assess the implications of undergound disposal, transport models are commonly used to predict radionuclide concentrations in soil and water. However, an appropriate framework needs to be established to ensure that the predicted concentrations do not impose unacceptable environmental impacts. Here, we suggest baseline environmental concentrations of the most important radionuclides in nuclear fuel waste. We summarize background concentrations of the nuclides in soil and surface water, and suggest Environmental Increments (EI) that could be added to soil and water without causing detectable effects. The EI values are based mostly on natural variability, but some alternative methods are used for radionuclides that are very rare in nature. The background concentrations and EI values are most useful as a screening tool to help identify potentially unacceptable concentrations arising from a disposal concept. When available, we also report data on concentrations that have been measured in the environment without causing an observable effect. This review focuses especially on concentrations applicable to the Canadian Precambrian Shield, as part of the Canadian concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a deep, stable geological formation

  20. 10Be concentrations and the long-term fate of particle-reactive nuclides in five soil profiles from California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, M.C.; Krishnaswami, S.; Thomas, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration-depth profiles of cosmic-ray-produced 10 Be(tsub(1/2)=1.5 m.y.) have been measured by accelerator-mass spectrometry in five soil profiles. These measurements were made in an effort (1) to understand the retentivity of soil surfaces for particle-reactive tracers depositing from the atmosphere on time scales of 10 4 -10 6 years, and (2) to explore the application of 10 Be as a chronometer of geomorphic surface age. The profiles sampled are from two wave-cut terraces located near Mendocino, California, a table mountain top and an alluvial fan, both located near Friant, California. The ages of the Mendocino terraces are inferred to be (1-5) x 10 5 years based on amino-stratigraphic correlations and models of terrace evolution; those of the table mountain top and alluvial fan are 9.5 x 10 6 years and 6.0 x 10 5 years, respectively, based on K-Ar analyses. All the surfaces sampled are nearly flat and exhibit few erosional features. In addition to 10 Be we measured 210 Pb, sup(239,) 240 Pu and 7 Be to ascertain the retentivity of the soils for particle-reactive nuclides and to assess the present-day delivery rate of nuclides from the atmosphere. The 7 Be inventory is 4.0 dpm/cm 2 similar to those observed at nearby locations. The inventories of 210 Pb and Pu isotopes conform to those predicted from model calculations and suggest that the soil surfaces sampled retain the entire burden of particle-reactive nuclides delivered to them over short time scales, approx.= 100 years. The 10 Be concentrations in the sample range between (0.2 and 7) x 10 8 atoms/g soil and show strong correlations with leachable Fe and/or Al. (orig./WL)

  1. Separation of mobile long-lived nuclides in a simplified reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Sakurai, Tsutomu

    1997-01-01

    Enhancing confinement efficiency of long-lived nuclides in a simplified Purex process is the primary subject of our PARC (Partitioning Conundrum Key) R and D project. Nuclides focused here are all susceptible to diffuse into the environment and highly concerned as potential hazard among the long-lived nuclides in spent fuels. New functions in PARC concept are designed to mitigate the environmental impacts of reprocessing wastes and also to improve the economy of reprocessing in the future. Experimental work has been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. (author)

  2. A model on valence state evaluation of TRU nuclides in reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Fujine, Sachio; Yoshida, Zenko; Maeda, Mitsuru; Motoyama, Satoshi.

    1998-02-01

    A mathematical model was developed to evaluate the valence state of TRU nuclides in reprocessing process solutions. The model consists of mass balance equations, Nernst equations, reaction rate equations and electrically neutrality equations. The model is applicable for the valence state evaluation of TRU nuclides in both steady state and transient state conditions in redox equilibrium. The valence state which is difficult to measure under high radiation and multi component conditions is calculated by the model using experimentally measured data for the TRU nuclide concentrations, nitric acid and redox reagent concentrations, electrode potential and solution temperature. (author)

  3. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  4. Late side effects of Ruthenium 106 therapy for uveal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Faulborn, J.; Poier, E.

    1994-01-01

    When effectiveness is evaluated in brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 special emphasis has to be put on tumor destruction and late side effects responsible for the definite functional results. We evaluated the late side effects of 22 uveal melanomas, which had been treated with 106 Ruthenium plaques. The tumor prominences ranged from 3 to 10 mm, the diameter from 4 to 9 disc diameters. In 4 patients the tumor involved the posterior pole, 14 melanomas were located in the midperiphery of the fundus, 4 tumors were ciliary body melanomas. The total radiation dose of the apex ranged from 100 to 240 Gy with a corresponding dose to the sclera between 540 to 1000 Gy. Because of the short half life of the plaque we have been using different dose rates (1.6-11 Gy/h). In 17/22 eyes adequate regression could be achieved by Ruthenium therapy alone. In one case additional laser treatment of the macular part of the melanoma had to be performed, Gamma Knife therapy was necessary in another melanoma with 10 mm tumor prominence. 3 recurrences led to enucleation. The mean follow up was 4.8 years ranging from 1 to 7 years. In 2/22 patients opticopathy caused severe visual impairment, in another 2 patients radiation maculopathy and opticopathy was observed. 7/22 developed vasculopathy with neovascularization treated by photocoagulation. In one case of focal radiation maculopathy laser treatment could prevent further visual impairment. The following factors are responsible for a higher incidence of late side effects: 1. High dose rate of the plaques in combination with a high radiation dose to the sclera 2. Location of the tumor within a minimum distance of 2 disc diameters to the optic nerve or macula 3. Tumor location at the ciliary body Laser treatment in case of neovascularization and focal radiation maculopathy is the only effective treatment with regard to late side effects. Ischemic maculopathy and radiation opticopathy are responsible for late visual impairment. (authors)

  5. Radiation related complications after ruthenium plaque radiotherapy of uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summanen, P.; Immonen, I.; Kivela, T.; Tommila, P.; Tarkkanen, A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Meilahti Clinic; Heikkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    1996-08-01

    The aims were to analyse radiation related complications and secondary enucleation after irradiation of malignant uveal melanoma with ruthenium-106 plaques. A series of 100 consecutive eyes irradiated in 1981-91 was analysed using the life table method and the Cox proportional hazards model. The 3 and 5 year probabilities of being without radiation cataract were 73% and 63%, without neovascular glaucoma 91% and 81%, without vitreous haemorrhage 83% and 74%, without radiation maculopathy 85% and 70%, and without radiation optic neuropathy 90% and 88%, respectively. (Author).

  6. Radiation related complications after ruthenium plaque radiotherapy of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summanen, P.; Immonen, I.; Kivela, T.; Tommila, P.; Tarkkanen, A.; Heikkonen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aims were to analyse radiation related complications and secondary enucleation after irradiation of malignant uveal melanoma with ruthenium-106 plaques. A series of 100 consecutive eyes irradiated in 1981-91 was analysed using the life table method and the Cox proportional hazards model. The 3 and 5 year probabilities of being without radiation cataract were 73% and 63%, without neovascular glaucoma 91% and 81%, without vitreous haemorrhage 83% and 74%, without radiation maculopathy 85% and 70%, and without radiation optic neuropathy 90% and 88%, respectively. (Author)

  7. Progress in doping of ruthenium silicide (Ru2Si3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vining, C.B.; Allevato, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that ruthenium silicide (Ru 2 Si 3 ) is currently under development as a promising thermoelectric material suitable for space power applications. Key to realizing the potentially high figure of merit values of this material is the development of appropriate doping techniques. In this study, manganese and iridium have been identified as useful p- and n-type dopants, respectively. Resistivity values have been reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Anomalous Hall effect results, however, complicate interpretation of some of the results and further effort is required to achieve optimum doping levels

  8. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Decarbonylation of Primary Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Andrea; Madsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrogenative decarbonylation of a primary alcohol involves the release of both dihydrogen and carbon monoxide to afford the one-carbon shorter product. The transformation has now been achieved with a ruthenium-catalyzed protocol by using the complex Ru(COD)Cl2 and the hindered monodentate ligand...... P(o-tolyl)3 in refluxing p-cymene. The reaction can be applied to both benzylic and long chain linear aliphatic alcohols. The intermediate aldehyde can be observed during the transformation, which is therefore believed to proceed through two separate catalytic cycles involving first dehydrogenation...... of the alcohol and then decarbonylation of the resulting aldehyde....

  9. Do cosmogenic nuclides (10Be, 14C , 21Ne, 26Al) track late Quaternary climate changes on the Altiplano?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippe, K.; Kober, F.; Zeilinger, G.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kubik, P.; Maden, C.; Wieler, R.

    2010-12-01

    The high Altiplano plateau is the most prominent element of the Central Andes, separating the Andean Cordilleras between 15° to 22° S. It represents a tectonically quiet, intramontane basin with arid to semi-arid climate, low relief and internal drainage. Throughout the late Quaternary regional climate on the Altiplano repeatedly changed between wet and dry conditions [1]. The influence of climate on the plateau evolution during the Pleistocene/Holocene is unclear, however, as data on erosion processes and rates on the Altiplano are sparse. Here, we present a multiple-nuclide study investigating surface denudation at the eastern Altiplano of Bolivia (16°-17° S) on millennial and longer timescales. The aim is a better understanding of the complex feedback between climate, tectonics and geomorphology on the topographic evolution of the Andes. Catchment-wide denudation (CWD) rates are provided for a 150 km NW-SE transect along the Altiplano edge based on the analyses of cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al, 21Ne and in-situ 14C in river-borne sediment. Single nuclide CWD rates obtained for 10Be, 26Al and 21Ne are similar for all three nuclides and on the order of 3-37 mm/ka. Thus, the calculated denudation rates provide an averaged denudation history dating back at least to the middle Pleistocene. Denudation rates correlate positively with the mean basin hillslope, which is mainly controlled by basin lithology. For most catchments both, the 26Al/10Be ratios and the 21Ne/10Be ratios indicate a complex erosion/exposure history with probably several periods of sediment storage and burial/shielding totalling ~0.5 - 1.2 Ma. Local geomorphology featuring low slopes and low relief, small terraces and local floodplains also suggests that sediment transport might have been periodically ineffective. Concentrations of in-situ produced short-lived 14C are significantly lower than expected from the concentrations of the long-lived and stable cosmogenic nuclides. This would indicate a 30

  10. Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established

  11. Removal of fission product ruthenium from purex process solutions: thiourea as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floh, B.; Abrao, A.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the treatment of spent uranium fuel is presented. It is based on the Purex Process using thiourea to increase the ruthenium decontamination factor. Thiourea exhibits a strong tendency for the formation of coordination compounds in acidic media. This tendency serves as a basis to transform nitrosyl-ruthenium species into Ru /SC(NH)(NH 2 )/ 2+ and Ru /SC(NH)(NH 2 )/ 3 complexes which are unextractable by TBP-varsol. The best conditions for the ruthenium-thiourea complex formation were found to be: thiourea-ruthenium ratio (mass/mass) close to 42, at 75 0 C, 30 minutes reaction time and aging period of 60 minutes. The ruthenium decontamination factor for a single uranium extraction are ca. 80-100, not interfering with extraction of actinides. These values are rather high in comparison to those obtained using the conventional Purex Process (e.g. F.D. sub(Ru)=10). By this reason the method developed here is suitable for the treatment of spent uranium fuels. Thiourea (100g/l) scrubbing experiments of ruthenium, partially co-extracted with actinides, confirmed the possibility of its removal from the extract. A decontamination greater than 83,5% for ruthenium as fission product is obtained in two stages with this procedure. (Author) [pt

  12. A thermodynamic/mass-transport model for the release of ruthenium from irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, F.; Iglesias, F.C.; Hunt, C.E.L.

    1990-01-01

    Some postulated nuclear reactor accidents lead to fuel failures and hence release of fission products into the primary heat transport system (PHTS). To determine the consequences of such accidents, it is important to understand the behavior of fission products both in the PHTS and in the reactor containment building. Ruthenium metal has a high boiling point and is nonvolatile under reducing conditions. However, under oxidizing conditions ruthenium can form volatile oxides at relatively low temperatures and, hence, could escape from failed fuel and enter the containment building. The ruthenium radioisotope Ru-106 presents a potentially significant health risk if it is released outside the reactor containment building. Consequently, it is important to understand the behavior of ruthenium during a nuclear reactor accident. The authors review the thermodynamic behavior of ruthenium at high temperatures. The qualitative behavior of ruthenium, predicted using thermodynamic calculations, is then compared with experimental results from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL). Finally, a simple thermodynamic/mass-transport model is proposed to explain the release behavior of ruthenium in a steam atmosphere

  13. Residual Nuclides Induced in Cu Target by a 250 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bin; Zhang Xue-Ying; Ma Fei; Ju Yong-Qin; Ge Hong-Lin; Chen Liang; Zhang Yan-Bin; Li Yan-Yan; Luo Peng; Wang Jian-Guo; Wan Bo; Xu Xiao-Wei; Wei Ji-Fang; Zhou Bin

    2015-01-01

    Residual nuclide production is studied experimentally by bombarding a Cu target with a 250 MeV proton beam. The data are measured by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. Six nuclides are identified and their cross sections are determined. The corresponding calculated results by the MCNPX and GEANT4 codes are compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the codes. A comparison shows that the MCNPX simulation has a better agreement with the experiment. The energy dependence of residual nuclide production is studied with the aid of MCNPX simulation, and it is found that the mass yields for the nuclides in the light mass region increase significantly with the proton energy. (paper)

  14. Nuclides.net: An integrated environment for computations on radionuclides and their radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclides.net computational package is of direct interest in the fields of environment monitoring and nuclear forensics. The 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclide chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The main emphasis in Nuclides.net is on nuclear science applications, such as health physics, radioprotection and radiochemistry, rather than nuclear data for which excellent sources already exist. In contrast to the CD-based Nuclides 2000 predecessor, Nuclides.net applications run over the internet on a web server. The user interface to these applications is via a web browser. Information submitted by the user is sent to the appropriate applications resident on the web server. The results of the calculations are returned to the user, again via the browser. The product is aimed at both students and professionals for reference data on radionuclides and computations based on this data using the latest internet technology. It is particularly suitable for educational purposes in the nuclear industry, health physics and radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, nuclear physics, astrophysics, etc. The Nuclides.net software suite contains the following modules/features: a) A new user interface to view the nuclide charts (with zoom features). Additional nuclide charts are based on spin, parity, binding energy etc. b) There are five main applications: (1) 'Decay Engine' for decay calculations of numbers, masses, activities, dose rates, etc. of parent and daughters. (2) 'Dosimetry and Shielding' module allows the calculation of dose rates from both unshielded and shielded point sources. A choice of 10 shield materials is available. (3) 'Virtual Nuclides' allows the user to do decay and dosimetry and shielding calculations on mixtures of

  15. Fate of nuclides in natural water systems. Annual progress report, April 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    This study of the behavior of nuclides in natural water systems is divided into studies of atmospheric aerosols, soils, groundwater, rivers, estuaries and coastal zones, the carbon cycle and the growth rates of marine organisms

  16. Nuclide identifier and grat data reader application for ORIGEN output file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif Isnaeni

    2011-01-01

    ORIGEN is a one-group depletion and radioactive decay computer code developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORIGEN takes one-group neutronics calculation providing various nuclear material characteristics (the buildup, decay and processing of radioactive materials). ORIGEN output is a text-based file, ORIGEN output file contains only numbers in the form of group data nuclide, nuclide identifier and grat. This application was created to facilitate data collection nuclide identifier and grat, this application also has a function to acquire mass number data and calculate mass (gram) for each nuclide. Output from these applications can be used for computer code data input for neutronic calculations such as MCNP. (author)

  17. Attempt to enrich of a new spontaneous fissioning nuclide by evaporation of natural brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, A.; Zhuravleva, E.L.; Constantinescu, M.; Constantinescu, o.; Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The enrichment of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide discovered in the Cheleken brine, was made by evaporation. The purpose of this work was the comparison of behaviour of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide with that of the known elements in the formation processes of the high concentration brines. Spontaneous fission of the nuclide was measured by means of the counters for multiple emission of neutrons. It is shown that the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide was enriched as well as other trace elements (Hg, Tl, Bi and Pb) in a solution remained after the evaporation of the initial solution. The conclusion is drawn that from the sea water brines could be obtained by evaporation which are enriched in trace elements with an enrichment degree higher than the natural brines

  18. Preparation of tracing source layer in simulation test of nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yingjie; Ni Shiwei; Li Weijuan; Yamamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Komiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI on safety assessment for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive waste, a laboratory simulation test of nuclide migration was carried out, in which the undisturbed loess soil column sampled from CIRP' s field test site was used as testing material, three nuclides, Sr-85, Cs-137 and Co-60 were used as tracers. Special experiment on tracing method was carried out, which included measuring pH value of quartz sand in HCl solution, determining the eligible water content of quartz sand as tracer carrier, measuring distribution uniformity of nuclides in the tracing quartz sand, determining elution rate of nuclides from the tracing quartz sand and detecting activity uniformity of tracing source layer. The experiment results showed that the tracing source layer, in which fine quartz sand was used as tracer carrier, satisfied expected requirement. (1 fig.)

