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Sample records for ruth alas maaja

  1. Interrelationship of organizational culture with organizational characteristics : the grounds for typology / Maaja Vadi, Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vadi, Maaja, 1955-

    2006-01-01

    Organisatsiooni suuruse ja tegevusvaldkonna seotusest organisatsioonikultuuri orientatsioonide avaldumisega ning võimalikest seaduspärasustest, mis on väljendatavad organisatsioonikultuuri tüüpidena. Tabelid. Skeemid

  2. The employees' attitudes and their connections with the organisational culture in the process of change in the Estonian organisations / Ruth Alas, Maaja Vadi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2006-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtetes läbi viidud küsitlusuuringu tulemustest selgus, et tugev organisatsioonikultuur on üleminekumajanduse tingimustes suurendanud töötajate valmisolekut muutusteks ning avaldanud positiivset mõju muudatuste läbiviimisele organisatsioonis. Tabelid. Skeemid

  3. Strateegiad konkurentsieelise saavutamiseks / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    1999-01-01

    Personalijuhtimise strateegia: väärtuste loomise ahel, parima säästlikkuse saavutamine, TQM, kvaliteedi ja innovaatilisuse saavutamine. Tabelid. Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti, nr. 4, 1999, lk. 39-45

  4. Parteide sisekultuur kui edu valem? / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Euroopa kultuuripealinnaks saamisel uuris Estonian Business School (EBS) Eesti organisatsioonide kultuuri. Autori hinnangul oleks huvitav valimiseelses olukorras sama metoodikat rakendada ka meie parteide sisekultuuri hindamisel

  5. Changes in Estonian organisations / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2003-01-01

    Kaanel ajak. ilmumisaeg 2002/2003. Autor teeb ülevaate organisatsiooniliste muudatuste tüüpe käsitlevatest teooriatest, analüüsib Eesti ettevõtetes läbiviidud empiirilise uuringu tulemusi ümberkorraldusprotsesside kohta ja tutvustab Eesti ettevõtlusele sobivat 4-astmelist organisatsiooniliste muutuste mudelit. Tabelid. Skeem

  6. Requisite competencies of the e-leader / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2001-01-01

    Kaanel ajak. ilmumisaeg Winter 2001/2002. Interneti-ajastu juhid peavad ära kasutama töötajate kompetentsi ja oskusi, ettevõtluses on määrav kiirus, tarbijakesksus, avatus, oskus koostööd teha

  7. Kultuurne ellujäämisgiid firmadele / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2002-01-01

    Autor tutvustab Edgar H. Scheini raamatut "The corporate culture survival guide", milles õpetatakse organisatsioonikultuuri mõistma ning vajadusel muutma. Lisa: Näide küsimustest, mida tuleb esitada, et jõuda selgusele nende baasarusaamade osas, millel põhinevad organisatsioonis valitsevad suhted

  8. The Book of Ruth in the time of the Judges and Ruth, the Moabitess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Villiers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses two issues in the Book of Ruth that have not yet received much scholarly attention: why is the narrative plotted in the time of the judges, whilst the time of narration dates to the postexilic period, and why is one of the protagonists Ruth, the Moabitess, whilst the law in Deuteronomy 23:3�4 (HB 4�5 clearly forbids the presence of Moabitess and Ammonites in the community of YHWH? A suggestion is made that a possible explanation to both these questions may be found in tensions regarding Israel�s identity in the Second Temple period. Two different yet not completely opposite viewpoints are illuminated: that of the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah who envisioned an exclusive Israel that is construed along genealogical and religious lines, and that of the Book of Ruth where solidarity with the people of Israel and the worship of YHWH are embraced by foreigners. Both sides are concerned about the identity of Israel and loyalty to YHWH, yet they employ a different jargon in order to argue for the inclusion or exclusion of foreigners. Furthermore, Ezra and Nehemiah consider mixed marriages as a serious threat to Israel�s identity, and they justify the expulsion of foreign wives on the basis of the Book of Moses. According to the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses interpreted the Torah for the children of Israel at Mount Nebo in Moab: Moab thus functioned as an interpretive space for the Torah. The Book of Ruth proposes an alternative interpretation of the Torah, also from the plains of Moab and the exegesis comes in the person of Ruth, the Moabitess.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article challenges the point of view that the Book of Ruth is a charming narrative of loyalty and love. Research reveals that this Book is a polemic document and its main contribution is to the intradisciplinary field of biblical hermeneutics that requests a re-interpretation of texts for changing circumstances.

  9. Ruth Tulving : poslednjaja babotshka dlja Narvõ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti päritolu kanada kunstniku hetegevusmissioonist Narvas. Alates 1993. aastast on Ruth Tulving külastanud Narvat kunstiloengute, õpikodade ja kunstikingitustega. Sel aastal lõpetab Tulving oma missiooni pannoo "Liblikas" kinkimisega Joala koolile

  10. Connections between corporate social responsibility and innovation climate / Ülle Übius, Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Übius, Ülle

    2009-01-01

    Innovatsioonikeskkonna ja korporatiivse sotsiaalse vastutuse kahe aspekti vaheliste seoste uuringust, mis viidi läbi Eesti, Hiina, Saksamaa, Soome, Tšehhi, Slovakkia ja Jaapani elektrilis-elektrooniliste masinate jaemüügi ning masinaehitusega tegelevates ettevõtetes. Tabelid, skeem

  11. Implementation of Organizational Changes in Chinese Companies / Wei Sun, Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sun, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Põhja-Hiina 160 ettevõttes läbi viidud uuringu alusel analüüsitakse organisatsioonilisi muutusi, nende mõju ja vastumõju, taustaks institutsionaliseerumise olulised etapid Hiina ajaloos. Lisa: Tabelid

  12. Leadership style as determinant of creativity profiles in Estonian organizations / Ruth Alas, Krista Tuulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2004-01-01

    Eesti organisatsioonides aastatel 2001-2003 projekti GLOBE raames läbi viidud empiirilise juhiuuringu tulemuste analüüs. Uuringu käigus selgitati välja, kuidas alluvad tajuvad oma juhte, keda eestlased peavad suurepäraseks juhiks, milliseid isiksuseomadusi ning käitumist omab karismaatiline juht. Definitsioonid: innovatsioon, loovus, juhtimine, eestvedamine ja väärtushinnangud. Diagrammid, tabelid

  13. Geographies of Memory: Ruth Beckermann's Film Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Remmler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available How might we view the films by the Jewish Austrian filmmaker, Ruth Beckermann through the lens of the prose by the late German writer W.G. Sebald? The archival and, at the same time, haunting prose of Sebald's works such as The Emigrants or Austerlitz bears a close resemblance to the work of memory that Beckermann's films begs us to do. By focusing on particular spaces of remembrance in Beckermann's films in comparison to Sebald's similar practice of intermeshing historical and individual memories, this essay explores how the gendered construction of cultural memory takes place through transcultural encounters with those deemed as Other. Even as locations in Beckermann's films—a living room, the interior of a train passing through Vienna, a cold and sterile exhibit space, or a dream-like landscape—exist in reality, Beckermann's situating of memory in them, creates other, more compelling encounters between the living and the dead. The gendering of memory sites in Beckermann's films creates an alternative to the more elegiac images that are conjured in Sebald's textual and visual spaces of remembrance.

  14. Ruth Rendell and Barbara Vine – family matters

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, F

    2017-01-01

    This article traces themes and preoccupations that work across Ruth Rendell’s work, writing both as Rendell and also as Barbara Vine. It investigates the ways in which the\\ud use of a pseudonym allows her to delve deeper into areas that she also explores as Rendell – the dysfunctional family and heredity, both in relation to physical disease and the fruitless search for origins, the latter discussed by her through the lens of Freudian psychoanalysis.

  15. Leadership Characters in the Book of Ruth: A Narrative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article delineates a ground work for shaping Christian leadership characters by examining the book of Ruth, a narrative of coop­eration. First, we introduce the general Biblical wisdom, guidance, and religious precepts on leadership characters from the Bible per se. Second, we depict a synopsis and connotation of the Ruth Narrative combined with the historical background of the late Judges time when Naomi, Elimelech, Ruth and Boaz lived and the social and religious background of Moab where the family of Elimelech dwelt in for ten years. Third, based on those background analyses, the main figures’ dialogues, and their actions, we illustrate their positive servant and mentor leadership characters that include a combination of their distinguished traits and cognitive attributes, as well as some weaknesses of Naomi and Elimelech. In a nutshell, Nao­mi’s leadership characters contain loyalty to God (2:19 – 20, discovering value within (3:1 – 4, and patience and endurance (3:18. Ruth’s leadership characters incorporate faithfulness and positive self-esteem (1:16 – 17, pioneer and daring (2:2, deference (2:10, obedience (3:5, and lov­ing-kindness (3:10. Boaz’s leadership characters include respect (2:4, care (2:5, compassion (2:8 – 9, 11, empowerment (2:15 – 16, leaning on and trusting God (2:12, care (2:14; 3:15, protecting the weak (3:10 – 15, responsibility (3:12, moral integrity and justness (3:13, carefulness (3:14, formation (4:1, unselfishness and cleverness (4:3 – 5, and part­nering (4:9 – 10. While we criticize Elimelech’s risk seeking strategy to migrate their family to a pagan country (1:1 – 2 as a spiritual adventure.

  16. Wie se grond koop Boas (Rut 4:9)?/Whose land did Boaz buy (Ruth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the laws and customs in the times of the judges, however, a widow was not allowed to inherit land from her husband, and a woman was not allowed to own, buy or sell land. In this article the following possibilities are investigated: Either the writer of the Ruth narrative was so far removed from the time of Ruth ...

