Sample records for ruthenium complexes avaliacao

  1. Strongly luminescing ruthenium(II)/ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(II)/platinum(II) binuclear complexes

    Sahai, R.; Baucom, D.A.; Rillema, D.P.


    Two strongly luminescing complexes, ruthenium(II)/ruthenium(II) homobinuclear complex and ruthenium(II)/platinum(II) heterobinuclear complex, have been prepared and characterized. The organic part of the complex is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2' bipyridine dimer. The luminescence behavior of the homobinuclear and heterobinculear complexes was found to be comparable to that of Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/, although the luminescence maxima were shifted from 615 to 620 nm. These complexes exhibit good stability due to the bidentate chelating capability of the bridging ligand. These new complexes can provide the opportunity for detailed photophysical studies related to donor-acceptor interactions and to the possibility of two simultaneous single-electron transfer events. 17 references, 2 figures.

  2. Characteristics and reactivity of ruthenium-oxo complexes.

    Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takahiko


    In this perspective, we have surveyed the synthetic procedure, characteristics, and reactivity of high-valent ruthenium-oxo complexes. The ruthenium-oxo complexes have served as ideal species to elucidate the characteristics of metal-oxo complexes in terms of not only geometrical and electronic structures but also oxidation reactivity and mechanisms of oxidation reactions. Due to the high stability and excellent reversibility of redox processes, ruthenium-oxo complexes have provided significant mechanistic insights into the oxidation of organic compounds including alcohols, alkenes, and alkanes and also water on the basis of detailed kinetic analysis.

  3. Design and development of polynuclear ruthenium and platinum polypyridyl complexes in search of new anticancer agents

    Schilden, Karlijn van der


    The research described in this Ph.D. Thesis has been devoted to the design and development of polynuclear polypyridyl ruthenium and ruthenium-platinum complexes in search of new anticancer agents. A variety of polynuclear ruthenium and ruthenium-platinum complexes has been synthesized with a long an

  4. Binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes for amyloid fibrils recognition

    Hanczyc, Piotr, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Interactions of binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes with amyloid fibrils. • Dimer ruthenium(II) compounds are sensitive amyloid fibrils biomarkers. • Recognition of amyloid-chromophore adducts by two-photon excited emission. - Abstract: Metal–organic compounds represent a unique class of biomarkers with promising photophysical properties useful for imaging. Here interactions of insulin fibrils with two binuclear complexes [μ-(11,11′-bidppz)(phen){sub 4}Ru{sub 2}]{sup 4+} (1) and [μ-C4(cpdppz)(phen){sub 4}Ru{sub 2}]{sup 4+} (2) are studied by linear dichroism (LD) and fluorescence. These ruthenium(II) compounds could provide a new generation of amyloid binding chromophores with long lived lifetimes, good luminescence quantum yields for the bound molecules and photo-stability useful in multiphoton luminescence imaging.

  5. Topoisomerase II poisoning by indazole and imidazole complexes of ruthenium

    Y N Vashisht Gopal; Anand K Kondapi


    Trans-imidazolium (bis imidazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuIm) and trans-indazolium (bis indazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuInd) are ruthenium coordination complexes, which were first synthesized and exploited for their anticancer activity. These molecules constitute two of the few most effective anticancer ruthenium compounds. The clinical use of these compounds however was hindered due to toxic side effects on the human body. Our present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these compounds shows that they effectively poison the activity of topoisomerase II by forming a ternary cleavage complex of DNA, drug and topoisomerase II. The thymidine incorporation assays show that the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation correlates with topoisomerase II poisoning. The present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these two compounds opens a new avenue for renewing further research on these compounds. This is because they could be effective lead candidates for the development of more potent and less toxic ruthenium containing topoisomerase II poisons. Specificity of action on this molecular target may reduce the toxic effects of these ruthenium-containing molecules and thus improve their therapeutic index.

  6. Kinetics and Photochemistry of Ruthenium Bisbipyridine Diacetonitrile Complexes: An Interdisciplinary Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Rapp, Teresa L.; Phillips, Susan R.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.


    The study of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes can be widely applied across disciplines in the undergraduate curriculum. Ruthenium photochemistry has advanced many fields including dye-sensitized solar cells, photoredox catalysis, lightdriven water oxidation, and biological electron transfer. Equally promising are ruthenium polypyridyl complexes…

  7. Kinetics and Photochemistry of Ruthenium Bisbipyridine Diacetonitrile Complexes: An Interdisciplinary Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Rapp, Teresa L.; Phillips, Susan R.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.


    The study of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes can be widely applied across disciplines in the undergraduate curriculum. Ruthenium photochemistry has advanced many fields including dye-sensitized solar cells, photoredox catalysis, lightdriven water oxidation, and biological electron transfer. Equally promising are ruthenium polypyridyl complexes…

  8. Complexes of ruthenium and osmium with a 4-amino-2-mercapto-5-nitroso-6-pyrimidinol

    Kushiwaha, V.; Jain, P.; Katyal, M.; Singh, R.P.


    Ruthenium (III) and osmium (VIII) form coloured complexes with 4-amino-2-mercapto-5-nitroso-6-pyrimidinol (ammonium salt). The complexes have been spectrophotometrically studied, and methods for the determination of the metals based on the complexes are reported. The reaction with ruthenium is particularly sensitive (0.006 of ruthenium/cm/sup 3/ for 0.001 absorbance). Many ions do not interfere in the determination.

  9. In Situ Catalyst Modification in Atom Transfer Radical Reactions with Ruthenium Benzylidene Complexes.

    Lee, Juneyoung; Grandner, Jessica M; Engle, Keary M; Houk, K N; Grubbs, Robert H


    Ruthenium benzylidene complexes are well-known as olefin metathesis catalysts. Several reports have demonstrated the ability of these catalysts to also facilitate atom transfer radical (ATR) reactions, such as atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). However, while the mechanism of olefin metathesis with ruthenium benzylidenes has been well-studied, the mechanism by which ruthenium benzylidenes promote ATR reactions remains unknown. To probe this question, we have analyzed seven different ruthenium benzylidene complexes for ATR reactivity. Kinetic studies by (1)H NMR revealed that ruthenium benzylidene complexes are rapidly converted into new ATRA-active, metathesis-inactive species under typical ATRA conditions. When ruthenium benzylidene complexes were activated prior to substrate addition, the resulting activated species exhibited enhanced kinetic reactivity in ATRA with no significant difference in overall product yield compared to the original complexes. Even at low temperature, where the original intact complexes did not catalyze the reaction, preactivated catalysts successfully reacted. Only the ruthenium benzylidene complexes that could be rapidly transformed into ATRA-active species could successfully catalyze ATRP, whereas other complexes preferred redox-initiated free radical polymerization. Kinetic measurements along with additional mechanistic and computational studies show that a metathesis-inactive ruthenium species, generated in situ from the ruthenium benzylidene complexes, is the active catalyst in ATR reactions. Based on data from (1) H, (13)C, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, we suspect that this ATRA-active species is a RuxCly(PCy3)z complex.

  10. Synthesis of cyclopentadienyl ruthenium complexes bearing pendant chelating picolinates through an electrophilic precursor

    Streu, Craig; Carroll, Patrick J.; Kohli, Rakesh K.; Meggers, Eric


    This note reports the facile synthesis of two ruthenium cyclopentadienyl half-sandwich complexes functionalized with coordinating α-picolinates. The synthetic approach involves the (η5-chloromethylcyclopentadienyl)(η6-benzene)ruthenium(II) cation as a useful common building block for cyclopentadienyl complexes bearing anchored ligands.

  11. Enantioselective olefin metathesis with cyclometalated ruthenium complexes.

    Hartung, John; Dornan, Peter K; Grubbs, Robert H


    The success of enantioselective olefin metathesis relies on the design of enantioenriched alkylidene complexes capable of transferring stereochemical information from the catalyst structure to the reactants. Cyclometalation of the NHC ligand has proven to be a successful strategy to incorporate stereogenic atoms into the catalyst structure. Enantioenriched complexes incorporating this design element catalyze highly Z- and enantioselective asymmetric ring opening/cross metathesis (AROCM) of norbornenes and cyclobutenes, and the difference in ring strain between these two substrates leads to different propagating species in the catalytic cycle. Asymmetric ring closing metathesis (ARCM) of a challenging class of prochiral trienes has also been achieved. The extent of reversibility and effect of reaction setup was also explored. Finally, promising levels of enantioselectivity in an unprecedented Z-selective asymmetric cross metathesis (ACM) of a prochiral 1,4-diene was demonstrated.

  12. Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis with Cyclometalated Ruthenium Complexes


    The success of enantioselective olefin metathesis relies on the design of enantioenriched alkylidene complexes capable of transferring stereochemical information from the catalyst structure to the reactants. Cyclometalation of the NHC ligand has proven to be a successful strategy to incorporate stereogenic atoms into the catalyst structure. Enantioenriched complexes incorporating this design element catalyze highly Z- and enantioselective asymmetric ring opening/cross metathesis (AROCM) of norbornenes and cyclobutenes, and the difference in ring strain between these two substrates leads to different propagating species in the catalytic cycle. Asymmetric ring closing metathesis (ARCM) of a challenging class of prochiral trienes has also been achieved. The extent of reversibility and effect of reaction setup was also explored. Finally, promising levels of enantioselectivity in an unprecedented Z-selective asymmetric cross metathesis (ACM) of a prochiral 1,4-diene was demonstrated. PMID:25137310

  13. Structure of ruthenium(II) complexes with coproporphyrin I tetraethyl ester

    Zverev, S. A.; Andreev, S. V.; Zamilatskov, I. A.; Kurochkina, N. M.; Tyurin, V. S.; Senchikhin, I. N.; Ponomarev, G. V.; Erzina, D. R.; Chernyshev, V. V.


    The reaction between coproporphyrin I tetraethyl ester and ruthenium(II) dodecacarbonyl in toluene is investigated. The formation of two different products, complexes 2 and 3 of ruthenium(II) with coproporphyrin I tetraethyl ester, studied by means of mass spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, NMR, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis, is revealed. Structures are proposed for the products, of which ( 2) is a monocarbonyl complex of ruthenium(II) porphyrin that exists as a coordination polymer formed owing to intermolecular axial bonding between the oxygen atoms of carboethoxyl groups and ruthenium(II). The structure proposed for second product ( 3) is in the form of the corresponding monomer of a monocarbonyl complex of ruthenium(II) porphyrin. It is established that polymeric complex 2 transforms into monomeric complex 3 when it is heating in pyridine.

  14. Water-soluble ruthenium complexes bearing activity against protozoan parasites.

    Sarniguet, Cynthia; Toloza, Jeannette; Cipriani, Micaella; Lapier, Michel; Vieites, Marisol; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Moreno, Virtudes; Maya, Juan Diego; Azar, Claudio Olea; Gambino, Dinorah; Otero, Lucía


    Parasitic illnesses are major causes of human disease and misery worldwide. Among them, both amebiasis and Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Trypanosoma cruzi, are responsible for thousands of annual deaths. The lack of safe and effective chemotherapy and/or the appearance of current drug resistance make the development of novel pharmacological tools for their treatment relevant. In this sense, within the framework of the medicinal inorganic chemistry, metal-based drugs appear to be a good alternative to find a pharmacological answer to parasitic diseases. In this work, novel ruthenium complexes [RuCl2(HL)(HPTA)2]Cl2 with HL=bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones and PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane have been synthesized and fully characterized. PTA was included as co-ligand in order to modulate complexes aqueous solubility. In fact, obtained complexes were water soluble. Their activity against T. cruzi and E. histolytica was evaluated in vitro. [RuCl2(HL4)(HPTA)2]Cl2 complex, with HL4=N-phenyl-5-nitrofuryl-thiosemicarbazone, was the most active compound against both parasites. In particular, it showed an excellent activity against E. histolytica (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)=5.2 μM), even higher than that of the reference drug metronidazole. In addition, this complex turns out to be selective for E. histolytica (selectivity index (SI)>38). The potential mechanism of antiparasitic action of the obtained ruthenium complexes could involve oxidative stress for both parasites. Additionally, complexes could interact with DNA as second potential target by an intercalative-like mode. Obtained results could be considered a contribution in the search for metal compounds that could be active against multiple parasites.

  15. New nitric oxide donors based on ruthenium complexes

    C.N. Lunardi


    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO donors produce NO-related activity when applied to biological systems. Among its diverse functions, NO has been implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Despite the great importance of NO in biological systems, its pharmacological and physiological studies have been limited due to its high reactivity and short half-life. In this review we will focus on our recent investigations of nitrosyl ruthenium complexes as NO-delivery agents and their effects on vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation. The high affinity of ruthenium for NO is a marked feature of its chemistry. The main signaling pathway responsible for the vascular relaxation induced by NO involves the activation of soluble guanylyl-cyclase, with subsequent accumulation of cGMP and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. This in turn can activate several proteins such as K+ channels as well as induce vasodilatation by a decrease in cytosolic Ca2+. Oxidative stress and associated oxidative damage are mediators of vascular damage in several cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. The increased production of the superoxide anion (O2- by the vascular wall has been observed in different animal models of hypertension. Vascular relaxation to the endogenous NO-related response or to NO released from NO deliverers is impaired in vessels from renal hypertensive (2K-1C rats. A growing amount of evidence supports the possibility that increased NO inactivation by excess O2- may account for the decreased NO bioavailability and vascular dysfunction in hypertension.

  16. Catalytic Activation of Small Molecules. Development and Characterisation of Ruthenium Complexes for Application in Catalysis

    Choi, Jong-Hoo


    In this work, the synthesis, characterisation and catalytic application of ruthenium pincer complexes is presented. In this context, new synthetic strategies are discussed to obtain novel ruthenium pincer dihydrogen complexes. Furthermore, the reactivity of the complexes towards small molecules (e.g. alcohols, boranes, ammonia, amines, nitriles and hydrogen) was observed, delivering fundamental insights into catalytic applications. With the reactivity testing, new borylated B-H-σ-complexes we...

  17. Syntheses and NMR characterization of novel ruthenium(II) complexes containing dioxaphospholane

    Matos, Robson Mendes; Costa, Ricardo F.F. da; Passos, Bernadette de F. Trigo [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. E-mail:


    Synthesis of some ruthenium (III) complexes containing 2-chloro-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane and 2-chloro-4,5-benzo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane for the first time. The reaction of dichlorotris (triphenylphosphine) ruthenium (II) with these ligands always leads to formation of a product containing two molecules of dioxaphospholane, independently of the stoichiometric proportion employed. On the other hand, complexes derived from chloro (cyclopentadienyl) bis (triphenylphosphane) ruthenium (II) have only one ligand in their structure. The complexes were characterized by {sup 31} P {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} and {sup -1} H-NMR spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Near infrared electrochromic variable optical attenuator based on ruthenium complex and polycrystalline tungsten oxide

    ZHANG Jidong; WU Xianguo; YU Hongan; YAN Donghang; WANG Zhiyuan


    A near infrared (NIR) electrochromic attenuator based on a dinuclear ruthenium complex and polycrystalline tungsten oxide was fabricated and characterized. The results show that the use of the NIR-absorbing ruthenium complex as a counter electrode material can improve the device performance. By replacing the visible electrochromic ferrocene with the NIR-absorbing ruthenium complex, the optical attenuation at 1550 nm was enhanced from 19.1 to 30.0 dB and color efficiency also increased from 29.2 to 121.2 cm2/C.

  19. Modulating the Anticancer Activity of Ruthenium(II)-Arene Complexes.

    Clavel, Catherine M; Păunescu, Emilia; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Griffioen, Arjan W; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J


    Following the identification of [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate)], a ruthenium(II)-arene complex with a perfluoroalkyl-modified ligand that displays remarkable in vitro cancer cell selectivity, a series of structurally related compounds were designed. In the new derivatives, the p-cymene ring and/or the chloride ligands are substituted by other ligands to modulate the steric bulk or aquation kinetics. The new compounds were evaluated in both in vitro (cytotoxicity and migration assays) and in vivo (chicken chorioallantoic membrane) models and were found to exhibit potent antivascular effects.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity of ruthenium-pyrazole complexes.

    David, Solene; Perkins, Richard S; Fronczek, Frank R; Kasiri, Sahba; Mandal, Subhrangsu S; Srivastava, Radhey S


    A series of new water soluble Ru(III) pyrazole complexes mer-[RuCl(3)(DMSO-S)(pyz)(2)] 1, mer-[RuCl(3)(DMSO-S)(DMSO-O)(pyz)] 2, mer-[RuCl(3)(bpy)(dmpyz)] 3, and mer-[RuCl(3)(DMSO-S)(dmpyz)(2)] 4 (pyz=pyrazole; dmpyz=3,5-dimethylpyrazole, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by use of a combination of spectroscopy (IR and UV-visible), X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry. The molecular X-ray structure of all reported compounds (1-4) revealed distorted octahedral coordination around ruthenium. The cytotoxicity assay on human breast cancer cells (MCF7) demonstrated that compounds 1 and 4 affect cell viability, whereas compounds 2 and 3 do not show appreciable activity. The IC(50) values for 1 and 4 lie within the range of 71-32μM in MCF7 cells.

  1. Electron Transfer Studies of Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Biologically Important Phenolic Acids and Tyrosine.

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan


    The ruthenium(II) complexes having 2,2'-bipyridine and phenanthroline derivatives are synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of these complexes at pH 12.5 are studied. The electron transfer reaction of biologically important phenolic acids and tyrosine are studied using absorption, emission and transient absorption spectral techniques. Semiclassical theory is applied to calculate the rate of electron transfer between ruthenium(II) complexes and biologically important phenolic acids.

  2. Ruthenium complexes containing bis-benzimidazole derivatives as a new class of apoptosis inducers.

    Li, Linlin; Wong, Yum-Shing; Chen, Tianfeng; Fan, Cundong; Zheng, Wenjie


    A series of ruthenium complexes containing bis-benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and identified as able to target mitochondria and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells through superoxide overproduction.

  3. N-heterocyclic carbene-ruthenium complexes for the racemization of chiral alcohols.

    Bosson, Johann; Nolan, Steven P


    The activity of well-defined 16-electron ruthenium complexes bearing an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand in the racemization of chiral alcohols is reported. Mechanistic considerations are also presented.

  4. Ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as catalysts for water oxidation

    Corbea, Javier Jesus Concepcion; Chen, Zuofeng; Jurss, Jonah Wesley; Templeton, Joseph L.; Hoertz, Paul; Meyer, Thomas J.


    The present invention provides ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation. Another aspect of the invention provides an electrode and photo-electrochemical cells for electrolysis of water molecules.

  5. Ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as catalysts for water oxidation

    Corbea, Javier Jesus Concepcion; Chen, Zoufeng; Jurss, Jonah Wesley; Templeton, Joseph L.; Hoertz, Paul; Meyer, Thomas J.


    The present invention provides ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation. Another aspect of the invention provides an electrode and photo-electrochemical cells for electrolysis of water molecules.

  6. Homobimetallic Ruthenium-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes For Olefin Metathesis

    Sauvage, Xavier; Demonceau, Albert; Delaude, Lionel

    In this chapter, the synthesis and catalytic activity towards olefin metathesis of homobimetallic ruthenium (Ru)-alkylidene, -cyclodiene or -arene complexes bearing phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the last category of bimetallic compounds. Three representatives of this new type of molecular scaffold were investigated. Thus, [(p-cymene)Ru(m-Cl)3RuCl (h2-C2H4)(L)] complexes with L = PCy3 (15a), IMes (16a), or IMesCl2 (16b) were prepared. They served as catalyst precursors for cross-metathesis (CM) of various styrene derivatives. These experiments revealed the outstanding aptitude of complex 16a (and to a lesser extent of 16b) to catalyze olefin metathesis reactions. Contrary to monometallic Ru-arene complexes of the [RuCl2(p-cymene)(L)] type, the new homobimetallic species did not require the addition of a diazo compound nor visible light illumination to initiate the ring-opening metathesis of norbornene or cyclooctene. When diethyl 2,2-diallylmalonate and N,N-diallyltosylamide were exposed to 16a,b, a mixture of cycloisomerization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) products was obtained in a nonselective way. Addition of phenylacetylene enhanced the metathetical activity while completely repressing the cycloisomerization process.

  7. Sweetening ruthenium and osmium: organometallic arene complexes containing aspartame.

    Gray, Jennifer C; Habtemariam, Abraha; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Sadler, Peter J


    The novel organometallic sandwich complexes [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Ru(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (1) (OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate) and [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Os(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (2) incorporating the artificial sweetener aspartame have been synthesised and characterised. A number of properties of aspartame were found to be altered on binding to either metal. The pK(a) values of both the carboxyl and the amino groups of aspartame are lowered by between 0.35 and 0.57 pH units, causing partial deprotonation of the amino group at pH 7.4 (physiological pH). The rate of degradation of aspartame to 3,6-dioxo-5-phenylmethylpiperazine acetic acid (diketopiperazine) increased over threefold from 0.12 to 0.36 h(-1) for 1, and to 0.43 h(-1) for 2. Furthermore, the reduction potential of the ligand shifted from -1.133 to -0.619 V for 2. For the ruthenium complex 1 the process occurred in two steps, the first (at -0.38 V) within a biologically accessible range. This facilitates reactions with biological reductants such as ascorbate. Binding to and activation of the sweet taste receptor was not observed for these metal complexes up to concentrations of 1 mM. The factors which affect the ability of metal-bound aspartame to interact with the receptor site are discussed.

  8. Coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium complexes as efficient alkyneazide cycloaddition catalysts

    Lamberti, Marina


    The performance of 16-electron ruthenium complexes with the general formula Cp*Ru(L)X (in which L = phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ligand; X = Cl or OCH2CF3) was explored in azidealkyne cycloaddition reactions that afford the 1,2,3- triazole products. The scope of the Cp*Ru(PiPr 3)Cl precatalyst was investigated for terminal alkynes leading to new 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in high yields. Mechanistic studies were conducted and revealed a number of proposed intermediates. Cp*Ru- (PiPr3)(2-HCCPh)Cl was observed and characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR at temperatures between 273 and 213 K. A rare example of N,N-κ2-phosphazide complex, Cp*Ru(κ2- iPr3PN3Bn)Cl, was fully characterized, and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure was obtained. DFT calculations describe a complete map of the catalytic reactivity with phenylacetylene and/or benzylazide. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. A selective, long-lived deep-red emissive ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes for the detection of BSA.

    Babu, Eththilu; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Singaravadivel, Subramanian; Bhuvaneswari, Jayaraman; Rajagopal, Seenivasan


    A selective, label free luminescence sensor for bovine serum albumin (BSA) is investigated using ruthenium(II) complexes over the other proteins. Interaction between BSA and ruthenium(II) complexes has been studied using absorption, emission, excited state lifetime and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. The luminescence intensity of ruthenium(II) complexes (I and II), has enhanced at 602 and 613 nm with a large hypsochromic shift of 18 and 5 nm respectively upon addition of BSA. The mode of binding of ruthenium(II) complexes with BSA has analyzed using computational docking studies.

  10. Ruthenium(II) complexes containing quinone based ligands: Synthesis, characterization, catalytic applications and DNA interaction

    Anitha, P.; Manikandan, R.; Endo, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Viswanathamurthi, P.


    1,2-Naphthaquinone reacts with amines such as semicarbazide, isonicotinylhydrazide and thiosemicarbazide in high yield procedure with the formation of tridentate ligands HLn (n = 1-3). By reaction of ruthenium(II) starting complexes and quinone based ligands HLn (n = 1-3), a series of ruthenium complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, electronic, 1H, 13C, 31P NMR and ESI-MS). The ligands were coordinated to ruthenium through quinone oxygen, imine nitrogen and enolate oxygen/thiolato sulfur. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for all the complexes. Further, the catalytic oxidation of primary, secondary alcohol and transfer hydrogenation of ketone was carried out. The DNA cleavage efficiency of new complexes has also been tested.




    Photochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to fuels or useful chemicals using renewable solar energy is an attractive solution to both the world's need for fuels and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Rhenium(I) and ruthenium(II) diimine complexes have been shown to act as photocatalysts and/or electrocatalysts for CO{sub 2} reduction to CO. We have studied these photochemical systems focusing on the identification of intermediates and the bond formation/cleavage reactions between the metal center and CO{sub 2}. For example, we have produced the one-electron-reduced monomer (i.e. Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}S where dmb = 4,4'-dimethy-2,2'-bipyridine and S = solvent) either by reductive quenching of the excited states of fac-[Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}CN)]PF{sub 6} or by photo-induced homolysis of [Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2}. We previously found that: (1) the remarkably slow dimerization of Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}S is due to the absence of a vacant coordination site for Re-Re bond formation, and the extra electron is located on the dmb ligand; (2) the reaction of Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3}S with CO{sub 2} forms a CO{sub 2}-bridged binuclear species (CO){sub 3}(dmb)Re-CO(O)-Re(dmb)(CO){sub 3} as an intermediate in CO formation; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of reactions are consistent with the interaction of the CO{sub 2}-bridged binuclear species with CO{sub 2} to form CO and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}.

  12. Transfer hydrogenation reactions catalyzed by chiral half-sandwich Ruthenium complexes derived from Proline



    Chiral ruthenium half-sandwich complexes were prepared using a chelating diamine made from proline with a phenyl, ethyl, or benzyl group, instead of hydrogen on one of the coordinating arms. Three of these complexes were obtained as single diastereoisomers and their configuration identified by X-ray crystallography. The complexes are recyclable catalysts for the reduction of ketones to chiral alcohols in water. A ruthenium hydride species is identified as the active species by NMR spectroscopy and isotopic labelling experiments.Maximum enantio-selectivity was attained when a phenyl group was directly attached to the primary amine on the diamine ligand derived from proline.

  13. Dehydrogenative Coupling of Primary Alcohols To Form Esters Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Madsen, Robert


    The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride as the c......The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride...

  14. Carbon nanotubes dispersed in aqueous solution by ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes

    Huang, Kewei; Saha, Avishek; Dirian, Konstantin; Jiang, Chengmin; Chu, Pin-Lei E.; Tour, James M.; Guldi, Dirk M.; Martí, Angel A.


    Cationic ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes with appended pyrene groups have been synthesized and used to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in aqueous solutions. To this end, planar pyrene groups enable association by means of π-stacking onto carbon nanotubes and, in turn, the attachment of the cationic ruthenium complexes. Importantly, the ionic nature of the ruthenium complexes allows the formation of stable dispersions featuring individualized SWCNTs in water as confirmed in a number of spectroscopic and microscopic assays. In addition, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to probe the excited state interactions between the ruthenium complexes and SWCNTs. These studies show that the photoluminescence of both, that is, of the ruthenium complexes and of SWCNTs, are quenched when they interact with each other. Pump-probe transient absorption experiments were performed to shed light onto the nature of the photoluminescence quenching, showing carbon nanotube-based bands with picosecond lifetimes, but no new bands which could be unambigously assigned to photoinduced charge transfer process. Thus, from the spectroscopic data, we conclude that quenching of the photoluminescence of the ruthenium complexes is due to energy transfer to proximal SWCNTs.Cationic ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes with appended pyrene groups have been synthesized and used to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in aqueous solutions. To this end, planar pyrene groups enable association by means of π-stacking onto carbon nanotubes and, in turn, the attachment of the cationic ruthenium complexes. Importantly, the ionic nature of the ruthenium complexes allows the formation of stable dispersions featuring individualized SWCNTs in water as confirmed in a number of spectroscopic and microscopic assays. In addition, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to probe the excited state interactions between the ruthenium complexes and SWCNTs

  15. Syntheses and Characterization of Ruthenium(II) Tetrakis(pyridine)complexes: An Advanced Coordination Chemistry Experiment or Mini-Project

    Coe, Benjamin J.


    An experiment for third-year undergraduate a student is designed which provides synthetic experience and qualitative interpretation of the spectroscopic properties of the ruthenium complexes. It involves the syntheses and characterization of several coordination complexes of ruthenium, the element found directly beneath iron in the middle of the…

  16. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert


    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can be a...... to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to ruthenium. Nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine....

  17. Complexation of DNA with ruthenium organometallic compounds: the high complexation ratio limit.

    Despax, Stéphane; Jia, Fuchao; Pfeffer, Michel; Hébraud, Pascal


    Interactions between DNA and ruthenium organometallic compounds are studied by using visible light absorption and circular dichroism measurements. A titration technique allowing for the absolute determination of the advancement degree of the complexation, without any assumption about the number of complexation modes is developed. When DNA is in excess, complexation involves intercalation of one of the organometallic compound ligands between DNA base pairs. But, in the high complexation ratio limit, where organometallic compounds are in excess relative to the DNA base pairs, a new mode of interaction is observed, in which the organometallic compound interacts weakly with DNA. The weak interaction mode, moreover, develops when all the DNA intercalation sites are occupied. A regime is reached in which one DNA base pair is linked to more than one organometallic compound.

  18. Biological properties of novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles

    Novak, Maria S.


    Since the discovery that nitric oxide (NO) is a physiologically relevant molecule, there has been great interest in the use of metal nitrosyl compounds as antitumor pharmaceuticals. Particularly interesting are those complexes which can deliver NO to biological targets. Ruthenium- and osmium-based compounds offer lower toxicity compared to other metals and show different mechanisms of action as well as different spectra of activity compared to platinum-based drugs. Novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles were studied to elucidate their cytotoxicity and possible interactions with DNA. Apoptosis induction, changes of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and possible formation of reactive oxygen species were investigated as indicators of NO-mediated damage by flow cytometry. Results suggest that ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with the general formula (indazolium)[cis/trans-MCl4(NO)(1H-indazole)] have pronounced cytotoxic potency in cancer cell lines. Especially the more potent ruthenium complexes strongly induce apoptosis associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, and elevated reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, a slight yet not unequivocal trend to accumulation of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate attributable to NO-mediated effects was observed.

  19. Hydrogenation of esters catalyzed by ruthenium PN3-Pincer complexes containing an aminophosphine arm

    Chen, Tao


    Hydrogenation of esters under mild conditions was achieved using air-stable ruthenium PN3-pincer complexes containing an aminophosphine arm. High efficiency was achieved even in the presence of water. DFT studies suggest a bimolecular proton shuttle mechanism which allows H2 to be activated by the relatively stable catalyst with a reasonably low transition state barrier. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  20. Bulky N-Phosphino-Functionalized N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands: Synthesis, Ruthenium Coordination Chemistry, and Ruthenium Alkylidene Complexes for Olefin Metathesis.

    Brown, Christopher C; Rominger, Frank; Limbach, Michael; Hofmann, Peter


    Ruthenium chemistry and applications in catalytic olefin metathesis based on N-phosphino-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (NHCPs) are presented. Alkyl NHCP Ru coordination chemistry is described, and access to several potential synthetic precursors for ruthenium alkylidene complexes is outlined, incorporating both trimethylsilyl and phenyl alkylidenes. The Ru alkylidene complexes are evaluated as potential olefin metathesis catalysts and were shown to behave in a latent fashion. They displayed catalytic activity at elevated temperatures for both ring closing metathesis and ring opening metathesis polymerization.

  1. Ruthenium(II) cluster complexes: a series of homooligonuclear complexes based on bidentate bridging ligands

    Sahai, R.; Morgan, L.; Rillema, D.P.


    The preparation and properties of trimetallic and tetrametallic cluster complexes containing ruthenium(II) metal centers bridged by 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm) and 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)quinoxaline (bpq) are reported. The tetrametallic clusters are symmetrical complexes containing a central ruthenium(II) coordinated to three (BL)Ru(bpy)/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ligands, where BL is bpm or bpq and bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine. The trimetallic clusters are asymmetric and are of the general formula ((bpy)Ru(BLRu(bpy)/sub 2/)/sub 2/)/sup 6 +/. The complexes exhibit low-energy MLCT transitions assigned as d..pi..(Ru(outer)) ..-->.. ..pi..*(BL). The MLCT maxima of the tetrametallic complexes were at slightly higher energies than those for their trimetallic analogues. For example, lambda/sub max/ for (Ru(bpqRu(bpy)/sub 2/)/sub 3/)/sup 8 +/ was located at 618 nm; that of ((bpy)Ru(bpqRu(bpy)/sub 2/)/sub 2/)/sup 3 +/ was located at 621 nm. The E/sub 1/2/ values were determined by cyclic voltammetry. The first oxidation in the case of ((bpy)Ru(bpqRu(bpy)/sub 2/)/sub 2/)/sup 6 +/ was located at E/sub 1/2/(1) = 1.57 V, and the second, at E/sub 1/2/(2) = 1.83 V vs. SSCE. The wave associated with E/sub 1/2/(1) had about twice the peak current as the wave at E/sub 1/2/(2) and, hence, was assigned to the Ru(III/II) redox couple of the outer ruthenium(II) components. The low-energy MLCT transitions for the mononuclear precursors (Ru(bpy)/sub x/(BL)/sub 3-x/, x = 1-3) and the multimetallic complexes were found to parallel 1/2/, the difference between E/sub 1/2/ values for the first oxidation and the first reduction. The excellent correlation (slope 1, correlation coefficient 0.99) indicates that either the energy of the lowest MLCT transition or 1/2/ can be used to measure the energy gap between the d..pi.. and ..pi..* energy levels. 32 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Dialkylamino cyclopentadienyl ruthenium(ii) complex-catalyzed alpha-alkylation of arylacetonitriles with primary alcohols.

    Cheung, Hung Wai; Li, Juan; Zheng, Wenxu; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Chiu, Yu Hin; Lin, Zhenyang; Lau, Chak Po


    Aminocyclopentadienyl ruthenium complexes, [(eta(5)-C(5)H(4)NMe(2))Ru(PPh(3))(2)(CH(3)CN)](+)BF(4)(-) and [(eta(5)-C(5)H(4)NEt(2))Ru(PPh(3))(2)(CH(3)CN)](+)BF(4)(-), are moderately active catalysts for alpha-alkylation of arylacetonitriles with primary alcohols; on the other hand, the analogous unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl ruthenium complex [(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))Ru(PPh(3))(2)(CH(3)CN)](+)BF(4)(-) shows very low catalytic activity. On the basis of experimental results and theoretical calculations, rationalization for the much higher catalytic activity of the aminocyclopentadienyl complexes over that of the unsubstituted Cp complex is provided. In the catalytic systems with the former, it is possible to regenerate the active solvento complexes via protonation of the metal hydride intermediates and subsequent ligand substitution; this process is, however, very nonfacile in the catalytic system with the latter.

  3. New dyads using (metallo)porphyrins as ancillary ligands in polypyridine ruthenium complexes. Synthesis and electronic properties.

    Lachaud, Fabien; Jeandon, Christophe; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier; Beley, Marc; Ruppert, Romain; Gros, Philippe C


    Porphyrins bearing enaminoketones at their periphery have been used as ancillary ligands in ruthenium complexes. Free base, nickel and zinc porphyrins were successfully coordinated to Ru(bpy)(2)Cl(2) under microwave irradiation. The positive contribution of the ruthenium complex was demonstrated by the complexes' wide absorption domains that covered the 500-600 nm region where the parent porphyrins did not absorb. Electrochemical as well as computational data revealed an efficient electronic communication between the porphyrins and the ruthenium cation in the dyads.

  4. Transferrin serves as a mediator to deliver organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes into cells.

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Zhao, Yao; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Wang, Fuyi


    We report herein a systematic study on interactions of organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1) or biphenyl (2), en = ethylenediamine) with human transferrin (hTf) and the effects of the hTf-ligation on the bioavailability of these complexes with cisplatin as a reference. Incubated with a 5-fold excess of complex 1, 2, or cisplatin, 1 mol of diferric hTf (holo-hTf) attached 0.62 mol of 1, 1.01 mol of 2, or 2.14 mol of cisplatin. Mass spectrometry revealed that both ruthenium complexes coordinated to N-donors His242, His273, His578, and His606, whereas cisplatin bound to O donors Tyr136 and Tyr317 and S-donor Met256 in addition to His273 and His578 on the surface of both apo- and holo-hTf. Moreover, cisplatin could bind to Thr457 within the C-lobe iron binding cleft of apo-hTf. Neither ruthenium nor platinum binding interfered with the recognition of holo-hTf by the transferrin receptor (TfR). The ruthenated/platinated holo-hTf complexes could be internalized via TfR-mediated endocytosis at a similar rate to that of holo-hTf itself. Moreover, the binding to holo-hTf well preserved the bioavailability of the ruthenium complexes, and the hTf-bound 1 and 2 showed a similar cytotoxicity toward the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 to those of the complexes themselves. However, the conjugation with holo-hTf significantly reduced the cellular uptake of cisplatin and the amount of platinated DNA adducts formed intracellularly, leading to dramatic reduction of cisplatin cytotoxicity toward MCF-7. These findings suggest that hTf can serve as a mediator for the targeting delivery of Ru(arene) anticancer complexes while deactivating cisplatin.

  5. Ruthenium(II) pincer complexes with oxazoline arms for efficient transfer hydrogenation reactions

    Chen, Tao


    Well-defined P NN CN pincer ruthenium complexes bearing both strong phosphine and weak oxazoline donors were developed. These easily accessible complexes exhibit significantly better catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenation of ketones compared to their PN 3P analogs. These reactions proceed under mild and base-free conditions via protonation- deprotonation of the \\'NH\\' group in the aromatization-dearomatization process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of ruthenium(III) complexes derived from chitosan schiff base.

    Vadivel, T; Dhamodaran, M


    Chitosan can be modified chemically by condensation reaction of deacetylated chitosan with aldehyde in homogeneous phase. This condensation is carried by primary amine (NH2) with aldehyde (CHO) to form corresponding schiff base. The chitosan biopolymer schiff base derivatives are synthesized with substituted aldehydes namely 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy benzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde, becomes a complexing agent or ligand. The Ruthenium(III) complexes were obtained by complexation of Ruthenium with schiff base ligands and this product exhibits as an excellent solubility and more biocompatibility. The novel series of schiff base Ruthenium(III) complexes are characterized by Elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The synthesized complexes have been subjected to antibacterial study. The antibacterial results indicated that the antibacterial activity of the complexes were more effective against Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria. These findings are giving suitable support for developing new antibacterial agent and expand our scope for applications.

  7. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II)-complexes containing amino acid with quinones.

    Eswaran, Rajkumar; Kalayar, Swarnalatha; Paulpandian, Muthu Mareeswaran; Seenivasan, Rajagopal


    With the aim of mimicking, at basic level the photoinduced electron transfer process in the reaction center of photosystem II, ruthenium(II)-polypyridyl complexes, carrying amino acids were synthesized and studied their photoinduced electron transfer reactions with quinones by steady state and time resolved measurements. The reaction of quinones with excited state of ruthenium(II)-complexes, I-V in acetonitrile has been studied by luminescence quenching technique and the rate constant, k(q), values are close to the diffusion controlled rate. The detection of the semiquinone anion radical in this system using time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy confirms the electron transfer nature of the reaction. The semiclassical theory of electron transfer has been successfully applied to the photoluminescence quenching of Ru(II)-complexes with quinones.

  8. Modulation of internuclear communication in multinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes

    Browne, W.R.; Weldon, F.; Guckian, A.; Vos, J.G.


    The syntheses and characterisation of a series of mononuclear and dinuclear ruthenium polypyridyl complexes based on the bridging ligands 1,3-bis-[5-(2-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]benzene, 1,4-bis-[5-(2-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]benzene, 2,5-bis-[5-(2-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl] thiophen

  9. Proton controlled intramolecular communication in dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes

    Pietro, Cinzia Di; Serroni, Scolastica; Campagna, Sebastiano; Gandolfi, Maria Teresa; Ballardini, Roberto; Fanni, Stefano; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.


    The synthesis and characterization of two dinuclear ruthenium polypyridyl complexes based on the bridging ligands 5,5'-bis(pyridin-2"-yl)-3,3'-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole) and 5,5'-bis(pyrazin-2"-yl)-3,3'-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole) and of their mononuclear precursors are reported. The dinuclear compounds have

  10. Study of Ruthenium Complex Sensitizer and Gold Nanoparticles Doped Flexible Organic Solar Cells

    Cheng-Chiang Chen


    Full Text Available This work presents a flexible organic solar cell with a structure for ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM+ruthenium complex sensitizer and Au nanoparticles on a flexible substrate. The process and thickness of the PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer and P3HT:PCBM active layer were optimized. A ruthenium complex sensitizer and Au nanoparticles were then introduced into the P3HT:PCBM active layer to improve the performance of solar cells. For the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM+ruthenium complex sensitizer and Au nanoparticles structure on a flexible polyimide (PI substrate under 0.1 and 1 sun conditions, the measured short-circuit current density (Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and efficiency (η are 3.89 and 9.67 mA/cm2, 0.45 and 0.45 V, 0.266 and 0.232, and 4.65 and 1.01%, respectively.

  11. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk


    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems...... chloride and base. A range of different primary alcohols and amines have been coupled in the presence of the three catalyst systems to afford the corresponding amides in moderate to excellent yields. The best results are obtained with sterically unhindered alcohols and amines. The three catalyst systems do...... not show any significant differences in reactivity, which indicates that the same catalytically active species is operating. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol to the aldehyde that stays coordinated to ruthenium and is not released into the reaction...

  12. Carboxylate-assisted C(sp³)-H activation in olefin metathesis-relevant ruthenium complexes.

    Cannon, Jeffrey S; Zou, Lufeng; Liu, Peng; Lan, Yu; O'Leary, Daniel J; Houk, K N; Grubbs, Robert H


    The mechanism of C-H activation at metathesis-relevant ruthenium(II) benzylidene complexes was studied both experimentally and computationally. Synthesis of a ruthenium dicarboxylate at a low temperature allowed for direct observation of the C-H activation step, independent of the initial anionic ligand-exchange reactions. A first-order reaction supports an intramolecular concerted metalation-deprotonation mechanism with ΔG(‡)(298K) = 22.2 ± 0.1 kcal·mol(-1) for the parent N-adamantyl-N'-mesityl complex. An experimentally determined ΔS(‡) = -5.2 ± 2.6 eu supports a highly ordered transition state for carboxylate-assisted C(sp(3))-H activation. Experimental results, including measurement of a large primary kinetic isotope effect (k(H)/k(D) = 8.1 ± 1.7), agree closely with a computed six-membered carboxylate-assisted C-H activation mechanism where the deprotonating carboxylate adopts a pseudo-apical geometry, displacing the aryl ether chelate. The rate of cyclometalation was found to be influenced by both the electronics of the assisting carboxylate and the ruthenium ligand environment.

  13. Arene control over thiolate to sulfinate oxidation in albumin by organometallic ruthenium anticancer complexes.

    Hu, Wenbing; Luo, Qun; Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Kui; Liu, Jianan; Chen, Yi; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Wang, Jianping; Sadler, Peter J; Wang, Fuyi


    Interactions of organometallic ruthenium anticancer complexes [Ru(eta6-arene)Cl(en)][PF6] (arene=p-cymene (1) or biphenyl (2), en=ethylenediamine) with human serum albumin were investigated by means of mass spectrometry combined with trypsin digestion, specific sidechain modifications and computational modelling. Both complexes were shown to bind to surface histidine (His128, His247, His510) and methionine (Met298) residues in human albumin, but only the p-cymene complex can gain entry to the crevice containing the free cysteine thiolate (Cys34) and induce oxidation to sulfinate. The two complexes exhibit a similar coordination preference for histidine and methionine residues on the protein surface. His128 binding is favoured both kinetically and thermodynamically. At 310 K, six days of incubation of recombinant human albumin (rHA) with complex 1 (rHA:Ru 50:250 microM) led to about 18 % ruthenation of His128 in the protein. However, the extent of ruthenation of albumin by complex 2 was less than that by 1, due to the steric hindrance from the biphenyl ligand. These results imply that the arene ligand in the organometallic ruthenium anticancer complexes plays a crucial role in interactions with proteins.

  14. Bis(ortho-) chelated Monoanionic Bisphosphinoaryl Ruthenium(Ⅱ) Complexes:Synthesis,Characterization and Reactivity

    van KLINK, Gerard P.M.; DANI, Paulo; van KOTEN, Gerard


    Bisphosphinoaryl ruthenium(Ⅱ) compounds are synthesized using two distinct synthetic routes. One route, direct cycloruthenation, consists of the reaction of the parent arene compound R-PCHP with [R uCl2(PPh)3] in chlorinated solvents. However, this route suffers from major drawbacks because HCl is formed as well as free triphenylphoshine. The other route, the transcyclometalation reaction, involves the interconversion of one cyclometalated ligand metal complex,[RuCl(NCN) (PPh3)], into another complex, [RuCl(RPCP) (PPh3) ], with concomitant consumption and formation of the corresponding arenes R-PCHP and NCHN, respectively.

  15. Selenoquinones stabilized by ruthenium(II) arene complexes: synthesis, structure, and cytotoxicity.

    Dubarle-Offner, Julien; Clavel, Catherine M; Gontard, Geoffrey; Dyson, Paul J; Amouri, Hani


    A new series of monoselenoquinone and diselenoquinone π complexes, [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 R4 SeE)] (R=H, E=Se (6); R=CH3 , E=Se (7); R=H, E=O (8)), as well as selenolate π complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(5) -C6 H3 R2 Se)][SbF6 ] (R=H (9); R=CH3 (10)), stabilized by arene ruthenium moieties were prepared in good yields through nucleophilic substitution reactions from dichlorinated-arene and hydroxymonochlorinated-arene ruthenium complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(C6 R4 XCl)][SbF6 ]2 (R=H, X=Cl (1); R=CH3 , X=Cl (2); R=H, X=OH (3)) as well as the monochlorinated π complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(5) -C6 H3 R2 Cl)][SbF6 ]2 (R=H (4); R=CH3 (5)). The X-ray crystallographic structures of two of the compounds, [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 Me4 Se2 )] (7) and [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 H4 SeO)] (8), were determined. The structures confirm the identity of the target compounds and ascertain the coordination mode of these unprecedented ruthenium π complexes of selenoquinones. Furthermore, these new compounds display relevant cytotoxic properties towards human ovarian cancer cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Photochemical nitric oxide precursors: synthesis, photochemistry, and ligand substitution kinetics of ruthenium salen nitrosyl and ruthenium salophen nitrosyl complexes.

    Works, Carmen F; Jocher, Christoph J; Bart, Gwen D; Bu, Xianhui; Ford, Peter C


    Described are syntheses, characterizations, and photochemical reactions of the nitrosyl complexes Ru(salen)(ONO)(NO) (I, salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion), Ru(salen)(Cl)(NO) (II), Ru((t)Bu(4)salen)(Cl)(NO) (III,(t)Bu(4)salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylideneiminato) dianion), Ru((t)Bu(4)salen)(ONO)(NO) (IV), Ru((t)Bu(2)salophen)(Cl)(NO) (V, (t)Bu(2)salophen = N,N'-1,2-phenylenediaminebis(3-tert-butylsalicylideneiminato) dianion), and Ru((t)Bu(4)salophen)(Cl)(NO) (VI, (t)Bu(4)salophen = N,N'-1,2-phenylenebis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylideneiminato) dianion). Upon photolysis, these Ru(L)(X)(NO) compounds undergo NO dissociation to give the ruthenium(III) solvento products Ru(L)(X)(Sol). Quantum yields for 365 nm irradiation in acetonitrile solution fall in a fairly narrow range (0.055-0.13) but decreased at longer lambda(irr). The quantum yield (lambda(irr) = 365 nm) for NO release from the water soluble complex [Ru(salen)(H(2)O)(NO)]Cl (VII) was 0.005 in water. Kinetics of thermal back-reactions to re-form the nitrosyl complexes demonstrated strong solvent dependence with second-order rate constants k(NO) varying from 5 x 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) for the re-formation of II in acetonitrile to 5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for re-formation of III in cyclohexane. Pressure and temperature effects on the back-reaction rates were also examined. These results are relevant to possible applications of photochemistry for nitric oxide delivery to biological targets, to the mechanisms by which NO reacts with metal centers to form metal-nitrosyl bonds, and to the role of photochemistry in activating similar compounds as catalysts for several organic transformations. Also described are the X-ray crystal structures of I and V.

  17. Structural characterization and biological evaluation of a clioquinol-ruthenium complex with copper-independent antileukaemic activity.

    Gobec, Martina; Kljun, Jakob; Sosič, Izidor; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Uršič, Matija; Gobec, Stanislav; Turel, Iztok


    In this study, we present the synthesis, biological characterization, and first crystal structure of an organometallic-clioquinol complex. Combining ruthenium with the established apoptotic agent and 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, clioquinol, resulted in a complex that induces caspase-dependent cell death in leukaemia cells. This activity is copper independent and is improved compared to the parent compound, clioquinol. The study of the mode of action reveals that this clioquinol-ruthenium complex does not intercalate between DNA base pairs. Additionally, this clioquinol-ruthenium complex shows proteasome-independent inhibition of the NFκB signalling pathway, with no effects on cell-cycle distribution. These data suggest a mechanism of action that involves a target profile that is different from that for clioquinol alone.

  18. Unusual dimer formation of cyclometalated ruthenium NHC p-cymene complexes.

    Schleicher, David; Tronnier, Alexander; Leopold, Hendrik; Borrmann, Horst; Strassner, Thomas


    We present the synthesis and structural characterization of novel ruthenium complexes containing C^C* cyclometalated N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, η(6)-arene (p-cymene) ligands and one bridging chlorine ion. Complexes of the general formula [Ru(p-cymene)(C^C*)Cl] were prepared via a one-pot synthesis using in situ transmetalation from the correspondent silver NHC complexes. These complexes react with sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (NaBAr(F)4) to form dinuclear complexes of the general structure [Ru(p-cymene)(C^C*)-μ-Cl-(p-cymene)(C^C*)Ru](+)[BAr(F)4](-). Solid-state structures confirm that the pseudo-tetrahedral coordination around the metal center with the η(6)-ligand aligned perpendicularly to the C^C* ligand and the i-Pr group "atop" is retained in the bimetallic complexes.

  19. A Ruthenium(III)-Oxyl Complex Bearing Strong Radical Character.

    Shimoyama, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Okajima, Toshihiro; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Kojima, Takahiko


    Proton-coupled electron-transfer oxidation of a Ru(II) -OH2 complex, having an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, gives a Ru(III) -O(.) species, which has an electronically equivalent structure of the Ru(IV) =O species, in an acidic aqueous solution. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex was characterized by spectroscopic methods and DFT calculations. The oxidation state of the Ru center was shown to be close to +3; the Ru-O bond showed a lower-energy Raman scattering at 732 cm(-1) and the Ru-O bond length was estimated to be 1.77(1) Å. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex exhibits high reactivity in substrate oxidation under catalytic conditions; particularly, benzaldehyde and the derivatives are oxidized to the corresponding benzoic acid through C-H abstraction from the formyl group by the Ru(III) -O(.) complex bearing a strong radical character as the active species.

  20. Photoinduced interactions of supramolecular ruthenium(II) complexes with plasmid DNA: synthesis and spectroscopic, electrochemical, and DNA photocleavage studies.

    Swavey, Shawn; DeBeer, Madeleine; Li, Kaiyu


    Two new bridging ligands have been synthesized by combining substituted benzaldehydes with phenanthrolinopyrrole (php), resulting in new polyazine bridging ligands. The ligands have been characterized by (1)H NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. These new ligands display π-π* transitions above 500 nm with modest molar absorptivities. Upon excitation at the ligand-centered charge-transfer transition, weak emission with a maximum wavelength of 612 nm is observed. When coordinated to two ruthenium(II) bis(bipyridyl) groups, the new bimetallic complexes generated give an overall 4+ charge. The electronic transitions of the bimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes display traditional π-π* transitions at 287 nm and metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions at 452 nm with molar absorptivities greater than 30000 M(-1) cm(-1). Oxidation of the ruthenium(II) metal centers to ruthenium(III) occurs at potentials above 1.4 V versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements indicate that the ruthenium(II) moieties behave independently. Both complexes are water-soluble and show the ability to photonick plasmid DNA when irradiated with low-energy light above 550 nm. In addition, one of the complexes, [Ru(bpy)2php]2Van(4+), shows the ability to linearize plasmid DNA and gives evidence, by gel electrophoresis, of photoinduced binding to plasmid DNA.


    Ren-ren Wang; Jia-qin Wang; Ce Luo; Zhe Zhang; Bi-tao Su; Zi-qiang Lei


    Polymer-supported ruthenium complexes (p)-Phen-Ru-①,(p)-Phen-Ru-②,(P)-Phen-Ru-③,(p)-Phen-Ru-④,morphological structures as supports.A variety of alcohols were oxidized efficiently into the corresponding ketones,carboxylic acids or aldehydes with iodosylbenzene (PhIO) catalyzed by aminomethyl polystyrene-supported ruthenium complexes under mild reaction conditions in acetonitrile.The influences of morphological structure of the polymer supporters on the catalytic properties of these metal complexes were investigated in detail.

  2. The effect of annealing temperature on the optical properties of a ruthenium complex thin film

    Ocakoglu, Kasim, E-mail: [Advanced Technology Research & Application Center, Mersin University, TR-33343, Yenisehir, Mersin (Turkey); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mersin University, TR-33480 Mersin (Turkey); Okur, Salih, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Izmir (Turkey); Aydin, Hasan [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Gulbahce Campus, 35430, Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Emen, Fatih Mehmet [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, TR-15030 Burdur (Turkey)


    The stability of the optical parameters of a ruthenium polypyridyl complex (Ru-PC K314) film under varying annealing temperatures between 278 K and 673 K was investigated. The ruthenium polypyridyl complex thin film was prepared on a quartz substrate by drop casting technique. The transmission of the film was recorded by using Ultraviolet/Visible/Near Infrared spectrophotometer and the optical band gap energy of the as-deposited film was determined around 2.20 eV. The optical parameters such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dielectric constant of the film were determined and the annealing effect on these parameters was investigated. The results show that Ru PC K314 film is quite stable up to 595 K, and the rate of the optical band gap energy change was found to be 5.23 × 10{sup −5} eV/K. Furthermore, the thermal analysis studies were carried out in the range 298–673 K. The Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermal Gravimmetry/Differantial Thermal Gravimmetry curves show that the decomposition is incomplete in the temperature range 298–673 K. Ru-PC K314 is thermally stable up to 387 K. The decomposition starts at 387 K with elimination of functional groups such as CO{sub 2}, CO molecules and SO{sub 3}H group was eliminated between 614 K and 666 K. - Highlights: • Optical parameters of a ruthenium polypyridyl complex film under varying annealing temperatures • The film is quite stable up to 573 K. • The rate of change of optical energy gap was obtained as 5.23 × 10{sup −5} eV/K.

  3. Zeolite-mediated photochemical charge separation using a surface-entrapped ruthenium-polypyridyl complex.

    Kim, Yanghee; Lee, Hyunjung; Dutta, Prabir K; Das, Amitava


    Employing the strategy of quaternization of the 2,2' N atoms of the conjugated bipyridine ligand 1,4-bis[2-(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyrid-4-yl)ethenyl]benzene (L), a polypyridyl complex of ruthenium(II) was tethered on the surface of zeolite Y. Electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the complex suggest that, upon visible photoexcitation of the MLCT band, the electron is localized on the conjugated ligand rather than the bipyridines. Electron transfer from the surface complex to bipyridinium ions (methyl viologen) within the zeolite was observed. Visible light photolysis of the ruthenium-zeolite solid ion-exchanged with diquat and suspended in a propyl viologen sulfonate solution led to permanent formation of the blue propyl viologen sulfonate radical ion in solution. The model that is proposed involves intrazeolitic charge transfer to ion-exchanged diquat followed by interfacial (zeolite to solution) electron transfer to propyl viologen sulfonate in solution. Because of the slow intramolecular back-electron-transfer reaction and the forward electron propagation via the ion-exchanged diquat, Ru(III) is formed. This Ru(III) complex formed on the zeolite is proposed to react rapidly with water in the presence of light, followed by reaction with the propyl viologen sulfonate, to form pyridones and regeneration of Ru(II), which then continues the photochemical process.

  4. Ruthenium(II) complexes as apoptosis inducers by stabilizing c-myc G-quadruplex DNA.

    Zhang, Zhao; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Fen-Yong; Chen, Lan-Mei; Chen, Jin-Chan; Yang, Shu-Ling; Mei, Wen-Jie


    Two ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(L)2(p-tFMPIP)](ClO4)2 (L = bpy, 1; phen, 2; p-tFMPIP = 2-(4-(trifluoromethyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10] phenanthroline)), were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis technology. The inhibitory activity evaluated by MTT assay shown that 2 can inhibit the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells with inhibitory activity (IC50) of 16.3 μM, which was related to the induction of apoptosis. Besides, 2 exhibit low toxicity against normal HAcat cells. The inhibitory growth activity of both complexes related to the induction of apoptosis was also confirmed. Furthermore, the studies on the interaction of both complexes with c-myc G4 DNA shown that 1 and 2 can stabilize the conformation of c-myc G4 DNA in groove binding mode, which has been rational explained by using DFT theoretical calculation methods. In a word, this type of ruthenium(II) complexes can act as potential apoptosis inducers with low toxicity in clinic by stabilizing c-myc G4 DNA.

  5. Synthesis and Reactivity of Ruthenium Phosphite Indenylidene Complexes

    Bantreil, Xavier; Poater, Albert; Urbina-Blanco, César A; Bidal, Yannick D.; Falivene, Laura; Randall, Rebecca A. M.; Cavallo, Luigi; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Cazin, Catherine S. J.


    The synthesis of the four olefin metathesis precatalysts Caz-1a-d, featuring the NHC ligand N,N'-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene (SIMes) and four different phosphites (P((OPr)-Pr-i)(3), P(OPh)(3), P(OEt)(3), and P(OMe)(3)), is reported. The complexes are readily synthesized from commercially available [RuCl2(3-phenylinden-1-ylidene)-(pyridine)(SIMes)] (Ind-III) in yields of up to 88%. These complexes adopt an unusual cis configuration between the phosphite and the NHC ligands. ...

  6. Synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization of a high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex

    L Giribabu; Vrun Kumar Singh; M Srinivasu; Ch Vijay Kumar; V Gopal Reddy; Y Soujnya; P Yella Reddy


    A new high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex (m-BL-1) that contains a 4,4'4"-tricaboxy-2,2':6’,2”-terpyridine, 4,4’-bis-[3,5-di-tert-butyl-phenyl)-vinyl]-[2,2']bipyridyl and a thiocyanate ligand in its molecular structure has been synthesized and completely characterized by CHN, Mass, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies as well as cyclic voltammetry. The new sensitizer was tested in dye-sensitized solar cells using three different redox electrolytes and compared its performance to that of standard sensitizer black dye.

  7. Electronic structures of ruthenium complexes encircling non-innocent ligand assembly

    Amit Das; Dipanwita Das; Tanaya Kundu; Goutam Kumar Lahiri


    Electronic structural forms of selected mononuclear and dinuclear ruthenium complexes encompassing redox non-innocent terminal as well as bridging ligands have been addressed. The sensitive valence and spin situations of the complexes have been established in the native and accessible redox states via detailed analysis of their crystal structures, electrochemistry, UV/VIS/NIR spectroelectrochemistry, EPR signatures at the paramagnetic states and DFT calculations. Mononuclear complexes exhibit significant variations in valence and spin distribution processes based on the simple modification of the non-innocent ligand frameworks as well as electronic nature of the co-ligands, -donating or -accepting. Dinuclear complexes with modified pyrazine, -quinone and azo-derived redox-active bridging ligands show complex features including redoxinduced electron-transfer (RIET), remote metal to metal spin-interaction in a three-spin metal-bridge-metal arrangement as well as electron-transfer driven chemical transformation (EC).

  8. Thermodestruction of complex sulfates of iridium and ruthenium in sulfate solutions at 100-180 deg C

    Sinitsyn, N.M.; Godzhiev, S.E.; Blagodatin, Yu.V. (Moskovskij Inst. Tonkoj Khimicheskoj Tekhnologii (USSR))


    Thermodestruction of iridium- and ruthenium complex sulfates in sulfate solutions is studied at 100-180 deg C depending on the solution acidity, hold time, element initial chemical form in the solution, salt background. The complex ruthenium sulfates are shown to be destroyed during high-temperature solution holding with the solid phase formation, the rate of platinum metal transfer into a precipitate increasing with the temperature, hold time and pH of the source solution. Depending on the initial chemical form the thermodestruction proceeds in various ways and leads to the formation of either hydroxides or solid phase ''proper'' of the platinium metal salt. A reduced tendency to high-temperature hydrolysis of complex ruthenium sulfates at the +3 oxidation level is noted.

  9. Antimetastatic activity of novel ruthenium (III) pyridine complexes

    Gu, Liwei; Li, Xiaodong; Ran, Qingsen; Kang, Chen; Lee, Canghai; Shen, Jianying


    Ruthenium‐based complexes have emerged as promising anticancer, especially antimetastatic agents. Among them, NAMI ‐A ( trans ‐[Ru( III )Cl 4 ( DMSO )(Im)][ImH], Im = imidazole, DMSO  = dimethyl sulfoxide) was well studied...

  10. Vibrational energy transfer dynamics in ruthenium polypyridine transition metal complexes.

    Fedoseeva, Marina; Delor, Milan; Parker, Simon C; Sazanovich, Igor V; Towrie, Michael; Parker, Anthony W; Weinstein, Julia A


    Understanding the dynamics of the initial stages of vibrational energy transfer in transition metal complexes is a challenging fundamental question which is also of crucial importance for many applications, such as improving the performance of solar devices or photocatalysis. The present study investigates vibrational energy transport in the ground and the electronic excited state of Ru(4,4'-(COOEt)2-2,2-bpy)2(NCS)2, a close relative of the efficient "N3" dye used in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the emerging technique of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, we show that, similarly to other transition-metal complexes, the central Ru heavy atom acts as a "bottleneck" making the energy transfer from small ligands with high energy vibrational stretching frequencies less favorable and thereby affecting the efficiency of vibrational energy flow in the complex. Comparison of the vibrational relaxation times in the electronic ground and excited state of Ru(4,4'-(COOEt)2-2,2-bpy)2(NCS)2 shows that it is dramatically faster in the latter. We propose to explain this observation by the intramolecular electrostatic interactions between the thiocyanate group and partially oxidised Ru metal center, which increase the degree of vibrational coupling between CN and Ru-N modes in the excited state thus reducing structural and thermodynamic barriers that slow down vibrational relaxation and energy transport in the electronic ground state. As a very similar behavior was earlier observed in another transition-metal complex, Re(4,4'-(COOEt)2-2,2'-bpy)(CO)3Cl, we suggest that this effect in vibrational energy dynamics might be common for transition-metal complexes with heavy central atoms.

  11. Bipyrimidine ruthenium(II) arene complexes: structure, reactivity and cytotoxicity.

    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Novakova, Olga; Deeth, Robert J; Pizarro, Ana M; Clarkson, Guy J; Liskova, Barbora; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J; Habtemariam, Abraha


    The synthesis and characterization of complexes [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N')X][PF(6)], where arene is para-cymene (p-cym), biphenyl (bip), ethyl benzoate (etb), hexamethylbenzene (hmb), indane (ind) or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (thn), N,N' is 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm) and X is Cl, Br or I, are reported, including the X-ray crystal structures of [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-etb)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)]. Complexes in which N,N' is 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophen) were studied for comparison. The Ru(II) arene complexes undergo ligand-exchange reactions in aqueous solution at 310 K; their half-lives for hydrolysis range from 14 to 715 min. Density functional theory calculations on [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Br][PF(6)], [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Br][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)] suggest that aquation occurs via an associative pathway and that the reaction is thermodynamically favourable when the leaving ligand is I > Br ≈ Cl. pK (a)* values for the aqua adducts of the complexes range from 6.9 to 7.32. A binding preference for 9-ethylguanine (9-EtG) compared with 9-ethyladenine (9-EtA) was observed for [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-hmb)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-ind)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-thn)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(phen)Cl](+) and [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bathophen)Cl](+) in aqueous solution at 310 K. The X-ray crystal structure of the guanine complex [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)(9-EtG-N7)][PF(6)](2) shows multiple hydrogen bonding. Density functional theory calculations show that the 9-EtG adducts of all complexes are thermodynamically preferred compared with those of 9-EtA. However, the bmp complexes are inactive towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. Calf thymus DNA interactions for [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-p

  12. Electronic Spectra of Bare and Solvated Ruthenium Polypyridine Complexes

    Xu, Shuang; Smith, James E. T.; Weber, J. Mathias


    We present work on a prototypical water oxidation catalyst, namely the aqua-complex [(bpy)(tpy)Ru-OH_2]2+ (2,2'-bpy = bipyridine, tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine), and its hydrated clusters [(bpy)(tpy)Ru-OH_2]2+ ·(H2O)_n, with n = 1 - 4. This complex is the starting species in a catalytic cycle for water oxidation. We couple electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with laser spectroscopy to circumvent challenges that arise in reactive solutions from speciation. Here, we report the electronic spectrum of [(bpy)(tpy)Ru-OH_2]2+ by photodissociation spectroscopy of mass selected, cryogenically prepared ions, and we examine effects of its microhydration environment on its electronic structure. In particular, we investigate the solvatochromic shift of the spectral envelope upon sequential addition of water molecules up to the tetrahydrate.

  13. New Ruthenium Complexes of Fullerene C60&C70


    The new complexes [Ru(NO)(PPh3)]2(η2-Cm)(m=60 1 or 70 2) have been prepared by heating a solution of C60(or C70) with [Ru(NO)2(PPh3)2] in toluene. They have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV/VIS, XPS, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The photovaltaic effect for the new compounds has been studied.

  14. Enhanced photovoltaic effect of ruthenium complex-modified graphene oxide with P-type conductivity

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail:; Bai, Huicong; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ying; Lin, Shen; Liu, Jian; Yang, Qi; Song, Xi-Ming, E-mail:


    A graphene oxide nanocomposite with bis(1,10-phenanthroline)(N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(4-methyl-2,2-bipyridine-4-yl) formamide) ruthenium (Ru(phen){sub 2}(bpy-NH{sub 2})(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}), a ruthenium complex, was synthesized by amidation reaction between amino group of the ruthenium complex and carboxyl group of GO. The as-prepared Ru(II)–GO composite was characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, surface photovoltage (SPV) spectrum and transient photovoltage (TPV) technology. This nanocomposite showed a typical p-type character and an enhanced photovoltaic effect at long timescale of about 3 × 10{sup −3} s compared to GO alone. A reversible rise/decay of the photocurrent in response to the on/off illumination step was also observed in a photoelectrochemical cell of the Ru(II)–GO composite. The photocurrent response of the Ru(II)–GO film was remarkably higher than that of GO film. Therefore, this Ru(II)–GO composite is believed to be a promising p-type photoelectric conversion material for further photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: • A new dye-sensitized graphene oxide nanocomposite was reported. • A photo-induced charge transfer process in this nanocomposite was confirmed. • This composite showed a typical p-type conductivity. • This composite showed an enhanced photovoltaic effect at a long timescale.

  15. New carboxy-functionalized terpyridines as precursors for zwitterionic ruthenium complexes for polymer-based solar cells

    Duprez, V.; Krebs, Frederik C


    New carboxy-terpyridines selectively functionalized at the 4-, 4'- and 4"-positions were prepared in a three-step procedure with good yields using, the Krohnke reaction followed by saponification. Their complexation with ruthenium led to symmetric and unsymmetric terpyridinyl zwitterionic complexes...