  19. Modeling for Colloid and Chelator Facilitated Nuclide Transport in Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program template, by which assessment of safety and performance for a radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases can be made has been developed. Colloid and chelator facilitated transport that is believed to result for faster nuclide transport in various mediabothinthegeosphereandbiospherehas been evaluated deterministically and probabilistically to demonstrate the capability of the template developed through this study. To this end colloid and chelator facilitated nuclide transport has been modeled rather strainghtforwardly with assumed data through this study by utilizing some powerful function offered by GoldSim. An evaluation in view of apparent influence of colloid and chelator on the nuclide transport in the various media in and around a repository system with data assumed are illustrated

  20. Dynamics of the contact between a ruthenium surface with a single nanoasperity and a flat ruthenium surface: Molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros de Oliveira, Alan; Fortini, Andrea; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Srolovitz, David

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the contact between a pair of surfaces (with properties designed to mimic ruthenium) via molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, we study the contact between a ruthenium surface with a single nanoasperity and a flat ruthenium surface. The results of such simulations suggest that contact behavior is highly variable. The goal of this study is to investigate the source and degree of this variability. We find that during compression, the behavior of the contact force displacement curves is reproducible, while during contact separation, the behavior is highly variable. Examination of the contact surfaces suggests that two separation mechanisms are in operation and give rise to this variability. One mechanism corresponds to the formation of a bridge between the two surfaces that plastically stretches as the surfaces are drawn apart and eventually separate in shear. This leads to a morphology after separation in which there are opposing asperities on the two surfaces. This plastic separation/bridge formation mechanism leads to a large work of separation. The other mechanism is a more brittle-like mode in which a crack propagates across the base of the asperity (slightly below the asperity/substrate junction) leading to most of the asperity on one surface or the other after separation and a slight depression facing this asperity on the opposing surface. This failure mode corresponds to a smaller work of separation. This failure mode corresponds to a smaller work of separation. Furthermore, contacts made from materials that exhibit predominantly brittle-like behavior will tend to require lower work of separation than those made from ductile-like contact materials.

  1. International program to improve decay data for transactinium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmer, R.G.; Reich, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    To help meet an identified need for precise decay data, in 1977 the IAEA organized an international Coordinated Research Program (CRP) to measure and evaluate half-lives and γ - and α - emission probabilities for selected transactinium nuclides of importance for reactor technology. The CRP goals were (1) to determine a list of data that needed improvement, (2) to encourage new measurements, and (3) to evaluate the available data. All three phases of this work are now complete. Our participation in this effort has involved the measurement of γ-ray emission probabilities for /sup 232, 233, 235/U, /sup 238, 239, 240, 241/Pu, 229 Th and 233 Pa, as well as participating in the data evaluation. The γ-emission probabilities were determined from the measurement of γ-emission rates with the goal of obtaining uncertainties of less than or equal to 1%. γ measurements were made on calibrated Ge detectors. These calibrations were done by standard methods, generally involving measurements at approx. 60 γ-ray energies from 14 to 2700 keV. The efficiency-calibration functions were assigned uncertainties ranging from 2% below 50 keV to 0.50% from 400 to 1400 keV. The determination of the decay rates of the various sources involved several techniques. The 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 240 Pu samples were calibrated by gross α-emission-rate measurements at NBS. The 235 U sample was taken from an NBS-calibrated spike solution. The 241 Pu and 233 U samples were calibrated by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry based on spikes of the calibrated 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 235 U materials. Some of our results are given, together with a comparison of some present and previous results. 20 refs

  2. Some notes on experiments measuring diffusion of sorbed nuclides through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    Various experimental techniques for measuring the important parameters governing diffusion of sorbed nuclides through water-saturated porous media are described, and the particular parameters obtained from each technique are discussed. Recent experiments in which diffusive transport takes place more rapidly than expected are reviewed. The author recommends that through-transport diffusion experiments are the most satisfactory method of determining whether this arises from surface diffusion of sorbed nuclides. (author)

  3. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  4. The extraction behavior of some noticeable nuclides in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, T.; Sasao, N.; Ozawa, M.; Yamana, H.

    1987-01-01

    The extraction behavior of some TRU nuclides and Ru-106 were investigated on the basis of the process analytical data obtained during this decade of the hot operation in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Some characteristics of their extraction behavior under Tokai-flowsheet became clear. They were explainable by the chemical features of these nuclides in conjunction with the chemical conditions of the process. Some extraction-simulation calculations were performed to supplement the understanding of their characteristic behaviors

  5. Device for determining the gross weight, dose rate, surface contamination and/or nuclide inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Barrels with low nuclide inventories (about 1E6 Bq) and with high inventories (1E13 Bq) are inspected with the barrel inspection system. The system provides a rotating plate, which is part of some scales and a measuring sensor arrangement for this purpose. The surface contamination and nuclide inventories of the 200 litre barrels can be calculated from the weight and radiation detector values. (DG) [de

  6. Field tests on migration of TRU-nuclide, (1). General introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The field migration test using TRU nuclide was carried out as a cooperative research project between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CIRP (China Institute for Radiation Protection). This report introduced the out-line of the field migration test and described the outline of the series of 'Field Test on Migration of TRU-nuclide' and main results as a summary report. (author)

  7. Radioactivity nuclide identification based on BP and LM algorithm neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jihong; Sun Jian; Wang Lianghou

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides the method which can identify radioactive nuclide based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network. Then, this paper compares the above-mentioned method with FR algorithm. Through the result of the Matlab simulation, the method of radioactivity nuclide identification based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network is superior to the FR algorithm. With the better effect and the higher accuracy, it will be the best choice. (authors)

  8. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration f...

  9. Analysis of neonicotinoids by gas chromatography coupled to nuclide 63Ni - Electron Capture Detector - GC/ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Crepaldi, Caike; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several reports have been published discussing reduction in bee population which polymerizes cultures around the world this phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The phenomenon describes the lack of worker honeybees in the colony despite having pups and food. The causes of this problem are unknown but there are studies that claim that reduction of population of bees is linked to poisoning through insecticides specifically neonicotinoids. Among this type of pesticide are imidacloprid (C 9 H 10 ClN 5 O 2 ), clothianidin (C 6 H 8 ClN 5 O 2 S) and thiamethoxam (C 8 H 10 ClN 5 O 3 S). This paper presents the analysis of neonicotinoids - clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam - by the technique of gas chromatography coupled to nuclide 63 Ni electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The electron capture detector (ECD) is a gas chromatography detector that has been used for the detection of organic halogens, nitriles, nitrates and organometallic compounds. The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources 63 Ni within carrier gas N 2 . The electrons produced in this process are collected and create a current that are amplified and generates a chromatographic peak. Methodology and details of the analysis are present in this work. (author)

  10. Analysis of neonicotinoids by gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni - Electron Capture Detector - GC/ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Crepaldi, Caike; Bustillos, Oscar V., E-mail: priscilaoamaral@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio.leao@usp.br, E-mail: marceloredigolo@gmail.com, E-mail: caike1995@gmail.com, E-mail: ovega@ipen.bremails [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several reports have been published discussing reduction in bee population which polymerizes cultures around the world this phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The phenomenon describes the lack of worker honeybees in the colony despite having pups and food. The causes of this problem are unknown but there are studies that claim that reduction of population of bees is linked to poisoning through insecticides specifically neonicotinoids. Among this type of pesticide are imidacloprid (C{sub 9}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}), clothianidin (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}S) and thiamethoxam (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 3}S). This paper presents the analysis of neonicotinoids - clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam - by the technique of gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The electron capture detector (ECD) is a gas chromatography detector that has been used for the detection of organic halogens, nitriles, nitrates and organometallic compounds. The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources {sup 63}Ni within carrier gas N{sub 2}. The electrons produced in this process are collected and create a current that are amplified and generates a chromatographic peak. Methodology and details of the analysis are present in this work. (author)

  11. New insight on aliphatic linkages in the macromolecular organic fraction of Orgueil and Murchison meteorites through ruthenium tetroxide oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, Laurent; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2005-09-01

    Ruthenium tetroxide oxidation was used to examine the macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites and especially to characterize the aliphatic linkages. Already applied to various terrestrial samples, ruthenium tetroxide is a selective oxidant which destroys aromatic units, converting them into CO 2, and yields aliphatic and aromatic acids. In our experiment on chondritic IOM, it produces mainly short aliphatic diacids and polycarboxylic aromatic acids. Some short hydroxyacids are also detected. Aliphatic diacids are interpreted as aliphatic bridges between aromatic units in the chemical structure, and polycarboxylic aromatic acids are the result of the fusion of polyaromatic units. The product distribution shows that aliphatic links are short with numerous substitutions. No indigenous monocarboxylic acid was detected, showing that free aliphatic chains must be very short (less than three carbon atoms). The hydroxyacids are related to the occurrence of ester and ether functional groups within the aliphatic bridges between the aromatic units. This technique thus allows us to characterize in detail the aliphatic linkages of the IOMs, and the derived conclusions are in agreement with spectroscopic, pyrolytic, and degradative results previously reported. Compared to terrestrial samples, the aliphatic part of chondritic IOM is shorter and highly substituted. Aromatic units are smaller and more cross-linked than in coals, as already proposed from NMR data. Orgueil and Murchison IOM exhibit some tiny differences, especially in the length of aliphatic chains.

  12. Effect of composition of chlorophyll and ruthenium dyes mixture (hybrid) on the dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Kusumandari; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2018-03-01

    The fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has been conducted by varying the composition of natural dye from moss chlorophyll (Bryophyte) and synthesis dye from ruthenium complex N719. The sandwich structure of DSSC consists of the working electrode using TiO2, dye, electrolyte, and counter electrode using carbon. The composition of chlorophyll and synthesis dyes mixture were 100% and 0%, 80% and 20%, 60% and 40%, 40% and 60%, and 20% and 80%. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of moss chlorophyll showed the first peak in the wavelength range of 450-500 nm and the second peak at wavelength of 650-700 nm. The peak value of absorbance at wavelengths of 450-500 nm was 6.1004 and at wavelengths of 650-700 nm was 3.5835. The IPCE characteristic curves showed the absorption peak of photon for DSSCs occurred at wavelength of 550-650 nm. It considered that photon in this wavelength can contribute dominantly to produce the optimum electrons. The I-V characteristics of DSSCs with composition of chlorophyll and synthesis dyes mixture of 100% and 0%, 80% and 20%, 60% and 40%, 40% and 60%, and 20% and 80% resulted the efficiency of 0.0022; 0.0194; 0.0239; 0.0342; and 0.0414, respectively. It suggested that the addition of a little composition of the ruthenium complex dye into moss chlorophyll dye can increase the efficiency significantly.

  13. Ruthenium determination by the method of inversion voltammetry on graphite electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominova, I G; Kolpakova, N A; Stromberg, A G [Tomskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1978-12-01

    Optimal conditions for determining ruthenium by inversion voltammetry on a graphite electrode are 0.1 M KCl or KNO/sub 3/, pH 2-3, electrolysis potential - 1.0 V. A linear dependence of ruthenium electrodissolution current on its concentration in the solution makes it possible to use inversion voltammetry for determining 5x10/sup -7/ - 1x10/sup -4/ g-ion Ru/l. Ruthenium can be determined in the presence of a large excess of nickel and copper but commensurable amounts of mercury adn platinum metals interfere.

  14. A Study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the properties of geochemical reactions and sorption of high-level radionuclides (U, Th, Am, and Np), constructed databases for the geochemical reactions and sorption of the high-level radionuclides, and developed application methodologies of the databases. For the investigation on the nuclide migration and retardation through fractured rocks in KURT, in-situ solute migration system and on-line monitoring system were installed. The migration and retardation behaviors of nuclides were investigated annually for non-sorbing, simply sorbing and multi-valent sorbing nuclides, respectively, and interactions with fracture-filling materials were also analyzed. Besides, researches difficult to perform in KURT were carried out in foreign underground research facilities as joint studies for nuclide and colloid migration. The results from domestic and foreign underground facilities were compared each other and the reliability of the domestic results were assured from this. Diffusion depths of high-level radionuclides into rock matrix were measured in KURT conditions and their diffusion properties were analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the effects of bio-mineralization and redox reactions of a nuclide and microbe on nuclide behaviors were carried out to study the effects of combined interactions between minerals and microbes on the radionuclide migration and retardation

  15. Ruthenium behaviour in severe nuclear accident conditions - Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backman, U.; Lipponen, M.; Zilliacus, R.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2004-03-01

    In order to prevent the radioactive ruthenium from spreading in gaseous form in case of an accident in a nuclear power plant it is of interest to know how it is formed and how it behaves. In the experiments the behaviour of ruthenium in oxidising atmosphere at high temperatures is studied. The methods for trapping and analysing RuO4 has been studied. It was found that 1M NaOH is capable of trapping RuO4 totally. The determination of Ru from the solution can be made using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and from the reduced precipitates on filters by INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis). The results of the experiments carried out so far is reported. A significant difference in the decomposition rate of gaseous RuO4 depending on the tube material was found. In all experiments only a minor fraction of Ru remained in gaseous form until the bubbler. In order to achieve a better mass balance an experiment using radioactive tracer was carried out. In the decomposition of gaseous Ru needle-shaped RuO2 crystallites were formed. (au)

  16. Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R. S. [Radiobiological Research Council, Medical Research Council, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    The radioactive isotopes of ruthenium, Ru{sup 103} (t1/2 = 40 d) and Ru{sup 106}(t1/2 = 1 yr), are formed in relatively high yield as a result of nuclear fission of U{sup 235}. There is almost no information on the metabolism of ruthenium by man and the following considerations are based on investigations with rats and rabbits. The nature and extent of the hazard from radioruthenium will depend not only on the circumstances of contamination but also on the physical and chemical state of the ruthenium; Ru{sup 106} administered orally as the dioxide is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract to a negligible extent when it is in a particulate form with carrier present but when given as a colloid in the absence of carrier, uptake is similar to that which follows administration of the chloride (3-5%). Nitrato-derivatives of nitrosyl ruthenium may be absorbed to an even greater extent (an average of 13% is absorbed by rabbits). Absorption by rats, which are not fasted, is complete within one hour of an intragastric dose. The limited period of absorption may be explained in terms of the rate of gastric emptying and combination of ruthenium with the contents of the gut. When rats are fasted overnight before the ruthenium is administered, absorption is increased threefold-and continues over a longer period. Nitrato derivatives of nitrosyl-ruthenium, in contrast to other compounds tested, react with the wall of the upper small intestine where up to 20% of an oral dose may be retained for several hours. Although the chemical state of ruthenium influences the degree of absorption, the subsequent distribution is not greatly affected. Approximately half of the absorbed ruthenium is excreted in the urine during the first 24 h. After one month, 5 to 20% of the absorbed fraction is retained with a long biological half-life. The ruthenium is distributed throughout the body with the concentrations in the various organs seldem differing by a factor of more than five, though the

  17. Ruthenium nitrosyl complexes in radioactive waste solutions in reprocessing plants. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasius, E.; Mueller, K.

    1984-01-01

    With capillary isotachophoresis and free-flow isotachophoresis it is possible to separate and isolate preparatively the mononuclear cationic ruthenium nitrosyl nitrato complexes. The behaviour of these complexes during storage, concentration and calcination is studied: The conversion of six ruthenium nitrosyl nitrato complexes as a function of time is studied at -36 0 C, 0 0 C, +3 0 C and 100 0 C. The percentage of ruthenium nitrosyl complexes with NO 3 - as ligand increased markedly during concentration experiments. Above 250 0 C NOsub(x) is liberated and the colour of the residue changes from brown to brownish-grey. At 400 0 C ruthenium complexes are no longer detected and the inner walls of the apparatus are covered with RuO 2 . (orig.)

  18. Synthesis and catalytic activity of ruthenium complexes modified with chiral racemic per- and polyfluorooxaalkanoates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipovská, P.; Rathouská, L.; Šimůnek, O.; Hošek, J.; Kolaříková, V.; Rybáčková, M.; Cvačka, Josef; Svoboda, Martin; Kvíčala, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 191, Nov (2016), s. 14-22 ISSN 0022-1139 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : racemic * chiral * ruthenium complex * perfluorooxaalkanoate * polyfluorooxaalkanoate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2016

  19. Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Li, Shari; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-12-01

    Dendrimer-encapsulated ruthenium nanoparticles (DEN-Ru) have been used as catalysts in lithium-O2 batteries for the first time. Results obtained from UV-vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the nanoparticles synthesized by the dendrimer template method are ruthenium oxide instead of metallic ruthenium reported earlier by other groups. The DEN-Ru significantly improve the cycling stability of lithium (Li)-O2 batteries with carbon black electrodes and decrease the charging potential even at low catalyst loading. The monodispersity, porosity and large number of surface functionalities of the dendrimer template prevent the aggregation of the ruthenium nanoparticles making their entire surface area available for catalysis. The potential of using DEN-Ru as stand-alone cathode materials for Li-O2 batteries is also explored.

  20. Extraction of ruthenium thiocyanate and its separation from rhodium by polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bazi, S.J.; Chow, A.