  17. Converging human resource management : A comparison between Estonian and Finnish HRM / Sinikka Vanhala, Tõnu Kaarelson, Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanhala, Sinikka

    2006-01-01

    Eesti ja Soome personalijuhtimise strateegiate ja trendide võrdleva uuringu tulemusi vaadeldakse EU-15 hõlmanud rahvusvahelise personalijuhtimise uuringu Cranet tulemuste taustal. Tabelid, diagrammid

  18. Sotsiaalne vastutus Eesti moodi : firma maksab, omanik võtab aupaiste? / Külliki Tafel, Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tafel, Külliki

    2006-01-01

    Väljavõtteid intervjuudest, mis viidi läbi Estonian Business Schooli ja Tuleviku-uuringute Instituudi poolt korraldatud sotsiaalse vastutuse uuringu raames. Lisa: EBSi ja Tuleviku-uuringute Instituudi uuring

  19. Characterization of d-boroAla as a Novel Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Agent Targeting d-Ala-d-Ala Ligase

    OpenAIRE

    Putty, Sandeep; Rai, Aman; Jamindar, Darshan; Pagano, Paul; Quinn, Cheryl L.; Mima, Takehiko; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Gutheil, William G.

    2011-01-01

    d-boroAla was previously characterized as an inhibitor of bacterial alanine racemase and d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzymes [Duncan, K., et al Biochemistry 1989, 28:3541–9]. In the present study, d-boroAla was identified and characterized as an antibacterial agent. d-boroAla has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, with MICs down to 8 µg/mL. A structure-function study on the alkyl side chain (NH2-CHR-B(OR’)2) revealed that d-boroAla is the most effective agent in a series ...

  20. Queere Lesarten des Buchs Ruth und der Schöpfungsberichte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hügel, K.; Rohn, H.; Scheer, L.; Zenz, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    The author offers queer readings of two selected texts from the Hebrew Bible, namely ways of reading the Book of Ruth and the two accounts of creation in the Book of Genesis. Her discussion of this biblical story and the creation accounts shows the diversity of possible queer interpretations based

  1. Ruth Benedictová v Československu (léto 1948)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáčková, Patricie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2015), s. 257-279 ISSN 0009-0794 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Ruth Benedict * UNESCO seminary in Poděbrady in 1948 * method of the research of national character at a distance Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  2. J. Randvere Ruth ja Otto Weiningeri Geschlecht und Charakter / Mirjam Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Mirjam, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Naise kirjeldus J. Randvere "Ruthis" ja Otto Weiningeri "Geschlecht und Charakter'is". Andmed autori kohta lk. 202. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: J. Randvere "Ruth" 19.-20. sajandi vahetuse kultuuris / koost. Mirjam Hinrikus. Tallinn : Underi ja Tuglase Kirjanduskeskus, 2006, lk. 145-169

  3. Elaborating Naturalized Critical Realism: Response to Ruth Groff, Dave Elder-Vass, Daniel Little and Petri Ylikoski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidesoja Tuukka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reply to the discussions of Ruth Groff, Dave Elder-Vass, Daniel Little, and Petri Ylikoski of Tuukka Kaidesoja (2013: Naturalizing Critical Realist Social Ontology (London: Routledge.

  4. Photodynamic therapy using aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachor, Ruediger; Reich, Ella D.; Miller, Kurt; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1994-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a variety of cancers. Since no ideal photosensitizer is available yet, new photosensitizers are being sought. A new concept of PDT is the use of endogenous photosensitizers. ALA is a metabolite in heme synthesis. It is a precursor of protoporphyrin IX, a potent photosensitizer. After administration of ALA it is transformed by the cells to protoporphyrin IX. The goal of our study was to examine dark toxicity of ALA and its phototoxic potential in two different human cell lines.

  5. ALA glossary of library and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This fourth edition of ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science presents a thorough yet concise guide to the specific words that describe the materials, processes and systems relevant to the field of librarianship.

  6. Rezension zu: Ruth Ayaß: Kommunikation und Geschlecht. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Goll

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Ayaß gibt in der vorliegenden Einführung einen Überblick über den Forschungsstand und die wesentlichen Diskussionsstränge zum Thema Kommunikation und Geschlecht. Sie zeigt dabei, ob und wie sich männliche von weiblichen Gesprächstilen unterscheiden lassen und wie verschiedene Geschlechter erst interaktiv, nämlich durch kommunikative Prozesse, erzeugt werden. Der Band eignet sich hervorragend als Lehrbuch in soziologischen und sprachwissenschaftlichen Studiengängen, bietet aber auch für die konstruktivistische Genderforschung wichtige Anknüpfungspunkte.

  7. Towards understanding the tandem mass spectra of protonated oligopeptides. 2: The proline effect in collision-induced dissociation of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiholder, Christian; Suhai, Sándor; Harrison, Alex G; Paizs, Béla

    2011-06-01

    The product ion spectra of proline-containing peptides are commonly dominated by y(n) ions generated by cleavage at the N-terminal side of proline residues. This proline effect is investigated in the current work by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx includes Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp) in an electrospray/quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer and by quantum chemical calculations on protonated Ala-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala. The CID spectra of all investigated peptides show a dominant y(2) ion (Pro-Ala sequence). Our computational results show that the proline effect mainly arises from the particularly low threshold energy for the amide bond cleavage N-terminal to the proline residue, and from the high proton affinity of the proline-containing C-terminal fragment produced by this cleavage. These theoretical results are qualitatively supported by the experimentally observed y(2)/b(3) abundance ratios for protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp). In the post-cleavage phase of fragmentation the N-terminal oxazolone fragment with the Ala-Ala-Xxx sequence and Pro-Ala compete for the ionizing proton for these peptides. As the proton affinity of the oxazolone fragment increases, the y(2)/b(3) abundance ratio decreases.

  8. Between "Internal" and "External" Worlds - The Influence of the Owner on Intra-Organizational Relations and on Managerial Activities in Particular / Külliki Tafel, Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tafel, Külliki

    2006-01-01

    Tippjuhtide mõju organisatsioonisistele suhetele ning juhimistegevusele. Skeemid: The content and overlap of the terms of corporate governance and management; The theoretical framework for the study; The degree of involvement of the board of directors in the strategic management process; Framework for treatment of the owner-CEO-employee chain of relations

  9. Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  10. Ruth Kalda: peremeditsiinis saab patsiendi tervise heaks väga palju ära teha / küsitlenud Eli Lilles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Ruth, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Intervjuu peremeditsiini kliiniku juhataja prof Ruth Kalda 50. sünnipäeval. Ruth Kaldast räägivad: Anneli Rätsep, Elle-Mall Keevallik, Lehte Põder,Heidi- Ingrid Maaroos ja Marje Oona ning Mart Einasto ja Pärtel Piirimäe

  11. Ruth Sprenger: Die hohe Kunst der Herrenkleidermacher. Wien u.a.: Böhlau Verlag 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Lehnert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Sprenger stellt Geschichte und Praxis eines Meisterhandwerks für interessierte Laiinnen und Laien übersichtlich und mit reicher Bebilderung dar. Nach einem Überblick über die Geschichte der Eleganz des Gentleman werden detailliert die einzelnen Schritte des Maßnehmens, Entwerfens, Fertigens erläutert. Dabei wird klar, dass ein Anzug immer eine komplizierte Umgestaltung des männlichen Körpers zu einem von antiker Kunst inspirierten abstrakten Ideal von Nacktheit darstellt. Zu kurz kommt leider jegliche kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der Theorie der Mode, so dass das Resultat zwar sehr anschaulich, jedoch in systematischer Hinsicht für die Modeforschung wenig erhellend ist.Ruth Sprenger clearly depicts the history and practice of a masterly handicraft for interested laypeople and includes many illustrations. Following a survey of the history of the elegance of the gentleman, she elucidates and details the single steps of measurement, design, and completion. It becomes clear that a suit always represents a complicated reconfiguration of the male body to an abstract ideal of nudity inspired by antique art. Unfortunately any critical debate on the theory of art falls short so that the results are admittedly very demonstrative, however in systematical terms they are not all too insightful for fashion research.

  12. Ruth Flockart and Dr Wood: A Crucial Relationship in the Development of Melbourne Methodist Ladies' College Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the notion that particular working relationships within school music programs can have a significant affect on the program's development and progress. To explore this notion the research focussed on the working relationship of a music teacher at Melbourne Methodist Ladies' College (MLC), Ruth Flockart (1891-1985) and the…

  13. Surviving the Tremors: ALA in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson Library Bulletin, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Reports on the American Library Association (ALA) 1992 Annual Conference. Highlights include awards given; libraries' futures; bibliographic instruction; NREN (National Research and Education Network); telecommunications; lack of status in librarianship; proposed guidelines for patron behavior; interlibrary loan; the Americans with Disabilities…

  14. Gabriela Mistral's «Sonnets to Ruth»: The Consolation of Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard M. Fraser

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available As for many poets, the sonnet form presented the opportunity to Gabriela Mistral to perfect her poetic technique. This study examines in detail the Nobel Laureate's trio of sonnets commemorating the biblical matriarch Ruth. Mistral's treatment of the themes of alienation, self- sacrifice, and the search for human dignity features the contrasts of suffering and consolation which are present in the biblical narrative. But, alongside the thematic purposes which the pleasure/pain duality serves, Mistral exploits this opposition for technical and structural reasons. She uses the feelings of love and pain as an organizational device in her treatment of time, characters and diction. The discipline with which she handled traditional metres, in this case the sonnet, reveals that Mistral was a capable and mature poet at an early age.