  16. Ruthenium polypyridyl complexes with anticancer properties : synthesis, characterization and mechanistic studies in search for structure-activity relationships

    Corral Simón, Eva


    The perfect anticancer drug would kill cancer cells without causing any harm to the surrounding healthy tissues. That ideal medicine is searched for in this thesis, in the form of a ruthenium coordination complex. Metal complexes are known to interact with DNA in several different modes, amongst whi

  17. The synthesis, lipophilicity and cytotoxic effects of new ruthenium(II) arene complexes with chromone derivatives.

    Pastuszko, Adam; Majchrzak, Kinga; Czyz, Malgorzata; Kupcewicz, Bogumiła; Budzisz, Elzbieta


    A series of arene ruthenium(II) complexes with the general formula [(η(6)-arene)Ru(L)X2] (where arene=p-cymene, benzene, hexamethylbenzene or mesitylene, L=aminoflavone or aminochromone derivatives and X=Cl, I) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, MS, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The stability of the selected complexes was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy in 24-hour period. The lipophilicity of the synthesized complexes was determined by the shake-flask method, and their cytotoxicity evaluated in vitro on patient-derived melanoma populations. The most active complexes against melanoma cells contain 7-aminoflavone and 6-aminoflavone as a ligand. The relationship between the cytotoxicity of all the obtained compounds and their logP values was determined and briefly analyzed with two different patterns observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Half-sandwich ruthenium, rhodium and iridium complexes of triazolopyridine ligand: Synthesis and structural studies



    Triazolopyridine ligand, {3-(2-pyridyl)-[1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]-pyridine}, L was synthesized by reaction of p-toulenesulphonyl hydrazine and dipyridyl ketone in the presence of acetic acid. Half-sandwich ruthenium, rhodium and iridium complexes [1–4] have been synthesized by reaction of [{(arene)MCl₂}₂] (arene= p-cymene/benzene/Cp* and M = Ru/Rh/Ir) with ligand L in methanol. The reaction in 1:2 (M:L) ratio has yielded all mononuclear cationic complexes such as [(arene)MLκ²N∩N Cl]PF₆, where {(arene)M} = (p-cym)Ru(1), (benz)Ru (2), Cp*Rh (3) and Cp*Ir (4). All the complexes were characterized by spectral studies and the solid state structures of complexes, 1 and 3 were unambiguously determined by crystallographic studies.

  19. Solution studies of the antitumor complex dichloro 1,2-propylendiaminetetraacetate ruthenium (III) and of its interactions with proteins.

    Gonzalez Vilchez, F; Vilaplana, R; Blasco, G; Messori, L


    A mixed complex of ruthenium (III) with 1,2-propylendiaminetetraacetate (PDTA) and chloride--RAP hereafter--has been found to exhibit favorable anticancer properties in vivo. To get some insight into the possible mechanism of action of this ruthenium (III) complex, its solution behavior and reactivity with proteins were investigated through absorption, circular dichroism and 1H NMR spectroscopies. Under physiological conditions RAP slowly looses the two coordinated chlorine atoms to produce a number of ruthenium (III) reactive species; a description of the distribution of these species on the dependence of pH has been obtained through 1H NMR studies of the hyperfine shifted signals. Remarkably, through the different solution conditions employed in this study, the ruthenium ion always remains in the 3+ oxidation state and the PDTA ligand is always bound to the metal. Upon reaction with albumin, apotransferrin or diferric transferrin, at a 1:1 ratio, RAP rapidly binds to these proteins to produce substantially equivalent and relatively stable adducts. This behavior is tentatively interpreted in terms of a tight interaction between RAP and surface residues of these proteins. The implications of these findings for the biological action of this novel ruthenium (III) compound are discussed.

  20. Conformations of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands in Ruthenium Complexes Relevant to Olefin Metathesis

    Stewart, Ian C.; Benitez, Diego; O'Leary, Daniel J.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Day, Michael W.; Goddard, William A.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    The structure of ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst 3 and model π-complex 5 in solution and in the solid state are reported. The N-tolyl ligands, due to their lower symmetry than the traditional N-mesityl substituents, complicate this analysis, but ultimately provide explanation for the enhanced reactivity of 3 relative to standard catalyst 2. The tilt of the N-tolyl ring provides additional space near the ruthenium center, which is consistent with the enhanced reactivity of 3 towards sterically demanding substrates. Due to this tilt, the more sterically accessible face bears the two methyl substituents of the N-aryl rings. These experimental studies are supported by computational studies of these complexes by DFT. The experimental data provides a means to validate the accuracy of the B3LYP and M06 functionals. B3LYP provides geometries that match X-ray crystal structural data more closely, though it leads to slightly less (∼0.5 kcal mol−1) accuracy than M06 most likely because it underestimates attractive non-covalent interactions. PMID:19146414

  1. X-Ray structure and cytotoxic activity of a picolinate ruthenium(II–arene complex



    Full Text Available A ruthenium(II–arene complex with picolinic acid, [(η6-p-cymeneRuCl(pico]∙H2O, was prepared by the reaction of [(η6-p-cymeneRuCl2]2 with picolinic acid in a 1:2 molar ratio in 2-propanol. The compound was characterized by elemental analysis, and IR and NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the molecule adopts a “three-leg piano-stool” geometry, which is common for this type of complexes. The cytotoxic activity of the complex was tested in two human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervix and FemX (melanoma by MTT assay. The IC50 values were at 82.0 and 36.2 µmol dm-3 for HeLa and FemX cells, respectively.

  2. RutheniumII Complexes bearing Fused Polycyclic Ligands: From Fundamental Aspects to Potential Applications

    Ludovic Troian-Gautier


    Full Text Available In this review, we first discuss the photophysics reported in the literature for mononuclear ruthenium complexes bearing ligands with extended aromaticity such as dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (DPPZ, tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]-phenazine (TPPHZ,  tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]acridine (TPAC, 1,10-phenanthrolino[5,6-b]1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene (PHEHAT 9,11,20,22-tetraaza- tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-l:2''',3'''-n]pentacene (TATPP, etc. Photophysical properties of binuclear and polynuclear complexes based on these extended ligands are then reported. We finally develop the use of binuclear complexes with extended π-systems for applications such as photocatalysis.

  3. Ruthenium(II) complexes containing bidentate Schiff bases and triphenylphosphine or triphenylarsine

    P Viswanathamurthi; R Karvembu; V Tharaneeswaran; K Natarajan


    Reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes [RuHX(CO)(EPh3)2(B)] (X = H or Cl; B = EPh3, pyridine (py) or piperidine (pip); E = P or As) with bidentate Schiff base ligands derived by condensing - hydroxyacetophenone with aniline, - or -methylaniline have been carried out. The products were characterized by analytical, IR, electronic and 1H-NMR spectral studies and are formulated as [Ru(X)(CO) (L)(EPh3)(B)] (L = Schiff base anion; X = H or Cl; B = EPh3, py or pip; E = P or As). An octahedral structure has been tentatively proposed for the new complexes. The new complexes were tested for their catalytic activities in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde.

  4. Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Ruthenium-Indenylidene Complexes for Olefin Metathesis: Microscale Experiments for the Undergraduate Inorganic or Organometallic Laboratories

    Pappenfus, Ted M.; Hermanson, David L.; Ekerholm, Daniel P.; Lilliquist, Stacie L.; Mekoli, Megan L.


    A series of experiments for undergraduate laboratory courses (e.g., inorganic, organometallic or advanced organic) have been developed. These experiments focus on understanding the design and catalytic activity of ruthenium-indenylidene complexes for olefin metathesis. Included in the experiments are the syntheses of two ruthenium-indenylidene…

  5. Hydrido-ruthenium cluster complexes as models for reactive surface hydrogen species of ruthenium nanoparticles. Solid-state 2H NMR and quantum chemical calculations.

    Gutmann, Torsten; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Yeping, Xu; Wächtler, Maria; del Rosal, Iker; Grünberg, Anna; Poteau, Romuald; Axet, Rosa; Lavigne, Guy; Chaudret, Bruno; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Buntkowsky, Gerd


    The (2)H quadrupolar interaction is a sensitive tool for the characterization of deuterium-metal binding states. In the present study, experimental solid-state (2)H MAS NMR techniques are used in the investigations of two ruthenium clusters, D(4)Ru(4)(CO)(12) (1) and D(2)Ru(6)(CO)(18) (2), which serve as model compounds for typical two-fold, three-fold, and octahedral coordination sites on metal surfaces. By line-shape analysis of the (2)H MAS NMR measurements of sample 1, a quadrupolar coupling constant of 67 +/- 1 kHz, an asymmetry parameter of 0.67 +/- 0.1, and an isotropic chemical shift of -17.4 ppm are obtained. In addition to the neutral complex, sample 2 includes two ionic clusters, identified as anionic [DRu(6)(CO)(18)](-) (2(-)) and cationic [D(3)Ru(6)(CO)(18)](+) (2(+)). By virtue of the very weak quadrupolar interaction (Quantum chemical DFT calculations at different model structures for these ruthenium clusters were arranged in order to help in the interpretation of the experimental results. It is shown that the (2)H nuclear quadrupolar interaction is a sensitive tool for distinguishing the binding state of the deuterons to the transition metal. Combining the data from the polynuclear complexes with the data from mononuclear complexes, a molecular ruler for quadrupolar interactions is created. This ruler now permits the solid-state NMR spectroscopic characterization of deuterium adsorbed on the surfaces of catalytically active metal nanoparticles.

  6. A trinuclear ruthenium complex as a highly efficient molecular catalyst for water oxidation.

    Zhang, L L; Gao, Y; Liu, Z; Ding, X; Yu, Z; Sun, L C


    A trinuclear ruthenium complex, 3, was designed and synthesized with the ligand 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid (bda) and we found that this complex could function as a highly efficient molecular catalyst for water oxidation in homogeneous systems. This trinuclear molecular water oxidation catalyst, 3, displayed much higher efficiencies in terms of turnover numbers and initial oxygen evolution rate than its counterparts, a binuclear catalyst, 2, and a mononuclear catalyst, 1, in both chemically driven and photochemically driven water oxidation based on either the whole catalytic molecules or just the active Ru centers. The reasons for the superior performance of catalyst 3 were discussed and we believe that multiple Ru centers in a single molecule are indeed beneficial for increasing the probability of the formation of O-O bonds through an intramolecular radical coupling pathway.

  7. Discovery of a highly tumor-selective organometallic ruthenium(II)-arene complex.

    Clavel, Catherine M; Păunescu, Emilia; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Griffioen, Arjan W; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J


    A ruthenium(II)-arene complex with a perfluoroalkyl-ligand was found to display remarkable selectivity toward cancer cells. IC50 values on several cancer cell lines are in the range of 25-45 μM, and no cytotoxic effect was observed on nontumorigenic (HEK-293) cells at concentrations up to 500 μM (the maximum concentration tested). Consequently, this complex was used as the basis for the development of a number of related derivatives, which were screened in cancerous and noncancerous cell lines. The lead compound was then evaluated in vivo for antiangiogenic activity in the CAM model and in a xenografted ovarian carcinoma tumor (A2780) grown on the CAM. A 90% reduction in the tumor growth was observed.

  8. Atmospheric Hydrogenation of Esters Catalyzed by PNP-Ruthenium Complexes with an N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand.

    Ogata, Osamu; Nakayama, Yuji; Nara, Hideki; Fujiwhara, Mitsuhiko; Kayaki, Yoshihito


    New pincer ruthenium complexes bearing a monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligand were synthesized and demonstrated as powerful hydrogenation catalysts. With an atmospheric pressure of hydrogen gas, aromatic, heteroaromatic, and aliphatic esters as well as lactones were converted into the corresponding alcohols at 50 °C. This reaction protocol offers reliable access to alcohols using an easy operational setup.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of bromothymol blue with Ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex in aqueous basic solution

    Fui, Mark Lee Wun; Hang, Ng Kim; Arifin, Khuzaimah; Minggu, Lorna Jeffery; Kassim, Mohammad Bin


    Ru(II) bipyridyl photocatalyst with the formula, [Ru(bpy)2(o-CH3-bzpypz)](PF6)2] (Ru01) and [Ru(bpy)2(o-Cl-bzpypz)](PF6)2] (Ru02), where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl, o-CH3-bzpypz = (3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)(o-tolyl)methanone and o-Cl-bzpypz = (2-chlorophenyl)(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methanone, has been successfully synthesized and characterized on the basis of C, H, N elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy. Both Ru(II) complexes showed Infrared stretching frequencies at 1742-1736 cm-1 v(C=O), 1605 cm-1 v(C=N) and 842-837 cm-1 v(PF). Full geometry optimization of the complex structures were carried out using DFT method with B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and 6-31G (d,p) basis-set for H, C, N, O and Cl; and LAN2LDZ basis set as effective core potential for the ruthenium centre. The highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of Ru01 and Ru02 are -5.63 and -5.55 eV, respectively. The photocatalytic properties of the Ru(II) complexes were evaluated by studying the degradation of aqueous bromothymol blue (BTB) under light illumination. The mechanisms are presented and discussed to highlight the role of the ruthenium complex in the degradation process.

  10. Formation, Isolation and Characterization of a New Ruthenium Complex in Reaction of Acetone Masked Terminal Alkynone with Transfer Hydrogenation Catalyst

    郭敏捷; 李到; 孙延辉; 成江; 张兆国


    Reaction of [1S,2S-(Ts-diphen)Ru(Ⅱ)(p-cymene)] (1S,2S-Ts-diphen= 1S,2S-N-tosyl-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine) and 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-non-3-yn-5-one under transfer hydrogenation condition gave a ruthenium complex bearing a 2,5-dihydrofuran moiety. The complex was characterized and a possible mechanism for the formation of the complex was proposed.

  11. Striking difference in antiproliferative activity of ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles.

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Gavriluta, Anatolie; Novak, Maria; Meier, Samuel M; Jakupec, Michael A; Cuzan, Olesea; Turta, Constantin; Tommasino, Jean-Bernard; Jeanneau, Erwann; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Luneau, Dominique; Arion, Vladimir B


    Ruthenium nitrosyl complexes of the general formulas (cation)(+)[cis-RuCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (Hind) (1c), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (Hpz) (2c), (cation)(+) = (H2bzim)(+), Hazole = 1H-benzimidazole (Hbzim) (3c), (cation)(+) = (H2im)(+), Hazole = 1H-imidazole (Him) (4c) and (cation)(+)[trans-RuCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (1t), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (2t), as well as osmium analogues of the general formulas (cation)(+)[cis-OsCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (n-Bu4N)(+), Hazole =1H-indazole (5c), 1H-pyrazole (6c), 1H-benzimidazole (7c), 1H-imidazole (8c), (cation)(+) = Na(+); Hazole =1H-indazole (9c), 1H-benzimidazole (10c), (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (11c), (cation)(+) = H2pz(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (12c), (cation)(+) = (H2im)(+), Hazole = 1H-imidazole (13c), and (cation)(+)[trans-OsCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = n-Bu4N(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (5t), 1H-pyrazole (6t), (cation)(+) = Na(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (9t), (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (11t), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (12t), have been synthesized. The compounds have been comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry, spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-vis, 1D and 2D NMR) and X-ray crystallography (1c·CHCl3, 1t·CHCl3, 2t, 3c, 6c, 6t, 8c). The antiproliferative activity of water-soluble compounds (1c, 1t, 3c, 4c and 9c, 9t, 10c, 11c, 11t, 12c, 12t, 13c) in the human cancer cell lines A549 (nonsmall cell lung carcinoma), CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), and SW480 (colon adenocarcinoma) has been assayed. The effects of metal (Ru vs Os), cis/trans isomerism, and azole heterocycle identity on cytotoxic potency and cell line selectivity have been elucidated. Ruthenium complexes (1c, 1t, 3c, and 4c) yielded IC50 values in the low micromolar concentration range. In contrast to most

  12. Spectroelectrochemical studies of hole percolation on functionalised nanocrystalline TiO2 films: a comparison of two different ruthenium complexes.

    Li, Xiaoe; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Barnes, Piers R F; Vilar, Ramón; Durrant, James R


    We report the application of spectroelectrochemical techniques to compare the hole percolation dynamics of molecular networks of two ruthenium bipyridyl complexes adsorbed onto mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO(2) films. The percolation dynamics of the ruthenium complex cis-di(thiocyanato)(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-tridecyl) ruthenium(II), N621, is compared with those observed for an analogous dye with an additional tri-phenyl amine (TPA) donor moiety, cis-di(thiocyanato)(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-bis(vinyltriphenylamine)) ruthenium(II), HW456. The in situ oxidation of these ruthenium complexes adsorbed to the TiO(2) films is monitored by cyclic voltammetry and voltabsorptometry, whilst the dynamics of hole (cation) percolation between adsorbed ruthenium complexes is monitored by potentiometric spectroelectrochemistry and chronoabsorptometry. The hole diffusion coefficient, D(eff), is shown to be dependent on the dye loading on the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film, with a threshold observed at ∼60% monolayer surface coverage for both dyes. The hole diffusion coefficient of HW456 is estimated to be 2.6 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s, 20-fold higher than that obtained for the control N621, attributed to stronger electronic coupling between the TPA moieties of HW456 accelerating the hole percolation dynamics. The presence of mercuric ions, previously shown to bind to the thiocyanates of analogous ruthenium complexes, resulted in a quenching of the hole percolation for N621/TiO(2) films and an enhancement for HW456/TiO(2) films. These results strongly suggest that the hole percolation pathway is along the overlapped neighbouring -NCS groups for the N621 molecules, whereas in HW456 molecules cation percolation proceeds between intermolecular TPA ligands. These results are discussed in the context of their relevance to the process of dye regeneration in dye sensitised solar cells, and to the molecular wiring of wide

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation properties of ONO/ONS donor Schiff base ruthenium(III) complexes containing PPh3/AsPh3

    Priyarega; M Muthu Tamizh; R Karvembu; R Prabhakaran; K Natarajan


    Six different ruthenium(III) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and -aminophenol/-aminothiophenol have been synthesized. The compounds with the general formula [RuX(EPh3)2(L)] (X = Cl or Br; E = P or As; L = bifunctional tridentate ONO/ONS donor Schiff base ligand) were characterized by infrared, electronic, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analyses. Spectroscopic investigation reveals coordination of Schiff base ligand through ONO/ONS donor atoms and octahedral geometry around ruthenium metal. Redox property of complexes has been examined by using cyclic voltammetry. The catalytic oxidation property of ruthenium(III) complexes were also investigated.

  14. Organic-Ruthenium(II Polypyridyl Complex Based Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    Lingamallu Giribabu


    Full Text Available A new high molar extinction coefficient organic-ruthenium(II polypyridyl complex sensitizer (RD-Cou that contains 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-9-thiophene-2-yl-2,3,5,6,6a,11c-hexahydro1H,4H-11oxa-3a-aza-benzoanthracene-10-one as extended -conjugation of ancillary bipyridine ligand, 4,4-dicaboxy-2,26,2-bipyridine, and a thiocyanate ligand in its molecular structure has been synthesized and completely characterized by CHN, Mass, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies as well as cyclic voltammetry. The new sensitizer was tested in dye-sensitized solar cells using a durable redox electrolyte and compared its performance to that of standard sensitizer Z-907.

  15. Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid Catalyzed by a Ruthenium Complex with an N,N′-Diimine Ligand

    Guan, Chao


    We report a ruthenium complex containing an N,N′-diimine ligand for the selective decomposition of formic acid to H and CO in water in the absence of any organic additives. A turnover frequency of 12000 h and a turnover number of 350 000 at 90 °C were achieved in the HCOOH/HCOONa aqueous solution. Efficient production of high-pressure H and CO (24.0 MPa (3480 psi)) was achieved through the decomposition of formic acid with no formation of CO. Mechanistic studies by NMR and DFT calculations indicate that there may be two competitive pathways for the key hydride transfer rate-determining step in the catalytic process.

  16. Preparation, spectroscopy, EXAFS, electrochemistry and pharmacology of new ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing ferrocenylthiosemicarbazone and triphenylphosphine/arsine

    Prabhakaran, R.; Anantharaman, S.; Thilagavathi, M.; Kaveri, M. V.; Kalaivani, P.; Karvembu, R.; Dharmaraj, N.; Bertagnolli, H.; Dallemer, F.; Natarajan, K.


    A new series of new hetero-bimetallic complexes containing iron and ruthenium of the general formula [RuCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3)(L)] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip; L = ferrocene derived monobasic bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand) have been synthesized by the reaction between ferrocene-derived thiosemicarbazones and ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [RuHCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3) 2] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip). The new complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, electronic, NMR ( 1H, 13C and 31P), EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy) and cyclic voltammetric techniques. Antibacterial activity of the new complexes has been screened against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species.

  17. Controlling the binding of dihydrogen using ruthenium complexes containing N-mono-functionalised 1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligand systems.

    Gott, Andrew L; McGowan, Patrick C; Podesta, Thomas J


    Pendant arm macrocycles derived from 1,4,7-triazacyclononane were reacted with RuHCl(CO)(PPh(3))(3) and RuHCl(PPh(3))(3) to yield air-stable cationic ruthenium hydrides that were characterised by a variety of techniques, including X-ray crystallography. Protonation of the metal hydride complexes with a proton source yielded eta(2)-dihydrogen complexes. The lifetime of the dihydrogen ligand was effected by a judicious choice of ancillary ligands.

  18. Highly efficient oxidation of alcohols using Oxone(R) as oxidant catalyzed by ruthenium complex under mild reaction conditions

    Zi Qiang Lei; Jian Qiang Wang; Peng Hua Yan


    Aromatic and alkyl alcohols were oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones at room temperature with high conversion and selectivity using Oxone (2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4) as oxidant catalyzed by ruthenium complex Quin-Ru-Quin (where Quin = 8-hydroxyquinoline). The reaction time is very short and the preparation of complex is simple. 2008 Zi Qiang Lei. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis, characterization luminiscence studies and microbial activity of ethylenediamine ruthenium (II) complexes with dipyridophenazine ligands.

    Shilpa, Mynam; Nagababu, Penumaka; Kumar, Y Praveen; Latha, J Naveena Lavanya; Reddy, M Rajender; Karthikeyan, K S; Gabra, Nazar Md; Satyanarayana, Sirasani


    Three symmetric ligands 7-methyl dipyrido-[3,2-a;2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz-CH(3)), 7-nitro dipyrido-[3,2-a;2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz-NO(2)) and benzo[i]dipyrido-[3,2-a;2',3'-c]phenazine (dppn) and their ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(en)(2)(L)][ClO(4)](2) (en= ethylenediamine), L= dppz-CH(3), dppz-NO(2) and dppn have been synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and Mass spectra. The interactions of these complexes with calf thymus DNA have been investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, circular dichroism, viscosity and thermal denaturation studies. As the planar extension of the intercalative ligand increases, the interaction of the complex with DNA increases, indicating that the size and shape of the intercalalative ligand has a marked effect on the strength of interaction. The plot of log K versus log [Na(+)] yield a slope of -1.26, -1.53, -1.60 for the complexes 1, 2 and 3 respectively. These three complexes have been found to promote the cleavage of plasmid pBR 322 DNA upon irradiation.

  20. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing chalconates and triphenylphosphine/arsine

    P Viswanathamurthi; M Muthukumar


    A series of new hexa-coordinated ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(EPh3)(B)(L1−4)] (4-15) (E = P or As; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py; L = 2'-hydroxychalcone) were synthesized from the reaction of [RuHCl(CO)(EPh3)2(B)] (1-3) (E = P or As; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py) with equimolar chalcone in benzene under reflux. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic (IR, electronic, 1H, 31P{1H}, and 13C NMR) methods. On the basis of data obtained, an octahedral structure has been assigned for all the complexes. The complexes exhibit catalytic activity for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of -methylmorpholine--oxide (NMO) as co-oxidant and were also found to be efficient transfer hydrogenation catalysts. The antifungal properties of the ligands and their complexes have also been examined and compared with standard Bavistin.

  1. Density functional theory studies of interactions of ruthenium-arene complexes with base pair steps.

    Mutter, Shaun T; Platts, James A


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to determine the strength and geometry of intermolecular interactions of "piano-stool" ruthenium arene complexes, which show potential as anticancer treatments. Model complexes with methane and benzene indicate that the coordinated arene has C-H···π acceptor ability similar to that of free benzene, whereas this arene acts as a much stronger C-H donor or partner in π-stacking than free benzene. The source of these enhanced interactions is identified as a combination of electrostatic and dispersion effects. Complexes of Ru-arene complexes with base-pair step fragments of DNA, in which the arene has the potential to act as an intercalator, have also been investigated. Binding energies are found to be sensitive to the size and nature of the arene, with larger and more flexible arenes having stronger binding. π-stacking and C-H···π interactions between arene and DNA bases and hydrogen bonds from coordinated N-H to DNA oxygen atoms, as well as covalent Ru-N bonding, contribute to the overall binding. The effect of complexation on DNA structure is also examined, with larger rise and more negative slide values than canonical B-DNA observed in all cases.

  2. NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin

    Danielle C. A. S. de Santana


    Full Text Available Ruthenium (Ru complexes have been studied as promising anticancer agents. Ru nitrosyl complex (Ru-NO is one which acts as a pro-drug for the release of nitric oxide (NO. The Ru-aqueous complex formed by the exchange of NO for a water molecule after NO release could also possess therapeutic effects. This study evaluates the influence of iontophoresis on enhancing the skin penetration of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous and assesses its applicability as a tool in treating diverse skin diseases. Passive and iontophoretic (0.5 mA·cm−2 skin permeation of the complexes were performed for 4 h. The amount of Ru and NO in the stratum corneum (SC, viable epidermis (VE, and receptor solution was quantified while the influence of iontophoresis and irradiation on NO release from Ru-NO complex was also evaluated. Iontophoresis increased the amount of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous recovered from the receptor solution by 15 and 400 times, respectively, as compared to passive permeation. Iontophoresis produced a higher accumulation of Ru-aqueous in the skin layers as compared to Ru-NO. At least 50% of Ru-NO penetrated the SC was stable after 4 h. The presence of Ru-NO in this skin layer suggests that further controlled release of NO can be achieved by photo-stimulation after iontophoresis.

  3. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Ahmad, Haslina; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Harun, Siti Norain


    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+, (bpy = 2,2'bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  4. Ruthenium complexes with chiral tetradentate PNNP ligands: asymmetric catalysis from the viewpoint of inorganic chemistry.

    Mezzetti, Antonio


    This is a personal account of the application of ruthenium complexes containing chiral tetradentate ligands with a P(2)N(2) ligand set (PNNP) as catalyst precursors for enantioselective "atom transfer" reactions. Therewith are meant reactions that involve bond formation between a metal-coordinated molecule and a free reagent. The reactive fragment (e.g. carbene) is transferred either from the metal to the non-coordinated substrate (e.g. olefin) or from the free reagent (e.g. F(+)) to the metal-bound substrate (e.g.beta-ketoester), depending on the class of catalyst (monocationic, Class A; or dicationic, Class B). The monocationic five-coordinate species [RuCl(PNNP)](+) and the six-coordinate complexes [RuCl(L)(PNNP)](+) (L = Et(2)O, H(2)O) of Class A catalyse asymmetric epoxidation, cyclopropanation (carbene transfer from the metal to the free olefin), and imine aziridination. Alternatively, the dicationic complexes [Ru(L-L)(PNNP)](2+) (Class B), which contain substrates that act as neutral bidentate ligands L-L (e.g., beta-ketoesters), catalyse Michael addition, electrophilic fluorination, and hydroxylation reactions. Additionally, unsaturated beta-ketoesters form dicationic complexes of Class B that catalyse Diels-Alder reactions with acyclic dienes to produce tetrahydro-1-indanones and estrone derivatives. Excellent enantioselectivity has been achieved in several of the catalytic reactions mentioned above. The study of key reaction intermediates (both in the solid state and in solution) has revealed significant mechanistic aspects of the catalytic reactions.

  5. Ruthenium (II) complexes of thiosemicarbazone: Synthesis, biosensor applications and evaluation as antimicrobial agents

    Yildirim, Hatice [Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Guler, Emine [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Yavuz, Murat, E-mail: [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Dicle University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey); Ozturk, Nurdan; Kose Yaman, Pelin [Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Subasi, Elif; Sahin, Elif [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Timur, Suna [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ege University, Institute on Drug Abuse, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science (BATI), 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)


    A conformationally rigid half-sandwich organoruthenium (II) complex [(η{sup 6}-p-cymene)RuClTSC{sup N–S}]Cl, (1) and carbonyl complex [Ru(CO)Cl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}TSC{sup N–S}] (2) have been synthesized from the reaction of [{(η"6-p-cymene)RuCl}{sub 2}(μ-Cl){sub 2}] and [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}] with thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazon (TSC) respectively and both novel ruthenium (II) complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The peripheral TSC in the complexes acts as an electrochemical coupling unit providing the ability to carry out electrochemical deposition (ED) and to form an electro-deposited film on a graphite electrode surface. The biosensing applicability of complexes 1 and 2 was investigated by using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme. Electrochemical measurements at − 0.9 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode by following the ED Ru(II) reduction/oxidation due to from the enzyme activity, in the presence of glucose substrate. The designed biosensor showed a very good linearity for 0.01–0.5 mM glucose. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of complexes 1 and 2 were also investigated against nine bacterial strains and one fungus by the disc diffusion test method. No activity was observed against the Gram-negative strains and fungus, whereas complex 1 showed moderate antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains. - Highlights: • Novel Ru (II) thiosemicarbazone complexes were synthesized and characterized. • Electrochemical depositions were performed. • Rigid half-sandwich Ru (II) complex showed enhanced antibacterial activity.

  6. Ruthenium complexes of chelating amido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: Synthesis, structure and DFT studies

    Sachin Kumar; Anantha Narayanan; Mitta Nageswar Rao; Mobin M Shaikh; Prasenjit Ghosh


    Synthesis, structure and density functional theory (DFT) studies of a series of new ruthenium complexes, [1-(R)-3--(benzylacetamido)imidazol-2-ylidene]RuCl(-cymene) [R = Me (1c), -Pr (2c), CH2Ph (3c); -cymene = 4--propyltoluene] supported over /-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are reported. In particular, the ruthenium (1-3)c complexes were synthesized from the respective silver complexes, [1-(R)-3--(benzylacetamido)imidazol-2-ylidene]2Ag+Cl− [R = Me (1b), -Pr (2b), CH2Ph (3b)] by the treatment with [Ru(-cymene)Cl2]2 in 65-76% yields. The molecular structures of (1-3)c revealed the chelation of the N-heterocylic carbene ligand through the carbene center and an amido sidearm of the ligand in all of the three complexes. The density functional theory studies on the ruthenium (1-3)c complexes indicated strong binding of the NHC ligand to the metal center as was observed from the deeply buried NHC-Ru -bonding molecular orbitals.

  7. Arene ruthenium(II) azido complexes incorporating N intersection O chelate ligands: Synthesis, spectral studies and 1,3-dipolar-cycloaddition to a coordinated azide in ruthenium(II) compounds

    Singh, K.S.; Kaminsky, W.

    Synthesis of (η6-arene) ruthenium (II) complexes has attracted considerable attention owing to their anti-cancer [1-3], antiviral [4] and catalytic properties [5-7]. The catalytic activities of these complexes range from hydrogen transfer to ring closing...

  8. Electrochemical Instability of Phosphonate-Derivatized, Ruthenium(III) Polypyridyl Complexes on Metal Oxide Surfaces.

    Hyde, Jacob T; Hanson, Kenneth; Vannucci, Aaron K; Lapides, Alexander M; Alibabaei, Leila; Norris, Michael R; Meyer, Thomas J; Harrison, Daniel P


    The oxidative stability of the molecular components of dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells for solar water splitting remains to be explored systematically. We report here the results of an electrochemical study on the oxidative stability of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes surface-bound to fluorine-doped tin oxide electrodes in acidic solutions and, to a lesser extent, as a function of pH and solvent with electrochemical monitoring. Desorption occurs for the Ru(II) forms of the surface-bound complexes with oxidation to Ru(III) enhancing both desorption and decomposition. Based on the results of long-term potential hold experiments with cyclic voltammetry monitoring, electrochemical oxidation to Ru(III) results in slow decomposition of the complex by 2,2'-bipyridine ligand loss and aquation and/or anation. A similar pattern of ligand loss was also observed for a known chromophore-catalyst assembly for both electrochemical water oxidation and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Our results are significant in identifying the importance of enhancing chromophore stability, or at least transient stability, in oxidized forms in order to achieve stable performance in aqueous environments in photoelectrochemical devices.

  9. Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes: synthesis, spectral study and catalytic applications.

    Manikandan, R; Viswanathamurthi, P; Muthukumar, M


    Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(B)(L)] (were B=PPh(3), AsPh(3) or Py; L=hydrazone Schiff base ligands) were synthesized from the reactions of hydrazone Schiff base ligand (obtained from isonicotinoylhydrazide and different hydroxy aldehydes) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh(3))(2)(B)] (where E=P or As; B=PPh(3), AsPh(3) or Py) in 1:1 molar ratio. All the new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, electronic, (1)H, (13)C and (31)P NMR) data. They have been tentatively assigned an octahedral structure. The synthesized complexes have exhibited catalytic activity for oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone in the presence of N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMO) as co-oxidant. They were also found to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of aliphatic and aromatic ketones to alcohols in KOH/Isopropanol.

  10. Excited state decay of cyclometalated polypyridine ruthenium complexes: insight from theory and experiment.

    Kreitner, Christoph; Heinze, Katja


    Deactivation pathways of the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) excited state of cyclometalated polypyridine ruthenium complexes with [RuN5C](+) coordination are discussed on the basis of the available experimental data and a series of density functional theory calculations. Three different complex classes are considered, namely with [Ru(N^N)2(N^C)](+), [Ru(N^N^N)(N^C^N)](+) and [Ru(N^N^N)(N^N^C)](+) coordination modes. Excited state deactivation in these complex types proceeds via five distinct decay channels. Vibronic coupling of the (3)MLCT state to high-energy oscillators of the singlet ground state ((1)GS) allows tunneling to the ground state followed by vibrational relaxation (path A). A ligand field excited state ((3)MC) is thermally accessible via a (3)MLCT →(3)MC transition state with the (3)MC state being strongly coupled to the (1)GS surface via a low-energy minimum energy crossing point (path B). Furthermore, a (3)MLCT →(1)GS surface crossing point directly couples the triplet and singlet potential energy surfaces (path C). Charge transfer states either with higher singlet character or with different orbital parentage and intrinsic symmetry restrictions are thermally populated which promote non-radiative decay via tunneling to the (1)GS state (path D). Finally, the excited state can decay via phosphorescence (path E). The dominant deactivation pathways differ for the three individual complex classes. The implications of these findings for isoelectronic iridium(iii) or iron(ii) complexes are discussed. Ultimately, strategies for optimizing the emission efficiencies of cyclometalated polypyridine complexes of d(6)-metal ions, especially Ru(II), are suggested.

  11. Studies of the Antiproliferative Activity of Ruthenium (II) Cyclopentadienyl-Derived Complexes with Nitrogen Coordinated Ligands

    Moreno, Virtudes; Lorenzo, Julia; Aviles, Francesc X.; Garcia, M. Helena; Ribeiro, João P.; Morais, Tânia S.; Florindo, Pedro; Robalo, M. Paula


    Four cationic ruthenium(II) complexes with the formula [Ru(η5-C5H5)(PPh3)2]+, with L = 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (TzH) 1, imidazole (ImH) 2, benzo[1,2-b;4,3-b′] dithio-phen-2-carbonitrile (Bzt) 3, and [5-(2-thiophen-2-yl)-vinyl]-thiophene-2-carbonitrile] (Tvt) 4 were prepared and characterized in view to evaluate their potentialities as antitumor agents. Studies by Circular Dichroism indicated changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA. Changes in the tertiary structure of pBR322 plasmid DNA were also observed in gel electrophoresis experiment and the images obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) suggest strong interaction with pBR322 plasmid DNA; the observed decreasing of the viscosity with time indicates that the complexes do not intercalate between DNA base pairs. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed much higher cytotoxicity than the cisplatin against human leukaemia cancer cells (HL-60 cells). PMID:20689715

  12. Synthesis and spectral and redox properties of three triply bridged complexes of ruthenium

    Llobet, A.; Curry, M.E.; Evans, H.T.; Meyer, T.J.


    Syntheses are described for the ligand-bridged complexes [(tpm)RuIII(??-O)(??-L)2RuIII(tpm) n+ (L = O2P(O)(OH), n = 0 (1); L = O2CO, n = 0 (2); L = O2CCH3, n = 2 (3); tpm is the tridentate, facial ligand tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane. The X-ray crystal structure of [(tpm)Ru(??-O)(??-O2P(O)(OH))2Ru(tpm)]??8H 2O was determined from three-dimensional X-ray counter data. The complex crystallizes in the trigonal space group P3221 with three molecules in a cell of dimensions a = 18.759 (4) A?? and c = 9.970 (6) A??. The structure was refined to a weighted R factor of 0.042 based on 1480 independent reflections with I ??? 3??(I). The structure reveals that the complex consists of two six-coordinate ruthenium atoms that are joined by a ??-oxo bridge (rRU-O = 1.87 A??; ???RuORu = 124.6??) and two ??-hydrogen phosphato bridges (average rRu-O = 2.07 A??) which are capped by two tpm ligands. The results of cyclic voltammetric and coulometric experiments show that the complexes undergo both oxidative and reductive processes in solution. Upon reduction, the ligand-bridged structure is lost and the monomer [(tpm)Ru(H2O)3]2+ appears quantitatively. All three complexes are diamagnetic in solution. The diamagnetism is a consequence of strong electronic coupling between the low-spin d5 Ru(III) metal ions through the oxo bridge and the relatively small Ru-O-Ru angle. ?? 1989 American Chemical Society.

  13. The Intramolecular Spin-Spin Interactions in Ruthenium Complexes of Pyrazole Derivatives

    Peter A.Aj ibade


    The spin-spin coupling can provide useful information for analysing the structure of a system and the extent of non-covalent bonds interactions.In this study,we present the isotropic NMR properties and spin-spin coupling involving ruthenium-ligand (Ru-L)bonds and other spin-spin interactions obtained from DFT calculations.The proton shift which in close proximity with the Ru and Cl (or O)atoms are characterised with lower and higher chemical shift respectively.Though Ru-Cl bond has longer bond length than all other Ru-L bonds,yet its spin-spin coupling is higher than others because of a very high contribution of PSO which is far higher than the contribution from FC terms.In all other Ru-L bonds,FC is the most significant Ramsey terms that define their spin-spin coupling.Both the isotropic and anisotropic shielding of the Hz of the pyrazole is lower than Hc of the cymene and the spin-spin coupling 3 J(Hz…Hz)of the pyrazole are less than half of the 3 J (Hc…Hc)of the cymene unit in the complexes.There is a little increase in both the 3 J(Hc…Hc)and 3 J(Hz…Hz)spin-spin coupling in the hydrolysed complexes compare to the non-hydrolysed complexes.The isotropic and anisotropic shielding tensor of Ru atoms increases in magnitude as the complexes get hydrolysed that could be ascribed to a more deshielding chemical environments.

  14. Thermodynamic and structural study of phenanthroline derivative ruthenium complex/DNA interactions: probing partial intercalation and binding properties.

    Grueso, E; López-Pérez, G; Castellano, M; Prado-Gotor, R


    The binding of [Ru(PDTA-H(2))(phen)]Cl (PDTA = propylene-1,2-diaminetetra-acetic acid; phen = 1,10 phenanthroline) with ctDNA (=calf thymus DNA) has been investigated through intrinsic and induced circular dichroism, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies, steady-state fluorescence, thermal denaturation technique, viscosity and electrochemical measurements. The latter indicate that the cathodic and anodic peak potentials of the ruthenium complex shift to more positive values on increasing the DNA concentration, this behavior being a direct consequence of the interaction of both the reduced and oxidized form with DNA binding. From spectrophotometric titration experiments, the equilibrium binding constant and the number of monomer units of the polymer involved in the binding of one ruthenium molecule (site size) have been quantified. The intrinsic circular dichroism (CD) spectra show an unwinding and a conformational change of the DNA helix upon interaction of the ruthenium complex. Quenching process, thermal denaturation experiments and induced circular dichroism (ICD) are consistent with a partial intercalative binding mode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carboxylate-Assisted C(sp3)–H Activation in Olefin Metathesis-Relevant Ruthenium Complexes


    The mechanism of C–H activation at metathesis-relevant ruthenium(II) benzylidene complexes was studied both experimentally and computationally. Synthesis of a ruthenium dicarboxylate at a low temperature allowed for direct observation of the C–H activation step, independent of the initial anionic ligand-exchange reactions. A first-order reaction supports an intramolecular concerted metalation–deprotonation mechanism with ΔG⧧298K = 22.2 ± 0.1 kcal·mol–1 for the parent N-adamantyl-N′-mesityl complex. An experimentally determined ΔS⧧ = −5.2 ± 2.6 eu supports a highly ordered transition state for carboxylate-assisted C(sp3)–H activation. Experimental results, including measurement of a large primary kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD = 8.1 ± 1.7), agree closely with a computed six-membered carboxylate-assisted C–H activation mechanism where the deprotonating carboxylate adopts a pseudo-apical geometry, displacing the aryl ether chelate. The rate of cyclometalation was found to be influenced by both the electronics of the assisting carboxylate and the ruthenium ligand environment. PMID:24731019

  16. Characterisation and application of new carboxylic acid-functionalised ruthenium complexes as dye-sensitisers for solar cells

    Duprez, Virginie; Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C


    A series of ruthenium complexes with and without TiO2, anchoring carboxylic acid groups have been synthesised and characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV-vis and luminescence. These complexes were adsorbed on thin films of the wide band-gap semiconductor anatase and were tested a......',2"] terpyridine-4'-carboxylic acid with a maximum output power similar to 0.016mWcm(-2) under illumination at 100mWcm(-2) AM1.5 and efficiencies 3 times higher than the symmetric complexes. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. A tetranuclear ruthenium complex with bridging pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylato ligands forming a square metallamacrocycle

    Xie, Yu-Feng; Jia, Ai-Quan; Zhu, Hang; Shi, Hua-Tian; Zhang, Qian-Feng [Anhui Univ. of Technology (China). Inst. of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry


    Treatment of [RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}] with equimolar amounts of 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-dipicH{sub 2}) in the presence of Et{sub 3}N afforded a tetranuclear complex [Ru(μ-2,4-dipic)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 4} (1) as red crystals. The crystal and molecular structure of [Ru(μ-2,4-dipic)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 4}.CHCl{sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (1.CHCl{sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Each ruthenium center in 1 is six-coordinated with two phosphorus atoms from triphenylphosphine ligands, one nitrogen atom from a pyridyl moiety and three oxygen atoms from two 2,4-dipic{sup 2-} ligands. 2,4-Pyridinedicarboxylate dianions (2,4-dipic{sup 2-}) act as bridging ligands to form the stable tetranuclear metallamacrocyclic compound. The electrochemical properties of 1 were also investigated.

  18. Assemblies composed of oligothiophene–ruthenium complexes bound to CdSe nanoparticles

    Bair, Nathan; Hancock, Jared M.; Simonson, Cameron J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Thalman, Scott W.; Colton, John S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Asplund, Matthew C. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Harrison, Roger G., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)


    Molecular conjugates are important to link light sensitized materials to electron acceptors. We have synthesized oligothiophenes and oligothiophene–ruthenium complexes and bound them to CdSe nanoparticles. The absorption and fluorescence properties of the oligothiophenes bound to CdSe were measured. Steady-state luminescence and time correlated single photon counting were used to observe the effects on fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes before and after binding. It was found that fluorescence of CdSe nanoparticles was quenched when they were bound to the oligothiophenes, and that the fluorescence of the oligothiophenes was also quenched. The fluorescence lifetimes of the quenched species were shortened and suggest electron transfer from oligothiophene to nanoparticle is on the order of one nanosecond. Orbital energy calculations predict that the Ru bound oligothiophenes have HOMO–LUMO energies of correct energy to allow electron and hole transfer. These experiments show that the oligothiophenes efficiently transfer optical energy between CdSe nanoparticles and could potentially be used as charge transfer junctions. - Highlights: • Ru bound thiophenes attached to CdSe nanoparticles. • Luminescence quenching of CdSe nanoparticles. • Molecular conjugates for photosensitized materials.

  19. Mechanism of Water Oxidation Catalyzed by a Dinuclear Ruthenium Complex Bridged by Anthraquinone

    Tohru Wada


    Full Text Available We synthesized 1,8-bis(2,2′:6′,2″-terpyrid-4′-ylanthraquinone (btpyaq as a new dimerizing ligand and determined its single crystal structure by X-ray analysis. The dinuclear Ruthenium complex [Ru2(µ-Cl(bpy2(btpyaq](BF43 ([3](BF43, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine was used as a catalyst for water oxidation to oxygen with (NH42[Ce(NO36] as the oxidant (turnover numbers = 248. The initial reaction rate of oxygen evolution was directly proportional to the concentration of the catalyst and independent of the oxidant concentration. The cyclic voltammogram of [3](BF43 in water at pH 1.3 showed an irreversible catalytic current above +1.6 V (vs. SCE, with two quasi-reversible waves and one irreversible wave at E1/2 = +0.62, +0.82 V, and Epa = +1.13 V, respectively. UV-vis and Raman spectra of [3](BF43 with controlled-potential electrolysis at +1.40 V revealed that [Ru(IV=O O=Ru(IV]4+ is stable under electrolysis conditions. [Ru(III, Ru(II] species are recovered after dissociation of an oxygen molecule from the active species in the catalytic cycle. These results clearly indicate that an O–O bond is formed via [Ru(V=O O=Ru(IV]5+.

  20. Water oxidation chemistry of a synthetic dinuclear ruthenium complex containing redox-active quinone ligands.

    Isobe, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Koji; Shen, Jian-Ren; Yamaguchi, Kizashi


    We investigated theoretically the catalytic mechanism of electrochemical water oxidation in aqueous solution by a dinuclear ruthenium complex containing redox-active quinone ligands, [Ru2(X)(Y)(3,6-tBu2Q)2(btpyan)](m+) [X, Y = H2O, OH, O, O2; 3,6-tBu2Q = 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone; btpyan =1,8-bis(2,2':6',2″-terpyrid-4'-yl)anthracene] (m = 2, 3, 4) (1). The reaction involves a series of electron and proton transfers to achieve redox leveling, with intervening chemical transformations in a mesh scheme, and the entire molecular structure and motion of the catalyst 1 work together to drive the catalytic cycle for water oxidation. Two substrate water molecules can bind to 1 with simultaneous loss of one or two proton(s), which allows pH-dependent variability in the proportion of substrate-bound structures and following pathways for oxidative activation of the aqua/hydroxo ligands at low thermodynamic and kinetic costs. The resulting bis-oxo intermediates then undergo endothermic O-O radical coupling between two Ru(III)-O(•) units in an anti-coplanar conformation leading to bridged μ-peroxo or μ-superoxo intermediates. The μ-superoxo species can liberate oxygen with the necessity for the preceding binding of a water molecule, which is possible only after four-electron oxidation is completed. The magnitude of catalytic current would be limited by the inherent sluggishness of the hinge-like bending motion of the bridged μ-superoxo complex that opens up the compact, hydrophobic active site of the catalyst and thereby allows water entry under dynamic conditions. On the basis of a newly proposed mechanism, we rationalize the experimentally observed behavior of electrode kinetics with respect to potential and discuss what causes a high overpotential for water oxidation by 1.

  1. High spectral response heteroleptic ruthenium (II) complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    M Chandrasekharam; Ch Srinivasarao; T Suresh; M Anil Reddy; M Raghavender; G Rajkumar; M Srinivasu; P Yella Reddy


    Heteroleptic ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex, cis-Ru(II)(4,4'-bis(4-tert-butylstyryl)-2,2'-bipyridyl) (4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl) (NCS2) (H112) was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, MASS, Spectrofluorometer and UV-Vis spectroscopes. The photo-voltaic performance of the sensitizer was evaluated in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) under irradiation of AM 1.5 G solar light and the photovoltaic characteristics were compared with those of reference cells of HRS1 and N719 fabricated under comparable conditions. Compared to N719, H112 sensitizer showed enhanced molar extinction coefficient and relatively better monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) across the spectral range of 400 to 800 nm with solar energy-to-electrical conversion efficiency () of 2.43% [open circuit photovoltage (VOC) = 0.631V, short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC) = 8.96 mA/cm2, fill factor (ff) = 0.430], while values of 2.51% (VOC = 0.651V, JSC = 9.41 mA/cm2, ff = 0.410) and 2.74% (VOC = 0.705 V, JSC = 8.62 mA/cm2, ff = 0.455) were obtained for HRS1 and N719 sensitized solar cells respectively. The introduction of 4,4'-bis(4-tert-butylstyryl) moieties on one of the bipyridine moieties of N719 complex shows higher light absorption abilities, IPCE and JSC.

  2. Cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complex: structure and application as latent catalyst in olefin metathesis.

    Rouen, Mathieu; Queval, Pierre; Falivene, Laura; Allard, Jessica; Toupet, Loïc; Crévisy, Christophe; Caijo, Frédéric; Baslé, Olivier; Cavallo, Luigi; Mauduit, Marc


    An unexpected cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) benzylidene ether based ruthenium complex (2 a) was prepared through the double incorporation of an unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2 -NHC) ligand that bore an N-substituted cyclododecyl side chain. The isolation and full characterization (including X-ray diffraction studies) of key synthetic intermediates along with theoretical calculations allowed us to understand the mechanism of the overall cationization process. Finally, the newly developed complex 2 a displayed interesting latent behavior during ring-closing metathesis, which could be "switched on" under acidic conditions.

  3. Evaluation of arene ruthenium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as organometallics interacting with thiol and selenol containing biomolecules.

    Oehninger, Luciano; Stefanopoulou, Maria; Alborzinia, Hamed; Schur, Julia; Ludewig, Stephanie; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Köster, Reinhard W; Baumann, Knut; Wölfl, Stefan; Sheldrick, William S; Ott, Ingo


    Metal complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been widely used in catalytic chemistry and are now increasingly considered for the development of new chemical tools and metal based drugs. Ruthenium complexes of the type (p-cymene)(NHC)RuCl(2) interacted with biologically relevant thiols and selenols, which resulted in the inhibition of enzymes such as thioredoxin reductase or cathepsin B. Pronounced antiproliferative effects could be obtained provided that an appropriate cellular uptake was achieved. Inhibition of tumor cell growth was accompanied by a perturbation of metabolic parameters such as cellular respiration.

  4. Cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complex: Structure and application as latent catalyst in olefin metathesis

    Rouen, Mathieu


    An unexpected cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) benzylidene ether based ruthenium complex (2 a) was prepared through the double incorporation of an unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligand that bore an N-substituted cyclododecyl side chain. The isolation and full characterization (including X-ray diffraction studies) of key synthetic intermediates along with theoretical calculations allowed us to understand the mechanism of the overall cationization process. Finally, the newly developed complex 2 a displayed interesting latent behavior during ring-closing metathesis, which could be "switched on" under acidic conditions.

  5. Solvent assisted formation of ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes in one-pot with potential in vitro cytotoxicity and enhanced LDH, NO and ROS release.

    Jayanthi, Eswaran; Kalaiselvi, Sivalingam; Padma, Viswanatha Vijaya; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy


    A set each of new bivalent and trivalent ruthenium complexes, [Ru(III)(HL)Cl2(EPh3)2] and [Ru(II)(L)(CO)(EPh3)2] (E = P (complexes and ) or As (complexes and )) were synthesised from the reactions of [Ru(III)Cl3(EPh3)3] with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde benzoic acid hydrazone (H2L) in methanol-chloroform and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral data and XRD study. A suitable mechanism to account for the formation of bivalent ruthenium carbonyl complexes from the corresponding trivalent precursors is provided by considering the role of added base in the reaction. Interaction of complexes with CT-DNA/bovine serum albumin was analysed with absorption and emission spectral titration studies. In vitro cytotoxic potential of the above ruthenium hydrazone complexes assayed against the A549 cell line revealed a significant growth inhibition. The test complexes added in IC50 concentration into the cell culture medium enhanced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, NO and reactive oxygen species in comparison with the control. Cell death induced by the complexes was studied using a propidium iodide staining assay and showed noticeable changes in the cell morphology which resembled apoptosis.

  6. Efficient transfer hydrogenation reaction Catalyzed by a dearomatized PN 3P ruthenium pincer complex under base-free Conditions

    He, Lipeng


    A dearomatized complex [RuH(PN 3P)(CO)] (PN 3PN, N′-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)-2,6-diaminopyridine) (3) was prepared by reaction of the aromatic complex [RuH(Cl)(PN 3P)(CO)] (2) with t-BuOK in THF. Further treatment of 3 with formic acid led to the formation of a rearomatized complex (4). These new complexes were fully characterized and the molecular structure of complex 4 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. In complex 4, a distorted square-pyramidal geometry around the ruthenium center was observed, with the CO ligand trans to the pyridinic nitrogen atom and the hydride located in the apical position. The dearomatized complex 3 displays efficient catalytic activity for hydrogen transfer of ketones in isopropanol. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyclometallated ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with 1-pyrenaldehyde 4-R-3-thiosemicarbazones: Regioselective ruthenation of the 1-pyrenyl group

    Rupesh Narayana Prabhu; Samudranil Pal


    A facile method for the synthesis of a series of cyclometallated ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with 1-pyrenaldehyde 4-R-3-thiosemicarbazones (H2Ln where the two H’s represent the dissociable thioamide and pyrenyl protons; R = H, Me and Ph) has been described. The characterization of the complexes having the general molecular formula trans-[Ru(Ln)(CO)(EPh33)2] (where E = P or As) were accomplished by elemental (CHN) analysis, magnetic susceptibility and spectroscopic (ESI-MS, IR, UV-Vis, emission and 1H-NMR) measurements. Electronic spectra of the complexes display multiple strong absorptions in the range 440–224 nm due to intraligand transitions. All the complexes exhibit emission bands that are characteristic of ligand centred emissive states. X-ray diffraction studies with representative complexes reveal a pincer-like 5,5-membered fused chelate rings forming CNS coordination mode of the thiosemicarbazonate ligand (Ln)2− via regioselective activation of 1-pyrenyl ortho C–H and formation of a distorted octahedral C2NSE2 coordination sphere around the ruthenium(II) centre.

  8. A SAR study of novel antiproliferative ruthenium and osmium complexes with quinoxalinone ligands in human cancer cell lines.

    Ginzinger, Werner; Mühlgassner, Gerhard; Arion, Vladimir B; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Galanski, Markus; Reithofer, Michael; Berger, Walter; Keppler, Bernhard K


    A series of ruthenium(II) arene complexes with 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1H-quinoxalin-2-one, bearing pharmacophoric groups of known protein kinase inhibitors, and related benzoxazole and benzothiazole derivatives have been synthesized. In addition, the corresponding osmium complexes of the unsubstituted ligands have also been prepared. The compounds have been characterized by NMR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and by X-ray crystallography. Antiproliferative activity in three human cancer cell lines (A549, CH1, SW480) was determined by MTT assays, yielding IC(50) values of 6-60 μM for three unsubstituted metal-free ligands, whereas values for the metal complexes vary in a broad range from 0.3 to 140 μM. Complexation with osmium of quinoxalinone derivatives with benzimidazole or benzothiazole results in a more consistent increase in cytotoxicity than complexation with ruthenium. For selected compounds, the capacity to induce apoptosis was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometric analysis, whereas cell cycle effects are only moderate.

  9. New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing disulfide Schiff base ligands and their applications as catalyst for some organic transformations

    Prakash, Govindan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy


    Schiff base disulfide ligands (H2L1-6) were synthesized from the condensation of cystamine with salicylaldehyde(H2L1), 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde(H2L2), o-vanillin(H2L3), 2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L4), 3-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L5), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(H2L6). H2L1-6 reacts with the ruthenium precursor complex [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in benzene giving rise to six new ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(CO)L1-6]. Characterization of the new complexes was carried out by using elemental and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, NMR (1H and 13C) and Mass) techniques. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The catalytic efficiency of the new complexes in aldehyde to amide conversion in the presence of NaHCO3, N-alkylation of aniline in the presence of t-BuOK, and transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH reactions were studied. Furthermore, the effect of solvents and catalyst/substrate ratio on the catalytic aldehyde to amide conversion were also discussed.

  10. A High Molar Extinction Coefficient Mono-Anthracenyl Bipyridyl Heteroleptic Ruthenium(II Complex: Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties

    Peter A. Ajibade


    Full Text Available In our quest to develop good materials as photosensitizers for photovoltaic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, cis-dithiocyanato-4-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid-2,2'-bipyridyl-4-(9-anthracenyl-(2,3-dimethylacrylic-2,2'-bipyridyl ruthenium(II complex, a high molar extinction coefficient charge transfer sensitizer, was designed, synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Earlier studies on heteroleptic ruthenium(II complex analogues containing functionalized oligo-anthracenyl phenanthroline ligands have been reported and documented. Based on a general linear correlation between increase in the length of π-conjugation bond and the molar extinction coefficients, herein, we report the photophysical and electrochemical properties of a Ru(II bipyridyl complex analogue with a single functionalized anthracenyl unit. Interestingly, the complex shows better broad and intense metal-to ligand charge transfer (MLCT band absorption with higher molar extinction coefficient (λmax = 518 nm, e = 44900 M−1cm−1, and appreciable photoluminescence spanning the visible region than those containing higher anthracenyl units. It was shown that molar absorption coefficient of the complexes may not be solely depended on the extended π-conjugation but are reduced by molecular aggregation in the molecules.

  11. Outer-sphere 2 e{sup -}/2 H{sup +} transfer reactions of ruthenium(II)-amine and ruthenium(IV)-amido complexes

    Cattaneo, Mauricio [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington (United States); INQUINOA-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina); Ryken, Scott A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington (United States); Mayer, James M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington (United States); Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520 (United States)


    A diverse set of 2 e{sup -}/2 H{sup +} reactions are described that interconvert [Ru{sup II}(bpy)(en*){sub 2}]{sup 2+} and [Ru{sup IV}(bpy)(en-H*){sub 2}]{sup 2+} (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, en*=H{sub 2}NCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}NH{sub 2}, en*-H=H{sub 2}NCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}NH{sup -}), forming or cleaving different O-H, N-H, S-H, and C-H bonds. The reactions involve quinones, hydrazines, thiols, and 1,3-cyclohexadiene. These proton-coupled electron transfer reactions occur without substrate binding to the ruthenium center, but instead with precursor complex formation by hydrogen bonding. The free energies of the reactions vary over more than 90 kcal mol{sup -1}, but the rates are more dependent on the type of X-H bond involved than the associated ΔG . There is a kinetic preference for substrates that have the transferring hydrogen atoms in close proximity, such as ortho-tetrachlorobenzoquinone over its para-isomer and 1,3-cyclohexadiene over its 1,4-isomer, perhaps hinting at the potential for concerted 2 e{sup -}/2 H{sup +} transfers. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Exploring new generations of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts: The reactivity of a bis-ylidene ruthenium complex by DFT

    Poater, Albert


    Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the behaviour of a potential novel architecture of olefin metathesis catalysts, in which one of the neutral ligands of classical Ru-based catalysts, e.g. a phosphine or an N-heterocyclic carbene, is replaced by an alkylidene group. Introduction of a second alkylidene ligand favors dissociation of the remaining phosphine and the overall energy profile for the metathesis using ethylene as the probe substrate reveals that the proposed bis-alkylidene complexes might match the requirements of a good performing olefin metathesis catalyst. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Polycations XX: New Monodentate Cationic Ligands and Their Coordination with Ruthenium for the Construction of Complexes Expressing Enhanced Interaction with DNA

    Leslie Babukutty


    Full Text Available Prior investigations from this laboratory concerned with the preparation of new types of organic cations for a variety of biological and nonbiological applications have been extended to the preparation of cation-bearing ligands with nitrogen coordinating sites for use in complexation reactions with ruthenium cores. The syntheses of new cationic ligands as well as ruthenium complexes bearing them are reported here. The introduction of these new types of ligands is intended to provide to the complexes an enhanced ability to interact with DNA, and thereby to have the potential to be enhanced antitumor agents. Preliminary observations of their interactions with DNA are presented.

  14. Photochemistry between a ruthenium(II) pyridylimidazole complex and benzoquinone: simple electron transfer versus proton-coupled electron transfer.

    Hönes, Roland; Kuss-Petermann, Martin; Wenger, Oliver S


    A ruthenium(II) complex with two 4,4'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine chelates and a 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole ligand was synthesized and characterized by electrochemical and optical spectroscopic means. The respective complex has the potential to act as a combined electron-proton donor when promoted to its long-lived (3)MLCT excited state with visible light. The possibility of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) between the ruthenium(II) complex and 1,4-benzoquinone as an electron/proton acceptor was explored by steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy, as well as by transient absorption spectroscopy in the nanosecond time regime. Excited-state deactivation is found to occur predominantly via simple oxidative quenching involving no proton motion, but a minor fraction of the photoexcited complex appears to react via PCET since there is spectral evidence for semiquinone as a photoproduct. Presumably, PCET is not kinetically competitive with simple electron transfer because the latter process is sufficiently exergonic and because there is little thermodynamic benefit from coupling proton transfer to the photoinduced electron transfer.

  15. Systematic investigation of the catalytic cycle of a single site ruthenium oxygen evolving complex using density functional theory.

    Hughes, Thomas F; Friesner, Richard A


    The mechanism of water oxidation by a single site ruthenium oxygen evolving complex is investigated using fully unrestricted pseudospectral B3LYP with the effective core potential LACV3P in continuum solvent with some quantum mechanical waters. Guess wave functions have been used that allow greater flexibility in sampling different electronic configurations of the complex. Systematic comparison with experiment is improved using these guesses because they provide a complete analysis of the low energy manifold and help to alleviate the formal disconnect between theory and experiment in assigning Lewis structures for transition metal complexes. In agreement with results from the literature, the challenging 4e(-)and 4H(+) oxidation of water is accomplished using a mechanism that features three proton coupled electron transfers, one electron transfer, one atom proton transfer (APT), and one ligand exchange (LE). Calculations on a large database of ruthenium complexes allows us to benchmark the computation of reduction half potentials and free energies of activation and to investigate systematic ligand variations and their effect on the reaction mechanism. Mean unsigned errors of reduction half potentials in comparison to experiment are generally small (100-200 mV). The APT and LE steps are found to be rate limiting with free energy barriers of 19.27 and 19.53 kcal/mol respectively, which is in excellent agreement with the ∼20 kcal/mol barrier obtained from experimental rate constants using classical transition state theory.

  16. Tunable Electrochemical and Catalytic Features of BIAN- and BIAO-Derived Ruthenium Complexes.

    Hazari, Arijit Singha; Das, Ankita; Ray, Ritwika; Agarwala, Hemlata; Maji, Somnath; Mobin, Shaikh M; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar


    This article deals with a class of ruthenium-BIAN-derived complexes, [Ru(II)(tpm)(R-BIAN)Cl]ClO4 (tpm = tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane, R-BIAN = bis(arylimino)acenaphthene, R = 4-OMe ([1a]ClO4), 4-F ([1b]ClO4), 4-Cl ([1c]ClO4), 4-NO2 ([1d]ClO4)) and [Ru(II)(tpm)(OMe-BIAN)H2O](2+) ([3a](ClO4)2). The R-BIAN framework with R = H, however, leads to the selective formation of partially hydrolyzed BIAO ([N-(phenyl)imino]acenapthenone)-derived complex [Ru(II)(tpm)(BIAO)Cl]ClO4 ([2]ClO4). The redox-sensitive bond parameters involving -N═C-C═N- or -N═C-C═O of BIAN or BIAO in the crystals of representative [1a]ClO4, [3a](PF6)2, or [2]ClO4 establish its unreduced form. The chloro derivatives 1a(+)-1d(+) and 2(+) exhibit one oxidation and successive reduction processes in CH3CN within the potential limit of ±2.0 V versus SCE, and the redox potentials follow the order 1a(+) oxidation and primarily BIAN- or BIAO-based successive reduction processes. The aqua complex 3a(2+) undergoes two proton-coupled redox processes at 0.56 and 0.85 V versus SCE in phosphate buffer (pH 7) corresponding to {Ru(II)-H2O}/{Ru(III)-OH} and {Ru(III)-OH}/{Ru(IV)═O}, respectively. The chloro (1a(+)-1d(+)) and aqua (3a(2+)) derivatives are found to be equally active in functioning as efficient precatalysts toward the epoxidation of a wide variety of alkenes in the presence of PhI(OAc)2 as oxidant in CH2Cl2 at 298 K, though the analogous 2(+) remains virtually inactive. The detailed experimental analysis with the representative precatalyst 1a(+) suggests the involvement of the active {Ru(IV)═O} species in the catalytic cycle, and the reaction proceeds through the radical mechanism, as also supported by the DFT calculations.


    Masahiro Mikuriya


    Full Text Available Mixed-metal chain complexes constructed from lantern-type dinuclear ruthenium(II,III carboxylate unit and tetracyanidonickelate(II, (PPh4n[Ru2(O2CCH34Ni(CN4]n•nH2O (1 and (PPh4n[Ru2{O2CC(CH33}4]3n[Ni(CN4]2n•2nH2O (2, where very weak antiferromagnetic interaction is operating, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and IR and UV-vis spectroscopies and temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibilities (4.5—300K.

  18. An Electrochemical and Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Surface Behaviour of Mononuclear Ruthenium and Osmium Polypyridyl Complexes Based on Pyridyl- and Thiophene-Based Linkers

    Halpin, Yvonne; Logtenberg, Hella; Cleary, Laura; Schenk, Stephan; Schulz, Martin; Draksharapu, Apparao; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.


    The utility of a thiophene anchor unit as an alternative for thiols in the immobilisation of ruthenium and osmium complexes on gold and platinum is examined with special attention focused on the relative contributions of physi- and chemisorption of the complexes and the chemical stability of the thi

  19. An Electrochemical and Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Surface Behaviour of Mononuclear Ruthenium and Osmium Polypyridyl Complexes Based on Pyridyl- and Thiophene-Based Linkers

    Halpin, Yvonne; Logtenberg, Hella; Cleary, Laura; Schenk, Stephan; Schulz, Martin; Draksharapu, Apparao; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.


    The utility of a thiophene anchor unit as an alternative for thiols in the immobilisation of ruthenium and osmium complexes on gold and platinum is examined with special attention focused on the relative contributions of physi- and chemisorption of the complexes and the chemical stability of the

  20. New Class of Half-Sandwich Ruthenium(II) Arene Complexes Bearing the Water-Soluble CAP Ligand as an in Vitro Anticancer Agent.

    Guerriero, Antonella; Oberhauser, Werner; Riedel, Tina; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Dyson, Paul J; Gonsalvi, Luca


    Ruthenium(II) arene complexes of 1,4,7-triaza-9-phosphatricyclo[]tridecane (CAP) were obtained. Cytotoxicity studies against cancer cell lines reveal higher activity than the corresponding PTA analogues and, in comparison to the effects on noncancerous cells, the complexes are endowed with a reasonable degree of cancer cell selectivity.

  1. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ahmad, Haslina; Harun, Siti Norain [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)


    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+}, (bpy = 2,2′bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  2. A sulfhydryl-reactive ruthenium (II complex and its conjugation to protein G as a universal reagent for fluorescent immunoassays.

    Jing-Tang Lin

    Full Text Available To develop a fluorescent ruthenium complex for biosensing, we synthesized a novel sulfhydryl-reactive compound, 4-bromophenanthroline bis-2,2'-dipyridine Ruthenium bis (hexafluorophosphate. The synthesized Ru(II complex was crosslinked with thiol-modified protein G to form a universal reagent for fluorescent immunoassays. The resulting Ru(II-protein G conjugates were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The emission peak wavelength of the Ru(II-protein G conjugate was 602 nm at the excitation of 452 nm which is similar to the spectra of the Ru(II complex, indicating that Ru(II-protein G conjugates still remain the same fluorescence after conjugation. To test the usefulness of the conjugate for biosensing, immunoglobulin G (IgG binding assay was conducted. The result showed that Ru(II-protein G conjugates were capable of binding IgG and the more cross-linkers to modify protein G, the higher conjugation efficiency. To demonstrate the feasibility of Ru(II-protein G conjugates for fluorescent immunoassays, the detection of recombinant histidine-tagged protein using the conjugates and anti-histidine antibody was developed. The results showed that the histidine-tagged protein was successfully detected with dose-response, indicating that Ru(II-protein G conjugate is a useful universal fluorescent reagent for quantitative immunoassays.

  3. Mono and binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes containing 5-chlorothiophene-2-carboxylic acid ligands: Spectroscopic analysis and computational studies

    Swarnalatha, Kalaiyar; Kamalesu, Subramaniam; Subramanian, Ramasamy


    New Ruthenium complexes I, II and III were synthesized using 5-chlorothiophene-2-carboxylic acid (5TPC), as ligand and the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. Photophysical and electrochemical studies were carried out and the structures of the synthesized complex were optimized using density functional theory (DFT). The molecular geometry, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and Mulliken atomic charges of the molecules are determined at the B3LYP method and standard 6-311++G (d,p) basis set starting from optimized geometry. They possess excellent stabilities and their thermal decomposition temperatures are 185 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C respectively, indicating that the metal complexes are suitable for the fabrication processes of optoelectronic devices.