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for the formation and extraction of the thiocyanate complex of ruthenium are reported. Distribution coefficients of more than 10 4 and a capacity of about 0.24 mole per kg of foam were obtained. The effect of the chloride salts of various univalent cations on the extraction of Ru(SCN) 6 3- indicated that the efficiency of ruthenium extraction depends on how well the cation fits into the polyether segment of the polyurethane foam, which agrees with the 'cation-chelation' mechanism. The separation of ruthenium and rhodium indicated that more than 95% of the rhodium remained in the aqueous phase and about 95% of the ruthenium was retained by the polyurethane foam and could be easily recovered. (author)

  1. Some thermophysical properties of ruthenium in the neighbourhood of the melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheindlin, A.E.; Kats, S.A.; Berezin, B.Ya.; Chekhovskoy, V.Ya.; Kenisarin, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The technique of levitation calorimetry has been used to study for the first time thermophysical properties of ruthenium in the neighbourhood of the melting point. To measure enthalpy a copper block calorimeter with an istohermal jacket has been used. Basing on the values measured the equations for enthalpy of solid and liquid ruthenium within the temperature ranges of 2,270-2,607 K and 2,607-2,760 K respectively have been obtained by the least squares method. In addition the melting temperature of ruthenium and its brightness temperature at the melting point, the wavelength being 0.65 micron, have been measured. The results of the measurements have been used to calculate the heat and entropy of fusion, the specific heat of solid and that of liquid ruthenium and its normal spectral emissivity at the melting point

  2. Removal of round off errors in the matrix exponential method for solving the heavy nuclide chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2005-01-01

    Many nodal codes for core simulation adopt the micro-depletion procedure for the depletion analysis. Unlike the macro-depletion procedure, the microdepletion procedure uses micro-cross sections and number densities of important nuclides to generate the macro cross section of a spatial calculational node. Therefore, it needs to solve the chain equations of the nuclides of interest to obtain their number densities. There are several methods such as the matrix exponential method (MEM) and the chain linearization method (CLM) for solving the nuclide chain equations. The former solves chain equations exactly even when the cycles that come from the alpha decay exist in the chain while the latter solves the chain approximately when the cycles exist in the chain. The former has another advantage over the latter. Many nodal codes for depletion analysis, such as MASTER, solve only the hard coded nuclide chains with the CLM. Therefore, if we want to extend the chain by adding some more nuclides to the chain, we have to modify the source code. In contrast, we can extend the chain just by modifying the input in the MEM because it is easy to implement the MEM solver for solving an arbitrary nuclide chain. In spite of these advantages of the MEM, many nodal codes adopt the chain linearization because the former has a large round off error when the flux level is very high or short lived or strong absorber nuclides exist in the chain. In this paper, we propose a new technique to remove the round off errors in the MEM and we compared the performance of the two methods

  3. Flameless atomic absorption determination of ruthenium using a ''Saturn-1'' spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichkov, V.N.; Sinitsyn, N.M.; Sadikova, F.G.; Govorova, M.I.; Yakshinskij, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    A flameless atomic absorption method is suggested for determining ruthenium in samples of complicated composition using a ''Saturn-1'' spectrophotometer with a L'vov graphite cuvette. The method was used for determining ruthenium in a copper-based sample (10 -3 % Ru) and in electrolyte slurries (10 -3 -10 -2 %). The limit of detection Csub(min, 0.95) = 3.0x10 -3 μg Ru/ml. Other platinum metals do not interfere [ru

  4. A New Homogeneous Catalyst for the Dehydrogenation of Dimethylamine Borane Starting with Ruthenium(III Acetylacetonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Ünel Barın

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of ruthenium(III acetylacetonate was investigated for the first time in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane. During catalytic reaction, a new ruthenium(II species is formed in situ from the reduction of ruthenium(III and characterized using UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, 1H NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The most likely structure suggested for the ruthenium(II species is mer-[Ru(N2Me43(acacH]. Mercury poisoning experiment indicates that the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane is homogeneous catalysis. The kinetics of the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane starting with Ru(acac3 were studied depending on the catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and temperature. The hydrogen generation was found to be first-order with respect to catalyst concentration and zero-order regarding the substrate concentration. Evaluation of the kinetic data provides the activation parameters for the dehydrogenation reaction: the activation energy Ea = 85 ± 2 kJ·mol−1, the enthalpy of activation ∆H# = 82 ± 2 kJ·mol−1 and the entropy of activation; ∆S# = −85 ± 5 J·mol−1·K−1. The ruthenium(II catalyst formed from the reduction of ruthenium(III acetylacetonate provides 1700 turnovers over 100 hours in hydrogen generation from the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane before deactivation at 60 °C.

  5. The Biological Side of Water-Soluble Arene Ruthenium Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Therrien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article covers the synthetic strategies, structural aspects, and host-guest properties of ruthenium metalla-assemblies, with a special focus on their use as drug delivery vectors. The two-dimensional metalla-rectangles show interesting host-guest possibilities but seem less appropriate for being used as drug carriers. On the other hand, metalla-prisms allow encapsulation and possible targeted release of bioactive molecules and consequently show some potential as drug delivery vectors. The reactivity of these metalla-prisms can be fine-tuned to allow a fine control of the guest’s release. The larger metalla-cubes can be used to stabilize the formation of G-quadruplex DNA and can be used to encapsulate and release photoactive molecules such as porphins. These metalla-assemblies demonstrate great prospective in photodynamic therapy.

  6. Raman spectra of ruthenium and tantalum trimers in argon matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Shen, Xiaole; Chen, Xiaoyu; Lombardi, John R.

    2000-12-01

    The resonance Raman spectra of ruthenium trimers (Ru 3) in argon matrices have been obtained. Three resonance Raman transitions were observed between 570 and 590 nm. Two of them (303.4 and 603.7 cm -1) are assigned to the totally symmetric vibrational progression, giving k e=1.86 mdyne/ Å. The line at 581.5 cm-1 is assigned as the origin of a low-lying electronic state. We also report on the observation of a resonance Raman spectrum of tantalum trimers (Ta 3). Observed lines include 251.2 and 501.9 cm-1 which we assign to the fundamental and the first overtone of the symmetric stretch in Ta 3. This gives k e=2.25 mdyne/ Å.

  7. Cathodic processes during ruthenium electrodeposition from a chloride melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol'skij, D.V.

    1985-01-01

    Cathodic processes occurring during the electrolysis of chloride melts in the presence of oxygen-containing impurities were studied. The experiments were carried out at 500, 550 600 and 680 deg C, ruthenium ions concentration in KCl-NaCl-CsCl eutectic melt being 0.4-1.5 mol% and BaO additions 4.8x10 -2 mol%. Temperature dependence of Ru(3) ion diffusion coefficient in the chloride melt (lg D=3.25-1508/T+-0.02) and activation energy of the diffusion process (6.9 k cal/mol) were determined. It is shown that changes of the shape of E, t-curve and the deviation of values determined in the cause of chronopotentiometric investigations from the corresponding values of reversable processes are related in many respects to the participation of oxygen-containing compounds in the cathodic process. Irreversibility of the cathodic process is also connected with metal crystallization during electrodeposition

  8. Evidence for Dynamic Chemical Kinetics at Individual Molecular Ruthenium Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Quinn T; Blum, Suzanne A

    2018-02-05

    Catalytic cycles are typically depicted as possessing time-invariant steps with fixed rates. Yet the true behavior of individual catalysts with respect to time is unknown, hidden by the ensemble averaging inherent to bulk measurements. Evidence is presented for variable chemical kinetics at individual catalysts, with a focus on ring-opening metathesis polymerization catalyzed by the second-generation Grubbs' ruthenium catalyst. Fluorescence microscopy is used to probe the chemical kinetics of the reaction because the technique possesses sufficient sensitivity for the detection of single chemical reactions. Insertion reactions in submicron regions likely occur at groups of many (not single) catalysts, yet not so many that their unique kinetic behavior is ensemble averaged. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Systematics of criticality properties of actinide nuclides and its bearing on the long lived fission waste problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Garg, S.B.; Iyengar, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic analysis of the criticality parameters of over twenty fissile and fertile isotopes of eight transthorium actinide elements that has been carried out by us. It is observed that K ∞ increases and critical mass decreases monotonically with the fissility parameter (Z 2 /A) of the nuclides. This implies that each and every isotope of transuranic elements such as Np, Am, Cm etc. which are produced as by-products during reactor operation is a more valuable nuclear fuel than the corresponding fissile/fissible isotopes of plutonium. This finding has a profound bearing on the long lived fission waste problem and supports the view that the byproduct actinide elements should be separated from the high level waste stream and recycled back into fission reactors, thereby eliminating one of the commonly voiced concerns regarding the acceptability of nuclear fission power

  10. Study of the acceleration of nuclide burnup calculation using GPU with CUDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okui, S.; Ohoka, Y.; Tatsumi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The computation costs of neutronics calculation code become higher as physics models and methods are complicated. The degree of them in neutronics calculation tends to be limited due to available computing power. In order to open a door to the new world, use of GPU for general purpose computing, called GPGPU, has been studied [1]. GPU has multi-threads computing mechanism enabled with multi-processors which realize mush higher performance than CPUs. NVIDIA recently released the CUDA language for general purpose computation which is a C-like programming language. It is relatively easy to learn compared to the conventional ones used for GPGPU, such as OpenGL or CG. Therefore application of GPU to the numerical calculation became much easier. In this paper, we tried to accelerate nuclide burnup calculation, which is important to predict nuclides time dependence in the core, using GPU with CUDA. We chose the 4.-order Runge-Kutta method to solve the nuclide burnup equation. The nuclide burnup calculation and the 4.-order Runge-Kutta method were suitable to the first step of introduction CUDA into numerical calculation because these consist of simple operations of matrices and vectors of single precision where actual codes were written in the C++ language. Our experimental results showed that nuclide burnup calculations with GPU have possibility of speedup by factor of 100 compared to that with CPU. (authors)

  11. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...

  12. Status of determining transuranic nuclides speciation in aqueous solution with laser spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun; Chen Xi; Long Haoqi; Zeng Jishu; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge about speciation of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution is a basis for understanding the chemical and migration behavior of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution. The speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration is complicated in near neutral aqueous solutions, including change of oxidation state, complexation and colloid generation, etc. The concentrations of transuranium in near neutral aqueous solution usually below the sensitivity range of method such as conventional absorption spectroscopy. The radioactive analysis method has a very low detection limits for radionuclides, however, it wouldn' t allow the direct measurement of the transuranic species. In contrast with these methods, laser spectroscopy is an ideal method with high sensitivity, and non-contact and non-destructive for determining the speciation of transuranic nuclides. This paper summarizes the status and application of LIPAS (Laser-induced Photoacoustic Spectrometry), LIBD (Laser-induced Breakdown Detection) and TRLFS (Time-resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectrometry) to determine the speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration in aqueous solutions. (authors)

  13. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm -2 . Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures

  14. Study on sorption capacity of synthetic zeolite for simulated nuclide Cs+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinming; Yi Facheng

    2006-01-01

    For the sake of understanding the functionary order of simulated nuclide Cs + and Synthetic Zeolite (ZF), the sorption equilibrium time and sorption capacity of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF are studied with the intermittence method. The difference of temperature, pH value, Cs + concentration and medium on sorption capacity and sorption ratio are investigated. The results show that the sorption complexion of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF in the same concentration solution are sorption equilibrium quantity in range of 155-190 mg/g in different temperatures and that in range of 165-190 mg/g in different pH values and that in range of 120-210 mg/g in different media; and changing order of equilibrium adsorption ratio is the same to that of sorption equilibrium quantity, but their changing range are wider than that of sorption equilibrium quantity; equilibrium adsorption quantity in range of 180-380 mg/g in different concentration solutions, and changing order of equilibrium adsorption ratio is opposite to that of sorption equilibrium quantity, and more-over, their changing range are wider than that of the sorption equilibrium quantity. Sorption equilibrium time of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF is about ten to fifteen days. So the changing range of sorption capacity of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF with conditions effects is smaller and the sorption equilibrium time is also less and ZF preferably absorbs Cs in radiation wastes and thus consumedly reduces the effect of radwaste on the environment. (authors)

  15. Separation of carrier-free rhodium isotopes from ruthenium cyclotron targets by the extraction of nitrosylruthenium from hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasbroek, F.J.; Strelow, F.W.E.; Van der Walt, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for the separation of rhodium isotopes from ruthenium cyclotron targets. After bombardment with deuterons and dissolution of the target material, the ruthenium is converted into a nitrosyl complex by treatment with hydroxylammonium chloride. Aluminium and other elements which have been introduced in the dissolution step, are separated by cation exchange. Ruthenium is then separated by extraction with a mixture of tri-n-butyl phosphate and hexane (4:1), leaving the rhodium in the aqueous phase. No ruthenium is found in the rhodium fraction and the recovery of rhodium is better than 90 per cent [af

  16. Cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates as catalyst prototypes for self-induced hydrogenation of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Masayuki; Saito, Susumu

    2015-08-28

    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in bio-renewable and petrochemical sources of carbon. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to yield alcohols produces water as the only byproduct, and thus represents a possible next generation, sustainable method for the production of these alternative energy carriers/platform chemicals on a large scale. Reported herein are molecular insights into cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates ([Ru(OCOR)](+)) as prototypical catalysts for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. The substrate-derived coordinated carboxylate was found to function initially as a proton acceptor for the heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen, and subsequently also as an acceptor for the hydride from [Ru-H](+), which was generated in the first step (self-induced catalysis). The hydrogenation proceeded selectively and at high levels of functional group tolerance, a feature that is challenging to achieve with existing heterogeneous/homogeneous catalyst systems. These fundamental insights are expected to significantly benefit the future development of metal carboxylate-catalysed hydrogenation processes of bio-renewable resources.

  17. Facile radiolytic synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles on graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.V., E-mail: jvrojas@vcu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 West Main Street, Richmond, Virginia, 23284 (United States); Toro-Gonzalez, M.; Molina-Higgins, M.C. [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 West Main Street, Richmond, Virginia, 23284 (United States); Castano, C.E., E-mail: cecastanolond@vcu.edu [Nanomaterials Core Characterization Facility, Chemical and Life Science Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601 West Main Street, Richmond, Virginia, 23284 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile radiolytic synthesis of Ru nanoparticles on graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. • Homogeneously distributed Rh nanoparticles on supports are ∼2.5 nm in size. • Simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide and Ru ions occurs during the synthesis. • Ru-O bonds evidenced the interaction of the nanoparticles with the support. - Abstract: Ruthenium nanoparticles on pristine (MWCNT) and functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNT), and graphene oxide have been prepared through a facile, single step radiolytic method at room temperature, and ambient pressure. This synthesis process relies on the interaction of high energy gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source with the water in the aqueous solutions containing the Ru precursor, leading to the generation of highly reducing species that further reduce the Ru metal ions to zero valence state. Transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction revealed that the nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the supports with an average size of ∼2.5 nm. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the interaction of the Ru nanoparticles with the supports occurred through oxygenated functionalities, creating metal-oxygen bonds. This method demonstrates to be a simple and clean approach to produce well dispersed nanoparticles on the aforementioned supports without the need of any hazardous chemical.

  18. Nitric oxide synthesis and biological functions of nitric oxide released from ruthenium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During three decades, an enormous number of studies have demonstrated the critical role of nitric oxide (NO as a second messenger engaged in the activation of many systems including vascular smooth muscle relaxation. The underlying cellular mechanisms involved in vasodilatation are essentially due to soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC modulation in the cytoplasm of vascular smooth cells. sGC activation culminates in cyclic GMP (cGMP production, which in turn leads to protein kinase G (PKG activation. NO binds to the sGC heme moiety, thereby activating this enzyme. Activation of the NO-sGC-cGMP-PKG pathway entails Ca2+ signaling reduction and vasodilatation. Endothelium dysfunction leads to decreased production or bioavailability of endogenous NO that could contribute to vascular diseases. Nitrosyl ruthenium complexes have been studied as a new class of NO donors with potential therapeutic use in order to supply the NO deficiency. In this context, this article shall provide a brief review of the effects exerted by the NO that is enzymatically produced via endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS activation and by the NO released from NO donor compounds in the vascular smooth muscle cells on both conduit and resistance arteries, as well as veins. In addition, the involvement of the nitrite molecule as an endogenous NO reservoir engaged in vasodilatation will be described.

  19. Facile radiolytic synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles on graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, J.V.; Toro-Gonzalez, M.; Molina-Higgins, M.C.; Castano, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile radiolytic synthesis of Ru nanoparticles on graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. • Homogeneously distributed Rh nanoparticles on supports are ∼2.5 nm in size. • Simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide and Ru ions occurs during the synthesis. • Ru-O bonds evidenced the interaction of the nanoparticles with the support. - Abstract: Ruthenium nanoparticles on pristine (MWCNT) and functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNT), and graphene oxide have been prepared through a facile, single step radiolytic method at room temperature, and ambient pressure. This synthesis process relies on the interaction of high energy gamma rays from a "6"0Co source with the water in the aqueous solutions containing the Ru precursor, leading to the generation of highly reducing species that further reduce the Ru metal ions to zero valence state. Transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction revealed that the nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the supports with an average size of ∼2.5 nm. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the interaction of the Ru nanoparticles with the supports occurred through oxygenated functionalities, creating metal-oxygen bonds. This method demonstrates to be a simple and clean approach to produce well dispersed nanoparticles on the aforementioned supports without the need of any hazardous chemical.

  20. NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. A. S. de Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium (Ru complexes have been studied as promising anticancer agents. Ru nitrosyl complex (Ru-NO is one which acts as a pro-drug for the release of nitric oxide (NO. The Ru-aqueous complex formed by the exchange of NO for a water molecule after NO release could also possess therapeutic effects. This study evaluates the influence of iontophoresis on enhancing the skin penetration of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous and assesses its applicability as a tool in treating diverse skin diseases. Passive and iontophoretic (0.5 mA·cm−2 skin permeation of the complexes were performed for 4 h. The amount of Ru and NO in the stratum corneum (SC, viable epidermis (VE, and receptor solution was quantified while the influence of iontophoresis and irradiation on NO release from Ru-NO complex was also evaluated. Iontophoresis increased the amount of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous recovered from the receptor solution by 15 and 400 times, respectively, as compared to passive permeation. Iontophoresis produced a higher accumulation of Ru-aqueous in the skin layers as compared to Ru-NO. At least 50% of Ru-NO penetrated the SC was stable after 4 h. The presence of Ru-NO in this skin layer suggests that further controlled release of NO can be achieved by photo-stimulation after iontophoresis.