  15. Engineering an ATP-dependent D-Ala:D-Ala ligase for synthesizing amino acid amides from amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Yuta; Okazaki, Seiji; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-05-01

    We successfully engineered a new enzyme that catalyzes the formation of D-Ala amide (D-AlaNH 2 ) from D-Ala by modifying ATP-dependent D-Ala:D-Ala ligase (EC 6.3.2.4) from Thermus thermophilus, which catalyzes the formation of D-Ala-D-Ala from two molecules of D-Ala. The new enzyme was created by the replacement of the Ser293 residue with acidic amino acids, as it was speculated to bind to the second D-Ala of D-Ala-D-Ala. In addition, a replacement of the position with Glu performed better than that with Asp with regards to specificity for D-AlaNH 2 production. The S293E variant, which was selected as the best enzyme for D-AlaNH 2 production, exhibited an optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 40 °C for D-AlaNH 2 production. The apparent K m values of this variant for D-Ala and NH 3 were 7.35 mM and 1.58 M, respectively. The S293E variant could catalyze the synthesis of 9.3 and 35.7 mM of D-AlaNH 2 from 10 and 50 mM D-Ala and 3 M NH 4 Cl with conversion yields of 93 and 71.4 %, respectively. This is the first report showing the enzymatic formation of amino acid amides from amino acids.

  16. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  17. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  18. The Imaginary Reconstitution of Society: Ruth Levitas and Utopia as Social Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pannozzo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to disclose British sociologist Ruth Levitas’s proposal regarding the thorny issue of the lack of consensus about the definition of the concept of utopia, a issue which, in the Levitas’s view, results in a widespread terminological confusion and in the omnipresent risk of arbitrary selection of the material. After an accurate analysis of the main theoretical and epistemological approaches on the topic, Levitas suggests an inclusive definition which would allow to cross the boundaries imposed by «restrictive» characterizations, for the purpose of creating a higher degree of agreement with regards to what may be included within the concept of "utopia". Too «limitative» definitions would instead lead to misleading conclusions about the destiny and the function of the utopian genre, among which the widespread belief that utopia is in decline or, even worse, definitively disappeared. Finally, Levitas suggests a «sociology of utopia» through an analysis of the correlations between the two form of knowledge, correlations which, in her view, has been repressed for decades.

  19. The comparison between LAC and ALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-heng Chiu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A good library association serves its members, improves the librarianship, and helps library institutions achieving their missions. This article describes the history, missions and goals, organization structure, membership, financial sources, professional activities, publication, and website of the Library Association of China (LAC and American Library Association (ALA, respectively. Considering social / cultural / political differences between Taiwan and the United Sates, the author then compares these two library associations from the eight factors mentioned above. At the end, suggestions for the LAC are proposed.[Article content in Chinese

  20. Jüri Ratas: tasulise parkimise ala suurendamine probleeme ei tekita / Jüri Ratas ; interv. Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ratas, Jüri, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna abilinnapea tasulise parkimise ala laiendamisest Tallinna kesklinnas ja sellega kaasnevatest võimalikest probleemidest. Kommenteerib Johannes Pirita. Kaart. Lisa: Rahvaalgatus sõdib tasulise parkimisega

  1. Handling a crisis via a combination of human initiative and godly direction: Insights from the Book of Ruth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Gallaher Branch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biblical text introduces Ruth, a Moabite woman, at a time of personal crisis. She faces destitution. Life has handed her multiple blows, amongst them widowhood and childlessness. Her single asset? Naomi, a cranky, elderly but endearing mother-in-law. Naomi, an Israelite and also widowed, is now quite determined to go home to Bethlehem. Ruth joins Naomi’s journey, but for Ruth it is a pilgrimage, for it is at this time that she switches allegiance from the gods of Moab to the God of Israel. As an immigrant facing change on every level – a new culture, a new religion, no friends and no job – Ruth nonetheless triumphs. Within only a couple of months, not only does she marry a prominent and prosperous bachelor, Boaz, but also wins the hearts of her mother-in-law’s friends, the women of Bethlehem. This analysis of her successful pilgrimage offers contemporary guidelines for facing dramatic changes. Using literary method, this article examines one of the Bible’s accounts of how a personal crisis is resolved via a combination of God’s providence and human initiative and courage. Die hantering van ’n krisis deur ’n kombinasie van menslike inisiatief en goddelike bestuur: Insigte uit die boek Rut. Die bybelse teks stel die leser voor aan Rut, ’n Moabitiese vrou, tydens ‘n persoonlike krisis in haar lewe. Sy is ’n weduwee, kinderloos en staar dus armoede in die gesig. Haar enigste pluspunt is Naomi, haar bejaarde, ietwat verbitterde dog innemende skoonmoeder. Naomi, ’n Israeliet en ook ’n weduwee, is vasbeslote om na haar huis in Betlehem terug te keer. Rut vergesel haar en dit word vir Rut ’n pelgrimstog na die God van Israel, weg van die afgode van Moab af. As immigrant wat ’n vreemde kultuur en godsdiens, ’n toekoms sonder vriende en werkloosheid moet verwerk, seëvier Rut uiteindelik. Sy trou binne ‘n paar maande met Boas, ’n prominente en welvarende vrygesel en wen ook die harte van haar skoonmoeder se

  2. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and localization after topical application of ALA pentyl ester and ALA on hairless mouse skin with UVB-induced early skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, J. T.; de Bruijn, H. S.; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G. M.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT), different ALA derivatives are presently being investigated. ALA esters are more lipophilic and therefore may have better skin penetration properties than ALA, possibly resulting in enhanced

  3. Characterization of the l-alanine exporter AlaE of Escherichia coli and its potential role in protecting cells from a toxic-level accumulation of l-alanine and its derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that the alaE gene of Escherichia coli encodes the l-alanine exporter AlaE. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the AlaE exporter. The minimum inhibitory concentration of l-alanine and l-alanyl-l-alanine in alaE-deficient l-alanine-nonmetabolizing cells MLA301ΔalaE was 4- and >4000-fold lower, respectively, than in the alaE-positive parent cells MLA301, suggesting that AlaE functions as an efflux pump to avoid a toxic-level accumulation of intr...

  4. Alpid, kiviktaimla sünnikodu / Terje Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Terje Alas Rehemaa aiandus- ja käsitöötalust vahendab muljeid Shveitsi alpi-botaanikaaiast Botanischer Garten Alpinum Schatzalp. Rajajateks Hans Lichtenhahn, Max ja Hans Frei. Nõuandeid alpiaia rajamiseks

  5. American Library Association (ALA no Second Life (SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richele Grenge Vignoli

    Full Text Available A American Library Association (ALA está inserida no contexto de Realidade Virtual (RV em 3D, por meio de sua atuação no Second Life (SL, com a ALA Island. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar o atendimento virtual a bibliotecários no SL; identificar produtos e serviços que a ALA oferece no SL e analisar sua infraestrutura. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada a análise documental, ação em que a ALA Island foi observada/explorada e estruturada em dados; e o questionário - enviado a uma bibliotecária da ALA Island. Os resultados demonstram que a atuação da ALA no SL tem como propósito central a divulgação de seus projetos, os eventos físicos e os virtuais e o apoio ao bibliotecário em sua vida profissional. A ALA está inserida em diversos recursos da Web 2.0, além do SL, como blogs, wikis, sites de relacionamento, entre outros. Toda a trajetória da ALA foi analisada, assim como as especificidades do seu trabalho realizado para os bibliotecários. Observou-se que o atendimento a bibliotecários no SL é realizado por meio de robôs e indicação de notecards e hiperlinks informativos. No SL, a ALA disponibiliza diversos serviços e produtos aos bibliotecários, como os relacionados com os escritórios, comitês e instituições, além dos serviços e produtos disponíveis no site e no escritório da ALA em Washington-DC e de seus representantes. Os recursos da ALA e do SL, assim como a inserção de bibliotecários em Realidade Virtual (RV precisam ser estudados por meio de pesquisas, para dinamizar e aproximar essa realidade desses profissionais.

  6. PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism reduces enzymatic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaogan; Wang Zhaoqi; Tong Weimin; Shen Yan

    2007-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) modifies a variety of nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and plays diverse roles in molecular and cellular processes. A common PARP1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 762, resulting in the substitution of alanine (Ala) for valine (Val) in the catalytic domain has been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. To characterize the functional effect of this polymorphism on PARP1, we performed in vitro enzymatic analysis on PARP1-Ala762 and PARP1-Val762. We found that PARP1-Ala762 displayed 57.2% of the activity of PARP1-Val762 for auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and 61.9% of the activity of PARP1-Val762 for trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of histone H1. The kinetic characterization revealed that the K m of PARP1-Ala762 was increased to a 1.2-fold of the K m of PARP1-Val762 for trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Thus, the PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism reduces the enzymatic activity of PARP1 by increasing K m . This finding suggests that different levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP1 might aid in understanding Cancer risk of carriers of the PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism

  7. Expression of the alaE gene is positively regulated by the global regulator Lrp in response to intracellular accumulation of l-alanine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Kohei; Sato, Kazuki; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Makino, Yumiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala. However, a reporter plasmid possessing a smaller alaE upstream region (180 nucleotides) yielded transformants with strikingly low enzyme activity under the same conditions. In contrast, lrp-deficient cells showed almost no β-galactosidase induction, indicating that Lrp positively regulates alaE expression. We next performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a DNase I footprinting assay using purified hexahistidine-tagged Lrp (Lrp-His). Consequently, we found that Lrp-His binds to the alaE upstream region spanning nucleotide -161 to -83 with a physiologically relevant affinity (apparent K D , 288.7 ± 83.8 nM). Furthermore, the binding affinity of Lrp-His toward its cis-element was increased by l-alanine and l-leucine, but not by Ala-Ala and d-alanine. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene expression of the alaE is regulated by Lrp in response to intracellular levels of l-alanine, which eventually leads to intracellular homeostasis of l-alanine concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo study of ALA PLGA nanoparticles-mediated PDT for treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-09-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer and its treatment is still a challenge. Although topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for treating in situ and superficial SCC, the effectiveness of topical ALA delivery to thick SCC can be limited by its bioavailability. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanopartieles (PLGA NPs) might provide a promising ALA delivery strategy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ALA PLGA NPs PDT for the treatment of cutaneous SCC in a mouse model. Methods: ALA loaded PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized. The therapeutic efficacy of ALA PLGA NP mediated PDT in treating UV-induced cutaneous SCC in the mice model were examined. Results: In vivo study showed that ALA PLGA NPs PDT were more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating mouse cutaneous SCC. Conclusion: ALA PLGA NPs provides a promising strategy for delivering ALA and treating cutaneous SCC.