  4. A zeolite-supported molecular ruthenium complex with eta6-C6H6 ligands: chemistry elucidated by using spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    Ogino, Isao; Chen, Mingyang; Dyer, Jason; Kletnieks, Philip W; Haw, James F; Dixon, David A; Gates, Bruce C


    An essentially molecular ruthenium-benzene complex anchored at the aluminum sites of dealuminated zeolite Y was formed by treating a zeolite-supported mononuclear ruthenium complex, [Ru(acac)(eta(2)-C(2)H(4))(2)](+) (acac=acetylacetonate, C(5)H(7)O(2)(-)), with (13)C(6)H(6) at 413 K. IR, (13)C NMR, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of the sample reveal the replacement of two ethene ligands and one acac ligand in the original complex with one (13)C(6)H(6) ligand and the formation of adsorbed protonated acac (Hacac). The EXAFS results indicate that the supported [Ru(eta(6)-C(6)H(6))](2+) incorporates an oxygen atom of the support to balance the charge, being bonded to the zeolite through three Ru-O bonds. The supported ruthenium-benzene complex is analogous to complexes with polyoxometalate ligands, consistent with the high structural uniformity of the zeolite-supported species, which led to good agreement between the spectra and calculations at the density functional theory level. The calculations show that the interaction of the zeolite with the Hacac formed on treatment of the original complex with (13)C(6)H(6) drives the reaction to form the ruthenium-benzene complex.

  5. Photocatalytic water decontamination by the zeolite-y entrapped ruthenium tris-2,2 bipyridine complex

    Szulbinski, W.S.; Malato Rodirguez, S.; Gernjak, W.


    The zeolite-Y entrapped ruthenium tris-2,2-bipyridine complex externally loaded with platinum (Z-[Ru(bpp){sub 3}]''2+/Pt) has been examined as a novel photocatalyst for wastewater treatment in flow reactors of the pilot plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, in Sapin. The catalyst generated by the template synthesis of [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]''2+ within the zeolite-Y supercharges (with the occupancy of one the [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]'' molecule per five the zeolite supercharges), and then platinized (1% wt) of the resulting Z-[Ru(bpy){sub 3}]''2+. The catalytic activity of Z-[u(bpy){sub 3}]''2+/Pt for waste-water treatment has been compared to that of TiO{sub 2} as the standard. For this phenol (PhOH) and pirimicarb ( a pesticide) have been used as models for water pollutants. By kinetics measurements, it has been documented that Z-[Ru(bpy){sub 3}]''2+/Pt decomposes PhOH with the relative photonic efficiency of {zeta}=0.37, assuming that{zeta}=1.0 for TiO{sub 2}, under the same experimental conditions. To improve the Z-[Ru(bpy){sub 3}]''2+/Pt photocatalytic activity, all the zeolite super cages have to be occupied with [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]''2+ modules, since this might increase the rate of the photoinduced electron transfer reaction. Moreover, it has been revealed that Z-[Ru(bpy){sub 3}]''2+/Pt is mostly active at the visible range of the solar radiation, at which TiO{sub 2} is inactive and unable to decompose organic pollutants. This has been supported by the diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurement exhibiting the electronic absorption of Z-[Ru(bpy){sub 3}]''2*/pt at {lambda}{sub m}ax=454 nm. (Author) 15 refs.

  6. Ruthenium complex with benznidazole and nitric oxide as a new candidate for the treatment of chagas disease.

    Renata Sesti-Costa


    Full Text Available Chagas disease remains a serious medical and social problem in Latin America and is an emerging concern in nonendemic countries as a result of population movement, transfusion of infected blood or organs and congenital transmission. The current treatment of infected patients is unsatisfactory due to strain-specific drug resistance and the side effects of the current medications. For this reason, the discovery of safer and more effective chemotherapy is mandatory for the successful treatment and future eradication of Chagas disease.We investigated the effect of a ruthenium complex with benznidazole and nitric oxide (RuBzNO2 against Trypanosoma cruzi both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that RuBzNO2 was more effective than the same concentrations of benznidazole (Bz in eliminating both the extracellular trypomastigote and the intracellular amastigote forms of the parasite, with no cytotoxic effect in mouse cells. In vivo treatment with the compound improved the survival of infected mice, inhibiting heart damage more efficiently than Bz alone. Accordingly, tissue inflammation and parasitism was significantly diminished after treatment with RuBzNO2 in a more effective manner than that with the same concentrations of Bz.The complexation of Bz with ruthenium and nitric oxide (RuBzNO2 increases its effectiveness against T. cruzi and enables treatment with lower concentrations of the compound, which may reduce the side effects of Bz. Our findings provide a new potential candidate for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  7. Ruthenium complex with benznidazole and nitric oxide as a new candidate for the treatment of chagas disease.

    Sesti-Costa, Renata; Carneiro, Zumira A; Silva, Maria C; Santos, Maíta; Silva, Grace K; Milanezi, Cristiane; da Silva, Roberto S; Silva, João S


    Chagas disease remains a serious medical and social problem in Latin America and is an emerging concern in nonendemic countries as a result of population movement, transfusion of infected blood or organs and congenital transmission. The current treatment of infected patients is unsatisfactory due to strain-specific drug resistance and the side effects of the current medications. For this reason, the discovery of safer and more effective chemotherapy is mandatory for the successful treatment and future eradication of Chagas disease. We investigated the effect of a ruthenium complex with benznidazole and nitric oxide (RuBzNO2) against Trypanosoma cruzi both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that RuBzNO2 was more effective than the same concentrations of benznidazole (Bz) in eliminating both the extracellular trypomastigote and the intracellular amastigote forms of the parasite, with no cytotoxic effect in mouse cells. In vivo treatment with the compound improved the survival of infected mice, inhibiting heart damage more efficiently than Bz alone. Accordingly, tissue inflammation and parasitism was significantly diminished after treatment with RuBzNO2 in a more effective manner than that with the same concentrations of Bz. The complexation of Bz with ruthenium and nitric oxide (RuBzNO2) increases its effectiveness against T. cruzi and enables treatment with lower concentrations of the compound, which may reduce the side effects of Bz. Our findings provide a new potential candidate for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  8. Electrochemical Sensing of Casein Based on the Interaction between Its Phosphate Groups and a Ruthenium(III) Complex.

    Inaba, Iku; Kuramitz, Hideki; Sugawara, Kazuharu


    A reaction to casein, along with β-lactoglobulin, is a main cause of milk allergies, and also is a useful indicator of protein in allergic analyses. In the present study, a simple casein sensor was developed based on the interaction between a phosphate group of casein and electroactive [Ru(NH3)6](3+). We evaluated the voltammetric behavior of a casein-[Ru(NH3)6](3+) complex using a glassy carbon electrode. When the ruthenium(III) complex was combined with the phosphate groups of casein, the structure of the casein was changed. Since the hydrophobicity of casein was increased due to the binding, the casein was adsorbed onto the electrode. Furthermore, we modified an electrode with a ruthenium(III) ions/collagen film. When the sensor was applied to the detection of the casein contained in milk, the values coincided with those indicated by the manufacturer. Accordingly, this electrode could be a powerful sensor for the determination of casein in several foods.

  9. Anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) arene complexes bearing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands.

    Chelopo, Madichaba P; Pawar, Sachin A; Sokhela, Mxolisi K; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Maguire, Glenn E M


    Ruthenium complexes offer potential reduced toxicity compared to current platinum anticancer drugs. 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands were synthesised, characterised and coordinated to an organometallic Ru(II) centre. These complexes were evaluated for activity against the cancer cell lines MCF-7, A549 and MDA-MB-231 as well as for toxicity in the normal cell line MDBK. They were observed to be moderately active against only the MCF-7 cells with the best IC₅₀ value of 34 μM for the cis-diastereomeric complex C4. They also displayed excellent selectivity by being relatively inactive against the normal MDBK cell line with SI values ranging from 2.3 to 7.4.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of A New Dinuclear Ruthenium Complex with BDPX Ligand and Its Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions for Cinnamaldehyde

    TANG,Yuan-You(唐元友); LI,Rui-Xiang(李瑞祥); LI,Xian-Jun(李贤均); WONG,Ning-Bew(黄宁表); TIN,Kim-Chung(田金忠); ZHANG,Zhe-Ying(张哲英); MAK,Thomas C.W.(麦松威)


    A new anionic dinuclear ruthenium complex bearing 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)benzene (BDPX)[NH2Et2][{RuCl (BDPX)}2(μ-Cl)3] (1) was synthesized and its structure was determined by an X-ray crystallographic analysis. This result indicated that complex 1 consisted of an anion dinuclear BDPX-Ru and a cationic diethylammonium. The crystal belonged to monoclinic system, C2/c space group with a=3.3552(7) nm, b= 1.8448(4)nm, c=2.4265(5) nm, β= 101.89(3)° and Z=8. The catalytic hydrogenation activities and selectivities of complex 1 for cinnamaldehyde were investigated.

  11. Nanoformulation improves activity of the (pre)clinical anticancer ruthenium complex KP1019.

    Heffeter, P; Riabtseva, A; Senkiv, Y; Kowol, C R; Körner, W; Jungwith, U; Mitina, N; Keppler, B K; Konstantinova, T; Yanchuk, I; Stoika, R; Zaichenko, A; Berger, W


    Ruthenium anticancer drugs belong to the most promising non-platinum anticancer metal compounds in clinical evaluation. However, although the clinical results are promising regarding both activity and very low adverse effects, the clinical application is currently hampered by the limited solubility and stability of the drug in aqueous solution. Here, we present a new nanoparticle formulation based on polymer-based micelles loaded with the anticancer lead ruthenium compound KP1019. Nanoprepared KP1019 was characterised by enhanced stability in aqueous solutions. Moreover, the nanoparticle formulation facilitated cellular accumulation of KP1019 (determined by ICP-MS measurements) resulting in significantly lowered IC50 values. With regard to the mode of action, increased cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase (PI-staining), DNA damage (Comet assay) as well as enhanced levels of apoptotic cell death (caspase 7 and PARP cleavage) were found in HCT116 cells treated with the new nanoformulation of KP1019. Summarizing, we present for the first time evidence that nanoformulation is a feasible strategy for improving the stability as well as activity of experimental anticancer ruthenium compounds.

  12. Visible-Light-Driven Photoisomerization and Increased Rotation Speed of a Molecular Motor Acting as a Ligand in a Ruthenium(II) Complex

    Wezenberg, Sander J.; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Feringa, Ben L.


    Toward the development of visible-light-driven molecular rotary motors, an overcrowded alkene-based ligand and the corresponding ruthenium(II) complex is presented. In our design, a 4,5-diazafluorenyl coordination motif is directly integrated into the motor function. The photochemical and thermal

  13. Visible-Light-Driven Photoisomerization and Increased Rotation Speed of a Molecular Motor Acting as a Ligand in a Ruthenium(II) Complex

    Wezenberg, Sander J; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Feringa, Ben L


    Toward the development of visible-light-driven molecular rotary motors, an overcrowded alkene-based ligand and the corresponding ruthenium(II) complex is presented. In our design, a 4,5-diazafluorenyl coordination motif is directly integrated into the motor function. The photochemical and thermal is

  14. SO2-binding properties of cationic η6,η1-NCN-pincer arene ruthenium platinum complexes: spectroscopic and theoretical studies

    Bonnet, S.A.; van Lenthe, J.H.; van Dam, H.J.J.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.


    The SO2-binding properties of a series of h6,h1-NCN-pincer ruthenium platinum complexes (NCN = 2,6-bis[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl anion) have been studied by both UV-visible spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. When an electron-withdrawing [Ru(C5R5)]+ fragment (R = H or Me) is h6-coordinated

  15. Selective Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid with Well-Defined Complexes of Ruthenium and Phosphorus-Nitrogen PN(3) -Pincer Ligand.

    Pan, Yupeng; Pan, Cheng-Ling; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Huaifeng; Min, Shixiong; Guo, Xunmun; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Hailong; Anders, Addison; Lai, Zhiping; Zheng, Junrong; Huang, Kuo-Wei


    An unsymmetrically protonated PN(3) -pincer complex in which ruthenium is coordinated by one nitrogen and two phosphorus atoms was employed for the selective generation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved.

  16. SO2-binding properties of cationic η6,η1-NCN-pincer arene ruthenium platinum complexes: spectroscopic and theoretical studies

    Bonnet, S.A.; van Lenthe, J.H.; van Dam, H.J.J.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.


    The SO2-binding properties of a series of h6,h1-NCN-pincer ruthenium platinum complexes (NCN = 2,6-bis[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl anion) have been studied by both UV-visible spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. When an electron-withdrawing [Ru(C5R5)]+ fragment (R = H or Me) is h6-coordinated

  17. Understanding the Excited State Behavior of Cyclometalated Bis(tridentate)ruthenium(II) Complexes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Kreitner, Christoph; Erdmann, Elisa; Seidel, Wolfram W; Heinze, Katja


    The synthesis and characterization of the donor-acceptor substituted cyclometalated ruthenium(II) polypyridine complex isomers [Ru(dpb-NHCOMe)(tpy-COOEt)](PF6) 1(PF6) and [Ru(dpb-COOEt)(tpy-NHCOMe)](PF6) 2(PF6) (dpbH = 1,3-dipyridin-2-ylbenzene, tpy = 2,2';6,2"-terpyridine) with inverted functional group pattern are described. A combination of resonance Raman spectroscopic and computational techniques shows that all intense visible range absorption bands arise from mixed Ru → tpy/Ru → dpb metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excitations. 2(PF6) is weakly phosphorescent at room temperature in fluid solution and strongly emissive at 77 K in solid butyronitrile matrix, which is typical for ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the weak emission of 2(PF6) arises from a (3)MLCT state that is efficiently thermally depopulated via metal-centered ((3)MC) excited states. The activation barrier for the deactivation process was estimated experimentally from variable-temperature emission spectroscopic measurements as 11 kJ mol(-1). In contrast, 1(PF6) is nonemissive at room temperature in fluid solution and at 77 K in solid butyronitrile matrix. Examination of the electronic excited states of 1(PF6) revealed a ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)LL'CT) as lowest-energy triplet state due to the very strong push-pull effect across the metal center. Because of the orthogonality of the participating ligands, emission from the (3)LL'CT is symmetry-forbidden. Hence, in this type of complex a stronger push-pull effect does not increase the phosphorescence quantum yields but completely quenches the emission.

  18. Population and relaxation kinetics of laser-excitated photofunctional ruthenium-sulfoxide complexes in highly concentrated solutions; Populations- und Relaxationskinetiken laserangeregter photofunktionaler Ruthenium-Sulfoxid-Komplexe in hochkonzentrierten Loesungen

    Eicke, Sebastian


    Photofunctionality of ruthenium sulfoxide complexes offer a distinct photochromy, which results from their light-induced binding isomerization. By this the complexes are suited for the usage in photonic applications like fast optical switches or optical data memories. The present thesis studies the photofunctionality of the complexes by means of laser-excited population and thermally activated relaxation kinetics. In view to photonic applications thereby exclusively highly concentrated sample solutions are considered, which exhibit beside a distinct photochromy a just remarkable photosensitivity. The photochromic kinetics usable in an application are described by means of a model and rate equations, so that a statement on an optimal sample-solution concentration in connection of drived and driving light beam can be met. By means of the characteristics of the photochromic kinetics complex properties, like for instance the thermal stability of the metastable isomers, can be defined. The applicative suitability of the photofunctional ruthenium sulfoxide complexes is finally shown by the selective fitting of their complex properties by diverse structural and environmental modifications.

  19. Thiolate-bridged dinuclear ruthenium and iron complexes as robust and efficient catalysts toward oxidation of molecular dihydrogen in protic solvents.

    Yuki, Masahiro; Sakata, Ken; Hirao, Yoshifumi; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Nakajima, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki


    Thiolate-bridged dinuclear ruthenium and iron complexes are found to work as efficient catalysts toward oxidation of molecular dihydrogen in protic solvents such as water and methanol under ambient reaction conditions. Heterolytic cleavage of the coordinated molecular dihydrogen at the dinuclear complexes and the sequential oxidation of the produced hydride complexes are involved as key steps to promote the present catalytic reaction. The catalytic activity of the dinuclear complexes toward the chemical oxidation of molecular dihydrogen achieves up to 10000 TON (turnover number), and electrooxidation of molecular dihydrogen proceeds quite rapidly. The result of the density functional theory (DFT) calculation on the reaction pathway indicates that a synergistic effect between the two ruthenium atoms plays an important role to realize the catalytic oxidation of molecular dihydrogen efficiently. The present dinuclear ruthenium complex is found to work as an efficient organometallic anode catalyst for the fuel cell. It is noteworthy that the present dinuclear complex worked not only as an effective catalyst toward chemical and electrochemical oxidation of molecular dihydrogen but also as a good anode catalyst for the fuel cell. We consider that the result described in this paper provides useful and valuable information to develop highly efficient and low-cost transition metal complexes as anode catalysts in the fuel cell.

  20. Synthesis, Structure, and Anticancer Activity of Arene-Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Acylpyrazolones Bearing Aliphatic Groups in the Acyl Moiety.

    Palmucci, Jessica; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Pettinari, Claudio; Scopelliti, Rosario; Riedel, Tina; Therrien, Bruno; Galindo, Agustin; Dyson, Paul J


    A series of neutral ruthenium(II) arene complexes [(arene)Ru(Q(R))Cl] (arene = p-cymene (cym) or hexamethylbenzene (hmb)) containing 4-acyl-5-pyrazolonate Q(R) ligands with different electronic and steric substituents (R = 4-cyclohexyl, 4-stearoyl, or 4-adamantyl) and related ionic complexes [(arene)Ru(Q(R))(PTA)][PF6] (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy (IR, UV-vis, ESI-MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR), elemental analysis, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory studies. The cytotoxicity of the proligands and metal complexes was evaluated in vitro against human ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780 and A2780cisR), as well as against nontumorous human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. In general the cationic PTA-containing complexes are more cytotoxic than their neutral precursors with a chloride ligand in place of the PTA. Moreover, the complexes do not show cross-resistance and are essentially equally cytotoxic to both the A2780 and A2780cisR cell lines, although they only show limited selectivity toward the cancer cell lines.

  1. New mixed ligand complexes of ruthenium(II) that incorporate a modified phenanthroline ligand: Synthesis, spectral characterization and DNA binding

    S Murali; C V Sastri; Bhaskar G Maiya


    The hexafluorophosphate and chloride salts of two ruthenium(II) complexes, viz. [Ru(phen)(ptzo)2]2+ and [Ru(ptzo)3]2+, where ptzo = 1,10-phenanthrolino[5,6-]1,2,4-triazine-3-one (ptzo) - a new modified phenanthroline (phen) ligand, have been synthesised. These complexes have been characterised by infrared, UV-Vis, steady-state emission and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods. Results of absorption and fluorescence titration as well as thermal denaturation studies reveal that both the bis- and tris-complexes of ptzo show moderately strong affinity for binding with calf thymus (CT) DNA with the binding constants being close to 105M-1 in each case. An intercalative mode of DNA binding has been suggested for both the complexes. Emission studies carried out in non-aqueous solvents and in aqueous media without DNA reveal that both [Ru(phen)(ptzo)2]2+ and [Ru(ptzo)3]2+ are weakly luminescent under these solution conditions. Successive addition of CT DNA to buffered aqueous solutions containing [Ru(phen)(ptzo)2]2+ results in an enhancement of the emission. These results have been discussed in the light of the dependence of the structure-specific deactivation processes of the MLCT state of the metallointercalator with the characteristic features of its DNA interaction. In doing so, attempts have been made to compare and contrast its properties with those of the analogous phenanthroline-based complexes including the ones reported by us previously.

  2. Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of polypyridyl ligands: Metal-promoted activities, stereochemical aspects and electrochemical properties

    Parimal Paul


    This article presents a brief overview of the reactions of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (tptz) in presence of rhodium(III), ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) under various experimental conditions. Under certain experimental conditions tptz exhibits metal-assisted hydrolysis/hydroxylation at the triazine ring. However, synthetic methods have also been developed to prepare complexes with intact tptz. Molecular structures of some of the complexes, especially stereoisomers of the hydroxylated products, are established by single crystal X-ray studies. A critical analysis of all data suggests that the electron-withdrawing effect of the metal ion (L→M donation) is the predominant factor, rather than angular strain, that is responsible for metal-promoted reactivities. Electrochemical properties of all of these complexes have been investigated, Rh(III) complexes are excellent catalysts for electrocatalytic reduction of CO2, and dinuclear Ru(II) and Os(II) complexes exhibit strong electronic communication between the metal centres.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of new TiO{sub 2} sensitizers for photovoltaic cells: bipyridine phosphonic di-acid ruthenium and osmium complexes and dyads composed of an organic chromophore and a ruthenium complex for antenna effect; Synthese et caracterisation de nouveaux sensibilisateurs de TiO{sub 2} pour la photovoltaique: complexes de ruthenium et d'osmium avec la bipyridine diacide phosphonique et diades composees d'un chromophore organique et d'un complexe de ruthenium pour l'effet d'antenne

    Zabri, H.


    The aim of this work is to develop new poly-pyridine transition metals complexes as TiO{sub 2} sensitizers for the design of photovoltaic cells. The first part concerns the preparation and the study of the properties of RuL{sub 2}X{sub 2} complexes (L = 2,2'-bipyridine bis phosphonic acid and X = Cl, CN, NCS). The cis di-thiocyanate bis-(2,2-bipyridine-4,4-phosphonic di-acid) ruthenium (II) sensitizer has the best performances but is nevertheless inferior of 30% to its analog containing the carboxylic acid function (N3) taken as reference in this work. In a second part, the osmium complexes with the 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-phosphonic di-acid have been prepared on account of their widest absorbance towards the low energies of the solar spectra. The spectroscopic ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, UV-Visible, IR, action spectra, emission and life span of the excited states) and electrochemical properties of these complexes have been studied. This study has shown that 1)the tris-(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-phosphonic di-acid) osmium (II) has a photovoltaic efficiency similar to those of N3 2)the phosphonic acid function leads to a bond more stable with TiO{sub 2} compared with those obtained with the carboxylic acid function. At last, dyads composed of an organic pigment (zinc phthalocyanine and boradiazaindacene) grafted on a ruthenium complex have been prepared. The two organic pigments allow to increase the cross section of light collection of the ruthenium complex by antenna effect. The photochemical study in solution shows that the fluorescence of the antennas is trapped by the next ruthenium complex probably by energy transfer. (O.M.)

  4. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) polypyridyl complexes of an asymmetric pyrazinyl- and pyridinyl-containing 1,2,4-triazole based ligand. Connectivity and physical properties of mononuclear complexes

    Browne, Wesley R.; O’Connor, Christine M.; Hughes, Helen P.; Hage, Ronald; Walter, Olaf; Doering, Manfred; Gallagher, John F.; Vos, Johannes G.


    The synthesis, purification and characterisation of two coordination isomers of ruthenium(II) and osmium (II) complexes containing the ligand 3-(pyrazin-2'-yl)-5-(pyridin-2"-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (Hppt) are described. The X-ray and molecular structure of the complex [Ru(bipy)(2) (ppt)] PF6.CH3OH (1a) i

  5. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) polypyridyl complexes of an asymmetric pyrazinyl- and pyridinyl-containing 1,2,4-triazole based ligand. Connectivity and physical properties of mononuclear complexes

    Browne, Wesley R.; O’Connor, Christine M.; Hughes, Helen P.; Hage, Ronald; Walter, Olaf; Doering, Manfred; Gallagher, John F.; Vos, Johannes G.


    The synthesis, purification and characterisation of two coordination isomers of ruthenium(II) and osmium (II) complexes containing the ligand 3-(pyrazin-2'-yl)-5-(pyridin-2"-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (Hppt) are described. The X-ray and molecular structure of the complex [Ru(bipy)(2) (ppt)] PF6.CH3OH (1a) i

  6. Tuning the cytotoxic properties of new ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes with a modified bis(arylimino)pyridine Schiff base ligand using bidentate pyridine-based ligands.

    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Maheswari, Palanisamy Uma; Lutz, Martin; Siegler, Maxime A; Reedijk, Jan


    Synthesis, spectroscopy, characterization, structures, and cytotoxicity studies of 2,6-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (LLL) ruthenium compounds are described. The starting compound [RuCl3(LLL)] has been fully characterized using IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the crystal structure of the ligand LLL has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. With the ruthenium(III) trichloride compound as starting material, a new family of Ru(II) complexes with a number of neutral and charged bidentate co-ligands have been synthesized and used for characterization and cytotoxicity studies. The synthesis of the corresponding [Ru(II)LLL(LL)Cl](+/0) complexes with co-ligands- LL is 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, 2-(phenylazo)pyridine, 2-(phenylazo)-3-methylpyridine, 2-(tolylazo)pyridine, or the anionic 2-picolinate-is reported. Analytical, spectroscopic (IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry), and structural characterization of the new compounds is described. Crystal structure analyses of two Ru(II) compounds show a slightly distorted octahedral Ru(II) geometry with tridentate LLL coordinated in a planar meridional fashion, and the chelating co-ligand (LL) and a chloride ion complete the octahedron. The co-ligand plays a significant role in modulating the physicochemical and cytotoxic properties of these new ruthenium complexes. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these new Ru(II) complexes (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50, of 0.5-1.5 μM), in comparison with the parent Ru(III) compound (half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 3.9-4.3 μM) is higher for several of the human cancer cell lines tested. The cytotoxic activity of some of the new ruthenium compounds is even higher than that of cisplatin in the same cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity of these new anticancer compounds is

  7. Use of ion mobility mass spectrometry and a collision cross-section algorithm to study an organometallic ruthenium anticancer complex and its adducts with a DNA oligonucleotide.

    Williams, Jonathan P; Lough, Julie Ann; Campuzano, Iain; Richardson, Keith; Sadler, Peter J


    We report the development of an enhanced algorithm for the calculation of collision cross-sections in combination with Travelling-Wave ion mobility mass spectrometry technology and its optimisation and evaluation through the analysis of an organoruthenium anticancer complex [(eta6-biphenyl)Ru(II)(en)Cl]+. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimentally determined and theoretically determined collision cross-sections of the complex and its major product ion formed via collision-induced dissociation. Collision cross-sections were also experimentally determined for adducts of this ruthenium complex with the single-stranded oligonucleotide hexamer d(CACGTG). Ion mobility tandem mass spectrometry measurements have allowed the binding sites for ruthenium on the oligonucleotide to be determined.

  8. Highly efficient and selective photocatalytic oxidation of sulfide by a chromophore-catalyst dyad of ruthenium-based complexes.

    Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Fu-Min; Zhao, Wei-Liang; Tian, Yong-Hua; Chen, Yong; Cai, Rong; Fu, Wen-Fu


    Electronic coupling across a bridging ligand between a chromophore and a catalyst center has an important influence on biological and synthetic photocatalytic processes. Structural and associated electronic modifications of ligands may improve the efficiency of photocatalytic transformations of organic substrates. Two ruthenium-based supramolecular assemblies based on a chromophore-catalyst dyad containing a Ru-aqua complex and its chloro form as the catalytic components were synthesized and structurally characterized, and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties were investigated. Under visible light irradiation and in the presence of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, both complexes exhibited good photocatalytic activity toward oxidation of sulfide into the corresponding sulfoxide with high efficiency and >99% product selectivity in neutral aqueous solution. The Ru-aqua complex assembly was more efficient than the chloro complex. Isotopic labeling experiments using (18)O-labeled water demonstrated the oxygen atom transfer from the water to the organic substrate, likely through the formation of an active intermediate, Ru(IV)═O.

  9. Nitric oxide binding and photodelivery based on ruthenium(II) complexes of 4-arylazo-3,5-dimethylpyrazole.

    Ortiz, Mayreli; Torréns, Mabel; Mola, José L; Ortiz, Pedro J; Fragoso, Alex; Díaz, Alicia; Cao, Roberto; Prados, Pilar; de Mendoza, Javier; Otero, Antonio; Antiñolo, Antonio; Lara, Agustin


    Two fluorescent ligands, 3,5-dimethyl-4-(6'-sulfonylammonium-1'-azonaphthyl)pyrazole (dmpzn, 1) and 3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-N,N'-dimethylaminoazophenyl)pyrazole (dmpza, 2) were obtained by condensation of ketoenolic derivatives with hydrazine. 1 and 2 formed the novel dinuclear complexes [(H(2)O)(3)ClRu(micro-L)(2)RuCl(H(2)O)(3)] (3 or 4) and [(H(2)O)(NO)Cl(2)Ru(micro-L)(2)RuCl(2)(NO)(H(2)O)] (6 or 7) (where L 1 = 2 or , respectively) which were characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. The nitrosyl complexes were prepared by bubbling purified nitric oxide through methanol solutions of the corresponding ruthenium(II) chloroderivative or by reaction of the appropriate ligands with Ru(NO)Cl(3). Complexes 3 and 4 were found to bind NO, resulting in an increase in fluorescence. Ligand 1 also formed the mononuclear nitrosyl complex [Ru(NO)(bpy)(2)(dmpzn)]Cl(2) (8) which released NO in water at physiological pH and in the solid state as revealed by fluorescence and IR measurements, respectively.

  10. Energy-Storage Applications for a pH Gradient between Two Benzimidazole-Ligated Ruthenium Complexes That Engage in Proton-Coupled Electron-Transfer Reactions in Solution.

    Motoyama, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Kai; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Tadokoro, Makoto; Haga, Masa-Aki


    The judicious selection of pairs of benzimidazole-ligated ruthenium complexes allowed the construction of a rechargeable proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET)-type redox battery. A series of ruthenium(II) and -(III) complexes were synthesized that contain substituted benzimidazoles that engage in PCET reactions. The formation of intramolecular Ru-C cyclometalation bonds stabilized the resulting ruthenium(III) complexes, in which pKa values of the imino N-H protons on the benzimidazoles are usually lower than those for the corresponding ruthenium(II) complexes. As a proof-of-concept study for a solution redox battery based on such PCET reactions, the charging/discharging cycles of several pairs of ruthenium complexes were examined by chronopotentiometry in an H-type device with half-cells separated by a Nafion membrane in unbuffered CH3CN/H2O (1/1, v/v) containing 0.1 M NaCl. During the charging/discharging cycles, the pH value of the solution gradually changed accompanied by a change of the open-circuit potential (OCP). The changes for the OCP and pH value of the solution in the anodic and cathodic half-cells were in good agreement with the predicted values from the Pourbaix diagrams for the pairs of ruthenium complexes used. Accordingly, the careful selection of pairs of ruthenium complexes with a sufficient potential gradient and a suitably large pKa difference is crucial: the charge generated between the two ruthenium complexes changes the OCP and the pH difference between the two cells in an unbuffered solution, given that the PCET reactions occur at both electrodes and that discharging leads to the original state. Because the electric energy is stored as a pH gradient between the half-cells, new possibilities for PCET-type rocking-chair redox batteries arise.

  11. Formation of a ruthenium(IV)-oxo complex by electron-transfer oxidation of a coordinatively saturated ruthenium(II) complex and detection of oxygen-rebound intermediates in C-H bond oxygenation.

    Kojima, Takahiko; Nakayama, Kazuya; Ikemura, Kenichiro; Ogura, Takashi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi


    A coordinatively saturated ruthenium(II) complex having tetradentate tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) and bidentate 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), [Ru(TPA)(bpy)](2+) (1), was oxidized by a Ce(IV) ion in H(2)O to afford a Ru(IV)-oxo complex, [Ru(O)(H(+)TPA)(bpy)](3+) (2). The crystal structure of the Ru(IV)-oxo complex 2 was determined by X-ray crystallography. In 2, the TPA ligand partially dissociates to be in a facial tridentate fashion and the uncoordinated pyridine moiety is protonated. The spin state of 2, which showed paramagnetically shifted NMR signals in the range of 60 to -20 ppm, was determined to be an intermediate spin (S = 1) by the Evans' method with (1)H NMR spectroscopy in acetone-d(6). The reaction of 2 with various oraganic substrates in acetonitrile at room temperature afforded oxidized and oxygenated products and a solvent-bound complex, [Ru(H(+)TPA)(bpy)(CH(3)CN)], which is intact in the presence of alcohols. The oxygenation reaction of saturated C-H bonds with 2 proceeds by two-step processes: the hydrogen abstraction with 2, followed by the dissociation of the alcohol products from the oxygen-rebound complexes, Ru(III)-alkoxo complexes, which were successfully detected by ESI-MS spectrometry. The kinetic isotope effects in the first step for the reaction of dihydroanthrathene (DHA) and cumene with 2 were determined to be 49 and 12, respectively. The second-order rate constants of C-H oxygenation in the first step exhibited a linear correlation with bond dissociation energies of the C-H bond cleavage.

  12. Programmable multimetallic linear nanoassemblies of ruthenium-DNA conjugates

    Irvoas, Joris; Noirot, Arielle; Chouini-Lalanne, Nadia; Reynes, Olivier; Garrigues, Jean-Christophe; Sartor, Valérie


    International audience; A new ruthenium-DNA conjugates family was synthesized, made up of a ruthenium complex bound to one or two identical DNA strands of 14-58 nucleotides. The formation of controlled linear nanoassemblies containing one to seven ruthenium complexes is described.

  13. Photodissociation of a ruthenium(II) arene complex and its subsequent interactions with biomolecules: a density functional theory study.

    Wang, Hanlu; DeYonker, Nathan J; Zhang, Xiting; Zhao, Cunyuan; Ji, Liangnian; Mao, Zong-Wan


    The piano-stool Ru(II) arene complex [(η⁶-benz)Ru(bpm)(py)]²⁺ (benz = benzene, bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, and py = pyridine), which is conventionally nonlabile (on a timescale and under conditions relevant for biological reactivity), can be activated by visible light to selectively photodissociate the monodentate ligand (py). In the present study, the aquation and binding of the photocontrolled ruthenium(II) arene complex [(η⁶-benz)Ru(bpm)(py)]²⁺ to various biomolecules are studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). Potential energy curves (PECs) calculated for the Ru-N (py) bonds in [(η⁶-benz)Ru(bpm)(py)]²⁺ in the singlet and triplet state give useful insights into the photodissociation mechanism of py. The binding energies of the various biomolecules are calculated, which allows the order of binding affinities among the considered nuleic-acid- or protein-binding sites to be discerned. The kinetics for the replacement of water in the aqua complex with biomolecules is also considered, and the results demonstrate that guanine is superior to other biomolecules in terms of coordinating with the Ru(II) aqua adduct, which is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.

  14. New ruthenium(II) complexes with pyridylpyrazole ligands. Photosubstitution and /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, and /sup 99/Ru NMR structural studies

    Steel, P.J.; LaHousse, F.; Lerner, D.; Marzin, C.


    The preparations and properties of ruthenium (Ru) (II) complexes containing the bidentate ligand (L) 1-(2-pyridyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrazole, are described. The tris complex RuL/sub 3//sup 2 +/ is shown to readily undergo photosubstitution in acetonitrile (CH/sub 3/CN) solution to produce RuL/sub 2/(CH/sub 3/CN)/sub 2//sup 2 +/, which in the presence of other bidentate ligands undergoes thermal substitution of the coordinated acetonitrite. /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, and /sup 99/Ru NMR spectra are reported for all the complexes. Proton and carbon-13 NMR reveal the CH/sub 3/CN presence of geometrical isomerism, where it exists; proton and ruthenium-99 NMR allow the evaluation of the percentage of these isomers. Ruthenium-99 NMR proves to be an excellent probe of electron density at the metal and is possibly useful to evaluate the amount of ..pi..-back-bonding depending on the ligands. Electronic spectral data and oxidation potential measurements are given for comparison with those of the well-known RU(bipyridine)/sub 3//sup 2 +/ complex but do not lead to consistent results. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Solvent-dependent switch of ligand donor ability and catalytic activity of ruthenium(II) complexes containing pyridinylidene amide (PYA) N-heterocyclic carbene hybrid ligands.

    Leigh, Vivienne; Carleton, Daniel J; Olguin, Juan; Mueller-Bunz, Helge; Wright, L James; Albrecht, Martin


    Chelating ligands incorporating both N-[1-alkylpyridin-4(1H)-ylidene]amide (PYA) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donor sites were prepared and used for the synthesis of ruthenium(II) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry, NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopy of the complexes indicate a solvent-dependent contribution of the limiting resonance structures associated with the ligand in solution. The neutral pyridylidene imine structure is more pronounced in apolar solvents (CH2Cl2), while the mesoionic pyridinium amide form is predominant in polar solvents (MeOH, DMSO). The distinct electronic properties of these hybrid PYA-NHC ligands in different solvents have a direct influence on the catalytic activity of the ruthenium center, e.g., in the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The activity in different solvents qualitatively correlates with the solvent permittivity.

  16. Photoinduced electron-transfer processes involving covalently linked ruthenium and cobalt polypyridyl complexes. Comparison of electronic coupling in bridged and nonbridged ruthenium and cobalt complexes

    Song, Xiaoqing; Lei, Yabin; Endicott, J.F. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)); Van Wallendal, S.; Jackman, D.C.; Rillema, D.P. (Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte (United States)); Perkovic, M.W. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States) Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte (United States))


    Photoinduced electron-transfer processes have been examined in a heterobimetallic coordination complex with polypyridyl ligands. Three relaxation processes were observed to follow light absorption by (bpy)[sub 2]Ru(bb)Co(bpy)[sub 2][sup 5+] (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and bb 1,2-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4'-yl)ethane) with lifetimes in water at 25[degrees]C of 0.18, 1, and 6 ns determined using picosecond flash photolysis techniques. These nearly solvent independent relaxation rates are ascribed to forward electron transfer from ([sup 3]MLCT)Ru(bpy)[sub 2][sup 2+] to Co(bpy)[sub 2][sup 3+], spin relaxation at the Co(II) center and back electron transfer from ([sup 4]T[sub 1])Co(bpy)[sub 2][sub 2+] to Ru(bpy)[sub 2][sup 3+]. Luminescence decay of ([sup 3]MLCT)Ru(bpy)[sub 2][sup 2+] has also been used to monitor the electron-transfer quenching step from 77-150 K, and the quenching rate extrapolated to 25[degrees]C (activation energy of 2.2 [times] 10[sup 3] cm[sup [minus]1]) was compatible with the 180-ps lifetime. It is inferred that the back electron transfer rate is retarded by poor donor-acceptor electronic coupling (k[sub el] [congruent] 10[sup [minus]3]). A Mulliken type of perturbational model is proposed to describe the weak electronic coupling in this complex. Spectroscopic parameters are combined with the perturbational expressions to give a plausible account of the electronic coupling in the back-electron-transfer process. 84 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Mechanistic insights into acetophenone transfer hydrogenation catalyzed by half-sandwich ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2-(diphenylphosphanyl)aniline - a combined experimental and theoretical study

    A. Bacchi; M. Balordi; R. Cammi; L. Elviri; C. Pelizzi; F. Picchioni; V. Verdolino; K. Goubitz; R. Peschar; P. Pelagatti


    Several new half-sandwich ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2-(diphenyphosphanyl)aniline (PNH2) of formula {Ru[(kappa P-2,N)PNH2](p-cymene)Cl}Y [Y = Cl (1a), PF6 (1b), BF4 (1c), BPh4 (1d), TfO (1e)] were synthesized and fully characterized both in solution (H-1 NMR and P-31{H-1) NMR spectroscopy) a

  18. Luminescence lifetime standards for the nanosecond to microsecond range and oxygen quenching of ruthenium(II) complexes.

    Morris, Kaleem J; Roach, Michael S; Xu, Wenying; Demas, J N; DeGraff, B A


    A rapid and reproducible method for determining the temperature dependence of luminescence lifetimes has been developed. With the use of this method, a set of standards for the excited-state lifetime oxygen quenching of several ruthenium(II) transition metal complexes was established. With the use of three solvents of different viscosities and two metal complexes with widely different lifetimes, an overlapping range of ca. 100 ns to 6 micros was obtained. The decays are pure single exponentials, which means that they can be used reliably with both phase and pulsed lifetime instruments. For a pure single-exponential decay, a properly operating phase shift instrument will give the same lifetime as a time domain instrument. With the use of a thermal deactivation model and a three-parameter temperature-dependent oxygen quenching constant, the lifetime temperature-dependent data was well fit by a simple six-parameter equation that covers the temperature range of 10-50 degrees C and oxygen pressures from 0 to 1 atm of oxygen with excellent precision (ca. <1%). This permits both laboratory and field calibration of instruments.

  19. Ruthenium(III)/phosphine/pyridine complexes applied in the hydrogenation reactions of polar and apolar double bonds

    Rodrigues, Claudia; Delolo, Fábio G.; Ferreira, Lucas M.; da S. Maia, Pedro I.; Deflon, Victor M.; Rabeah, Jabor; Brückner, Angelika; Norinder, Jakob; Börner, Armin; Bogado, André L.; Batista, Alzir A.


    In this work, five ruthenium(III) complexes containing phosphine and pyridine based ligands with general formula mer-[RuCl3(dppb)(N)] [where dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane and N = pyridine (py), 4-methylpyridine (4-Mepy), 4-vinylpyridine (4-Vpy), 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-tBupy) and 4-phenylpyridine (4-Phpy)] were synthesized and characterized using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques, as well as magnetic susceptibility to check the paramagnetism of these compounds. These complexes were tested as catalytic precursors in hydrogenation reactions with cyclohexene, undecanal and cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde, as compounds bearing Cdbnd C and Cdbnd O groups. Broad screening was carried out in order to find the optimal reaction conditions with the highest conversion. It was found that by using a ratio of Ru-catalyst/substrate = 1:530 at 80 °C and 15 bar of H2 for 24 h, cyclohexene can be reduced. Hydrogenation of undecanal was possible using a Ru-catalyst/substrate ratio of 1:100 at 160 °C and 100 bar for 24 h, and for the reduction of cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde the reaction conditions were Ru-catalyst/substrate ratio of 1:100 at 160 °C and 50 bar for 24 h.

  20. Microwave synthesis of mixed ligand diimine-thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(II): biophysical reactivity and cytotoxicity.

    Beckford, Floyd A; Shaloski, Michael; Leblanc, Gabriel; Thessing, Jeffrey; Lewis-Alleyne, Lesley C; Holder, Alvin A; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P


    A novel microwave-assisted synthetic method has been used to synthesise a series of mixed ligand ruthenium(II) compounds containing diimine as well as bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligands. The compounds contain the diimine 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and the thiosemicarbazone is derived from 9-anthraldehyde. Based on elemental analyses and spectroscopic data, the compounds are best formulated as [(phen)(2)Ru(thiosemicarbazone)](PF(6))(2) and [(phen)(2)Ru(thiosemicarbazone)](PF(6))(2) where thiosemicarbazone = 9-anthraldehydethiosemicarbazone, 9-anthraldehyde-N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone, and 9-anthraldehyde-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone. Fluorescence competition studies with ethidium bromide, along with viscometric measurements suggests that the complexes bind calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) relatively strongly via an intercalative mode possibly involving the aromatic rings of the diimine ligands. The complexes show good cytotoxic profiles against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) as well as HCT 116 and HT-29 (colorectal carcinoma) cell lines.

  1. Structural studies on dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes that bind diastereoselectively to an antiparallel folded human telomere sequence.

    Wilson, Tom; Costa, Paulo J; Félix, Vítor; Williamson, Mike P; Thomas, Jim A


    We report DNA binding studies of the dinuclear ruthenium ligand [{Ru(phen)2}2tpphz](4+) in enantiomerically pure forms. As expected from previous studies of related complexes, both isomers bind with similar affinity to B-DNA and have enhanced luminescence. However, when tested against the G-quadruplex from human telomeres (which we show to form an antiparallel basket structure with a diagonal loop across one end), the ΛΛ isomer binds approximately 40 times more tightly than the ΔΔ, with a stronger luminescence. NMR studies show that the complex binds at both ends of the quadruplex. Modeling studies, based on experimentally derived restraints obtained for the closely related [{Ru(bipy)2}2tpphz](4+), show that the ΛΛ isomer fits neatly under the diagonal loop, whereas the ΔΔ isomer is unable to bind here and binds at the lateral loop end. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the ΔΔ isomer is prevented from binding under the diagonal loop by the rigidity of the loop. We thus present a novel enantioselective binding substrate for antiparallel basket G-quadruplexes, with features that make it a useful tool for quadruplex studies.

  2. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing new keto-enol azoimine ligands: synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and DFT calculations.

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Awwadi, Firas F; Mansi, Ahmad; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S; Hammoudeh, Ayman; Warad, Ismail


    The novel azoimine ligand, Ph-NH-N=C(COCH3)-NHPh(C≡CH) (H2L), was synthesized and its molecular structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Catalytic hydration of the terminal acetylene of H2L in the presence of RuCl3·3H2O in ethanol at reflux temperature yielded a ketone (L1=Ph-N=N-C(COCH3)=N-Ph(COCH3) and an enol (L2=Ph-N=N-C(COCH3)=N-PhC(OH)=CH2) by Markovnikov addition of water. Two mixed-ligand ruthenium complexes having general formula, trans-[Ru(bpy)(Y)Cl2] (1-2) (where Y=L1 (1) and Y=L2 (2), bpy is 2.2'-bipyrdine) were achieved by the stepwise addition of equimolar amounts of (H2L) and bpy ligands to RuCl3·3H2O in absolute ethanol. Theses complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis, and NMR (1D (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (DEPT-135), (DEPT-90), 2D (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H correlation (HMQC) spectroscopy)). The two complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 604 mV vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium (Cp2Fe(0/+)) couple along with one electron ligand reduction at -1010 mV. The crystal structure of complex 1 showed that the bidentate ligand L1 coordinates to Ru(II) by the azo- and imine-nitrogen donor atoms. The complex adopts a distorted trans octahedral coordination geometry of chloride ligands. The electronic spectra of 1 and 1+ in dichloromethane have been modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, electronic structure and catalytic activity of new ruthenium carbonyl complexes of N-[(2-pyridyl)methylidene]-2-aminothiazole

    Kundu, Subhankar; Sarkar, Deblina; Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Pramanik, Ajoy Kumar; Jana, Subrata; Mondal, Tapan Kumar


    Reaction of ruthenium carbonyls, [Ru(CO)2Cl2]n/[Ru(CO)4I2] with bidentate Schiffs base ligands derived by the condensation of pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde with 2-aminothiazole in a 1:1 mole ratio in acetonitrile led to the formation of complexes having general formula [Ru(CO)2(L)X2] (X = Cl (1) and I (2)) (L = N-[(2-pyridyl)methylidene]-2-aminothiazole). The compounds have been characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic (IR, electronic and 1H NMR) studies. In acetonitrile solution the complexes exhibit a weak broad metal-ligand to ligand charge transfer (MLLCT) band along with ILCT transitions. The compounds are emissive in room temperature upon excitation in the ILCT band. The complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 1.44 V for 1 and 0.94 V for 2. Catalytic activity of these compounds is investigated to the oxidation of PhCH2OH to PhCHO, 2-butanol (C4H9OH) to 2-butanone, 1-phenylethanol (PhC2H4OH) to acetophenone, cyclopentanol (C5H9OH) to cyclopentanone, cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone, cycloheptanol to cycloheptanone and cycloctanol to cycloctanone using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMO) as oxidant. The catalytic efficiency of 2 is greater than complex 1 and well correlate with the metal oxidation potential of the complexes. DFT, NBO and TDDFT calculations are employed to explain the structural and electronic features and to support the spectroscopic assignments.

  4. Photochemical activation of ruthenium(II)-pyridylamine complexes having a pyridine-N-oxide pendant toward oxygenation of organic substrates.

    Kojima, Takahiko; Nakayama, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Miyuki; Ogura, Takashi; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi


    Ruthenium(II)-acetonitrile complexes having η(3)-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) with an uncoordinated pyridine ring and diimine such as 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm), [Ru(II)(η(3)-TPA)(diimine)(CH(3)CN)](2+), reacted with m-chloroperbenzoic acid to afford corresponding Ru(II)-acetonitrile complexes having an uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide arm, [Ru(II)(η(3)-TPA-O)(diimine)(CH(3)CN)](2+), with retention of the coordination environment. Photoirradiation of the acetonitrile complexes having diimine and the η(3)-TPA with the uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide arm afforded a mixture of [Ru(II)(TPA)(diimine)](2+), intermediate-spin (S = 1) Ru(IV)-oxo complex with uncoordinated pyridine arm, and intermediate-spin Ru(IV)-oxo complex with uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide arm. A Ru(II) complex bearing an oxygen-bound pyridine-N-oxide as a ligand and bpm as a diimine ligand was also obtained, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis of the isolated O-coordinated Ru(II)-pyridine-N-oxide complex has been investigated to reveal the photodynamics. The Ru(IV)-oxo complex with an uncoordinated pyridine moiety was alternatively prepared by reaction of the corresponding acetonitrile complex with 2,6-dichloropyridine-N-oxide (Cl(2)py-O) to identify the Ru(IV)-oxo species. The formation of Ru(IV)-oxo complexes was concluded to proceed via intermolecular oxygen atom transfer from the uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide to a Ru(II) center on the basis of the results of the reaction with Cl(2)py-O and the concentration dependence of the consumption of the starting Ru(II) complexes having the uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide moiety. Oxygenation reactions of organic substrates by [Ru(II)(η(3)-TPA-O)(diimine)(CH(3)CN)](2+) were examined under irradiation (at 420 ± 5 nm) and showed selective allylic oxygenation of cyclohexene to give cyclohexen-1-ol and cyclohexen-1-one and cumene oxygenation to afford cumyl alcohol

  5. Organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes: synthesis, structure and influence of substitution at azomethine carbon towards DNA/BSA binding, radical scavenging and cytotoxicity.

    Sathyadevi, Palanisamy; Krishnamoorthy, Paramasivam; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Kalaiselvi, Palaniswamy; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy


    Bivalent, ruthenium organometallics containing hydrazone ligands with the composition [RuH(CO)(PPh(3))(2)(L(1-3))] (4-6) have been synthesised from the reactions of [RuH(2)(CO)(PPh(3))(3)] and benzoic acid pyridine-2-ylmethylene-hydrazide (HL(1)) (1) /benzoic acid (1-pyridin-2-yl-ethylidene)-hydrazide (HL(2)) (2)/benzoic acid (phenyl-pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-hydrazide (HL(3)) (3) and characterised by various physico-chemical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the above complexes, [RuH(CO)(PPh(3))(2)(L(3))] (6) demonstrated a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the metal centre. Results of our investigation on the effect of substitution (H or CH(3) or C(6)H(5)) at the azomethine carbon of coordinated hydrazone in these ruthenium chelates on the potential binding with DNA/BSA, free radical scavenging and cytotoxicity is presented.

  6. pH luminescence switching, dihydrogen phosphate sensing, and cellular uptake of a heterobimetallic ruthenium(II)-rhenium(I) complex.

    Zheng, Ze-Bao; Wu, Yong-Quan; Wang, Ke-Zhi; Li, Fuyou


    A new heterobimetallic ruthenium(II)-rhenium(I) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(HL)Re(CO)3Cl](ClO4)2·6H2O (RuHLRe) {bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and HL = 2-(4-(2,6-di(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} was synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of RuHLRe were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric titrations in a 100 : 1 (v/v) Britton-Robinson buffer-CH3CN solution combined with luminescence lifetime measurements. The complex exhibited two-step separate protonation-deprotonation processes in both the ground and excited states. The complex acted as pH-induced "off-on-off" luminescence switches (I(on)/I(off) = 31.0 and 14.6), with one of the switching actions being driven by pH variations over the physiological pH range (5.3-8.0). Importantly, cellular imaging and cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that RuHLRe rapidly and selectively illuminated the membrane of HeLa cells over fixed cells and exhibited reduced cytotoxicity at the imaging concentration compared to the Re(I)-free parent Ru(II) complex. In addition, RuHLRe acted as an efficient "turn on" emission sensor for H2PO4(-) and "turn off" emission sensor for F(-) and OAc(-).

  7. Development and characterization of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on ruthenium complex single layer for transparent displays

    Santos, G.; Fonseca, F.; Andrade, A.M. [Laboratorio de Microelectronica, Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Electronicos, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Patrocinio, A.O.T.; Mizoguchi, S.K.; Murakami Iha, N.Y. [Laboratorio de Fotoquimica Inorganica e Conversao de Energia, Instituto de Quimica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Peres, M.; Monteiro, T.; Pereira, L. [Departamento de Fisica e I3N, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)


    In this work, two ruthenium complexes,[Ru(bpy){sub 3}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} and[Ru(ph2phen){sub 3}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} in poly(methylmethacrylate) matrix were employed to build single-layer light-emitting electrochemical cells by spin coating on indium tin oxide substrate. In both cases the electroluminescence spectra exhibit a relatively broad band with maxima near to 625 nm and CIE (x,y) color coordinates of (0.64,0.36), which are comparable with the photoluminescence data in the same medium. The best result was obtained with the[Ru(bpy){sub 3}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} device where the optical output power approaches 10{mu}W at the band maximum with a wall-plug efficiency higher than 0.03%. The lowest driving voltage is about 4 V for an electrical current of 20 mA. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. The ruthenium complex cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride induces apoptosis and damages DNA in murine sarcoma 180 cells

    Aliny Pereira De Lima; Flávia De Castro Pereira; Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago Vilanova-Costa; Alessandra De Santana Braga Barbosa Ribeiro; Luiz Alfredo Pavanin; Wagner Batista Dos Santos; Elisângela De Paula Silveira-Lacerda


    Ruthenium(III) complexes are increasingly attracting the interest of researchers due to their promising pharmacological properties. Recently, we reported that the cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride compound has cytotoxic effects on murine sarcoma 180 (S-180) cells. In an effort to understand the mechanism responsible for their cytotoxicity, study we investigated the genotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and induction of apoptosis caused by cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride in S-180 tumour cells. cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride treatment induced significant DNA damage in S-180 cells, as detected by the alkaline comet assay. In the cell cycle analysis, cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride caused an increase in the number of cells in G1 phase, accompanied by a decrease in the S and G2 phases after 24 h of treatment. In contrast, the cell cycle distribution of S-180 cells treated with cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride for 48 h showed a concentration-dependent increase in the sub-G1 phase (indicating apoptosis), with a corresponding decrease in cells in the G1, S and G2 phases. In addition, cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride treatment induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner, as observed by the increased numbers of annexin V-positive cells. Taken together, these findings strongly demonstrate that DNA damage, cell cycle changes and apoptosis may correlate with the cytotoxic effects of cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride on S-180 cells.

  9. Effects of tethering alkyl chains for amphiphilic ruthenium complex dyes on their adsorption to titanium oxide and photovoltaic properties.

    Ni, Jen-Shyang; Hung, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ken-Yen; Chang, Yu-Hsun; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Lin, King-Fu


    Ruthenium (II) complex dye, Ru(4,4'-dicarboxyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(4-nonyl-2,2'-bipyridine) (NCS)(2), (denoted as RuC9) tethering single alkyl chain was synthesized and well characterized. Its adsorption behavior onto the mesoporous TiO(2) and photovoltaic properties were compared with Z907 which has similar chemical structure but tethers two alkyl chains. RuC9 dyes tend to aggregate into vesicles in the acetonitrile/t-butanol co-solvent as a result of the amphiphilic structure, whereas Z907 dyes aggregate into lamellae. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with RuC9 dye showed higher short-circuit photocurrent than that with Z907, attributing to its higher molar optical extinction coefficient and more adsorption amount onto the mesoporous TiO(2). However, the DSSC with Z907 dye has higher open-circuit photovoltage and power conversion efficiency, presumably due to the fact that Z907 with more alkyl chains formed a molecular layer with higher hydrophobicity. It reduced the charge recombination in the interface between the dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO(2) and electrolyte as verified by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and intensity modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopies.

  10. Troponate/Aminotroponate Ruthenium-Arene Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Ligand-Tuned Mechanistic Pathway for Direct C-H Bond Arylation with Aryl Chlorides in Water.

    Dwivedi, Ambikesh D; Binnani, Chinky; Tyagi, Deepika; Rawat, Kuber S; Li, Pei-Zhou; Zhao, Yanli; Mobin, Shaikh M; Pathak, Biswarup; Singh, Sanjay K


    A series of water-soluble troponate/aminotroponate ruthenium(II)-arene complexes were synthesized, where O,O and N,O chelating troponate/aminotroponate ligands stabilized the piano-stool mononuclear ruthenium-arene complexes. Structural identities for two of the representating complexes were also established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These newly synthesized troponate/aminotroponate ruthenium-arene complexes enable efficient C-H bond arylation of arylpyridine in water. The unique structure-activity relationship in these complexes is the key to achieve efficient direct C-H bond arylation of arylpyridine. Moreover, the steric bulkiness of the carboxylate additives systematically directs the selectivity toward mono- versus diarylation of arylpyridines. Detailed mechanistic studies were performed using mass-spectral studies including identification of several key cyclometalated intermediates. These studies provided strong support for an initial cycloruthenation driven by carbonate-assisted deprotonation of 2-phenylpyridine, where the relative strength of η(6)-arene and the troponate/aminotroponate ligand drives the formation of cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine Ru-arene species, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(κ(2)-C,N-phenylpyridine) (OH2)](+) by elimination of troponate/aminotroponate ligands and retaining η(6)-arene, while cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine Ru-troponate/aminotroponate species [(κ (2)-troponate/aminotroponate)Ru(κ(2)-C,N-phenylpyridine)(OH2)2] was generated by decoordination of η(6)-arene ring during initial C-H bond activation of 2-phenylpyridine. Along with the experimental mass-spectral evidence, density functional theory calculation also supports the formation of such species for these complexes. Subsequently, these cycloruthenated products activate aryl chloride by facile oxidative addition to generate C-H arylated products.

  11. Design and synthesis of ruthenium(II) OCO pincer type NHC complexes and their catalytic role towards the synthesis of amides

    Muthukumaran Nirmala; Periasamy Viswanathamurthi


    The present contribution describes the synthesis and characterization of a family of robust ruthenium complexes, supported by a tridentate pincer ligand of the type bis-phenolate--heterocyclic carbene [Bu(OCO)2−] (NHC). Ruthenium(II) complexes (1-3) bearing bis-phenolate--heterocyclic carbene ligand were synthesized in good yields by the reaction of imidazolinium proligand (HL) with metal precursors [RuHCl(CO)(EPh3)2(B)] (E = P or As; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py) by transmetalation from the corresponding silver carbene complex. All the Ru(II)-NHC complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic methods as well as ESI mass spectrometry. Based on the spectral results, an octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes. The tridentate nature of the Bu(OCO)2− ligand as well as some level of steric protection provided by the Bu groups may rationalize the excellent stability of the Ru-Ccarbene bond in the present systems. Moreover, for the explorations of catalytic potential of the synthesized compounds, all the three [Ru-NHC] complexes (1-3) were tested as catalysts for amidation of alcohols with amines. Notably, the complex 1 was found to be very efficient and versatile catalyst towards amidation of a wide range of alcohols with amines.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphine and Arsine Complexes of Ruthenium (Ii & Iii Ligated With 3-(4-Pyridyl-4-Substituted-Triazoline-5-Thione

    R. N. Pandey


    Full Text Available Organometallic complexes of ruthenium (II & III with the formula [RuH(CO(Ef32L] and [RuCl2(Ef32L] (E = P/As; L = deprotonated mononegative bidentate 3-(4-pyridyl-triazoline-5-thione and its 4-phenyl substituted derivative were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. All new compounds were iso-structural with precursor complexes. Two triphenyl phosphine or triphenylarsine molecules are at trans-disposition and thioamide ligands behaves as bidentate (N, S donor in assigned octahedral structure.

  13. Substituents Dependent Capability of bis(ruthenium-dioxolene-terpyridine)Complexes Toward Water Oxidation

    Wada, T.; Muckerman, J.; Fujita, E.; Tanaka, K.


    The bridging ligand, 1,8-bis(2,2':6',2{double_prime}-terpyrid-4'-yl)anthracene (btpyan) was synthesized by the Miyaura-Suzuki cross coupling reaction of anthracenyl-1,8-diboronic acid and 4'-triflyl-2,2':6'-2{double_prime}-terpyridine in the presence of Pd(PPh{sub 3}){sub 4} (5 mol%) with 68% in yield. Three ruthenium-dioxolene dimers, [Ru{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(dioxolene){sub 2}(btpyan)]{sup 0} (dioxolene = 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzosemiquinone ([1]{sup 0}), 3,5-dichloro-1,2-benzosemiquinone ([2]{sup 0}) and 4-nitro-1,2-benzosemiquinone ([3]{sup 0})) were prepared by the reaction of [Ru{sub 2}Cl{sub 6}(btpyan)]{sup 0} with the corresponding catechol. The electronic structure of [1]{sup 0} is approximated by [Ru{sub 2}{sup II}(OH){sub 2}(sq){sub 2}(btpyan)]{sup 0} (sq = semiquinonato). On the other hand, the electronic states of [2]{sup 0} and [3]{sup 0} are close to [Ru{sub 2}{sup III}(OH){sub 2} (cat){sub 2}(btpyan)]{sup 0} (cat = catecholato), indicating that a dioxolene having electron-withdrawing groups stabilizes [Ru{sub 2}{sup III}(OH){sub 2}(cat){sub 2}(btpyan)]{sup 0} rather than [Ru{sub 2}{sup II}(OH){sub 2}(sq){sub 2}(btpyan)]{sup 0} as resonance isomers. No sign was found of deprotonation of the hydroxo groups of [1]{sup 0}, whereas [2]{sup 0} and [3]{sup 0} showed an acid-base equilibrium in treatments with t-BuOLi followed by HClO{sub 4}. Furthermore, controlled potential electrolysis of [1]{sup 0} deposited on an ITO (indium-tin oxide) electrode catalyzed the four-electron oxidation of H{sub 2}O to evolve O{sub 2} at potentials more positive than +1.6 V (vs. SCE) at pH 4.0. On the other hand, the electrolysis of [2]{sup 0} and [3]{sup 0} deposited on ITO electrodes did not show catalytic activity for water oxidation under similar conditions. Such a difference in the reactivity among [1]{sup 0}, [2]{sup 0} and [3]{sup 0} is ascribed to the shift of the resonance equilibrium between [Ru{sub 2}{sup II}(OH){sub 2}(sq){sub 2

  14. Ruthenium(II) complexes of saccharin with dipyridoquinoxaline and dipyridophenazine: Structures, biological interactions and photoinduced DNA damage activity.

    Kumar, Priyaranjan; Dasari, Srikanth; Patra, Ashis K


    Ruthenium complexes trans-[Ru(sac)2(dpq)2] (1) and trans-[Ru(sac)2(dppz)2] (2) where sac is artificial sweetener saccharin (o-sulfobenzimide; 1,2-benzothiazole-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (Hsac)), dpq = dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized using various analytical and spectral techniques. Saccharin known to act as carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitor which is a biomarker for highly aggressive and proliferative tumor in hypoxic stress, so inhibition of CA IX is a potential strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. The solid state structures, photophysical properties, photostability, DNA and protein binding affinity, and DNA photocleavage activity were explored. The structural analysis revealed Ru(II) centre is in discrete mononuclear, distorted octahedral {RuN6} coordination geometry with two monoanionic nitrogen donor saccharinate ligands and two neutral bidentate nitrogen donors ligands dpq and dppz. cis-[Ru(sac)2(dppz)2] (cis-2) geometrical isomer was also isolated and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The photo-induced dissociation of monodentate saccharin ligand is observed when irradiated at UV-A light of 365 nm. The complexes show significant binding affinity to the calf thymus DNA (Kb ∼ 10(5) M(-1)) through significant intercalation through planar dpq and dppz ligands. Interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed remarkable tryptophan emission quenching (KBSA ∼10(5) M(-1)). The complexes showed appreciable photoinduced DNA cleavage activity upon irradiation of low power UV-A light of 365 nm from supercoiled (SC) to its nicked circular (NC) form at micromolar complex concentrations. Photocleavage mechanistic studies in presence of O2 reveals involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated through ligand-centered (3)ππ* and/or (3)MLCT excited states generated upon photoactivation leads to nicking of

  15. Cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by metallo-intercalator ruthenium(II) complexes containing chloro-substituted phenylazopyridine.

    Nhukeaw, Tidarat; Temboot, Pornvichai; Hansongnern, Kanidtha; Ratanaphan, Adisorn


    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Breast cancers with a BRCA1 mutation are also frequently triple-negative. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies and known specific molecular targets for this aggressive breast cancer subtype. To address this concern, we have explored the cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells, and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by the ruthenium(II) complexes containing the bidentate ligand, 5-chloro-2-(phenylazo)pyridine. Triple-negative MDA-MB-231, BRCA1-defective HCC1937 and BRCA1-competent MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were treated with ruthenium(II) complexes. The cytoxoxicity of ruthenium-induced breast cancer cells was evaluated by a real time cellular analyzer (RTCA). Cellular uptake of ruthenium complexes was determined by ICP-MS. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed using propidium iodide and Annexin V flow cytometry. The N-terminal BRCA1 RING protein was used for conformational and functional studies using circular dichroism and in vitro ubiquitination. HCC1937 cells were significantly more sensitive to the ruthenium complexes than the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Treatment demonstrated a higher degree of cytotoxicity than cisplatin against all three cell lines. Most ruthenium atoms were retained in the nuclear compartment, particularly in HCC1937 cells, after 24 h of incubation, and produced a significant block at the G2/M phase. An increased induction of apoptotic cells as well as an upregulation of p53 mRNA was observed in all tested breast cancer cells. It was of interest that BRCA1 mRNA and replication of BRCA1-defective cells were downregulated. Changes in the conformation and binding constants of ruthenium-BRCA1 adducts were observed, causing inactivation of the RING heterodimer BRCA1/BARD1-mediated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity

  16. Cytotoxic, DNA binding, DNA cleavage and antibacterial studies of ruthenium-fluoroquinolone complexes

    Mohan N Patel; Hardik N Joshi; Chintan R Patel


    Six new Ru(II) and Ru(III) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, LC-MS, electronic spectra, IR spectra and magnetic moment measurements. DNA-binding properties of Ru complexes have been studied by means of absorption spectrophotometry and viscosity measurements as well as their HS DNA cleavage properties by means of agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results show that all the complexes can bind to DNA via partial intercalative mode. The b values of complexes were found in the range 2.14 × 104 to 2.70 × 105 M-1. All the complexes show excellent efficiency of cleaving DNA than respective fluoroquinolones. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay has been performed to check the cytotoxic activity. The IC50 values of the complexes are in the range of 6.27 to 16.05 g mL-1.

  17. Ruthenium(II) complexes bearing pyridine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: Synthesis, structure and catalytic application over amide synthesis



    A series of four imidazolium salts was synthesized by the reaction of 2-bromopyridine with 1- substituted imidazoles. These imidazolium salts (1a–d) were successfully employed as ligand precursors for the syntheses of new ruthenium(II) complexes bearing neutral bidentate ligands of N-heterocyclic carbene and pyridine donor moiety. The NHC-ruthenium(II) complexes (3a–d) were synthesized by reacting the appropriately substituted pyridine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes with Ag₂O forming the NHC–silver bromide in situ followed by transmetalation with [RuHCl(CO)(PPh₃)₃]. The new complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopy (IR, UV-Vis, ¹H, ¹³C, ³¹P-NMR) as well as ESI mass spectrometry. Based on the spectral results, an octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes. The complexes were shown to be efficient catalysts for the one-pot conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding primary amides with good to excellent isolated yields using NH₂OH.HCl and NaHCO₃. The effects of solvent, base, temperature, time and catalyst loading were also investigated. A broad range of amides were successfully synthesized with excellent isolated yields using the above optimized protocol. Notably, the complex 3a was found to be a very efficient and versatile catalyst towards amidation of a wide range of aldehydes.