  1. Metrological aspects of radiochemical methods for determining activity of gamma-emitting nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The author considers the problem of metrological compatibility of the two stages in the radiochemical method of determining the activity of a gamma-emitting nuclide: chemical isolation of the nuclide and radiometric measurement of its activity. The authors show that preparation of the specimen in liquid form provides for important advantages compared with the traditional application of the solid residue onto a flat substate. The work here is of interest for analytical chemists who are involved with determination of the activity of gamma emitting nuclides such as Ru 103, Rh 106, Sn 113, Cs 134, Cs 137, La 140, Ce 141, Ce 144, Hg 203, Na 24, Mn 54, Fe 59, Co 60, Zn 65, Zr 95, and Nb 95, for example, in waste water or in emissions to the atmosphere, with the goal of protecting the environment

  2. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1978-04-01

    An approach to extend the present ORNL sensitivity program to include functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field is developed. An adjoint equation for the nuclide field was derived previously by using generalized perturbation theory; the present derivation makes use of a variational principle and results in the same equation. The physical significance of this equation is discussed and compared to that of the time-dependent neutron adjoint equation. Computational requirements for determining sensitivity profiles and uncertainties for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density vector are developed within the framework of the existing FORSS system; in this way the current capability is significantly extended. The development, testing, and use of an adjoint version of the ORIGEN isotope generation and depletion code are documented. Finally, a sample calculation is given which estimates the uncertainty in the plutonium inventory at shutdown of a PWR due to assumed uncertainties in uranium and plutonium cross sections. 8 figures, 4 tables

  3. The protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guimin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room. Methods: The clinical state of the protection of radioactive 131 I nuclide and nursing management in DSA room was retrospectively summarized. Results: The standard management for the protection of radioactive nuclide in DSA room was established. The main management schemas included the management of personnel, the management of professional skills and, specialty, the management of radioactive drugs and abandoned odds and ends, preoperative health education, etc. Conclusion: The standard management can ensure that the patients get a good radionuclide therapy in DSA room, and, at the same time, the working environment can be effectively protected and the professional nursing staff can be well trained. (authors)

  4. Systematics of criticality data of special actinide nuclides deduced through the Trombay criticality formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; SubbaRao, K.; Garg, S.B.; Acharya, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a number of interesting systematics and correlations deduced by analyzing the criticality data of special actinide nuclides using concepts embodied in the Trombay critically formula (TCF). The κ ∞ of fast metal actinide nuclides gives a remarkable linear correlation with the fissility parameter Z 2 /A. The neutron leakage probability of all fast metal cores characterized using a constant parameter σ std enables computation of the critical mass value of any unknown fissile nuclide knowing only its Z 2 /A value. Since the neutron leakage probability from dilute fissile solutions is primarily governed by the scattering/slowing down properties of the hydrogen present in water, critical masses and subcritical limits can be predicted for any water-reflected system at any specified hydrogen-to-actinide atomic ratio knowing only the κ ∞ value of the given fissile solution

  5. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fassbender, M; Heaton, R C; Jamriska, D J; Kitten, J J; Nortier, F M; Peterson, E J; Phillips, D R; Pitt, L R; Salazar, L L; Valdez, F O; 10.1524/ract.92.4.237.35596

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides /sup 68/Ge, /sup 82/Sr, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 88/Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40MBq to 75 GBq.

  6. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Nortier, F.M.; Phillips, D.R.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J.; Kitten, J.J.; Pitt, L.R.; Salazar, L.L.; Valdez, F.O.; Peterson, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides 68 Ge, 82 Sr, 109 Cd and 88 Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40 MBq to 75 GBq. (orig.)

  7. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  8. Applications of in situ cosmogenic nuclides in the geologic site characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosse, J.C.; Harrington, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The gradual buildup of rare isotopes from interactions between cosmic rays and atoms in an exposed rock provides a new method of directly determining the exposure age of rock surfaces. The cosmogenic nuclide method can also provide constraints on erosion rates and the length of time surface exposure was interrupted by burial. Numerous successful applications of the technique have been imperative to the complete surface geologic characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential high level nuclear waste repository. In this short paper, we summarize the cosmogenic nuclide method and describe with examples some the utility of the technique in geologic site characterization. We report preliminary results from our ongoing work at Yucca Mountain

  9. Aircraft-borne spectrometry - a fast method for nuclide-specific measurement of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Schweiger, M.; Thomas, M.; Endrulat, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    An airworthy gamma spectrometer system for fast and large-area, nuclide-specific measurement of the soil contamination is described. The system encompasses an ultrapure germanium detector combined with a computer-controlled multichannel analyser system. The development from the laboratory system to an industrial-scale measuring system is explained. The practical testing is explained and first results are reported, obtained from measuring flights for the nuclide-specific determination of the soil contamination in the free State of Bavaria. (orig.) [de

  10. Organoruthenium (II) complexes produced by insertion reactions of substituted olefins into a hydrido-ruthenium bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Katsuma; Sasada, Yoko; Kitamura, Tsuneyuki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)

    1980-04-01

    Dimethyl fumarate, 2-vinylpyridine, and acrylonitrile insert into a H-Ru bond of (RuClH(CO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/) (1) to yield new substituted alkylruthenium(II) complexes. Methyl sorbate also reacted with 1 to give a new substituted eta/sup 3/-allylruthenium(II) complex.

  11. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H F; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-04-19

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)-1.29 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1) for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, ~3.5 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1), CP Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb, ~3.0 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)), and one-sixth that of Co-Cr alloys (Co-Cr-Mo, ~7.7 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)). Among the Zr-Ru alloy series, Zr-1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr-Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments.

  12. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MWday.t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 0 C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, in the presence of H 2 0, HN0 3 , N0 x and 0 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  13. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MW day·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation; for a final temperature limited to 160 degree C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%; in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  14. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.F.; Zhou, F.Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10−6 cm3·g−1–1.29 × 10−6 cm3·g−1 for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, ~3.5 × 10−6 cm3·g−1, CP Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb, ~3.0 × 10−6 cm3·g−1), and one-sixth that of Co–Cr alloys (Co–Cr–Mo, ~7.7 × 10−6 cm3·g−1). Among the Zr–Ru alloy series, Zr–1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr–Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. PMID:27090955

  15. Installation for producing sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradin, J.; Hayoun, C.

    1969-01-01

    This installation has been designed and built for producing sealed sources of fission elements: caesium 137, strontium 90, promethium 147, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 in particular. The installation consists of sealed and protected cells, each being assigned to a particular production. The safety and the operational reliability of the equipment are the principal considerations which have governed this work. The report describes the installation and, in particular, the apparatus used as well as the various control devices. In conclusion, a review as presented of six years operation. (authors) [fr

  16. GAUSS VIII: a computer program for the nuclide activity analysis of γ-ray spectra from GE semiconductor spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, M.H.; Helmer, R.G.; McCullagh, C.M.

    1985-12-01

    A description is given of a computer program, GAUSS VII, which has been written to determine nuclide or isotopic activities from γ-ray spectra from GE semiconductor spectrometers. The preliminary portion of the program can determine the energy- and width-calibration equations, locate individual peaks and define ''peak regions'' that are significantly above the local spectral background. The user may edit these lists of peaks and regions. Each peak region is fitted with one or more components in which the peaks are represented by a Gaussian function or a Gaussian with one or two additive exponential tails on the low-energy side and one on the high-energy side. A step-like background function can be used with each component. The program will automatically recycle to add one or more components to a region if needed to improve the fit. The γ-ray energies and intensities are computed from the resulting Gaussian positions and peak areas. From a comparison of these peak energies and the γ-ray energies for various nuclides in a nuclide library, the nuclides that may be present are identified. The user may edit this nuclide list. The program identifies secondary γ rays that should be present for these nuclides and obtains peak areas for them, if the areas are not already available. All of the peak areas are then analyzed to obtain the best nuclidic activities. The peak areas for any one nuclide and those for nuclides that have interfering lines are analyzed in one least-squares ft. Nuclides whose activities are essentially 0, and peaks which cannot be accounted for are removed from the analysis. Besides the nuclidic activities, a peak-by-peak summary is provided. This program is intended to analyze large groups of spectra as well as an individual spectrum

  17. Programme of research into the management and storage of radioactive waste, nuclide migration studies, and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The progress of the work is reported under the headings: nuclide migration studies (nuclide-rock interactions; physico-chemical effects; field experiments; groundwater dating); mathematical modelling (calculation of steady groundwater flow using NAMMU; comparison of thermally and naturally driven flows near a radioactive waste repository; diffusion of radionuclides into a rock matrix; radionuclide migration). (U.K.)

  18. Numeric determination and validation of neutron induced radioactive nuclide inventories for decommissioning and dismantling of light water reactors; Rechnerische Bestimmung und Validierung von Aktivierungsaktivitaeten fuer die Rueckbau- und Entsorgungsplanung von Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phlippen, Peter W.; Schloemer, Luc; Vallentin, Roger [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Lukas, Bernard [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany); Palm, Stefan [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The deconstruction of nuclear power plants requires project planning and budgeting both during the project and in advance, as well as the secured provision of financial and human resources. When a facility is free from irradiated fuel, the reactor pressure vessel with the nuclear components as well as the biological shield determine the activity inventory of the facility, which almost exclusively consists of activated radionuclides located in the respective structures. Knowledge of the activity distribution and nuclide vectors of the involved components is of vital importance for deconstruction planning. In this context, the development of a computation procedure is described coupling the Monte Carlo method for the determination of neutron flux densities with a procedure to perform activation calculations for the determination of nuclide vectors. For this purpose, detailed knowledge of the material composition, particularly the trace-element concentrations of nitrogen and cobalt in steel and additionally of europium and caesium in concrete structures, considerably impacts the accuracy of the calculated activities. Extensive validation using data collected from various reactor facilities, such as nuclide activities, neutron flux densities, and neutron and gamma dose rates, demonstrates the reliability of the computed nuclide distributions showing ratios of computed over measured values of typically between 0.9 and 3. The practicality of the developed method as well as the convenient use of the results have already been demonstrated analysing several German BWR and PWR facilities and developing packaging strategies based on the produced results.

  19. Electrochemical behavior of ruthenium (III), rhodium (III) and palladium (II) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, M.; Venkatesan, K.A. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Srinivasan, T.G. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)], E-mail: tgs@igcar.gov.in; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2009-11-01

    Electrochemical behavior of ruthenium (III), rhodium (III) and palladium (II) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (bmimCl) and their ternary and binary solutions in bmimCl was studied at various working electrodes at 373 K by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Ruthenium (III) chloride forms a stable solution with bmimCl and the cyclic voltammogram of ruthenium (III) in bmimCl recorded at glassy carbon electrode consisted of several redox waves due to the complex nature of ruthenium to exist in several oxidation states. Electrolysis of ruthenium (III) chloride in bmimCl at the cathodic limit of bmimCl (-1.8 V (vs. Pd)) did not result in ruthenium metal deposition. However, it was deposited from bmimPF{sub 6} and bmimNTf{sub 2} room temperature ionic liquids at -0.8 V (vs. Pd). The electrochemical behavior of ruthenium (III) in bmimCl in the presence of palladium (II) and rhodium (III) was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The presence of palladium (II) in bmimCl favors underpotential deposition of ruthenium metal. The nuclear loop at -0.5 V (vs. Pd) was observed in all solutions when palladium (II) co-existed with other two metal ions. Nucleation and growth of the metal on glassy carbon working electrode was investigated by chronoamperometry. The growth and decay of chronocurrents has been found to follow the instantaneous nucleation model with three-dimensional growth of nuclei.

  20. Ground vs. excited state interaction in ruthenium-thienyl dyads : implications for through bond interactions in multicomponent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, William; Browne, Wesley R.; Ronayne, Kate L.; O’Boyle, Noel M.; Vos, Johannes G.; McGarvey, John J.

    2005-01-01

    The vibrational and photophysical properties of mononuclear ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(III) polypyridyl complexes based on the, ligands 2-(5-(pyridin-2"-yl)-1'H-1',2',4'-triaz-3'-yl)-thiophene, 2-(5-(pyrazin-2"-yl)-1'H-1',2,4-triaz-3'-yl)-thiophene, are reported. The effect of the introduction of

  1. Dehydrogenative Coupling of Primary Alcohols To Form Esters Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Madsen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride...

  2. A facile one-pot synthesis of ruthenium hydroxide nanoparticles on magnetic silica: Aqueous hydration of nitriles to amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-pot synthesis of ruthenium hydroxide nanoparticles on magnetic silica is described which involve the in situ generation of magnetic silica (Fe3O4@ SiO2) and ruthenium hydroxide immobilization; the hydration of nitriles occurs in high yield and excellent selectivity using this...

  3. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of ruthenium oxide nanodots on reduced graphene oxide sheets for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yao [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Xiong [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Dacheng [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma Yanwei, E-mail: ywma@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > Graphite oxide instead of graphene as precursor has been used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide/ruthenium oxide composites by a hydrothermal treatment. > Using NaOH solution to adjust pH of GO colloids leads to homogeneous ruthenium oxide deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. > A maximum capacitance of 471 F g{sup -1} is obtained at 0.5 A g{sup -1} for the composites when loading 40% of RuO{sub 2} and its life retention reaches 92% after 3000 cycles. - Abstract: Ruthenium oxide nanodots have been deposited on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets homogeneously by hydrothermal and annealing methods. Adding NaOH solution in GO colloids prevents the restack and agglomeration of GO sheets when mixed with ruthenium chloride solution. Local crystallization of RuO{sub 2} in the composites is revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The element mapping image demonstrates the uniform distribution of Ru on RGO sheets. Unlike the pure crystalline RuO{sub 2} exhibiting poor electrochemical performance, the composites present superior capacitive properties. The hydrothermal time is optimized and a maximum of 471 F g{sup -1} is measured in the composites at 0.5 A g{sup -1} when loaded with 45 wt% of RuO{sub 2}. After 3000 cycles, its specific capacitance remains 92% of the maximum capacitance. Our results suggest potential application of the reduced graphene oxide/ruthenium oxide composites to supercapacitors.

  4. Activity and selectivity regulation of synthesis gas reaction over supported ruthenium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K; Nobusawa, T; Fukushima, T; Tominaga, H

    1985-01-01

    The catalytic activities of supported ruthenium for synthesis-gas conversion to hydrocarbons was found to be in the following order: TiOS > Nb2O3 > ZrO2 > SiO2 > Ta2O5 > Al2O3 > V2O5 > MoO3 > WO3 > MnO2 > ZnO. Turnover frequencies of the supported ruthenium increased with decrease in dispersion of the metal particles for every carrier material. Even the activities per unit weight of metals were higher for low-dispersion ruthenium of Al2O3, TiO2, and ZrO2. The chain-growth probability of a hydrocarbon product, which is characterized by the Schulz-Flory distribution, increased markedly with decrease in the metal dispersion irrespective of the carrier material. The catalytic activity of ruthenium particles with a dispersed ruthenium increased almost linearly with an increase in reaction pressure (up to at least 2.0 MPa). 23 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  5. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of ruthenium oxide nanodots on reduced graphene oxide sheets for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yao; Zhang Xiong; Zhang Dacheng; Ma Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Graphite oxide instead of graphene as precursor has been used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide/ruthenium oxide composites by a hydrothermal treatment. → Using NaOH solution to adjust pH of GO colloids leads to homogeneous ruthenium oxide deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. → A maximum capacitance of 471 F g -1 is obtained at 0.5 A g -1 for the composites when loading 40% of RuO 2 and its life retention reaches 92% after 3000 cycles. - Abstract: Ruthenium oxide nanodots have been deposited on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets homogeneously by hydrothermal and annealing methods. Adding NaOH solution in GO colloids prevents the restack and agglomeration of GO sheets when mixed with ruthenium chloride solution. Local crystallization of RuO 2 in the composites is revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The element mapping image demonstrates the uniform distribution of Ru on RGO sheets. Unlike the pure crystalline RuO 2 exhibiting poor electrochemical performance, the composites present superior capacitive properties. The hydrothermal time is optimized and a maximum of 471 F g -1 is measured in the composites at 0.5 A g -1 when loaded with 45 wt% of RuO 2 . After 3000 cycles, its specific capacitance remains 92% of the maximum capacitance. Our results suggest potential application of the reduced graphene oxide/ruthenium oxide composites to supercapacitors.

  6. Mitigation of strontium and ruthenium release in the CANDU primary heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, J

    1998-03-01

    In certain severe accident scenarios, low-volatility fission products can appear to contribute significantly to dose, if treated with undue conservatism. Hence a survey was performed, to see if factors that may mitigate release of strontium and ruthenium could be incorporated into safety analyses, to cover parameters such as location in the fuel matrix under normal operating conditions, release from fuel, transport and deposition in the primary heat transport system and chemistry. In addition chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to investigate the volatility of strontium and ruthenium in the presence of uranium and important fission products. Strontium is very soluble in the U0{sub 2} fuel, up to 12 atom %, and hence release is improbable, particularly under oxidizing conditions until volatilization of the fuel matrix itself occurs. Ruthenium, however, can be released at low temperatures, but only under oxidizing conditions. These may occur during a fuel-handling accident or as a result of an end-fitting failure. Under these conditions, the primary heat transport system cannot be credited for retention. The volatile form of ruthenium, RuO{sub 4}(g), is thermally unstable above 381 K and decomposes to RuO{sub 2}(s) and O{sub 2}(g) upon contact with surfaces, a factor that is likely to minimize the release of ruthenium into the environment. (author)

  7. Mitigation of strontium and ruthenium release in the CANDU primary heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.