  9. The final story on the ALA3/ALIS1 complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The final story on the ALA3/ALIS1 complex. Lisbeth R. Poulsena, Rosa L. López-Marquésa, Alexander Schultza, Stephen C. McDowellb, Juha Okkeric, Dirk Lichtc, Thomas Pomorskic,  Jeffrey F. Harperb, and Michael G. Palmgrena,1 aCentre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National......).              Through a database search we have previously identified five Cdc50p/Lem3p homologues in Arabidopsis (ALIS1-5 for ALA Interacting Subunit)..We investigated the capacity of ALA3, alone and in combination with expressed ALIS proteins, to functionally complement a battery of yeast mutants carrying deletions...... in endogenous P4-ATPases. Our results indicated that ALIS1 functions as a true ß-subunit for the Arabidopsis putative flippase ALA3, being required for ATP-dependent phospholipid transport and for genetic complementation of the yeast P4-ATPase gene Drs2, which is involved in vesicle budding from the late Golgi...

  10. Vanalinna, Kalaranna basseini ja Linnahalli vaheline ala / Villem Tomiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomiste, Villem, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Detailplaneeringu koostaja Tallinna Linnaplaneerimise Amet, konsultandid AB Kosmos ja K-Projekt. Projekti peamine eesmärk on tuua linn mere äärde. Selleks on loodud jalakäijate ala, kust voolavad läbi autoteed

  11. The Book of Ruth and Song of Songs in the First Hebrew Translation of The Taming of the Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Lily

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the earliest Hebrew rendition of a Shakespearean comedy, Judah Elkind’s מוסר סוררה musar sorera ‘The Education of the Rebellious Woman’ (The Taming of the Shrew, which was translated directly from the English source text and published in Berditchev in 1892. Elkind’s translation is the only comedy among a small group of pioneering Shakespeare renditions conducted in late nineteenth-century Eastern Europe by adherents of the Jewish Enlightenment movement. It was rooted in a strongly ideological initiative to establish a modern European-style literature in Hebrew and reflecting Jewish cultural values at a time when the language was still primarily a written medium on the cusp of its large-scale revernacularisation in Palestine. The article examines the ways in which Elkind’s employment of a Judaising translation technique drawing heavily on romantic imagery from prominent biblical intertexts, particularly the Book of Ruth and the Song of Songs, affects the Petruchio and Katherine plotline in the target text. Elkind’s use of carefully selected biblical names for the main characters and his conscious insertion of biblical verses well known in Jewish tradition for their romantic connotations serve to transform Petruchio and Katherine into Peretz and Hoglah, the heroes of a distinctly Jewish love story which offers a unique and intriguing perspective on the translation of Shakespearean comedy.

  12. Tornide väljaku müüriäärse ala tulevik endiselt ebaselge / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linna ja ehitusfirma Restor vaheline tüli linnamüüri äärse maa täisehitamise suhtes Suurtüki kvartalis pole lahendust leidnud. Linnaosavalitsus soovib müüri äärde parki ja tahab algatada ala detaiplaneeringut. Restoril on Plate ja Eppingi torni vahel ridaelamuboksid juba välja ehitatud

  13. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 Impairs Pollen Fitness and Alters the Pollen Tube Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C McDowell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7 results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions.

  14. Kampanye Pr Radio Ssfm “Assik Ala Ssfm”

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Jeffry Septian; Setiabudi, Djoko; Naryoso, Agus

    2013-01-01

    JUDUL : Kampanye PR Radio SSFM “Assik Ala SSFM”NAMA : Jeffry Septian PutraNIM : D2C607024ABSTRAKSIPersaingan radio saat ini semakin ketat, industri media siaran perlu memahamidan mengenali ekspektasi atau apa yang diinginkan para pendengar. Pengelola radioperlu strategi untuk mendapatkan perhatian dari para pendengarnya terlebih dari sisipemasaran yang akan memberikan dampak bagi kelancaran merebut perhatianpendengar. Untuk menciptakan strategi yang tepat dalam membuat mengelola radioagar tet...

  15. PPAR2Pro12Ala Polymorphism and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR is an important transcription factor regulating adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity. Numerous genetic mutations of PPAR have been identified and these mutations positively or negatively regulate insulin sensitivity. Among these, a relatively common polymorphism of PPAR, Pro12Ala of PPAR2, the isoform expressed only in adipose tissue has been shown to be associated with lower body mass index, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and resistance to the risk of type 2 diabetes in human subjects carrying this mutation. Subsequent studies in different ethnic populations, however, have revealed conflicting results, suggesting a complex interaction between the PPAR2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and environmental factors such as the ratio of dietary unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and/or between the PPAR2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and genetic factors such as polymorphic mutations in other genes. In addition, this polymorphic mutation in PPAR2 is associated with other aspects of human diseases, including cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, Alzheimer disease and aging. This review will highlight findings from recent studies.

  16. Characterization of the l-alanine exporter AlaE of Escherichia coli and its potential role in protecting cells from a toxic-level accumulation of l-alanine and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    We previously reported that the alaE gene of Escherichia coli encodes the l-alanine exporter AlaE. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the AlaE exporter. The minimum inhibitory concentration of l-alanine and l-alanyl-l-alanine in alaE-deficient l-alanine-nonmetabolizing cells MLA301ΔalaE was 4- and >4000-fold lower, respectively, than in the alaE-positive parent cells MLA301, suggesting that AlaE functions as an efflux pump to avoid a toxic-level accumulation of intracellular l-alanine and its derivatives. Furthermore, the growth of the alaE-deficient mutant derived from the l-alanine-metabolizing strain was strongly inhibited in the presence of a physiological level of l-alanyl-l-alanine. Intact MLA301ΔalaE and MLA301ΔalaE/pAlaE cells producing plasmid-borne AlaE, accumulated approximately 200% and 50%, respectively, of the [(3) H]l-alanine detected in MLA301 cells, suggesting that AlaE exports l-alanine. When 200 mmol/L l-alanine-loaded inverted membrane vesicles prepared from MLA301ΔalaE/pAlaE were placed in a solution containing 200 mmol/L or 0.34 μmol/L l-alanine, energy-dependent [(3) H]l-alanine accumulation occurred under either condition. This energy-dependent uphill accumulation of [(3) H]l-alanine was strongly inhibited in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone but not by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, suggesting that the AlaE-mediated l-alanine extrusion was driven by proton motive force. Based on these results, physiological roles of the l-alanine exporter are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Impact of charged amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of L-alanine exporter, AlaE, of Escherichia coli on the L-alanine export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli alaE gene encodes the L-alanine exporter, AlaE, that catalyzes active export of L-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. The transporter comprises only 149 amino acid residues and four predicted transmembrane domains (TMs), which contain three charged amino acid residues. The AlaE-deficient L-alanine non-metabolizing cells (ΔalaE cells) appeared hypersusceptible to L-alanyl-L-alanine showing a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 µg/ml for the dipeptide due to a toxic accumulation of L-alanine. To elucidate the mechanism by which AlaE exports L-alanine, we replaced charged amino acid residues in the TMs, glutamic acid-30 (TM-I), arginine-45 (TM-II), and aspartic acid-84 (TM-III) with their respective charge-conserved amino acid or a net neutral cysteine. The ΔalaE cells producing R45K or R45C appeared hypersusceptible to the dipeptide, indicating that arginine-45 is essential for AlaE activity. MIC of the dipeptide in the ΔalaE cells expressing E30D and E30C was 156 µg/ml and >10,000 µg/ml, respectively, thereby suggesting that a negative charge at this position is not essential. The ΔalaE cells expressing D84E or D84C showed an MIC >10,000 and 78 µg/ml, respectively, implying that a negative charge is required at this position. These results were generally consistent with that of the L-alanine accumulation experiments in intact cells. We therefore concluded that charged amino acid residues (R45 and D84) in the AlaE transmembrane domain play a pivotal role in L-alanine export. Replacement of three cysteine residues at C22, C28 (both in TM-I), and C135 (C-terminal region) with alanine showed only a marginal effect on L-alanine export.

  18. Studying the potential role of ALIS proteins on the functionality of ALA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Meffert, Katharina

    ). Recently we have identified five Cdc50p homologues in Arabidopsis [ALA Interacting Subunit (ALIS) 1 to 5] (1), and demonstrated that these ß-subunits are essential for the functioning of ALA3. We are currently working on a third Arabidopsis P4-ATPase isoform, ALA2. We have shown that this isoform...... is involved in specific translocation of phosphatidylserine analogues. Furthermore, we have found evidence that the substrate specificity is independent of the ß-subunit interacting with this P4-ATPase. ALA2 in combination with ALIS genes complement both the cold and the metal sensitive phenotype caused...... by lack of DRS2 in yeast. Tissue specific expression patterns of ALA2 and ALIS genes indicate that different ALIS isoforms may interact with ALA2 in diverse parts of the plant. At present we are studying the subcellular localization of ALA2 in planta in order to understand better its possible...