    金军挺; 黄吉玲; 陶晓春; 钱延龙


    @@ Transition metal vinylidene complexes (M=C=CHR) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years as a new type of organometallic intermediates that may have unusual reactivity[1]. Their reactivity has been explored and their application to organic synthesis is developed[2]. Recent reports on the ruthenium-vinylidene complexes[3]suggest that the reaction of ruthenium-vinylidene complexes with a base generates the coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium acetylide species, which are involved in a number of catalytic and stoichiometric reactions of alkynes. For example,the coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium acetylide species C5Me5Ru(PPh3)-C≡CPh,formed from the reaction of the vinylidene complex C5Me5Ru(PPh3) (Cl)=C=CHPh with a base was reactive toward a variety of small molecules and active in catalytic dimerization of terminal alkynes[4]. The dimerization of terminal alkyne is an effective method of forming enynes, but its synthetic application in organic synthesis has been limited dueto low selectivity for dimeric products[5]. In this communication, we report that three ruthenium complexes were used as catalysts for the highly selective dimerization of phenylacetylene.

  19. Radiochemistry of ruthenium

    Schulz, W W; Metcalf, S G; Barney, G S


    Information on ruthenium is presented. Topics include the following; isotopes and nuclear properties of ruthenium; review of the chemistry of ruthenium including metal and alloys, compounds of ruthenium, and solution chemistry; separation methods including volatilization of RuO{sub 4}, precipitation and coprecipitation, solvent extraction, chromatographic techniques, and analysis for radioruthenium. 445 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes featuring NHC-sulfonate chelate.

    Rajaraman, A; Sahoo, A R; Hild, F; Fischmeister, C; Achard, M; Bruneau, C


    Three new complexes bearing a chelating (κ(2)C,O) NHC-SO3 ligand have been prepared. An original method for the synthesis of the imidazolium-sulfonate NHC precursor is described. The 5-membered ruthena- and irida-cycle containing complexes were fully characterized and evaluated in a series of catalytic transformations involving hydrogen auto-transfer processes.

  1. Iminophosphanes : Synthesis, Rhodium Complexes, and Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitriles

    Rong, Mark K.; Van Duin, Koen; Van Dijk, Tom; De Pater, Jeroen J.M.; Deelman, Berth Jan; Nieger, Martin; Ehlers, A. W.; Slootweg, J. Chris; Lammertsma, Koop


    Highly stable iminophosphanes, obtained from alkylating nitriles and reaction of the resulting nitrilium ions with secondary phosphanes, were explored as tunable P-monodentate and 1,3-P,N bidentate ligands in rhodium complexes. X-ray crystal structures are reported for both κ1 and κ2 complexes with

  2. Ruthenium(II) arene complexes with oligocationic triarylphosphine ligands: synthesis, DNA interactions and in vitro properties

    Snelders, D.J.M.; Casini, A.; Edafe, F.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; Dyson, P.J.


    The synthesis, DNA binding properties and cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)-arene complexes containing oligocationic ammonium-functionalized triarylphosphines, of the type Ru(p-cymene)Cl2(L) (L ¼ oligocationic phosphine), are reported. The complexes are highly charged (the overall charge states bei

  3. Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction by Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica (PMO) Containing Two Different Ruthenium Complexes as Photosensitizing and Catalytic Sites.

    Kuramochi, Yusuke; Sekine, Masato; Kitamura, Kyohei; Maegawa, Yoshifumi; Goto, Yasutomo; Shirai, Soichi; Inagaki, Shinji; Ishida, Hitoshi


    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) containing 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligands within the framework (BPy-PMO) has great potential for designing novel catalysts by modifying metal complexes. A photosensitizing site (Ru(PS)) was introduced by treating cis-[Ru(bpy)2 (dimethylsulfoxide)Cl]Cl with BPy-PMO. Then a catalytic site (Ru(Cat)) was brought in Ru(PS)x -BPy-PMO by reaction with a ruthenium polymer [Ru(CO)2 Cl2 ]n . The stepwise modification of BPy-PMO successfully affords a novel photocatalyst Ru(PS)x -Ru(Cat)y -BPy-PMO. The molar fractions (x, y) of Ru(PS) and Ru(Cat) were determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurement and quantification of the amount of CO emitted in the photo-decarbonylation of Ru(Cat), respectively. Photochemical CO2 reduction (λex >430 nm) by Ru(PS)x -Ru(Cat)y -BPy-PMO in a CO2 -saturated N,N-dimethylacetamide/water solution containing 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide catalytically produced CO and formate. The total turnover frequency of CO and formate reached more than 162 h(-1) on x=0.11 and y=0.0055. The product selectivity (CO/formate) became large when the ratio of Ru(PS)-to-Ru(Cat) (x/y) was increased. The photocatalysts can be recycled at least three times without losing their catalytic activity, demonstrating that the Ru(PS) and Ru(Cat) units were strongly immobilized on the BPy-PMO framework. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Kinetic effects of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration: nitrile hydratase insights from bioinspired ruthenium(II) complexes.

    Kumar, Davinder; Nguyen, Tho N; Grapperhaus, Craig A


    Kinetic investigations inspired by the metalloenzyme nitrile hydratase were performed on a series of ruthenium(II) complexes to determine the effect of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration. The rate of benzonitrile hydration was quantified as a function of catalyst, nitrile, and water concentrations. Precatalysts L(n)RuPPh3 (n = 1-3; L(1) = 4,7-bis(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(2) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(3) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfenato-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane) were activated by substitution of triphenylphosphine with substrate in hot dimethylformamide solution. Rate measurements are consistent with a dynamic equilibrium between inactive aqua (L(n)Ru-OH2) and active nitrile (L(n)Ru-NCR) derivatives with K = 21 ± 1, 9 ± 0.9, and 23 ± 3 for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Subsequent hydration of the L(n)Ru-NCR intermediate yields the amide product with measured hydration rate constants (k's) of 0.37 ± 0.01, 0.82 ± 0.07, and 1.59 ± 0.12 M(-1) h(-1) for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Temperature dependent studies reveal that sulfur oxidation lowers the enthalpic barrier by 27 kJ/mol, but increases the entropic barrier by 65 J/(mol K). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ (Ru); 6-31G(d) (all other atoms)) support a nitrile bound catalytic cycle with lowering of the reaction barrier as a consequence of sulfur oxidation through enhanced nitrile binding and attack of the water nucleophile through a highly organized transition state.

  5. Comparison of the mechanisms underlying the relaxation induced by two nitric oxide donors: sodium nitroprusside and a new ruthenium complex.

    Bonaventura, Daniella; de Lima, Renata Galvão; Vercesi, Juliana A; da Silva, Roberto Santana; Bendhack, Lusiane M


    We studied the mechanisms involved in the relaxation induced by nitric oxide (NO) donors, ruthenium complex ([Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO(+)](3+)-TERPY) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in denuded rat aorta. Both NO donors induced vascular relaxation independent of the agonist used in the pre-contraction. [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO(+)](3+) and SNP activated guanylyl cyclase (GC) and K(+) channels. The production of cGMP induced by [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO(+)](3+) - was higher than that obtained with SNP. The combination of GC inhibitor with K(+)channels blocker almost abolished the relaxation induced by the NO donors. The extracellular NO scavenger oxyhemoglobin reduced the potency without changing the maximum effect (Emax) of both NO donors. By using specific NO species scavengers, hydroxocobalamin and l-cysteine, we have identified the contribution of free radical NO (NO()) and nytroxil anion (NO(-)), respectively, to the rat aorta relaxation induced by both NO donors. The selective scavengers for NO() and NO(-) reduced the potency but not the Emax of [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO(+)](3+). However, the NO(-) scavenger had no effect on the relaxation induced by SNP and NO() scavenger reduced only the potency to SNP. The inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase reduced only the potency of SNP without effect on the relaxation induced by [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO(+)](3+). Our results demonstrate that both NO donors induce relaxation by activating the GC and K(+) channels. The NO() is the unique NO specie involved in the SNP-relaxation. On the other hand, the relaxant effect of [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO(+)](3+) involves both NO() and NO(-), that produce higher concentration of cGMP. The inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase reduces the relaxation induced by SNP but it did not alter the relaxation induced by [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO(+)](3+).

  6. Multimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes based on biimidazole and bibenzimidazole: Effect of dianionic bridging ligands on Redox and spectral properties

    Rillema, D.P.; Sahai, R.; Matthews, P.; Edwards, A.K.; Shaver, R.J.; Morgan, L. (Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte (USA))


    The preparation and properties of ruthenium(II) complexes containing the ligands 2,2{prime}-biimidazole (BiImH{sub 2}), 2,2{prime}-bibenzimidazole (BiBzImH{sub 2}), and 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) are reported. The complexes described are ((Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}BiIm){sup 2+} and the series (Ru-(bpy){sub n}(BiImH{sub 2}){sub 3{minus}n}){sup 2+}, (Ru(bpy){sub n}(BiBzImH{sub 2}){sub 3{minus}n}){sup 2+}, and (Ru(bpy){sub n}(BiBzImRu(bpy){sub 2}){sub 3{minus}n}){sup 2+}, n = 0-2. The redox potential for the first Ru{sup 3+/2+} couple shifted negatively from 1.26 to {minus}0.26 V vs SSCE as bpy ligands were replaced by BiImH{sub 2}, BiBzImH{sub 2}, and BiBzImRu(bpy){sub 2} ligands. Reductions were found in the {minus}1.5- to {minus}1.6-V range for complexes containing bypyridine ligands, but none were observed out to {minus}2.0 V for (Ru(BiImH{sub 2}){sub 3}){sup 2+} or (Ru(BiBzImH{sub 2}){sub 3}){sup 2+}. The complexes absorbed energy in the visible and UV regions of the spectrum and emitted radiation, with the exception of the tetrametallic species, in the 600-800-nm region. Estimates of the excited-state redox potentials revealed that the excited-state species were powerful reductants, but were weak oxidants. The (Ru{sup III}-(BiBzImRu{sup II}(bpy){sub 2}){sub 3}){sup 3+} cation absorbed in the near-infrared region at 12.2 {times} 10{sup 3} cm{sup {minus}1} in acetonitrile, but the absorption disappeared upon reduction to (Ru{sup II}(BiBzImRu{sup II}(bpy){sub 2}){sub 3}){sup 2+}. The position of the absorption manifold maximum varied linearly with the static and optical dielectric constant of the solvent. 45 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. New ruthenium nitrosyl pincer complexes bearing an O2 ligand. Mono-oxygen transfer.

    Fogler, Eran; Efremenko, Irena; Gargir, Moti; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David


    We report on Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl pincer complexes that can return to their original Ru(0) state by reaction with mono-oxygen scavengers. Potential intermediates were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and a mechanism is proposed, revealing a new type of metal-ligand cooperation consisting of activation of the O2 moiety by both the metal center and the NO ligand. Reaction of the Ru(0) nitrosyl complex 1 with O2 quantitatively yielded the crystallographically characterized Ru((II)) (μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl complex 2. Reaction of 2 with the mono-oxygen scavengers phosphines or CO gave the Ru(0) complex 1 and phosphine oxides, or the carbonyl complex 3 (1 trapped by CO) and CO2, respectively. Reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature or -40 °C resulted in immediate formation of half an equivalent of 1 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide, while half an equivalent of 2 remained unchanged. Overnight reaction at room temperature of 2 with excess CO (≥3 equiv) resulted in 3 and CO2 gas as the only products. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of mono-oxygen source (dioxirane) at -78 °C yielded the Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 2. Similarly, reaction of the Ru(0) dearomatized complex 4 with O2 led to the crystallographicaly characterized Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 5. Further reaction of 5 with mono-oxygen scavengers (phosphines or CO) led to the Ru(0) complex 4 and phosphine oxides or complex 6 (4 trapped by CO) and CO2. When instead only 1 equiv of 5 was reacted with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature, immediate formation of half an equivalent of 4 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide took place, while half an equivalent of 5 remained unchanged. When 5 reacted with an excess of CO (≥3 equiv), complex 6 and CO2 gas were the only products obtained. DFT studies indicate a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving the nitrosyl ligand in the oxygen transfer process.

  8. The Synthesis, Characterization and Reactivity of a Series of Ruthenium N-triphosPh Complexes

    Phanopoulos, Andreas; Long, Nicholas; Miller, Philip


    Herein we report the synthesis of a tridentate phosphine ligand N(CH2PPh2)3 (N-triphosPh) (1) via a phosphorus based Mannich reaction of the hydroxylmethylene phosphine precursor with ammonia in methanol under a nitrogen atmosphere. The N-triphosPh ligand precipitates from the solution after approximately 1 hr of reflux and can be isolated analytically pure via simple cannula filtration procedure under nitrogen. Reaction of the N-triphosPh ligand with [Ru3(CO)12] under reflux affords a deep red solution that show evolution of CO gas on ligand complexation. Orange crystals of the complex [Ru(CO)2{N(CH2PPh2)3}-κ3P] (2) were isolated on cooling to RT. The 31P{1H} NMR spectrum showed a characteristic single peak at lower frequency compared to the free ligand. Reaction of a toluene solution of complex 2 with oxygen resulted in the instantaneous precipitation of the carbonate complex [Ru(CO3)(CO){N(CH2PPh2)3}-κ3P] (3) as an air stable orange solid. Subsequent hydrogenation of 3 under 15 bar of hydrogen in a high-pressure reactor gave the dihydride complex [RuH2(CO){N(CH2PPh2)3}-κ3P] (4), which was fully characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. Complexes 3 and 4 are potentially useful catalyst precursors for a range of hydrogenation reactions, including biomass-derived products such as levulinic acid (LA). Complex 4 was found to cleanly react with LA in the presence of the proton source additive NH4PF6 to give [Ru(CO){N(CH2PPh2)3}-κ3P{CH3CO(CH2)2CO2H}-κ2O](PF6) (6). PMID:25938678

  9. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of ruthenium flavanol complexes against breast cancer

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Gunjan; Sahabjada; Arshad, M.


    Four Ru(II) DMSO complexes (M1R-M4R) having substituted flavones viz. 3-Hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (HL1), 3-Hydroxy-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (HL2), 3-Hydroxy-2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (HL3) and 3-Hydroxy-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (HL4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR spectroscopies and ESI-MS. The molecular structures of the complexes were investigated by integrated spectroscopic and computational techniques (DFT). Both ligands as well as their complexes were screened for anticancer activities against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Cytotoxicity was assayed by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. All ligands and their complexes exhibited significant cytotoxic potential of 5-40 μM concentration at incubation period of 24 h. The cell cytotoxicity increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. In this series of compounds, HL2 (IC50 17.2 μM) and its complex M2R (IC50 16 μM) induced the highest cytotoxicity.

  10. New ruthenium(II bipyridyl complex: Synthesis, crystal structure and cytotoxicity

    Baroud Afya A.


    Full Text Available A new Ru(II bipyridyl complex with O4-hydrogenpyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate was synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction analysis and elemental analysis. The electrochemical characteristics of the complex were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, revealing Ru(II/Ru(III electron transfer in the positive range of potentials. On the opposite potential side, multiple partially reversible peaks were dominant, representing subsequent reductions of the bulky bipyridyl moiety. The cytotoxic activity of the complex was tested in two human cancer cell lines: A549 (lung cancer and K562 (leukemia as well as non-tumor MRC-5 cells, by MTT assays. The IC50 values were > 300 and 177.63±2.28 μM for the A549 and K562 cells, respectively. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172035

  11. Protein-binding, cytotoxicity in vitro and cell cycle arrest of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes

    Liu, Si-Hong; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Xu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ya-Min; Liang, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Qiang; Cao, Di-Hua; Lin, Yang-Yang; Wu, Yong; Guo, Qi-Feng


    The cytotoxic activity of two Ru(II) complexes against A549, BEL-7402, HeLa, PC-12, SGC-7901 and SiHa cell lines was investigated by MTT method. Complexes 1 and 2 show moderate cytotoxicity toward BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 53.9 ± 3.4 and 39.3 ± 2.1 μM. The effects of the complexes inducing apoptosis, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential in BEL-7402 cells have been studied by fluorescence microscopy. The percentages of apoptotic and necrotic cells and cell cycle arrest were studied by flow cytometry. The BSA-binding behaviors were investigated by UV/visible and fluorescent spectra.

  12. Rational Design of Ruthenium Complexes Containing 2,6-Bis(benzimidazolyl)pyridine Derivatives with Radiosensitization Activity by Enhancing p53 Activation.

    Deng, Zhiqin; Yu, Lianling; Cao, Wenqiang; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng


    The rational design of metal-based complexes is an effective strategy for the discovery of potent sensitizers for use in cancer radiotherapy. In this study, we synthesized three ruthenium complexes containing bis-benzimidazole derivatives: Ru(bbp)Cl3 (1), [Ru(bbp)2 ]Cl2 (2 a) (in which bbp=2,6-bis(benzimidazol-1-yl)pyridine), and [Ru(bbp)2]Cl2 (2 b) (where bbp=2,6-bis-(6-nitrobenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine). We evaluated their radiosensitization capacities in vitro and mechanisms of action. Complex 2 b was found to be particularly effective in sensitizing human melanoma A375 cells toward radiation, with a sensitivity enhancement ratio of 2.4. Along with this potency, complex 2 b exhibited a high degree of selectivity between human cancer and normal cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that 2 b promotes radiation-induced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by reacting with cellular glutathione (GSH) and then causing DNA stand breaks. The subsequent DNA damage induces phosphorylation of p53 (p-p53) and upregulates the expression levels of p21, which inhibits the expression of cyclin-B, leading to G2M arrest. Moreover, p-p53 activates caspases-3 and -8, triggers cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), finally resulting in apoptosis. Taken together, the results of this study provide a strategy for the design of ruthenium-based radiosensitizers for use in cancer therapy.

  13. Sequential picosecond isomerizations in a photochromic ruthenium sulfoxide complex triggered by pump-repump-probe spectroscopy.

    King, Albert W; Jin, Yuhuan; Engle, James T; Ziegler, Christopher J; Rack, Jeffrey J


    The complex [Ru(bpy)(2)(bpSO)](PF(6))(2), where bpy is 2,2'-bipydine and bpSO is 1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane, exhibits three distinct isomers which are accessible upon metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) irradiation. This complex and its parent, [Ru(bpy)(2)(bpte)](PF(6))(2), where bpte is 1,2-bis(phenylthio)ethane, have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, NMR, X-ray crystallography, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A novel method of 2-color Pump-Repump-Probe spectroscopy has been employed to investigate all three isomers of the bis-sulfoxide complex. This method allows for observation of the isomerization dynamics of sequential isomerizations of each sulfoxide from MLCT irradiation of the S,S-bonded complex to ultimately form the O,O-bonded metastable complex. One-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) (COSY, NOESY, and TOCSY) (1)H NMR data show the thioether and ground state S,S-bonded sulfoxide complexes to be rigorously C(2) symmetric and are consistent with the crystal structures. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the S,S to S,O isomerization occurs with an observed time constant of 56.8 (±7.4) ps. The S,O to O,O isomerization time constant was found to be 59 (±4) ps by pump-repump-probe spectroscopy. The composite S,S- to O,O-isomer quantum yield is 0.42.

  14. Highly enantioselective asymmetric autocatalysis using chiral ruthenium complex-ion-exchanged synthetic hectorite as a chiral initiator.

    Kawasaki, Tsuneomi; Omine, Toshiki; Suzuki, Kenta; Sato, Hisako; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Soai, Kenso


    The synthetic hectorite containing intercalated chiral Delta- and Lambda-tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) ions acts as a heterogeneous chiral catalyst in the enantioselective addition of diisopropylzinc to pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde to afford, in combination with asymmetric autocatalytic amplification of enantiomeric excess, 5-pyrimidyl alkanol with high enantiomeric excess.

  15. Comparison of physical and photophysical properties of monometallic and bimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes containing structurally altered diimine ligands

    Macatangay, A.; Jackman, D.C.; Merkert, J.W. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)] [and others


    The physical and photophysical properties of a series of monometallic, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(dmb)]{sup 2+}, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 2+}, [Ru(bpy)(Obpy)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(Obpy)] {sup 2+}, and bimetallic, [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 4+} and [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 4+}, complexes are examined, where bpy is 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, dmb is 4,4{prime}-dimethyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine, BPY is 1,2-bis(4-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridin-4{prime}-yl)ethane, and Obpy is 1,2-bis(2,2{prime}-bipyridin-6-yl)ethane. The complexes display metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions in the 450 nmn region, intraligand {pi}{yields}{pi}* transitions at energies greater than 300 nm, a reversible oxidation of the ruthenium(II) center in the 1.25-1.40 V vs SSCE region, a series of three reductions associated with each coordinated ligand commencing at {minus}1.3 V and ending at {approximately}{minus}1.9 V, and emission from a {sup 3}MLCT state having energy maxima between 598 and 610 nm. The Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} oxidation of the two bimetallic complexes is a single, two one-electron process. Relative to [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 2+}, the Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} potential for [Ru-(bpy){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 2+} increases from 1.24 to 1.35 V, the room temperature emission lifetime decreases from 740 to 3ns, and the emission quantum yield decreases from 0.078 to 0.000 23. Similarly, relative to [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 4+}, the Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} potential for [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 4+} increases from 1.28 to 1.32 V, the room temperature emission lifetime decreases from 770 to 3 ns, and the room temperature emission quantum yield decreases from 0.079 to 0.000 26.

  16. Backbone tuning in indenylidene–ruthenium complexes bearing an unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene

    César A. Urbina-Blanco


    Full Text Available The steric and electronic influence of backbone substitution in IMes-based (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC was probed by synthesizing the [RhCl(CO2(NHC] series of complexes to quantify experimentally the Tolman electronic parameter (electronic and the percent buried volume (%Vbur, steric parameters. The corresponding ruthenium–indenylidene complexes were also synthesized and tested in benchmark metathesis transformations to establish possible correlations between reactivity and NHC electronic and steric parameters.

  17. Structure-function relationships within Keppler-type antitumor ruthenium(III) complexes: the case of 2-aminothiazolium[trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)].

    Mura, Pasquale; Piccioli, Francesca; Gabbiani, Chiara; Camalli, Mercedes; Messori, Luigi


    Keppler-type ruthenium(III) complexes exhibit promising antitumor properties. We report here a study of 2-aminothiazolium[trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)], both in the solid state and in solution. The crystal structure has been solved and found to exhibit classical features. Important solvatochromic effects were revealed. Notably, we observed that introduction of an amino group in position 2 greatly accelerates chloride hydrolysis compared to the thiazole analogue; this latter finding may be of interest for a fine-tuning of the reactivity of these novel metallodrugs.

  18. MCM-41 Bound Ruthenium Complex as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Hydrogenation Ⅰ: Effect of Support, Ligand and Solvent on the Catalyst Performance

    YU, Ying-Min; FEI, Jin-Hua; ZHANG, Yi-Ping; ZHENG, Xiao-Ming


    The functionalized MCM-41 mesoporous bound ruthenium complex was synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, BET, XRD and FTIR. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to formic acid was investigated over these catalysts under supercritical CO2 condition. The effect of reactant gas partial pressure, supports, solvents and ligands on the synthesis of formic acid was studied. These factors could influence the catalyst activity, stability and reuse performance greatly and no byproduct was detected. These promising catalysts also offered the industrial advantages such as easy separation.

  19. Tuning interaction in dinuclear ruthenium complexes : HOMO versus LUMO mediated superexchange through azole and azine bridges

    Browne, Wesley; Hage, R; Vos, Johannes G.


    In this review the interaction between metal centers in dinuclear complexes based on azole and azine containing bridging ligands is reviewed. The focus of the review is on the manner in which the interaction pathway can be manipulated by variations in the nature of both the direct bridging unit and

  20. η6-Arene complexes of ruthenium and osmium with pendant donor functionalities

    Reiner, Thomas


    Conversion of 4′-(2,5-dihydrophenyl)butanol or N-trifluoroacetyl-2,5- dihydrobenzylamine with MCl3·n H2O (M = Ru, Os) affords the corresponding dimeric η6-arene complexes in good to excellent yields. Under similar reaction conditions, the amine functionalized arene precursor 2,5-dihydrobenzylamine yields the corresponding Ru(II) complex. For osmium, HCl induced oxidation leads to formation of [OsCl6] 2- salts. However, under optimized reaction conditions, conversion of the precursor 2,5-dihydrobenzylamine chloride results in clean formation of η6-arene Os(II) complex. X-ray structures of [(η6- benzyl ammonium)(dmso)RuCl2] and (2,5-dihydrobenzyl ammonium) 4[OsCl6]2confirm the spectroscopic data. High stability towards air and acid as well as enhanced solubility in water is observed for all η6-arene complexes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A glycine ruthenium trithiacyclononane complex and its molecular encapsulation using cyclodextrins.

    Marques, Joana; Santos, Teresa M; Marques, Maria Paula; Braga, Susana S


    The complex Ru([9]aneS(3))(gly)Cl (gly = glycine) was obtained from the reaction of the precursor Ru([9]aneS(3))dmsoCl(2) with glycine and encapsulated into native beta-CD, a hydroxypropylated derivative HPbetaCD, and the methylated cyclodextrins TRIMEB and CRYSMEB. All four inclusion compounds were obtained with a 1:1 host:guest stoichiometry and characterised in the solid-state by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and (13)C{(1)H} CP/MAS NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. The cytostatic and antiproliferative activity of the complex Ru([9]aneS(3))(gly)Cl and its four CD inclusion compounds was tested on the human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line and the results compared to the inhibitory effect exerted by the pure cyclodextrins.


    Page, Norman J; Talkington, Raymond W.


    Samples of spinel lherzolite, harzburgite, dunite, and chromitite from the Bay of Islands, Lewis Hills, Table Mountain, Advocate, North Arm Mountain, White Hills Periodite Point Rousse, Great Bend and Betts Cove ophiolite complexes in Newfoundland were analyzed for the platinum-group elements (PGE) Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru and Ir. The ranges of concentration (in ppb) observed for all rocks are: less than 0. 5 to 77 (Pd), less than 1 to 120 (Pt), less than 0. 5 to 20 (Rh), less than 100 to 250 (Ru) and less than 20 to 83 (Ir). Chondrite-normalized PGE ratios suggest differences between rock types and between complexes. Samples of chromitite and dunite show relative enrichment in Ru and Ir and relative depletion in Pt and Pd.

  3. Hexakis (PCP-Platinum and -Ruthenium) Complexes by the Transcyclometalation Reaction and Their Use in Catalysis

    Koten, G. van; Dijkstra, H.P.; Albrecht, M.; Medici, S.; Klink, G.P.M. van


    Hexakis(PCP-pincer) complexes [C6{PtBr(PCP)}6] (5d) and [C6{RuCl(PCP)(PPh3)}6] (5e) were synthesized via the transcyclometalation (TCM) procedure. Mixing the hexakis(PCHP-arene) ligand 7 with six equivalents of [PtBr(NCN)] (1a) or [RuCl(NCN)(PPh3)] (1b), respectively, resulted in the selective

  4. From ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst to (η5-3-phenylindenyl)hydrido complex via alcoholysis.

    Manzini, Simone; Nelson, David J; Lebl, Tomas; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P


    The synthesis and characterisation of [Ru(H)(η(5)-3-phenylindenyl)((i)Bu-Phoban)2] 4 is reported ((i)Bu-Phoban = 9-isobutyl-9-phosphabicyclo-[3.3.1]-nonane). 4 is obtained via alcoholysis of metathesis pre-catalyst M11, in a process that was previously thought to be limited to analogous complex [RuCl2(PPh3)2(3-phenylindenylidene)] (M10).

  5. From ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst to (η5-3- phenylindenyl)hydrido complex via alcoholysis

    Manzini, Simone


    The synthesis and characterisation of [Ru(H)(η5-3- phenylindenyl)(iBu-Phoban)2] 4 is reported ( iBu-Phoban = 9-isobutyl-9-phosphabicyclo-[3.3.1]-nonane). 4 is obtained via alcoholysis of metathesis pre-catalyst M11, in a process that was previously thought to be limited to analogous complex [RuCl 2(PPh3)2(3-phenylindenylidene)] (M 10). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Ultrafast spectroscopy and structural characterization of a photochromic isomerizing ruthenium bis-sulfoxide complex.

    King, Albert W; Malizia, Jason P; Engle, James T; Ziegler, Christopher J; Rack, Jeffrey J


    Irradiation of [Ru(bpy)2(bpSOp)](PF6)2 (where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine and bpSOp is 1,3-bis(phenylsulfinyl)propane) results in the formation of two new isomers, namely the S,O- and O,O-bonded species. The crystal structure of the bis-thioether and bis-sulfoxide complexes are reported. NMR spectroscopy of the bis-thioether complex in solution is consistent with the molecular structure determined by diffraction methods. Further, NMR spectroscopy of the bis-sulfoxide complex reveals two conformers in solution, one that is consistent with the solid state structure and a second conformer showing distortion in the aliphatic portion of the chelate ring. Time-resolved visible absorption spectroscopy reveals isomerization time constants of 91 ps in dichloroethane (DCE) and 229 ps in propylene carbonate (PC). Aggregate isomerization quantum yields of 0.57 and 0.42 have been determined in DCE and in PC, respectively. The kinetics of the thermal reversion from the O,O- to S,O-bonded isomer are strongly solvent dependent, occurring with rates of 2.41 × 10(-3) and 4.39 × 10(-5) s(-1) in DCE, and 4.68 × 10(-4) and 9.79 × 10(-6) s(-1) in PC. The two kinetic components are assigned to the two isomers identified in solution.

  7. RutheniumII(η6-arene Complexes of Thiourea Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization and Urease Inhibition

    Muhammad Hanif


    Full Text Available RuII(arene complexes have emerged as a versatile class of compounds to design metallodrugs as potential treatment for a wide range of diseases including cancer and malaria. They feature modes of action that involve classic DNA binding like platinum anticancer drugs, may covalent binding to proteins, or multimodal biological activity. Herein, we report the synthesis and urease inhibition activity of RuII(arene complexes of the general formula [RuII(η6-p-cymene(LCl2] and [RuII(η6-p-cymene(PPh3(LCl]PF6 with S-donor systems (L based on heterocyclic thiourea derivatives. The compounds were characterized by 1H-, 13C{1H}- and 31P{1H}-NMR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. The crystal structure of [chlorido(η6-p-cymene(imidazolidine-2-thione(triphenylphosphineruthenium(II] hexafluorophosphate 11 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. A signal in the range 175–183 ppm in the 13C{1H}-NMR spectrum indicates the presence of a thione rather than a thiolate. This observation was also confirmed in the solid state by X-ray diffraction analysis of 11 which shows a C=S bond length of 1.720 Å. The compounds were tested for urease inhibitory activity and the thiourea-derived ligands exhibited moderate activity, whereas their corresponding Ru(arene complexes were not active.

  8. Proton coupled electron transfer from the excited state of a ruthenium(II) pyridylimidazole complex.

    Pannwitz, Andrea; Wenger, Oliver S


    Proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) from the excited state of [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; pyimH = 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole) to N-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (monoquat, MQ(+)) was studied. While this complex has been investigated previously, our study is the first to show that the formal bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of the imidazole-N-H bond decreases from (91 ± 1) kcal mol(-1) in the electronic ground state to (43 ± 5) kcal mol(-1) in the lowest-energetic (3)MLCT excited state. This makes the [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) complex a very strong (formal) hydrogen atom donor even when compared to metal hydride complexes, and this is interesting for light-driven (formal) hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions with a variety of different substrates. Mechanistically, formal HAT between (3)MLCT excited [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) and monoquat in buffered 1 : 1 (v : v) CH3CN/H2O was found to occur via a sequence of reaction steps involving electron transfer from Ru(ii) to MQ(+) coupled to release of the N-H proton to buffer base, followed by protonation of reduced MQ(+) by buffer acid. Our study is relevant in the larger contexts of photoredox catalysis and light-to-chemical energy conversion.

  9. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline ZnO Solar Cells Based on Ruthenium(II Phendione Complexes

    Hashem Shahroosvand


    Full Text Available The metal complexes (RuII (phen2(phendione(PF62(1, [RuII (phen(bpy(phendione(PF62 (2, and (RuII (bpy2(phendione(PF62 (3 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and phendione = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione have been synthesized as photo sensitizers for ZnO semiconductor in solar cells. FT-IR and absorption spectra showed the favorable interfacial binding between the dye-molecules and ZnO surface. The surface analysis and size of adsorbed dye on nanostructure ZnO were further examined with AFM and SEM. The AFM images clearly show both, the outgrowth of the complexes which are adsorbed on ZnO thin film and the depression of ZnO thin film. We have studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phendione complexes, which gave power conversion efficiency of (η of 1.54% under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm−2 with a short-circuit photocurrent density (sc of 3.42 mA cm−2, an open-circuit photovoltage (oc of 0.622 V, and a fill factor (ff of 0.72. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 38% at 485 nm.

  10. Interaction and Binding Modes of bis-Ruthenium(II Complex to Synthetic DNAs

    Hasi Rani Barai


    Full Text Available [μ-(linkerL2(dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine2(phenanthroline2Ru(II2]2+ with linker: 1,3-bis-(4-pyridyl-propane, L: PF6 (bis-Ru-bpp was synthesized and their binding properties to a various polynucleotides were investigated by spectroscopy, including normal absorption, circular dichroism(CD, linear dichroism(LD, and luminescence techniques in this study. On binding to polynucleotides, the bis-Ru-bpp complex with poly[d(A-T2], and poly[d(I-C2] exhibited a negative LDr signal whose intensity was as large as that in the DNA absorption region, followed by a complicated LDr signal in the metal-to-ligand charge transfer region. Also, the emission intensity and equilibrium constant of the bis-Ru-bpp complex with poly[d(A-T2], and poly[d(I-C2] were enhanced. It was reported that both of dppz ligand of the bis-Ru-bpp complex intercalated between DNA base-pairs when bound to native, mixed sequence DNA. Observed spectral properties resemble to those observed for poly[d(A-T2] and poly[d(I-C2], led us to be concluded that both dppz ligands intercalate between alternated AT and IC bases-pairs In contrast when bis-Ru-bpp complex was bound to poly[d(G-C2], the magnitude of the LDr in the dppz absorption region, as well as the emission intensity, was half in comparison to that of bound to poly[d(A-T2], and poly[d(I-C2]. Therefore the spectral properties of the bis-Ru-bpp-poly[d(G-C2] complex suggested deviation from bis-intercalation model in the poly[d(G-C2] case. These results can be explained by a model whereby one of the dppz ligands is intercalated while the other is exposed to solvent or may exist near to phosphate. Also it is indicative that the amine group of guanine in the minor groove provides the steric hindrance for incoming intercalation binder and it also takes an important role in a difference in binding of bis-Ru-bpp bound to poly[d(A-T2] and poly[d(I-C2].

  11. Electrochemical properties of the hexacyanoferrate(II)–ruthenium(III) complex immobilized on silica gel surface chemically modified with zirconium(IV) oxide

    Panice, Lucimara B.; Oliveira, Elisangela A. de; Filho, Ricardo A.D. Molin; Oliveira, Daniela P. de [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Andreotti, Elza I.S.; Sernaglia, Rosana L. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Gushikem, Yoshitaka [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)


    Highlights: • The cyano-bridged mixed valence ruthenium composite material was synthesized. • This newly synthesized compound was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode. • The electrode did not show significant changes in response after six months of use. • The modified electrode is very stable and reproducible. • The electrode sensor was successfully applied for ascorbic acid determination. - Abstract: The chemically modified silica gel with zirconium(IV) oxide was used to immobilize the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4−} complex ion initially. The reaction of this material with [Ru(edta)H{sub 2}O]{sup −} complex ion formed the immobilized cyano-bridged mixed valence ruthenium complex, (≡Zr){sub 5}[(edta)RuNCFe(CN){sub 5}]. This material was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode and, its electrochemical properties were investigated. However, for an ascorbic acid solution, an enhancement of the anodic peak current was detected due to electrocatalytic oxidation. The electrode presented the same response for at least 150 successive measurements, with a good repeatability. The modified electrode is very stable and reproducible. The sensor was applied for ascorbic acid determination in pharmaceutical preparation with success.

  12. Alcohol amination with ammonia catalyzed by an acridine-based ruthenium pincer complex: a mechanistic study.

    Ye, Xuan; Plessow, Philipp N; Brinks, Marion K; Schelwies, Mathias; Schaub, Thomas; Rominger, Frank; Paciello, Rocco; Limbach, Michael; Hofmann, Peter


    The mechanistic course of the amination of alcohols with ammonia catalyzed by a structurally modified congener of Milstein's well-defined acridine-based PNP-pincer Ru complex has been investigated both experimentally and by DFT calculations. Several key Ru intermediates have been isolated and characterized. The detailed analysis of a series of possible catalytic pathways (e.g., with and without metal-ligand cooperation, inner- and outer-sphere mechanisms) leads us to conclude that the most favorable pathway for this catalyst does not require metal-ligand cooperation.

  13. A Proton-Switchable Bifunctional Ruthenium Complex That Catalyzes Nitrile Hydroboration.

    Geri, Jacob B; Szymczak, Nathaniel K


    A new bifunctional pincer ligand framework bearing pendent proton-responsive hydroxyl groups was prepared and metalated with Ru(II) and subsequently isolated in four discrete protonation states. Stoichiometric reactions with H2 and HBPin showed facile E-H (E = H or BPin) activation across a Ru(II)-O bond, providing access to unusual Ru-H species with strong interactions with neighboring proton and boron atoms. These complexes were found to promote the catalytic hydroboration of ketones and nitriles under mild conditions, and the activity was highly dependent on the ligand's protonation state. Mechanistic experiments revealed a crucial role of the pendent hydroxyl groups for catalytic activity.

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of ruthenium carbonyl complexes with cyclometallated ligands derived from senecialdimine

    Mul, WP; Elsevier, CJ; Vuurman, MA; Smeets, WJJ; Spek, AL; deBoer, JL


    From thermal reactions of Ru-3(CO)(12) with senecialdimine, (CH3)(2)C=CHCH=NR (R = iPr (a), t-Bu (b)), in refluxing heptanes the following complexes have been isolated and characterised: Ru-2(CO)(6)[(CH3)(2)C(H)CC(H)NR] (2a,b), Ru-2(Co)(6)[C(H)C(CH3)C(H)C(H)=NR] (3a,b), [HRu6(CO)(18)][2-(C(H)=C(CH3)

  15. The Combination of 4-Hydroxythiazoles with Azaheterocycles: Efficient bidentate Ligands for novel Ruthenium Complexes

    Beckert, Rainer; Weiss, Dieter


    Abstract We report here on the synthesis of three novel ligands in which an azaheterocycle is connected with a thiazole subunit: 4-methoxy-5-methyl-2-pyridine-2-yl-1,3-thiazole (1), 4-methoxy-5-methyl-2-pyrimidine-2-yl-1,3-thiazole (2) and 4-methoxy-5-phenyl-2-pyridine-2-yl-1,3-thiazole (3). Being cyclic versions of 1,4-diazadienes, they offer good prerequisites for the synthesis of metal complexes and have been employed as chelating ligands. Three novel heteroleptic cationic compl...

  16. The Effect of Dye Density on the Efficiency of Photosensitization of TiO2 Films: Light-Harvesting by Phenothiazine-Labelled Dendritic Ruthenium Complexes

    Lin-Yong Zhu


    Full Text Available A family of dendritic tris-bipyridyl ruthenium coordination complexes incorporating two or four carboxylate groups for binding to a TiO2 surface site and another dendritic linker between the metal complex and highly absorptive dyes were formulated as thin films on TiO2 coated glass. The family included phenothiazine-substituted dendrons of increasing structural complexity and higher optical density. The dye-loaded films were characterized by steady-state emission and absorption measurements and by kinetic studies of luminescence and transient absorption. Upon photoexcitation of the bound dyes, rapid electron injection into the metal oxide film was the dominant observed process, producing oxidized dye that persisted for hundreds of milliseconds. Complex decay profiles for emission, transient absorption, and optical bleaching of the dendritic dyes point to highly heterogeneous behavior for the films, with observed persistence lifetimes related directly to structurally enhance electronic coupling between the metal oxide support and the dendritic dyes.

  17. Crystal structure, physical, and photophysical properties of a ruthenium(II) bipyridine diazafluorenone complex

    Wang, Y.; Jackman, D.C.; Rillema, D.P. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)] [and others


    The complex [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(dafo)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}, where bpy is 2,2{prime}-bipyridine and dafo is diazafluorenone crystallizes in the space group P2{sub 1}/n with a = 9.5059(3){angstrom}, b = 14.002(2){angstrom} and c = 25.783(8){angstrom}. The coordination geometry of the Ru atom is that of a distorted octahedron with a RuN{sub 6} core. The two Ru-N bond distances to the dafo ligand are 2.13(1) and 2.15(1) {angstrom}; the four Ru-N bond distances to the bipyridine ligands are 2.03(1), 2.05(1), 2.06(1), and 2.07(1) {angstrom}. The three shortest Ru-N distances are trans to the three longest Ru-N distances. The complex is oxidized and reduced reversibly at 1.41 and -0.65 V vs. SSCE, respectively. It displays absorptions at 438 nm (1.6 x 10{sup 4}), 285 nm (6.2 x 10{sup 4}), and 240 nm (4.1 x 10{sup 4}) and a broad emission centered at 626 nm in water at room temperature. The emission lifetime is 420 ns and the emission quantum yield is 5.3 x 10{sup -4}.

  18. A study on tailor made ruthenium sulfoxide complexes: Synthesis, characterization and application

    Mehrotra Ripul


    Full Text Available In this study, a dinucleating spacer incorporating two 2-aminopyridine units has been used to prepare seven novel dinuclear compounds. These molecules were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility, FT-IR, FAB-Mass, electronic, 1H and 13C{1H}NMR spectral studies. The complex [{trans,mer-RuCl2(DMSO3}2(μ-5,5'-methylenebis(2-aminopyridine].2DMSO, 2 was also characterized through 1H-1H COSY NMR. There are mainly three different formulations; [{cis,fac-RuCl2(SO3}2(μ-MBAP].2SO; [{trans,mer-RuCl2(SO3}2(μ-MBAP].2SO and [{trans-RuCl4(SO}2(μ-MBAP]2- [X]2+; where SO = DMSO / TMSO; MBAP = 5,5'-methylenebis(2-aminopyridine and [X]+ = [(DMSO2H]+, Na+ or [(TMSOH]+. The coordination was found through cyclic nitrogen of pyridine ring in octahedral environment for both metal centers. The chemical behivour of [{cis,fac-RuCl2(DMSO3}2(μ-5,5'-methylenebis(2-aminopyridine].2DMSO, 1 and 2 in aqueous solution with respect to time was observed by conductivity measurements and UV-vis spectrophotometer. All complexes were found to possess prominent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in comparison to Chloramphenicol and Gatifloxacin.

  19. Complexes of ruthenium(III) with some 2-aminothiazole derivatives/synthesis, properties and pharmacological studies.

    Nikolova, Antonina; Ivanov, Darvin; Bontchev, Panayot; Buyukliev, Rossen; Mehandjiev, Dimitar; Gochev, Georgi; Konstantinov, Spiro; Karaivanova, Margarita


    Four new complexes of Ru(III) with a general formula [Ru(L)2Cl2]Cl, where L = 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole (CAS 2010-06-2), 2-amino-4-methylthiazole (CAS 1603-91-4), ethyl 2-amino-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylate (CAS 7210-76-6) and ethyl 2-amino-4-phenyl-5-thiazolecarboxylate (CAS 64399-23-1), were prepared. The syntheses were carried out in polar medium and inert atmosphere at a molar ratio Ru:L = 1:2 or 1:3. The compounds obtained were characterised by IR-, 1H-NMR- 13C-NMR-, UV-VIS-, EPR spectroscopy, magnetochemical and conductivity measurements. The ligands behaved as bidental, bounding Ru(III) through the nitrogen atoms from the amino group and the heterocycle. The complex of ethyl 2-amino-4-phenyl-5-thiazolecarboxylate showed significant antileukaemic activity on various human cells (IC50 values ranging from 20 to 92 micromol/l). Toxicological studies on mice indicated that such concentrations could be reached without mortality. This compound exhibited a promising antineoplastic potential and needs further pharmacological and toxicological evaluation.

  20. Ruthenium Complex “Light Switches” that are Selective for Different G-Quadruplex Structures

    Wachter, Erin; Moyá, Diego; Parkin, Sean


    Recognition and regulation of G-quadruplex nucleic acid structures is an important goal for the development of chemical tools and medicinal agents. The addition of a bromo substituent to the dipyridylphenazine (dppz) ligands in the photophysical “light switch”, [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+, and the photochemical “light switch”, [Ru(bpy)2dmdppz]2+, creates compounds with increased selectivity for an intermolecular parallel G-quadruplex and the mixed-hybrid G-quadruplex, respectively. When [Ru(bpy)2dppz-Br]2+ and [Ru(bpy)2dmdppz-Br]2+ are incubated with the G-quadruplexes, they have a stabilizing effect on the DNA structures. Activation of [Ru(bpy)2dmdppz-Br]2+ with light results in covalent adduct formation with the DNA. These complexes demonstrate that subtle chemical modifications of RuII complexes can alter G-quadruplex selectivity, and could be useful for the rational design of in vivo G-quadruplex probes. PMID:26560887

  1. Bis-heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex of a triazole ligand as a selective probe for phosphates.

    Chowdhury, Bijit; Khatua, Snehadrinarayan; Dutta, Ranjan; Chakraborty, Sourav; Ghosh, Pradyut


    A new bis-heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex (1) of 2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) pyridine (L) ligand was extensively explored for anion sensing studies. 1[PF6]2 shows selective sensing of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4(-))/hydrogen pyrophosphate (HP2O7(3-)) among halides, HCO3(-), AcO(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-), HSO4(-), OH(-), BzO(-), H2PO4(-), and HP2O7(3-) in acetonitrile. Enhancement of emission intensity of 1[PF6]2 along with a 10 nm red shift of the emission maximum is observed in the presence of H2PO4(-)/HP2O7(3-) selectively. The photoluminescence (PL) titration experiment of 1[PF6]2 results in binding constants (K(a)) of 5.28 × 10(4) M(-1) and 4.67 × 10(4) M(-1) for H2PO4(-) and HP2O7(3-), respectively, which is in good agreement with the Ka values obtained from UV-vis titration experiments (2.97 × 10(4) M(-1) and 2.45 × 10(4) M(-1) for H2PO4(-) and HP2O7(3-), respectively). High selectivity of 1[PF6]2 toward these two anions in acetonitrile is further confirmed by PL intensity measurement of 1[PF6]2 upon addition of these two anions in the presence of a large excess of other competitive anions. Further, considerable changes in the lifetime (τ) as well as in the decay pattern of 1[PF6]2 in the presence of H2PO4(-)/HP2O7(3-) among all tested anions support the selective binding property of 1[PF6]2 toward these two anions. Significant downfield shift of the triazole -CH proton of 1[PF6]2 with 1 equiv of H2PO4(-) (Δδ = 0.26 ppm) and HP2O7(3-) (Δδ = 0.23 ppm) in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide proclaim binding mechanism via C-H···anion interaction in solution state. Finally, single-crystal X-ray structural analysis confirms the first example of dihydrogen pyrophosphate (H2P2O7(2-)) recognition via solitary C-H···anion interactions.

  2. Characterization of the mechanisms of action and nitric oxide species involved in the relaxation induced by the ruthenium complex.

    Bonaventura, Daniella; Oliveira, Fabiana S; Lunardi, Claure N; Vercesi, Juliana A; da Silva, Roberto S; Bendhack, Lusiane M


    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the control of vascular tone. NO donors have therapeutic use and the most used NO donors, nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside have problems in their use. Thus, new NO donors have been synthesized to minimize these undesirable effects. Nytrosil ruthenium complexes have been studied as a new class of NO donors. trans-[RuCl([15]aneN(4))NO](2+), induces vasorelaxation only in presence of reducing agent. In this study, we characterized the mechanisms of vasorelaxation of trans-[RuCl([15]aneN(4))NO](2+) in denuded rat aorta and identified which NO forms are involved in this relaxation. We also evaluated the effect of this NO donor in decreasing the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) of the vascular smooth muscle cells. Vasorelaxation to trans-[RuCl([15]aneN(4))NO](2+) (E(max): 101.8 +/- 2.3%, pEC(50): 5.03 +/- 0.15) was almost abolished in the presence of the NO* scavenger hydroxocobalamin (E(max): 4.0 +/- 0.4%; P < 0.001) and it was partially inhibited by the NO(-) scavenger L-cysteine (E(max): 79.9 +/- 6.9%, pEC(50): 4.41 +/- 0.06; P < 0.05). The guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ reduced the E(max) (57.7 +/- 4.0%, P < 0.001) and pEC(50) (4.21 +/- 0.42, P < 0.01) and the combination of ODQ and TEA abolished the response to trans-[RuCl([15]aneN(4))NO](2+). The blockade of voltage-dependent (K(v)), ATP-sensitive (K(ATP)), and Ca(2+)-activated (K(Ca) K(+) channels reduced the vasorelaxation induced by trans-[RuCl([15]aneN(4))NO](2+). This compound significantly reduced [Ca(2+)]c (from 100% to 85.9 +/- 3.5%, n = 4). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that this NO donor induces vascular relaxation involving NO* and NO(-) species, that is associated to a decrease in [Ca(2+)]c. The mechanisms of vasorelaxation involve guanylyl cyclase activation, cGMP production and K(+) channels activation.

  3. Bis-mixed-carbene ruthenium-thiolate-alkylidene complexes: synthesis and olefin metathesis activity.

    Dahcheh, Fatme; Stephan, Douglas W


    A series of bis-carbene Ru-hydride species, including (IMes)(Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)RuHCl (1) and (SIMes)(Me2Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)RuHCl (2) were prepared and subsequently shown to react with aryl-vinyl-sulfides to give the bis-carbene-alkylidene complexes: Im(OMe)2(SIMes)RuCl(SR)(=CHCH3) (R = p-FC6H4 (3), p-(NO2)C6H4 (4)), Im(OMe)2(IMes)RuCl(=CHCH3)(SPh) (5), Me2Im(OMe)2(SIMes)RuCl(=CHCH3)(SPh) (6), Im(OMe)2(SIMes)(F5C6S)RuCl(=CHR) (R = C4H9 (9), C5H11 (10)). The activity of these species in the standard Grubbs' tests for ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing and cross-metathesis are reported. Although these thiolate derivatives are shown to exhibit modest metathesis activities, the reactivity is enhanced in the presence of BCl3.

  4. Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complex Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Suppressing FAK signaling with Enhancement of TRAIL-induced Apoptosis

    Cao, Wenqiang; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng


    Ruthenium-based complexes have emerged as promising antitumor and antimetastatic agents during the past decades. However, the limited understanding of the antimetastatic mechanisms of these agents is a roadblock to their clinical application. Herein, we reported that, RuPOP, a ruthenium polypyridyl complex with potent antitumor activity, was able to effectively inhibit growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells and synergistically enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The selective intracellular uptake and cytotoxic effect of RuPOP was found associated with transferring receptor (TfR)-mediated endocytosis. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms reveled that RuPOP notably suppressed FAK-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Pretreatment of cells with ERK inhibitor (U0126) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of RuPOP on cell growth, migration and invasion. Moreover, the alternation in the expression levels of metastatic regulatory proteins, including uPA, MMP-2/-9, and inhibition of VEGF secretion were also observed after RuPOP treatment. These results demonstrate the inhibitory effect of RuPOP on the growth and metastasis of cancer cells and the enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis though suppression of FAK-mediated signaling. Furthermore, RuPOP exhibits the potential to be developed as a metal-based antimetastatic agent and chemosensitizer of TRAIL for the treatment of human metastatic cancers.

  5. Solution chemistry of a water-soluble eta2-H2 ruthenium complex: evidence for coordinated H2 acting as a hydrogen bond donor.

    Szymczak, Nathaniel K; Zakharov, Lev N; Tyler, David R


    The ability of an eta2-H2 ligand to participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding in solution has long been an unresolved issue. Such species are proposed to be key intermediates in numerous important reactions such as the proton-transfer pathway of H2 production by hydrogenase enzymes. We present the synthesis of several new water-soluble ruthenium coordination complexes including an eta2-H2 complex that is surprisingly inert to substitution by water. The existence of dihydrogen hydrogen bonding (DHHB) was experimentally probed by monitoring the chemical shift of H-bonded Ru-(H2) complexes using NMR spectroscopy, by UV-visible spectroscopy, and by monitoring the rotational dynamics of a hydrogen-bonding probe molecule. The results provide strong evidence that coordinated H2 can indeed participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding to bulk solvent and other H-bond acceptors.

  6. Ruthenium ammine/crown ether interactions in solution: Effects of modification of both guest and host on the strength of second-sphere complexation

    Todd, M.D.; Yuhua Dong; Horney, J.; Yoon, D.I.; Hupp, J.T. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))


    Charge-transfer absorption, electrochemical, and NMR-NOE studies of monomeric and dimeric (ligand-bridged) ruthenium ammine guest interactions with several crown ether hosts show that second-sphere complexation is prevalent in nitromethane as solvent and that complexation or binding constants can be varied by ca. 10[sup 8]-fold by modifying both guest and host properties. For hosts, larger binding constants are obtained with larger macrocycles and with more flexible macrocycles (i.e. dicyclohexano vs dibenzo crowns). For guests, larger binding constants are observed in higher oxidation states and in the presence of strongly electron-withdrawing ancillary ligands. In all cases, binding appears to be driven primarily by ammine hydrogen/ether oxygen (Lewis acid/base) interactions. Evidence is also found, however, for contributions from favorable benzene(crown)/pyridine(complex) interactions and (apparently) benzene(crown) [yields] Ru(III) charge-transfer (donor/acceptor) interactions. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Assignment of Pre-Edge Features in the Ru K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Organometallic Ruthenium Complexes

    Getty, K.; Delgado-Jaime, M.U.; Kennepohl, P.


    The nature of the lowest energy bound-state transition in the Ru K-edge X-ray absorption spectra for a series of Grubbs-type ruthenium complexes was investigated. The pre-edge feature was unambiguously assigned as resulting from formally electric dipole forbidden Ru 4d {l_arrow} 1s transitions. The intensities of these transitions are extremely sensitive to the ligand environment and the symmetry of the metal centre. In centrosymmetric complexes the pre-edge is very weak since it is limited by the weak electric quadrupole intensity mechanism. By contrast, upon breaking centrosymmetry, Ru 5p-4d mixing allows for introduction of electric dipole allowed character resulting in a dramatic increase in the pre-edge intensity. The information content of this approach is explored as it relates to complexes of importance in olefin metathesis and its relevance as a tool for the study of reactive intermediates.

  8. Highly efficient redox isomerisation of allylic alcohols catalysed by pyrazole-based ruthenium(IV) complexes in water: mechanisms of bifunctional catalysis in water.

    Bellarosa, Luca; Díez, Josefina; Gimeno, José; Lledós, Agustí; Suárez, Francisco J; Ujaque, Gregori; Vicent, Cristian


    The catalytic activity of ruthenium(IV) ([Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)L]; C(10)H(16) = 2,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1,8-diyl, L = pyrazole, 3-methylpyrazole, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, 3-methyl-5-phenylpyrazole, 2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenol or indazole) and ruthenium(II) complexes ([Ru(η(6)-arene)Cl(2)(3,5-dimethylpyrazole)]; arene = C(6)H(6), p-cymene or C(6)Me(6)) in the redox isomerisation of allylic alcohols into carbonyl compounds in water is reported. The former show much higher catalytic activity than ruthenium(II) complexes. In particular, a variety of allylic alcohols have been quantitatively isomerised by using [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)(pyrazole)] as a catalyst; the reactions proceeded faster in water than in THF, and in the absence of base. The isomerisations of monosubstituted alcohols take place rapidly (10-60 min, turn-over frequency = 750-3000 h(-1)) and, in some cases, at 35 °C in 60 min. The nature of the aqueous species formed in water by this complex has been analysed by ESI-MS. To analyse how an aqueous medium can influence the mechanism of the bifunctional catalytic process, DFT calculations (B3LYP) including one or two explicit water molecules and using the polarisable continuum model have been carried out and provide a valuable insight into the role of water on the activity of the bifunctional catalyst. Several mechanisms have been considered and imply the formation of aqua complexes and their deprotonated species generated from [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)(pyrazole)]. Different competitive pathways based on outer-sphere mechanisms, which imply hydrogen-transfer processes, have been analysed. The overall isomerisation implies two hydrogen-transfer steps from the substrate to the catalyst and subsequent transfer back to the substrate. In addition to the conventional Noyori outer-sphere mechanism, which involves the pyrazolide ligand, a new mechanism with a hydroxopyrazole complex as the active species can be at work in water. The

  9. In vitro evaluation of the cyto-genotoxic potential of Ruthenium(II) SCAR complexes: a promising class of antituberculosis agents.

    De Grandis, Rone Aparecido; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; da Silva, Monize Martins; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Batista, Alzir Azevedo; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida


    Tuberculosis is a top infectious disease killer worldwide, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Increasing incidences of multiple drug-resistance (MDR) strains are emerging as one of the major public health threats. However, the drugs in use are still incapable of controlling the appalling upsurge of MDR. In recent years a marked number of research groups have devoted their attention toward the development of specific and cost-effective antimicrobial agents against targeted MDR-Tuberculosis. In previous studies, ruthenium(II) complexes (SCAR) have shown a promising activity against MDR-Tuberculosis although few studies have indeed considered ruthenium toxicity. Therefore, within the preclinical requirements, we have sought to determine the cyto-genotoxicity of three SCAR complexes in this present study. The treatment with the SCARs induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability in CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells. Based on the clonogenic survival, SCAR 5 was found to be more cytotoxic while SCAR 6 exhibited selectivity action on tumor cells. Although SCAR 4 and 5 did not indicate any mutagenic activity as evidenced by the Ames and Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assays, the complex SCAR 6 was found to engender a frameshift mutation detected by Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of S9. Similarly, we observed a chromosomal damage in HepG2 cells with significant increases of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges. These data indicate that SCAR 4 and 5 complexes did not show genotoxicity in our models while SCAR 6 was considered mutagenic. This study presented a comprehensive genotoxic evaluation of SCAR complexes were shown to be genotoxic in vitro. All in all, further studies are required to fully elucidate how the properties can affect human health.

  10. [Ru(pipe)(dppb)(bipy)]PF6: A novel ruthenium complex that effectively inhibits ERK activation and cyclin D1 expression in A549 cells.

    Ferreira-Silva, Guilherme A; Ortega, Marina M; Banionis, Marco A; Garavelli, Graciana Y; Martins, Felipe T; Dias, Julia S M; Viegas, Cláudio; Oliveira, Jaqueline C de; Nascimento, Fabio B do; Doriguetto, Antonio C; Barbosa, Marilia I F; Ionta, Marisa


    Lung cancer is the most frequent type of cancer worldwide. In Brazil, only 14% of the patients diagnosed with lung cancer survived 5years in the last decades. Although improvements in the therapeutic approach, it is relevant to identify new chemotherapeutic agents. In this framework, ruthenium metal compounds emerge as a promising alternative to platinum-based compounds once they displayed lower cytotoxicity and more selectivity for tumor cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor potential of innovative ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(pipe)(dppb)(bipy)]PF6 (PIPE) on A549 cells, which is derived from non-small cell lung cancer. Results demonstrated that PIPE effectively reduced the viability and proliferation rate of A549 cells. When PIPE was used at 9μM there was increase in G0/G1 cell population with concomitant reduction in frequency of cells in S-phase, indicating cell cycle arrest in G1/S transition. Antiproliferative activity of PIPE was associated to its ability of reducing cyclin D1 expression and ERK phosphorylation levels. Cytotoxic activity of PIPE on A549 cells was observed when PIPE was used at 18μM, which was associated to its ability of inducing apoptosis by intrinsic pathway. Taken together, the data demonstrated that PIPE is a promising antitumor agent and further in vivo studies should be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Superior Light-Harvesting Heteroleptic Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Electron-Donating Antennas for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Chen, Wang-Chao; Kong, Fan-Tai; Li, Zhao-Qian; Pan, Jia-Hong; Liu, Xue-Peng; Guo, Fu-Ling; Zhou, Li; Huang, Yang; Yu, Ting; Dai, Song-Yuan


    Three heteroleptic polypyridyl ruthenium complexes, RC-41, RC-42, and RC-43, with efficient electron-donating antennas in the ancillary ligands were designed, synthesized, and characterized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell. All the RC dye sensitizers showed remarkable light-harvesting capacity and broadened absorption range. Significantly, RC-43 obtained the lower energy metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band peaked at 557 nm with a high molar extinction coefficient of 27 400 M(-1) cm(-1). In conjunction with TiO2 photoanode of submicrospheres and iodide-based electrolytes, the DSSCs sensitizing with the RC sensitizers, achieved impressively high short-circuit current density (19.04 mA cm(-2) for RC-41, 19.83 mA cm(-2) for RC-42, and 20.21 mA cm(-2) for RC-43) and power conversion efficiency (10.07% for RC-41, 10.52% for RC-42, and 10.78% for RC-43). The superior performances of RC dye sensitizers were attributed to the enhanced light-harvesting capacity and incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) caused by the introduction of electron-donating antennas in the ancillary ligands. The interfacial charge recombination/regeneration kinetics and electron lifetime were further evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). These data decisively revealed the dependences on the photovoltaic performance of ruthenium sensitizers incorporating electron-donating antennas.

  12. A fast-initiating ionically tagged ruthenium complex: a robust supported pre-catalyst for batch-process and continuous-flow olefin metathesis.

    Borré, Etienne; Rouen, Mathieu; Laurent, Isabelle; Magrez, Magaly; Caijo, Fréderic; Crévisy, Christophe; Solodenko, Wladimir; Toupet, Loic; Frankfurter, René; Vogt, Carla; Kirschning, Andreas; Mauduit, Marc


    In this study, a new pyridinium-tagged Ru complex was designed and anchored onto sulfonated silica, thereby forming a robust and highly active supported olefin-metathesis pre-catalyst for applications under batch and continuous-flow conditions. The involvement of an oxazine-benzylidene ligand allowed the reactivity of the formed Ru pre-catalyst to be efficiently controlled through both steric and electronic activation. The oxazine scaffold facilitated the introduction of the pyridinium tag, thereby affording the corresponding cationic pre-catalyst in good yield. Excellent activities in ring-closing (RCM), cross (CM), and enyne metathesis were observed with only 0.5 mol % loading of the pre-catalyst. When this powerful pre-catalyst was immobilized onto a silica-based cationic-exchange resin, a versatile catalytically active material for batch reactions was generated that also served as fixed-bed material for flow reactors. This system could be reused at 1 mol % loading to afford metathesis products in high purity with very low ruthenium contamination under batch conditions (below 5 ppm). Scavenging procedures for both batch and flow processes were conducted, which led to a lowering of the ruthenium content to as little as one tenth of the original values.

  13. Computational POM and DFT Evaluation of Experimental in-vitro Cancer Inhibition of Staurosporine-Ruthenium(II) Complexes: the Power Force of Organometallics in Drug Design.

    Hadda, Taibi Ben; Genc, Zuhal K; Masand, Vijay H; Nebbache, Nadia; Warad, Ismail; Jodeh, Shehdeh; Genc, Murat; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Barakat, Assem; Salgado-Zamora, Hector


    A computational Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration/DFT(POM/DFT) based model has been developed for the identification of physico-chemical parameters governing the bioactivity of ruthenium-staurosporine complexes 2-4 containing an antitumoral-kinase (TK) pharmacophore sites. The four compounds 1-4 analyzed here were previously screened for their antitumor activity, compounds 2 and 4 are neutral, whereas analogue compound 3 is a monocation with ruthenium(II) centre. The highest anti- antitumor activity was obtained for compounds 3 and 4, which exhibited low IC(50) values (0.45 and 8 nM, respectively), superior to staurosporine derivative (pyridocarbazole ligand 1, 150 · 10(3) nM). The IC(50) of 3 (0.45 nM), represents 20,000 fold increased activity as compared to staurosporine derivative 1. The increase of bioactivity could be attributed to the existence of pi-charge transfer from metal-staurosporine to its (CO(δ)--NH(δ+)) antitumor pharmacophore site.

  14. Trimethylsilyl-Substituted Hydroxycyclopentadienyl Ruthenium Hydrides as Benchmarks to Probe Ligand and Metal Effects on the Reactivity of Shvo Type Complexes.

    Casey, Charles P; Guan, Hairong


    The bis(trimethylsilyl)-substituted hydroxycyclopentadienyl ruthenium hydride [2,5-(SiMe(3))(2)-3,4-(CH(2)OCH(2))(η(5)-C(4)COH)]Ru(CO)(2)H (10) is an efficient catalyst for hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones. Because 10 transfers hydrogen rapidly to aldehydes and ketones and because it does not form an inactive bridging hydride during reaction, hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones can be performed at room temperature under relatively low hydrogen pressure (3 atm); this is a significant improvement compared with previously developed Shvo type catalysts. Kinetic and (2)H NMR spectroscopic studies of the stoichiometric reduction of aldehydes and ketones by 10 established a two-step process for the hydrogen transfer: (1) rapid and reversible hydrogen bond formation between OH of 10 and the oxygen of the aldehyde or ketone, (2) followed by slow transfer of both proton and hydride from 10 to the aldehyde or ketone. The stoichiometric and catalytic activities of complex 10 are compared to those of other Shvo type ruthenium hydrides and related iron hydrides.

  15. Selective Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid with Well-Defined Complexes of Ruthenium and Phosphorus-Nitrogen PN3-Pincer Ligand

    Pan, Yupeng


    An unsymmetrically protonated PN3-pincer complex in which ruthenium is coordinated by one nitrogen and two phosphorus atoms was employed for the selective generation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. Grabbing hold: A PN3-pincer complex was employed for the selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ruthenium-complex catalyzed N-(cyclo)alkylation of aromatic amines with diols. Selective synthesis of N-(n-hydroixyalkyl)anilines of type PhNH(CH2)nOH and of some bioactive arylpiperazines,

    Koten, G. van; Abbenhuis, R.A.T.M.; Boersma, J.


    A new class of well-defined neutral mono-, and dicationic ruthenium(II) complexes containing a neutral terdentate donor system [C5H3N(CH2E)(2)-2,6] (E = PPh2 (PNP) or NMe2 (NN'N)) has been found effective as catalyst precursor in N-(cyclo)alkylation reactions of aromatic amines with diols

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and DNA-binding studies of ruthenium complexes [Ru(tpy)(ptn)]2+ and Ru(dmtpy)(ptn)]2+.

    Li, Lü-Ying; Jia, Hai-Na; Yu, Hui-Juan; Du, Ke-Jie; Lin, Qi-Tian; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Chao, Hui; Ji, Liang-Nian


    Two ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(tpy)(ptn)](2+) (1) and Ru(dmtpy)(ptn)](2+) (2) (ptn=3-(1,10-phenanthrolin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]naphthalene, tpy=2,2':6',2"-terpyridine, dmtpy=5,5'-dimethyl-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, mass spectrometry and crystal structure analysis. Spectroscopic studies together with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and viscosity measurements prove that two complexes bind to DNA in an intercalative mode. ITC experiments show that the binding mode for complex 2 is entropically driven, while an entropy-driven initial binding of complex 1 is followed by an entropically and enthalpically favorable process. This difference may be attributed to the ancillary ligand effects on the DNA binding of Ru(II) complexes. Circular dichroism titrations of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Ru(II) complexes show that complexes 1 and 2 induce B to Z conformational transition of calf thymus DNA at low ionic strength (0.05 M NaCl). The induced Z-DNA conformation can revert to B form when Ru(II) complexes are displaced by ethidium bromide or at high ionic strengths ([NaCl]=0.4 M), but keeps intact with temperature ranged from 25 to 90 °C. The unique structure and characteristics of Ru(II) complexes designed in this investigation will be useful for the study of Z-DNA.

  18. Efficient Removal of Ruthenium Byproducts from Olefin Metathesis Products by Simple Aqueous Extraction

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H.