    1998-03-01

    In certain severe accident scenarios, low-volatility fission products can appear to contribute significantly to dose, if treated with undue conservatism. Hence a survey was performed, to see if factors that may mitigate release of strontium and ruthenium could be incorporated into safety analyses, to cover parameters such as location in the fuel matrix under normal operating conditions, release from fuel, transport and deposition in the primary heat transport system and chemistry. In addition chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to investigate the volatility of strontium and ruthenium in the presence of uranium and important fission products. Strontium is very soluble in the U0 2 fuel, up to 12 atom %, and hence release is improbable, particularly under oxidizing conditions until volatilization of the fuel matrix itself occurs. Ruthenium, however, can be released at low temperatures, but only under oxidizing conditions. These may occur during a fuel-handling accident or as a result of an end-fitting failure. Under these conditions, the primary heat transport system cannot be credited for retention. The volatile form of ruthenium, RuO 4 (g), is thermally unstable above 381 K and decomposes to RuO 2 (s) and O 2 (g) upon contact with surfaces, a factor that is likely to minimize the release of ruthenium into the environment. (author)

  8. Some problems in utilization system of FP nuclides and actinides in the high level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyanagi, Katsuaki; Emura, Satoru

    1974-01-01

    There are three nuclides of sup(134/137)Cs for irradiation sources, 90 Sr for radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and 238 Pu for cardiac pacemakers, as the nuclides for which considerable demand is expected in near future among those contained in reprocessed high level liquid wastes. Technical problems are first described from the viewpoint of utilization system. Then the control system of reprocessed high level wastes is expained. Finally, economic possibility and problems in their utilization are discussed. Being in competition with 60 Co, the price of sup(134/137)Cs will be lower than that of 60 Co after a decade. The annual demand in 1985 may be 6.1 x 10 6 Ci. The conclusive factor of 90 Sr market price is hard to get because it finds no strong competitive nuclides. It may be about 20 yen/Ci after ten years. Demand is expected to be approximately 1.2 x 10 7 Ci/year. However it is pretty hard to pay the cost of group separation and solidification, storage and conversion to products with such gain. It is estimated that the balance of income and outgo would be almost profitable, if the utilization of FP nuclides would progress and the demand three times as large as this assumption would be developed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Sik Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  10. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst-Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  11. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won

    1991-01-01

    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  12. Mutagenic effects induced by accumulating rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius in fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Cao Genfa; Sun Baofu

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the correlation between the different ionic radius of rare earths nuclides such as 170 Tm, 152 Eu, 147 Pm and its accumulation peculiarity as well as induction of mutagenic effect on bone marrow cells. The study showed that the accumulation peculiarity of rare earths nuclides will vary with the ionic radius. The results indicated that large ionic radius of 147 Pm was selectively localized in liver in early stage, while small ionic radius of 170 Tm and 152 Eu were deposited in bone predominantly. There was a positive relationship between the incidence of chromosome aberration rates and the absorption dose in skeleton by 170 Tm, 152 Eu, or 147 Pm. Studies indicated that the chromosome aberration rates were elevated when the absorption dose in skeleton was increased. Among the type of chromosome aberrations induced by rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius, chromatid breakage was predominant, accompanied with a few chromosome breakage and translocation. At the same time mitosis index of metaphase cells was depressed. Internal contamination of 170 Tm, 152 Eu, or 147 Pm can be induced by some aberrations in one cell. This phenomenon might be due in part to nonuniform irradiation of bone marrow cell with local deposition of these rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius

  13. The role of marine zooplankton in the vertical oceanic transport of alpha-emitting nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Higgo, J.J.W.; Fowler, S.W.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    This project aims at studying, in quantitative detail, the role played by marine plankton in the vertical oceanic transport of alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyotiphanes norvegica, for which the necessary quantitative biological data are available as a result of previous work in the Monaco Laboratory, has been selected as the typical macrozooplanktonic species which is the focus of this work

  14. Impact of burnable absorber Gd on nuclide composition for VVER-440 fuel (Gd-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Chrapciak, V.

    2010-01-01

    The latest version of Russian fuel VVER-440 includes burnable absorber in 6 pins. In this article is impact of burnable absorber on nuclide composition and criticality analyzed. In part 1 was analyzed whole burnup interval 0-50 MWd/kgU. In present part 2 are detailed analysis only for first cycle (burnup 0-10 MWd/kgU). (Authors)

  15. Mass measurement of halo nuclides and beam cooling with the mass spectrometer Mistral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelet, C.

    2004-12-01

    Halo nuclides are a spectacular drip-line phenomenon and their description pushes nuclear theories to their limits. The most critical input parameter is the nuclear binding energy; a quantity that requires excellent measurement precision, since the two-neutron separation energy is small at the drip-line by definition. Moreover halo nuclides are typically very short-lived. Thus, a high accuracy instrument using a quick method of measurement is necessary. MISTRAL is such an instrument; it is a radiofrequency transmission mass spectrometer located at ISOLDE/CERN. In July 2003 we measured the mass of the Li 11 , a two-neutron halo nuclide. Our measurement improves the precision by a factor 6, with an error of 5 keV. Moreover the measurement gives a two-neutron separation energy 20% higher than the previous value. This measurement has an impact on the radius of the nucleus, and on the state of the two valence neutrons. At the same time, a measurement of the Be 11 was performed with an uncertainty of 4 keV, in excellent agreement with previous measurements. In order to measure the mass of the two-neutron halo nuclide Be 14 , an ion beam cooling system is presently under development which will increase the sensitivity of the spectrometer. The second part of this work presents the development of this beam cooler using a gas-filled Paul trap. (author)

  16. Stable evaluation methods of neutron-physical characteristics of nuclides on the basis of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.G.; Kryanev, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for obtaining estimations of neutron-physical characteristics of nuclides on the basis of stable estimation methods is set forth. The technique presupposes correction of incorrectly determined errors of measurements and disclosure of systematic errors with their succeeding accountancy. A system of orthogonal polynomials is used as approximating functional dependence. The technique is also generalized at the presence of correlation between measurements

  17. An innovative method for determining the diffusion coefficient of product nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih Lung [Dept. of Nuclear Back-end Management, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China); Wang, Tsing Hai [Dept. Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-08-15

    Diffusion is a crucial mechanism that regulates the migration of radioactive nuclides. In this study, an innovative numerical method was developed to simultaneously calculate the diffusion coefficient of both parent and, afterward, series daughter nuclides in a sequentially reactive through-diffusion model. Two constructed scenarios, a serial reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2} → RN{sub 3}) and a parallel reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2}A + RN{sub 2}B), were proposed and calculated for verification. First, the accuracy of the proposed three-member reaction equations was validated using several default numerical experiments. Second, by applying the validated numerical experimental concentration variation data, the as-determined diffusion coefficient of the product nuclide was observed to be identical to the default data. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The significance of the proposed numerical method will be particularly powerful in determining the diffusion coefficients of systems with extremely thin specimens, long periods of diffusion time, and parent nuclides with fast decay constants.

  18. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  19. Contribution of some food categories on intakes of U, Th and other nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of radiation dose in human from radioactive 232 Th, 238 U, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr are important because those nuclides are the largest contributors to committed internal doses. A market basket study was conducted to clarify the food pathways of the nuclides in Japanese subjects. Foodstuffs of 336 were purchased from markets in the vicinity of Mito-City during 1994-1995. Statistical consumption data were used for collection of the food samples. Thorium-232, 238 U, and stable isotope ( 133 Cs) in eighteen food groups were determined by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Radioisotopes ( 137 Cs) was analyzed by γ-spectrometry. Stable strontium ( 88 Sr) was also analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Big contributors to the nuclide intakes in Japanese were as follows: 232 Th fishes and shellfishes (44%) and green vegetables (11%); 238 U seaweeds (50%) and fishes and shellfishes (26%); 88 Sr seaweeds (53%) and fishes and shellfishes (14%); 137 Cs mushrooms (17%), fishes and shell fishes (15%), milk products (11%), meats (9%), and potatoes (7%). The food categories of oil and fats, eggs and cooked meals were minor contributors in those nuclides. Dietary intake studies by using eighteen or more food categories should be effective procedure to resolve critical food and critical pathway for Japanese. Furthermore, critical pathways of radionuclides could be estimated by the analyses of stable isotopes. (author)

  20. A method of alpha-radiating nuclide activity measuring in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Galkina, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation method of determination of alpha-radiating nuclide activity in aerosol filters was suggested. The method involves dissolution of the filter in organic solvent, introduction of luminophore into solution prepared, drying of the preparation and measurement of radionuclide activity. Dependences of alpha-radiation detection efficiency on the content of luminophore, filter material, colourless and coloured substances in preparations analyzed were considered

  1. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V.; Sert, G.; Mennerdahl, D.; Dean, C.; Barton, N.; Jean, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. Additionally, the total fissile nuclide mass per consignment of excepted packages was limited in the 1996 edition of the regulations (a conveyance limit is preliminary supported in the 2003 revision). The proposed changes of the rules have to take this new control into account. The European Community (DGTREN) decided to fund a project related to this subject. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the authors of the study decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL, SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, JENDL, etc.). This article presents the work achieved and gives propositions of modification for the IAEA requirements for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, and secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials. The participants acknowledge the DGTREN who made this work possible due to its support. (author)

  2. Method of estimating the sensitivity of a calculated nuclide vector to deviations in initial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1998-12-01

    The application of perturbation theory algorithms in modelling of nuclides transmutation is considered. The perturbation theory is used to construct the analytical technique of sensitivity analysis. It is shown that such algorithms have to be used in modelling of lifetime performance of nuclear power installations with the Monte Carlo method. The present approach differs from others by consistent use of analytical methods. (author)

  3. An Evaluation Method for Activation Analysis using Pre-evaluated Contribution of Nuclides with Impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gee Suck [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclides in radiation facilities become unstable from nuclear reaction. It emits residual radiation to be stable. Some unstable nuclides remain after operation in the material. It continuously emits the radiation, which has a harmful effect to worker when they try maintenance and plant decommissioning. It is known that residual radiation from impurity occupies a large portion of the radiation dose. If impurity concentration is higher than expectation, the effects of residual radiation could be underestimated. Therefore, estimation of residual radiation is repeatedly calculated according to impurity concentration. In this study, an approach estimating the activation was proposed using pre-evaluated nuclide's contribution to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker. In this study, in order to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker, activation analysis method based on pre-evaluated nuclide contribution was proposed. This method was verified using concreate activation problem, which is located in nuclear power plant. The results show that our proposed method has good agreement with Bateman equation.

  4. Numerical solution of stiff burnup equation with short half lived nuclides by the Krylov subspace method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Tatsumi, Masahiro; Sugimura, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The Krylov subspace method is applied to solve nuclide burnup equations used for lattice physics calculations. The Krylov method is an efficient approach for solving ordinary differential equations with stiff nature such as the nuclide burnup with short lived nuclides. Some mathematical fundamentals of the Krylov subspace method and its application to burnup equations are discussed. Verification calculations are carried out in a PWR pin-cell geometry with UO 2 fuel. A detailed burnup chain that includes 193 fission products and 28 heavy nuclides is used in the verification calculations. Shortest half life found in the present burnup chain is approximately 30 s ( 106 Rh). Therefore, conventional methods (e.g., the Taylor series expansion with scaling and squaring) tend to require longer computation time due to numerical stiffness. Comparison with other numerical methods (e.g., the 4-th order Runge-Kutta-Gill) reveals that the Krylov subspace method can provide accurate solution for a detailed burnup chain used in the present study with short computation time. (author)

  5. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, L.M.; Trubey, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    Tables of specific gamma-ray dose constants (the unshielded gamma-ray dose equivalent rate at 1 m from a point source) have been computed for approximately 500 nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. The half life, the mean attenuation coefficient, and thickness for a lead shield providing 95% dose equivalent attenuation are also listed

  6. A new estimation method for nuclide number densities in equilibrium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshihira.

    1997-01-01

    A new method is proposed for estimating nuclide number densities of LWR equilibrium cycle by multi-recycling calculation. Conventionally, it is necessary to spend a large computation time for attaining the ultimate equilibrium state. Hence, the cycle in nearly constant fuel composition has been considered as an equilibrium state which can be achieved by a few of recycling calculations on a simulated cycle operation under a specific fuel core design. The present method uses steady state fuel nuclide number densities as the initial guess for multi-recycling burnup calculation obtained by a continuously fuel supplied core model. The number densities are modified to be the initial number densities for nuclides of a batch supplied fuel. It was found that the calculated number densities could attain to more precise equilibrium state than that of a conventional multi-recycling calculation with a small number of recyclings. In particular, the present method could give the ultimate equilibrium number densities of the nuclides with the higher mass number than 245 Cm and 244 Pu which were not able to attain to the ultimate equilibrium state within a reasonable number of iterations using a conventional method. (author)

  7. Evaluation of concentration limits of radionuclides produced by accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tokushi; Ohkubo, Tohru; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Iwai, Satoshi; Satoh, Osamu; Rintsu, Yukoh; Fukumoto, Toshiharu.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the evaluation of concentration limits of 78 radionuclides typically produced by accelerator facilities and not listed in ICRP Pub. 30. The evaluation method and system have been developed in the present study. The evaluated values were compared with tremendously severe concentration limits given in the Annex Table 2 of the Science and Technology Agency Notification No. 15 which describes the concentration limits of the nuclides of which concentration limits are not given in the Annex Table 1 of the Agency Notification No. 15. The results show that two to nine order larger limits should be used. The new limits rationalize greatly the internal exposure control and the design of accelerator facilities. Simple and convenient techniques are also discussed for finding concentration limits of very-short-lived nuclides without knowing detail information about the nuclides such as decay scheme and metabolic data. (author)

  8. Computer modeling of nuclide adsorption on geologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.J.; White, A.R.; Yee, A.W.

    1980-07-01

    A computer program, called MINEQL, has been developed and is being tested for use in predicting the distribution of radionuclides between solid and aqueous species for a variety of geologic materials and solution conditions. MINEQL is designed to accept a list of components of a system (electrolytes, solid substrates and radionuclides) and their total analytical concentrations, solve the appropriate set of mass balance and equilibrium expressions, and produce a list of the identities and concentrations of all species formed by interactions among the components and between them and/or water

  9. Ruthenium sulfoxides structure and reactivity with nitrogen heterocyclic bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Denise de.

    1990-01-01

    Ruthenium (II) sulfoxides are compounds of great interest in oxidative catalysis and in chemotherapy. In order to contribute for the understanding of the chemistry and electronic structure of this class of compounds, it has been studied a series of [Ru Cl 2 (S-DMSO) 2 L x ] complexes, where x = 1 (polymeric compounds) or 2 (monomers) and L N-heterocyclic ligands (pyridine, pyrazine and imidazole derivatives). The nature of N-heterocyclic ligand and their coordination are of great relevance to the stability, spectroscopic and electrochemical characteristics of the complexes. The trans-interactions are extremely important in this series, influencing the strength of the Ru(II)-> S-DMSO and Ru(II)-> L π-back donation. The DMSO and L ligands are π-acceptors. The metal-> ligand π-back donation is strengthened when the ligand is trans to chloride, which is π-donor, due to trans-cooperative interactions of the type: π-donor -> Ru(II) π-acceptor. Another interesting aspect in the series of [Ru Cl 2 (S-DMSO) 2 L 2 ] complexes is the occurrence of dissociative equilibria in the solution, due to the existence of three types of ligands. It was observed that the trans-N isomer of 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine derivative undergoes thermal substitution, with preferential liabilization of the N-heterocyclic ligand. Chloride ion is the most inert ligand in this complex. (author). 145 refs., 76 figs., 21 tabs

  10. Coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium complexes as efficient alkyneazide cycloaddition catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Lamberti, Marina; Fortman, George C.; Poater, Albert; Broggi, Julie; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Cavallo, Luigi; Nolan, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 16-electron ruthenium complexes with the general formula Cp*Ru(L)X (in which L = phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ligand; X = Cl or OCH2CF3) was explored in azidealkyne cycloaddition reactions that afford the 1,2,3- triazole products. The scope of the Cp*Ru(PiPr 3)Cl precatalyst was investigated for terminal alkynes leading to new 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in high yields. Mechanistic studies were conducted and revealed a number of proposed intermediates. Cp*Ru- (PiPr3)(2-HCCPh)Cl was observed and characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR at temperatures between 273 and 213 K. A rare example of N,N-κ2-phosphazide complex, Cp*Ru(κ2- iPr3PN3Bn)Cl, was fully characterized, and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure was obtained. DFT calculations describe a complete map of the catalytic reactivity with phenylacetylene and/or benzylazide. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Graphene Oxide/ Ruthenium Oxide Composites for Supercapacitors Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Fatima

    Supercapacitors are electrical energy storage devices with high power density, high rate capability, low maintenance cost, and long life cycle. They complement or replace batteries in harvesting applications when high power delivery is needed. An important improvement in performance of supercapacitors has been achieved through recent advances in the development of new nanostructured materials. Here we will discuss the fabrication of graphene oxide/ ruthenium oxide supercacitors electrodes including electrophoretic deposition. The morphology and structure of the fabricated electrodes were investigated and will be discussed. The electrochemical properties were determined using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge techniques and the experiments that demonstrate the excellent capacitive properties of the obtained supercapacitors will also be discussed. The fabrication and characterization of the samples were performed at the Center of Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Lab. The developed approaches in our study represent an exciting direction for designing the next generation of energy storage devices. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Visiting Faculty Program and the research used resources of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  12. Visual acuity after Ruthenium106 brachytherapy of choroidal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, Bertil; Patel, Imran M.; Campbell, Ian R.; Mayles, Helen M.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on conservation of visual acuity after Ruthenium 106 (Ru-106) brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. Methods and materials: This study was a noncomparative interventional case series of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma treated at a single center between January 1993 and December 2001. The intervention consisted of Ru-106 brachytherapy delivering minimum scleral and apex doses of 300 Gy and 80 Gy, respectively, using a 15-mm or 20-mm plaque. For discrete, posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin. To ensure correct plaque positioning, any overlying extraocular muscles were dis-inserted, and the locations of both tumor and plaque edges were confirmed by transillumination and indentation. The main outcome measures were conservation of vision of 20/40 or better, 20/200 or better, and Counting Fingers or better, according to baseline variables. Results: The actuarial rate of conservation of 20/40 or better was 55% at 9 years, loss of such vision correlating with posterior tumor extension (p 106 brachytherapy of posterior choroidal melanoma achieves good conservation of vision if the tumor does not extend close to the optic nerve or fovea