  19. A facile synthesis of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) regio-selectively labeled with 13C and direct observation of enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumaya, Katsuyuki; Okazaki, Takeo; Seido, Nobuo; Akasaka, Yuzuru; Kawajiri, Yoshiki; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Kondo, Masao

    1989-01-01

    δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), labeled with 13 C at position 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, was synthesized from 13 C-labeled glycine, Meldrum's acid, or bromoacetate. The latter compounds were prepared from 13 C-sodium acetate or 13 C-acetic acid. Enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG) was directly observed by 13 C-NMR. (author)

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors using δ-ALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, E. G.; Vladimirov, B. G.; Angelov, I. G.; Avramov, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (δ-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The δ-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system (Olimpus Corp.). Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer (USB4000, OceanOptics Inc.). The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Mucosa autofluorescence lies at 450-600 nm region. The fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced at the 630-710 nm region. Deep minima in the tumor fluorescence signals are observed in the region 540-575 nm, related to hemoglobin re-absorption. Such high hemoglobin content is an indication of the tumors neovascularisation and it is clearly pronounced in all dysplastic and tumor sites investigated. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of δ-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites and gives high contrast when lesion borders are determined from clinicians during video observation in the process of diagnostic procedure. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination results of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  1. Introducing ALAS: A Novel Agent-Oriented Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Vidaković, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages represent a family of programming languages that provide developers with high-level abstractions and constructs necessary for implementing and using agent-related concepts. In this paper a novel agent-oriented programming language for rapid and efficient development of reactive agents, named ALAS, is presented. The simple, but powerful set of language constructs is designed to support the execution of agents in heterogenous environments, and to enable easy employment of advanced agent features, such as mobility and web service integration.

  2. El derecho a la educación intercultural bilingüe: lucha e institucionalidad. Entrevista a Ruth Moya Torres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodríguez Caguana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Moya nos invitó a un mágico recorrido por su hogar en la ciudad de Quito, un escenario colmado de obras pictóricas y artesanales de alta calidad. Entre esas, hay algunas de su propia autoría. Sus cuadros nos recuerdan a las obras de la propia Frida Kahlo, donde la explosión de color, con retratos, plantas y animales, es un canto a la vida y una bella incursión por su biografía.   De este modo entramos en su sabiduría. Es una mujer con amplios conocimientos sobre historia y manifestaciones culturales de pueblos originarios de nuestra América. Sus narraciones, mientras nos enseñaba cada pintura y cada objeto de anticuario, daban cuenta de un dominio minucioso de mitos y leyendas. Al escucharla se producían excursiones, no solamente a través de sus discursos, sino de su atrapante mirada, espejo de un importante acumulado lingüístico, antropológico, pedagógico y artístico. No cabe duda de que mama Ruth, como la llaman sus estudiantes, tiene un especial gusto estético, porque, además, es una excelente artista plástica.

  3. Ruth Huimerind maailmaareenil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Kirjastuse Rockport Publishers teoses "1000 greetings" on trükitud 4 Huimerinna õnnitluskaarti, kaasautoriteks Jüri Lõun ja Jüri Kass. Jaapani kirjastuse Pie Books raamatus "Ideas Unbound : Unique Ideas Uniquely Expressed" on Huimerinna miniformaadis kutse eesti naiskeraamikute näitusele

  4. 5-ALA/PpIX fluorescence detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Vladimirov, Borislav; Terziev, Ivan; Ivanova, Radina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2009-07-01

    In the recent study delta-ALA/PpIX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus, stomach and colon. ALA is administered per os six to eight (depending on the lesion location) hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for the LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to re-absorption of oxy-hemoglobin in this spectral area. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence spectra are used to develop simple but effective algorithm, based on dimensionless ratio of the signals at 560 and 635 nm, for differentiation of normal/abnormal gastrointestinal tissues. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  5. Comparison of 18F-FET PET and 5-ALA fluorescence in cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeth, Frank Willi; Sabel, Michael; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Ewelt, Christian; Stummer, Walter; Felsberg, Joerg; Reifenberger, Guido; Stoffels, Gabriele; Langen, Karl-Josef; Coenen, Heinz Hubert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare presurgical 18 F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) uptake and Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) enhancement on MRI (Gd) with intraoperative 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence in cerebral gliomas. 18 F-FET positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 30 patients with brain lesions suggestive of diffuse WHO grade II or III gliomas on MRI. PET and MRI data were coregistered to guide neuronavigated biopsies before resection. After oral application of 5-ALA, 38 neuronavigated biopsies were taken from predefined tumour areas that were positive or negative for 18 F-FET or Gd and checked for 5-ALA fluorescence. 18 F-FET uptake with a mean tumour to brain ratio ≥1.6 was rated as positive. Of 38 biopsies, 21 corresponded to high-grade glioma tissue (HGG) of WHO grade III (n = 19) or IV (n = 2) and 17 biopsies to low-grade glioma tissue (LGG) of WHO grade II. In biopsies corresponding to HGG, 18 F-FET PET was positive in 86% (18/21), but 5-ALA and Gd in only 57% (12/21). A mismatch between Gd and 5-ALA was observed in 6 of 21 cases of HGG biopsy samples (3 Gd-positive/5-ALA-negative and 3 Gd-negative/5-ALA-positive). In biopsies corresponding to LGG, 18 F-FET was positive in 41% (7/17), while 5-ALA and Gd were negative in all but one instance. All tumour areas with 5-ALA fluorescence were positive on 18 F-FET PET. There are differences between 18 F-FET and 5-ALA uptake in cerebral gliomas owing to a limited sensitivity of 5-ALA to detect tumour tissue especially in LGG. 18 F-FET PET is more sensitive to detect glioma tissue than 5-ALA fluorescence and should be considered as an additional tool in resection planning. (orig.)

  6. Photodynamic Detection of Peritoneal Metastases Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Yonemura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, peritoneal metastasis (PM was considered as a terminal stage of cancer. From the early 1990s, however, a new comprehensive treatment consisting of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative chemotherapy has been established to improve long-term survival for selected patients with PM. Among prognostic indicators after the treatment, completeness of cytoreduction is the most independent predictors of survival. However, peritoneal recurrence is a main cause of recurrence, even after complete cytoreduction. As a cause of peritoneal recurrence, small PM may be overlooked at the time of cytoreductive surgery (CRS, therefore, development of a new method to detect small PM is desired. Recently, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD was developed for detection of PM. The objectives of this review were to evaluate whether PDD using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA could improve detection of small PM.

  7. Design rules for modulation doped AlAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoon Jang; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Kamburov, D.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    AlxGa1-xAs/AlAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells were grown with various barrier compositions ranging from x =0.26 to x =0.8. We investigate the modulation doping characteristics of the samples by magneto-transport measurements. The carrier concentration in the well peaks near the barrier alloy fraction of x =0.26 in the dark and near x =0.38 after illumination with a red LED. This behavior is consistent with the results in a separate study for AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells in the range of x =0.26 to x =1.0. We show from a charge transfer model that the calculated energy difference between the conduction band offset at the well interface and the donor energy level, ΔEC-ED, coincides for the two types of wells. This implies that, despite the differing positions of the conduction band minimum for the GaAs and AlAs wells, the doping of either well is governed by the electronic properties of the barrier. Based on this knowledge we designed high quality AlAs quantum wells with low (1 x 1011 cm-2) and high (3 x 1011 cm-2) density, and the magneto-transport data show clear signals of the fractional quantum Hall effect (2/3, 3/5, 4/7 for low density and 5/3, 8/5 for high density). Work supported by the NSF (Grants DMR-1305691, ECCS-1508925, and MRSEC DMR-1420541), the DOE Basic Energy Sciences (Grant DE-FG02-00-ER45841), the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (Grant GBMF4420), and the Keck Foundation.

  8. A facile synthesis of. delta. -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) regio-selectively labeled with sup 13 C and direct observation of enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurumaya, Katsuyuki; Okazaki, Takeo; Seido, Nobuo; Akasaka, Yuzuru; Kawajiri, Yoshiki; Kajiwara, Masahiro (Meiji College of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)); Kondo, Masao (Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-02-01

    {delta}-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), labeled with {sup 13}C at position 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, was synthesized from {sup 13}C-labeled glycine, Meldrum's acid, or bromoacetate. The latter compounds were prepared from {sup 13}C-sodium acetate or {sup 13}C-acetic acid. Enzymatic transformation from ALA to porphobilinogen (PBG) was directly observed by {sup 13}C-NMR. (author).

  9. Ex-vivo absorption study of lysine R-lipoate salt, a new pharmaceutical form of R-ALA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Francesco; Buccioni, Michela; Ben, Diego Dal; Lambertucci, Catia; Navia, Aleix Martí; Ngouadjeu Ngnintedem, Michael A; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Spinaci, Andrea; Volpini, Rosaria; Marucci, Gabriella

    2018-06-15

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) oral supplements were used in many pathologies associated with increased oxidative stress. Although only R-ALA is considered the biologically active form, R,S-ALA is used in therapeutic applications even showing poor water solubility. The aim of this work was to study the absorption and transport mechanism across the intestinal barrier of new R-ALA stable and water soluble form, consisting in the lysine R-ALA salt, in presence and absence of specific inhibitors of Na + /multivitamin (SMVT) and monocarboxylic acids (MCT). The absorption of a new ALA form was investigated at rat everted sacs in comparison with R-ALA, S-ALA, and R,S-ALA. Results showed that duodenum is the best portion of intestine for ALA forms absorption. The absorption percentage of R-ALA, S-ALA, R,S-ALA, and lysine R-ALA salt was 66%, 43%, 55%, and 70%, respectively. The modest effect of the SMVT inhibitor biotin demonstrated that this transporter system is not principally involved in the absorption of lysine R-lipoate salt across the rat intestinal barrier. On the contrary, the MCT inhibitor octanoic acid significantly reduced the transport of this salt, whit an absorption decrease of R-ALA and lysine R-lipoate salt of 28% and 24%, respectively. Since the highest concentration of these inhibitors did not completely inhibit the absorption of lysine R-lipoate salt, other transport mechanisms probably operate for its intracellular delivery. The new form of ALA, lysine R-lipoate salt, was the most absorbed respect to the other ALA forms demonstrating that this compound is more suitable for oral administration. This new salt could represent a promising candidate for ALA oral supplementation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. "When Does It Stop Being Peanut Butter?": FDA Food Standards of Identity, Ruth Desmond, and the Shifting Politics of Consumer Activism, 1960s-1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angie M

    This article uses a historical controversy over the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's standard of identity for peanut butter as a site for investigating three topics of high importance for historians of technology, consumption, and food activism: how new industrial food-processing technologies have become regulatory problems; how government, industry, and consumer actors negotiate standards development; and how laypeople try to shape technological artifacts in spaces dominated by experts. It examines the trajectory of consumer activist Ruth Desmond, co-founder of the organization the Federation of Homemakers. By following Desmond's evolving strategies, the article shows how the broader currents of the 1960s-70s consumer movement played out in a particular case. Initially Desmond used a traditional style that heavily emphasized her gendered identity, working within a grassroots organization to promote legislative and regulatory reforms. Later, she moved to a more modern advocacy approach, using adversarial legal methods to fight for consumer protections.