    Simple aqueous extraction removed ruthenium byproducts efficiently from ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by a PEG-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-based ruthenium complex. PMID:17428062

  19. Synthesis, Crystal Structure of Ruthenium 1,2-Naphthoquinone-1-oxime Complex and Its Mediated C-C Coupling Reactions of Terminal Alkynes

    SUN, Ke; WONG, Wing-Tak; LIU, Xiao-Xia; ZHANG, Bao-Yan


    Substituted decarbonylation reaction of ruthenium 1,2-naphthoquinone-1-oxime (1-nqo) complex, cis-, cis-[Ru{ η2-N(O)C10-H6O}2(CO)2] (1), with acetonitrile gave cis-, cis-[Ru { η2-N(O)C10H6O}2(CO)(NCMe)] (2). Complex 2 was fully characterized by 1H NMR, FAB MS, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray analysis. Complex 2 maintains the coordination structure of 1 with the two naphthoquinonic oxygen atoms, as well as the two oximato nitrogen atoms located cis to each other, showing that there is no ligand rearrangement of the 1-nqo ligands during the substitution reaction. The carbonyl group originally trans to the naphthoquinonic oxygen in one 1-nqo ligand is left in its original position [O(5)-Ru-C(1), 174.0(6)°], while the other one originally trans to the oximato group of the other 1-nqo llgand is substituted by NCMe [N(1)-Ru-N(3), 170.6(6)°].This shows that the carbonyl trans to oximato group is more labile than the one trans to naphthoquinonic O atom towards substitution. This is probably due to the comparatively stronger π back bonding from ruthenium metal to the carbonyl group trans to naphthoquinonic O atom, than the one trans to oximato group, resulting in the comparatively weaker Ru-CO bond for the latter and consequently easier replacement of this carbonyl. Selected coupling of phenylacetylene mediated by 2 gave a single trans-dimerization product 3, while 2 mediated coupling reaction of methyl propiolate produced three products:one trans-dimerization product 4 and two cyclotrimeric products 5 and 6.

  20. Optimum bifunctionality in a 2-(2-pyridyl-2-ol)-1,10-phenanthroline based ruthenium complex for transfer hydrogenation of ketones and nitriles: impact of the number of 2-hydroxypyridine fragments.

    Paul, Bhaskar; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Kundu, Sabuj


    Considerable differences in reactivity and selectivity for 2-hydroxypyridine (2-HP) derived ruthenium complexes in transfer hydrogenation are described. Bifunctional Ru(ii)-(phenpy-OH) [phenpy-OH: 2-(2-pyridyl-2-ol)-1,10-phenanthroline] complex () exhibited excellent catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenation (TH) of ketones and nitriles. Notably, in comparison with all the reported 2-hydroxypyridine (2-HP) derived ruthenium complexes in transfer hydrogenation, complex displayed significantly higher activity. Additionally, exploiting the metal-ligand cooperativity in complex , chemoselective TH of ketones was achieved and sterically demanding ketones were readily reduced. An outer-sphere mechanism is proposed for this system as exogenous PPh3 has no significant effect on the rate of this reaction. This is a rare example of a highly active bifunctional Ru(ii) catalyst bearing only one 2-HP unit.

  1. Bis(o-methylserotonin)-containing iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes as new cellular imaging dyes: synthesis, applications, and photophysical and computational studies.

    Núñez, Cristina; Silva López, Carlos; Faza, Olalla Nieto; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Diniz, Mario; Bastida, Rufina; Capelo, Jose Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos


    We report the synthesis, characterization, and scope of a new versatile emissive molecular probe functionalized with a 1,10-phenanthroline moiety containing methylserotonin groups as binding sites for metal ion recognition. The synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the in vitro imaging capability of the iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(N-N)](+) and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+), in which ppy is 2-phenylpyridine, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and N-N is a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand functionalized with two methylserotonin groups to serve as binding sites for metal ion recognition, is reported. The uptake of these compounds by living freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) was studied by fluorescence microscopy, and the cytotoxicity of ligand N-N and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+) in this species was also investigated.

  2. Development of a New Class of Thiocyanate-Free Cyclometalated Ruthenium(II Complex for Sensitizing Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cells

    Surya Prakash Singh


    Full Text Available We designed and developed a new class of thiocyanate-free cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizers for sensitizing nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. This complex shows appreciably broad absorption range. Anchoring to nanocrystalline TiO2 films for light to electrical energy conversion in regenerative photoelectrochemical cells achieves efficient sensitization to TiO2 electrode. With this new sensitizer, there were a power conversion efficiency of 4.76%, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 11.21 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.62 V, and a fill factor of 0.68 obtained under standard AM 1.5 sunlight.

  3. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensing for the detection of prostate PC-3 cancer cells incorporating antibody as capture probe and ruthenium complex-labelled wheat germ agglutinin as signal probe

    Yang, Haiying [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044300 (China); Li, Zhejian; Shan, Meng; Li, Congcong; Qi, Honglan; Gao, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Jinyi [College of Science and College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Zhang, Chengxiao, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)


    Highlights: • A novel biosensor was developed for the detection of prostate cancer cells. • The selectivity of the biosensor was improved using antibody as capture probe. • The biosensor showed the low extremely detection limit of 2.6 × 10{sup 2} cells mL{sup −1}. • The ruthenium complex-labelled WGA can be transported in the cell vesicles. - Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for the detection of prostate PC-3 cancer cells was designed using a prostate specific antibody as a capture probe and ruthenium complex-labelled wheat germ agglutinin as a signal probe. The ECL biosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilising the capture probe on a graphene oxide-coated glassy carbon electrode. Target PC-3 cells were selectively captured on the surface of the biosensor, and then, the signal probe was bound with the captured PC-3 cells to form a sandwich. In the presence of tripropylamine, the ECL intensity of the sandwich biosensor was logarithmically directly proportion to the concentration of PC-3 cells over a range from 7.0 × 10{sup 2} to 3.0 × 10{sup 4} cells mL{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 2.6 × 10{sup 2} cells mL{sup −1}. The ECL biosensor was also applied to detect prostate specific antigen with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup −1}. The high selectivity of the biosensor was demonstrated in comparison with that of a lectin-based biosensor. The strategy developed in this study may be a promising approach and could be extended to the design of ECL biosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of other cancer-related cells or cancer biomarkers using different probes.

  4. A new ion imprinted polymer based on Ru(III)-thiobarbituric acid complex for solid phase extraction of ruthenium(III) prior to its determination by ETAAS.

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata


    A new ruthenium ion imprinted polymer was prepared from the Ru(III) 2-thiobarbituric acid complex (the template), methacrylic acid or acrylamide (the functional monomers), and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (the cross-linking agent) using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as the radical initiator. The ion imprinted polymer was characterized and used as a selective sorbent for the solid phase extraction of Ru(III) ions. The effects of type of functional monomer, sample volume, solution pH and flow rate on the extraction efficiency were studied in the dynamic mode. Ru(III) ion was quantitatively retained on the sorbents in the pH range from 3.5 to 10, and can be eluted with 4 mol L(-1) aqueous ammonia. The affinity of Ru(III) for the ion imprinted polymer based on the acrylamide monomer is weaker than that for the polymer based on the methacrylic acid monomer, which therefore was used in interference studies and in analytical applications. Following extraction of Ru(III) ions with the imprint and their subsequent elution from the polymer with aqueous ammonia, Ru(III) was detected by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a detection limit of 0.21 ng mL(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ru(III) in water, waste, road dust and platinum ore (CRM SARM 76) with a reproducibility (expressed as RSD) below 6.4 %. FigureThe new ion imprinted polymer was prepared and used for the separation of ruthenium from water and most complex environmental samples, such as road dust and platinum ore (CRM SARM 76) prior ETAAS determination.

  5. Syntheses, DNA binding and anticancer profiles of L-glutamic acid ligand and its copper(II) and ruthenium(III) complexes.

    Ali, Imran; Wani, Waseem A; Saleem, Kishwar; Wesselinova, Diana


    A new multidentate ligand (L) has been synthesized by the controlled condensation of L-glutamic acid with formaldehyde and ethylenediamine. Cu(II) and Ru(III) metal ion complexes of the synthesized ligand have also been prepared. The ligand and the metal complexes were purified by chromatography and characterized by spectroscopy and other techniques. Molar conductance measurements suggested ionic nature of the complexes. The ligand and the complexes are soluble in water with quite good stabilities; essential requirements for effective anticancer drugs. DNA binding constants (Kbs) for copper and ruthenium complexes were 1.8 x 103 and 2.6 x 103 M-1 while their Ksv values were 7.9 x 103, and 7.3 x 103; revealing strong binding of these complexes with DNA. Hemolytic assays of the reported compounds indicated their significantly less toxicity to RBCs than the standard anticancer drug letrazole. Anticancer profiles of all the compounds were determined on HepG2, HT-29, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa human cancer cell lines. All the compounds have quite good activities on HeLa cell lines but the best results were of CuL on HepG2, HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines.

  6. Mixed ligand ruthenium(III) complexes of benzaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazones with triphenylphosphine/triphenylarsine co-ligands: Synthesis, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidative and cytotoxic activity

    Sampath, K.; Sathiyaraj, S.; Raja, G.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.


    The new ruthenium(III) complexes with 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), were prepared and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The title compounds act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL1 and HL2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the ligands and complexes were investigated by absorption spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. It reveals that the compounds bind to nitrogenous bases of DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed the significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes against MCF-7 cell line was assayed which showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations.

  7. Evaluation of DNA-binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mononuclear ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of benzaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones

    Sampath, Krishnan; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy


    Two 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), and its ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The Schiff bases act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL1 and HL2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the compounds was investigated by absorption spectroscopy which indicated that the compounds bind to DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes assayed against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations.

  8. Anthracene-tethered ruthenium(II) arene complexes as tools to visualize the cellular localization of putative organometallic anticancer compounds.

    Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Ang, Wee Han; Schmitt, Frederic; Zava, Olivier; Ruggi, Albert; Groessl, Michael; Scopelitti, Rosario; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Hartinger, Christian G; Dyson, Paul J


    Anthracene derivatives of ruthenium(II) arene compounds with 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[]decane (pta) or a sugar phosphite ligand, viz., 3,5,6-bicyclophosphite-1,2-O-isopropylidene-α-d-glucofuranoside, were prepared in order to evaluate their anticancer properties compared to the parent compounds and to use them as models for intracellular visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Similar IC(50) values were obtained in cell proliferation assays, and similar levels of uptake and accumulation were also established. The X-ray structure of [{Ru(η(6)-C(6)H(5)CH(2)NHCO-anthracene)Cl(2)(pta)] is also reported.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DFT structural characterization of two novel ruthenium(III) oxicam complexes. In vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory and gastric damaging activities.

    Tamasi, Gabriella; Bernini, Caterina; Corbini, Gianfranco; Owens, Natalie F; Messori, Luigi; Scaletti, Federica; Massai, Lara; Giudice, Pietro Lo; Cini, Renzo


    The reactions of ruthenium(III) chloride trihydrate with piroxicam (H2PIR) and tenoxicam (H2TEN), two widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, afforded [Ru(III)Cl2(H2PIR)(HPIR)],·1, and [Ru(III)Cl2(H2TEN)(HTEN)],·2. Both compounds were obtained as pure green solids through purification via flash column chromatography. Characterizations were accomplished through UV-vis and IR spectroscopy, potentiometry and HPLC. Quantum mechanics and density functional computational methods were applied to investigate their respective molecular structures. The experimental and computational results are in agreement with a pseudo-octahedral coordination where the two chlorido ligands are in trans positions (apical) and the two trans-N,O chelating oxicam ligands occupy the equatorial sites. Both compounds revealed an acceptable solubility and stability profile upon dissolution in a standard buffer at physiological pH. Nonetheless, the addition of biologically occurring reducing agents caused spectral changes. The two complexes manifested a poor reactivity with the model proteins cytochrome c and lysozyme: no evidence for adduct formation was indeed obtained based on a standard ESI MS analysis; in contrast, some significant reactivity with serum albumin was proved spectrophotometrically. Remarkably, both study compounds revealed pronounced anti-edema effects in vivo suggesting that the pharmacological actions of the ligands are mostly retained; in addition, they were less irritating than piroxicam on the gastric mucosa when the coordination compounds and free oxicam were administered at the same overall molar concentration of the ligand. Overall, the present results point out that ruthenium coordination may represent an effective strategy to improve the pharmacological properties of oxicam drugs reducing their undesired side effects.

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies of phenol oxidation by ruthenium complex with N,N,N-tris(benzimidazol-2yl-methyl)amine.

    Hernandez, J Guadalupe; Silva, Antonio Romero; Thangarasu, Pandiyan; Najera, Rafael Herrera; Moreno, Alfonso Duran; Ledesma, M Teresa Orta; Cruz-Borbolla, Julian; Singh, Narinder


    The ruthenium complex with (N,N,N-tris(benzimidazol-2yl-methyl)amine, L(1)) was prepared, and characterized. Fukui data were used to localize the reactive sites on the ligand. The structural and electronic properties of the complex were analyzed by DFT in different oxidation states in order to evaluate its oxidant properties for phenol oxidation. The results show that the hard Ru(IV) cation bonds preferentially with a hard base (Namine = amine nitrogen, or axial chloride ion), and soft Ru(II) with a soft base (Nbzim = benzimidazole nitrogen or axial triphenyl phosphine). Furthermore, the Jahn-Teller effect causes an elongation of the axial bond in the octahedral structure. The bonding nature and the orbital contribution to the electronic transitions of the complex were studied. The experimental UV-visible bands were interpreted by using TD-DFT studies. The complex oxidizes phenol to benzoquinone in the presence of H2O2 and the intermediate was detected by HPLC and (13)C NMR. A possible mechanism and rate law are proposed for the oxidation. The adduct formation of phenol with [Ru(O)L(1)](2+) or [Ru(OH)L(1)](+) is theoretically analyzed to show that [Ru(OH)L(1)-OPh](+) could produce the phenol radical.

  11. Ruthenium Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Yuancheng Qin


    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. The DSSCs-based ruthenium complexes as sensitizers show high efficiency and excellent stability, implying potential practical applications. This review focuses on recent advances in design and preparation of efficient ruthenium sensitizers and their applications in DSSCs, including thiocyanate ruthenium sensitizers and thiocyanate-free ruthenium sensitizers.

  12. Synthesis of ruthenium hydride

    Kuzovnikov, M. A.; Tkacz, M.


    Ruthenium hydride was synthesized at a hydrogen pressure of about 14 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell. Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction was used to monitor the ruthenium crystal structure as a function of hydrogen pressure up to 30 GPa. The hydride formation was accompanied by phase transition from the original hcp structure of the pristine metal to the fcc structure. Our results confirmed the theoretical prediction of ruthenium hydride formation under hydrogen pressure. The standard Gibbs free energy of the ruthenium hydride formation reaction was calculated assuming the pressure of decomposition as the equilibrium pressure.

  13. Rolling cycle amplification based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex assembling dyads for homogeneous and highly selective detection of DNA

    Su, Chen; Liu, Yufei; Ye, Tai; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: A universal, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex (QDs–Ru) assembling dyads. - Highlights: • The single-color QDs–Ru assembling dyads were applied in homogeneous DNA assay. • This biosensor exhibited high selectivity against base mismatched sequences. • This biosensor could be severed as universal platform for the detection of ssDNA. • This sensor could be used to detect the target in human serum samples. • This DNA sensor had a good selectivity under the interference of other dsDNA. - Abstract: In this work, a new, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex (QDs–Ru) assembling dyads. This strategy includes three steps: (1) the target DNA initiates RCA reaction and generates linear RCA products; (2) the complementary DNA hybridizes with the RCA products to form long double-strand DNA (dsDNA); (3) [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} (dppx = 7,8-dimethyldipyrido [3,2-a:2′,3′-c] phenanthroline) intercalates into the long dsDNA with strong fluorescence emission. Due to its strong binding propensity with the long dsDNA, [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} is removed from the surface of the QDs, resulting in restoring the fluorescence of the QDs, which has been quenched by [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} through a photoinduced electron transfer process and is overlaid with the fluorescence of dsDNA bonded Ru(II) polypyridyl complex (Ru-dsDNA). Thus, high fluorescence intensity is observed, and is related to the concentration of target. This sensor exhibits not only high sensitivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) ssDNA with a low detection limit (0.5 pM), but also excellent selectivity in the complex matrix. Moreover

  14. Microwave-assisted synthesis of ruthenium(II) complexes with alkynes as potential inhibitor by selectively recognizing c-myc G-quadruplex DNA.

    Zhang, Shuangyan; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xicheng; Mei, Wenjie; Wu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Wenjie


    Herein, two polypyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes with alkynes, [Ru(bpy)2L](ClO4)2 (L=p-TEPIP (1) and p-BEPIP (2); bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; p-TEPIP=2-(4-trimethylsilylpropargyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline; p-BEPIP=2-(4-phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline) have been successfully achieved in yields of 32%-89% by a Sonogashira coupling reaction under microwave irradiation. We studied these complexes as potential stabilizers of c-myc G-quadruplex DNA. Observations revealed that both complexes could selectively bind to and stabilize c-myc G-quadruplex DNA with a constant of approximately 1.61±0.78 and 9.47±4.20×10(3)M(-1), respectively, as determined from ITC (isothermal ttitration calorimetry) experiments, FRET (fluorescence resonance energy ttransfer) assay and competitive FRET assay. Moreover, the melting point (Tm) of the c-myc G-quadruplex DNA increased in the presence of 1 and 2 ([Ru]=0.2μM) by approximately 9 and 19.9°C, respectively. It is noteworthy that the conformation of the c-myc G-quadruplex DNA appeared to change when titrated with 1 and 2, which was accompanied by a negative-induced CD (circular dichroism) signal that appeared at a wavelength of 295nm. Furthermore, the conformational change in c-myc G-quadruplex DNA induced by 1 and 2have also been confirmed by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy). Consequently, the replication of c-myc DNA was blocked by 1 and 2, and especially by 2, as verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) -stop assay and Western-blot assay. Thus, these ruthenium(II) complexes can be developed as potential inhibitors in chemotherapy through their binding and stabilization of c-myc G-quadruplex DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytotoxic activity, DNA damage, cellular uptake, apoptosis and western blot analysis of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex against human lung decarcinoma A549 cell.

    Lai, Shang-Hai; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Yao, Jun-Hua; Li, Wei; Han, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Cheng; Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Liu, Yun-Jun


    A new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex [Ru(dmp)2(pddppn)](ClO4)2Ru1 was synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxic activity in vitro of the complex was evaluated by MTT method. Ru1 shows high effect on the inhibition of the cell growth against BEL-7402, HeLa, MG-63 and A549 cells with low IC50 values of 1.6±0.4, 9.0±0.8, 1.5±0.2 and 1.5±0.3 μM, respectively. The cellular uptake indicates that Ru1 can enter into the cytoplasm and accumulate in the cell nuclei. Ru1 can induce apoptosis in A549 cells and enhance the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, Ru1 can down-regulate the levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bak, and Bim expression and up-regulate the expression of Bag-1 and Bad. The complex induces apoptosis of A549 cells through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway, which was accompanied by regulating the expression of caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Photodegradation of methyl orange and photoinactivation of bacteria by visible light activation of persulphate using a tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) complex.

    Subramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Parakh, Priyadarshini; Prakash, Halan


    Persulphate is an emerging oxidant in the field of advanced oxidation processes for the degradation of environmentally persistent organic compounds. The present study shows that visible light activation of persulphate (2 mM) using tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (complex 1) (1 μM) caused rapid degradation (98%) of model azo dye methyl orange (MO) (12 mg L(-1)) with significant mineralization (76%), and also complete inactivation of both Gram negative and positive bacteria (∼10(7) CFU mL(-1)). BacLight LIVE/DEAD assay, scanning electron microscopy and genomic DNA analysis revealed cell membrane damage and loss of chromosomal DNA, indicating oxidative stress caused to E. coli during photoinactivation. The effect of concentration of complex 1 : persulphate ratio and presence of inorganic ions (0.1 M), such as sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium sulphate, and sodium hydrogen carbonate, on the photodegradation of MO and photoinactivation of E. coli were studied. In addition, the effect of the presence of the organic contaminant resorcinol on the photoinactivation of E. coli was also studied. Significant degradation of MO and complete inactivation of bacteria were observed in simulated ground water. The present study is the first to reveal that activation of persulphate using a visible light absorbing metal complex in aqueous media has the ability to cause degradation of organic contaminants as well as complete inactivation of bacteria.

  17. Rolling cycle amplification based single-color quantum dots-ruthenium complex assembling dyads for homogeneous and highly selective detection of DNA.

    Su, Chen; Liu, Yufei; Ye, Tai; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike


    In this work, a new, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots-ruthenium complex (QDs-Ru) assembling dyads. This strategy includes three steps: (1) the target DNA initiates RCA reaction and generates linear RCA products; (2) the complementary DNA hybridizes with the RCA products to form long double-strand DNA (dsDNA); (3) [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) (dppx=7,8-dimethyldipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenanthroline) intercalates into the long dsDNA with strong fluorescence emission. Due to its strong binding propensity with the long dsDNA, [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) is removed from the surface of the QDs, resulting in restoring the fluorescence of the QDs, which has been quenched by [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) through a photoinduced electron transfer process and is overlaid with the fluorescence of dsDNA bonded Ru(II) polypyridyl complex (Ru-dsDNA). Thus, high fluorescence intensity is observed, and is related to the concentration of target. This sensor exhibits not only high sensitivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) ssDNA with a low detection limit (0.5 pM), but also excellent selectivity in the complex matrix. Moreover, this strategy applies QDs-Ru assembling dyads to the detection of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) without any functionalization and separation techniques.

  18. Mass spectrometry and UV-VIS spectrophotometry of ruthenium(II) [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex in solution.

    Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; González, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Pablo; Romerosa, Antonio; Havel, Josef


    Ruthenium(II) complexes are of great interest as a new class of cancerostatics with advantages over classical platinum compounds including lower toxicity. The stability of the [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex (I) (Cp cyclopentadienyl, mPTA N-methyl 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) in aqueous solution was studied using spectrophotometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Spectrophotometry proves that at least three different reactions take place in water. Dissolution of I leads to fast coordination of water molecules to the Ru(II) cation and then slow hydrolysis and ligand exchange of chloride and mPTA with water, hydroxide or with trifluoromethane sulfonate itself. Via MALDI and LDI of the hydrolyzed solutions the formation of singly positively charged ions of general formula RuCl(p)(Cp)(q)(mPTA)(r)(H2O)(s)(OH)(t) (p = 0-1, q = 0-1, r = 0-2, s = 0-5, t = 0-2) and of some fragment ions was shown. The stoichiometry was determined by analyzing the isotopic envelopes and computer modelling. The [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex can be stabilized in dilute hydrochloric acid or in neutral 0.15 M isotonic sodium chloride solution. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-ligand diimine-piperonal thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(II): Biophysical investigations and biological evaluation as anticancer and antibacterial agents.

    Beckford, Floyd A; Thessing, Jeffrey; Shaloski, Michael; Mbarushimana, P Canisius; Brock, Alyssa; Didion, Jacob; Woods, Jason; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P


    We have used a novel microwave-assisted method developed in our laboratories to synthesize a series of ruthenium-thiosemicarbazone complexes. The new thiosemicarbazone ligands are derived from benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carbaldehyde (piperonal) and the complexes are formulated as [(diimine)(2)Ru(TSC)](PF(6))(2) (where the TSC is the bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand). The diimine in the complexes is either 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline. The complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic means (NMR, IR and UV-Vis) as well as by elemental analysis. We have studied the biophysical characteristics of the complexes by investigating their anti-oxidant ability as well as their ability to disrupt the function of the human topoisomerase II enzyme. The complexes are moderately strong binders of DNA with binding constants of 10(4) M(-1). They are also strong binders of human serum albumin having binding constants on the order of 10(4) M(-1). The complexes show good in vitro anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HCT-116 and indeed show some cytotoxic selectivity for cancer cells. The IC(50) values range from 7 - 159 μM (after 72 h drug incubation). They also have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains of pathogenic bacteria with IC(50) values as low as 10 μM; little activity was seen against Gram-negative strains. It has been established that all the compounds are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II.

  20. Ruthenium Complexes are pH-Activated Metallo Prodrugs (pHAMPs) with Light-Triggered Selective Toxicity Toward Cancer Cells.

    Qu, Fengrui; Park, Seungjo; Martinez, Kristina; Gray, Jessica L; Thowfeik, Fathima Shazna; Lundeen, John A; Kuhn, Ashley E; Charboneau, David J; Gerlach, Deidra L; Lockart, Molly M; Law, James A; Jernigan, Katherine L; Chambers, Nicole; Zeller, Matthias; Piro, Nicholas A; Kassel, W Scott; Schmehl, Russell H; Paul, Jared J; Merino, Edward J; Kim, Yonghyun; Papish, Elizabeth T


    Metallo prodrugs that take advantage of the inherent acidity surrounding cancer cells have yet to be developed. We report a new class of pH-activated metallo prodrugs (pHAMPs) that are activated by light- and pH-triggered ligand dissociation. These ruthenium complexes take advantage of a key characteristic of cancer cells and hypoxic solid tumors (acidity) that can be exploited to lessen the side effects of chemotherapy. Five ruthenium complexes of the type [(N,N)2Ru(PL)](2+) were synthesized, fully characterized, and tested for cytotoxicity in cell culture (1A: N,N = 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and PL, the photolabile ligand, = 6,6'-dihydroxybipyridine (6,6'-dhbp); 2A: N,N = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and PL = 6,6'-dhbp; 3A: N,N = 2,3-dihydro-[1,4]dioxino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline (dop) and PL = 6,6'-dhbp; 4A: N,N = bipy and PL = 4,4'-dimethyl-6,6'-dihydroxybipyridine (dmdhbp); 5A: N,N = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and PL = 4,4'-dihydroxybipyridine (4,4'-dhbp). The thermodynamic acidity of these complexes was measured in terms of two pKa values for conversion from the acidic form (XA) to the basic form (XB) by removal of two protons. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data is discussed for 2A, 2B, 3A, 4B, and 5A. All complexes except 5A showed measurable photodissociation with blue light (λ = 450 nm). For complexes 1A-4A and their deprotonated analogues (1B-4B), the protonated form (at pH 5) consistently gave faster rates of photodissociation and larger quantum yields for the photoproduct, [(N,N)2Ru(H2O)2](2+). This shows that low pH can lead to greater rates of photodissociation. Cytotoxicity studies with 1A-5A showed that complex 3A is the most cytotoxic complex of this series with IC50 values as low as 4 μM (with blue light) versus two breast cancer cell lines. Complex 3A is also selectively cytotoxic, with sevenfold higher toxicity toward cancerous versus normal breast cells. Phototoxicity indices with 3A were as high as 120, which shows that dark toxicity is

  1. Chlorambucil conjugates of dinuclear p-cymene ruthenium trithiolato complexes: synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity study in vitro and in vivo.

    Stíbal, David; Therrien, Bruno; Süss-Fink, Georg; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Dyson, Paul J; Čermáková, Eva; Řezáčová, Martina; Tomšík, Pavel


    Four diruthenium trithiolato chlorambucil conjugates have been prepared via Steglich esterification from chlorambucil and the corresponding trithiolato precursors. All conjugates are highly cytotoxic towards human ovarian A2780 and A2780cisR cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. The conjugates exhibit selectivity towards A2780 cells as compared to non-cancerous HEK293 cells, while being only slightly selective for RF24 and A2780cisR cells. In vivo, the conjugate [10]BF4 suppressed the growth of a solid Ehrlich tumor in immunocompetent NMRI mice but did not prolong their overall survival. The reactivity of the chlorambucil conjugates with glutathione, a potential target of the dinuclear ruthenium motive, and with the 2-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate (dGMP-a model target of chlorambucil) was studied by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The conjugates did not show catalytic activity for the oxidation of glutathione nor binding to nucleotides, indicating that glutathione oxidation and DNA alkylation are not key mechanisms of action. Four highly cytotoxic diruthenium trithiolato chlorambucil conjugates have been prepared. All conjugates exhibit selectivity towards A2780 cells as compared to HEK293 cells, while being only slightly active in RF24 and A2780cisR cells. In vivo, the best candidate suppressed the growth of a solid Ehrlich tumor in immunocompetent NMRI mice but did not prolong their overall survival.

  2. A novel dual-functioning ruthenium(II)-arene complex of an anti-microbial ciprofloxacin derivative - Anti-proliferative and anti-microbial activity.

    Ude, Ziga; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Twamley, Brendan; Fitzgerald Hughes, Deirdre; Sadler, Peter J; Marmion, Celine J


    7-(4-(Decanoyl)piperazin-1-yl)-ciprofloxacin, CipA, (1) which is an analogue of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, and its ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)(CipA-H)Cl], (2) have been synthesised and the x-ray crystal structures of 1·1.3H2O·0.6CH3OH and 2·CH3OH·0.5H2O determined. The complex adopts a typical pseudo-octahedral 'piano-stool' geometry, with Ru(II) π-bonded to the p-cymene ring and σ-bonded to a chloride and two oxygen atoms of the chelated fluoroquinolone ligand. The complex is highly cytotoxic in the low μM range and is as potent as the clinical drug cisplatin against the human cancer cell lines A2780, A549, HCT116, and PC3. It is also highly cytotoxic against cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines suggesting a different mechanism of action. The complex also retained low μM cytotoxicity against the human colon cancer cell line HCT116p53 in which the tumour suppressor p53 had been knocked out, suggesting that the potent anti-proliferative properties associated with this complex are independent of the status of p53 (in contrast to cisplatin). The complex also retained moderate anti-bacterial activity in two Escherichia coli, a laboratory strain and a clinical isolate resistant to first, second and third generation β-lactam antibiotics.

  3. Non-bridging ligand effects on the kinetics of reduction of chloro- and azido-pentaamminecobalt(III by some polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium(II

    Olayinka A. Oyetunji


    Full Text Available Pentaamminecobalt(III complexes, [Co(NH35X]2+ (X = Cl-, N3-, are reduced by [Ru(bipy3]2+ and [Ru(terpy(bipyCl] + in aqueous media at a constant ionic strength of 0.5 M (HCl/LiCl. At 308 K, the second order rate constants (M-1 s-1 are as follows: 17.9 for the reduction of the azidocobalt(III complex by [Ru(bipy3]2+, and 1.41 and 2.63 for the [Ru(terpy(bipyCl]+ reduction of the azido- and chlorocobalt(III complexes, respectively. Activation enthalpies (ΔH‡ and entropies (ΔS‡ were determined from temperature dependence measurements with the following results: ΔH‡= 72.1 kJ mol-1 and ΔS‡ = 13.3 J mol-1 K-1 for the [Ru(bipy3]2+ reduction of the azidocobalt(III complex, while for the reduction of the cobalt(III complexes by [Ru(terpy(bipyCl] +, ΔH‡ (N3- = 20.3 kJ mol-1, ΔH‡ (Cl- = 40.6 kJ mol-1, ΔS‡(N3- = -177 J mol-1 K-1, and ΔS‡ (Cl- = -106 J mol-1 K-1. The relative rates of electron transfer in the different reactions and the influence of π-acceptor ligands on the ruthenium(II reduction of the cobalt(III complexes are discussed.

  4. Simultaneous realization of Hg2+ sensing, magnetic resonance imaging and upconversion luminescence in vitro and in vivo bioimaging based on hollow mesoporous silica coated UCNPs and ruthenium complex

    Ge, Xiaoqian; Sun, Lining; Ma, Binbin; Jin, Di; Dong, Liang; Shi, Liyi; Li, Nan; Chen, Haige; Huang, Wei


    We have constructed a multifunctional nanoprobe with sensing and imaging properties by using hollow mesoporous silica coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and Hg2+ responsive ruthenium (Ru) complex. The Ru complex was loaded into the hollow mesoporous silica and the UCNPs acted as an energy donor, transferring luminescence energy to the Ru complex. Furthermore, polyethylenimine (PEI) was assembled on the surface of mesoporous silica to achieve better hydrophilic and bio-compatibility. Upon addition of Hg2+, a blue shift of the absorption peak of the Ru complex is observed and the energy transfer process between the UCNPs and the Ru complex was blocked, resulting in an increase of the green emission intensity of the UCNPs. The un-changed 801 nm emission of the nanoprobe was used as an internal standard reference and the detection limit of Hg2+ was determined to be 0.16 μM for this nanoprobe in aqueous solution. In addition, based on the low cytotoxicity as studied by CCK-8 assay, the nanoprobe was successfully applied for cell imaging and small animal imaging. Furthermore, when doped with Gd3+ ions, the nanoprobe was successfully applied to in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Kunming mice, which demonstrates its potential as a MRI positive-contrast agent. Therefore, the method and results may provide more exciting opportunities to afford nanoprobes with multimodal bioimaging and multifunctional applications.We have constructed a multifunctional nanoprobe with sensing and imaging properties by using hollow mesoporous silica coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and Hg2+ responsive ruthenium (Ru) complex. The Ru complex was loaded into the hollow mesoporous silica and the UCNPs acted as an energy donor, transferring luminescence energy to the Ru complex. Furthermore, polyethylenimine (PEI) was assembled on the surface of mesoporous silica to achieve better hydrophilic and bio-compatibility. Upon addition of Hg2+, a blue shift of the absorption peak

  5. Robust binding between carbon nitride nanosheets and a binuclear ruthenium(II) complex enabling durable, selective CO{sub 2} reduction under visible light in aqueous solution

    Kuriki, Ryo; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Yamamoto, Muneaki; Yoshida, Tomoko [Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology, Osaka City University (Japan); Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Akatsuka, Masato; Yagi, Shinya [Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University (Japan); Lu, Daling [Suzukakedai Materials Analysis Division, Technical Department, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan)


    Carbon nitride nanosheets (NS-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) were found to undergo robust binding with a binuclear ruthenium(II) complex (RuRu') even in basic aqueous solution. A hybrid material consisting of NS-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (further modified with nanoparticulate Ag) and RuRu' promoted the photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate in aqueous media, in conjunction with high selectivity (approximately 98 %) and a good turnover number (>2000 with respect to the loaded Ru complex). These represent the highest values yet reported for a powder-based photocatalytic system during CO{sub 2} reduction under visible light in an aqueous environment. We also assessed the desorption of RuRu' from the Ag/C{sub 3}N{sub 4} surface, a factor that can contribute to a loss of activity. It was determined that desorption is not induced by salt additives, pH changes, or photoirradiation, which partly explains the high photocatalytic performance of this material. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. A chelate-stabilized ruthenium(sigma-pyrrolato) complex: resolving ambiguities in nuclearity and coordination geometry through 1H PGSE and 31P solid-state NMR studies.

    Foucault, Heather M; Bryce, David L; Fogg, Deryn E


    Reaction of RuCl2(PPh3)3 with LiNN' (NN' = 2-[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]pyrrolide) affords a single product, with the empirical formula RuCl[(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=CHC4H3N](PPh3)2. We identify this species as a sigma-pyrrolato complex, [Ru(NN')(PPh3)2]2(mu-Cl)2 (3b), rather than mononuclear RuCl(NN')(PPh3)2 (3a), on the basis of detailed 1D and 2D NMR characterization in solution and in the solid state. Retention of the chelating, sigma-bound iminopyrrolato unit within 3b, despite the presence of labile (dative) chloride and PPh3 donors, indicates that the chelate effect is sufficient to inhibit sigma --> pi isomerization of 3b to a piano-stool, pi-pyrrolato structure. 2D COSY, SECSY, and J-resolved solid-state 31P NMR experiments confirm that the PPh3 ligands on each metal center are magnetically and crystallographically inequivalent, and 31P CP/MAS NMR experiments reveal the largest 99Ru-31P spin-spin coupling constant (1J(99Ru,31P) = 244 +/- 20 Hz) yet measured. Finally, 31P dipolar-chemical shift spectroscopy is applied to determine benchmark phosphorus chemical shift tensors for phosphine ligands in hexacoordinate ruthenium complexes.

  7. Microwave-assisted synthesis of arene ruthenium(II) complexes that induce S-phase arrest in cancer cells by DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation.

    Wu, Qiong; Fan, Cundong; Chen, Tianfeng; Liu, Chaoran; Mei, Wenjie; Chen, Sidong; Wang, Baoguo; Chen, Yunyun; Zheng, Wenjie


    A series of arene ruthenium(II) complexes coordinated by phenanthroimidazole derivates, [(C6H6)Ru(L)Cl]Cl·2H2O (1b L = IP, 2b L = p-NMe2PIP, 3b L = p-MeOPIP, 4b L = p-HOPIP, 5b L = p-COOHPIP, 6b L = p-CF3PIP, 7b L = p-BrPIP) have been synthesized in yields of 89-92% under microwave irradiation in 30 min, and the crystal structure of 1b by XRD gives a typical "piano stool" conformation. The antitumor activity of these complexes against various tumor cells have been evaluated by MTT assay, and the results show that this type of arene Ru(II) complexes exhibit acceptable inhibitory effect against all of these tumor cells, especially osteosarcoma MG-63 cells, but with low toxicity toward HK-2 human normal cells. Studies on the mechanism revealed that cell cycle arrest at S-phase in MG-63 cells induced by the arene Ru(II) complex 2b, which was confirmed by the increase in the percentage of cells at S-phase and down-regulator of cyclin A. The further studies by Comet assay at single cell level indicated that DNA damage in MG-63 cells was triggered by 2b, following with the up-regulation of phosphorylated p53 and histone. The studies by spectroscopy in vitro also indicate that 2b bind to DNA molecule by intercalative mode to disturb the bio-function of tumor cells. In conclusion, the synthetic arene Ru(II) complexes could serve as novel p53 activator with potential application in cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Facile concerted proton-electron transfers in a ruthenium terpyridine-4'-carboxylate complex with a long distance between the redox and basic sites.

    Manner, Virginia W; Dipasquale, Antonio G; Mayer, James M


    We have designed and prepared ruthenium complexes with terpyridine-4'-carboxylate (tpyCOO) ligands, in which there are six bonds between the redox-active Ru and the basic carboxylate. The protonated Ru(II) complex, RuII(dipic)(tpyCOOH) (Ru(II)COOH), is prepared in one-pot from [(p-cymene)RuCl2]2, tpyCOONa, and then sodium pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate [Na(dipic)]. A crystal structure of the deprotonated Ru(II) complex, Ru(II)COO-, shows a distance of 6.9 A between the metal and basic sites. The Ru(III) complex (Ru(III)COO) has been isolated by one-electron oxidation of Ru(II)COO- with triarylaminium radical cations (NAr3*+). Ru(III)COO has a bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of 81 +/- 1 kcal mol(-1), from pKa and E1/2 measurements. It oxidizes 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol (BDFE = 77 +/- 1 kcal mol(-1)) by removal of e- and H+ (triple bond H*) to form 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl radical and Ru(II)COOH, with a second-order rate constant of (2.3 0.2) x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and a kH/kD of 7.7 1.2. Thermochemical analysis suggests a concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) mechanism for this reaction, despite the 6.9 A distance between the redox-active Ru and the H+-accepting oxygen. Ru(III)COO also oxidizes the hydroxylamine TEMPOH to the stable free radical TEMPO and xanthene to bixanthyl. These reactions appear to be similar to processes that have been previously termed hydrogen atom transfer.

  9. Post-synthetic modification of mesoporous zinc-adeninate framework with tris(2,2′-biprydine) ruthenium(II) complex and its electrochemiluminescence

    Park, Ji Eun; Shin, Ik Soo [Dept. of Chemistry, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hye Jae; An, Ji Hyun [Dept. of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Herein we report a redox-active metal-organic framework (MOF) via post-synthetic cation exchange with tris(2,2′-biprydine) ruthenium(II) complex (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}). A porous anionic zinc-adeninate framework (bMOF-100) is spacious enough to easily entrap 2.43 of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} cations within the mesopore. The encapsulation supported the framework structure preventing any distortion from a rapid solvent evaporation under SEM observation. Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}@bMOF-100 was then immobilized on the surface of glassy carbon electrode, and its electrocatalytic and electrochemiluminescent (ECL) properties were investigated in aqueous and organic solution. Especially, Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}@bMOF-100 showed the excellent electrochemical properties of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, but gradual decomposition of the MOF structure was observed under electrochemical measurements because of the sluggish oxidation of adeninate ligand.

  10. Design and Characterization of Heteroleptic Ruthenium Complexes Containing Benzimidazole Ligands for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effect of Fluorine Substituents on Photovoltaic Performance.

    Huang, Wei-Kai; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lin, Pi-Lun; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang


    We designed heteroleptic ruthenium complexes (RD12-RD15) containing fluoro-substituted benzimidazole ligands for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes were synthesized according to a typical one-pot procedure with the corresponding ancillary ligands produced in two simple steps; they were prepared into DSSC devices according to the same conditions of fabrication. The eventual devices show a systematic trend of increasing VOC and decreasing JSC with fluorine atoms of increasing number substituted on the ligand. The charge-extraction results show that upward shifts of the TiO2 potential occurred when the fluoro-substituted dyes were sensitized on TiO2 with a systematic trend of shift N719 > RD15 (with 5 F) > RD12 (with 2 F) >RD5 (no F); the intensity-modulated photovoltage spectra indicate that those fluoro substituents retard charge recombination with the electron lifetimes (τR) in the order RD15 > RD12 > RD5 > N719, consistent with the variation of VOC for the systems.

  11. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo


    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42 nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully.

  12. Influence of different ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex on the photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution over TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with mesostructures

    Peng, Tianyou [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ke, Dingning; Cai, Ping; Dai, Ke; Ma, Liang; Zan, Ling [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)


    H{sub 2} production over dye-sensitized Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with mesostructures (m-TiO{sub 2}) under visible light ({lambda} > 420 nm) was investigated by using methanol as electron donors. Experimental results indicate that three types of ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex dyes (one binuclear Ru, two mononuclear Ru), which can be attached to Pt/m-TiO{sub 2} with different linkage modes, show different photosensitization effects due to their different coordination circumstances and physicochemical properties. The dye tightly linked with m-TiO{sub 2} has better durability but the lowest H{sub 2} evolution efficiency, whereas the loosely attached dyes possess higher H{sub 2} evolution efficiency and preferable durability. It seems that the dynamic equilibrium between the linkage of the ground state dye with TiO{sub 2} and the divorce of the oxidization state dye from the surfaces plays a crucial role in the photochemical behavior during the photocatalyst sensitization process. It is helpful to improve the H{sub 2} evolution efficiency by enhancing the electron injection and hindering the backward transfer. The binuclear Ru(II) dye shows a better photosensitization in comparison with mononuclear Ru(II) dyes due to its large molecular area, conjugation system, and ''antenna effect'', which, in turn, improve the visible light harvesting and electron transfer between the dye molecules and TiO{sub 2}. (author)

  13. Interactions of the "piano-stool" [ruthenium(II) (eta6-arene)(en)CL]+ complexes with water and nucleobases; ab initio and DFT study.

    Futera, Zdenek; Klenko, Julia; Sponer, Judit E; Sponer, Jirí; Burda, Jaroslav V


    Piano stool ruthenium complexes of the composition [Ru(II)(eta6-arene)(en)Cl](+/2+) (en = ethylenediamine) represent an emerging class of cisplatin-analogue anticancer drug candidates. In this study, we use computational quantum chemistry to characterize the structure, stability and reactivity of these compounds. All these structures were optimized at DFT(B3LYP)/6-31G(d) level and their single point properties were determined by the MP2/6-31++G(2df,2pd) method. Thermodynamic parameters and rate constants were determined for the aquation process, as a replacement of the initial chloro ligand by water and subsequent exchange reaction of aqua ligand by nucleobases. The computations were carried out at several levels of DFT and ab initio theories (B3LYP, MP2 and CCSD) utilizing a range of bases sets (from 6-31G(d) to aug-cc-pVQZ). Excellent agreement with experimental results for aquation process was obtained at the CCSD level and reasonable match was achieved also with the B3LYP/6-31++G(2df,2pd) method. This level was used also for nucleobase-water exchange reaction where a smaller rate constant for guanine exchange was found in comparison with adenine. Although adenine follows a simple replacement mechanism, guanine complex passes by a two-step mechanism. At first, Ru-O6(G) adduct is formed, which is transformed through a chelate TS2 to the Ru-N7(G) final complex. In case of guanine, the exchange reaction is more favorable thermodynamically (releasing in total by about 8 kcal/mol) but according to our results, the rate constant for guanine substitution is slightly smaller than the analogous constant in adenine case when reaction course from local minimum is considered. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, photochemical and photophysical properties and biological activities of ruthenium complexes with mono- and bi-dentate histamine ligand.

    Cardoso, Carolina R; de Aguiar, Inara; Camilo, Mariana R; Lima, Márcia V S; Ito, Amando S; Baptista, Maurício S; Pavani, Christiane; Venâncio, Tiago; Carlos, Rose M


    The monodentate cis-[Ru(phen)(2)(hist)(2)](2+)1R and the bidentate cis-[Ru(phen)(2)(hist)](2+)2A complexes were prepared and characterized using spectroscopic ((1)H, ((1)H-(1)H)COSY and ((1)H-(13)C)HSQC NMR, UV-vis, luminescence) techniques. The complexes presented absorption and emission in the visible region, as well as a tri-exponential emission decay. The complexes are soluble in aqueous and non-aqueous solution with solubility in a buffer solution of pH 7.4 of 1.14 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) for (1R + 2A) and 6.43 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) for 2A and lipophilicity measured in an aqueous-octanol solution of -1.14 and -0.96, respectively. Photolysis in the visible region in CH(3)CN converted the starting complexes into cis-[Ru(phen)(2)(CH(3)CN)(2)](2+). Histamine photorelease was also observed in pure water and in the presence of BSA (1.0 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)). The bidentate coordination of the histamine to the ruthenium center in relation to the monodentate coordination increased the photosubstitution quantum yield by a factor of 3. Pharmacological studies showed that the complexes present a moderate inhibition of AChE with an IC(50) of 21 μmol L(-1) (referred to risvagtini, IC(50) 181 μmol L(-1) and galantamine IC(50) 0.006 μmol L(-1)) with no appreciable cytotoxicity toward to the HeLa cells (50% cell viability at 925 μmol L(-1)). Cell uptake of the complexes into HeLa cells was detected by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Overall, the observation of a luminescent complex that penetrates the cell wall and has low cytotoxicity, but is reactive photochemically, releasing histamine when irradiated with visible light, are interesting features for application of these complexes as phototherapeutic agents.

  15. Preparation, spectrochemical, and computational analysis of L-carnosine (2-[(3-aminopropanoyl)amino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid) and its ruthenium (II) coordination complexes in aqueous solution.

    Branham, Michael Lee; Singh, Parvesh; Bisetty, Krishna; Sabela, Myalo; Govender, Thirumala


    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel ruthenium (II) complexes with the polydentate dipeptide, L-carnosine (2-[(3-aminopropanoyl)amino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid). Mixed-ligand complexes with the general composition [ML(p)(Cl)(q)(H₂O)(r)]·xH₂O (M = Ru(II); L = L-carnosine; p = 3 - q; r = 0-1; and x = 1-3) were prepared by refluxing aqueous solutions of the ligand with equimolar amounts of ruthenium chloride (black-alpha form) at 60 °C for 36 h. Physical properties of the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, DSC/TGA, and cyclic voltammetry. The molecular structures of the complexes were elucidated using UV-Vis, ATR-IR, and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, then confirmed by density function theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. Two-dimensional NMR experiments (¹H COSY, ¹³C gHMBC, and ¹⁵N gHMBC) were also conducted for the assignment of chemical shifts and calculation of relative coordination-induced shifts (RCIS) by the complex formed. According to our results, the most probable coordination geometries of ruthenium in these compounds involve nitrogen (N1) from the imidazole ring and an oxygen atom from the carboxylic acid group of the ligand as donor atoms. Additional thermogravimetric and electrochemical data suggest that while the tetrahedral-monomer or octahedral-dimer are both possible structures of the formed complexes, the metal in either structure occurs in the ²⁺ oxidation state. Resulting RCIS values indicate that the amide-carbonyl, and the amino-terminus of the dipeptide are not involved in chelation and these observations correlate well with theoretical shift predictions by DFT.

  16. Preparation, Spectrochemical, and Computational Analysis of L-Carnosine (2-[(3-Aminopropanoylamino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-ylpropanoic Acid and Its Ruthenium (II Coordination Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    Myalo Sabela


    Full Text Available This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel ruthenium (II complexes with the polydentate dipeptide, L-carnosine (2-[(3-aminopropanoylamino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-ylpropanoic acid. Mixed-ligand complexes with the general composition [MLp(Clq(H2Or]·xH2O (M = Ru(II; L = L-carnosine; p = 3 − q; r = 0–1; and x = 1–3 were prepared by refluxing aqueous solutions of the ligand with equimolar amounts of ruthenium chloride (black-alpha form at 60 °C for 36 h. Physical properties of the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, DSC/TGA, and cyclic voltammetry. The molecular structures of the complexes were elucidated using UV-Vis, ATR-IR, and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, then confirmed by density function theory (DFT calculations at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. Two-dimensional NMR experiments (1H COSY, 13C gHMBC, and 15N gHMBC were also conducted for the assignment of chemical shifts and calculation of relative coordination-induced shifts (RCIS by the complex formed. According to our results, the most probable coordination geometries of ruthenium in these compounds involve nitrogen (N1 from the imidazole ring and an oxygen atom from the carboxylic acid group of the ligand as donor atoms. Additional thermogravimetric and electrochemical data suggest that while the tetrahedral-monomer or octahedral-dimer are both possible structures of the formed complexes, the metal in either structure occurs in the (2+ oxidation state. Resulting RCIS values indicate that the amide-carbonyl, and the amino-terminus of the dipeptide are not involved in chelation and these observations correlate well with theoretical shift predictions by DFT.

  17. Building Indenylidene-Ruthenium Catalysts for Metathesis Transformations

    Clavier, Hervé; Nolan, Steven P.

    Ruthenium-mediated olefin metathesis has emerged as an indispensable tool in organic synthesis for the formation carbon-carbon double bonds, attested by the large number of applications for natural product synthesis. Among the numerous catalysts developed to mediate olefin metathesis transformations, ruthenium-indenylidene complexes are robust and powerful pre-catalysts. The discovery of this catalyst category was slightly muddled due to a first mis-assignment of the compound structure. This report provides an overview of the synthetic routes for the construction of the indenylidene pattern in ruthenium complexes. The parameters relating to the indenylidene moiety construction will be discussed as well as the mechanism of this formation

  18. Charge mediation by ruthenium poly(pyridine) complexes in 'second-generation' glucose biosensors based on carboxymethylated beta-cyclodextrin polymer membranes.

    Kosela, Edyta; Elzanowska, Hanna; Kutner, Wlodzimierz


    Four different poly(pyridine) complexes of ruthenium, viz. Ru(II)(trpy)(phen)(OH(2))](2+) (1), trans-[Ru(III)(2,2'bpy)(2)(OH(2))(OH)](2+) (2), [(2,2'bpy)(2)(OH)Ru(III)ORu(III)(OH)(2,2'bpy)(2)](4+) (3), and [Ru(II)(4,4'bpy)(NH(3))(5)](2+) (4) (2,2'bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, 4,4'bpy=4,4'-bipyridine, trpy=2,2',2"-terpyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline), were tested as non-physiological charge mediators of 'second-generation' glucose biosensors. The membranes for these biosensors were prepared by casting anionic carboxymethylated beta-cyclodextrin polymer films (beta-CDPA) directly onto the Pt or glassy carbon (GC) disk electrodes. Simultaneously, glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized in the films by covalent bonding and the Ru complexes were incorporated both by inclusion in the beta-CD molecular cavities and by ion exchange at the fixed carboxymethyl cation-exchange sites. The leakage of the mediator from the polymer has been minimized by adopting a suitable pre-treatment procedure. The biosensors catalytic activities increased in the order 1inclusion complex with beta-CD, the biosensor sensitivity was the highest and equal to 7.2 micro A mM(-1) cm(-2), detectability was as low as 1 mM, but the linear concentration range was limited only to 4 mM. In contrast, for complexes 2 and 3 the sensitivity was 0.4 and 3.2 micro A mM(-1) cm(-2), while the linear concentration range extended up to at least 24 and 14 mM glucose, respectively. Even though some common interfering substances, such as ascorbate, paracetamol or urea, are oxidized at potentials close to those of the Ru complex redox couples, their electro-oxidation currents at physiological concentrations are insignificant compared to those due to the biocatalytic oxidation of glucose. The biosensor response to glucose is reversible as demonstrated by the inhibition of GOD activity by Cu(II). That is, the Cu(II) concentration required to inhibit by half the response to glucose of the biosensor containing complex 2 was 1.0 m

  19. Reactivity studies of eta sup (6)-p-cymene ruthenium(II) carboxylato complexes towards azide some neutral ligands

    Singh, K.S.; Kollipara, M.R.

    complexes with NaN sub (3) yielded azido complex [{(eta sup (6)-p-cymene)Ru(mu-N sub (3))Cl} sub (2)] whereas halide scavengers such as silver acetate, silvertrifluroacetate leads to the substitution of chlorine to give neutral complexes of formulation...

  20. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding properties, fluorescence studies and toxic activity of cobalt(III) and ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes.

    Nagababu, Penumaka; Shilpa, Mynam; Latha, J Naveena Lavanya; Bhatnagar, Ira; Srinivas, P N B S; Kumar, Yata Praveen; Reddy, Kotha Laxma; Satyanarayana, Sirasani


    The new ligand 4-(isopropylbenzaldehyde)imidazo[4,5-f ][1,10]phenanthroline (ippip) and its complexes [Ru(phen)(2)(ippip)](2+)(1),[Co(phen)(2)(ippip)](3+)(2),[Ru(bpy)(2)(ippip)](2+)(3),[Co(bpy)(2)(ippip)](3+)(4)(bpy=2,2-bipyridine) and (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by ES(+)-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR. The DNA binding properties of the four complexes were investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that complexes bind to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation. When irradiated at 365 nm, the complexes promote the photocleavage of pBR322 DNA, and complex 1 cleaves DNA more effectively than 2, 3, 4 complexes under comparable experimental conditions. Furthermore, photocleavage studies reveal that singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) plays a significant role in the photocleavage.

  1. Immobilized Ruthenium Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation

    Ying Min YU; Jin Hua FEI; Yi Ping ZHANG; Xiao Ming ZHENG


    Three kinds of cross linked polystyrene resin (PS) supported ruthenium complexes were developed as catalysts for the synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide hydrogenation. Many factors, such as the functionalized supports, solvents and ligands, could influence their activities and reuse performances greatly. These immobilized catalysts also offer the industrial advantages such as easy separation.

  2. Arene ruthenium(II) complexes with 2-acetamidothiazole derived ligands: Synthesis, structural studies, antifouling and antibacterial properties

    Singh, K.S.; PrabhaDevi; Sawant, S.G.; Kaminsky, W.

    -acetamidothiazole ligands (L) have been prepared by the reaction of precursor complex [RuCl2(η6-arene)]2 with 2 fold excess of ligand in methanol at room temperature (Scheme 1). All these new complexes 1-4 are neutral and adopted piano stool structure... or NH4PF6also gave the neutral complexes 1-4was unsuccessful even by increasing reaction time and in refluxing condition instead the reactionalso gave the identical neutral complexes1-4. The above results indicated that the reaction of [RuCl2(η6-arene...

  3. Metal-ligand cooperative activation of nitriles by a ruthenium complex with a de-aromatized PNN pincer ligand

    Eijsink, Linda E; Perdriau, Sébastien C P; de Vries, Johannes G; Otten, Edwin


    The pincer complex (PNN)RuH(CO), with a de-aromatized pyridine in the ligand backbone, is shown to react with nitriles in a metal-ligand cooperative manner. This leads to the formation of a series of complexes with new Ru-N(nitrile) and C(ligand)-C(nitrile) bonds. The initial nitrile cycloaddition

  4. Metal-ligand cooperative activation of nitriles by a ruthenium complex with a de-aromatized PNN pincer ligand

    Eijsink, Linda E; Perdriau, Sébastien C P; de Vries, Johannes G; Otten, Edwin


    The pincer complex (PNN)RuH(CO), with a de-aromatized pyridine in the ligand backbone, is shown to react with nitriles in a metal-ligand cooperative manner. This leads to the formation of a series of complexes with new Ru-N(nitrile) and C(ligand)-C(nitrile) bonds. The initial nitrile cycloaddition p

  5. Mixed-ligand complexes of ruthenium(II) incorporating a diazo ligand: Synthesis, characterization and DNA binding

    Megha S Deshpande; Avinash S Kumbhar


    Mixed-ligand complexes of the type [Ru(N-N)2(dzdf)]Cl2, where N-N is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 9-diazo-4,5-diazafluorene (dzdf), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR and NMR spectroscopy. Binding of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by absorption spectroscopy, steady-state emission spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The experimental results indicate that the size and shape of the intercalating ligands have marked effect on the binding affinity of the complexes to CT-DNA. The complex [Ru(phen)2(dzdf)]Cl2 binds with CT-DNA through an intercalative binding mode, while the complex [Ru(bpy)2(dzdf)]Cl2 binds electrostatically.

  6. Simultaneous determination of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine using 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine diacetonitrile triphenylphosphine ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate complex functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode

    Tiwari, Ida, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry (Center of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Gupta, Mandakini; Sinha, Preeti [Department of Chemistry (Center of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Banks, Craig E. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • A nanocomposite of ruthenium(II) terpyridine, triphenylphosphine based complex and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used first time for simultaneous detection of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine. • The detection limit reported is lower as compared to other reported works. • The paper also focuses towards effect of ligand variation attached to ruthenium(II) terpyridine based complexes complex for the hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine detection. • Nanocomposite does not involve any biological entity hence high stability. - Abstract: A nanocomposite based on the incorporation of the complex 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine triphenylphosphine diacetonitrile ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and ionomer supported upon a glassy carbon electrode substrate is reported and characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the composite electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode exhibits an electro-catalytic activity towards the oxidation of both hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). The oxidation of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine occurs at 0.81 V and 0.32 V with limit of detection found to be 3.7 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.15 × 10{sup −7} M and having a linear range from 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 6.5 × 10{sup −3} M, and 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 0.2 × 10{sup −3} M, respectively.

  7. Light-Sensitive Ruthenium Complex-Loaded Cross-linked Polymeric Nanoassemblies for the Treatment of Cancer.

    Dickerson, M; Howerton, B; Bae, Y; Glazer, E


    This work focuses on improving the efficacy of photoactivatable Ru complexes for photodynamic therapy by employing cross-linked nanoassemblies (CNAs) as a delivery approach. The effects of complex photoactivation, hydrophobicity, and solution ionic strength and pH on complex loading and release from CNAs were analyzed. The cell cytotoxicity of CNA formulations was similar to free Ru complexes despite reduced or eliminated DNA interactions. The release rate and the amount of each Ru complex released (%) varied inversely with complex hydrophobicity, while the effect of solution ionic strength was dependent on complex hydrophobicity. Premature release of two photoactivatable prodrugs prior to irradiation was believed to account for higher activity in cells studies compared to DNA interaction studies; however, for photostable (1)O2 generator-loaded CNAs this cannot explain the high cytotoxicity and lack of DNA interactions because release was incomplete after 48 hrs. The cause remains unclear, but among other possibilities, accelerated release in a cell culture environment may be responsible.

  8. Analytical gradients of complete active space self-consistent field energies using Cholesky decomposition: Geometry optimization and spin-state energetics of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex

    Delcey, Mickaël G. [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Freitag, Leon; González, Leticia, E-mail: [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währinger Straße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Pedersen, Thomas Bondo [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Aquilante, Francesco [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, V. F. Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Lindh, Roland, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala Center for Computational Chemistry - UC3, Uppsala University, Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)


    We present a formulation of analytical energy gradients at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory employing density fitting (DF) techniques to enable efficient geometry optimizations of large systems. As an example, the ground and lowest triplet state geometries of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex are computed at the DF-CASSCF level of theory and compared with structures obtained from density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP, BP86, and M06L functionals. The average deviation of all bond lengths compared to the crystal structure is 0.042 Å at the DF-CASSCF level of theory, which is slightly larger but still comparable with the deviations obtained by the tested DFT functionals, e.g., 0.032 Å with M06L. Specifically, the root-mean-square deviation between the DF-CASSCF and best DFT coordinates, delivered by BP86, is only 0.08 Å for S{sub 0} and 0.11 Å for T{sub 1}, indicating that the geometries are very similar. While keeping the mean energy gradient errors below 0.25%, the DF technique results in a 13-fold speedup compared to the conventional CASSCF geometry optimization algorithm. Additionally, we assess the singlet-triplet energy vertical and adiabatic differences with multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) using the DF-CASSCF and DFT optimized geometries. It is found that the vertical CASPT2 energies are relatively similar regardless of the geometry employed whereas the adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps are more sensitive to the chosen triplet geometry.

  9. A solid-state sensor based on ruthenium (II) complex immobilized on polytyramine film for the simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Khudaish, Emad A., E-mail: [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Chemistry Department, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman); Al-Ajmi, Khawla Y. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Chemistry Department, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman); Al-Harthi, Salim H. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Department of Physics, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman)


    A solid-state sensor based on a polytyramine (Pty) film deposited on a glassy carbon electrode doped with a tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)Ru(II) complex (Ru/Pty/GCE) was constructed electrochemically. The surface morphology of the film modified electrode was characterized using electrochemical and surface scanning techniques. A redox property represented by a [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 3+/2+} couple immobilized at the Pty moiety was characterized using typical voltammetric techniques. A distinct Ru 3d peak obtained at 280.9 eV confirms doping of the Ru species onto the Pty moiety characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images demonstrate that incorporation of Ru decreases the surface roughness of the native Pty film modified electrode. The Ru/Pty/GCE exhibits efficient electrochemical sensing toward the oxidation of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) in their mixture. Three well-defined peaks were resolved with a large peak to peak separation and the detection limits of AA, DA and UA are brought down to 0.31, 0.08 and 0.58 μM, respectively. Interference studies and application for DA determination in real samples were conducted with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • XPS data confirm doping of ruthenium onto the polytyramine moiety. • The voltammetric signals of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid are well defined. • The sensor is stable and offers a large adsorption facility for all species. • The sensor is highly sensitive to dopamine oxidation. • The sensor is applied to a real sample with a satisfactory recovery percentage.

  10. Carborane complexes of ruthenium(III): studies on thermal reaction chemistry and the catalyst design for atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

    Grishin, Ivan D; D'yachihin, Dmitrii I; Piskunov, Alexander V; Dolgushin, Fedor M; Smol'yakov, Alexander F; Il'in, Mikhail M; Davankov, Vadim A; Chizhevsky, Igor T; Grishin, Dmitry F


    The heating of the 18-electron complex [3,3-(dppb)-3-H-3-Cl-closo-3,1,2-RuC(2)B(9)H(11)] (3) in benzene at 80 °C in the presence of a small amount of CCl(4) as initiator afforded paramagnetic 17-electron species [3,3-(dppb)-3-Cl-closo-3,1,2-RuC(2)B(9)H(11)] (4) along with minor amounts of two P-phenylene ortho-cycloboronated derivatives [3-Cl-3,3,8-{Ph(2)P(CH(2))(4)PPh-μ-(C(6)H(4)-ortho)}-closo-3,1,2-RuC(2)B(9)H(10)] (5) and [3,7-Cl(2)-3,3,8-{Ph(2)P(CH(2))(4)PPh-μ-(C(6)H(4)-ortho)}-closo-3,1,2-RuC(2)B(9)H(10)] (6) in total yield of ca. 80%. The heating of either 3 or 4 in toluene at 95 °C in the absence of CCl(4) led to the selective formation of 5, which was isolated in 64% and 46% yield, respectively. Thermolysis of 3 at higher temperatures (boiling toluene, 110 °C) gives novel paramagnetic species [3-Cl-3,3,7,8-{Ph(2)P(CH(2))(4)P-μ-(C(6)H(4)-ortho)(2)}-closo-3,1,2-RuC(2)B(9)H(9)] (7) featuring bis(ortho-cycloboronation) of both P-phenyl groups at the same phosphorus atom of the ruthenium-bound dppb ligand. All new paramagnetic complexes 4-7, as well as starting diamagnetic species 3, were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and, in addition, by EPR spectroscopic studies of odd-electron complexes. Ruthenacarboranes 3-5 and 7 all display high efficiency as catalysts for the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Complex 5 gave the best catalyst performance in terms of polydispersity; the PDI (M(w)/M(n)) of the polymer samples is as low as 1.15.

  11. Assessment of intercomponent interaction in phenylene bridged dinuclear ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) polypyridyl complexes

    Guckian, Adrian L.; Doering, Manfred; Ciesielski, Michael; Walter, Olaf; Hjelm, Johan; O’Boyle, Noel M.; Henry, William; Browne, Wesley R.; McGarvey, John J.; Vos, Johannes G.


    The synthesis and characterisation of [Ru(bipy)(2)(L1)](2+) and the homodinuclear complexes [M(bipy)(2)(L1)M(bipy)(2)](4+) (where M=Ru or Os), employing the ditopic ligand, 1,4-phenylene-bis(1-pyridin-2-ylimidazo [1,5-a] pyridine) (L1), are reported. The complexes are identified by elemental analysi

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and cytotoxic activity of ruthenium(II) piano-stool complex with N,N-chelating ligand

    Rogala, Patrycja; Jabłońska-Wawrzycka, Agnieszka; Kazimierczuk, Katarzyna; Borek, Agnieszka; Błażejczyk, Agnieszka; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Barszcz, Barbara


    A mononuclear compound of the general formula [(η6-p-cymene)RuIICl(2,2‧-PyBIm)]PF6 has been synthesized from a bidentate N,N-donor ligand, viz. 2,-(2‧-pyridyl)benzimidazole (2,2‧-PyBIm) and the corresponding chloro-complex [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(μ-Cl)Cl]2 (precursor). The isolated coordination compound was characterized by IR, UV-vis and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopies. The single crystal X-ray analysis of the complex reveals that the asymmetric part of the unit cell consists of two symmetrically independent, [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(2,2‧-PyBIm)]+ cationic complexes. Each cation exhibits a pseudo-octahedral three-legged piano-stool geometry, in which three "legs" are occupied by one chloride ion and two nitrogen donor atoms of the chelating ligand 2,2‧-PyBIm. The Hirshfeld surface analysis of obtained complex was determined, too. The ionic nature of the compound is identified by a strong band at around 830 cm-1 due to the νP-F stretching mode of the PF6- counter ion. The electronic spectrum of this monomeric complex displays high intensity bands in the ultraviolet region assignable to π→π*/n→π* transitions, as well as a band attributable to the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) dπ(Ru)→π*(L) transition. Additionally, the complex has been screened for its cytotoxicity against three human cancer lines: non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) as well as normal mice fibroblast cells (BALB/3T3). The complex demonstrated a moderate antiproliferative activity against the cell lines tested.

  13. Synthesis of cyano-bridged bimetallic complexes of 5-indenyl ruthenium(II): Characterization and spectroscopic studies

    K Mohan Rao; E K Rymmai


    Reactions of the cyanide complexes of the type [(Ind)Ru(PPh3)2CN] (1), [(Ind)Ru(dppe)CN] (2), [(Cp)Ru(PPh3)2CN] (3), with the corresponding chloro complexes [(Ind)Ru(PPh3)2Cl] (4), [(Ind)Ru(dppe)Cl] (5), [(Cp)Ru(PPh3)2Cl] (6), in the presence of NH4PF6 salt give homometallic cyano-bridged compounds of the type [(Ind)(PPh3)2Ru-CN-Ru(PPh3)2(Cp)]PF6 (7), [(Ind)(PPh3)2Ru-CN-Ru(PPh3)2(Ind)] PF6 where Ind = indenyl, 5-C9H7, (8), [(Cp)(PPh3)2Ru-CN-Ru(dppe)(Ind)]PF6, dppe = (Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2) (9), [(Ind(dppe)Ru-CN-Ru(PPh3)2(Ind)PF6 (10) and [(Ind)(dppe)Ru-CN-Ru(PPh3)2(Cp)]PF6 (11) respectively. Reaction of complex 3 with [(p-cymene)RuCl2]2 dimer gave a mixed dimeric complex [(Cp)Ru(PPh3)2-CN-RuCl2(-cymene)] (12). All these complexes have been characterized by IR, 1H, 13C and 31 P NMR spectroscopy and C, H, N analyses.