  13. Coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium complexes as efficient alkyneazide cycloaddition catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Lamberti, Marina

    2012-01-23

    The performance of 16-electron ruthenium complexes with the general formula Cp*Ru(L)X (in which L = phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ligand; X = Cl or OCH2CF3) was explored in azidealkyne cycloaddition reactions that afford the 1,2,3- triazole products. The scope of the Cp*Ru(PiPr 3)Cl precatalyst was investigated for terminal alkynes leading to new 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in high yields. Mechanistic studies were conducted and revealed a number of proposed intermediates. Cp*Ru- (PiPr3)(2-HCCPh)Cl was observed and characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR at temperatures between 273 and 213 K. A rare example of N,N-κ2-phosphazide complex, Cp*Ru(κ2- iPr3PN3Bn)Cl, was fully characterized, and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure was obtained. DFT calculations describe a complete map of the catalytic reactivity with phenylacetylene and/or benzylazide. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Ruthenium(V) oxides from low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiley, Craig I.; Walton, Richard I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Lees, Martin R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Fisher, Janet M.; Thompsett, David [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Reading (United Kingdom); Agrestini, Stefano [Max-Planck Institut, CPfS, Dresden (Germany); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-22

    Low-temperature (200 C) hydrothermal synthesis of the ruthenium oxides Ca{sub 1.5}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, SrRu{sub 2}O{sub 6}, and Ba{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}O{sub 9}(OH) is reported. Ca{sub 1.5}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7} is a defective pyrochlore containing Ru{sup V/VI}; SrRu{sub 2}O{sub 6} is a layered Ru{sup V} oxide with a PbSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} structure, whilst Ba{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}O{sub 9}(OH) has a previously unreported structure type with orthorhombic symmetry solved from synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. SrRu{sub 2}O{sub 6} exhibits unusually high-temperature magnetic order, with antiferromagnetism persisting to at least 500 K, and refinement using room temperature neutron powder diffraction data provides the magnetic structure. All three ruthenates are metastable and readily collapse to mixtures of other oxides upon heating in air at temperatures around 300-500 C, suggesting they would be difficult, if not impossible, to isolate under conventional high-temperature solid-state synthesis conditions. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Placental transfer of ruthenium in rat and guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levack, V.M.; Pottinger, H.; Harrison, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ruthenium-106 in citrate solution was administered intravenously to rat at different stages of pregnancy and to guinea-pig either before conception or in late pregnancy. The results for rat showed that retention in the embryo/foetus measured at 3-5 days after administration increased from about 0.0002% of injected activity per embryo/foetus on day 12 of gestation to about 0.05% at birth. The relative concentrations of 106 Ru in embryo/foetus and mother (C f /C m ratio) were about 0.1 in each case. Concentrations in the yolk sac on day 12 were about 1% g -1 compared with 0.01% g -1 kin the foetus/ Retention in the guinea-pig foetus in late gestation at 7 days after administration (days 50-57) was about 0.2% injected activity per foetus, corresponding to a C f /C m = 0.2. Retention in each foetoplacental unit was 2% of injected 106 Ru with 50% in the yolk sac, 35% in the placenta and 10% in the foetus. For administration 4 weeks prior to conception, the level of 106 Ru retained in the foetus on day 57 of gestation was two orders of magnitude lower than after short-term administration, with a C f /C m about 0.004. (author)

  16. Sweetening ruthenium and osmium: organometallic arene complexes containing aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer C; Habtemariam, Abraha; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Sadler, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    The novel organometallic sandwich complexes [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Ru(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (1) (OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate) and [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Os(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (2) incorporating the artificial sweetener aspartame have been synthesised and characterised. A number of properties of aspartame were found to be altered on binding to either metal. The pK(a) values of both the carboxyl and the amino groups of aspartame are lowered by between 0.35 and 0.57 pH units, causing partial deprotonation of the amino group at pH 7.4 (physiological pH). The rate of degradation of aspartame to 3,6-dioxo-5-phenylmethylpiperazine acetic acid (diketopiperazine) increased over threefold from 0.12 to 0.36 h(-1) for 1, and to 0.43 h(-1) for 2. Furthermore, the reduction potential of the ligand shifted from -1.133 to -0.619 V for 2. For the ruthenium complex 1 the process occurred in two steps, the first (at -0.38 V) within a biologically accessible range. This facilitates reactions with biological reductants such as ascorbate. Binding to and activation of the sweet taste receptor was not observed for these metal complexes up to concentrations of 1 mM. The factors which affect the ability of metal-bound aspartame to interact with the receptor site are discussed.

  17. Electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes with polyphenolic acids in micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Department of Chemistry, Fatima College, Madurai 625 018 (India); Ramdass, Arumugam [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628 216 (India); Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Rajagopal, Seenivasan, E-mail: rajagopalseenivasan@yahoo.com [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India)

    2016-02-15

    The electron transfer in a microhetrogeneous system is a perfect mimic of biological electron transfer. The electron transfer between biologically important phenolic acids and ruthenium (II) complexes is systematically studied in the presence of anionic and cationic micelles. The photophysical properties of these ruthenium (II) complexes with anionic and cationic micelles and their binding abilities with these two type of micelles are also studies using absorption, emission and excited state lifetime spectral techniques. Pseudophase Ion Exchange (PIE) Model is applied to derive mechanism of electron transfer in two types of micelles. - Highlights: • Effect of microhetrogeneous system is studied using ruthenium (II) complexes and gallic acid is studied. • Pseudophase Ion exchange model is applied to derive the mechanism. • Binding constants are in the range of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} M{sup −1}.

  18. Stable tracer investigations in humans for assessing the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Cantone, M.C.; Giussani, A.; Maggioni, T.; Birattari, C.; Bondardi, M.; Groppi, F.; Garlaschelli, I.; Werner, E.; Roth, P.; Hoellriegl, V.; Louvat, P.; Felgenhauer, N.; Zilker, Th.

    2003-01-01

    The interest in the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium in humans is justified by the potential radiological risk represented by their radionuclides. Only a few data related to the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium in humans are available and, accordingly, the biokinetic models currently recommended by the ICRP for these elements are mainly based on data from animal experiments. The use of stable isotopes as tracers, coupled with a proper analytical technique (nuclear activation analysis with protons) for their determination in biological samples, represents an ethically acceptable methodology for biokinetic investigations, being free from any radiation risk for the volunteer subjects. In this work, the results obtained in eight biokinetic investigations for ruthenium, conducted on a total of three healthy volunteers, and six for zirconium, performed on a total of three subjects, are presented and compared to the predictions of the ICRP models. (author)

  19. Amorphous carbon nanofibres inducing high specific capacitance of deposited hydrous ruthenium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, V.; Pico, F.; Ibanez, J.; Lillo-Rodenas, M.A.; Linares-Solano, A.; Kimura, M.; Oya, A.; Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M.; Rojo, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Composites consisting of ruthenium oxide particles deposited on amorphous carbon nanofibres are prepared by a repetitive impregnation procedure. The choice of amorphous carbon nanofibres as support of amorphous ruthenium oxide leads to composites in which the deposited oxide consists of aggregates of extremely small primary particles (1-1.5 nm-size) and showing high porosity (specific surface area of 450 m 2 g -1 ). This special deposition of the oxide seems to favour: (i) high oxide capacitance (1000 Fg -1 ) at high oxide loadings (up to 20 wt%) and (ii) high capacitance retention (ca. 80% from the initial oxide capacitance) at high current densities (200 mA cm -2 ). Amorphous carbon nanofibres are suitable supports for amorphous ruthenium oxide and perhaps for other amorphous oxides acting as active electrode materials.

  20. Methods of Increasing the Performance of Radionuclide Generators Used in Nuclear Medicine: Daughter Nuclide Build-Up Optimisation, Elution-Purification-Concentration Integration, and Effective Control of Radionuclidic Purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of “early elution schedule” was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement

  1. Dye sensitized photovoltaic cells: Attaching conjugated polymers to zwitterionic ruthenium dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of a zwitterionic ruthenium dye that binds to anatase surfaces and has a built-in functionality that allows for the attachment of a conjugated polymer chain is presented. The system was found to adsorb on the surface of anatase anchored by the ruthenium dye. Two types of devices were...... prepared: standard photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells and polymer solar cells. The PEC solar cells employed a sandwich geometry between TiO2 nanoporous photoanodes and Pt counter electrodes using LiI/I-2 in CH3CN as an electrolyte. The polymer solar cells employed planar anatase electrodes...

  2. Ruthenium phosphine complexes as catalysts for alternating co-polymerization of ethylene and CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, O.V.; Kal'sin, A.M.; Peganov, T.A.; Petrovskij, P.V.; Belov, G.P.; Novikova, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    Ruthenium (2) complexes, [Ru(dppe) 2 (OTs) 2 ] and [Ru(PhP(CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 PPh 2 ) 2 )(OTs) 2 ], where dppe (diphenylphosphino)ethane; OTs = tosylate, were synthesized with the yield of 67 and 76%, respectively, and characterized by 31 P NMR. The properties of the above complexes as catalysts of alternating co-polymerization of ethylene and carbon monoxide were studied. A considerable increase in catalytic activity of the complexes was established in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid and 1,4-benzoquinone. These compounds are the first example of ruthenium complexes that catalyse co-polymerization of ethylene and CO [ru

  3. Behaviour of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Gue, J.P.; Mercier, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30.000 MW day ·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 deg. C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, - in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source. It is probable that, in an industrial storage tank, the heat losses from the tank and the offgas discharge ducts will cause recondensation and internal reflux, which will commensurately delay

  4. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic nuclide production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate nuclide-specific scaling

  5. Uranium and thorium nuclides series determined in medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.; Francisconi, L.; Damatto, S. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years the study of medicinal plants has become the focus of ever more extensive research all over the world due to their diversity and potential as source of medicinal products. According to the World Health Organization approximately 80% of world population makes use of medicinal herbs due to their believed therapeutic action. Besides being used as medicine, medicinal plants are also largely used as dietary supplements. The presence of radionuclides in plants constitutes one of the main pathways for their transfer to man. The amount of radioactive nuclides from U and Th series in edible vegetables are relatively well known since they have been the main concern of research conducted worldwide. Medicinal plants, on the other hand, have been neglected in these studies, possibly because the ingestion of radioactive material through their consumption has not been recognized or was considered insignificant. The objective of the present study was to determine the content of natural radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in 25 species of medicinal plants used in Brazil, both as medicine and as dietary supplement. The medicinal plant samples were obtained in specialized pharmacies and drugstores. The raw plant and their extracts, produced as recommended by the National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance, were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses for the determination of U and Th and by Total Alpha and Beta Counting after Radiochemical Separation for determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. In the raw plants the activity concentrations varied from 0,08 Bq kg{sup -1} to 8,0 Bq kg{sup -1} for thorium, from < LID to 22 Bq kg{sup -1} for uranium, from 1,8 Bq kg{sup -1} to 12 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 33 Bq kg{sup -1} to 74 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and from 10 Bq kg{sup -1} to 120 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. In the extracts, the activity concentrations varied from 9 mBq kg{sup -1} to 137 mBq kg{sup -1} for Th

  6. Determining timing of Alaska Range exhumation and glaciation through cosmogenic nuclide burial dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortor, R. N.; Goehring, B. M.; Bemis, S. P.; Ruleman, C.; Nichols, K. A.; Ward, D. J.; Frothingham, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Range is a transpressional orogen with modern exhumation initiating 6 Ma. The stratigraphic record of unroofing and uplift of the foreland basin is largely preserved along the northern flank of the Alaska Range in the Pliocene-Pleistocene aged Nenana Gravel, an extensive alluvial fan and braidplain deposit. Chronometric control on the Nenana Gravel is largely lacking, with the limited available age control based on a single Ar-Ar tephra date in an underlying unit and via stratigraphic inferences for the upper portions. Higher-resolution dating of the Nenana Gravel unit is imperative in order to quantify deposition rates and the timing of uplift and deformation of the foreland basin. Furthermore, a glacial unit has been found to lie unconformably on top of the unit at Suntrana Creek and may represent the initiation of glacial advances in the Alaska Range. We present a suite of 26Al/10Be cosmogenic nuclide burial ages collected from the lower, middle, and upper sections of the Nenana Gravel at Suntrana Creek, as well as the overlying glacial unit. Three samples from the lower Nenana Gravel yield an isochron burial age of 4.42+0.67/-0.13 Ma, which represents initiation of Nenana Gravel deposition and may equate to early unroofing of the Alaska Range. Two samples collected from the middle of the Nenana Gravel unit produced an average simple burial age of 2.25+/-0.45 Ma, with a single sample stratigraphically above dating to 0.99 +/-1.60. Two samples from the upper-most portion of the Nenana Gravel yielded an average simple burial age of 1.27+/-0.22 Ma, and one sample from the glacial unit overlying the Nenana Gravel was dated to 0.97+/-0.06 Ma, representing one of the earliest glacial advances in the region. In addition, the age of the glacial unit provides a minimum age for inception of foreland basin uplift and abandonment of the Nenana Gravel in this region.

  7. Determination of radio nuclides for some local foodstuffs in Republic of Yemen by using gamma rays spectral analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maqtary, K.; Murshid, M.; Bazohair, A.; Al-Zuhairy, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study is considered as the first research study on locally produced consumed food in the Republic of Yemen. The objective of this study is to measure concentration of radio nuclides 137 Cs and 40 K In food samples produced in Yemen. Twenty two local foodstuffs samples were collected from provinces. The mar IBB, Hudiadah and Lahj, due to the massive crops production. Gamma spectroscopy consist of high purity germanium (HPGe) detector with resolution of 2.11 KeV at 1332 ke v energy which related to 6 0Co isotope. The detector is interfaced to two amplifiers and multichannel analyzer (mca). the maximum concentration of 13C s was found in garden pea samples brought from Lahj province 13± 1.5 Bq/kg. The minimum concentration was found in wheat samples brought from Them ar province 2.5± 0.2 Bq/Kg. The maximum concentration of 4 0K was found in garden pea samples brought from Lahj. 1000±15 Bq/kg. The minimum concentration was in forage sorghum samples brought from Hudaidah 40±1.5 Bq/kg. The studies samples are radiological safe and okay for human consumption. (author)

  8. Measurements of half-lives of short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmali, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work 19 F(n,p) 19 O (26.94 sec.), 76 Ge(n,2n) 75m Ge(47.73 sec.), 23 Na(n,p) 23 Ne (37.24 sec.) 23 Na(n,α) 20 F (11.12 sec.), 68 Zn(n,p) 68g Cu (31.11 sec.), 46 Ti(n,P) 46m Sc (18.70 sec.), 19 F(n,α) 16 N (7.13 sec.) and 92 Mo(n,2n) 91m Mo (65.40 sec.) half lives were determined. The half life measurements were performed utilizing the Sames T-400 neutron generator at the Physics Department of Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. Fast neutrons (∼ 14 MeV) were produced via T(d,n)He reaction in a TIT target which was bombarded by 300 KeV deuterons. The samples bombarded with 14 MeV neutrons were transferred with a fast sample transport system from neutron source to the HPGe detector were the gamma measurements are performed. The time elapsed during the transport of the sample between the two stations were about 0.5 sec. in the experimental data, corrections were made for coincidence summing, pules pile up, dead time and background elimination. In order to test the accuracy and the sensitivity of the half-life measurement system used in this work, the 19 O half life form the 19 F(n,p) 19 O reaction were measured first and compared with the data given in a recently published JAERI report

  9. Radio-nuclide initiated chemiluminescence fueled secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The structure is a containment made of one centimeter-thick sheet polypropylene. The inwards are attached to a cover made of the same material having peripheral lugs at 5 centimeter intervals to accommodate nickel plated brass drop bolts for purpose of tight and secure closure, yet easily dismantling for repeated removal of spent chemicals. A non-electrolytic anode constructed of fine copper wire screening plated with gold less than 10 microns thick is intercalated with copper foil 0.01 millimeter-thick epitaxially coated with first copper(I)oxide, secondly with one micron-thick silver, and thirdly with aluminum oxide[Cr] epitaxy one micron thick. The screens are pulse electrified as positively charged at least 0.5 kilo-Hertz square wave and a peak potential to exceed the work function of the gold by a few milli-Volts only. The non-electrolyte is a saturated solution of potassium hydroxide circulated by a chromatography pump through a tank and the cell when battery is in use. The tank contains pill-sized pellets of 3-aminophthalhydrazide, the fuel. The solvent is an azeotropic mixture of 1,3-dioxolane -- 93 mol percent and water -- 7 mol percent. The potassium-40 radioactivity produces a very faint CL, but it is sufficient of generate a pulsed d-c via the string of photovoltaic and the neon bulb relaxation oscillator and inductive reactance to send a 57-Volt alternating spiked current at about 100 microamperes through the gold plated screen grids. These inverted pulses in turn trigger strong CL of many lumens per square centimeter to operate the intercalated photovoltaics' output of electricity of 0.2 Volt and 0.015 Ampere per square centimeter

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium(III) and rhodium(III) after extraction of their cyclohexylthioglycolate complexes into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.L.J.; Gupta, Usha; Puri, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclohexylthioglycolate has been used as a reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium(III) and rhodium(III) after the extraction of their complexes into chloroform. Various parameters involved in the extraction have been studied and the composition of the extracted complex has been established in each instance. Ruthenium and rhodium complexes are extracted into chloroform in the pH ranges 5.0-9.0 and 9.0-12.5, respectively. The ruthenium complex absorbs strongly at 365 nm, whereas the rhodium complex shows a maximum absorption at 345 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 6-96 μg for ruthenium and 2-41 μg for rhodium in 10 ml of the chloroform solution. The molar absorptivities are 5.02 x 10 3 l mol -1 cm -1 for ruthenium and 1.60 x 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 for rhodium. Ten replicate determinations on a sample solution containing 60.3 μg of ruthenium or 20.6 μg of rhodium gave mean absorbances of 0.300 and 0.320 with standard deviations of 0.0021 and 0.0025 and relative standard deviations of 0.70% and 0.78%, respectively. The interference of various ions has been studied and the method has been applied to the determination of the metals in various synthetic samples. Conditions have also been developed for the simultaneous determination of ruthenium and rhodium. (author)

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium (III) and rhodium (III) with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone monoxime after extraction into molten naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasey, A.; Bansal, R.K.; Puri, B.K.; Satake, Masatada.