  11. Inducible l-Alanine Exporter Encoded by the Novel Gene ygaW (alaE) in Escherichia coli ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hatsuhiro; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Tobe, Ryuta; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Katsumata, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    We previously isolated a mutant hypersensitive to l-alanyl-l-alanine from a non-l-alanine-metabolizing Escherichia coli strain and found that it lacked an inducible l-alanine export system. Consequently, this mutant showed a significant accumulation of intracellular l-alanine and a reduction in the l-alanine export rate compared to the parent strain. When the mutant was used as a host to clone a gene(s) that complements the dipeptide-hypersensitive phenotype, two uncharacterized genes, ygaW and ytfF, and two characterized genes, yddG and yeaS, were identified. Overexpression of each gene in the mutant resulted in a decrease in the intracellular l-alanine level and enhancement of the l-alanine export rate in the presence of the dipeptide, suggesting that their products function as exporters of l-alanine. Since ygaW exhibited the most striking impact on both the intra- and the extracellular l-alanine levels among the four genes identified, we disrupted the ygaW gene in the non-l-alanine-metabolizing strain. The resulting isogenic mutant showed the same intra- and extracellular l-alanine levels as observed in the dipeptide-hypersensitive mutant obtained by chemical mutagenesis. When each gene was overexpressed in the wild-type strain, which does not intrinsically excrete alanine, only the ygaW gene conferred on the cells the ability to excrete alanine. In addition, expression of the ygaW gene was induced in the presence of the dipeptide. On the basis of these results, we concluded that YgaW is likely to be the physiologically most relevant exporter for l-alanine in E. coli and proposed that the gene be redesignated alaE for alanine export. PMID:21531828

  12. The importance of protoporphyrin IX efflux for ALA-PDT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanetto, M C; Imasato, H; Perussi, J R

    2009-01-01

    One of the major advances in PDT is the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce the production of an endogenous photosensitizer inside the cells using intracellular enzymatic pathways. ALA is the first intermediate in heme biosynthesis and a precursor of the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). When activated by light, this efficient photosensitizer accumulated in the target cells can produce cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to find the best conditions for cell killing using ALA to temporarily increase the concentration of PpIX in two cell lines. It was shown that a considerable efflux of synthesized PpIX occurs. Since this efflux is time-dependent, it is essential to know the optimum time for irradiation after ALA administration. So, the efflux of PpIX from the cells is an important parameter to be considered for ALA-PDT dosimetry

  13. Agentes Locales Ambientales (ALAs: Hacia la ciudad sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín-Herbert, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Any action aimed at improving the quality of life in a city through more sustainable urban models, based on a reference framework such as the Local Agenda 21 or the, calls for changes to its inhabitants' behaviour. The ALAs project drives this change by making the city's youngest inhabitants Leaders of Change. They involve others (school friends, family members, neighbours in direct action in their neighbourhood, making the community participate independently in improving the city’s sustainability and quality of life. To the sequence “awareness- raising - action - monitoring - motivation tools such as our Geographical Information System have been added to support the neighbourhood action strategy by monitoring its efficiency and its effectiveness at meeting targets.Partiendo de un marco de referencia, como la Agenda Local 21 (1 o la Carta de Leipzig (2, cualquier acción encaminada a una mejora en la calidad de vida de una ciudad a través de modelos urbanos más sostenibles, requiere una modificación en las conductas de sus habitantes. El proyecto ALAs, motiva este cambio a través del paso directo a la acción liderada por los más jóvenes a través del Sistema Educativo quien mediante un efecto multiplicador (compañeros, familiares, vecinos y a través de la acción directa en sus barrios, consigue fomentar la participación autónoma de la población en la mejora de la sostenibilidad (3y la calidad de vida de su ciudad. A la secuencia “concienciación - acción - medición - motivación se han incorporado herramientas como el GIS que apoyan la estrategia de acción en los barrios controlando su e! cacia y e! ciencia en la consecución de los objetivos.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma polymorphism Pro12Ala in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS of South Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raichel Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: PPARγ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism was supposed to be susceptible genes in PCOS. The present study demonstrated that there is a statistical difference between the distributions of PPAR gamma Pro12Ala polymorphism in South Indian Population.

  15. 5-ALA induced fluorescent image analysis of actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Jin; Bae, Youngwoo; Choi, Eung-Ho; Jung, Byungjo

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we quantitatively analyzed 5-ALA induced fluorescent images of actinic keratosis using digital fluorescent color and hyperspectral imaging modalities. UV-A was utilized to induce fluorescent images and actinic keratosis (AK) lesions were demarcated from surrounding the normal region with different methods. Eight subjects with AK lesion were participated in this study. In the hyperspectral imaging modality, spectral analysis method was utilized for hyperspectral cube image and AK lesions were demarcated from the normal region. Before image acquisition, we designated biopsy position for histopathology of AK lesion and surrounding normal region. Erythema index (E.I.) values on both regions were calculated from the spectral cube data. Image analysis of subjects resulted in two different groups: the first group with the higher fluorescence signal and E.I. on AK lesion than the normal region; the second group with lower fluorescence signal and without big difference in E.I. between two regions. In fluorescent color image analysis of facial AK, E.I. images were calculated on both normal and AK lesions and compared with the results of hyperspectral imaging modality. The results might indicate that the different intensity of fluorescence and E.I. among the subjects with AK might be interpreted as different phases of morphological and metabolic changes of AK lesions.

  16. Improve efficacy of topical ALA-PDT by calcipotriol through up-regulation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Chen, Jia-Haur; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Huang, Zheng; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chang, Junn-Liang; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2014-09-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (topical ALA-PDT) is effective for treating oral precancerous lesions. The aim of this in vivo and in vitro study was to examine whether the efficacy of topical ALA-PDT could be further improved by calcipotriol (CAL). Precancerous lesions in the buccal pouch of hamsters were induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Lesions were treated with multiple topical ALA-PDT with or without CAL pretreatment. ALA-induced protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) was monitored by in situ fluorescence measurement. The effect of CAL on heme-related enzymes (CPOX, PPOX, and FECH) were examined in an in vitro model using human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells (SCC4, SAS) using Western blots. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous epithelial cells of buccal pouch at 2.5 or 3.5h without or with CAL pretreatment, respectively. Both treatment regimens showed similar response rates, but the complete response was achieved after 5 times of ALA-PDT and 3 times of CAL-ALA-PDT (plevel. Topical CAL can improve the efficacy of ALA-PDT in treating precancerous lesions, likely through the increase in CPOX level and in PpIX production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EKSISTENSI DAN MOTIVASI PRAMUWISATA LOKAL PEREMPUAN DI DAYA TARIK WISATA ALAS KEDATON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Putu Putri Indira Suari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan pramuwisata lokal yang seluruhnya berjenis kelamin perempuan menjadi keunikan tersendiri bagi Alas Kedaton sebagai suatu daya tarik wisata. Bertujuan untuk mengetahui eksistensi pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton serta untuk mengetahui motivasi mereka bekerja sebagai pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton. Jenis data yang digunakan adalah data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Sedangkan sumber data yakni data primer dan sekunder. Data dikumpulkan melalui observasi, wawancara, kuesioner dan dokumentasi. Informan ditentukan secara purposive sampling. Terdapat 45 responden yang dipilih sebagai sampel dengan menggunakan metode simple random sampling. Dan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif kualitatif dan deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa eksistensi pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton dari awal terbentuknya sampai saat ini dapat dikatakan masih eksis. Meskipun jumlah pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton berkurang dibandingkan ketika awal terbentuknya. Sedangkan motivasi mereka bekerja sebagai pramuwisata lokal di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton adalah untuk memenuhi beberapa kebutuhan seperti physiological needs, safety and security needs, affiliation or acceptance needs, esteem needs, dan self actualization. Dan rata-rata responden menjawab motivasi mereka bekerja sebagai pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton adalah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan afiliasi atau affiliation or acceptance needs.

  18. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  19. Design of PDT protocols using delta-aminolevulinic acid (5ALA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.; He, Xiao-Yan; Gofstein, Gary

    1993-06-01

    The kinetics of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) synthesis, bioconversion to other metabolic products, and photobleaching were measured in cell cultures after incubation in media containing the metabolic precursor for heme synthesis, (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (5 ALA). A compartmental model described the kinetics in terms of rate constants for the three processes. The maximum amount of PPIX that can be attained in the cells and the concentration of 5 ALA in the medium that obtains this maximum were determined. Using this information, two dosimetry protocols are outlined which both involve complete photobleaching of the PPIX: (1) the classical acute protocol using maximum 5 ALA to produce maximum PPIX and a light treatment of about 0.5 - 1 hr, and (2) a novel prolonged protocol using continuous low-level 5 ALA delivery to produce only slightly elevated PPIX and an extended light exposure time of over 24 hrs.