  14. Influence of complexing agents on the preparation of bimetallic platinum-ruthenium catalysts supported on O-functionalized graphite cloths

    Sieben, J.M., E-mail: [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Universidad Nacional del Sur., Av. Alem 1253, (B8000CPB) Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Duarte, M.M.E.; Mayer, C.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Universidad Nacional del Sur., Av. Alem 1253, (B8000CPB) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)


    Electrodeposition of bimetallic Pt-Ru catalysts on O-functionalized graphite cloths from H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and RuCl{sub 3} solutions containing trisodium citrate (Cit) and disodium dihydrogen ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA) was investigated. SEM analysis of the electrode prepared without complexant showed a relatively compact and rough deposit displaying a 'tree cortex' structure, whereas uniform size and globular shape particles regularly distributed over the support surface were obtained using citrate and Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA as complexants. In addition, XRD diffraction and EDX analysis revealed that the catalysts prepared using the complexants showed smaller size particles and lower Ru content. Electrocatalytic activity measurements indicated that the most active electrode for methanol oxidation was obtained with Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA as additive.

  15. Study of 6- cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon ruthenium complexes bearing functionalized pyridyl diketones: Isolation of complexes with 2-N∩O and 4-N∩O bonding modes of ligands

    Saphidabha L Nongbri; Babulal Das; Mohan Rao Kollipara


    Chelating mono- and di-pyridyl functionalized -diketones, viz. 1-phenyl-3-(2-pyridyl) propane-1,3-dione (pppdH) and 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)propane-1,3-dione (dppdH) ligands yielded new water soluble 6-arene ruthenium(II) complexes of the formulation [(6-arene)Ru(2-N-O-pppdH)Cl]+ (arene = C6H6 1, pPrC6H4Me 2, C6Me6 3) and [(6-arene)2Ru2(4-N-O-dppd)Cl2]+ (arene = C6H6 4, -PrC6H4Me 5, C6Me6 6), as their (complexes 1-4, 6) PF6 salt or (complex 5) BF4 salt. The complexes were obtained by treatment of respective precursors, [(6-arene)Ru(-Cl)Cl]2 (arene = C6H6, -PrC6H4Me, C6Me6) in 1:2 and 1:1 molar ratio with pppdH and dppdH in the presence of NH4PF6/NH4BF4. All the complexes have been characterized on the basis of FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic data as well as by elemental analysis. Molecular structures of representative complexes 2, 5 and 6 have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The `O-C-C-C-O' fragment of the coordinated ligand (pppdH) is neutral in complexes 1-3 and that of the dppdH ligand existed as a neutral as well as concomitantly uninegative fashion in complexes 4-6 due to the delocalization of -electrons.

  16. Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation of Arenols by a Well-Defined Complex of Ruthenium and Phosphorus–Nitrogen PN3–Pincer Ligand Containing a Phenanthroline Backbone

    Li, Huaifeng


    Selective catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds is extremely challenging using transition-metal catalysts. Hydrogenation of arenols to substituted tetrahydronaphthols or cyclohexanols has been reported only with heterogeneous catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate the selective hydrogenation of arenols to the corresponding tetrahydronaphthols or cyclohexanols catalyzed by a phenanthroline-based PN3-ruthenium pincer catalyst.

  17. Synthesis, structural, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial studies of palladium(II), platinum(II), ruthenium(III) and iridium(III) complexes derived from N,N,N,N-tetradentate macrocyclic ligand.

    Rani, Soni; Kumar, Sumit; Chandra, Sulekh


    Palladium(II), platinum(II), ruthenium(III) and iridium(III) complexes of general stoichiometry [PdL]Cl(2), [PtL]Cl(2), [Ru(L)Cl(2)]Cl and [Ir(L)Cl(2)]Cl are synthesized with a tetradentate macrocyclic ligand, derived from 2,6-diaminopyridine with 3-ethyl 2,4-pentanedione. Ligand was characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, mass, and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, mass, electronic spectral techniques and thermal studies. The value of magnetic moments indicates that all the complexes are diamagnetic except Ru(III) complex which shows magnetic moments corresponding its one unpaired electron. The macrocyclic ligand and all its metal complexes were also evaluated in vitro against some plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria to assess their biocidal properties.

  18. Teaching Inorganic Photophysics and Photochemistry with Three Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes: A Computer-Based Exercise

    Garino, Claudio; Terenzi, Alessio; Barone, Giampaolo; Salassa, Luca


    Among computational methods, DFT (density functional theory) and TD-DFT (time-dependent DFT) are widely used in research to describe, "inter alia," the optical properties of transition metal complexes. Inorganic/physical chemistry courses for undergraduate students treat such methods, but quite often only from the theoretical point of…

  19. Hydrogenation of imines catalysed by ruthenium(II) complexes based on lutidine-derived CNC pincer ligands.

    Hernández-Juárez, Martín; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés


    The preparation of new Ru(II) complexes incorporating fac-coordinated lutidine-derived CNC ligands is reported. These derivatives are selectively deprotonated by (t)BuOK at one of the methylene arms of the pincer, leading to catalytically active species in the hydrogenation of imines.

  20. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M; Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G


    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic, DFT calculations and biological activity studies of ruthenium carbonyl complexes with 2-picolinic acid and a secondary ligand

    Shohayeb, Shahera M.; Mohamed, Rania G.; Moustafa, H.; El-Medani, Samir M.


    Thermal reaction of [Ru3(CO)12] with 2-picolinic acid (Hpic) in the absence and presence of a secondary ligand (pyridine, Py, bipyridine, Bipy, or thiourea, Tu) was investigated. Four complexes with molecular formulae: [Ru(CO)3(Hpic)], 1, [Ru2(CO)5(Hpic)(Py)], 2, [Ru2(CO)5(Hpic)(Tu)], 3 and [Ru2(CO)4(Hpic)(Bipy)], 4, were isolated. All complexes were characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic studies, mass spectrometry and thermal analysis. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligands. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using B3LYP method and LANL2DZ basis set. The extent of natural charge population (core, valence and rydberg), exact electronic configuration, total Lewis and total non-Lewis are estimated and discussed in terms of natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis.

  2. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M; Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G


    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well

  3. Water soluble (Eta sup (6) - arene) ruthenium (II) complexes incorporating marine derived bioligand: Synthesis, spectral and structural studies

    Singh, K.S.; Svitlyk, V.; PrabhaDevi; Mozharivskyj, Y.

    ) or L sub(2) in the presence of AgBF sub(4) (L sub(1) = PyCN, DMAP; L sub(2) = 4,4`-bipy, pyrazine). The complexes are characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data and molecular structures of three representative compounds have been determined...

  4. Asymmetric Ruthenium(II and Osmium(II Complexes with New Bidentate Polyquinoline Ligands. Synthesis and NMR Characterization

    Antonino Mamo


    Full Text Available A series of Ru(II and Os(II tris-chelate complexes with new bidentate 2-pyridylquinoline ligands have been synthesized and fully characterized by EA,1H-NMR and FAB-MS techniques. The new ligands are: L1 = 4-p-methoxyphenyl-6-bromo-2-(2′- pyridylquinoline (mphbr-pq and L2 = 4-p-hydroxyphenyl-6-bromo-2-(2′-pyridyl-quinoline (hphbr-pq. The complexes studied are: [Ru(bpy2L1](PF62 (C1, [Ru(bpy2L2](PF62 (C2, [Os(bpy2L1](PF62 (C3, [Os(bpy2L2](PF62 (C4 (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, [Ru(dmbpy2L1](PF62 (C5, [Ru(dmbpy2L2](PF62 (C6, [Os(dmbpy2L1](PF62 (C7, and [Os(dmbpy2L2](PF62 (C8 (dmbpy = 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine. Moreover, new functionalized complexes C9-C12 were obtained by the basecatalyzed direct alkylation of C2, C4, C6, and C8 with 6-bromo-1-hexene. The complete assignment of the 1H-NMR spectra for the two new ligands (L1 and L2, and their Ru(II or Os(II complexes has been accomplished using a combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. The JH,H values have been determined for the majority of the resonances.

  5. Asymmetric ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes with new bidentate polyquinoline ligands. Synthesis and NMR characterization.

    Mamo, Antonino; Aureliano, Alessandro; Recca, Antonino


    A series of Ru(II) and Os(II) tris-chelate complexes with new bidentate 2-pyridylquinoline ligands have been synthesized and fully characterized by EA,1H-NMR and FAB-MS techniques. The new ligands are: L1 = 4-p-methoxyphenyl-6-bromo-2-(2'- pyridyl)quinoline (mphbr-pq) and L2 = 4-p-hydroxyphenyl-6-bromo-2-(2'-pyridyl)-quinoline (hphbr-pq). The complexes studied are: [Ru(bpy)2L1](PF6)2 (C1), [Ru(bpy)2L2](PF6)2 (C2), [Os(bpy)2L1](PF6)2 (C3), [Os(bpy)2L2](PF6)2 (C4) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), [Ru(dmbpy)2L1](PF6)2 (C5), [Ru(dmbpy)2L2](PF6)2 (C6), [Os(dmbpy)2L1](PF6)2 (C7), and [Os(dmbpy)2L2](PF6)2 (C8) (dmbpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine). Moreover, new functionalized complexes C9-C12 were obtained by the base-catalyzed direct alkylation of C2, C4, C6, and C8 with 6-bromo-1-hexene. The complete assignment of the 1H-NMR spectra for the two new ligands (L1 and L2), and their Ru(II) or Os(II) complexes has been accomplished using a combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. The JH,H values have been determined for the majority of the resonances.

  6. Tuning excited state isomerization dynamics through ground state structural changes in analogous ruthenium and osmium sulfoxide complexes.

    Garg, Komal; Engle, James T; Ziegler, Christopher J; Rack, Jeffrey J


    The complexes [Ru(bpy)2(pyESO)](PF6)2 and [Os(bpy)2(pyESO)](PF6)2, in which bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine and pyESO is 2-((isopropylsulfinyl)ethyl)pyridine, were prepared and studied by (1)H NMR, UV-visible and ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, as well as by electrochemical methods. Crystals suitable for X-ray structural analysis were grown for [Ru(bpy)2(pyESO)](PF6)2. Cyclic voltammograms of both complexes provide evidence for S→O and O→S isomerization as these voltammograms are described by an ECEC (electrochemical-chemical electrochemical-chemical) mechanism in which isomerization follows Ru(2+) oxidation and Ru(3+) reduction. The S- and O-bonded Ru(3+/2+) couples appear at 1.30 and 0.76 V versus Ag/AgCl in propylene carbonate. For [Os(bpy)2(pyESO)](PF6)2, these couples appear at 0.97 and 0.32 V versus Ag/AgCl in acetonitrile, respectively. Charge-transfer excitation of [Ru(bpy)2(pyESO)](PF6)2 results in a significant change in the absorption spectrum. The S-bonded isomer of [Ru(bpy)2(pyESO)](2+) features a lowest energy absorption maximum at 390 nm and the O-bonded isomer absorbs at 480 nm. The quantum yield of isomerization in [Ru(bpy)2(pyESO)](2+) was found to be 0.58 in propylene carbonate and 0.86 in dichloroethane solution. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic measurements were collected for both complexes, revealing time constants of isomerizations of 81 ps (propylene carbonate) and 47 ps (dichloroethane) in [Ru(bpy)2(pyESO)](2+). These data and a model for the isomerizing complex are presented. A striking conclusion from this analysis is that expansion of the chelate ring by a single methylene leads to an increase in the isomerization time constant by nearly two orders of magnitude.

  7. Hydrogen bonding and proton transfer to ruthenium hydride complex CpRuH(dppe): metal and hydride dichotomy.

    Silantyev, Gleb A; Filippov, Oleg A; Tolstoy, Peter M; Belkova, Natalia V; Epstein, Lina M; Weisz, Klaus; Shubina, Elena S


    The combination of variable temperature (190-297 K) IR and NMR spectroscopy studies with quantum-chemical calculations at the DFT/B3PW91 and AIM level had the aim to determine the mechanism of proton transfer to CpRuH(dppe) (1, dppe = Ph(2)P(CH(2))(2)PPh(2)) and the structures of intermediates. Dihydrogen bond (DHB) formation was established in the case of interaction with weak proton donors like CF(3)CH(2)OH. Low-temperature protonation (at about 200 K) by stronger proton donors leads via DHB complex to the cationic nonclassical complex [CpRu(η(2)-H(2))(dppe)](+) (2). Thermodynamic parameters of DHB formation (for CF(3)CH(2)OH: ΔH°(HB) = -4.9 ± 0.2 kcal·mol(-1), ΔS°(HB) = -17.8 ± 0.7 cal·mol(-1)·K(-1)) and proton transfer (for (CF(3))(2)CHOH: ΔH°(PT) = -5.2 ± 0.3 kcal·mol(-1), ΔS°(PT) = -23 ± 1 cal·mol(-1)·K(-1)) were determined. Above 240 K 2 transforms into trans-[CpRu(H)(2)(dppe)](+) (3) yielding a mixture of 2 and 3 in 1:2 ratio. Kinetic analysis and activation parameters for the "[Ru(η(2)-H(2))](+) → trans-[Ru(H)(2)](+)" transformation indicate reversibility of this process in contrast to irreversible intramolecular isomerization of the Cp* analogue. Calculations show that the driving force of this process is greater stability (by 1.5 kcal·mol(-1) in ΔE scale) of the dihydride cation in comparison with the dihydrogen complex. The calculations of the potential energy profile indicate the low barrier for deprotonation of 2 suggesting that the formation of trans-[CpRu(H)(2)(dppe)](+) proceeds via deprotonation of [Ru(η(2)-H(2))](+) to DHB complex, formation of hydrogen bond with Ru atom and subsequent proton transfer to the metal site.

  8. Reactivity Studies on a Binuclear Ruthenium(0) Complex Equipped with a Bridging κ(2)N,Ge-Amidinatogermylene Ligand.

    Cabeza, Javier A; Fernández-Colinas, José M; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Polo, Diego


    The amidinatogermylene-bridged diruthenium(0) complex [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)7] (2; (i)Pr2bzam = N,N'-bis(iso-propyl)benzamidinate; HMDS = N(SiMe3)2) reacted at room temperature with (t)BuNC and PMe3 to give [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(L)(CO)6] (L = (t)BuNC, 3; PMe3, 4), which contain the new ligand in an axial position on the Ru atom that is not attached to the amidinato fragment. At 70 °C, 2 reacted with PPh3, PMe3, dppm, and dppe to give the equatorially substituted derivatives [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(L)(CO)6] (L = PPh3, 5; PMe3, 6) and [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(μ-κ(2)P,P'-L2)(CO)5] (L2 = dppm, 7; dppe, 8). HSiEt3 and HSnPh3 were oxidatively added to complex 2 at 70 °C, leading to the coordinatively unsaturated products [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)5] (ER3 = SiEt3, 9; SnPh3, 10), which easily reacted with (t)BuNC and CO to give the saturated derivatives [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}((t)BuNC)(CO)5] (ER3 = SiEt3, 11; SnPh3, 12) and [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)6] (ER3 = SiEt3, 13; SnPh3, 14), respectively. Compounds 9-14 have their ER3 group on the Ru atom that is not attached to the amidinato fragment. In contrast, the reaction of 2 with H2 at 70 °C led to the unsaturated tetranuclear complex [Ru4(μ-H)2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}2(CO)10] (15), which also reacted with (t)BuNC and CO to give the saturated derivatives [Ru4(μ-H)2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}2(L)2(CO)10] (L = (t)BuNC, 16; CO, 17). All tetraruthenium complexes contain an unbridged metal-metal connecting two germylene-bridged diruthenium units. Under CO atmosphere, complex 17 reverted to compound 2. All of the coordinatively unsaturated products (9, 10, and 15) have their unsaturation(s) located on the Ru atom(s) that is(are) attached to the amidinato fragment(s). In the absence of added reagents, the thermolysis of 2 in refluxing toluene led to [Ru4{

  9. Structural analysis of ruthenium-arene complexes using ion mobility mass spectrometry, collision-induced dissociation, and DFT.

    Czerwinska, Izabella; Far, Johann; Kune, Christopher; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Delaude, Lionel; De Pauw, Edwin


    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) techniques were used to investigate the influence of the phosphine ligand on the physicochemical properties of [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PCy3)] (), [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PPh3)] (), and [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PTA)] () in the gas phase (PTA is 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane). Electrospray ionization of complexes and led to the corresponding [RuCl(p-cymene)(PR3)](+) ions via the dissociation of a chlorido ligand, whereas RAPTA-C () afforded two molecular ions by in-source oxidation ([Ru(III)Cl2(p-cymene)(PTA)](+)) or protonation ([RuCl2(p-cymene)(PTA+H)](+)). Control experiments showed that the balance between these two ionization paths was strongly influenced by the nature of the solvent used for infusion. Collision cross sections (CCSs) of the four molecular ions accurately reflected the variations of steric bulk inferred from the Tolman steric parameters (θ) of the phosphine ligands. Moreover, DFT calculations combined with a model based on the kinetic theory of gases (the trajectory method of the IMoS software) afforded reliable CCS predictions. The almost two times higher dipole moment of [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PTA+H)](+) (μ = 13.75 D) compared to [Ru(III)Cl2(p-cymene)(PTA)](+) (μ = 7.18 D) was held responsible for increased ion-induced dipole interactions with a polarizable drift gas such as N2. Further experiments with He and CO2 confirmed that increasing the polarizability of the buffer gas improved the separation between the two molecular ions derived from complex . The fragmentation patterns of complexes were determined by CID. The sequence of collision voltages at which 50% of a precursor ion dissociates (V50) recorded for the molecular ions derived from compounds was in good agreement with simple electronic considerations based on the donor strength of the phosphine ligand. Thus, the CCS and V50 parameters used to determine the shape and stability of ionic species in the gas phase are complementary

  10. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    Muhammad eHanif


    Full Text Available The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of RuII(arene complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well with cellular accumulation. The most lipophilic compound bearing a biphenyl moiety and a cyclohexylidene-protected carbohydrate is the most cytotoxic with unprecedented IC50 values for the compound class in three human cancer cell lines. This compound shows reactivity to the DNA model nucleobase 9-ethylguanine, but does not alter the secondary structure of plasmid DNA indicating that other biological targets are responsible for its cytotoxic effect.

  11. A Long-Lived Mononuclear Cyclopentadienyl Ruthenium Complex Grafted onto Anatase TiO2 for Efficient CO2 Photoreduction.

    Huang, Haowei; Lin, Jinjin; Zhu, Gangbei; Weng, Yuxiang; Wang, Xuxu; Fu, Xianzhi; Long, Jinlin


    This work shows a novel artificial donor-catalyst-acceptor triad photosystem based on a mononuclear C5 H5 -RuH complex oxo-bridged TiO2 hybrid for efficient CO2 photoreduction. An impressive quantum efficiency of 0.56 % for CH4 under visible-light irradiation was achieved over the triad photocatalyst, in which TiO2 and C5 H5 -RuH serve as the electron collector and CO2 -reduction site and the photon-harvester and water-oxidation site, respectively. The fast electron injection from the excited Ru(2+) cation to TiO2 in ca. 0.5 ps and the slow backward charge recombination in half-life of ca. 9.8 μs result in a long-lived D(+) -C-A(-) charge-separated state responsible for the solar-fuel production.

  12. Supported ruthenium-carbene catalyst on ionic magnetic nanoparticles for olefin metathesis.

    Chen, Shu-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Ma, Miaofeng; Zhong, Chong-Min; Lee, Sang-gi


    The Grubbs-Hoveyda ruthenium-carbene complex has been covalently immobilized on ionic magnetic nanoparticles utilizing an imidazolium salt linker. The supported catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity for ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and cross-metathesis (CM) in the presence of less than 1 mol % of ruthenium. The catalysts can easily be recovered magnetically and reused up to seven times with minimal leaching of ruthenium species.

  13. Relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and aortic vascular endothelium induced by new nitric oxide donor substances of the nitrosyl-ruthenium complex

    Joao B. G. Cerqueira


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endothelial dysfunction characterized by endogenous nitric oxide (NO deficiency made 56% of patients affected with erectile dysfunction decline treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors. New forms of treatment are currently being developed for this group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study compared the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP and two substances of the nitrosyl-ruthenium complex, cis-[Ru(bpy2(SO3(NO]PF-6-9 ("FONO1” and trans-[Ru(NH34(caffeine(NO]C13 ("LLNO1” on relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and aortic vascular endothelium. The samples were immersed in isolated baths and precontracted with 0.1 µM phenylephrine (PE and the corresponding relaxation concentration/response curves were plotted. In order to investigate the relaxation mechanisms involved, 100 µM ODQ (a soluble guanylate cyclase-specific inhibitor, 3 µM or 10 µM oxyhemoglobin (an extracellular NO scavenger or 1 mM L-cysteine (a nitrosyl anion-specific scavenger was added to the samples. RESULTS: All the NO donors tested produced a significant level of relaxation in the vascular endothelium. In corpus cavernosum samples, FONO1 produced no significant effect, but LLNO1 and SNP induced dose-dependent relaxation with comparable potency (pEC50 = 6.14 ± 0.08 and 6.4 ± 0.14, respectively and maximum effect (Emax = 82% vs. 100%, respectively. All NO donors were found to activate soluble guanylate cyclase, since the addition of the corresponding inhibitor (100 µM ODQ completely neutralized the relaxation effect observed. The addition of oxyhemoglobin reduced the relaxation effect, but did not inhibit it completely. In aortic vascular endothelium 3 µM oxyhemoglobin decreased the relaxation effect by 26% on the average, while 10 µM oxyhemoglobin reduced it by over 52%. The addition of 100 µM L-cysteine produced no significant inhibiting effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LLNO1 and FONO1 are potent vasodilators. LLNO1 was

  14. Photophysical characterization of the interactions among tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) complexes ion-exchanged within zirconium phosphate.

    Martí, Angel A; Colón, Jorge L


    We studied the structures, luminescence, and self-quenching properties of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) two-dimensional arrangements within the layers of zirconium phosphate (ZrP). The intercalation of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) was accomplished using a hydrated form of zirconium phosphate ZrP. Varying the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/ZrP intercalation ratio, different Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-exchanged ZrP loading levels were achieved. The ion exchange of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) within ZrP produces a red shift in the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption band of the complex from 452 nm in aqueous solution to 460 nm in ZrP. Steady state luminescence spectra of the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-exchanged ZrP materials show an increase in the luminescence intensity with an increase in the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) loading level until about 0.77 M, where subsequent increases in the loading level produce a decrease in the luminescence (self-quenching region). Time-resolved luminescence measurements are consistent with the steady state luminescence measurements. Analysis of the time domain luminescence measurements in loadings higher than 0.77 M leads to the determination of a collisional quenching rate constant of (1.67 +/- 0.05) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Stern-Volmer analysis of the luminescence quantum yield of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-exchanged ZrP materials indicates that static quenching is also involved in the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) self-quenching mechanism. The quantum yield data behavior might be explained by a model that takes into account collisional quenching and the quasi-static Perrin mechanism. The calculation yields a quenching sphere of action of 14.8 A, which is slightly larger than the collisional radii of two Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) ions (12.2 A), as predicted by the model.

  15. Ruthenium and osmium complexes of hemilabile chiral monophosphinite ligands derived from 1D-pinitol or 1D-chiro-inositol as catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation reactions.

    Slade, Angela T; Lensink, Cornelis; Falshaw, Andrew; Clark, George R; Wright, L James


    The monophosphinite ligands, 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclopentylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P1), 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P2), 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P3), and 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclopentylidene-3-O-ethyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P4), can be conveniently prepared from the chiral natural products 1D-pinitol or 1D-chiro-inositol. On treatment of toluene solutions of RuCl2(PPh3)3 with two mole equivalents of the ligands D-PY (Y = 1-4) the complexes RuCl2(D-P1)2 (1), RuCl2(D-P2)2 (4), RuCl2(D-P3)2 (5), or RuCl2(D-P4)2 (6), respectively, are formed. Similarly, treatment of OsCl2(PPh3)3 with D-P1 gives OsCl2(D-P1)2 (7). The single crystal X-ray structure determination of 1 reveals that each D-P1 ligand coordinates to ruthenium through phosphorus and the oxygen atom of the methoxyl group. Treatment of 1 with excess LiBr or LiI results in metathesis of the chloride ligands and RuBr2(D-P1)2 (2) or RuI2(D-P1)2 (3), respectively, are formed. Exposure of a solution of 1 to carbon monoxide results in the very rapid formation of RuCl2(CO)2(D-P1)2 (8), thereby demonstrating the ease with which the oxygen donors are displaced from the metal and hence the hemilabile nature of the two bidentate D-P1 ligands in 1. Preliminary studies indicate that 1-7 act as catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation reactions of acetophenone and 3-quinuclidinone to give the corresponding alcohols in generally high conversions but low enantiomeric excesses.

  16. The Use of Differential EXAFS Analysis for the determination of Small Structural Differences between two closely-related Ruthenium Complexes

    Gianolio, D.; Borfecchia, E.; Garino, C.; Ruiu, T.; Lamberti, C.; Salassa, L.


    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is a sensitive and powerful technique in revealing the structure of a material, providing as well high accuracy on interatomic distances. Nevertheless, when dealing with systems that differ only by small structural features, a standard data analysis might be unable of discriminating between such differences. A differential approach was proposed by Bressler, Chergui, and co-workers [2003, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047403][2006, J. Phys. Chem B, 110, 14035][2009 Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48 2711] to solve this problem and differentiate between excited and unexcited state structures during pump-and-probe transient XAS experiments. In this contribution, we apply the differential data analysis procedure to the study of two closely-related molecular complexes, namely cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2]2+ and cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)(H2O)]2+, characterized under static conditions. It is herein demonstrated that the method, based on a direct fit of differential curves, is able to reveal the small differences present between the two structures which, conversely, could not be resolved by standard EXAFS fitting of full spectra.

  17. Efficient and versatile catalysis of N-alkylation of heterocyclic amines with alcohols and one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzazoles with newly designed ruthenium(II) complexes of PNS thiosemicarbazones.

    Ramachandran, Rangasamy; Prakash, Govindan; Selvamurugan, Sellappan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Malecki, Jan Grzegorz; Ramkumar, Venkatachalam


    Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with phosphine-functionalized PNS type thiosemicarbazone ligands [RuCl(CO)(EPh3)(L)] (1-6) (E = P or As, L = 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene) thiosemicarbazone (PNS-H), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-methylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Me), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-phenylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Ph)) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopy (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H, (13)C, (31)P-NMR) as well as ESI mass spectrometry. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 2 and 6 were identified by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The analysis revealed that all the complexes possess a distorted octahedral geometry with the ligand coordinating in a uni-negative tridentate PNS fashion. All the ruthenium complexes (1-6) were tested as catalyst for N-alkylation of heteroaromatic amines with alcohols. Notably, complex 2 was found to be a very efficient and versatile catalyst towards N-alkylation of a wide range of heterocyclic amines with alcohols. Complex 2 can also catalyze the direct amination of 2-nitropyridine with benzyl alcohol to the corresponding secondary amine. Furthermore, a preliminary examination of performance for N,N-dialkylation of diamine showed promising results, giving good conversion and high selectivity. In addition, N-alkylation of ortho-substituted anilines (-NH2, -OH and -SH) led to the one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazoles, benzoxazoles and benzothiazoles, also revealing the catalytic activity of complex 2.

  18. Electron-deficient ruthenium and osmium complexes: From 14-electron species to C-F bond cleavage reactions

    Huang, Dejian


    Stepwise removal of the fluoride from RuRF(CO)L2 gives [RuR(CO)L 2]BAr'4 (L = PtBu 2Me, R = H, CH3, Ph, Ar' = 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl). This 14-electron cation has a saw-horse shape with two bulky L trans and CO and R cis. The two vacant sites are in fact occupied weakly by C-H bonds from the phosphines. [RuH(CO)L2] + has a strong Lewis acidic but weakened π- basic Ru center as it is illustrated by its reactivity pattern towards olefins and alkynes. While organic fluorocarbon is notorious for its inertness due to the strong C-F bond, the α-C-F bond of a transition metal fluorocarbyl complex is activated. The chemistry in Chapter 3 illustrates this argument. Attempts to replace fluoride of MHF(CO)L2 with CF3 using Me 3SiCF3 do not give MH(CF3)(CO)L2, instead, M[HF(CF2)(CO)L2 is isolated. Fast equilibrium exists between RuHF(CF2)(CO)L2 and RuH(CF3)(CO)L 2 but not for OsHF(CF2)(CO)L2, which is converted to OsF2(CFH)(CO)L2 upon heating. In contrast, isomerization of RuHF(CF2)(CO)L2 gives RUF(CF2H)(CO)L 2.

  19. Highly sensitive and selective difunctional ruthenium(II) complex-based chemosensor for dihydrogen phosphate anion and ferrous cation.

    Zheng, Ze-Bao; Duan, Zhi-Ming; Ma, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ke-Zhi


    The anion-interaction properties of a Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Htppip)](ClO4)2·H2O·DMF (RuL) {bpy =2,2'-bipyridine and Htppip =2-(4-(2,6-di(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} were thoroughly investigated in CH3CN and CH3CN/H2O (50:1, v/v) solutions by UV-visible absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectra. These analyses revealed that RuL acts as an efficient "turn on" emission sensor for H2PO4(-), and a "turn off" sensor for F(-) and OAc(-); in addition, RuL exhibited slightly disturbed emission spectra in the presence of the other anions studied (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), and ClO4(-)). The cation-sensing properties of RuL were also studied in both neat CH3CN and aqueous 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid buffer (pH = 7.2)/CH3CN (71/1, v/v) solutions. RuL was found to exhibit a colorimetric sensing ability that was highly selective for Fe(2+), as evidenced by an obvious color change from pale yellow to light red-purple to the naked eye over the other cations studied (Na(+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+)). To obtain insights into the possible binding modes and the sensing mechanisms, (1)H NMR spectral analysis, luminescence lifetime measurements, and density functional theoretical calculations were also performed.

  20. Assessment of the. pi. -acceptor capability of selected ligands based on the photoelectron spectra of ruthenium ammine complexes

    Shepherd, R. E.; Proctor, A.; Henderson, W.W.; Myser, T.K.


    ESCA spectra have been recorded for a series of Ru/sup II/ and Ru/sup III/ ammine complexes of general formula ((NH/sub 3/)/sub 5/RuL)X/sub n/ (X/sup -/ = PF/sub 6//sup -/, Cl/sup -/). Binding energy regions of the C/sub 1s/, Ru/sub 3d3/s/, and Ru/sub 3d5/s/, and Ru/sub 3p3/2/ photopeaks were studied. Binding energies were determined by using nonlinear-least-squares curve fitting. equal to the binding energy difference for (C/sub 1s/ - Ru/sub 3d5/2/) has been used to assign a fractional increase in charge at the Ru/sup II/ center when L = a series of ..pi..-acceptor ligands: N-methylpyrazinium (CH/sub 3/pz/sup +/), CO dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate ester (dmad), CO, pyrazine (pz), pyridine (py), and CH/sub 3/CN. Authentic Ru/sup II/ and Ru/sup III/ oxidation states were assumed for (Ru(en)/sub 3/)ZnCl/sub 4/, = 5.1 eV, and (Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6/)Cl/sub 3/, = 2.5 eV, respectively. The ..pi..-acceptor order and effective Ru oxidation state were determined to be as follows: CH/sub 3/pz/sup +/, 3.01 > CO, 2.88 > dmad, 2.73 > pz, 2.51 > CH/sub 3/CN, 2.31 > py, 2.20. was also found to be linear in the value of E/sub 1/2/ for the (NH/sub 3/)/sub 5/RuL/sup 3+/2+/ couple. ..pi..-Donor ligands exhibit little influence on for Ru/sup III/ derivatives; = 2.4 +/- 0.1 eV for 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine, and 4-aminopyridine.

  1. Bis(ortho)-Chelated Bis(phosphanyl)aryl Ruthenium(II).Complexes Containing an h1 -P-Monodentate or m -BridgingP,h1-P' Bonded R—PCHP Arene Ligand, 1-R-3,5(CH2PPh2)2C2H2 [R= H, Br, or, Si(n-CH2CH2C2F17)3]—Cyclometalation Reaction Intermediates and Potential Catalysts for Use in Fluorinated Biphasic Systems

    Koten, G. van; Dani, P.; Richter, B.; Klink, G.P.M. van


    Mono- and binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes containing ligands derived from the meta-bis(phosphanyl)arene ligand 1-R-3,5-(CH2PPh2)2C6H3 [R-PCHP: R = H (5), Br (3), or Si(n-CH2CH2C8F17)3 (4)] have been synthesized and fully characterized. On reaction of equimolar amounts of the ruthenium starting mat

  2. Synthesis, interaction with double-helical DNA and biological activity of the water soluble complex cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP).

    Vilaplana, Rosario A; Delmani, Fátima; Manteca, Consolación; Torreblanca, José; Moreno, Javier; García-Herdugo, Gregorio; González-Vílchez, Francisco


    The effects exerted by the new complex cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediaminetetraacetato ruthenium (III), H[RuCl(2)(PDTA-H(2))] [1, RAP], on DNA and cultured tumor cells (ovarian carcinoma TG cell line) were studied. The comparative study of circular dichroism (CD) spectra obtained from DNA and RAP-DNA system evidences the interaction of the complex with DNA. Compound 1 also interacted with tumor TG cells to slow their proliferation rate. BrdU incorporation was enhanced in cells treated with compound 1, as evidenced by a single-cell electrophoresis method (comet assay), in accordance with RAP-induced DNA damage. DNA migration of compound 1-treated cells was similar to that induced by noxious agents other than cross-linking chemicals. The stability of [RuCl(2)(PDTA-H(2))]-DNA binding is suggested by the high degree of damage that persisted after removal of compound 1 from the culture medium.

  3. Complexes of ruthenium(II) with bpmRe(CO) sub 3 Cl and HAT(Re(CO) sub 3 Cl) sub 2 as ligands: Syntheses and redox and luminescence properties

    Sahai, R.; Rillema, D.P.; Shaver, R.; Van Wallendael, S.; Jackman, D.C.; Boldaji, M. (Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte (USA))


    A series of mixed-metal complexes containing ruthenium and rhenium are reported. The new complexes are ((bpy)Ru-(bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 2})(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}, ((bpy){sub 2}RuHAT(Re(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 2})(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}, and (Ru(bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 3})(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}. Optical transitions in the visible-uv spectrum are dominated by the presence of the ruthenium heterocycles that have absorption coefficients for the low-energy transition 1 order of magnitude greater than that of the rhenium chromophore. The low-energy transition blue-shifts in the series ((bpy){sub 2}Ru(bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl)){sup 2+} (558 nm) < ((bpy)Ru(bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 2}){sup 2+} (531 nm) < (Ru(bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 3}){sup 2+} (501 nm). Polarographic half-wave potentials of the metal-centered oxidations and the bridging-ligand reductions shift positively as the number of Re(CO){sub 3}Cl units increase. The E{sub {1/2}} values for the ((bpy){sub n}Ru(bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 3-n}){sup 2+/+} couple in the series with n = 0-2 were -0.1, -0.33, and -0.41 V vs SSCE, respectively. Two complexes ((bpy)Ru(bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 2}){sup 2+} and ((Ru-(bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 3})){sup 2+}, were found to luminesce weakly at room temperature in acetonitrile with lifetimes of 942 and 847 ns, respectively. In many respects, the mixed-metal complexes are shown to behave as if the bpmRe(CO){sub 3}Cl and HAT(Re(CO){sub 3}Cl){sub 2} chromophores are ligands coordinated to ruthenium(II). 17 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Ruthenium-catalyzed C-H/N-O bond functionalization: green isoquinolone syntheses in water.

    Ackermann, Lutz; Fenner, Sabine


    Ruthenium-catalyzed isoquinolone syntheses with ample scope were accomplished through carboxylate assistance in environmentally benign water as a reaction medium. The high chemoselectivity of the ruthenium(II) carboxylate complex also set the stage for the direct use of free hydroxamic acids for annulations of alkynes.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of novel heteroleptic ruthenium sensitizer for nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells

    Sivakumar, R.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Anandan, S.


    A novel heteroleptic ruthenium complex of the type [Ru(bpin)(dcbpyH2)Cl]Cl (where bpin is 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)isonicotinic acid and dcbpyH2 is 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine) was synthesized and characterized for tuning the LUMO level of the ruthenium sensitizer to achieve greater stabilization in

  6. Octahedral Complexes with Predetermined Helical Chirality: Xylene-Bridged Bis([4,5]-pineno-2,2'-bipyridine) Ligands (Chiragen[o-, m-, p-xyl]) with Ruthenium(II).

    Mürner, Hansruedi; von Zelewsky, Alex; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen


    Tetradentate ligands are obtained by joining two optically active [4,5]-pineno-2,2'-bipyridine molecules in a stereoselective reaction, where two new stereogenic centers are created. These ligands are new members of the chiragen family that form OC-6 complexes with predetermined helical chirality. Ru(II) complexes with 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine occupying the remaining coordination sites have been synthesized with all three new ligands. Characterization of the ruthenium complexes by NMR spectroscopy confirm C(2)-symmetric structures in solution. CD spectra show that the complexes are composed of only one helical diastereomer with the expected absolute configurations. In addition, a strong chiral amplification is observed, if precursors of low enantiomeric purity are used. This is due to the inability of ligands that are heterochiral in the two bpy moieties to coordinate to one center. X-ray structural data were obtained for the complex Delta-[RuCG[o-xyl](4,4'-DMbpy)](PF(6))(2). Crystal data (Mo Kalpha, 298 K): trigonal, space group R3, a = 52.986(4) Å, c = 10.545(1) Å, V = 25639(4) Å(3), Z = 18, R1 = 0.087, and wR2 = 0.0986 for 2609 observed reflections.

  7. Ruthenium-Aryloxide Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis

    Monfette, Sebastien; Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Conrad, Jay C.; Beach, Nicholas J.; Fogg, Deryn E.

    : Advances in design of ruthenium aryloxide catalysts for olefin metathesis are described. The target complexes are accessible on reaction of RuCl2(NHC)(py)2 (CHPh) (NHC - N-heterocyclic carbene) with electron-deficient, monodentate aryl- oxides, or aryloxides that yield small, rigid chelate rings. The best of these catalysts offer activity comparable to or greater than that of the parent chloride (Grubbs) systems in ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Preliminary studies of the electronic nature of the Ru-X bond suggest that the metal center is more electropositive in the aryloxide complexes than in the Grubbs systems.

  8. Key processes in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis.

    Nelson, David J; Manzini, Simone; Urbina-Blanco, César A; Nolan, Steven P


    While the fundamental series of [2+2]cycloadditions and retro[2+2]cycloadditions that make up the pathways of ruthenium-catalysed metathesis reactions is well-established, the exploration of mechanistic aspects of alkene metathesis continues. In this Feature Article, modern mechanistic studies of the alkene metathesis reaction, catalysed by well-defined ruthenium complexes, are discussed. Broadly, these concern the processes of pre-catalyst initiation, propagation and decomposition, which all have a considerable impact on the overall efficiency of metathesis reactions.

  9. Ruthenium(III Catalysis in Perborate Oxidation of 5-Oxoacids

    S. Shree Devi


    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III catalyzes perborate oxidation of substituted 5-oxoacids in acidic solution. The catalyzed oxidation is first order with respect to the oxidant and catalyst. The rate of ruthenium(III catalyzed oxidation displays the Michaelis-Menten kinetics on the reductant and is independent of [H+] of the medium. Hydrogen peroxide is the reactive species of perborate and the kinetic results reveal formation of ruthenium(III peroxo species-5-oxoacid complex. Electron-releasing substituents accelerate the reaction rate and electron-withdrawing substituents retard it. The order of reactivity among the studied 5-oxoacids is p-methoxy ≫  p-methyl > p-phenyl > −H > p-chloro > p-bromo > m-nitro. Activation parameters are evaluated using Arrhenius and Eyring’s plots. A mechanism consistent with the observed kinetic data is proposed and discussed. A suitable rate law is derived based on the mechanism.

  10. The ruthenium complex cis-(dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) chloride presents selective cytotoxicity against murine B cell lymphoma (A-20), murine ascitic sarcoma 180 (S-180), human breast adenocarcinoma (SK-BR-3), and human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) tumor cell lines.

    Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; Hamaguchi, Amélia; Pavanin, Luiz Alfredo; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Homsi-Brandenburgo, Maria Inês; Dos Santos, Wagner Batista; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Nomizo, Auro


    The aim of present study was to verify the in vitro antitumor activity of a ruthenium complex, cis-(dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) chloride (cis-[RuCl(2)(NH(3))(4)]Cl) toward different tumor cell lines. The antitumor studies showed that ruthenium(III) complex presents a relevant cytotoxic activity against murine B cell lymphoma (A-20), murine ascitic sarcoma 180 (S-180), human breast adenocarcinoma (SK-BR-3), and human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) cell lines and a very low cytotoxicity toward human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The ruthenium(III) complex decreased the fraction of tumor cells in G0/G1 and/or G2-M phases, indicating that this compound may act on resting/early entering G0/G1 cells and/or precycling G2-M cells. The cytotoxic activity of a high concentration (2 mg mL(-1)) of cis-[RuCl(2)(NH(3))(4)]Cl toward Jurkat cells correlated with an increased number of annexin V-positive cells and also the presence of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that this compound induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The development of new antineoplastic medications demands adequate knowledge in order to avoid inefficient or toxic treatments. Thus, a mechanistic understanding of how metal complexes achieve their activities is crucial to their clinical success and to the rational design of new compounds with improved potency.



    [RuCl(η6-p-cymene)(η2-dppm)][PF6] ruthenium complexes with C2O4(Me4N)2 in the ... electron donor pair ligands to the metal centre offers useful methods of access to an increasing ..... red-brown solid 7 in a poor yield of 17 % (Figure 6).

  12. NHC Backbone Configuration in Ruthenium-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis

    Veronica Paradiso


    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of olefin metathesis ruthenium complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with stereogenic centers on the backbone are described. Differences in catalytic behavior depending on the backbone configurations of symmetrical and unsymmetrical NHCs are discussed. In addition, an overview on asymmetric olefin metathesis promoted by chiral catalysts bearing C2-symmetric and C1-symmetric NHCs is provided.

  13. NHC Backbone Configuration in Ruthenium-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis.

    Paradiso, Veronica; Costabile, Chiara; Grisi, Fabia


    The catalytic properties of olefin metathesis ruthenium complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with stereogenic centers on the backbone are described. Differences in catalytic behavior depending on the backbone configurations of symmetrical and unsymmetrical NHCs are discussed. In addition, an overview on asymmetric olefin metathesis promoted by chiral catalysts bearing C₂-symmetric and C₁-symmetric NHCs is provided.

  14. Electronic structures of organometallic complexes of f elements LXXVI: Correlation of experimental and calculated (on the basis of density functional theory) vibrational spectra of bis(η5-cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium and bis(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium.

    Prosenc, Marc Heinrich; Reddmann, Hauke; Amberger, Hanns-Dieter


    Previous empirical assignments of the normal modes of Ru(η(5)-C(5)H(5))(2) were checked against the results of a calculation applying density functional theory (DFT). After some reassignments, following those recently suggested for Fe(η(5)-C(5)H(5))(2) (after theoretical model calculations), a satisfactory agreement was observed. Recently communicated polarized Raman spectra of an oriented Ru(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(2) single crystal were used here for the identification of the irreducible representations of a number of Raman active normal modes (assuming molecular D(5h) symmetry) which agree well with the results of the DFT calculation. The energies of IR active fundamental vibrations, extracted from recently communicated FIR/MIR spectra (pellets), were correlated with comparable energies of IR allowed irreducible representations of the DFT calculation and assigned. Both the skeletal and the intra-ligand normal modes could be correlated with the idealized standard motions (ν(i)s) of the model sandwich complex Ru(C(5)C(5))(2), and previous assignments had to be revised. Neglecting the νCH vibrations (which are off by ca. 50cm(-1)) an r.m.s. deviation of 9.8cm(-1) (for 47 assignments) of the remaining normal modes could be achieved.

  15. Mechanistic Insights into C-H Oxidations by Ruthenium(III)-Pterin Complexes: Impact of Basicity of the Pterin Ligand and Electron Acceptability of the Metal Center on the Transition States.

    Mitome, Hiroumi; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kojima, Takahiko


    A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(dmdmp)Cl(MeBPA)] (2) (Hdmdmp = N,N-dimethyl-6,7-dimethylpterin, MeBPA = N-methyl-N,N-bis(pyridylmethyl)amine), having a pterin derivative as a proton-accepting ligand, was synthesized and characterized. Complex 2 shows higher basicity than that of a previously reported Ru(II)-pterin complex, [Ru(dmdmp) (TPA)](+) (1) (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). On the other hand, 1e(-)-oxidized species of 1 (1OX) exhibits higher electron-acceptability than that of 1e(-)-oxidized 2 (2OX). Bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of the two Ru(II) complexes having Hdmdmp as a ligand in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) to generate 1OX and 2OX were calculated to be 85 kcal mol(-1) for 1OX and 78 kcal mol(-1) for 2OX. The BDE values are large enough to perform H atom transfer from C-H bonds of organic molecules to the 1e(-)-oxidized complexes through PCET. The second-order rate constants (k) of PCET oxidation reactions were determined for 1OX and 2OX. The logarithms of normalized k values were proportional to the BDE values of C-H bonds of the substrates with slopes of -0.27 for 1OX and -0.44 for 2OX. The difference between 1OX and 2OX in the slopes suggests that the transition states in PCET oxidations of substrates by the two complexes bear different polarization, as reflection of difference in the electron acceptability and basicity of 1OX and 2OX. The more basic 2OX attracts a proton from a C-H bond via a more polarized transition state than that of 1OX; on the contrary, the more electron-deficient 1OX forms less polarized transition states in PCET oxidation reactions of C-H bonds.

  16. Water-Soluble Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Chiral 4-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)-formamide Oxoaporphine (FOA): In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity by Stabilization of G-Quadruplex DNA, Inhibition of Telomerase Activity, and Induction of Tumor Cell Apoptosis.

    Chen, Zhen-Feng; Qin, Qi-Pin; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Nan; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Liang, Hong


    Three water-soluble ruthenium(II) complexes with chiral 4-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-formamide oxoaporphine (FOA) were synthesized and characterized. It was found that these ruthenium(II) complexes exhibited considerable in vitro anticancer activities and that they were the effective stabilizers of telomeric and G-quadruplex-DNA (G4-DNA) in promoter of c-myc, which acted as a telomerase inhibitor targeting G4-DNA and induced cell senescence and apoptosis. Interestingly, the in vitro anticancer activity of 6 (LC-003) was higher than those of 4 (LC-001) and 5 (LC-002), more selective for BEL-7404 cells than for normal HL-7702 cells, and preferred to activate caspases-3/9. The different biological behaviors of the ruthenium complexes could be correlated with the chiral nature of 4-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-formamide oxoaporphine. More significantly, 6 exhibited effective inhibitory on tumor growth in BEL-7402 xenograft mouse model and higher in vivo safety than cisplatin. These mechanistic insights indicate that 6 displays low toxicity and can be a novel anticancer drug candidate.

  17. A photoelectrochemical biosensor using ruthenium complex-reduced graphene oxide hybrid as the photocurrent signal reporter assembled on rhombic TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals driven by visible light

    Ge, Lei; Wang, Yanhu; Yang, Hongmei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yang, Ping [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 250022, Jinan (China); State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng, Xin [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 250022, Jinan (China); Yan, Mei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yu, Jinghua, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)


    Highlights: • A sandwich-type photoelectrochemical immunosensor was fabricated. • Highly crystalline rhombic TiO{sub 2} NCs was prepared through solvothermal method. • Ru complex was used as the photoelectrochemical signal-generating molecule. • Ru complex hybridized RGO was prepared and used as signal amplification label. - Abstract: An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay of cancer biomarker carcinoembryonie antigen (CEA) is proposed that uses rhombic titanium dioxide nanocrystals (TiO{sub 2} NCs) coupled with Ab2–RGO-Ru bioconjugate, which featured CEA signal antibody (Ab2) and ruthenium tris(bipyridine) (Ru complex) labels linked to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for signal amplification. Herein, the Ru complex acts as an electron donor, while RGO serves as an electron acceptor which facilitates charge separation and suppresses recombination of photoexcited electron–hole pairs in the hybridized species. The rhombic TiO{sub 2} NCs were fabricated through a solvothermal technique in anhydrous ethanol, followed by spin-coating process and calcination, an ITO/TiO{sub 2} electrode was obtained. Chitosan (CS) and glutaraldehyde (GLD) were used to modify the prepared ITO/TiO{sub 2} electrode to covalently immobilize antibodies. With a sandwich-type immunoreaction, CEA and Ab2–RGO-Ru were conjugated successively to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex. Thus, a sandwich-type PEC immunosensor was fabricated for the detection of CEA was developed by monitoring the changes in the photocurrent signals of the electrode resulting from the immunoreaction. The proposed PEC immunosensor showed high sensitivity, selectivity, excellent stability, and good reproducibility, and thus has great potential to be used for other biological assays.

  18. Analysis of antibacterial activity and mechanism of polypyridyl ruthenium complex%多吡啶钌配合物[(Phen)2 Ru(dppz)](PF6)2的抗菌活性及机制研究

    刘汉杰; 付彬; 付爱玲; 付琛


    目的:研究多吡啶钌配合物[(Phen)2Ru(dppz)]( PF6)2的抗菌活性,并进一步探讨其作用机制。方法采用最小抑菌浓度( MIC)以及最小杀菌浓度( MBC),测定无机配合物[( Phen)2 Ru( dppz)]( PF6)2的抗菌活性。为了阐明其抗菌机制,首先利用配合物自身荧光特性和核酸染料对DNA的竞争性结合所导致的荧光强度变化,以确定配合物与DNA的结合能力;然后通过DNA凝胶电泳,检测配合物与细菌基因组DNA结合后产生的效果以检测抗菌活性的机制。结果多吡啶钌配合物[(Phen)2Ru(dppz)](PF6)2对大肠杆菌以及金黄色葡萄球菌具有较强的抗菌活性,最小抑菌浓度达0.2~0.4 g·L-1。荧光检测显示,配合物能够与细菌DNA发生结合,以此为基础,配合物能够干扰细菌的转录过程,抑制细菌生长。结论本研究证明了多吡啶钌配合物[( Phen)2 Ru( dppz)]( PF6)2的抗菌活性及作用机制,为其进一步开发奠定了基础。%Aim To analyze the antibiotic activity and mechanism of a polypyridyl ruthenium complex. Meth-ods The antibacterial activity of [ ( Phen ) 2 Ru ( dp-pz) ] ( PF6 ) 2 was determined by MIC and MBC value. Based on a fluorescent activity of this complex, the flu-orescent emission spectra was used to analyze the com-bination of complex to DNA. Then the competition combination was analyzed between complex and Gold View to DNA. Lastly, gel electrophoresis of DNA was applied to detect the combination situation between complex and DNA. Results This kind of polypyridyl ruthenium complex showed a significant antibacterial activity with a minimum antibacterial conentration of 0. 2~0. 4 g · L-1 . That was caused by the combina-tion and distortion of DNA due to the activity of this complex. Conclusion The antibacterial activity and the mechanism of antibacterial activity about [ ( Phen) 2 Ru( dppz) ] ( PF6 ) 2 are confirmed in this re-search, which provides a good foundation for the

  19. Synthesis and structure of ruthenium(IV) complexes featuring N-heterocyclic ligands with an N-H group as the hydrogen-bond donor: hydrogen interactions in solution and in the solid state.

    Díez, Josefina; Gimeno, José; Merino, Isabel; Rubio, Eduardo; Suárez, Francisco J


    The synthesis and characterization of novel ruthenium(IV) complexes [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)L] [L = 3-methylpyrazole (2b), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (2c), 3-methyl-5-phenylpyrazole (2d), 2-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenol (2e), 6-azauracile (3), and 1H-indazol-3-ol (4)] are reported. Complex 2e is converted to the chelated complex [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(κ(2)-N,O-2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenoxy)] (5) by treatment with an excess of NaOH. All of the ligands feature N-H, O-H, or C═O as the potential hydrogen-bonding group. The structures of complexes 2a-2c, 2e, 3, and 5 in the solid state have been determined by X-ray diffraction. Complexes 2a-2c and 3, which contain the pyrazole N-H group, exhibit intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds with chloride ligands [N-H···Cl distances (Å): intramolecular, 2.30-2.78; intermolecular, 2.59-2.77]. Complexes 2e and 3 bearing respectively O-H and C═O groups also feature N-H···O interactions [intramolecular (2e), 2.27 Å; intermolecular (3), 2.00 Å]. Chelated complex 5, lacking the O-H group, only shows an intramolecular N-H···Cl hydrogen bonding of 2.42 Å. The structure of complex 3, which turns out to be a dimer in the solid state through a double intermolecular N-H···O hydrogen bonding, has also been investigated in solution (CD(2)Cl(2)) by NMR diffusion studies. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy experiments reveal an equilibrium between monomer and dimer species in solution whose extension depends on the temperature, concentration, and coordinating properties of the solvent. Preliminary catalytic studies show that complex 3 is highly active in the redox isomerization of the allylic alcohols in an aqueous medium under very mild reaction conditions (35 °C) and in the absence of a base.

  20. Tuning the cytotoxic properties of new ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes with a modified bis(arylimino)pyridine Schiff base ligand using bidentate pyridine-based ligands : Topical issue in honor of Ivano Bertini. Guest editors Lucia Banci, Claudio Luchinat

    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Maheswari, Palanisamy Uma; Lutz, Martin; Siegler, Maxime A.; Reedijk, Jan


    Synthesis, spectroscopy, characterization, structures, and cytotoxicity studies of 2,6-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (LLL) ruthenium compounds are described. The starting compound [RuCl3(LLL)] has been fully characterized using IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, electrospray

  1. Tuning the cytotoxic properties of new ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes with a modified bis(arylimino)pyridine Schiff base ligand using bidentate pyridine-based ligands : Topical issue in honor of Ivano Bertini. Guest editors Lucia Banci, Claudio Luchinat

    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Maheswari, Palanisamy Uma; Lutz, Martin; Siegler, Maxime A.; Reedijk, Jan


    Synthesis, spectroscopy, characterization, structures, and cytotoxicity studies of 2,6-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (LLL) ruthenium compounds are described. The starting compound [RuCl3(LLL)] has been fully characterized using IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, electrospray ioniz

  2. Protonolysis of a Ruthenium-Carbene Bond and Applications in Olefin Metathesis

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Bouffard, Jean; Bertrand, Guy; Grubbs, Robert H.


    The synthesis of a ruthenium complex containing an N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and a mesoionic carbene (MIC) is described wherein addition of a Brønsted acid results in protonolysis of the Ru-MIC bond to generate an extremely active metathesis catalyst. Mechanistic studies implicate a rate-determining protonation step to generate the metathesis active species. The NHC/MIC catalyst was found to have activity exceeding current commercial ruthenium catalysts. PMID:21574621

  3. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Pereira, Flávia de Castro; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; de Lima, Aliny Pereira; Ribeiro, Alessandra de Santana Braga Barbosa; da Silva, Hugo Delleon; Pavanin, Luiz Alfredo; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula


    Ruthenium complexes have attracted much attention as possible building blocks for new transition-metal-based antitumor agents. The present study examines the mitotoxic and clastogenic effects induced in the root tips of Allium cepa by cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate {cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6))} at different exposure durations and concentrations. Correlation tests were performed to determine the effects of the time of exposure and concentration of ruthenium complex on mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration index. A comparison of MI results of cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6)) to those of lead nitrate reveals that the ruthenium complex demonstrates an average mitotic inhibition eightfold higher than lead, with the frequency of cellular abnormalities almost fourfold lower and mitotic aberration threefold lower. A. cepa root cells exposed to a range of ruthenium complex concentrations did not display significant clastogenic effects. Cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate therefore exhibits a remarkable capacity to inhibit mitosis, perhaps by inhibiting DNA synthesis or blocking the cell cycle in the G2 phase. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of this ruthenium complex will be important to define its clinical potential and to contribute to a novel and rational approach to developing a new metal-based drug with antitumor properties complementary to those exhibited by the drugs already in clinical use.

  4. Steric and Electronic Effects of Bidentate Phosphine Ligands on Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide.

    Zhang, Pan; Ni, Shao-Fei; Dang, Li


    The reactivity difference between the hydrogenation of CO2 catalyzed by various ruthenium bidentate phosphine complexes was explored by DFT. In addition to the ligand dmpe (Me2 PCH2 CH2 PMe2 ), which was studied experimentally previously, a more bulky diphosphine ligand, dmpp (Me2 PCH2 CH2 CH2 PMe2 ), together with a more electron-withdrawing diphosphine ligand, PN(Me) P (Me2 PCH2 N(Me) CH2 PMe2 ), have been studied theoretically to analyze the steric and electronic effects on these catalyzed reactions. Results show that all of the most favorable pathways for the hydrogenation of CO2 catalyzed by bidentate phosphine ruthenium dihydride complexes undergo three major steps: cis-trans isomerization of ruthenium dihydride complex, CO2 insertion into the Ru-H bond, and H2 insertion into the ruthenium formate ion. Of these steps, CO2 insertion into the Ru-H bond has the lowest barrier compared with the other two steps in each preferred pathway. For the hydrogenation of CO2 catalyzed by ruthenium complexes of dmpe and dmpp, cis-trans isomerization of ruthenium dihydride complex has a similar barrier to that of H2 insertion into the ruthenium formate ion. However, in the reaction catalyzed by the PN(Me) PRu complex, cis-trans isomerization of the ruthenium dihydride complex has a lower barrier than H2 insertion into the ruthenium formate ion. These results suggest that the steric effect caused by the change of the outer sphere of the diphosphine ligand on the reaction is not clear, although the electronic effect is significant to cis-trans isomerization and H2 insertion. This finding refreshes understanding of the mechanism and provides necessary insights for ligand design in transition-metal-catalyzed CO2 transformation.

  5. Multi-Nuclear NMR Investigation of Nickel(II), Palladium(II), Platinum(II) and Ruthenium(II) Complexes of an Asymmetrical Ditertiary Phosphine

    Raj, Joe Gerald Jesu [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Quebec (China); Pathak, Devendra Deo [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India); Kapoor, Pramesh N. [Univ. of Delhi, Delhi (India)


    Complexes synthesized by reacting alkyl and aryl phosphines with different transition metals are of great interest due to their catalytic properties. Many of the phosphine complexes are soluble in polar solvents as a result they find applications in homogeneous catalysis. In our present work we report, four transition metal complexes of Ni(II), Pd(II), Pt(II) and Ru(II) with an asymmetrical ditertiaryphosphine ligand. The synthesized ligand bears a less electronegative substituent such as methyl group on the aromatic nucleus hence makes it a strong σ-donor to form stable complexes and thus could effectively used in catalytic reactions. The complexes have been completely characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, {sup 1}HNMR, {sup 31}PNMR and FAB Mass Spectrometry methods. Based on the spectroscopic evidences it has been confirmed that Ni(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes with the ditertiaryphosphine ligand showed cis whereas the Ru(II) complex showed trans geometry in their molecular structure.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and DNA-binding studies of ruthenium(II) mixed-ligand complexes containing dipyrido[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline

    Peng, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Du, Ke-Jie; Yu, Bo-Le; Chao, Hui; Ji, Liang-Nian


    A novel ligand dipyrido[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline (dpoq) and its complexes [Ru(bpy) 2(dpoq)] 2+ and [Ru(phen) 2(dpoq)] 2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectra and 1H NMR. The interaction of Ru(II) complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal denaturation and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that two Ru(II) complexes bind to DNA via an intercalative mode.

  7. 含席夫碱桥联配体的双核金属钌配合物的合成及其性能研究%Synthesis and Properties of Dinuclear Ruthenium Complexes with Schiff Base Bridging Ligands

    张燕; 熊碧; 蔡苹; 程功臻


    合成了3种双核钌配合物[Ru(bpy)2]2{[(PyCHN)-Ph-O-C6H4-]2R}(ClO4)4,bpy=2,2′-联吡啶,PyCHN=N-2-吡啶亚甲基,R=无(1),-C(CH3)2(2),-SO2(3)并进行了有关表征.电化学研究表明:配合物3的△E和K值最大,说明苯环和硫原子之间存在着较强的(p(π)-dπ相互作用,有助于获得较强的金属-金属相互作用.配合物1,2,3都有混合价,通过Hush方程可以得到Vab的值大概为320~420 cm-1.这些结果表明:Schiff碱作为桥配体对于调配金属-金属相互作用并将其作为分子导线起着特殊的作用.%Binuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru (bpy)2]2 {[(PyCHN)-Ph-O-C6H4-]2R} (ClO4)4 where bpy =2,2′-bipyridine,PyCHN=N-2-pyridylmethylene,R=none for 1,-C(CH3)2 for 2 and-SO2 for 3,have been prepared and characterized.Electrochemical studies reveal that the ΔE and Kc for complexes 1,2 and 3 are surprisingly and unprecedentedly large.However,the complex 3 gives larger ΔE and Kc.It is suggested that the strong (p(π)-d)π interactions between the phenyl rings and the sulfur atom should be helpful to achieve stronger metal-metal interaction.For mixed-valence species of complexes 1,2 and 3,Vab can be obtained by Hush equation with a value of 320~420 cm-1.These results indicate that the Schiff base bridging ligands show particular efficiency for mediating the metal-metal interactions and for using as molecular wires.

  8. Ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis accelerated by the steric effect of the backbone substituent in cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbenes.

    Zhang, Jun; Song, Shangfei; Wang, Xiao; Jiao, Jiajun; Shi, Min


    Three ruthenium complexes bearing backbone-monosubstituted CAACs were prepared and displayed dramatic improvement in catalytic efficiency not only in RCM reaction but also in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate, compared to those bearing backbone-disubstituted CAACs.

  9. Ruthenium(II) complexes: DNA-binding, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cellular localization, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential and western blot analysis.

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Yao, Jun-Hua; Wang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Ji; Han, Bing-Jie; Xie, Yang-Yin; Lin, Gan-Jian; Huang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yun-Jun


    The aim of our study was to investigate DNA-binding and cytotoxic activity of the four new Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(dmb)₂(HMHPIP)](ClO₄)₂ (1), [Ru(bpy)₂(HMHPIP)](ClO₄)₂ (2), [Ru(phen)₂(HMHPIP)](ClO₄)₂ (3) and [Ru(dmp)₂(HMHPIP)](ClO₄)₂ (4). The complexes interact with DNA through intercalative mode and show relatively high cytotoxic activity against A549 cells, no cytotoxicity toward MG-63 cells. Complexes 1-4 can enhance the levels of ROS in A549 cells and induce the decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential. These complexes inhibit the cell growth in A549 cells at G0/G1 or S phase. Complex 3 activated caspase 7, and down-regulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Complexes 1-4 induce apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA Binding and Photocleavage Properties, Cellular Uptake and Localization, and in-Vitro Cytotoxicity of Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Varying Lengths in Bridging Alkyl Linkers.

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Bao-Yan; Liu, Jin; Dai, Yong-Cheng; Wang, You-Jun; Wang, Ke-Zhi


    Two new dinuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes containing three and ten methylene chains in their bridging linkers are synthesized and characterized. Their calf thymus DNA-binding and plasmid DNA photocleavage behaviors are comparatively studied with a previously reported, six-methylene-containing analog by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, DNA viscosity measurements, DNA thermal denaturation, and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. Theoretical calculations applying the density functional theory (DFT) method for the three complexes are also performed to understand experimentally observed DNA binding properties. The results show that the two complexes partially intercalate between the base pairs of DNA. Cellular uptake and colocalization studies have demonstrated that the complexes could enter HeLa cells efficiently and localize within lysosomes. The in-vitro antitumor activity against HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cells of the complexes are studied by MTT cytotoxic analysis. A new method, high-content analysis (HCA), is also used to assess cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of the three complexes. The results show that the lengths of the alkyl linkers could effectively tune their biological properties and that HCA is suitable for rapidly identifying cytotoxicity and can be substituted for MTT assays to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents.

  11. Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing Lutidine-Derived Pincer CNC Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Hydrogenation of C-N bonds.

    Hernández-Juárez, Martín; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Lara, Patricia; Morales-Cerón, Judith P; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés


    A series of Ru complexes containing lutidine-derived pincer CNC ligands have been prepared by transmetalation with the corresponding silver-carbene derivatives. Characterization of these derivatives shows both mer and fac coordination of the CNC ligands depending on the wingtips of the N-heterocyclic carbene fragments. In the presence of tBuOK, the Ru-CNC complexes are active in the hydrogenation of a series of imines. In addition, these complexes catalyze the reversible hydrogenation of phenantridine. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies have shown the capability of the CNC ligand to be deprotonated and get involved in ligand-assisted activation of dihydrogen. More interestingly, upon deprotonation, the Ru-CNC complex 5 e(BF4 ) is able to add aldimines to the metal-ligand framework to yield an amido complex. Finally, investigation of the mechanism of the hydrogenation of imines has been carried out by means of DFT calculations. The calculated mechanism involves outer-sphere stepwise hydrogen transfer to the C-N bond assisted either by the pincer ligand or a second coordinated H2 molecule.

  12. Cobalt(III), nickel(II) and ruthenium(II) complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline family of ligands: DNA binding and photocleavage studies

    S Arounaguiri; D Easwaramoorthy; A Ashokkumar; Aparna Dattagupta; Bhaskar G Maiya


    DNA binding and photocleavage characteristics of a series of mixedligand complexes of the type [M(phen)2LL]n+ (where M = Co(III), Ni(II) or Ru(II), LL = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), phenanthroline-dione (phen-dione) or dipyridophenazine (dppz) and = 3 or 2) have been investigated in detail. Various physico-chemical and biochemical techniques including UV/Visible, fluorescence and viscometric titration, thermal denaturation, and differential pulse voltammetry have been employed to probe the details of DNA binding by these complexes; intrinsic binding constants () have been estimated under a similar set of experimental conditions. Analysis of the results suggests that intercalative ability of the coordinated ligands varies as dppz > phen < phen-dione in this series of complexes. While the Co(II) and Ru(II) complexes investigated in this study effect photocleavage of the supercoiled pBR 322 DNA, the corresponding Ni(II) complexes are found to be inactive under similar experimental conditions. Results of detailed investigations carried out inquiring into the mechanistic aspects of DNA photocleavage by [Co(phen)2 (dppz)]3+ have also been reported.

  13. The Ru-NO bonding in nitrosyl-[poly(1-pyrazolyl)borate]ruthenium complexes: a theoretical insight based on EDA

    Caramori, Giovanni F.; Kunitz, Andre G.; Coimbra, Daniel F.; Garcia, Leone C.; Fonseca, David E.P., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Fisicas e Matematicas. Dept. de Quimica


    The lability of NO{sup +} group in [TpRuCl{sub 2}(NO)]{sup q} (Tp = BL(pyrazol-1-yl){sub 3}) complexes was evaluated at the light of energy decomposition analysis (Su-Li EDA). The electronic effects of different pseudoaxial substituents (L = H, pyrazolyl anion, pyrazole, isoxazole and isothiazole) on the nature of Ru-NO bonding were evaluated considering complexes in ground (GS) and in metastable (MS1 and MS2) states. (Ru-NO){sup 6} bond nature in [TpRuCl{sub 2}(NO)]{sup q} (Tp = BL(pyrazol-1-yl){sub 3}) complexes is in essence covalent, but with a still significant electrostatic character. The nature of pseudoaxial substituents has a direct effect on the magnitude of (Ru-NO){sup 6} bonds. (author)

  14. Synthesis,crystal structures,electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of ruthenium(Ⅱ) complexes containing diamino-1,3,5-triazine derivatives


    Three Ru(Ⅱ) complexes [Ru(bpy)2(1-IQTNH)](ClO4)2 (1), [Ru(bpy)2(2-QTNH)](ClO4)2 (2) and [Ru(bpy)2(3-IQTNH)](ClO4)2 (3) (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, 1-IQTNH = 6-(isoquinolin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, 2-QTNH = 6-(quinolin-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, 3-IQTNH = 6-(isoquinolin-3-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the complexes differ from those of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ owing to the structural differences between the ligands and their complexes.