    1983-01-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone monoxime has been used as a reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium(III) and rhodium(III) after extraction into molten naphthalene. The extracted mixture of the metal complex and naphthalene was dissolved in chloroform and ruthenium and rhodium were determined spectrophotometrically. Beer's law holds in the concentration range of 0.2-4.1 μg/cm 3 for ruthenium and 0.3-5.3 μg/cm 3 for rhodium in 10 cm 3 of the final solution. The molar absorptivities and Sandell sensitivities are calculated to be 9.70 x 10 3 l mol -1 cm -1 and 0.01 μg/cmsup(2 ) (660 nm) for ruthenium and 1.13 x 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and 0.009 μg/cm 2 (410 nm) for rhodium respectively. Aliquots containing 2.0 μg of ruthenium and 4.1 μg of rhodium give mean absorbances of 0.192 and 0.451 with standard deviations of 0.0017 and 0.0039, respectively. Interference of various ions has been studied and the method has been applied to the determination of ruthenium and rhodium in various synthetic mixtures. This procedure is also applied to the simultaneous determination of ruthenium and rhodium present together in a solution. (author)

  12. A ruthenium anticancer compound interacts with histones and impacts differently on epigenetic and death pathways compared to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona, Cynthia; Spaety, Marie-Elodie; Capuozzo, Antonelle; Ali, Moussa; Santamaria, Rita; Armant, Olivier; Delalande, Francois; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Cianferani, Sarah; Spencer, John; Pfeffer, Michel; Mellitzer, Georg; Gaiddon, Christian

    2017-01-10

    Ruthenium complexes are considered as potential replacements for platinum compounds in oncotherapy. Their clinical development is handicapped by a lack of consensus on their mode of action. In this study, we identify three histones (H3.1, H2A, H2B) as possible targets for an anticancer redox organoruthenium compound (RDC11). Using purified histones, we confirmed an interaction between the ruthenium complex and histones that impacted on histone complex formation. A comparative study of the ruthenium complex versus cisplatin showed differential epigenetic modifications on histone H3 that correlated with differential expression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) genes. We then characterized the impact of these epigenetic modifications on signaling pathways employing a transcriptomic approach. Clustering analyses showed gene expression signatures specific for cisplatin (42%) and for the ruthenium complex (30%). Signaling pathway analyses pointed to specificities distinguishing the ruthenium complex from cisplatin. For instance, cisplatin triggered preferentially p53 and folate biosynthesis while the ruthenium complex induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and trans-sulfuration pathways. To further understand the role of HDACs in these regulations, we used suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and showed that it synergized with cisplatin cytotoxicity while antagonizing the ruthenium complex activity. This study provides critical information for the characterization of signaling pathways differentiating both compounds, in particular, by the identification of a non-DNA direct target for an organoruthenium complex.

  13. In vitro evaluation of ruthenium complexes for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenna; Xie, Qiang; Lai, Linglin; Mo, Zhentao; Peng, Xiaofang; Leng, Ennian; Zhang, Dandan; Sun, Hongxia; Li, Yiqi; Mei, Wenjie; Gao, Shuying

    2017-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising anti-tumor treatment strategy. Photosensitizer is one of the most important components of PDT. In this work, the anticancer activities of PDT mediated by six new ruthenium porphyrin complexes were screened. The mechanisms of the most efficacious candidate were investigated. Photocytotoxicity of the six porphyrins was tested. The most promising complex, Rup-03, was further investigated using Geimsa staining, which indirectly detects reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subcellular localization. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, c-Myc gene expression, and telomerase activities were also assayed. Rup-03 and Rup-04 had the lowest IC 50 values. Rup-03 had an IC 50 value of 29.5±2.3μM in HepG2 cells and 59.0±6.1μM in RAW264.7 cells, while Rup-04 had an IC 50 value of 40.0±3.8μM in SGC-7901 cells. The complexes also induced cellular morphological changes and impaired cellular ability to scavenge ROS, and accumulated preferentially in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Rup-03 reduced MMP levels, induced apoptosis, and repressed both c-Myc mRNA expression and telomerase activity in HepG2 cells. Among six candidates, Rup-03-mediated PDT is most effective against HepG2 and RAW264.7, with a similar efficacy as that of Rup-04-mediated PDT against SGC-7901 cells. Repression of ROS scavenging activities and c-Myc expression, which mediated DNA damage-induced cell apoptosis and repression of telomerase activity, respectively, were found to be involved in the anticancer mechanisms of Rup-03. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dealloyed Ruthenium Film Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Chemical Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis B. Serin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film ruthenium (Ru and copper (Cu binary alloys have been prepared on a Teflon™ backing layer by cosputtering of the precious and nonprecious metals, respectively. Alloys were then selectively dealloyed by sulfuric acid as an etchant, and their hydrogen generation catalysts performances were evaluated. Sputtering time and power of Cu atoms have been varied in order to tailor the hydrogen generation performances. Similarly, dealloying time and the sulfuric acid concentration have also been altered to tune the morphologies of the resulted films. A maximum hydrogen generation rate of 35 mL min−1 was achieved when Cu sputtering power and time were 200 W and 60 min and while acid concentration and dealloying time were 18 M and 90 min, respectively. It has also been demonstrated that the Ru content in the alloy after dealloying gradually increased with the increasing the sputtering power of Cu. After 90 min dealloying, the Ru to Cu ratio increased to about 190 times that of bare alloy. This is the key issue for observing higher catalytic activity. Interestingly, we have also presented template-free nanoforest-like structure formation within the context of one-step alloying and dealloying used in this study. Last but not least, the long-time hydrogen generation performances of the catalysts system have also been evaluated along 3600 min. During the first 600 min, the catalytic activity was quite stable, while about 24% of the catalytic activity decayed after 3000 min, which still makes these systems available for the development of robust catalyst systems in the area of hydrogen generation.

  15. {sup 106}Ruthenium Plaque Therapy (RPT) for Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Naoya, E-mail: namuraka@ncc.go.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Shigenobu [Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Ryoichi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology, Head and Neck Reconstruction Division, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, Koji; Kuroda, Yuki; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sakudo, Mototake; Wakita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Sumi, Minako; Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itami, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of episcleral {sup 106}ruthenium plaque therapy (RPT) in the management of retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: One hundred one RPTs were retrospectively analyzed that were performed in 90 eyes of 85 patients with retinoblastoma at National Cancer Center Hospital between 1998 and 2008. Each RPT had a corresponding tumor and 101 tumors were considered in the analysis of local control. Median follow-up length was 72.8 months. Median patient age at the RPT was 28 months. Median prescribed doses at reference depth and outer surface of the sclera were 47.4 Gy and 162.3 Gy, respectively. Results: Local control rate (LCR) and ocular retention rate (ORR) at 2 years were 33.7% and 58.7%, respectively. Unilateral disease, International Classification of Retinoblastoma group C or more advanced at the first presentation or at the time of RPT, vitreous and/or subretinal seeding, tumor size greater than 5 disc diameter (DD), reference depth greater than 5 mm, dose rate at reference depth lower than 0.7 Gy/hour, dose at the reference depth lower than 35 Gy, and (biologically effective dose with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 10 Gy) at the reference depth lower than 40 Gy{sub 10} were associated with unfavorable LCR. Two patients died of metastatic disease. Radiation complications included retinal detachment in 12 eyes (13.3%), proliferative retinopathy in 6 (6.7%), rubeosis iris in 2 (2.2%), and posterior subcapsular cataract in 23 (25.6%). Conclusion: RPT is an effective eye-preserving treatment for retinoblastoma.

  16. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Weyers, C.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103 Ru, 134 Cs and 124 Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10 -3 to 5.10 -5 % of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10 -3 to 10 -4 % and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10 -4 to 1.7 10 -5 %. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h -1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103 Ru and 134 Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  17. Reaction mechanisms of ruthenium tetroxide mediated oxidations of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehaug, Astrid Elisabeth

    1995-12-31

    This thesis reports a study of the mechanism of ruthenium tetroxide mediated oxidations of saturated hydrocarbons, ethers, alkenes and alcohols. Several methods were used. The RuO{sub 4}-mediated oxidations of adamantane and cis-decalin were studied in CCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 3}CN-H{sub 2}O and in acetone-water. The rate of reaction was found to be moderately influenced by the polarity of the solvent. Solvent properties other than the polarity were also found to influence the reaction rates. From the oxidations of adamantane and adamantane-1,3,5,7-d{sub 4} two primary kinetic deuterium isotope effects were found. These were comparable with the deuterium isotope effects found for the analogous oxidations of cis-decalin and cis-decalin-d{sub 18}. The results seem to exclude both a one step hydride abstraction reaction mechanism and a one step concerted mechanism, as well as a scheme where two such mechanisms compete. The observations may be explained by a two step reaction mechanism consisting of a pre-equilibrium with formation of a substrate-RuO{sub 4} complex followed by a concerted rate determining reaction. The RuO{sub 4}-mediated oxidation of ethers was of kinetic second order with a small enthalpy of activation and a large negative entropy of activation. Oxidation of cyclopropylmethyl methyl ether gave methyl cyclopropanecarboxylate, no rearranged products were observed. On RuO{sub 4} oxidations in CCl{sub 4} with NaIO{sub 4} as stoichiometric oxidant, no chlorinated products were observed. Several observations not in agreement with a hydride or a hydrogen abstraction mechanism may be explained by assuming that the reaction proceeds by either a concerted reaction or by a reversible oxidative addition of the ether to RuO{sub 4} followed by a slow concerted step. 228 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Catalytic water oxidation by ruthenium(II) quaterpyridine (qpy) complexes: evidence for ruthenium(III) qpy-N,N'''-dioxide as the real catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Ng, Siu-Mui; Yiu, Shek-Man; Lam, William W Y; Wei, Xi-Guang; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2014-12-22

    Polypyridyl and related ligands have been widely used for the development of water oxidation catalysts. Supposedly these ligands are oxidation-resistant and can stabilize high-oxidation-state intermediates. In this work a series of ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(qpy)(L)2 ](2+) (qpy=2,2':6',2'':6'',2'''-quaterpyridine; L=substituted pyridine) have been synthesized and found to catalyze Ce(IV) -driven water oxidation, with turnover numbers of up to 2100. However, these ruthenium complexes are found to function only as precatalysts; first, they have to be oxidized to the qpy-N,N'''-dioxide (ONNO) complexes [Ru(ONNO)(L)2 ](3+) which are the real catalysts for water oxidation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Parameters for several plutonium nuclides and 252Cf of safeguards interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Holden, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    Sets of the neutron emission multiplicity distribution gleaned from the literature for plutonium nuclides and 252 Cf are considered. A methodology for rendering the different sets comparable is presented and used to convert the sets to a common basis such that the differences can be evaluated objectively and that allows realistic estimate of the uncertainties. This in turn permits development of a canonical consensus set in certain instances. Evaluated data on the average neutron multiplicity, the total half-lives, and the half-lives for spontaneous fission are also given. A careful search of the literature reveals that the data on neutron multiplicity distributions for many nuclides is surprisingly sparse, considering that almost thirty years has elapsed since the original pioneering work, which in some cases, yield the only reported value. 93 references, 26 tables

  20. Vertical oceanic transport of alpha-radioactive nuclides by zooplankton fecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.; Beasley, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives the results of research to explain the role played by marine plankton metabolism in the vertical oceanic transport of the alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, was selected as the typical zooplanktonic species that is the focus of this work. Measurements of 239 240 Pu, 238 U, 232 Th, and 210 Po are reported in whole euphausiids and in euphausiid fecal pellets and molts. The resulting data are inserted into a simple model that describes the flux of an element through a zooplanktonic animal. Concentrations of the nuclides concerned are high in fecal pellets, at levels which are typical of geological rather than biological material. It is suggested that zooplanktonic fecal pellets play a significant role in the vertical oceanic transport of plutonium, thorium, and polonium

  1. Development of detection method for individual environmental particles containing alpha radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Konomi; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial radioactive nuclides have been emitted from various sources and have fallen on the surface of the earth as fine particles. Although the characterization of the individual fallout particles is very important, their analysis is difficult. The purpose of this study is to develop a new detection method for individual objective particles containing radioactive nuclides in the environment. The soil or sediment sample was confined in a plastic film and the locations of objective particles were identified with alpha tracks created in a solid-state detectors (BARYOTRAK, Fukuvi Chemical, Ltd) stuck to the both sides of the plastic film. A piece of the film containing the objective particle was cut with a nitrogen laser for following individual particle analysis. This procedure allowed us to detect the objective particle from innumerable number of particles in the environment and characterize the individual particles. (author)

  2. A rational approximation to Reich-Moore collision matrix of non-fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Keshavamurthy, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The cross sections of many important nuclides are represented in Reich-Moore (RM) formalism in the recent American Evaluated Nuclear Data file, ENDF/B-VI. Processing of cross sections with RM resonance parameters is much more difficult than the other multilevel formalisms such as MLBW and Adler-Adler. In this paper, we derive a rational approximation to the RM collision matrix in the vicinity of a resonance. This simplifies the cross section processing. The energy range of the validity of this approximation in the vicinity of a resonance is also derived. Choosing Ni 58 as an example, results of our approximation for a non-fissile nuclide are given for two typical s-wave resonances. Our rational approximation method is found to work with good accuracies in the vicinity of resonances

  3. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3 He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12 C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  4. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  5. An Ilustrative Nuclide Release Behavior from an HLW Repository due to an Earthquake Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-01-01

    Program for the evaluation of a high-level waste repository which is conceptually modeled. During the last few years, programs developed with the aid of AMBER and GoldSim by which nuclide transports in the near- and far-field of a repository as well as transport through the biosphere under various normal and disruptive release scenarios could be modeled and evaluated, have been continuously demonstrated. To show its usability, as similarly done for the natural groundwater flow scheme, influence of a possible disruptive event on a nuclide release behavior from an HLW repository system caused naturally due to an earthquake has been investigated and illustrated with the newly developed GoldSim program

  6. The production of residual nuclides in Pb irradiated by 400 MeV/u carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, H.L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, F., E-mail: mf@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Ju, Y.Q.; Zhang, H.B.; Chen, L.; Luo, P. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, B. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Y.B.; Li, J.Y.; Xu, J.K. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liang, T.J. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, S.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Y.W.; Yang, L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The experiment was performed by irradiating a Pb foil with 400 MeV/u carbon beam at the HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, China. The experimental data was acquired by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. 32 radioactive residual nuclides had been observed and their cross sections were determined. The measured results were compared with the results simulated by Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.7.0. The comparison shows that the simulated cross sections were underestimated for the fragments from A = 20 to 41 and A = 110 to 175. By fitting the measured and simulated cross sections to Rudstams semi-empirical formula, it was found that the charge distribution of products was asymmetric for the residual nuclides with a high mass number.

  7. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 1. Experiments on leys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of 134 Cs and 85 Sr during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout. The aim was to get a description of the relative transfer to the harvest products of new clover-grass leys and old grass leys after initial depositions of tracer nuclides at different times during the growth period. The reduction in transfer with time, from deposition to sampling, depends partly on dilution by growth and partly on fall-off to the ground. The reduction half-time for the nuclide content showed a range 10 - 14 days. The data obtained in the experiments can extend the basis for prediction of the consequences of fallout events at different times to new as well as to old leys in the field

  8. Analysis of nuclide transport under natural convection and time dependent boundary condition using TOUGH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javeri, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    After implementation of TOUGH2 at GRS in summer 91, it was first used to analyse the gas transport in a repository for the nuclear waste with negligible heat generation and to verify the results obtained with ECLIPSE/JAV 92/. Since the original version of TOUGH2 does not directly simulate the decay of radionuclide and the time dependent boundary conditions, it is not a appropriate tool to study the nuclide transport in a porous medium/PRU 87, PRU 91/. Hence, in this paper some modifications are proposed to study the nuclide transport under combined influence of natural convection diffusion, dispersion and time dependent boundary condition. Here, a single phase fluid with two liquid components is considered as in equation of state model for water and brine/PRU 91A/.