  20. Sadama ala planeering = Harbour area master plan / Ivan Sergejev, Helen Rebane, Karina Niinepuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sergejev, Ivan, 1987-

    2010-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuri ja linnaplaneerimise osakonna IV kursuse 2009-2010 õppeaastal erialase projekteerimise raames kavandatud planeeringu eesmärgiks on tihendada Tallinna sadama ala ning arendada sellest välja mitmekesine ja efektiivne linnaruum

  1. Functional characterization of the Thr946Ala SNP at the type 1 diabetes IFIH1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouk, Hana; Marchand, Luc; Li, Quan; Polychronakos, Constantin

    2014-02-01

    The Thr allele at the Thr946Ala non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) in the IFIH1 gene confers risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). IFIH1 binds viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), inducing a type I interferon (IFN) response. Reports of this nsSNP's role in IFIH1 expression regulation have produced conflicting results and a study evaluating transfected Thr946Ala protein alleles in an artificial system overexpressing IFIH1 shows that the SNP does not affect IFH1 function. In this study, we examine the effects of the Thr946Ala polymorphism on IFN-α response in a cell line that endogenously expresses physiological levels of IFIH1. Eleven lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) homozygous for the major predisposing allele (Thr/Thr) and 6 LCLs homozygous for the minor protective allele (Ala/Ala) were electroporated with the viral dsRNA mimic, poly I:C, in three independent experiments. Media were collected 24 hours later and measured for IFN-α production by ELISA. Basal IFN response is minimal in mock-transfected cells from both genotypes and increases by about 8-fold in cells treated with poly I:C. LCLs with the Ala/Ala genotype have slightly higher IFN-α levels than their Thr/Thr counterparts but this did not reach statistical significance because of the large variability of the IFN response, due mostly to two high outliers (biological, not technical). A larger sample size would be needed to determine whether the Thr946Ala SNP affects the poly I:C-driven IFN-α response. Additionally, the possibility that this nsSNP recognizes viral dsRNA specificities cannot be ruled out. Thus, the mechanism of the observed association of this SNP with T1D remains to be determined.

  2. Treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma using ALA PLGA nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Tu, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Zhang, Linglin; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Feng; Luan, Hansen

    2015-03-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer and its treatment is still difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoparticle (NP)-assisted ALA delivery for topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cutaneous SCC. Methods: UV-induced cutaneous SCCs were established in hairless mice. ALA loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) NPs were prepared and characterized. The kinetics of ALA PLGA NPs-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in SCCs, therapeutic efficacy of ALA NP-mediated PDT, and immune responses were examined. Results: PLGA NPs could enhance PpIX production in SCC. ALA PLGA NP mediated topical PDT was more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating cutaneous SCC. Conclusion: PLGA NPs provide a promising strategy for delivering ALA in topical PDT of cutaneous SCC.

  3. A study of parallelism of the occlusal plane and ala-tragus line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Katayoun; Sadr, Makan

    2009-01-01

    Orientation of the occlusal plane is one of the most important clinical procedures in prostho-dontic rehabilitation of edentulous patients. The aim of this study was to define the best posterior reference point of ala-tragus line for orientation of occlusal plane for complete denture fabrication. Fifty-three dental students (27 females and 26 males) with complete natural dentition and Angel's Class I occlusal relationship were selected. The subjects were photographed in natural head position while clenching on a Fox plane. After tracing the photographs, the angles between the following lines were measured: the occlusal plane (Fox plane) and the superior border of ala-tragus, the occlusal plane (Fox plane) and the middle of ala-tragus as well as the occlusal plane (Fox plane) and the inferior border of ala-tragus. Descriptive statistics, one sample t-test and independent t-test were used. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. There was no parallelism between the occlusal plane and ala-tragus line with three different posterior ends and one sample t-test showed that the angles between them were significantly different from zero (pplane. The superior border of the tragus is suggested as the posterior reference for ala-tragus line.

  4. Topical application of ALA PDT for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Su, Lina; Guo, Ming-Xia; Huang, Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)- medicated photodynamic therapy (ALA PDT) for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Methods: Sixteen Chinese patients with moderate to severe facial acne were treated with 1-3 courses of ALA PDT. ALA cream (3%) was freshly prepared and applied to acne lesions for 3-4 h. The lesions were irradiated by a 635 nm diode laser at dose levels of 60 - 80 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2. Clinical assessments were conducted before and after treatment up to 3 months. Results: All patents showed response to ALA PDT. Complete clearance was seen in 10 patients (62.5%) and partial clearance in 6 patients (37.5%). One case showed recurrence after complete clearance at 2 months and another two showed recurrence after complete clearance at 3 months. However, the number of new lesions were significantly reduced. Adverse effects were minimal. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary clinical study is encouraging. ALA PDT is a simple, safe and useful therapeutic option for the treatment of moderate to severe acne. Further studies to evaluate the treatment with a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up are needed.

  5. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  6. Harnessing cellular differentiation to improve ALA-based photodynamic therapy in an artificial skin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward; Anand, Sanjay; Sato, Nobuyuki; Mack, Judith; Ortel, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    During ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), a pro-drug (aminolevulinic acid; ALA) is taken up by tumor cells and metabolically converted to a photosensitizing intermediate (protoporphyrin IX; PpIX). ALA-based PDT, while an emerging treatment modality, remains suboptimal for most cancers (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). Many treatment failures may be largely due to insufficient conversion of ALA to PpIX within cells. We discovered a novel way to increase the conversion of ALA to PpIX, by administering agents that can drive terminal differentiation (i.e., accelerate cellular maturation). Terminally-differentiated epithelial cells show higher levels of intracellular PpIX, apparently via increased levels of a rate-limiting enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO). To study these mechanisms in a three-dimensional tissue, we developed an organotypic model that mimics true epidermal physiology in a majority of respects. A line of rat epidermal keratinocytes (REKs), when grown in raft cultures, displays all the features of a fully-differentiated epidermis. Addition of ALA to the culture medium results in ALA uptake and PpIX synthesis, with subsequent death of keratinocytes upon exposure to blue light. Using this model, we can manipulate cellular differentiation via three different approaches. (1) Vitamin D, a hormone that enhances keratinocyte differentiation; (2) Hoxb13, a nuclear transcription factor that affects the genetically-controlled differentiation program of stratifying cells (3) Hyaluronan, an abundant extracellular matrix molecule that regulates epidermal differentiation. Because the raft cultures contain only a single cell type (no blood, fibroblasts, etc.) the effects of terminal differentiation upon CPO, PpIX, and keratinocyte cell death can be specifically defined.

  7. 0.5% Liposome-encapsulated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy for acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Byung-Yoon; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, In-Ho; Choi, Won-Woo; Kang, Seong-Min; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy using topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been successful in treating acne vulgaris, but sun avoidance for at least 48 hours after treatment is necessary due to the risk of post-treatment photosensitivity. Recently, a lower concentration of liposome-encapsulated 5-ALA was introduced to minimize this risk. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of liposome-encapsulated 0.5% 5-ALA in the photodynamic therapy of inflammatory acne and its effects on sebum secretion in Asian skin. Thirteen Korean subjects with inflammatory acne were administered 0.5% ALA spray before photoradiation treatment. Photoradiation was performed at 3.5-6.0 J/cm(2) three times during each of two visits, performed 2 weeks apart. Improvement of acne was evaluated subjectively and objectively based on the Korean Acne Grading System. Sebum secretion was measured quantitatively at each visit. The mean reduction in acne grade at the end of the treatment was 43.2%. Of the patients, 69.2% reported improvements in subjective skin oiliness, but fewer showed objective reductions in sebum secretion as determined by the Sebumeter® SM10. No serious adverse events were observed. Photodynamic therapy using liposome-encapsulated 0.5% 5-ALA improved inflammatory acne with minimal side effects in Asians.

  8. D2-Thr92Ala, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopciuc, Lucia Maria; Caracostea, Gabriela; Hazi, Georgeta; Nemeti, Georgiana; Stamatian, Florin

    2017-02-01

    To identify if there is a relationship between the deiodinase D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia. We genotyped 125 women with preeclampsia and 131 normal pregnant women using PCR-RFLP. Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined using ELISA. Our study showed higher TSH and FT4 levels and lower FT3 levels in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnant women, with statistical significance for women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The risk to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), mild or severe preeclampsia was increased in carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele. TSH and FT4 levels were significantly higher and FT3 levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic women with severe preeclampsia if they carried the D2-Ala92 allele compared to non-carriers. Pregnant women with PIH and mild preeclampsia, carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele, delivered at lower gestational age neonates with a lower birth weight compared to non-carriers, but the results were statistically significant only in severe preeclampsia. The D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant is associated with the severity and the obstetric outcome of preeclampsia, and it also influences thyroid hormone levels. The study demonstrates non-thyroidal biochemical hypothyroidism - as a result of deiodination effects due to D2 genotypes.

  9. The Caenorhabditis elegans interneuron ALA is (also) a high-threshold mechanosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jarred; Nagy, Stanislav; Fetterman, Graham; Wright, Charles; Treinin, Millet; Biron, David

    2013-12-17

    To survive dynamic environments, it is essential for all animals to appropriately modulate their behavior in response to various stimulus intensities. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suppresses the rate of egg-laying in response to intense mechanical stimuli, in a manner dependent on the mechanosensory neurons FLP and PVD. We have found that the unilaterally placed single interneuron ALA acted as a high-threshold mechanosensor, and that it was required for this protective behavioral response. ALA was required for the inhibition of egg-laying in response to a strong (picking-like) mechanical stimulus, characteristic of routine handling of the animals. Moreover, ALA did not respond physiologically to less intense touch stimuli, but exhibited distinct physiological responses to anterior and posterior picking-like touch, suggesting that it could distinguish between spatially separated stimuli. These responses required neither neurotransmitter nor neuropeptide release from potential upstream neurons. In contrast, the long, bilaterally symmetric processes of ALA itself were required for producing its physiological responses; when they were severed, responses to stimuli administered between the cut and the cell body were unaffected, while responses to stimuli administered posterior to the cut were abolished. C. elegans neurons are typically classified into three major groups: sensory neurons with specialized sensory dendrites, interneurons, and motoneurons with neuromuscular junctions. Our findings suggest that ALA can autonomously sense intense touch and is thus a dual-function neuron, i.e., an interneuron as well as a novel high-threshold mechanosensor.