  15. Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) Ruthenium(Ⅱ) Doped Silica Film Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode and Its Electrochemiluminescent Properties

    WEI Hui; DU Yan; KANG Jian-Zhen; XU Guo-Bao; WANG Er-Kang


    An approach was reported to synthesize silica hybridized ruthenium bipyridyl complex through amidation reaction by covalent attachment of bis(bipyridyl)-4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl-ruthenium to (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane.The hybrid complex then was gelatinized through acid catalytic hydrolysis method and a sol-gel modified indium tin oxide electrode was prepared via spin coating technique. As prepared indium tin oxide electrode possesses good stability therein with excellent electrochemiluminescence behavior.

  16. Spectroscopic and second-order nonlinear optical properties of Ruthenium(ii) complexes: a DFT/MRCI and ADC(2) study.

    Escudero, Daniel; Thiel, Walter; Champagne, Benoît


    In this communication we use the density functional theory-based multi-reference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) and the second-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)) methods to compute the spectroscopic and second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of Ru(ii)-based NLO-phores. For some of the complexes, an appropriate treatment of doubly excited states is essential to correctly describe their spectroscopic and photochemical properties. Geometrical and solvent relaxation effects are also assessed. An adequate treatment of solvent effects seems critical for an accurate description of the NLO properties of these complexes.

  17. Ruthenium complexes of C,C'-bis(ethynyl)carboranes: An investigation of electronic interactions mediated by spherical pseudo-aromatic spacers

    Fox, M.A.; Roberts, R.L.; Baines, T.E.; Le Guennic, B.; Halet, J.-F.; Hartl, F.; Yufit, D.S.; Albesa-Jové, D.; Howard, J.A.K.; Low, P.J.


    The complexes [Ru(1-C=C-1,10-C2B8H9)(dppe)Cp*] (3a), [Ru(1-C C-1,12-C2B10H11)(dppe)-Cp*] (3b), [{Ru(dppe)Cp*}(2){mu-1,10-(C C)(2)-1,10-C2B8H8}] (4a) and [{Ru(dppe)Cp*}(2){mu-1,12-(C C)2- 1,12-C2B10-H-10}] (4b), which form a representative series of mono- and bimetallic acetylide complexes featuring

  18. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex.

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi


    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy=2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip=2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5±1.4)×10(5) M(-1) in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  19. Inhibition of Aβ42 peptide aggregation by a binuclear ruthenium(II)-platinum(II) complex: Potential for multi-metal organometallics as anti-amyloid agents.

    Kumar, Amit; Moody, Lamaryet; Olaivar, Jason F; Lewis, Nerissa A; Khade, Rahul L; Holder, Alvin A; Zhang, Yong; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan


    Design of inhibitors for amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregation has been widely investigated over the years towards developing viable therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biggest challenge seems to be inhibiting Aβ aggregation at the early stages of aggregation possibly at the monomeric level, as oligomers are known to be neurotoxic. In this regard, exploiting the metal chelating property of Aβ to generate molecules that can overcome this impediment presents some promise. Recently, one such metal complex containing Pt(II) ([Pt(BPS)Cl(2)]) was reported to effectively inhibit Aβ42 aggregation and toxicity (1). This complex was able bind to Aβ42 at the N-terminal part of the peptide and triggered a conformational change resulting in effective inhibition. In the current report, we have generated a mixed-binuclear metal complex containing Pt(II) and Ru(II) that inhibited Aβ42 aggregation at an early stage of aggregation and seemed to have different modes of interaction than the previously reported Pt(II) complex, suggesting an important role of the second metal center. This 'proof-of-concept' compound will help in developing more effective molecules against Aβ aggregation by modifying the two metal centers as well as their ligands, which will open doors to new rationale for Aβ inhibition.

  20. Coupling of metal-based light-harvesting antennas and electron-donor subunits: Trinuclear Ruthenium(II) complexes containing tetrathiafulvalene-substituted polypyridine ligands

    Campagna, Sebastiano; Serroni, Scolastica; Puntoriero, Fausto


    Three new tetrathiafulvalene-substituted 2,2'-bipyridine ligands, cis-bpy-TTF1, trans-bpy-TTF1, and cis-bpy-TTF2 have been prepared and characterized. X-ray analysis of trans-bpy-TTF1, is also reported. Such ligands have been used to prepare two new trinuclear Ru-II complexes, namely, [{(bpy)(2)R...

  1. New ruthenium(II) arene complexes of anthracenyl-appended diazacycloalkanes: effect of ligand intercalation and hydrophobicity on DNA and protein binding and cleavage and cytotoxicity.

    Ganeshpandian, Mani; Loganathan, Rangasamy; Suresh, Eringathodi; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkadher; Palaniandavar, Mallayan


    A series of half-sandwich Ru(II) arene complexes of the type [Ru(η(6)-arene)(L)Cl](PF6) 1-4, where arene is benzene (1, 2) or p-cymene (3, 4) and L is N-methylhomopiperazine (L1) or 1-(anthracen-10-ylmethyl)-4-methylhomopiperazine (L2), has been isolated and characterized by using spectral methods. The X-ray crystal structures of 2, 3 and 4 reveal that the compounds possess a pseudo-octahedral "piano-stool" structure equipped with the arene ligand as the seat and the bidentate ligand and the chloride ion as the legs of the stool. The DNA binding affinity determined using absorption spectral titrations with CT DNA and competitive DNA binding studies varies as 4 > 2 > 3 > 1, depending upon both the arene and diazacycloalkane ligands. Complexes 2 and 4 with higher DNA binding affinities show strong hypochromism (56%) and a large red-shift (2, 10; 4, 11 nm), which reveals that the anthracenyl moiety of the ligand is stacked into the DNA base pairs and that the arene ligand hydrophobicity also dictates the DNA binding affinity. In contrast, the monocationic complexes 1 and 3 are involved in electrostatic binding in the minor groove of DNA. The enhancement in viscosities of CT DNA upon binding to 2 and 4 are higher than those for 1 and 3 supporting the DNA binding modes of interaction inferred. All the complexes cleave DNA effectively even in the absence of an external agent and the cleavage ability is enhanced in the presence of an activator like H2O2. Tryptophan quenching measurements suggest that the protein binding affinity of the complexes varies as 4 > 2 > 3 > 1, which is the same as that for DNA binding and that the fluorescence quenching of BSA occurs through a static mechanism. The positive ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) values for BSA binding of complexes indicate that the interaction between the complexes and BSA is mainly hydrophobic in nature and the energy transfer efficiency has been analysed according to the Förster non-radiative energy transfer theory. The

  2. Dinuclear ruthenium complexes display loop isomer selectivity to c-MYC DNA G-quadriplex and exhibit anti-tumour activity.

    Zheng, Chuping; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Ying; Qin, Xiuying; Zhou, Yanhui; Liu, Jie


    G-quadruplex DNA, especially the cellular-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (c-MYC) is closely associated with cell-cycle regulation, proliferation of tumour cells. In this work, the interaction between the c-MYC and two dinuclear Ru(II) complexes [(bpy)2Ru(bpibp)Ru(bpy)2](ClO4)4 (compound 1) and [(phen)2Ru(bpibp)Ru(phen)2](ClO4)4 (compound 2) have been studied. The data from UV-Visible, PCR-stop and Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) showed that two complexes can stabilize the structure of G-quadruplex in the c-MYC promoter and targeting the G-quadruplex loop isomers. Interestingly, the complex 2 has a greater effect on the 1:2:1 and 2:1:1 loop isomers while the 1 prefers to the 1:2:1 isomers. The mechanism studies revealed that complexes can induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells by generating ROS metabolites, triggering mitochondrial membrane potential loss and down-regulation of P-Akt (Akt also known as protein kinase B), P-p44/42 MAP kinase protein (P-p44/42), and c-MYC. Taken together, these results suggested that the two dinuclear complexes may both be candidates as anti-tumour agents as they may reduce the c-MYC gene expression. {bpibp: 4, 4'-bis (1, 10-phenanthroline-[5, 6-d] imidazole-2-yl)-biphenyl, bpy: 2,2-bipyridine, phen: 1,10-phenanthroline}. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopy, electrochemical and reactivity of cis and transtetra aminnitrosil ruthenium (II) complexes; Sintese, espectroscopia, eletroquimica e reatividade de complexos cis e transtetra aminnitrosil rutenio (II)

    Gomes, Maria das Gracas


    A synthetic route was developed for the preparation of trans-[Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} N O L]{sup n+} where L= isonicotinamide, pyrazine or sulfito and cis-[Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} NONO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible and infrared spectroscopies, molar conductance measurements, {sup 1}H NMR, EPR and cyclic voltammetry. All the complexes showed v(N O) in the characteristic range of NO{sup +}, and furthermore, they did not exhibit any signal in the EPR spectra, therefore in agreement with the formulation of Ru{sup 11}-NO{sup +}. The electronic spectra showed bands corresponding to d-d and charge transfer transitions types similarly to other nitrosyl complexes found in literature. Through the studies of the reactivity it was possible to calculate the K{sub eq} for the reaction: trans-[Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} N O(isn)]{sup 3+} 2OH{sub -} trans-[Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} NO{sub 2} (isn)]{sup +} + H{sub 2}O K{sub eq} = 2.5 x 10{sup 8} L{sup 2} mol{sup -2}. The cyclic voltammetry of the complexes exhibited reversible one-electron reduction in the potential range -0.13-0.38 V vs SCE. The reduction was attributed to [Ru{sup 11} (NH{sub 3}){sub 4} NO{sup +}LL]{sup n+}/[Ru{sup 11}(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} NO{sup 0}L]{sup (n-1)+}. A correlation was observed between v(N O) and E{sub 1/2} for the reversible reduction wave. These results indicate that reduction is facilitated by increasing strong {pi}acceptor property of the trans ligands to N O. Upon treatment with Zn(Hg) and Cd(Hg), the reduction of the sulphite ligand in trans-[Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} N O(SO{sub 3})]{sup +} occurs and the formation of the binuclear species, [N O(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} Ru S]{sub 2}{sup 6+}, bridged by disulphide group is observed. The complex have been characterized by near infrared and Raman spectroscopies besides the techniques used for the mononuclear complex. The results were in agreement with the formulation: [NO{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} Ru{sup +3-} S-- SRu{sup 2

  4. "Long-range" metal-ligand cooperation in H2 activation and ammonia-promoted hydride transfer with a ruthenium-acridine pincer complex.

    Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Iron, Mark A; Shimon, Linda J W; Milstein, David


    The acridine-based pincer complex 1 exhibits an unprecedented mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving a "long-range" interaction between the distal acridine C9 position and the metal center. Reaction of 1 with H(2)/KOH results in H(2) splitting between the Ru center and C9 with concomitant dearomatization of the acridine moiety. DFT calculations show that this process involves the formation of a Ru dihydride intermediate bearing a bent acridine ligand in which C9 is in close proximity to a hydride ligand followed by through-space hydride transfer. Ammonia induces transfer of a hydride from the Ru center of 1 to C9 of the flexible acridine pincer ligand, forming an unusual dearomatized fac-acridine PNP complex.

  5. Structural and photophysical characterisation of coordination and optical isomers of mononuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl 1,2,4-triazole complexes

    Browne, Wesley R.; Hesek, Dusan; Gallagher, John F.; O’Connor, Christine M.; Killeen, J. Scott; Aoki, Fumiko; Ishida, Hitoshi; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Villani, Claudio; Vos, Johannes G.


    The X-ray crystal structure of the N2 isomers of the Ru(bipy)2 complexes of Hphpztr (1) and Hpztr (2), (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Hphpztr = 2-(5'-phenyl-4'H-[1,2,4]triazol-3'-yl)pyrazine and Hpztr = 2-(4'H-[1,2,4]triazol-3'-yl)pyrazine) are reported. The molecular structure obtained for 2 demonstrates

  6. Interactions of the "piano-stool" [ruthenium(II)(η(6) -arene)(quinolone)Cl](+) complexes with water; DFT computational study.

    Zábojníková, Tereza; Cajzl, Radim; Kljun, Jakob; Chval, Zdeněk; Turel, Iztok; Burda, Jaroslav V


    Full optimizations of stationary points along the reaction coordinate for the hydration of several quinolone Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes were performed in water environment using the B3PW91/6-31+G(d)/PCM/UAKS method. The role of diffuse functions (especially on oxygen) was found crucial for correct geometries along the reaction coordinate. Single-point (SP) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd)/DPCM/saled-UAKS level. In the first part, two possible reaction mechanisms-associative and dissociative were compared. It was found that the dissociative mechanism of the hydration process is kinetically slightly preferred. Another important conclusion concerns the reaction channels. It was found that substitution of chloride ligand (abbreviated in the text as dechlorination reaction) represents energetically and kinetically the most feasible pathway. In the second part the same hydration reaction was explored for reactivity comparison of the Ru(II)-complexes with several derivatives of nalidixic acid: cinoxacin, ofloxacin, and (thio)nalidixic acid. The hydration process is about four orders of magnitude faster in a basic solution compared to neutral/acidic environment with cinoxacin and nalidixic acid as the most reactive complexes in the former and latter environments, respectively. The explored hydration reaction is in all cases endergonic; nevertheless the endergonicity is substantially lower (by ∼6 kcal/mol) in basic environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Half-sandwich (6-arene)ruthenium(II) chiral Schiff base complexes: Analysis of the diastereomeric mixtures in solution by 2D-NMR spectroscopy

    Rakesh K Rath; G A Nagana Gowda; Akhil R Chakravarty


    2D NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine the metal configuration in solution of three complexes, viz. [($\\eta^6$--cymene)Ru(L∗)Cl] (1) and [(6--cymene)Ru(L∗)(L')] (ClO4) (L' = H2O, 2; PPh3, 3), where L∗ is the anion of ()-(1-phenylethyl)salicylaldimine. The complexes exist in two diastereomeric forms in solution. Both the (Ru, C)- and (Ru, C)-diastereomers display the presence of attractive CH/ interaction involving the phenyl group attached to the chiral carbon and the cymene ring hydrogens. This interaction restricts the rotation of the C∗-N single bond and, as a result, two structural types with either the hydrogen atom attached to the chiral carbon (C∗) or the methyl group attached to C∗ in close proximity of the cymene ring protons get stabilized. Using 2D NMR spectroscopy as a tool, the spatial interaction involving these protons are studied in order to obtain the metal configuration(s) of the diastereomeric complexes in solution. This technique has enabled us to determine the metal configuration as (Ru, C) for the major isomers of 1-3 in solution.

  8. Solventless synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles

    García-Peña, Nidia G. [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Redón, Rocío, E-mail: [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Herrera-Gomez, Alberto [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico); Fernández-Osorio, Ana Leticia [FES-Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Bravo-Sanchez, Mariela; Gomez-Sosa, Gustavo [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of Ru nanoparticles by a cheap, fast and solventless approach was achieved. • The zero-valent state as well as the by-product/impurity free of the mechanochemical obtained Ru nanoparticles was proven by XPS, TEM and XRD. • Compared to two other synthesis strategies, the above-mentioned synthesis was more suitable to obtain smaller particles with fewer impurities in shorter time. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel solventless method for the synthesis of zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles Ru(0). The proposed method, although not entirely new in the nanomaterials world, was used for the first time to synthesize zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles. This new approach has proved to be an environmentally friendly, clean, cheap, fast, and reproducible technique which employs low amounts of solvent. It was optimized through varying amounts of reducing salt on a determined quantity of precursor and measuring the effect of this variation on the average particle size obtained. The resulting products were fully characterized by powder XRD, TEM, HR-TEM, and XPS studies, all of which corroborated the purity of the nanoparticles achieved. In order to verify the advantages of our method over other techniques, we compared our nanoparticles with two common colloidal-synthesized ruthenium nanoparticles.

  9. Rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium intermetallics

    Stein, Sebastian; Kersting, Marcel; Heletta, Lukas; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie


    Eight new intermetallic rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium compounds have been synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules using different annealing sequences in muffle furnaces. The compounds have been characterized by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Sm{sub 9.2}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.8} (a=939.6(2), c=1779(1) pm), Gd{sub 11}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16} (a=951.9(2), c=1756.8(8) pm), and Tb{sub 10.5}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16.5} (a=942.5(1), c=1758.3(4) pm) crystallize with the tetragonal Nd{sub 9.34}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.66} type structure, space group I4/mmm. This structure exhibits a complex condensation pattern of square-prisms and square-antiprisms around the magnesium and ruthenium atoms, respectively. Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=344.0(1), c=2019(1) pm) and Tb{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=341.43(6), c=2054.2(7) pm) adopt the Er{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} structure and Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg (a=337.72(9), c=1129.8(4) pm) is isotypic with Sc{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg. Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=337.35(9), c=2671(1) pm) and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=335.83(5), c=2652.2(5) pm) are the first ternary ordered variants of the Ti{sub 3}Cu{sub 4} type, space group I4/mmm. These five compounds belong to a large family of intermetallics which are completely ordered superstructures of the bcc subcell. The group-subgroup scheme for Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} is presented. The common structural motif of all three structure types are ruthenium-centered rare earth cubes reminicent of the CsCl type. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} samples revealed Pauli paramagnetism of the conduction electrons.

  10. New ruthenium nitrosyl complexes with tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane (tpm) and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) coligands. Structure, spectroscopy, and electrophilic and nucleophilic reactivities of bound nitrosyl.

    Videla, Mariela; Jacinto, Julian S; Baggio, Ricardo; Garland, María T; Singh, Priti; Kaim, Wolfgang; Slep, Leonardo D; Olabe, José A


    The new compound [Ru(bpy)(tpm)NO](ClO4)3 [tpm = tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] has been prepared in a stepwise procedure that involves the conversion of [Ru(bpy)(tpm)Cl]+ into the aqua and nitro intermediates, followed by acidification. The diamagnetic complex crystallizes to exhibit distorted octahedral geometry around the metal, with the Ru-N(O) bond length 1.774(12) A and the RuNO angle 179.1(12) degrees , typical for a {RuNO}6 description. The [Ru(bpy)(tpm)NO]3+ ion (I) has been characterized by 1H NMR and IR spectroscopies (nu(NO) = 1959 cm(-1)) and through density functional theory calculations. Intense electronic transitions in the 300-350-nm region are assigned through time-dependent (TD)DFT as intraligand pi --> pi for bpy and tpm. The dpi --> pi(bpy) metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions appear at higher energies. Aqueous cyclic voltammetric studies show a reversible wave at 0.31 V (vs Ag/AgCl, 3 M Cl-), which shifts to 0.60 V in MeCN, along with the onset of a wave of an irreversible process at -0.2 V. The waves are assigned to the one- and two-electron reductions centered at the NO ligand, leading to species with {RuNO}(7) and {RuNO}(8) configurations, respectively. Controlled potential reduction of I in MeCN led to the [Ru(bpy)(tpm)NO]2+ ion (II), revealing a significant downward shift of nu(NO) to 1660 cm(-1) as well as changes in the electronic absorption bands. II was also characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance, showing an anisotropic signal at 110 K that arises from an S = 1/2 electronic ground state; the g-matrix components and hyperfine coupling tensor resemble the behavior of related {RuNO}7 complexes. Both I and II were characterized through their main reactivity modes, electrophilic and nucleophilic, respectively. The addition of OH- into I generated the nitro complex, with k(OH) = 3.05 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) (25 degrees C). This value is among the highest obtained for related nitrosyl complexes and correlates

  11. Isomeric [RuCl2(dmso)2(indazole)2] complexes: ruthenium(II)-mediated coupling reaction of acetonitrile with 1H-indazole.

    Reisner, Erwin; Arion, Vladimir B; Rufińska, Anna; Chiorescu, Ion; Schmid, Wolfgang F; Keppler, Bernhard K


    Reaction of the antitumor complex trans-[Ru(III)Cl4(Hind)2]- (Hind = indazole) with an excess of dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) in acetone afforded the complex trans,trans,trans-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (1). Two other isomeric compounds trans,cis,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (2) and cis,cis,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (3) have been obtained on refluxing cis-[Ru(II)Cl(2)(dmso)(4)] with 2 equiv. of indazole in ethanol and methanol, respectively. Isomers 1 and 2 react with acetonitrile yielding the complexes trans-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)(Hind){HN=C(Me)ind}].CH3CN (4.CH3CN) and trans,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2{HN=C(Me)ind}].H2O (5.H2O), respectively, containing a cyclic amidine ligand resulting from insertion of the acetonitrile C triple bond N group in the N1-H bond of the N2-coordinated indazole ligand in the nomenclature used for 1H-indazole. These are the first examples of the metal-assisted iminoacylation of indazole. The products isolated have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, electrospray mass-spectrometry, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and solid-state 13C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. The isomeric structures of 1-3 and the presence of a chelating amidine ligand in 4 and 5 have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The electrochemical behavior of 1-5 and the formation of 5 have been studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of mononuclear and dinuclear bis(bipy)ruthenium(II) complexes containing dimethoxyphenyl(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole ligands

    Passaniti, Paolo; Browne, Wesley R.; Lynch, Fiona C.; Hughes, Donal; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; James, Paraic; Maestri, Mauro; Vos, Johannes G.


    The ligands HL1 and H(2)L2 and the complexes [Ru(bipy)(2)L1]PF6.2H(2)O 1, [(Ru(bipy)(2))(2)L2](PF6)(2).7H(2)O 2, {where HL1 = 3-(2', 5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-(pyridin-2"-yl)- 1H-1,2,4-triazole, H(2)L2 = 1,4- bis(5'-(pyridin-2"-yl)- 1'H- 1', 2', 4'-triazol-3'-yl)- 2,5-dimethoxybenzene and bipy = 2,2'-bi

  13. Pyrazole cleavage of tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate with Ruthenium(II) complexes: Synthesis, structural characterization and DFT studies

    Kharbani, Donkupar; Deb, Debojit Kumar; Mawnai, Ibaniewkor L.; Kurbah, Sunshine D.; Sarkar, Biplab; Rymmai, E. K.


    The reaction of [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(PPh3)3] (1) with KTp* (KTp* = Potassium tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate) in a refluxing toluene yields a mixture of [RuTp*(H)(CO)(PPh3)] (2), [Ru(H)(Cl)(pz*H)(CO)(PPh3)2] (3), and [H(pz*)B(μ-pz*)2B(pz*)H] (4) (pz*H = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole). The products (3) and (4) were obtained by the degradation of the scorpionate ligand, Tp*. These complexes were characterised by IR, 1H NMR, UV, X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations.

  14. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) 1,2,3-triazolylidene organometallics: a preliminary investigation into the biological activity of 'click' carbene complexes.

    Kilpin, Kelly J; Crot, Stéphanie; Riedel, Tina; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Dyson, Paul J


    Taking advantage of the facile and versatile synthetic properties of 'click' 1,2,3-triazolylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (tzNHC's), a range of new organometallic Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes containing functionalised tzNHC ligands, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)(tzNHC)Cl2] [M = Ru(II), Os(II)], have been synthesised and fully characterised, including the X-ray crystal structure of one of the Os(II) complexes. The tzNHC ligands remain coordinated to the metal centres under relevant physiological conditions, and following binding to the model protein, ubiquitin. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds towards human ovarian cancer cells is dependent on the substituent on the tzNHC ligand but is generally <50 μM and in some cases <1 μM, whilst still retaining a high degree of selectivity towards cancer cells over healthy cells (1.85 μM in A2780 ovarian cancer cells versus 435 μM in human embryonic kidney cells in one case).

  15. Kinetic studies on substitution of cis-diaqua-chloro-tris-(dimethyl sulphoxide)-ruthenium(II) complex with some dipeptides in aqueous medium

    Arup Mandal; Parnajyoti Karmakar; Subhasis Mallick; Biplab K Bera; Subala Mondal; Sumon Ray; Alak K Ghosh


    The kinetics of interaction between cis-[RuCl(Me2SO)3(H2O)2]+ and some selected dipeptides such as glycyl glycine(gly gly), glycyl alanine(Gly-L-ala) and glycyl-L-leucine(gly leu) has been studied spectrophotometrically as a function of [RuCl(Me2SO)3(H2O)$^{+}_{2}$], [dipeptide] and temperature at a particular pH(5.0), where the substrate complex exists predominantly as a diaqua species (in aqueous solution) and dipeptides as the zwitter ions. The reaction has been found to proceed via two distinct consecutive steps i.e., it shows a non-linear dependence on the concentration of dipeptide: first process is dependent and the second step is independent of ligand concentration respectively. The rate constants for the processes are: k1 ∼ 10−3s-1 and k2 ∼ 10−5 s-1. The activation parameters were calculated from Eyring plots suggests an associative mechanism for the interaction process. From the temperature dependence of the outer sphere association equilibrium constants, the thermodynamic parameters were also calculated, which gives a negative G0 value at all temperatures studied, supporting the spontaneous formation of an outer sphere association complex.

  16. Domino Cyclization of 1,n-Enynes (n = 7, 8, 9) Giving Derivatives of Pyrane, Chromene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene and Dibenzo[7]annulene by Ruthenium Complexes.

    Ma, Hao-Wei; Chen, Pei-Min; Lo, Ji-Xian; Lin, Ying-Chih; Huang, Shou-Ling; Chen, Chi-Ren; Chia, Pi-Yeh


    Cyclization of the ether enyne 1 catalyzed by [Ru]NCCH3(+) ([Ru] = Cp(PPh3)2Ru) in CHCl3 generates a diastereomeric mixture of the substituted tetrahydropyran 11. Presumably, formation of an allenylidene complex is followed by a cyclization by nucleophilic addition of the olefinic group to Cγ of the ligand giving a boat-like six-membered ring. The diastereoselectivity is controlled by the 1,3-diaxial interaction. The vinylidene complex 7, a precursor of 11, is obtained from 1 and [Ru]Cl. In a mixture of MeOH/CHCl3, the domino cyclization of 1 further affords 14a, a chromene product catalytically. The second cyclization proceeds via nucleophilic addition of the resulting olefinic unit to Cα of 7. But the ether enyne 3 with a cyclopentyl ring on the olefinic unit undergoes only single cyclization due to steric effect. The propargyl alcohol and the two terminal methyl groups on the olefinic unit shape the cyclization. Thus, similar all-carbon 1,n-enynes (n = 7, 8, 9) 4-6 each with an aromatic linker undergo direct domino cyclization catalyzed by [Ru]NCCH3(+), to give derivatives of tricyclic fluorene, phenanthrene and dibenzo[7]annulene, respectively, with no intermediate observed.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus alloy films

    Shin Jinhong [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78750 (United States); Waheed, Abdul [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Winkenwerder, Wyatt A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kim, Hyun-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Agapiou, Kyriacos [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Jones, Richard A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hwang, Gyeong S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)]. E-mail:


    Chemical vapor deposition growth of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus films on SiO{sub 2} containing {approx} 15% phosphorus is reported. cis-Ruthenium(II)dihydridotetrakis-(trimethylphosphine), cis-RuH{sub 2}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 4} (Me = CH{sub 3}) was used at growth temperatures ranging from 525 to 575 K. Both Ru and P are zero-valent. The films are metastable, becoming increasingly more polycrystalline upon annealing to 775 and 975 K. Surface studies illustrate that demethylation is quite efficient near 560 K. Precursor adsorption at 135 K or 210 K and heating reveal the precursor undergoes a complex decomposition process in which the hydride and trimethylphosphine ligands are lost at temperatures as low at 280 K. Phosphorus and its manner of incorporation appear responsible for the amorphous-like character. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to suggest the local structure in the films and the causes for phosphorus stabilizing the amorphous phase.

  18. Reactivation of a Ruthenium-Based Olefin Metathesis Catalyst

    Tabari, Daniel S.; Tolentino, Daniel R.; Schrodi, Yann


    1st Generation Hoveyda-Grubbs olefin metathesis catalyst was purposely decomposed in the presence of ethylene yielding inorganic species that are inactive in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of benchmark substrate diethyldiallyl malonate (DEDAM). The decomposed catalyst was treated with 1-(3,5-diisopropoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-yn-1-ol (3) to generate an olefin metathesis active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complex in 43 % yield. This complex was also prepared independently by reacting RuCl2(p-cymene)(PCy3) with organic precursor 3. The activity of the isolated reactivated catalyst in the RCM of DEDAM is similar to that of the independently prepared complex. PMID:23355756

  19. Reactivation of a Ruthenium-Based Olefin Metathesis Catalyst.

    Tabari, Daniel S; Tolentino, Daniel R; Schrodi, Yann


    1(st) Generation Hoveyda-Grubbs olefin metathesis catalyst was purposely decomposed in the presence of ethylene yielding inorganic species that are inactive in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of benchmark substrate diethyldiallyl malonate (DEDAM). The decomposed catalyst was treated with 1-(3,5-diisopropoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-yn-1-ol (3) to generate an olefin metathesis active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complex in 43 % yield. This complex was also prepared independently by reacting RuCl(2)(p-cymene)(PCy(3)) with organic precursor 3. The activity of the isolated reactivated catalyst in the RCM of DEDAM is similar to that of the independently prepared complex.

  20. Amine-free reversible hydrogen storage in formate salts catalyzed by ruthenium pincer complex without pH control or solvent change.

    Kothandaraman, Jotheeswari; Czaun, Miklos; Goeppert, Alain; Haiges, Ralf; Jones, John-Paul; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A


    Due to the intermittent nature of most renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, energy storage is increasingly required. Since electricity is difficult to store, hydrogen obtained by electrochemical water splitting has been proposed as an energy carrier. However, the handling and transportation of hydrogen in large quantities is in itself a challenge. We therefore present here a method for hydrogen storage based on a CO2 (HCO3 (-) )/H2 and formate equilibrium. This amine-free and efficient reversible system (>90 % yield in both directions) is catalyzed by well-defined and commercially available Ru pincer complexes. The formate dehydrogenation was triggered by simple pressure swing without requiring external pH control or the change of either the solvent or the catalyst. Up to six hydrogenation-dehydrogenation cycles were performed and the catalyst performance remained steady with high selectivity (CO free H2 /CO2 mixture was produced).

  1. Preparation and electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of a covalently self-assembled monolayer film based on a bis-terpyridyl ruthenium(II) complex

    Lin, Hao; Dai, Yong-Cheng; Chen, Xi; Huang, Qiu-Ying; Wang, Ke-Zhi, E-mail:


    A bis-terpyridyl Ru(II) complex of Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} (in which IPTP = 4′-(4-(imidazol-1-yl)phenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) has been synthesized using a microwave irradiation method, and characterized by elementary analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. A Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} based covalently self-assembled monolayer film was prepared and characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammograms demonstrated that Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} assembled in the film was redox active with surface-confined characteristics. The photoelectrochemical properties and electron-transfer mechanism of the film were studied. It was found that the Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}/ITO electrode film exhibited a large cathodic photocurrent density of 2.72 μA/cm{sup 2} while irradiated with polychromatic light (325 nm < λ < 730 nm) at an applied potential of − 0.4 V versus saturated calomel electrode. The photocurrent action spectrum was in agreement with the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption band of Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, indicating that the photocurrent was generated based on MLCT excitation of the Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} in the film. An incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency of this monolayer film was calculated to be 1.8% at 500 nm. - Highlights: • Ru complex covalently self-assembled monolayer film. • Reversible electrochemical activity. • Large cathodic photocurrent density of 2.72 μA/cm{sup 2}. • Photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.8%.

  2. 连接链长对双核钌分子内与分子间协同 ECL影响研究%Research on effect of different carbon chain linkage on concerted intra- & intermolecular ECL of bimetallic ruthenium complexes

    刘凤玉; 孙世国; 高玉龙


    To investigate the effect of carbon chain linkage on both intramolecular and intra‐&intermolecular electrochemiluminescence ( ECL ) of bimetallic ruthenium complexes Ru(bpy)2+3 (CH2 )nRu(bpy)2+3 (n=3 ,5 ,8) ,ECL measurement has been performed with and without the presence of amine co‐reactants ,such as dibutylaminoethanol (DBAE) and tripropylamine (TPA) , on different working electrodes ,such as Pt ,glassy carbon (GC) and Au .The experimental results demonstrate that the longer the carbon chain linkage , the stronger the ECL intensity , and quite different ECL performance can be observed on different working electrodes .All these results can lay a solid foundation for structure designing of bimetallic ECL labels , and improvement of the ECL efficiency through combining both intra‐ & intermolecular interaction .%  为深入研究连接碳链长度 n对双核三联吡啶钌标记物Ru(bpy)2+3(CH2)nRu(bpy)2+3(n=3,5,8)自身分子内,以及不同外加碱存在下的分子内与分子间协同ECL性能,考察了在DBAE(二丁基乙醇胺)、TPA(三丙胺)等共反应碱存在下,Pt、Au、GC等不同工作电极上,连接碳链长度 n对双核标记物自身分子内,以及外加碱存在下的分子内与分子间协同EC L性能的影响规律。结果表明,EC L强度随着连接碳链长度的增加逐渐增大,并且工作电极种类将直接影响EC L结果,这为今后该类双核标记物的结构设计以及双核标记物分子内与分子间协同EC L性能的提升奠定了基础。

  3. Mononuclear and Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing 2,2'-Bipyridine or 1,10-Phenanthroline and Pyrazole-3,5-Bis(benzimidazole). Synthesis, Structure, Isomerism, Spectroscopy, and Proton-Coupled Redox Activity.

    Baitalik, Sujoy; Flörke, Ulrich; Nag, Kamalaksha


    A number of mixed-ligand mononuclear and binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes of composition [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(3)pzbzim)](ClO(4))(2).2H(2)O (1), [(phen)(2)Ru(H(3)pzbzim)](ClO(4))(2).3H(2)O (2), [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(2)pzbzim)Ru(bpy)(2)](ClO(4))(3).5H(2)O (3), [(phen)(2)Ru(H(2)pzbzim)Ru(phen)(2)](ClO(4))(3).4H(2)O (4), [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(2)pzbzim)Ru(phen)(2)](ClO(4))(3).4H(2)O (5), [(bpy)(2)Ru(pzbzim)Ru(bpy)(2)](ClO(4)).3H(2)O (6), and [(phen)(2)Ru(pzbzim)Ru(phen)(2)](ClO(4)).2H(2)O (7), where H(3)pzbzim = pyrazole-3,5-bis(benzimidazole), bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, have been prepared and characterized. Complexes 3-5 isolated as mixtures of diastereoisomers have been separated by fractional recrystallization. In the cases of 3 and 4, the meso (LambdaDelta) and racemate (rac) (LambdaLambda, DeltaDelta) forms, and for 5, two enantiomeric pairs [(LambdaDelta, DeltaLambda) and (LambdaLambda, DeltaDelta)] have been obtained. These, as well as the meso and rac diastereoisomers of 6, have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the meso (LambdaDelta) form of 3 (C(57)H(53)N(14)Cl(3)O(17)Ru(2)) has been determined, which crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 11.672(2) Å, b = 41.696(9) Å, c = 12.871(2) Å, beta = 90.03(2)(o), and Z = 4. The acid-base and redox chemistry of the binuclear complexes has been studied over the pH range 1-12 in acetonitrile-water (3:2) medium. The equilibrium constants of the species involving protonation and deprotonation of the benzimidazole NH protons and the metal oxidation states covering +2 and +3 have been evaluated by spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric measurements. During spectrophotometric titrations of the complexes with cerium(IV), the metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions are replaced by the newly generated ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition. The luminescence spectra of the complexes in solution (at 298 K) and in frozen glass (at 77 K) and

  4. Labeling of thymidine analog with an organometallic complex of technetium-99m for diagnostic of cancer: radiochemical and biological evaluation; Marcacao de analogo da timidina com complexo organometalico de tecnecio-99m para diagnostico de cancer: avaliacao radioquimica e biologica

    Santos, Rodrigo Luis Silva Ribeiro


    Thymidine analogs have been labeled with different radioisotopes due to their potential in monitoring the uncontrollable cell proliferation. Considering that the radioisotopes technetium-99m still keep a privileged position as a marker due to its chemical and nuclear properties, this dissertation was constituted by the developed of a new technique of labeling of thymidine analog with {sup 99m}Tc, by means of the organometallic complex. The aims of this research were: synthesis of the organometallic complex technetium-99m-carbonyl, thymidine labeling with this precursor, evaluation of stability, and radiochemical e biological evaluation with healthy and tumor-bearing animals. The preparation of the organometallic precursor, using the CO gas, was easily achieved, as well as the labeling of thymidine with this precursor, resulting itself a radiochemical pureness of {>=} 97% and {>=} 94%, respectively. Chromatography systems with good levels of trustworthiness were used, ensuring the qualification and quantification of the radiochemical samples. The result of in vitro testing of lipophilicity disclosed that the radiolabeled complex is hydrophilic, with a partition coefficient (log P) of -1.48. The precursor complex and the radiolabeled have good radiochemical stability up to 6 h in room temperature. The cysteine and histidine challenge indicated losses between 8 and 1 1 % for concentrations until 300 mM. The biodistribution assay in healthy mice revealed rapid blood clearance and low uptake by general organs with renal and hepatobiliary excretion. The tumor concentration was low with values of 0.28 and 0.18 %ID/g for lung and breast cancer, respectively. The results imply more studies in other tumor models or the modification of the structure of the organic molecule that act like ligand. (author)

  5. Steric Effect for Proton, Hydrogen-Atom, andHydride Transfer Reactions with Geometric Isomers of NADH-Model Ruthenium Complexes

    Fujita E.; Cohen, B.W.; Polyansky, D.E.; Achord, P.; Cabelli, D.; Muckerman, J.T.; Tanaka, K.; Thummel, R.P.; Zong, R.


    Two isomers, [Ru(1)]{sup 2+} (Ru = Ru(bpy){sub 2}, bpy = 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, 1 = 2-(pyrid-2{prime}-yl)-1-azaacridine) and [Ru(2)]{sup 2+} (2 = 3-(pyrid-2{prime}-yl)-4-azaacridine), are bio-inspired model compounds containing the nicotinamide functionality and can serve as precursors for the photogeneration of C-H hydrides for studying reactions pertinent to the photochemical reduction of metal-C{sub 1} complexes and/or carbon dioxide. While it has been shown that the structural differences between the azaacridine ligands of [Ru(1)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(2)]{sup 2+} have a significant effect on the mechanism of formation of the hydride donors, [Ru(1HH)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(2HH)]{sup 2+}, in aqueous solution, we describe the steric implications for proton, net-hydrogen-atom and net-hydride transfer reactions in this work. Protonation of [Ru(2{sup {sm_bullet}-})]{sup +} in aprotic and even protic media is slow compared to that of [Ru(1{sup {sm_bullet}-})]{sup +}. The net hydrogen-atom transfer between *[Ru(1)]{sup 2+} and hydroquinone (H{sub 2}Q) proceeds by one-step EPT, rather than stepwise electron-proton transfer. Such a reaction was not observed for *[Ru(2)]{sup 2+} because the non-coordinated N atom is not easily available for an interaction with H{sub 2}Q. Finally, the rate of the net hydride ion transfer from [Ru(1HH)]{sup 2+} to [Ph{sub 3}C]{sup +} is significantly slower than that of [Ru(2HH)]{sup 2+} owing to steric congestion at the donor site.

  6. A Cytostatic Ruthenium(II)-Platinum(II) Bis(terpyridyl) Anticancer Complex That Blocks Entry into S Phase by Up-regulating p27(KIP1).

    Ramu, Vadde; Gill, Martin R; Jarman, Paul J; Turton, David; Thomas, Jim A; Das, Amitava; Smythe, Carl


    Cytostatic agents that interfere with specific cellular components to prevent cancer cell growth offer an attractive alternative, or complement, to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new binuclear Ru(II) -Pt(II) complex [Ru(tpy)(tpypma)Pt(Cl)(DMSO)](3+) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and tpypma=4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline), VR54, which employs the extended terpyridine tpypma ligand to link the two metal centres. In cell-free conditions, VR54 binds DNA by non-intercalative reversible mechanisms (Kb =1.3×10(5)  M(-1) ) and does not irreversibly bind guanosine. Cellular studies reveal that VR54 suppresses proliferation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells with no cross-resistance in the A2780CIS cisplatin-resistant cell line. Through the preparation of mononuclear Ru(II) and Pt(II) structural derivatives it was determined that both metal centres are required for this anti-proliferative activity. In stark contrast to cisplatin, VR54 neither activates the DNA-damage response network nor induces significant levels of cell death. Instead, VR54 is cytostatic and inhibits cell proliferation by up-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) and inhibiting retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, which blocks entry into S phase and results in G1 cell cycle arrest. Thus, VR54 inhibits cancer cell growth by a gain of function at the G1 restriction point. This is the first metal-coordination compound to demonstrate such activity.

  7. Transfer Hydrogenation of Acetophenone Catalyzed by in situ Generated 2,6-Bis(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole- 3-yl)pyridine-ruthenium(Ⅱ) Complexes

    CETIN,Ahmet; DAYAN,Osman


    2,6-Bis(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)pyridines (3, 4) were used for the first time as ligand in ruthe-nium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone. The in situ prepared three-component system Ru(ll)/tridentate triamine ligands (3a-3d, 4a-4d) and KOH catalysed the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ace-tophenone in good yields under mild conditions.

  8. Development of a Method for the Preparation of Ruthenium Indenylidene-Ether Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Jimenez, Leonel R.; Tolentino, Daniel R.; Gallon, Benjamin J.; Schrodi, Yann


    The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl2(PPh3)3 and RuCl2(pcymene)(L), where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-npropylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes. PMID:22580400

  9. Highly Active Carbene Ruthenium Catalyst for Metathesis of 1-Hexene

    BAI Chen-Xi; ZHANG Zhi-Qiang; L(U) Xiao-Bing; HE Ren; ZHANG Wen-Zhen; LU Shu-Lai


    A new carbene ruthenium complex, 1,3-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene)(PPh3)Cl2-Ru=CHPh, was synthesized and used as catalyst for the metathesis of 1-hexene. The resulting complex exhibited very high catalytic activity whose TOF is up to 6680 h-1. However, at the same time significant olefin isomerization was observed and could be surpressed by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, time, alkene/Ru molar ratio and solvent.

  10. Synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing ruthenium-carbon, -nitrogen, and -oxygen bonds

    Hartwig, J.F.


    The products and mechanisms of the thermal reactions of several complexes of the general structure (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(X)(Y) and (DMPM){sub 2}Ru(X)(Y) where X and Y are hydride, aryl, and benzyl groups, have been investigated. The mechanism of decomposition depends critically on the structure of the complex and the medium in which the thermolysis is carried out. The alkyl hydride complexes are do not react with alkane solvent, but undergo C-H activation processes with aromatic solvents by several different mechanisms. Thermolysis of (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph)(Me) or (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph){sub 2} leads to the ruthenium benzyne complex (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) (1) by a mechanism which involves reversible dissociation of phosphine. In many ways its chemistry is analogous to that of early rather than late organo transition metal complexes. The synthesis, structure, variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and reactivity of ruthenium complexes containing aryloxide or arylamide ligands are reported. These complexes undergo cleavage of a P-C bond in coordinated trimethylphosphine, insertion of CO and CO{sub 2} and hydrogenolysis. Mechanistic studies on these reactions are described. The generation of a series of reactive ruthenium complexes of the general formula (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(R)(enolate) is reported. Most of these enolates have been shown to bind to the ruthenium center through the oxygen atom. Two of the enolate complexes 8 and 9 exist in equilibrium between the O- and C-bound forms. The reactions of these compounds are reported, including reactions to form oxygen-containing metallacycles. The structure and reactivity of these ruthenium metallacycles is reported, including their thermal chemistry and reactivity toward protic acids, electrophiles, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and trimethylsilane. 243 refs., 10 tabs.

  11. Syntheses of Macromolecular Ruthenium Compounds: A New Approach for the Search of Anticancer Drugs

    Andreia Valente


    Full Text Available The continuous rising of the cancer patient death rate undoubtedly shows the pressure to find more potent and efficient drugs than those in clinical use. These agents only treat a narrow range of cancer conditions with limited success and are associated with serious side effects caused by the lack of selectivity. In this frame, innovative syntheses approaches can decisively contribute to the success of “smart compounds” that might be only selective and/or active towards the cancer cells, sparing the healthy ones. In this scope, ruthenium chemistry is a rising field for the search of proficient metallodrugs by the use of macromolecular ruthenium complexes (dendrimers and dendronized polymers, coordination-cage and protein conjugates, nanoparticles and polymer-“ruthenium-cyclopentadienyl” conjugates that can take advantage of the singularities of tumor cells (vs. healthy cells.

  12. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Ammonia Borane Dehydrogenation: Mechanism and Utility.

    Zhang, Xingyue; Kam, Lisa; Trerise, Ryan; Williams, Travis J


    simplified ruthenium complex supported by the inexpensive bis(pyrazolyl)borate ligand is a comparably good catalyst for AB dehydrogenation, among other reactions. In this Account, we present a detailed, concise description of how our work with the Shvo system progressed to the development of our very reactive and flexible dual-site boron-ruthenium catalysts.

  13. complexes containing isocyanide and


    Synthesis of new ruthenium(II) complexes containing isocyanide and labile nitrile ligands. Owalude,* S. O. ... both compounds has distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Key words: Nitrile ... commercial product from Acros Organics. All.

  14. Highly sensitive catalytic spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium

    Naik, Radhey M.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Prasad, Surendra


    A new and highly sensitive catalytic kinetic method (CKM) for the determination of ruthenium(III) has been established based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of L-phenylalanine ( L-Pheala) by KMnO 4 in highly alkaline medium. The reaction has been followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance at 526 nm. The proposed CKM is based on the fixed time procedure under optimum reaction conditions. It relies on the linear relationship where the change in the absorbance (Δ At) versus added Ru(III) amounts in the range of 0.101-2.526 ng ml -1 is plotted. Under the optimum conditions, the sensitivity of the proposed method, i.e. the limit of detection corresponding to 5 min is 0.08 ng ml -1, and decreases with increased time of analysis. The method is featured with good accuracy and reproducibility for ruthenium(III) determination. The ruthenium(III) has also been determined in presence of several interfering and non-interfering cations, anions and polyaminocarboxylates. No foreign ions interfered in the determination ruthenium(III) up to 20-fold higher concentration of foreign ions. In addition to standard solutions analysis, this method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of ruthenium(III) in drinking water samples. The method is highly sensitive, selective and very stable. A review of recently published catalytic spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ruthenium(III) has also been presented for comparison.

  15. Advances in Photocatalysis: A Microreview of Visible Light Mediated Ruthenium and Iridium Catalyzed Organic Transformations.

    Day, Jon I; Teegardin, Kip; Weaver, Jimmie; Chan, John


    Photocatalytic organic transformations utilizing ruthenium and iridium complexes have garnered significant attention due to the access they provide to new synthetic spaces through new reaction mechanisms. A survey of the photophysical data and the diversity of transformations that may be accomplished utilizing commercially available photocatalysts is contained herein.

  16. Synthesis of Ruthenium Complex Based on 2,6-Bis(1-(phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine and 2-(1-Phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzoate and Catalytical Oxidation Property of 1-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanol to 1-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanone with H2O2

    Shenggui Liu; Rongkai Pan; Guobi Li; Wenyi Su; Chunlin Ni


    A new ruthenium complex, Ru(bpbp)(pbb)Cl, based on 2,6-bis(1-(phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (bpbp) and 2-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzoate (pbb) was synthesized. The complex Ru(bpbp)(pbb)Cl could catalytically oxidize 1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanol to 1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanone with H2O2 as oxidant. Influence of temperature and catalyst amount on the oxidation reaction was evaluated. The reaction optimal conditions are as follows: molar ratio of catalyst t...

  17. Ruthenium-catalyzed meta sulfonation of 2-phenylpyridines.

    Saidi, Ourida; Marafie, Jameel; Ledger, Araminta E W; Liu, Po Man; Mahon, Mary F; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Whittlesey, Michael K; Frost, Christopher G


    A selective catalytic meta sulfonation of 2-phenylpyridines was found to occur in the presence of (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes upon reaction with sulfonyl chlorides. The 2-pyridyl group facilitates the formation of a stable Ru-C(aryl) σ bond that induces a strong para-directing effect. Electrophilic aromatic substitution proceeds with the sulfonyl chloride to furnish a sulfone at the position meta to the chelating group. This new catalytic process offers access to atypical regioselectivity for reactions involving chelation-assisted cyclometalation.

  18. The trans influence in mer-trichloronitridobis(triphenylarsine)ruthenium(VI)

    Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper


    The title compound, mer-[RuCl(3)N(C(18)H(15)As)(2)], is the first structurally characterized example of a nitride complex in which ruthenium is six-coordinated to monodentate ligands only. The Ru[triple-bond]N bond length [1.6161 (15) A] is relatively long, and the trans influence of the nitride...... ligand is reflected by the difference between the Ru--Cl(trans) and Ru--Cl(cis) bond lengths [0.1234 (4) A]. The N--Ru--Cl(trans) axis is sited on a twofold axis....

  19. Ruthenium and osmium carbonyl nitrosyl complexes: Matrix infrared spectra and density functional calculations for M(CO){sub 2}(NO){sub 2} and M(CO)(NO) (M = Ru, Os)

    Song, Zhenjun [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Xuefeng, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser-ablated ruthenium or osmium atom reactions with CO and NO mixtures in solid argon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal carbonyl nitrosyls including M(CO)(NO) and 18-electron configuration M(CO){sub 2}(NO){sub 2} molecules (M = Ru, Os). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed absorption bands of reaction products are identified by isotopic substitution and DFT calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bonding and reaction mechanism are discussed in detail. -- Abstract: Laser-ablated ruthenium or osmium atom reactions with CO and NO mixtures in solid argon produce unsaturated metal carbonyl nitrosyls including M(CO)(NO) and 18-electron configuration M(CO){sub 2}(NO){sub 2} molecules (M = Ru, Os). The observed absorption bands of reaction products are identified by isotopic substitution, isotopic ratios and isotopic distributions ({sup 13}CO, {sup 15}NO, and mixtures). DFT (B3LYP and BP86) vibrational fundamental calculations reproduce observed frequencies and isotopic shifts very well. The bonding and reaction mechanism are discussed.

  20. Ruthenium behaviour in severe nuclear accident conditions. Final report

    Backman, U.; Lipponen, M.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.; Zilliacus, R. [VVT Processes (Finland)


    During routine nuclear reactor operations, ruthenium will accumulate in the fuel in relatively high concentrations. In a steam atmosphere, ruthenium is not volatile, and it is not likely to be released from the fuel. However, in an air ingress accident during reactor power operation or during maintenance, ruthenium may form volatile species, which may be released into the containment. Oxide forms of ruthenium are more volatile than the metallic form. Radiotoxicity of ruthenium is high both in the short and the long term. The results of this project imply that in oxidising conditions during nuclear reactor core degradation, ruthenium release increases as oxidised gaseous species Ru03 and Ru04 are formed. A significant part of the released ruthenium is then deposited on reactor coolant system piping. However, in the presence of steam and aerosol particles, a substantial amount of ruthenium may be released as gaseous Ru04 into the containment atmosphere. (au)

  1. Separation and Purification of Fissiogenic Ruthenium From Irradiated Uranium


    Ruthenium is an important fission product. Its isotopic composition may reflect the burnup or the initial uranium enrichment of nuclear fuel. So the separation and purification method of fission products of Ruthenium from irradiated uranium was studied and established.

  2. Development of a reliable analytical method for extraction spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium(III) from catalyst and fissium alloy using o-methylphenyl thiourea as a chromogenic chelating ligand

    Kuchekar, Shashikant R.; Shelar, Yogesh S.; Aher, Haribhau R.; Han, Sung H.


    A simple and selective method is developed for the extraction spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium(III) using o-methylphenyl thiourea (OMPT) as a chromogenic chelating ligand. The basis of the proposed method is ruthenium(III)-OMPT complex formation in aqueous hydrochloric acid media (3.0 mol L-1) after 5.0 min heating on a boiling water bath and the complex formed is extracted into chloroform. The absorbance of green colored ruthenium(III)-OMPT complex is measured at 590 nm against the reagent blank. Beer's law was obeyed up to 42.5 μg mL-1 of ruthenium(III) and the optimum concentration range is 7.56-39.81 μg mL-1 of ruthenium(III) as evaluated by Ringbom's plot. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of ruthenium(III)-OMPT complex in chloroform are 2.34 × 103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.043 μg cm-2 respectively. The composition of ruthenium(III):OMPT complex (1:2) was established from slope ratio method, mole ratio method and Job's continuous variation method. Complex was stable for more than 48 h. The interfering effect of various foreign ions was studied and suitable masking agents are used wherever necessary to enhance the selectivity of the method. Proposed method is successfully applied for determination of ruthenium(III) from binary and ternary synthetic mixtures, synthetic mixtures corresponding to fissium alloy and ruthenium catalyst. Repetition of the method was checked by finding relative standard deviation (R.S.D) for 10 determinations which was 0.23%. A scheme for sequential separation of palladium(II), ruthenium(III), rhodium(III) and platinum(IV) has been developed.

  3. New Amphiphilic Polypyridyl Ruthenium(Ⅱ) Sensitizer and Its Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KONG Fan-Tai; DAI Song-Yuan; WANG Kong-Jia


    Amphiphilic polypyridyl ruthenium(Ⅱ) complex cis-di(isothiocyanato)(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) (K005) has been synthesized and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, and FT-IR spectroscopies. The sensitizer sensitizes TiO2 over a notably broad spectral range due to its intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands at 537 and 418 nm. The photophysical and photochemical studies of K005 were contrasted with those of cis-Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2, known as the N3 dye, and the amphiphilic ruthenium(Ⅱ) dye Z907. A reversible couple at E1/2=0.725 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) with a separation of 0.08 V between the anodic and cathodic peaks, was observed due to the RuⅡ/Ⅲ couple by cyclic voltammetry.Furthermore, this amphiphilic ruthenium complex was successfully used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells with the efficiency of 3.72% at the 100 mW·cm-2 irradiance of air mass 1.5 simulated sunlight without optimization of TiO2 films and the electrolyte.

  4. Total enantioselectivity in the DNA binding of the dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex [[Ru(Me2bpy)2]2(mu-bpm)]4+ [bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; Me2bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine].

    Smith, Jayden A; Collins, J Grant; Patterson, Bradley T; Keene, F Richard


    The binding of the three stereoisomers (DeltaDelta-, LambdaLambda- and DeltaLambda-) of the dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex [[Ru(Me2bpy)2]2(mu-bpm)]4+ [Me2bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine; bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine] to a tridecanucleotide containing a single adenine bulge has been studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The addition of the DeltaDelta-isomer to d(CCGAGAATTCCGG)2 induced significant chemical shift changes for the base and sugar resonances of the residues at the bulge site (G3A4G5/C11C10), whereas small shifts were observed upon addition of the enantiomeric LambdaLambda-form. NOESY spectra of the tridecanucleotide bound with the DeltaDelta-isomer revealed intermolecular NOE's between the metal complex and the nucleotide residues at the bulge site, while only weak NOE's were observed to terminal residues to the LambdaLambda-form. Competitive binding studies were performed where both enantiomers were simultaneously added to the tridecanucleotide, and for all ratios of the two stereoisomers the DeltaDelta-isomer remained selectively bound at the bulge site with the LambdaLambda-enantiomer localised at the terminal regions of the tridecanucleotide. The meso-diastereoisomer (DeltaLambda) was found to bind to the tridecanucleotide with characteristics intermediate between the DeltaDelta- and LambdaLambda-enantiomers of the rac form. Two distinct sets of metal complex resonances were observed, with one set having essentially the same shift as the free metal complex, whilst the other set of resonances exhibited significant shifts. The NOE data indicated that the meso-diastereoisomer does not bind as selectively as the DeltaDelta-isomer, with NOE's observed to a greater number of nucleotide residues compared to the DeltaDelta-form. This study provides a rare example of total enantioselectivity in the binding of an inert transition metal complex to DNA, produced by the shape recognition of both ruthenium(II) centres.

  5. Cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts bearing phosphine ligands.

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H


    The discovery of highly active catalysts and the success of ionic liquid immobilized systems have accelerated attention to a new class of cationic metathesis catalysts. We herein report the facile syntheses of cationic ruthenium catalysts bearing bulky phosphine ligands. Simple ligand exchange using silver(i) salts of non-coordinating or weakly coordinating anions provided either PPh3 or chelating Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 (n = 2 or 3) ligated cationic catalysts. The structures of these newly reported catalysts feature unique geometries caused by ligation of the bulky phosphine ligands. Their activities and selectivities in standard metathesis reactions were also investigated. These cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts reported here showed moderate activity and very similar stereoselectivity when compared to the second generation ruthenium dichloride catalyst in ring-closing metathesis, cross metathesis, and ring-opening metathesis polymerization assays.

  6. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  7. Chemical amplification methods for the sequential determination of trace amounts of ruthenium by titrimetric and spectrophotometric procedures.

    El-Shahawi, M S; Barakat, S A


    Two simple, inexpensive and rapid iodometric and spectrophotometric procedures were developed for trace amount determination of ruthenium. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of ruthenium(II or III) with sodium periodate at pH 2.4-3.6, masking the excess periodate with sodium molybdate. The released iodate was then allowed to react with KI at pH 3, with subsequent determination of the released iodine spectrophotometry as triiodide at 350 nm or iodometry with 0.005 M sodium thiosulphate. This procedure offers an 18- and 15-fold amplification per Ru(II) or Ru(III) ion, respectively. Alternatively, the produced iodine was extracted with CHCl(3), shaken with an aqueous solution of sodium sulphite and the produced iodide ion was then allowed to react with bromine (or sodium periodate). The released iodate was subsequently determined by iodometry or spectrophotometry after addition of KI. The bromine and sodium periodate oxidation procedures offered 90- and 360-fold amplification per ruthenium(III) ion, and 108- and 432-fold amplification per ruthenium(II) ion. Ruthenium(IV) content was determined by these procedures after prior reduction to Ru(III) with sulphurous acid. The binary mixtures Ru(II)-Ru(III); Ru(III)-Ru(IV) and Ru(II)-Ru(IV) in aqueous solution at concentration 0.05 mug ml(-1) were successfully analyzed by the developed procedures. The utility of the proposed methods for the analysis of ruthenium in its complexes was demonstrated. Natural seawater and seawater spiked with ruthenium were analyzed satisfactorily.

  8. Platinum group metallodrug-protein binding studies by capillary electrophoresis - inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: a further insight into the reactivity of a novel antitumor ruthenium(III) complex toward human serum proteins.

    Polec-Pawlak, Kasia; Abramski, Jan K; Semenova, Olga; Hartinger, Christian G; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Keppler, Bernhard K; Jarosz, Maciej


    Biochemical speciation analysis has become a hot area of CE research due largely to growing emergence of inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS as a proper detection technique. A benefit of CE-ICP-MS coupling in species-selective analysis of anticancer metal-based drugs is the possibility of distinguishing the signals of the intact drug and its metabolites and hence of quantifying them independently. This advantage (over CE with UV-vis detection) was exploited here in order to gain better knowledge about the rate and degree of the transformation of indazolium [trans-tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019), a promising tumor-inhibiting agent that successfully finished phase I clinical studies, upon its binding toward individual serum transport proteins. At increasing the KP1019/protein molar ratio, the reaction rate expressed by an evolving peak of the protein adduct became faster, with the equilibrium state being reached after about 40 and 60 min of incubation at 37 degrees C for transferrin and albumin, respectively. The binding reaction was shown to obey the first-order character that enabled for reliable calculation of the corresponding rate constants as (28.7 +/- 1.5) x 10(-4) and (10.6 +/- 0.7) x 10(-4)/s, respectively. When incubated with a ten-fold excess of KP1019, albumin and transferrin bound, respectively, up to 8 and 10 equiv. of ruthenium (Ru). Relative affinity of KP1019 toward different proteins under simulated physiological conditions was also characterized in terms of the overall binding constants (5600 and 10 600/M, respectively). To emphasize the difference in the protein-binding behavior, a competitive interaction of KP1019 was followed by CE-ICP-MS at the actual molar ratio of proteins in blood, i.e. a ten-fold excess of albumin over transferrin. The fact that KP1019 binds to albumin stronger than to transferrin was manifested by finding almost all ruthenium (98-99%) in the albumin fraction.

  9. Thermotropic ruthenium(II)-containing metallomesogens based on substituted 1,10-phenanthroline ligands.

    Cardinaels, Thomas; Ramaekers, Jan; Driesen, Kris; Nockemann, Peter; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Goderis, Bart; Binnemans, Koen


    Imidazo[4,5-f]-1,10-phenanthroline and pyrazino[2,3-f]-1,10-phenanthroline substituted with long alkyl chains are versatile ligands for the design of metallomesogens because of the ease of ligand substitution. Whereas the ligands and the corresponding rhenium(I) complexes were not liquid-crystalline, mesomorphism was observed for the corresponding ionic ruthenium(II) complexes with chloride, hexafluorophosphate, and bistriflimide counterions. The mesophases were identified as smectic A phases by high-temperature small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) using synchrotron radiation. The transition temperatures depend on the anion, the highest temperatures being observed for the chloride salts and the lowest for the bistriflimide salts. The ruthenium(II) complexes are examples of luminescent ionic liquid crystals.

  10. Ultrasonic Study of Osmium and Ruthenium

    Pandey, D.K; Singh, Devraj; Yadawa, P.K


    .... The nature of the angle-dependent ultrasonic velocity is found to be similar to those of molybdenum-ruthenium-rhodium-palladium alloys, Group III nitrides and lave-phase compounds such as TiCr2, ZrCr2 and HfCr2...

  11. Combination of ruthenium(II)-arene complex [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)] (RAPTA-C) and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib results in efficient angiostatic and antitumor activity

    Berndsen, Robert H.; Weiss, Andrea; Abdul, U. Kulsoom; Wong, Tse J.; Meraldi, Patrick; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Dyson, Paul J.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja


    Ruthenium-based compounds show strong potential as anti-cancer drugs and are being investigated as alternatives to other well-established metal-based chemotherapeutics. The organometallic compound [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)], where pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA-C) exhibits broad acting anti-tumor efficacy with intrinsic angiostatic activity. In the search for an optimal anti-angiogenesis drug combination, we identified synergistic potential between RAPTA-C and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib. This drug combination results in strong synergistic inhibition of cell viability in human endothelial (ECRF24 and HUVEC) and human ovarian carcinoma (A2780 and A2780cisR) cells. Additionally, erlotinib significantly enhances the cellular uptake of RAPTA-C relative to treatment with RAPTA-C alone in human ovarian carcinoma cells, but not endothelial cells. Drug combinations induce the formation of chromosome bridges that persist after mitotic exit and delay abscission in A2780 and A2780cisR, therefore suggesting initiation of cellular senescence. The therapeutic potential of these compounds and their combination is further validated in vivo on A2780 tumors grown on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, and in a preclinical model in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms effective anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative activity in vivo, based on a significant reduction of microvascular density and a decrease in proliferating cells. PMID:28223694

  12. Light-induced ruthenium-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions: a photochemical approach towards N-acyl sulfimides and sulfoximines.

    Bizet, Vincent; Buglioni, Laura; Bolm, Carsten


    1,4,2-Dioxazol-5-ones are five-membered heterocycles known to decarboxylate under thermal or photochemical conditions, thus yielding N-acyl nitrenes. Described herein is a light-induced ruthenium-catalyzed N-acyl nitrene transfer to sulfides and sulfoxides by decarboxylation of 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones at room temperature, thus providing direct access to N-acyl sulfimides and sulfoximines under mild reaction conditions. In addition, a one-pot sulfur imidation/oxidation sequence catalyzed by a single ruthenium complex is reported. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Increased electrochemical properties of ruthenium oxide and graphene/ruthenium oxide hybrid dispersed by polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Chen, Yao; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Dacheng [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ma, Yanwei, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good dispersion of RuO{sub 2} and graphene/RuO{sub 2} is obtained by polyvinylpyrrolidone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVP as a dispersant also can prevent the formation of metal Ru in graphene/RuO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The max capacitances of the hybrid and RuO{sub 2} reach 435 and 597 F g{sup -1} at 0.2 A g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid shows the best rate capability of 39% at 50 A g{sup -1}. - Abstract: Ruthenium oxide has been prepared by a sol-gel method. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an excellent polymeric dispersant is adopted to prevent aggregation of ruthenium oxide. In order to enhance the rate capability of ruthenium oxide, graphene with residual oxygen functional groups as a 2D support has been merged into ruthenium oxide. These oxygen functional groups not only favor to form stable few layers of graphene colloids, but also offer the sites to anchor ruthenium oxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction infers that PVP can also hinder the partial formation of Ru by blocking the direct contact between the Ru{sup 3+} and the graphene in the sol-gel synthesis of the hybrids. The ruthenium oxide and the graphene/ruthenium oxide hybrids dispersed by PVP have superior electrochemical properties due to good dispersing and protecting ability of PVP. Especially, the hybrids using PVP exhibit the best rate capability, indicating that the composites possess an advanced structure of combining sheets and particles in nano-scale.

  14. Half-sandwich ruthenium(II) biotin conjugates as biological vectors to cancer cells.

    Babak, Maria V; Plażuk, Damian; Meier, Samuel M; Arabshahi, Homayon John; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Rychlik, Błażej; Błauż, Andrzej; Szulc, Katarzyna; Hanif, Muhammad; Strobl, Sebastian; Roller, Alexander; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G


    Ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with biotin-containing ligands were prepared so that a novel drug delivery system based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis could be developed. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods and their in vitro anticancer activity in cancer cell lines with various levels of major biotin receptor (COLO205, HCT116 and SW620 cells) was tested in comparison with the ligands. In all cases, coordination of ruthenium resulted in significantly enhanced cytotoxicity. The affinity of Ru(II) -biotin complexes to avidin was investigated and was lower than that of unmodified biotin. Hill coefficients in the range 2.012-2.851 suggest strong positive cooperation between the complexes and avidin. To estimate the likelihood of binding to the biotin receptor/transporter, docking studies with avidin and streptavidin were conducted. These explain, to some extent, the in vitro anticancer activity results and support the conclusion that these novel half-sandwich ruthenium(II)-biotin conjugates may act as biological vectors to cancer cells, although no clear relationship between the cellular Ru content, the cytotoxicity, and the presence of the biotin moiety was observed.

  15. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu


    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)-6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+-62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of -0.137 Å-1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results.

  16. Fully Borylated Methane and Ethane by Ruthenium-Mediated Cleavage and Coupling of CO.

    Batsanov, Andrei S; Cabeza, Javier A; Crestani, Marco G; Fructos, Manuel R; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Gille, Marie; Lin, Zhenyang; Marder, Todd B


    Many transition-metal complexes and some metal-free compounds are able to bind carbon monoxide, a molecule which has the strongest chemical bond in nature. However, very few of them have been shown to induce the cleavage of its C-O bond and even fewer are those that are able to transform CO into organic reagents with potential in organic synthesis. This work shows that bis(pinacolato)diboron, B2pin2, reacts with ruthenium carbonyl to give metallic complexes containing borylmethylidyne (CBpin) and diborylethyne (pinBC≡CBpin) ligands and also metal-free perborylated C1 and C2 products, such as C(Bpin)4 and C2 (Bpin)6, respectively, which have great potential as building blocks for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and other reactions. The use of (13)CO-enriched ruthenium carbonyl has demonstrated that the boron-bound carbon atoms of all of these reaction products arise from CO ligands.

  17. Fluorescence property of tris (2, 2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (Ⅱ) dichloride immobilized in the gallery of γ-zirconium phosphates

    Ming Hui Xiang; Xian Bo Shi; Na Li; Ke An Li


    Tris (2, 2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (Ⅱ) (Ru(bpy)32+) dichloride was successfully immobilized into the galleria of layered gamma zirconium phosphate (γ-ZrP) preintercalated by butyl amine(BA). The compounds showed extended luminescence lifetime of about four times of unimmobilized metal complex.

  18. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Silica Material Derived from a Monosilylated Grubbs-Hoveyda Ruthenium Carbene as a Recyclable Metathesis Catalyst

    Michel Wong Chi Man


    Full Text Available The synthesis of a monosilylated Grubbs-Hoveyda ruthenium alkylidene complex is described, as well as the preparation and characterization of the corresponding material by sol-gel cogelification with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and the assay of this recyclable supported catalyst in ring-closing diene and enyne metathesis reactions under thermal and microwave conditions.