  9. Finite medium Green's function solutions to nuclide transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oston, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    Current analytical techniques for predicting the transport of nuclides in porous materials center on the Green's function approach - i.e., determining the response characteristics of a geologic pathway to an impulse function input. To data, the analyses all have set the boundary conditions needed to solve the 1-D transport equation as though each pathway were infinite in length. The purpose of this work is to critically examine the effect that this infinite pathway assumption has on Green's function models of nuclide transport in porous media. The work described herein has directly attacked the more difficult problem of obtaining suitable Green's functions for finite pathways whose dimensions, in fact, may not be much greater than the diffusion length. Two different finite media Green's functions describing the nuclide mass flux have been determined, depending on whether the pathway is terminated by a high or a low flow resistance at the outlet end. Pulse shapes and peak amplitudes have been computed for each Green's function over a wide range of geohydrologic parameters. These results have been compared to both infinite and semi-infinite medium solutions. It was found that predicted pulse shapes are quite sensitive to selection of a Green's function model for short pathways only. For long pathways all models tend toward a symmetric Gaussian flux-time history at the outlet. Thus, the results of our previous waste transport studies using the infinite pathway assumption are still generally valid because they always included at least one long pathway. It was also found that finite medium models offer some unique computational advantages for evaluating nuclide transport in a series of connecting pathways

  10. Radioactive nuclides formed by irradiation of the natural elements with thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, Kim

    1959-05-15

    For each natural element up to Bi this report gives: the 2200 m/sec neutron absorption cross section; the nuclides formed by thermal neutron activation; the saturation activity per gram natural element for a certain flux; half life and 'tenth life' of the activity; {beta}-energy and/or type of decay; mean {gamma} energy per disintegration; energy and abundance of {gamma} quanta.

  11. Interactive information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyaskin, V.I.; Kosilov, R.A.; Manturov, G.N.

    2001-01-01

    A brief review is given of a computerized information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains. The main difference between the system presented here and those already in existence is that these evaluated databases of nuclear physics constants are linked to a set of programs, thus enabling analysis of a wide range of problems regarding various nuclear physics applications. (author)

  12. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  13. Importance of individual fission nuclide to incontainment radioactive reading during PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Shi Zhongqi

    2004-01-01

    Containment radiation level is one of the most important base for core damage assessment and protective actions recommendation during accidents. Incontainment radioactive reading calculations is the precondition of using this kind of method. Importance of individual nuclides were compared during normal coolant release, gap release and core melt. Conclusions are deduced that when the spray is off, the radioactive reading in containment is mainly from iodine and noble gas, and the spray is on, the radioactive reading is mainly from noble gas. (authors)

  14. Details of modelling HTR core physics: the use of pseudo nuclide traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Oppe, J.; Haas, J.B.M. de; Da Cruz, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    At present most combined neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of reactors, and the HTR is no exception, are being performed by codes employing few-group (typically 2-group) neutronics on the basis of parametrized few-group macroscopic (and microscopic) cross sections for homogenized areas, depending on quantities like irradiation (fuel only), 135 Xe concentration, temperature, etc. The irradiation parameter (time-integrated power per unit initial heavy metal mass) is sufficient for keeping track of the evolution of areas containing fuel. However, the use of the same parameter in areas without fuel, e.g. containing burnable poison, requires some special provisions. This can be met by the introduction of pseudo nuclides, with very specific cross sections and reaction chains, in the procedure to generate the parametrized few-group cross sections. It is shown that the time-evolution of a non-fuelled burnable poison area, as calculated by the 2-group (HTR) reactor code PANTHERMIX employing pseudo nuclides, compares well to the time-evolution obtained from an explicit burnup calculation by the WIMS8A/SNAP code. Examples are also shown using the pseudo nuclide method to keep track of the fast fluence (time-integrated flux above 0.1 MeV) in a continuous reload pebble-bed HTR reactor calculation by PANTHERMIX. Although the present implementation of the pseudo nuclide method exhibits some peculiarities connected to the specific codes in use (WIMS8A and PANTHERMIX) it is considered to be sufficiently general to be applicable in other code suites, requiring only limited modifications. (authors)

  15. Details of modelling HTR core physics: the use of pseudo nuclide traces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C.; Oppe, J.; Haas, J.B.M. de; Da Cruz, D.F. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    At present most combined neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of reactors, and the HTR is no exception, are being performed by codes employing few-group (typically 2-group) neutronics on the basis of parametrized few-group macroscopic (and microscopic) cross sections for homogenized areas, depending on quantities like irradiation (fuel only), {sup 135}Xe concentration, temperature, etc. The irradiation parameter (time-integrated power per unit initial heavy metal mass) is sufficient for keeping track of the evolution of areas containing fuel. However, the use of the same parameter in areas without fuel, e.g. containing burnable poison, requires some special provisions. This can be met by the introduction of pseudo nuclides, with very specific cross sections and reaction chains, in the procedure to generate the parametrized few-group cross sections. It is shown that the time-evolution of a non-fuelled burnable poison area, as calculated by the 2-group (HTR) reactor code PANTHERMIX employing pseudo nuclides, compares well to the time-evolution obtained from an explicit burnup calculation by the WIMS8A/SNAP code. Examples are also shown using the pseudo nuclide method to keep track of the fast fluence (time-integrated flux above 0.1 MeV) in a continuous reload pebble-bed HTR reactor calculation by PANTHERMIX. Although the present implementation of the pseudo nuclide method exhibits some peculiarities connected to the specific codes in use (WIMS8A and PANTHERMIX) it is considered to be sufficiently general to be applicable in other code suites, requiring only limited modifications. (authors)

  16. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seokon; Yoon, Kanghwa; Soo, Moonjin; Lee, Byoungil; Kim, Jeongin [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons.

  17. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides, KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas Galiano, G.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electron-capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high

  18. Four shells atomic model to computer the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Fernandez Martinez, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper develops a four-shells atomic model in order to obtain the efficiency of detection in liquid scintillation courting, Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of the 229 different atomic rearrangements so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit the study of the influence of the different parameters upon the counting efficiency for nuclides of high atomic number. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seokon; Yoon, Kanghwa; Soo, Moonjin; Lee, Byoungil; Kim, Jeongin

    2013-01-01

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H 2 O 2 and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons

  20. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives of the americium and curium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for the various long-lived nuclides of interest. Recommended values are presented for 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 243 Am, 242 Cm, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 247 Cm, 248 Cm, and 250 Cm. The uncertainties are provided at the 95% confidence limit for each of the recommended values

  1. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  2. Nuclide transport models for HLW repository safety assessment in Finland, Japan, Sweden, and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Gi; Koh, Won Il

    1997-10-01

    Disposal and design concepts in such countries as Sweden, Finland, Canada and Japan which have already published safety assessment reports for the HLW repositories have been reviewed mainly in view of nuclide transport models used in their assessment. This kind of review would be very helpful in doing similar research in Korea where research program regarding HLW has been just started. (author). 44 refs., 2 tabs., 30 figs

  3. Fabrication of a set of realistic torso phantoms for calibration of transuranic nuclide lung counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Sundbeck, C.W.; Alderson, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    A set of 16 tissue equivalent torso phantoms has been fabricated for use by major laboratories involved in counting transuranic nuclides in the lung. These phantoms, which have bone equivalent plastic rib cages, duplicate the performance of the DOE Realistic Phantom set. The new phantoms (and their successors) provide the user laboratories with a highly realistic calibration tool. Moreover, use of these phantoms will allow participating laboratories to intercompare calibration information, both on formal and informal bases. 3 refs., 2 figs

  4. Radioactive nuclides formed by irradiation of the natural elements with thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, Kim

    1959-05-15

    For each natural element up to Bi this report gives: the 2200 m/sec neutron absorption cross section; the nuclides formed by thermal neutron activation; the saturation activity per gram natural element for a certain flux; half life and 'tenth life' of the activity; {beta}-energy and/or type of decay; mean {gamma} energy per disintegration; energy and abundance of {gamma} quanta.

  5. Modeling the nuclide migration and dose estimating using GoldSim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Nuclide migration of the high-level waste (HLW) repository in the near-and far-field as well as a transport through a biosphere under reference scenario has been modeled by utilizing GoldSim. The concept design of engineered barrier system (EBS), geosphere and biosphere characteristics are derived from H12 in Japan. The calculated results are consistent with H12 report, which can be considered as technical basis for the safety assessment of China HLW disposal. (authors)

  6. Effect of local burn-up variation on computed mean nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1982-01-01

    Mean concentrations of U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 in some volume areas of WWER-440 fuel assemblies have been calculated from corresponding burn-up microdistribution data and compared with those calculated from burn-up mean values. Differences occurring were below 3% for the uranium nuclides but, at low burn-ups, considerable for Pu-241 and Pu-242. (author)

  7. Neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in JENDL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Igarasi, Sin-iti; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Iijima, Shungo.

    1981-02-01

    This is the final report concerning the evaluated neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in the first version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-1). These 28 nuclides were selected as being most important for fast reactor calculations, and are 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 95 Mo, 97 Mo, 99 Tc, 101 Ru, 102 Ru, 103 Rh, 104 Ru, 105 Pd, 106 Ru, 107 Pd, 109 Ag, 129 I, 131 Xe, 133 Cs, 135 Cs, 137 Cs, 143 Nd, 144 Ce, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 147 Pm, 147 Sm, 149 Sm, 151 Sm, 153 Eu and 155 Eu. The status of the experimental data was reviewed over the whole energy range. The present evaluation was performed on the basis of the measured data with the aid of theoretical calculations. The optical and statical models were used for evaluation of the smooth cross sections. An improved method was developed in treating the multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the resonance region. Various physical parameters and the level schemes, adopted in the present work are discussed by comparing with those used in the other evaluations such as ENDF/B-IV, CEA, CNEN-2 and RCN-2. Furthermore, the evaluation method and results are described in detail for each nuclide. The evaluated total, capture and inelastic scattering cross sections are compared with the other evaluated data and some recent measured data. Some problems of the present work are pointed out and ways of their improvement are suggested. (author)

  8. Synchrotron radiation based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Resarch and Utilization Division (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Condensed Matter Science Division, Sector of Nuclear Science Research (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Synchrotron-radiation (SR) based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides is reviewed. The details of the measuring system and analysis method are described. Especially, the following two advantages of the current system are described: the detection of internal conversion electrons and the close distance between the energy standard scatterer and the detector. Both of these advantages yield the enhancement of the counting rate and reduction of the measuring time. Furthermore, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of {sup 40}K, {sup 151}Eu, and {sup 174}Yb is introduced to show the wide applicability of this method. In addition to these three nuclides, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of {sup 61}Ni, {sup 73}Ge, {sup 119}Sn, {sup 125}Te, {sup 127}I, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 189}Os has been performed. We continue to develop the method to increase available nuclides and to increase its ease of use. The complementary relation between the time-domain method using SR, such as nuclear forward scattering and the energy-domain methods such as SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy is also noted.

  9. Lake-0: A model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to enter the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to outflow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the bottom sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree 21 minute N, 03 degree 00 minute W at 65 m. asl.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (54 degree 21 minute 5'N, 03 degree, 18 minute W at 230 m. asl.)

  10. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs.

  11. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs

  12. Radio nuclides in mineral rocks and beach sand minerals in south east coast, Odisha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Essakki, Chinna; Tripathy, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Mohanty, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primordial and metamorphic mineral rocks of the Eastern Ghats host minerals such as rutile, ilmenite, Silmenite, zircon, garnet and monazite in quartz matrix. The weathered material is transported down to the sea by run-off through Rivers and deposited back in coastal beach as heavy mineral concentrates. The minerals are mined by M/S Indian Rare Earths Ltd at the Chatrapur plant in Odisha coast to separate the individual minerals. Some of these minerals have low level radioactivity and may pose external and internal radiation hazard. The present paper deals with natural Thorium and Uranium in the source rocks with those observed in the coastal deposits. The study correlates the nuclide activity ratios in environmental samples in an attempt to understand the ecology of the natural radio nuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra in environmental context. Further work is in progress to understand the geological process associated with the migration and reconcentration of natural radio-nuclides in the natural high background radiation areas

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Nuclide Importance to One-Group Neutron Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Yoshikane

    2001-01-01

    The importance of nuclides is useful when investigating nuclide characteristics in a given neutron spectrum. However, it is derived using one-group microscopic cross sections, which may contain large errors or uncertainties. The sensitivity coefficient shows the effect of these errors or uncertainties on the importance.The equations for calculating sensitivity coefficients of importance to one-group nuclear constants are derived using the perturbation method. Numerical values are also evaluated for some important cases for fast and thermal reactor systems.Many characteristics of the sensitivity coefficients are derived from the derived equations and numerical results. The matrix of sensitivity coefficients seems diagonally dominant. However, it is not always satisfied in a detailed structure. The detailed structure of the matrix and the characteristics of coefficients are given.By using the obtained sensitivity coefficients, some demonstration calculations have been performed. The effects of error and uncertainty of nuclear data and of the change of one-group cross-section input caused by fuel design changes through the neutron spectrum are investigated. These calculations show that the sensitivity coefficient is useful when evaluating error or uncertainty of nuclide importance caused by the cross-section data error or uncertainty and when checking effectiveness of fuel cell or core design change for improving neutron economy

  14. Research on the reliability of measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentration of U-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Gee Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ. of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sun Dong; Lee, Hoon [KoFONS, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Naturally occurred radioactive materials (NORM) can be found all around us and people are exposed to this no matter what they do or where they live. In this study, two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 has been reviewed; one that has used HPGe on the basis of the maintenance, and the other is disequilibrium theory of radioactive equilibrium relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at Decay-chain of NORM U-238. For this review, complicated pre-processing process (Breaking->Fusion->Chromatography->Electron deposit) has been used , and then carried out a comparative research with direct measurement method that makes use of and measures Alpha spectrometer. Through the experiment as above, we could infer the daughter nuclide whose radioactive equilibrium has been maintained with U-238. Therefore, we could find out that the daughter nuclide suitable to be applied to Gamma indirect measurement method was Th-234. Due to Pearson Correlation statistics, we could find out the reliability of the result value that has been analyzed by using Th-234.

  15. Applications of short lived nuclides in activation analysis, problems and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, F [Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Short lived nuclides or isomeric transitions, respectively would have some advantages over long lived ones. Although we published a paper concerning a germanium-determination in iron meteorites some years ago, only few laboratories use this technique, the main reason being that the high matrix activity disturbs the measurement of energy-spectra. A multichannel analyzer in the time sequence mode enables Li-8 determination by a purely instrumental method which is therefore used more frequently. In the time sequence mode much higher counting rates up to 10 - 50 MHz are processed then by taking energy-spectra. This is the reason why activation analysis with short lived isomeric states is seldom applied when counting rate and pulse height are to be detected simultaneously. Exceptional difficulties are encountered in measurement of samples activated by a reactor pulse. Further difficulties arise from the fact that an optimal expelling time depends on the half life of the nuclide, and is more critical if the half life is short and the full width half maximum of the reactor pulse is small. Commercial Ge-Li-detectors can be used only at low counting rates, so that samples with high matrix activities cannot be measured. Modifying the electronic system enables registration of samples with high matrix activities. For short lived nuclides emitting hard beta-rays, e.g. B-12 or Li-8, a Cerenkov-detector is optimal. These problems are discussed in examples. (author)

  16. Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan was the worst nuclear disaster following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Fission products (nuclides) released from the Fukushima plant site since March 12, 2011 had been detected around the northern hemisphere in about two weeks and also in the southern hemisphere about one month later. We report here detailed time series of radioiodine and radiocesium isotopes monitored in a regional network around Taiwan, including one high-mountain and three ground-level sites. Our results show several pulses of emission from a sequence of accidents in the Fukushima facility, with the more volatile 131I released preferentially over 134Cs and 137Cs at the beginning. In the middle of the time series, there was a pronounced peak of radiocesium observed in northern Taiwan, with activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs far exceeding that of 131I during that episode. From the first arrival time of these fission nuclides and their spatial and temporal variations at our sampling sites and elsewhere, we suggest that Fukushima-derived radioactive nuclides were transported to Taiwan and its vicinity via two pathways at different altitudes. One was transported in the free troposphere by the prevailing westerly winds around the globe; the other was transported in the planetary boundary layer by the northeast monsoon wind directly toward Taiwan.

  17. Biological properties of novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles

    KAUST Repository

    Novak, Maria S.; Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Jakupec, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery that nitric oxide (NO) is a physiologically relevant molecule, there has been great interest in the use of metal nitrosyl compounds as antitumor pharmaceuticals. Particularly interesting are those complexes which can deliver NO to biological targets. Ruthenium- and osmium-based compounds offer lower toxicity compared to other metals and show different mechanisms of action as well as different spectra of activity compared to platinum-based drugs. Novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles were studied to elucidate their cytotoxicity and possible interactions with DNA. Apoptosis induction, changes of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and possible formation of reactive oxygen species were investigated as indicators of NO-mediated damage by flow cytometry. Results suggest that ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with the general formula (indazolium)[cis/trans-MCl4(NO)(1H-indazole)] have pronounced cytotoxic potency in cancer cell lines. Especially the more potent ruthenium complexes strongly induce apoptosis associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, and elevated reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, a slight yet not unequivocal trend to accumulation of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate attributable to NO-mediated effects was observed.

  18. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of ruthenium thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Zoethout, E.; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    For next generation Extreme UV photolithography, multilayer coatings may require protective capping layers against surface contamination. Ruthenium, as a low-oxidation metal, is often used as a reference material. The oxidation behaviour of Ru thin films has been studied using X-ray reflectometry

  19. Fabrication of ruthenium metal nanosheets via topotactic metallization of exfoliated ruthenate nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Sato, Jun; Saida, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Wataru; Ebina, Yasuo; Shibata, Tatsuo; Osada, Minoru; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2013-03-04

    The metallization behavior of molecularly thin RuO2 nanosheets obtained from complete delamination of layered ruthenates was studied. Interestingly, the RuO2 nanosheets in a monolayer state topotactically transformed into a single layer of Ru atoms, i.e., ruthenium metal nanosheets, which can be regarded as a new family of nanosized metals.

  20. Acetic Acid Formation by Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol over Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren; Hanning, Christopher William

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst systems comprising ruthenium hydroxide supported on different carrier materials, titania, alumina, ceria, and spinel (MgAl2O4), were applied in selective aerobic oxidation ethanol to form acetic acid, an important bulk chemical and food ingredient. The catalysts were...