  19. Synthesis, Structure and Antitumour Properties of a New 1,2-Propylenediaminetetraacetate-Ruthenium(III) Compound.

    Vilaplana, R; Romero, M A; Quirós, M; Salas, J M; González-Vílchez, F


    A novel complex formed by ruthenium (III) and the sequestering ligand 1,2-propylenediaminetetraacetic acid (PDTA) has been synthetized and characterized. The structure of the monomeric compound, studied by X-ray diffraction , shows an almost symmetric octahedral geometry around the metal ion, with two chlorine atoms in a cis conformation. The antitumour activity against a variety of murine and human cancers is reported.

  20. A Thermo- and Photo-Switchable Ruthenium Initiator For Olefin Metathesis.

    Sashuk, Volodymyr; Danylyuk, Oksana


    A ruthenium carbene complex bearing azobenzene functionality is reported. The complex exists in the form of two isomers differing by the size of the chelate ring. Both isomers were isolated by applying kinetic or thermodynamic control during the synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The isomerization of the complex was studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The stable isomer was tested as a catalyst in olefin metathesis. The complex was activated at about 100 °C to promote ring-closing and ring-opening polymerization metathesis reactions. The activation took place also at room temperature under middle ultraviolet radiation.

  1. Antitumor and antiparasitic activity of novel ruthenium compounds with polycyclic aromatic ligands.

    Miserachs, Helena Guiset; Cipriani, Micaella; Grau, Jordi; Vilaseca, Marta; Lorenzo, Julia; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo A; Gambino, Dinorah; Otero, Lucía; Moreno, Virtudes


    Five novel ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with polycyclic aromatic ligands were synthesized, comprising three compounds of the formula [RuCl(η(6)-p-cym)(L)][PF6], where p-cym = 1-isopropyl-4-methylbenzene and L are the bidentate aromatic ligands 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione, 1, 5-amine-1,10-phenanthroline, 4, or 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-phenanthroline, 5. In the other two complexes [RuCl2(η(6)-p-cym)(L')], the metal is coordinated to a monodentate ligand L', where L' is phenanthridine, 2, or 9-carbonylanthracene, 3. All compounds were fully characterized by mass spectrometry and elemental analysis, as well as NMR and IR spectroscopic techniques. Obtained ruthenium compounds as well as their respective ligands were tested for their antiparasitic and antitumoral activities. Even though all compounds showed lower Trypanosoma brucei activity than the free ligands, they also resulted less toxic on mammalian cells. Cytotoxicity assays on HL60 cells showed a moderate antitumoral activity for all ruthenium compounds. Compound 1 was the most potent antitumoral (IC50 = 1.26±0.78 μM) and antiparasitic (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.05 μM) agent, showing high selectivity towards the parasites (selectivity index >100). As complex 1 was the most promising antitumoral compound, its interaction with ubiquitin as potential target was also studied. In addition, obtained ruthenium compounds were found to bind DNA, and they are thought to interact with this macromolecule mainly through intercalation of the aromatic ligand.

  2. ``Greener Shade of Ruthenium'': New Concepts of Activation, Immobilization, and Recovery of Ruthenium Catalysts For Green Olefin Metathesis

    Michrowska, Anna; Gulajski, Lukasz; Grela, Karol

    The results described herewith demonstrate that the activity of ruthenium (Ru) metathesis catalysts can be enhanced by introduction of electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) without detriment to catalysts stability. This principle can be used not only to increase the catalyst activity, but also to alter its physical-chemical properties, such as solubility in given medium or affinity to silica gel. An example of novel immobilisation strategy, based on this concept is presented. The ammonium-tagged Hoveyda-type catalysts can be successfully applied in aqueous media as well as in ionic liquids (IL). Substitution of a benzylidene fragment can be used not only to immobilize the organometallic complex in such media, but also to increase its catalytic activity by electronic activation. The high stability and good application profiles of such modified catalysts in conjunction with their facile removal from organic products can be expected to offer new opportunities in green applications of olefin metathesis.

  3. Studies of dissolution solutions of ruthenium metal, oxide and mixed compounds in nitric acid

    Mousset, F.; Eysseric, C.; Bedioui, F


    Ruthenium is one of the fission products generated by irradiated nuclear fuel. It is present throughout all the steps of nuclear fuel reprocessing-particularly during extraction-and requires special attention due to its complex chemistry and high {beta}{gamma} activity. An innovative electro-volatilization process is now being developed to take advantage of the volatility of RuO{sub 4} in order to eliminate it at the head end of the Purex process and thus reduce the number of extraction cycles. Although the process operates successfully with synthetic nitrato-RuNO{sup 3+} solutions, difficulties have been encountered in extrapolating it to real-like dissolution solutions. In order to better approximate the chemical forms of ruthenium found in fuel dissolution solutions, kinetic and speciation studies on dissolved species were undertaken with RuO{sub 2},xH{sub 2}O and Ru{sup 0} in nitric acid media. (authors)

  4. Recent advances in the ruthenium-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes with aromatics: synthesis of trisubstituted alkenes.

    Manikandan, Rajendran; Jeganmohan, Masilamani


    The hydroarylation of alkynes with substituted aromatics in the presence of a metal catalyst via chelation-assisted C-H bond activation is a powerful method to synthesize trisubstituted alkenes. Chelation-assisted C-H bond activation can be done by two ways: (a) an oxidative addition pathway and (b) a deprotonation pathway. Generally, a mixture of cis and trans stereoisomeric as well as regioisomeric trisubstituted alkenes was observed in an oxidative addition pathway. In the deprotonation pathway, the hydroarylation reaction can be done in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner, and enables preparation of the expected trisubstituted alkenes in a highly selective manner. Generally, ruthenium, rhodium and cobalt complexes are used as catalysts in the reaction. In this review, a ruthenium-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes with substituted aromatics is covered completely. The hydroarylation reaction of alkynes with amide, azole, carbamate, phosphine oxide, amine, acetyl, sulfoxide and sulphur directed aromatics is discussed.

  5. Ruthenium-containing P450 inhibitors for dual enzyme inhibition and DNA damage.

    Zamora, Ana; Denning, Catherine A; Heidary, David K; Wachter, Erin; Nease, Leona A; Ruiz, José; Glazer, Edith C


    Cytochrome P450s are key players in drug metabolism, and overexpression in tumors is associated with significant resistance to many medicinal agents. Consequently, inhibition of P450s could serve as a strategy to restore drug efficacy. However, the widespread expression of P450s throughout the human body and the critical roles they play in various biosynthetic pathways motivates the development of P450 inhibitors capable of controlled local administration. Ruthenium complexes containing P450 inhibitors as ligands were synthesized in order to develop pro-drugs that can be triggered to release the inhibitors in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. Upon light activation the compounds release ligands that directly bind and inhibit P450 enzymes, while the ruthenium center is able to directly damage DNA.

  6. Development of a Method for the Preparation of Ruthenium Indenylidene-Ether Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Yann Schrodi


    Full Text Available The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl2(PPh33 and RuCl2(p-cymene(L, where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-n-propylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes.

  7. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Transformations of Alcohols: Mechanistic Investigations and Methodology Development

    Makarov, Ilya; Madsen, Robert; Fristrup, Peter

    The mechanism of the ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines was studied in detail by employing the combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The Hammett study revealed that a small positive charge is formed at the benzylic position in the tr......The mechanism of the ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines was studied in detail by employing the combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The Hammett study revealed that a small positive charge is formed at the benzylic position...... obtained from the calculated energies, it was found that only the trans-dihydride pathway was in agreement with the experimentally determined frequencies. The proposed catalytic cycle was used for an in silico search for more effective carbene ligands. The study showed that the ruthenium complexes...... with dimethoxyisopropylidene and pyridilidene ligands could be more active than RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene) used in the mechanistic investigation. Two analogs of the calculated complexes were synthesized but were not isolated in a pure form. The amidation reaction catalyzed by a mixture containing the N-ethyl pyridilidene...

  8. Determination of Thorium and Ruthenium in Diuranate by ICP-AES

    ZHANG; Qian-ci; TAO; Miao-miao; LUO; Zhong-yan; ZHAO; Li-fei; HAO; Xiao-juan


    <正>Thorium and ruthenium are important impurities that should be monitored in diuranate product. A method for determination of thorium and ruthenium in diuranate was established. Due to the complicated atomic lines of uranium, which have strict interference with that of thorium and ruthenium during determination by ICP-AES, thorium and ruthenium should be separated firstly from uranium matrix before measurement.

  9. Catalyst Kinetics Analytical Method Study of Ruthenium

    Kou ming-ze; Zhan hui-ying; Kou zong-yan


    Color reactions are used to determine ruthenium utilizing spectrophotometer, but the process need high temperature, long time pyrogenation and miscellaneous extraction and it contaminates the enviroment. As the sensitive degree and simple apparatus of catalyst kinetics analytical method, it was extensively attentcd. The fundmental principle means to determinn a certain chemistry reaction rate accelerated by homogeneous catalyst and determine substantial content using the function of the numerical value of of its and the catalyst concentration. Color acid double azo-reagents (chloro-phosphor group, arsenic group and carboxylic acid group) are sensitive color reagent determining uranium and thorium of lanthanon, but the report is few that it is used to determine ruthenium. Since 1990s, the author studied that the ruthenium was possessed evident catalysis to the fade reaction of oxidant (KIO4, KBrO3) oxidating color acid double azo-reagent in acitidy medium and provided the catalyst kinetics analytical method to determine trace ruthenium.sensitive degree was increased 1 ~2 amount than color reaction. The reaction as:The original concentration of color acid double azo-reagents is A. The instantaneous absorbency after t reaction time is At. In homogeneous catalyst reaction: log(A0/At) = KCRu3+t. Reaction time t is invarible, so log(A0/At) = K' CRu3+t.Color acid double azo-reagents, such as: chlor-azochlorphosphor(CPA-TC),bromic-azochlorphosphor (CPA-TB), DBS-azochlorphosphor(DBS-CPA), DBC-azochlorphosphor (DBC-CPA), DBOK-azochlorpho sphor (DBOK-CPA), p-iodineazochlorphosphor(CPA-PI),p-acetylazochlorphosphor (CPA-PA), azochlorpho sphorⅢ(CPAⅢ), chlor-azoarsenic (TC-AsA),bromic-azoarsenic (TB-AsA), DBS-azoarsenic(DCS-AsA), DCS-azoarsenic(DCS-AsA),azoarsenicⅢ(AsAⅢ), bromicnityrlazoarsenic (DBN-AsA), P-acetylcarboxy lazo-p,P-acetylcarboxylazo, were utilized in catalyst kinetics system. The author obtains the satisfactory results that color acid double azo-rea gents

  10. Simple and selective spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium after solid phase extraction with some quinoxaline dyes into microcrystalline p-dichlorobenzene

    Amin, Alaa S.


    A simple selective and highly sensitive extraction method has been developed for the determination of ruthenium spectrophotometrically after extraction of its 2,3-dichloro-6-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (I), 2,3-dichloro-6-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrophenylazo)quinoxaline (II) and 2,3-dichloro-6-(2,7-dihydroxy-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (III) complexes into microcrystalline p-dichlorobenzene. The optimization of experimental conditions for the procedure is studied. The solid p-dichlorobenzene containing the ruthenium-reagent (I-III) complexes is separated by filtration and dissolved in N, N-dimethylformamide. The absorbance is measured at λmax 622, 518 and 542 nm against reagents I, II and III, respectively, as blank. Beer's law is obeyed upto 2.5 μg ml -1 of ruthenium. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits are calculated, when compared with those parameters without using solid phase extraction method. The interference of various ions has been studied in detail and the statistical evaluation of the experimental results is reported. The proposed methods have been successfully applied for the determination of trace amount of ruthenium in seawater, ore and metallurgy products.

  11. New superhindered polydentate polyphosphine ligands P(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, PhP(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)2, P(CH2CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, and their ruthenium(II) chloride complexes.

    Gilbert-Wilson, Ryan; Field, Leslie D; Bhadbhade, Mohan M


    The synthesis and characterization of the extremely hindered phosphine ligands, P(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(2)P(3)(tBu), 1), PhP(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(2) (PhP(2)P(2)(tBu), 2), and P(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(3)P(3)(tBu), 3) are reported, along with the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium chloro complexes RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4), RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5), and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6). The bulky P(2)P(3)(tBu) (1) and P(3)P(3)(tBu) (3) ligands are the most sterically encumbered PP(3)-type ligands so far synthesized, and in all cases, only three phosphorus donors are able to bind to the metal center. Complexes RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6) were characterized by crystallography. Low temperature solution and solid state (31)P{(1)H} NMR were used to demonstrate that the structure of RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4) is probably analogous to that of RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) which had been structurally characterized.

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic, electrochemical and luminescence studies of ruthenium (II) polypyridyls containing multifunctionalized 1,2,4-triazole as co-ligand

    L Mishra; A K Yadaw


    Ruthenium (II) 2,2 -bipyridyl and 1,10-phenanthroline complexes with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (LH2) as co-ligand were synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV/Vis, 1H NMR spectra and FAB-mass data. The electrochemical and luminescent properties of the complexes were also studied.

  13. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence sensor for the determination of metoclopramide using ordered mesoporous carbon for immobilizing tris(2,2 -bipyridyl)ruthenium


    A novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence(ECL)sensor for the determination of metoclopramide was developed by employing ruthenium complex as an ECL signal producer and an ordered mesoporous carbon(OMC)material as modified material.The ECL sensor was fabricated by adsorption ruthenium complex into a mixture of OMC and Nafion,which showed good electrochemical and ECL behaviors.It was found that the ECL intensity of the sensor fabricated was greatly enhanced in the presence of metoclopramide.Based on this fin...

  14. Toxicology and pharmacology of some euthenium compounds: vascular smooth muscle relaxation by nitrosyl derivatives of ruthenium and iridium

    Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Hurst, J.; Smith, R.P.


    A series of compounds were synthesized from ruthenium trichloride, and their ip LD50s were determined in mice: pentamminenitrosylruthenium(II) chloride, 8.9; chloronitrobis(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II), 55; dichlorobis(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II) 63; ruthenium trichloride, 108; and potassium pentachloronitrosylruthenate(II), 127 mg/kg. The two bis-bipyridyl complexes produced death in convulsions within minutes, whereas the remaining compounds resulted in long, debilitating courses with death occuring in 4 to 7 d. When given in massive overdoses, however, the compounds with inorganic ligands also produced rapid convulsive death in mice, and when given iv to anesthetized cats, they produced respiratory arrest. The major toxic effects of all the complexes appeared to be due to the metal and not to its associated ligands. Only complexes having a nitrosyl ligand specifically relaxed vascular smooth muscle. Potassium pentabromoiridate(III) also relaxed rabbit aortic strips that had been contracted by adrenergic argonists, but potassium pentachloroiridate(III) did not. None of the complexes was as active as nitroprusside in relaxing aortic strips or in decreasing arterial blood pressure in cats. No compound tested was as potent as cisplatin in antitumor activity. The pentamminenitrosylruthenium(II) complex also relaxed guinea pig ileum and frog rectus abdominum when these isolated muscles had been contracted by acetylcholine. It appears that these organoruthenium compounds may produce death in central respiratory arrest, as do the inorganic complexes when given iv or ip in massive overdoses. In minimllylethal doses, the complexes with inorganic ligands may affect a variety of contractile tissues, perhaps by a general mechanism involving Ca. These complexes are apt to be generally cytotoxic as well.

  15. Antiproliferative effects of ruthenium-based nucleolipidic nanoaggregates in human models of breast cancer in vitro: insights into their mode of action

    Irace, Carlo; Misso, Gabriella; Capuozzo, Antonella; Piccolo, Marialuisa; Riccardi, Claudia; Luchini, Alessandra; Caraglia, Michele; Paduano, Luigi; Montesarchio, Daniela; Santamaria, Rita


    Looking for new metal-based anticancer treatments, in recent years many ruthenium complexes have been proposed as effective and safe potential drugs. In this context we have recently developed a novel approach for the in vivo delivery of Ru(III) complexes, preparing stable ruthenium-based nucleolipidic nanoaggregates endowed with significant antiproliferative activity. Herein we describe the cellular response to our ruthenium-containing formulations in selected models of human breast cancer. By in vitro bioscreens in the context of preclinical studies, we have focused on their ability to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, possibly via mitochondrial perturbations involving Bcl-2 family members and predisposing to programmed cell death. In addition, the most efficient ruthenium-containing cationic nanoaggregates we have hitherto developed are able to elicit both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis, as well as autophagy. To limit chemoresistance and counteract uncontrolled proliferation, multiple cell death pathways activation by metal-based chemotherapeutics is a challenging, yet very promising strategy for targeted therapy development in aggressive cancer diseases, such as triple-negative breast cancer with limited treatment options. These outcomes provide valuable, original knowledge on ruthenium-based candidate drugs and new insights for future optimized cancer treatment protocols. PMID:28349991

  16. Enantiopure C1-symmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands from Desymmetrized meso-1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine: Application in Ruthenium-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis

    Veronica Paradiso


    Full Text Available In order to design improved chiral ruthenium catalysts for asymmetric olefin metathesis, enantiomeric catalysts incorporating C1-symmetric N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHC ligands with syn-related substituents on the backbone were synthesized starting from meso-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The absolute configuration of the enantiomers of the desymmetrized meso diamine was assigned by optical rotation analysis and in silico calculations, and was found to be maintained in their respective ruthenium catalysts by comparison of the relative electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra. The catalytic behaviour of the enantiomeric ruthenium complexes was investigated in model asymmetric metathesis transformations and compared to that of analogous complexes bearing C1-symmetric NHC ligands with an anti backbone. Modest enantioselectivities were registered and different catalyst properties depending on the nature of stereochemical relationship of substituents on the backbone were observed.

  17. Triazoloisoquinoline-Based/Ruthenium-Hybrid Sensitizer for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Che-Lung Lee


    Full Text Available Triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs were synthesized and used in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. After cosensitization with ruthenium complex, the triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs overcame the deficiency of ruthenium dyestuff absorption in the blue part of the visible spectrum. This method also fills the blanks of ruthenium dyestuff sensitized TiO2 film and forms a compact insulating molecular layer due to the nature of small molecular organic dyestuffs. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of N719 at shorter wavelength regions is 49%. After addition of a triazoloisoquinoline-based dyestuff for co-sensitization, the IPCE at 350–500 nm increased significantly. This can be attributed to the increased photocurrent of the cells, which improves the dye-sensitized photoelectric conversion efficiency from 6.23% to 7.84%, and the overall conversion efficiency increased by about 26%. As a consequence, this low molecular weight organic dyestuff is a promising candidate as coadsorbent and cosensitizer for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  18. Iron and ruthenium nanoparticles in carbon prepared by thermolysis of buckymetallocenes.

    Nakae, Takahiro; Matsuo, Yutaka; Takagi, Masatoshi; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Nakamura, Eiichi


    Thermolysis of fullerene iron and ruthenium complexes (buckymetallocene M(C(60)R(5))Cp (M = Fe; R = Ph (1) and Me (2), M = Ru; R = Ph (3), Me (4)) under a nitrogen atmosphere produced metal nanoparticles dispersed in carbon materials. The thermal degradation processes of the buckymetallocenes were studied by TG-DTA, TEM with a heating sample stage, and VT-XRD. Variation of the thermolysis temperature led to a change in the size of the nanoparticles and the morphology of the carbon materials. Thermolysis of buckyferrocene at 700 degrees C gave highly dispersed iron nanoparticles (average diameter of 7.4 nm). After thermal treatment at 900 degrees C, graphite structures such as carbon nanocapsules and carbon nanotubes formed because of the catalytic activity of the iron nanoparticles. Ruthenium nanoparticles prepared from buckyruthenocene were much smaller than the iron counterparts, and did not catalyze the formation of graphite structures. When buckyruthenocene absorbed on silica gel was heated at 500 degrees C under a hydrogen atmosphere, the resulting ruthenium nanoparticles showed high activity in catalytic hydrogenation.

  19. Reversible Intramolecular Cyclization in Ruthenium Complexes Induced by Ligand-centered One-electron Transfer on Bidentate Naphthyridine: An Important Intermediate for Both Metal– and Organo–Hydride Species

    Oyama, Dai; Ukawa, Narumi; Hamada, Takashi; Takase, Tsugiko


    ...)-1,8-naphthyridine were prepared. The complexes undergo irreversible ligand-localized one-electron reduction to form redox-induced metallacyclization between the bidentate naphthyridyl ligand and the terminal CO ligand located nearby...

  20. Electro-volatilization of ruthenium in nitric medium: influences of ruthenium species nature and models solutions composition; Electro-volatilisation du ruthenium en milieu nitrique: influence de la nature des formes chimiques du ruthenium et de la composition des solutions modeles de dissolution

    Mousset, F


    Ruthenium is one of the fission products in the reprocessing of irradiated fuels that requires a specific processing management. Its elimination, upstream by the PUREX process, has been considered. A process, called electro-volatilization, which take advantage of the RuO{sub 4} volatility, has been optimised in the present study. It consists in a continuous electrolysis of ruthenium solutions in order to generate RuO{sub 4} species that is volatilized and easily trapped. This process goes to satisfying ruthenium elimination yields with RuNO(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} synthetic solutions but not with fuel dissolution solutions. Consequently, this work consisted in the speciation studies of dissolved ruthenium species were carried out by simulating fuel solutions produced by hot acid attack of several ruthenium compounds (Ru(0), RuO{sub 2},xH{sub 2}O, polymetallic alloy). In parallel with dissolution kinetic studies, the determination of dissolved species was performed using voltammetry, spectrometry and spectro-electrochemistry. The results showed the co-existence of Ru(IV) and RuNO(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}. Although these species are different from synthetic RuNO(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, their electro-oxidation behaviour are similar. The electro-volatilization tests of these dissolution solutions yielded to comparable results as the synthetic RuNO(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} solutions. Then, complexity increase of models solutions was performed by in-situ generation of nitrous acid during ruthenium dissolution. Nitrous acid showed a catalytic effect on ruthenium dissolution. Its presence goes to quasi exclusively RuNO(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} species. It is also responsible of the strong n-bond formation between Ru{sup 2+} and NO{sup +}. In addition, it has been shown that its reducing action on RuO{sub 4} hinders the electro-volatilization process. Mn{sup 2+} and Ce{sup 3+} cations also reveal, but to a lesser

  1. Ruthenium(II) alpha-Diimine Complexes with One, Two, and Three 4,4'-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine and 4,4'-Bis(chloromethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine Ligands: Useful Starting Materials for Further Derivatization.

    Collins, James E.; Lamba, Jaydeep J. S.; Love, J. Christopher; McAlvin, John E.; Ng, Christina; Peters, Benjamin P.; Wu, Xufeng; Fraser, Cassandra L.


    Although Ru(II) tris(bipyridine) complexes and related alpha-diimine analogues find wide use in chemistry, many common ligand and metal complex derivatives are difficult to synthesize. The halomethyl bpy ligands and their inert metal complexes are one such example. These compounds are desirable since they serve as useful starting materials for a variety of more elaborate derivatives. Although 4,4'-bis(halomethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine ligands readily chelate to labile metal ions, they are not compatible with the higher temperatures and polar solvents typically required to effect ligand substitution at more inert Ru centers. Alternate routes to these targets involving solvento and other substitution labile intermediates yield products, but yields are typically low due to difficulties in purification. This report describes a new route to Ru(II) halomethyl bpy complexes involving chelation of the more robust 4,4'-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine, bpy(CH(2)OH)(2), followed by conversion to the corresponding chloromethyl species on the metal using oxalyl chloride and DMF in THF or CH(3)CN solution. This new "OH to Cl" methodology is demonstrated for Ru(II) complexes with two, four, and six functionalities with both bpy and phen ancillary ligands. Complexes of the general formula [L(n)()Ru{bpy(CH(2)X)(2)}(3)(-)(n)()](PF(6))(2) (L = bpy, phen; X = OH, Cl; n = 0-2) have been prepared in good yield and are conveniently purified by precipitation. These Ru alpha-diimine complexes have already been utilized as multifunctional metalloinitiators for controlled cationic and radical polymerizations. They promise to be valuable for bpy derivatization generally.

  2. Voltammetry and in situ scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of osmium, iron, and ruthenium complexes of 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine covalently linked to Au(111)-electrodes

    Salvatore, Princia; Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper


    prepared in situ by first linking the terpy ligand to the surface via the S-atom, followed by addition of suitable metal compounds. The metal-terpy SAMs were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy with full electrochemical potential control of substrate and tip (in...... of the metal coordination spheres induced voltammetric sharpening. In situ STM images of single molecular scale strong structural features were observed for the osmium and iron complexes. As expected from the voltammetric patterns, the surface coverage was by far the highest for the Ru-complex which...

  3. Coordination of dibensothiophenes and corannulenes to organometallic ruthenium (II) fragments

    Vecchi, Paul Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This dissertation contains five papers in the format required for journal publication which describe (in part) my research accomplishments as a graduate student at Iowa State University. This work can be broadly categorized as the binding of weakly-coordinating ligands to cationic organometallic ruthenium fragments, and consists of two main areas of study. Chapters 2-4 are investigations into factors that influence the binding of dibenzothiophenes to [Cp'Ru(CO)2(+ fragments, where Cp' = η5-C5H5 (Cp) and η5-C5Me5 (Cp*). Chapters 5 and 6 present the synthesis and structural characterization of complexes containing corannulene buckybowls that are η6-coordinated to [Cp*Ru(+ fragments. The first chapter contains a brief description of the difficulty in lowering sulfur levels in diesel fuel along with a review of corannulene derivatives and their metal complexes. After the final paper is a short summary of the work herein (Chapter 7). Each chapter is independent, and all equations, schemes, figures, tables, references, and appendices in this dissertation pertain only to the chapter in which they appear.

  4. Synthesis and coordination chemistry of tridentate (PNN) amine enamido phosphine ligands with ruthenium.

    Wambach, T C; Lenczyk, C; Patrick, B O; Fryzuk, M D


    Tridentate amine-imine-phosphine ligands, R2PC5H7NC2H4NEt2 [(R)PNN(H)], where R = Pr(i) or Bu(t) are synthesized using a straightforward protocol of condensation, deprotonation, and addition of a chlorodialkylphosphine. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy shows the ligands exist exclusively in the enamine tautomeric form in solution. Treating these ligands with RuHCl(PPr(i)3)2(CO) forms the desired coordination compounds, RuHCl[(R)PNN(H)](CO), where the imine tautomeric form of the ligands coordinates to ruthenium. Deuterium labelling experiments show Ru-H/N-D scrambling occurs during ligand coordination. Treating the RuHCl[(R)PNN(H)](CO) precursors with potassium tert-butoxide allows for the synthesis of two new ruthenium enamido-phosphine complexes, RuH[(R)PNN](CO), which were fully characterized. The structure of one of the derivatives was confirmed by X-ray crystallography (R = Pr(i)). The reactivity of the enamido-phosphine complexes with H2 and benzyl alcohol is also reported. For the enamido phosphine complex where R = Pr(i), the reaction with H2 is reversible and forms (RuH(CO)[(Pri)PNN(H)])2(μ-H)2, a hydride-bridged dimer that results from cooperative activation of H2. The reactivity of both amine-enamido-phosphine ruthenium compounds with benzyl alcohol establishes that the complexes are catalyst precursors for acceptorless dehydrogenation (AD), although the turnover frequencies measured using both catalyst precursors are modest.

  5. Topoisomerase IIα poisoning and DNA double-strand breaking by chiral ruthenium(ii) complexes containing 2-furanyl-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives.

    Qian, Chen; Wu, Jingheng; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui


    Four chiral Ru(ii) complexes bearing furan ligands, Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(pocl)](2+) () and Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(poi)](2+) () (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, pocl = 2-(5-chlorofuran-2-yl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, poi = 2-(5-5-iodofuran-2-yl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), were synthesized and characterized. These Ru(ii) complexes showed antitumor activities against HeLa, A549, HepG2, HL-60 and K562 tumor cell lines, especially the HL-60 tumor cell line. Moreover, was more active than other complexes accounting for the different cellular uptakes. In addition, could accumulate in the nucleus of HL-60 cells, suggesting that nucleic acids were the cellular target of . Topoisomerase inhibition tests in vitro and in living cells confirmed that the four complexes acted as efficient topoisomerase IIα poisons, DNA double-strand breaks had also been observed from neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells through the induction of apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by the Alexa Fluor® 488 annexin V staining assays. The results demonstrated that acted as a topoisomerase IIα poison and caused DNA double-strand damage that could lead to apoptosis.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of arene ruthenium(II) complexes [(η⁶-RC₆H₅)Ru(m-MOPIP)Cl]Cl (R = -H and -CH₃) as groove binder to c-myc G4 DNA.

    Wu, Qiong; Chen, Tianfeng; Zhang, Zhao; Liao, Siyan; Wu, Xiaohui; Wu, Jian; Mei, Wenjie; Chen, Yanhua; Wu, Weili; Zeng, Lingli; Zheng, Wenjie


    Two arene Ru(II) complexes coordinated by 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)imidazole[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, [(η(6)-RC6H5)Ru(m-MOPIP)Cl]Cl (R = H, ; R = CH3, 2), have been prepared under microwave irradiation; the crystal structure of 2 exhibits a typical "piano stool" conformation, with bond angles for N1-Ru1-Cl1 86.02 (14)° and N2-Ru1-Cl1 84.51 (14)°. The Ru-C distance for the Ru atom bound to the benzene ring is about 0.2178(8) nm, and the average Ru-N distance for Ru atom to the two chelating N atoms is about 0.2092(4) nm. The evaluation of in vitro anticancer activities revealed that these synthetic Ru(II) complexes selectively inhibited the growth of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, with low cytotoxicity toward LO2 human normal liver cells. The results demonstrated that the complexes exhibited great selectivity between human cancer and normal cells by comparing with the ligand m-MOPIP. Furthermore, complexes 1 and 2 could bind to c-myc G4 DNA in groove binding mode in promising affinity, and the insertion of the methyl groups in the arene ligand contributed to strengthen the binding affinity. This was also confirmed by molecular docking calculation and (1)H NMR analysis which showed that both 1 and 2 can bind in the loop constructed by A6-G9 and G21-A25 base pairs in c-myc G4 DNA to block the replication of c-myc oligomer. Taken together, these results suggest that arene Ru(II) complexes display application potential as small molecule inhibitors of c-myc G4 DNA.

  7. Sulphur-bridged ruthenium-molybdenum complexes: [(R-aapm)2Ru(-S)2 Mo(OH)2]. Synthesis, spectroscopic and electro-chemical characterization. R-aapm = 2-(arylazo)pyrimidine

    Prithwiraj Byabartta


    The reaction of ctc-[Ru(R-aapm)2Cl2] (1) with (NH4)2MoS4 in aqueous MeOH afforded redviolet mixed ligand complexes of the type [(R-aapm)2Ru(-S)2Mo(OH)2] (2a-2e) [R-aapm = 2-(arylazo) pyrimidine, -R-C6H4-N=N-C4H3NN, R = H (2a), Me (2b), Cl (2c), OMe (2d), NO2 (2e)]. In complexes (2a-2e) the terminal Mo=S bonds of the MoS$_{4}^{2-}$ unit get hydroxylated and the molybdenum ion is reduced from the starting MoVI in MoS$_{4}^{2-}$ to MoIV in the final product. The solution electronic spectra exhibit a strong MLCT band at 550-570 nm in DCM. The 1H NMR spectra confirms the geometry of the complexes as being that of cis-trans-cis isomers. Cyclic voltammograms show a Ru(III)/Ru(II) couple at 1.10-1.4 V, irreversible Mo(IV)/Mo(V) oxidations in the 1.66-1.72 V range, along with four successive reversible ligand reductions in the range -0.45-0.67 V (one electron), -0.82-1.12 V (one electron), -1.44-1.90 V (simultaneously two electrons).

  8. Nonproductive events in ring-closing metathesis using ruthenium catalysts.

    Stewart, Ian C; Keitz, Benjamin K; Kuhn, Kevin M; Thomas, Renee M; Grubbs, Robert H


    The relative TONs of productive and nonproductive metathesis reactions of diethyl diallylmalonate are compared for eight different ruthenium-based catalysts. Nonproductive cross metathesis is proposed to involve a chain-carrying ruthenium methylidene. A second more-challenging substrate (dimethyl allylmethylallylmalonate) that forms a trisubstituted olefin product is used to further delineate the effect of catalyst structure on the relative efficiencies of these processes. A steric model is proposed to explain the observed trends.

  9. Ruthenium-catalyzed C-C coupling of fluorinated alcohols with allenes: dehydrogenation at the energetic limit of β-hydride elimination.

    Sam, Brannon; Luong, Tom; Krische, Michael J


    Ruthenium(II) complexes catalyze the CC coupling of 1,1-disubstituted allenes and fluorinated alcohols to form homoallylic alcohols bearing all-carbon quaternary centers with good to complete levels of diastereoselectivity. Whereas fluorinated alcohols are relatively abundant and tractable, the corresponding aldehydes are often not commercially available because of their instability.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of a series of binuclear and trinuclear ruthenium and palladium complexes based on a new bridging ligand containing terpyridyl and catechol binding sites

    Whittle, B.; Everest, N.S.; Howard, C.; Ward, M.D. [Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom)


    The ligand 4{prime}-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine (L{sup 2}), containing a terpyridyl binding site and a masked catechol binding site, was prepared by a standard Kroehnke-type synthesis. From this the complexes [Ru(terpy)-(L{sup 2})][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (1) and [Ru(L{sup 2}){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (2), containing one and two dimethoxyphenyl substituents, were prepared: demethylation with BBr{sub 3} afforded [Ru(terpy)(H{sub 2}L{sup 1})][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (3) and [Ru(H{sub 2}L{sup 1}){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (4), respectively, which have one or two free catechol binding sites pendant from the [Ru(terpy){sub 2}]{sup 2+} core. Binuclear complexes (based on 3) and trinuclear complexes (based on 4) were then prepared by attachment of other metal fragments at the catechol sites. In [Ru(terpy)({mu}-L{sup 1})Ru(bipy){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3} (5) and [Ru({mu}-L{sup 1}){sub 2}(Ru(bipy){sub 2}){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 4} (6) the pendant (Ru(bipy){sub 2}(O-O)){sup n+} sites (O-O = catecholate, n = 0; o-benzosemiquinone, n = 1; o-benzoquinone, n = 2) are redox active and may be reversibly interconverted between the three oxidation levels. In [Ru(terpy)({mu}-L{sup 1})Pd(bipy)][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (7), [Ru({mu}-L{sup 1}){sub 2}(Pd(bipy)){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (8), [Ru(terpy)({mu}-L{sup 1})Pd(4,4{prime}-{sup t}Bu{sub 2}-bipy)][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (9), and [Ru({mu}-L{sup 1}){sub 2}(Pd(4,4{prime}-{sup t}Bu{sub 2}-bipy)){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} (10) the pendant (Pd(bipy)(catecholate)) fragments are known to be photocatalysts for production of {sup 1}O{sub 2} in their own right. Electrochemical and UV/vis studies were performed on all complexes and consistently indicate the presence of interactions between the components in 5-10. The EPR spectrum of 6 (which contains two semiquinone radicals) shows that the two spins are coupled by an exchange interaction.

  11. Quantifying the DNA binding characteristics of ruthenium based threading intercalator Λ Λ -P with optical tweezers

    Bryden, Nicholas; McCauley, Micah; Westerlund, Fredrik; Lincoln, Per; Rouzina, Ioulia; Williams, Mark; Paramanathan, Thayaparan

    Utilizing optical tweezers, biophysics researchers have been able to study drug-DNA interactions on the single molecule level. Binuclear ruthenium complexes are a particular type of drug molecule that have been found to have potential cancer-fighting qualities, due to their high binding affinity and low dissociation rates. These complexes are threading intercalators, meaning that they must thread their bulky side chains through DNA base pairs to allow the central planar moiety to intercalate between the bases. In this study, we explored the binding properties of the binuclear ruthenium complex, ΛΛ -P (ΛΛ -[µ-bidppz(phen)4Ru2]4+) . A single DNA molecule is held at a constant force and the ΛΛ -P solution introduced to the system in varying concentrations until equilibrium is reached. DNA extension data at various concentrations of ΛΛ -P recorded as a function of time provide the DNA binding kinetics and equilibrium binding affinity. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ΛΛ -P exhibits fast binding kinetics compared to the very similar ΔΔ -P. These complexes have the same chemical structure and only differ in their chirality, which suggests that the left handed (ΛΛ) threading moieties require less DNA structural distortion for threading compared with the right handed (ΔΔ) threading moieties.

  12. Ru-OSO coordination photogenerated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate.

    Phillips, Anthony E; Cole, Jacqueline M; d'Almeida, Thierry; Low, Kian Sing


    The photoinduced O-bound coordination mode in RuSO(2) complexes, previously observed only at 13 K, has been generated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate. This coordination state, often denoted MS1, decays to the η(2)-bound MS2 state, with an estimated half-life of 3.4(8) h and a long-lived population of 2.9(4)% at 120 K.

  13. Tandem amine and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol.

    Rezayee, Nomaan M; Huff, Chelsea A; Sanford, Melanie S


    This Communication describes the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol via tandem catalysis with dimethylamine and a homogeneous ruthenium complex. Unlike previous examples with homogeneous catalysts, this CO2-to-CH3OH process proceeds under basic reaction conditions. The dimethylamine is proposed to play a dual role in this system. It reacts directly with CO2 to produce dimethylammonium dimethylcarbamate, and it also intercepts the intermediate formic acid to generate dimethylformamide. With the appropriate selection of catalyst and reaction conditions, >95% conversion of CO2 was achieved to form a mixture of CH3OH and dimethylformamide.

  14. The electronic spectrum of cryogenic ruthenium-tris-bipyridine dications in vacuo

    Xu, Shuang; Smith, James E. T.; Weber, J. Mathias


    We report the electronic spectrum of the prototypical ruthenium coordination complex Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy = 2, 2'-bipyridine) by messenger tagging with N2 in a cryogenic ion trap and photodissociation spectroscopy of mass selected Ru(bpy)32+ ṡ N2 ions. We observe individual electronic bands and groups of bands with unprecedented detail, particularly in the usually unresolved metal-to-ligand charge transfer region of the spectrum. By comparing our experimental results with time-dependent density functional theory, both with and without spin-orbit interaction [Heully et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 184308 (2009)], we are able to assign the spectrum of the isolated ion.

  15. Design of a Free-Ruthenium In2S3 Crystalline Photosensitized Solar Cell

    Byeong Sub Kwak; Younghwan Im; Misook Kang


    A new type of sulfide-based, solid-state dye material that is sensitive to visible radiation was assessed as a potential replacement for commercial ruthenium complex dyes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) assembly. The In2S3 crystals on the surface of the TiO2 bottom blocking layer were grown as a solid-state dye material. Scanning electron microscopy of In2S3 revealed a microsized, 3D-connected sheet-like shape, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction to be a beta-structure. The efficie...

  16. Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed Regioselective Ortho Amidation of Imidazo Heterocycles with Isocyanates.

    Shakoor, S M Abdul; Kumari, Santosh; Khullar, Sadhika; Mandal, Sanjay K; Kumar, Anil; Sakhuja, Rajeev


    Direct ortho amidation at the phenyl ring of 2-phenylimidazo heterocycles with aryl isocyanates has been achieved via a chelation-assisted cationic ruthenium(II) complex catalyzed mechanism. The methodology provides a straightforward, high-yielding regioselective approach toward the synthesis of an array of ortho-amidated phenylimidazo heterocycles without prior activation of C(sp(2))-H. This also reports the first method for coupling of aryl isocyanates with the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine system via a pentacyclometalated intermediate. The methodology is found to be easily scalable and could be applied toward the selective ortho amidation of 2-heteroarylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine frameworks.

  17. Olefin Metathesis With Ruthenium-Arene Catalysts Bearing N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands

    Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    In this chapter, we summarize the main results of our investigations on the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene catalyzed by various ruthenium (Ru)-arene complexes bearing imidazolin-2-ylidene, imidazolidin- 2-ylidene, or triazolin-5-ylidene ligands. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, we underscored the intervention of a photochemical activation step due to visible light illumination. Second, we established that the presence of an endocyclic double bond in the carbene ligand central heterocycle was not crucial to achieve high catalytic efficiencies. Third, we demonstrated that ortho-metallation of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand by the Ru center led to inactive catalysts.

  18. Sulfur-containing trinuclear arene ruthenium clusters

    Tschan, Mathieu; Therrien, Bruno; Chérioux, Frédéric; Süss-Fink, Georg


    The single-crystal X-ray structure analyses of [HRu3(C6H6)(C6Me6)2(μ3-SC6H4Me)(μ2-O)][BF4]2 ([1][BF4]2), [HRu3(C6H6)(C6Me6)2(μ3-SC6H4Me)(μ2-S)][PF6]2 ([2][PF6]2) and [H2Ru3(1,2,4,5-Me4C6H2)3(μ2-S)(Cl)]PF6([3][PF6]) are presented. The structures show the sulfur ligands to act as bridges between ruthenium atoms. In [1][BF4]2 and [2][PF6]2 the metallic core adopts a nido framework. However, in [3][PF6] the absence of a μ3-SR ligand combined with the presence of one terminal chloro unit gives ris...

  19. Structural evolution of small ruthenium cluster anions

    Waldt, Eugen [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Ahlrichs, Reinhart [Institute für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kappes, Manfred M.; Schooss, Detlef, E-mail: [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The structures of ruthenium cluster anions have been investigated using a combination of trapped ion electron diffraction and density functional theory computations in the size range from eight to twenty atoms. In this size range, three different structural motifs are found: Ru{sub 8}{sup −}–Ru{sub 12}{sup −} have simple cubic structures, Ru{sub 13}{sup −}–Ru{sub 16}{sup −} form double layered hexagonal structures, and larger clusters form close packed motifs. For Ru{sub 17}{sup −}, we find hexagonal close packed stacking, whereas octahedral structures occur for Ru{sub 18}{sup −}–Ru{sub 20}{sup −}. Our calculations also predict simple cubic structures for the smaller clusters Ru{sub 4}{sup −}–Ru{sub 7}{sup −}, which were not accessible to electron diffraction measurements.

  20. Ruthenium oxide films for selective coatings

    Morales-Ortiz, Ulises; Hugo Lara C., V. [Depto. Quimica, Area Electroquimica, U.A.M. Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila-Garcia, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, CINVESTAV del I.P.N., Ap. Postal 14-740, Mexico 07360, D.F. (Mexico)


    Although commercial selective surfaces are already available, investigation on different deposition methods and materials still goes on at many laboratories. In this work, ruthenium oxide films upon metallic substrates are assessed for this usage. Deposition of the films was made at room temperature by either spraying or dipping method in a ruthenium chloride alcoholic solution. After deposited on titanium substrates, the films were heat-treated at temperatures between 450 and 500{sup o}C. When deposited on no-polished substrates, such films not only exhibit a high solar absorptance ({alpha}{approx}0.98), but also a high infrared emittance ({epsilon}{approx}0.8), which yield a low selectivity (S={alpha}/{epsilon}=1.2). By deposition of similar films on polished substrates, absorptance decreases ({alpha}{approx}0.74), but emittance significantly decreases as well ({epsilon}{approx}0.12), resulting in a net selectivity increase (S{approx}6). On the other hand, evaporating a thin ({approx}20nm) gold film upon the surface of a coating on a no-polished substrate also improves noticeably its emittance value ({epsilon}{approx}0.16) and a lower decrease in absorptance is achieved ({alpha}{approx}0.91), resulting in a selectivity increase (S{approx}5.7). These preliminary promising results indicate the high potential for using these films as solar selective coatings, but in order to optimize such selectivity values, further work to establish a close control on the deposition parameters and the substrate roughness value, should be done. (author)

  1. Isomeric ruthenium terpyridine complexes [Ru(trpy)(L)Cl]n+ containing the unsymmetrically bidentate acceptor L=3-amino-6-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine. Synthesis, structures, electrochemistry, spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    Patra, Srikanta; Sarkar, Biprajit; Ghumaan, Sandeep; Patil, Mahendra P; Mobin, Shaikh M; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar


    The isomeric title complexes were obtained in almost equimolar ratio from the reaction of Ru(trpy)Cl3 and L. Crystal structure analyses of the perchlorate hemihydrates, electrochemical and spectroscopic (NMR, UV/VIS, EPR) studies, supported by DFT calculations, reveal distinct differences between the isomeric redox series [1]n+(tetrazine-Nt trans to Cl) and [2]n+(pyrazolyl-Np trans to Cl; n= 0, 1, 2). The latter system with the pi acceptors trpy and tetrazine in the equatorial plane and the pyrazolyl and chloride donors in the axial positions exhibits facilitated oxidation, lower energy MLCT transitions, more balanced chelate coordination, and a higher g anisotropy in the oxidised (RuIII) state. According to partially resolved EPR spectra of one-electron reduced neutral compounds and they have the unpaired electron predominantly in the tetrazine ring of L.

  2. Ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts featuring unsymmetrical N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Paradiso, Veronica; Bertolasi, Valerio; Costabile, Chiara; Grisi, Fabia


    New ruthenium Grubbs' and Hoveyda-Grubbs' second generation catalysts bearing N-alkyl/N-isopropylphenyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with syn or anti backbone configuration were obtained and compared in model olefin metathesis reactions. Different catalytic efficiencies were observed depending on the size of the N-alkyl group (methyl or cyclohexyl) and on the backbone configuration. The presence of an N-cyclohexyl substituent determined the most significant reactivity differences between catalysts with syn or anti phenyl groups on the backbone. In particular, anti catalysts proved highly efficient, especially in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of encumbered diolefins, while syn catalysts showed low efficiency in the RCM of less hindered diolefins. This peculiar behavior, rationalized through DFT studies, was found to be related to the high propensity of these catalysts to give nonproductive metathesis events. Enantiopure anti catalysts were also tested in asymmetric metathesis reactions, where moderate enantioselectivities were observed. The steric and electronic properties of unsymmetrical NHCs with the N-cyclohexyl group were then evaluated using the corresponding rhodium complexes. While steric factors proved unimportant for both syn and anti NHCs, a major electron-donating character was found for the unsymmetrical NHC with anti phenyl substituents on the backbone.

  3. Anodic deposition of hydrous ruthenium oxide for supercapacitors

    Hu, Chi-Chang; Liu, Ming-Jue; Chang, Kuo-Hsin

    This communication demonstrates the success in the anodic deposition of hydrous ruthenium oxide (denoted as RuO 2· xH 2O) from RuCl 3· xH 2O in aqueous media with/without adding acetate ions (CH 3COO -, AcO -) as the complex agent. The benefits of as-deposited RuO 2· xH 2O include the low electron-hopping resistance and the low contact resistance at the Ti-RuO 2· xH 2O interface which are clarified in electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) studies. The cycling stability, specific capacitance, and power performance of as-deposited RuO 2· xH 2O are further improved by annealing in air at 150 °C for 2 h. The morphologies of as-deposited and annealed RuO 2· xH 2O films, examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), are very similar to that of thermally decomposed RuO 2. The high onset frequencies of 660 and 1650 Hz obtained from EIS spectra for the as-deposited and annealed RuO 2· xH 2O films, respectively, definitely illustrate the high-power merits of both oxide films prepared by means of the anodic deposition without considering the advantages of its simplicity, one-step, reliability, low cost, and versatility for electrode preparation.

  4. Efficient Energy Transfer in Supramolecular, Hydrogen-Bonded Polypyridylruthenium-Osmium Complexes

    Rau, Sven; Schäfer, Bernhard; Schebesta, Sebastian; Grüßing, André; Poppitz, Wolfgang; Walther, Dirk; Duati, Marco; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.


    Hydrogen bond association between ruthenium bibenzimidazole and carboxylated polypyridylosmium complexes results in stable supramolecular aggregates. The determined stability constant of logK approximate to 6 +/- 0.3 allows efficient energy transfer from the ruthenium to the osmium moiety. (C) Wiley

  5. Iridium-Doped Ruthenium Oxide Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Narayan, Sri R.; Billings, Keith J.


    NASA requires a durable and efficient catalyst for the electrolysis of water in a polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) cell. Ruthenium oxide in a slightly reduced form is known to be a very efficient catalyst for the anodic oxidation of water to oxygen, but it degrades rapidly, reducing efficiency. To combat this tendency of ruthenium oxide to change oxidation states, it is combined with iridium, which has a tendency to stabilize ruthenium oxide at oxygen evolution potentials. The novel oxygen evolution catalyst was fabricated under flowing argon in order to allow the iridium to preferentially react with oxygen from the ruthenium oxide, and not oxygen from the environment. Nanoparticulate iridium black and anhydrous ruthenium oxide are weighed out and mixed to 5 18 atomic percent. They are then heat treated at 300 C under flowing argon (in order to create an inert environment) for a minimum of 14 hours. This temperature was chosen because it is approximately the creep temperature of ruthenium oxide, and is below the sintering temperature of both materials. In general, the temperature should always be below the sintering temperature of both materials. The iridium- doped ruthenium oxide catalyst is then fabricated into a PEM-based membrane- electrode assembly (MEA), and then mounted into test cells. The result is an electrolyzer system that can sustain electrolysis at twice the current density, and at the same efficiency as commercial catalysts in the range of 100-200 mA/sq cm. At 200 mA/sq cm, this new system operates at an efficiency of 85 percent, which is 2 percent greater than commercially available catalysts. Testing has shown that this material is as stable as commercially available oxygen evolution catalysts. This means that this new catalyst can be used to regenerate fuel cell systems in space, and as a hydrogen generator on Earth.

  6. Is the ruthenium analogue of compound I of cytochrome p450 an efficient oxidant? A theoretical investigation of the methane hydroxylation reaction.

    Sharma, Pankaz K; De Visser, Sam P; Ogliaro, François; Shaik, Sason


    High-valent metal-oxo complexes catalyze C-H bond activation by oxygen insertion, with an efficiency that depends on the identity of the transition metal and its oxidation state. Our study uses density functional calculations and theoretical analysis to derive fundamental factors of catalytic activity, by comparison of a ruthenium-oxo catalyst with its iron-oxo analogue toward methane hydroxylation. The study focuses on the ruthenium analogue of the active species of the enzyme cytochrome P450, which is known to be among the most potent catalysts for C-H activation. The computed reaction pathways reveal one high-spin (HS) and two low-spin (LS) mechanisms, all nascent from the low-lying states of the ruthenium-oxo catalyst (Ogliaro, F.; de Visser, S. P.; Groves, J. T.; Shaik, S. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 2874-2878). These mechanisms involve a bond activation phase, in which the transition states (TS's) appear as hydrogen abstraction species, followed by a C-O bond making phase, through a rebound of the methyl radical on the metal-hydroxo complex. However, while the HS mechanism has a significant rebound barrier, and hence a long lifetime of the radical intermediate, by contrast, the LS ones are effectively concerted with small barriers to rebound, if at all. Unlike the iron catalyst, the hydroxylation reaction for the ruthenium analogue is expected to follow largely a single-state reactivity on the LS surface, due to a very large rebound barrier of the HS process and to the more efficient spin crossover expected for ruthenium. As such, ruthenium-oxo catalysts (Groves, J. T.; Shalyaev, K.; Lee, J. In The Porphyrin Handbook; Biochemistry and Binding: Activation of Small Molecules, Vol. 4; Kadish, K. M., Smith, K. M., Guilard, R., Eds.; Academic Press: New York, 2000; pp 17-40) are expected to lead to more stereoselective hydroxylations compared with the corresponding iron-oxo reactions. It is reasoned that the ruthenium-oxo catalyst should have larger turnover

  7. Studying the effect of Ruthenium on High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloys and Determining the Universal Behavior of Ruthenium at Atomic Scale with respect to alloying elements, Stress and Temperature

    Sriswaroop Dasari


    Full Text Available Any property of a material is a function of its microstructure and microstructure is a function of material composition. So, to maximize the desired properties of a material, one has to understand the evolution of microstructure which in turn is nothing but the reflection of the role of alloying elements. Research has not been done to understand the universal behavior of a certain base/alloying element. Let’s take the example of Cl- ion in HCl, we all know that in general, chloride ion can only be replaced by Fluoride or oxygen ion and that no other ion can replace it. But when you consider a metal like Ni, Co, Cr, Fe etc. there is no establishment that it behaves only in a certain way. Though I concord to the fact that discovery of universal behavior of Ni is lot complex than chloride ion, I think that future research should be focused in this direction also. Superalloys are the candidate materials required to improve thermal efficiency of a gas turbine by allowing higher turbine inlet gas temperatures. Gas turbines are the heart of local power systems, next generation jet engines and high performance space rockets. Recent research in superalloys showed that addition of some alloying elements in minor quantities can result in drastic change in properties. Such an alloying element is Ruthenium (Ru. Addition of Ruthenium to superalloys has shown improvement in mechanical properties by an order of magnitude. However reasons for such improvement are not known yet. Hence, there is a need to identify its role and discover the universal behavior of ruthenium to utilize it efficiently. In this proposal, we study materials with different compositions that are derived based on one ruthenium containing superalloy, and different thermomechanical history. Based on the evolution of microstructures and results of mechanical testing, we plan to determine the exact role of Ruthenium and prediction of its behavior with respect to other elements in the material

  8. Disposable biosensor based on cathodic electrochemiluminescence of tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) for uric acid determination

    Ballesta-Claver, J.; Rodríguez-Gómez, R. [ECsens, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Campus Fuentenueva, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Capitán-Vallvey, L.F., E-mail: [ECsens, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Campus Fuentenueva, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    Highlights: ► Cathodic ECL offers conventional and non-aggressive analysis conditions. ► The ECL hydrogen peroxide/ruthenium complex system for uric acid determination is novel. ► The ruthenium complex is electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed electrodes. ► The quantification of the uric acid is based on a Stern–Volmer type equation. ► The use of the cathodic ECL working methodology reduces interferences during analysis. -- Abstract: A new method for uric acid (UA) determination based on the quenching of the cathodic ECL of the tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)–uricase system is described. The biosensor is based on a double-layer design containing first tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}) electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed cells and uricase in chitosan as a second layer. The uric acid biosensing is based on the ECL quenching produced by uric acid over the cathodic ECL caused by immobilized Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} in the presence of uricase. The use of a −1.1 V pulse for 1 s with a dwelling time of 10 s makes it possible to estimate the initial enzymatic rate, which is used as the analytical signal. The Stern–Volmer type calibration function shows a dynamic range from 1.0 × 10{sup −5} to 1.0 × 10{sup −3} M with a limit of detection of 3.1 × 10{sup −6} M and an accuracy of 13.6% (1.0 × 10{sup −4} M, n = 5) as relative standard deviation. Satisfactory results were obtained for urine samples, creating an affordable alternative for uric acid determination.

  9. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad


    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  10. Solvation structure around ruthenium(II tris(bipyridine in lithium halide solutions

    Ida Josefsson


    Full Text Available The solvation of the ruthenium(II tris(bipyridine ion ([Ru(bpy3]2+ is investigated with molecular dynamics simulations of lithium halide solutions in polar solvents. The anion distribution around the [Ru(bpy3]2+ complex exhibits a strong solvent dependence. In aqueous solution, the iodide ion forms a solvent shared complex with [Ru(bpy3]2+, but not in the other solvents. Between Cl– and [Ru(bpy3]2+, the strong hydration of the chloride ion results in a solvent separated complex where more than one solvent molecule separates the anion from the metal center. Hence, tailored solvation properties in electrolytes is a route to influence ion-ion interactions and related electron transfer processes.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis and physicochemical properties of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles

    Dikhtiarenko, A., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Khainakov, S.A.; Garcia, J.R.; Gimeno, J. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Pedro, I. de; Fernandez, J. Rodriguez [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Blanco, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ruthenium nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average size of the nanoparticles are depend on the reducing agent used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic response seems to be dominated by a paramagnetic contribution characteristic of the band electronic magnetism of the ruthenium(0) nanoparticles. - Abstract: The synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles in hydrothermal conditions using mild reducing agents (succinic acid, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate) is reported. The shape of the nanoparticles depends on the type of the reducing agent, while the size is more influenced by the pH of the medium. The magnetic response seems to be dominated by a paramagnetic contribution characteristic of the band electronic magnetism of the nanoparticles.

  12. Ruthenium complexes as inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase-1

    Traven, Katja; Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Sersen, Sara; Kljun, Jakob; Bezensek, Jure; Stanovnik, Branko; Turel, Iztok; Dekker, Frans


    Lipoxygenases metabolize polyunsaturated fatty acids into signalling molecules such as leukotrienes and lipoxins, which play a regulatory role in several inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis. Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1)

  13. Preparation and assessment of [{sup 99m}Tc]technetium aquacarbonyl complexes with 1,2-diaminoethane-N-substituted ligands for tumor detection; Preparo e avaliacao de complexos de [{sup 99m}Tc]tecnecio aquacarbonil com ligantes 1,2-diaminoetano-N-substituidos para deteccao de tumores

    Radin, Adriano


    Over least 15 years the complex [[{sup 99m}Tc](H{sub 2}0){sub 3}(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} has been used as an intermediary to obtain technetium radiopharmaceuticals for applications in cardiology, neurology and oncology. Two important characteristics of this molecule are: the facility for obtaining that compound from aqueous solutions and the easiness of substituting H{sub 2}O molecules by atoms of other ligand molecules. In this project we prepared new complexes [[{sup 99m}Tc](CMN{sup S001-3})(H{sub 2}O)(CO){sub 3}]{sup +}, where (CMNS001) = N-[(4-methoxy) benzyl]-1,2-diaminoethane, (CMNS003) = N,N'-bis-[(4-methoxy)benzyl]-1,2-diaminoethane, and assessed the uptake of these complexes in murine melanoma cancer cell B16F10 and breast cells MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231, and compared with [[{sup 99m}](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} uptake. In vitro uptake for both new technetium complex reached values close to 5%, for all cell lines, whereas the [[{sup 99m}Tc](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} uptake was close to 1 %. The assessment of subcellular distribution showed high accumulation of the new complex in the membrane fraction, for MDAMB-231, while for B16F10 accumulation occurred both in membrane and cytoplasm; the concentration of [[{sup 99m}Tc](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} was mainly in the cytoplasm portion. Biodistribution study in mice allowed to observe the capture of up to 1.6% of the administered dose per gram of tumor tissue for the complex [[{sup 99m}Tc](CMNS001)(H{sub 2}O)(CO){sub 3}]{sup +}, whereas other organs such as heart, lung and muscle, showed uptake of about 5.6%, 6.4% and 2%, respectively. The complexes in this work showed a high rate of uptake in vitro, but was not reproduced in vivo model, which can be related to low concentration of the complexes inside the cells and reduced vascularity of tumor tissue, with lower intake of complex through the blood system. (author)

  14. Evaluation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed with Poly-L-Lysine; Avaliacao da marcacao de celulas-tronco mesenquimais de cordao umbilical com nanoparticulas superparamagneticas de oxido de ferro recobertas com Dextran e complexadas a Poli-L-Lisina

    Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Mamani, Javier Bustamante; Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Cardenas, Walter Humberto; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel, E-mail: [Instituto do Cerebro - InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miyaki, Liza Aya Mabuchi [Faculdade de Enfermagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto [Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Daniela Mara de [Universidade de Brasilia - UnB, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the labeling of umbilical cord vein derived mesenchymal stem cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed to a non-viral transfector agent transfector poly-L-lysine. Methods: The labeling of mesenchymal stem cells was performed using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran complexed and not complexed to poly-L-lysine. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran was incubated with poly-L-lysine in an ultrasonic sonicator at 37 deg C for 10 minutes for complex formation superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine by electrostatic interaction. Then, the mesenchymal stem cells were incubated overnight with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran. After the incubation period the mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by internalization of the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran by Prussian Blue stain. Cellular viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by cellular proliferation assay using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester method and apoptosis detection by Annexin V- Propidium Iodide assay. Results: mesenchymal stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/ dextran without poly-L-lysine not internalized efficiently the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to its low presence detected within cells. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine efficiently internalized the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to greater presence in the cells interior. The viability and apoptosis assays demonstrated that the mesenchymal stem cells labeled and not labeled respectively with the superparamagnetic iron oxide

  15. Kinetic, mechanistic and spectral investigation of ruthenium (III)-catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate (stopped-flow technique)

    Rahamatalla M Mulla; Gurubasavaraj C Hiremath; Sharanappa T Nandibewoor


    Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0.30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry (atenolol : KMnO4). The reaction shows first-order dependence on [permanganate] and [ruthenium (III)] and apparently less than unit order on both atenolol and alkali concentrations. Reaction rate decreases with increase in ionic strength and increases with decreasing dielectric constant of the medium. Initial addition of reaction products does not affect the rate significantly. A mechanism involving the formation of a complex between catalyst and substrate has been proposed. The active species of ruthenium (III) is understood as [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of mechanism are calculated. Activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the mechanism are computed and discussed and thermodynamic quantities are also calculated.

  16. Chiral induction effects in ruthenium(II) amino alcohol catalysed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones: an experimental and theoretical approach

    Petra; Reek; Handgraaf; Meijer; Dierkes; Kamer; Brussee; Schoemaker; van Leeuwen PW


    The enantioselective outcome of transfer hydrogenation reactions that are catalysed by ruthenium(II) amino alcohol complexes was studied by means of a systematically varied series of ligands. It was found that both the substituent at the 1-position in the 2-amino-1-alcohol ligand and the substituent at the amine functionality influence the enantioselectivity of the reaction to a large extent: enantioselectivities (ee values) of up to 95% were obtained for the reduction of acetophenone. The catalytic cycle of ruthenium(II) amino alcohol catalysed transfer hydrogenation was examined at the density functional theory level. The formation of a hydrogen bond between the carbonyl functionality of the substrate and the amine proton of the ligand, as well as the formation of an intramolecular H...H bond and a planar H-Ru-N-H moiety are crucially important for the reaction mechanism. The enantioselective outcome of the reaction can be illustrated with the aid of molecular modelling by the visualisation of the steric interactions between the ketone and the ligand backbone in the ruthenium(II) catalysts.

  17. A new electrochemical sensor containing a film of chitosan-supported ruthenium: detection and quantification of sildenafil citrate and acetaminophen

    Delolo, Fabio Godoy; Rodrigues, Claudia; Silva, Monize Martins da; Batista, Alzir Azevedo, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Lab. de Estrutura e Reatividade de Compostos Inorganicos; Dinelli, Luis Rogerio [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal; Delling, Felix Nicolai; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Lab. de Cristalografia Estereodinamica e Modelagem Molecular


    This work presents the construction of a novel electrochemical sensor for detection of organic analytes, using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a chitosan-supported ruthenium film. The ruthenium-chitosan film was obtained starting from the mer-[RuCl{sub 3}(dppb)(H{sub 2}O)] complex as a [1,4-bis(diphenylphosphine)butane] (dppb) precursor, and chitosan (QT). The structure of the chitosan-supported ruthenium film on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The glassy carbon electrode was modified with a film formed from the evaporation of 5 μL of a solution composed of 5 mg chitosan-supported ruthenium (RuQT) in 10 mL of 0.1 mol L{sup -1} acetic acid. The modified electrode was tested as a sensor for sildenafil citrate (Viagra® 50 mg) and acetaminophen (Tylenol®) detection. The technique utilized for these analyses was differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH 1.0) and 0.1 mol L{sup -1} CH{sub 3}COOK (pH 6.5) as supporting electrolyte. All analyses were carried out during a month using the same electrode. The electrode was washed only with water in between the analyses, keeping it in the refrigerator when it was not in use. This electrode was stable during the period utilized showing no degradation and presenting a linear response over the evaluated concentration interval (1.25 × 10{sup -5} to 4.99 × 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}). (author)

  18. Reaction mechanisms of ruthenium tetroxide mediated oxidations of organic compounds

    Froehaug, Astrid Elisabeth


    This thesis reports a study of the mechanism of ruthenium tetroxide mediated oxidations of saturated hydrocarbons, ethers, alkenes and alcohols. Several methods were used. The RuO{sub 4}-mediated oxidations of adamantane and cis-decalin were studied in CCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 3}CN-H{sub 2}O and in acetone-water. The rate of reaction was found to be moderately influenced by the polarity of the solvent. Solvent properties other than the polarity were also found to influence the reaction rates. From the oxidations of adamantane and adamantane-1,3,5,7-d{sub 4} two primary kinetic deuterium isotope effects were found. These were comparable with the deuterium isotope effects found for the analogous oxidations of cis-decalin and cis-decalin-d{sub 18}. The results seem to exclude both a one step hydride abstraction reaction mechanism and a one step concerted mechanism, as well as a scheme where two such mechanisms compete. The observations may be explained by a two step reaction mechanism consisting of a pre-equilibrium with formation of a substrate-RuO{sub 4} complex followed by a concerted rate determining reaction. The RuO{sub 4}-mediated oxidation of ethers was of kinetic second order with a small enthalpy of activation and a large negative entropy of activation. Oxidation of cyclopropylmethyl methyl ether gave methyl cyclopropanecarboxylate, no rearranged products were observed. On RuO{sub 4} oxidations in CCl{sub 4} with NaIO{sub 4} as stoichiometric oxidant, no chlorinated products were observed. Several observations not in agreement with a hydride or a hydrogen abstraction mechanism may be explained by assuming that the reaction proceeds by either a concerted reaction or by a reversible oxidative addition of the ether to RuO{sub 4} followed by a slow concerted step. 228 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Towards a rational design of ruthenium CO2 hydrogenation catalysts by Ab initio metadynamics.

    Urakawa, Atsushi; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Hutter, Jürg; Baiker, Alfons


    Complete reaction pathways relevant to CO2 hydrogenation by using a homogeneous ruthenium dihydride catalyst ([Ru(dmpe)2H2], dmpe=Me2PCH2CH2PMe2) have been investigated by ab initio metadynamics. This approach has allowed reaction intermediates to be identified and free-energy profiles to be calculated, which provide new insights into the experimentally observed reaction pathway. Our simulations indicate that CO2 insertion, which leads to the formation of formate complexes, proceeds by a concerted insertion mechanism. It is a rapid and direct process with a relatively low activation barrier, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Subsequent H2 insertion into the formate--Ru complex, which leads to the formation of formic acid, instead occurs via an intermediate [Ru(eta2-H2)] complex in which the molecular hydrogen coordinates to the ruthenium center and interacts weakly with the formate group. This step has been identified as the rate-limiting step. The reaction completes by hydrogen transfer from the [Ru(eta2-H2)] complex to the formate oxygen atom, which forms a dihydrogen-bonded Ru--HHO(CHO) complex. The activation energy for the H2 insertion step is lower for the trans isomer than for the cis isomer. A simple measure of the catalytic activity was proposed based on the structure of the transition state of the identified rate-limiting step. From this measure, the relationship between catalysts with different ligands and their experimental catalytic activities can be explained.

  20. Simple and Efficient Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Primary Alcohols with Molecular Oxygen.

    Ray, Ritwika; Chandra, Shubhadeep; Maiti, Debabrata; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar


    Oxidative transformations utilizing molecular oxygen (O2 ) as the stoichiometric oxidant are of paramount importance in organic synthesis from ecological and economical perspectives. Alcohol oxidation reactions that employ O2 are scarce in homogeneous catalysis and the efficacy of such systems has been constrained by limited substrate scope (most involve secondary alcohol oxidation) or practical factors, such as the need for an excess of base or an additive. Catalytic systems employing O2 as the "primary" oxidant, in the absence of any additive, are rare. A solution to this longstanding issue is offered by the development of an efficient ruthenium-catalyzed oxidation protocol, which enables smooth oxidation of a wide variety of primary, as well as secondary benzylic, allylic, heterocyclic, and aliphatic, alcohols with molecular oxygen as the primary oxidant and without any base or hydrogen- or electron-transfer agents. Most importantly, a high degree of selectivity during alcohol oxidation has been predicted for complex settings. Preliminary mechanistic studies including (18) O labeling established the in situ formation of an oxo-ruthenium intermediate as the active catalytic species in the cycle and involvement of a two-electron hydride transfer in the rate-limiting step.