  10. [Strive, plan and reach the "Summit": the Faculty Development Program at the Ruth & Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Orit Cohen; Nave, Rachel; Ganor, Margalit; Hasson-Gilad, Dalia R; Brika, Riva

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, faculty development has turned into a central component of medical education and a primary instrument in qualifying physicians to be teachers and educators. The faculty development program at the Ruth & Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine ("Summit" program) was established in order to improve teaching of the clinical professions, to create a community of medical teachers and educators and to develop leadership in medical education within the Faculty of Medicine. This article aims to describe the design, implementation and evaluation of the faculty development program in the Technion's Faculty of Medicine. The program was designed for a group of 20 clinical teachers, of various clinical professions, who had gained at least one year of undergraduate teaching experience and wished to develop a career in medical education. The program included seven monthly, eight-hour meetings throughout the academic year. Learning was based on small group discussions, interactive exercises, role-plays and simulations, self-directed reading and reflective writing. At the end of the final meeting, participants completed an evaluation form. Seventeen of the 20 participants (85%) graduated and received certificates. Learners' overall satisfaction was high. Graduates expressed high motivation to practice medical education within the Faculty of Medicine and reported that they gained new knowledge in medical education and skills regarding various aspects of teaching and learning, such as formulation of learning objectives, designing role plays, and providing effective feedback. The "Summit" program is an innovative initiative in the field of medical education in Israel. The program had a significant impact on participants' knowledge, teaching skills and attitudes. In order to ensure implementation of the acquired tools and skills, its shortterm and long-term effects on teaching behavior and the learning climate have yet to be demonstrated. In addition, it is necessary to

  11. Desleucyl-Oritavancin with a Damaged d-Ala-d-Ala Binding Site Inhibits the Transpeptidation Step of Cell-Wall Biosynthesis in Whole Cells of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Joon; Singh, Manmilan; Sharif, Shasad; Schaefer, Jacob

    2017-03-14

    We have used solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize the exact nature of the dual mode of action of oritavancin in preventing cell-wall assembly in Staphylococcus aureus. Measurements performed on whole cells labeled selectively in vivo have established that des-N-methylleucyl-N-4-(4-fluorophenyl)benzyl-chloroeremomycin, an Edman degradation product of [ 19 F]oritavancin, which has a damaged d-Ala-d-Ala binding aglycon, is a potent inhibitor of the transpeptidase activity of cell-wall biosynthesis. The desleucyl drug binds to partially cross-linked peptidoglycan by a cleft formed between the drug aglycon and its biphenyl hydrophobic side chain. This type of binding site is present in other oritavancin-like glycopeptides, which suggests that for these drugs a similar transpeptidase inhibition occurs.

  12. The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues Rosa Laura López-Marqués1, Lisbeth Rosager Poulsen1, Katharina Meffert2, Thomas Pomorski2, Michael Gjedde Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation...... physiological function.   1 Poulsen, L.R; López-Marqués, R.L et al. (2008) The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the Golgi and requires a ß-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation. The Plant Cell, vol. 20, 658-676. 2 Gomès, E. et al. (2000) Chilling tolerance...... in Arabidopsis involves ALA1, a member of a new family of putative aminophospholipid translocases. The Plant Cell, vol. 12, 2441-2453....

  13. The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager

      The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues Rosa Laura López-Marqués1, Lisbeth Rosager Poulsen1, Katharina Meffert2, Thomas Pomorski2, Michael Gjedde Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation...... physiological function.   1 Poulsen, L.R; López-Marqués, R.L et al. (2008) The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the Golgi and requires a ß-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation. The Plant Cell, vol. 20, 658-676. 2 Gomès, E. et al. (2000) Chilling tolerance...... in Arabidopsis involves ALA1, a member of a new family of putative aminophospholipid translocases. The Plant Cell, vol. 12, 2441-2453....

  14. DINAMIKA POPULASI MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARIS DI HUTAN WISATA ALAS KEDATON TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Soma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall population dynamic were observed in identified individuals between August andOctober 2008, in large group of long failed macaques in the AlasKedaton, Bali. Totalpopulation was 364 monkeys consisted of 54 (14,8% adult males, 104 (28,6% adultfemales, 164 (45,1% juvenile and 42 (11,5% infant. They were divided into 4 differentsmall social groups i.e., Parking area group, North area group, Centre area group and Southarea group. Ratio of adult male and adult female was 1: 2.Population densitiesof Macaca fascicularisin Alas Kedaton were 30 monkeys / Ha andpopulation natalities were 11, 5%.

  15. Ala from Zeljin: Results of the recent research of folk mythology in Zupa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ivica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the recent ethnological research, conduced in Aleksandrovacka Zupa and other areas. In this paper, the emphasis has been placed on notions on mythical beings, i.e. alas and dragons, which in the context of the materials collected take up one of most prominent positions, indicating the specific nature of the micro-regional unit, but also a symbol of the local identity. Namely, there are recordings of numerous and extremely interesting variations of the myth and ideas on the ala from Zeljin which, as the definitely most exposed mythical entity, is certainly a Zupa-specific property.

  16. Synthesis of phthalocyanines-ALA conjugates: water-soluble compounds with low aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Kleber T; de Assis, Francisco F; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Neri, Claudio R; Fernandes, Adjaci U; Baptista, Mauricio S; Lopes, Norberto P; Serra, Osvaldo A; Iamamoto, Yassuko

    2009-10-16

    Syntheses of two water-soluble phthalocyanines (Pc) containing 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) linked to the core structure are described. These compounds were prepared by using original functionalizations, and they present remarkable structural and photophysical features, indicating that they could be applied to photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  17. ALA-PDT mediated DC vaccine for skin squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Fan, Zhixia; Zhou, Feifan; Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Yang, Degang; Zhang, Linglin; Wang, Xiuli; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) based vaccine has emerged as a promising immunotherapy for cancers. However, most DC vaccines so far have only achieved limited success in cancer treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an established cancer treatment strategy, can cause immunogenic apoptosis to induce an effective antitumor immune response. In this study, we developed a DC-based cancer vaccine using immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT. The maturation of DCs induced by PDT-treated apoptotic cells was evaluated. The anti-tumor immunity of ALA-PDT-DC vaccine was tested with mouse model. We observed the maturations of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, DC80, and CD86), and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secret INF-Υ and IL-12). ALA-PDT-DC vaccine mediated by apoptotic cells provided protection against tumor in mice, far stronger than that of DC vaccine obtained from freeze/thaw treated tumor cells. Our results indicate that immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells can be more effective in enhancing DC-based cancer vaccine, which could improve the clinical application of PDT- DC vaccines.

  18. Modulatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on insulin sensitivity in obese PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, A D; Shefer, K; Della Casa, D; Prati, A; Napolitano, A; Manzo, A; Despini, G; Simoncini, T

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on hormonal and metabolic parameters of obese PCOS patients. A group of 32 obese PCOS patients were selected after informed consent. 20 patients referred to have first grade relatives with diabetes type I or II. Hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as OGTT were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ALA integrative administration (400 mg per os every day). ALA administration significantly decreased insulin, glucose, BMI and HOMA index. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin response to OGTT decreased both as maximal response (Δmax) and as AUC. PCOS with diabetes relatives showed the decrease also of triglyceride and GOT. Interestingly in all PCOS no changes occurred on all hormonal parameters involved in reproduction such as LH, FSH, and androstenedione. ALA integrative administration at a low dosage as 400 mg daily improved the metabolic impairment of all PCOS patients especially in those PCOS with familiar diabetes who have a higher grade of risk of NAFLD and predisposition to diabetes.

  19. ALA Office for Intellectual Freedom: Who We Are and How We Help Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekoll, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The American Library Association's (ALA's) Office for Intellectual Freedom (OIF) strives to educate librarians and the public about the nature and importance of intellectual freedom in libraries, and it will celebrate its fiftieth anniversary in 2017. Libraries are a forum for information and ideas (under the First Amendment), and librarians are…

  20. Isolated cleft of the ala nasi: A report of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rajesh Jinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial clefts other than cleft lip & palate are reported to be 1.4 to 4.9 per 100,000 live births. Of these, clefts of nose are usually associated with other clefts. Isolated cleft of Ala is rare, 0.7% of all clefts reported by Monasterio. In an analysis of photographic records of 3,500 consecutive patients with craniofacial clefts including cleft lip & palate registered with us between 1985- 2012 which were accessed through our data base, 13 patients with nasal clefts were identified, seven out of which had Isolated cleft of the Ala. All were treated by a rotation flap of the Ala with good results with the longest follow up of 14Yrs. The authors have emphasised the rarity of the condition and presented a simple surgical procedure for correction. In the opinion of the authors this very simple procedure which can be performed by the junior surgeon gives a good long term result in the management of cleft Ala.

  1. Volikogu kergitas kruntide alghinna Olümpia vastas 240 miljoni kroonini / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu tõstis 26. jaanuari istungil Juhkentali 1b, 3d ja 3e kruntide avaliku enampakkumise alghinna 78 miljonilt kroonilt 240 miljonile. Kruntidele on lubatud ehitada üks kuni 30-korruseline ning mitu 3-8 korruselist hoonet. Kaart: Ala detailplaneering

  2. Stabilization of a chitinase from Serratia marcescens by Gly-->Ala and Xxx-->Pro mutations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaseidnes, S.; Synstad, B.; Jia, X.; Kjellesvik, H.; Vriend, G.; Eijsink, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes attempts to increase the kinetic stability of chitinase B from Serratia marcescens (ChiB) by the introduction of semi-automatically designed rigidifying mutations of the Gly-->Ala and Xxx-->Pro type. Of 15 single mutants, several displayed significant increases in thermal

  3. Patarei ja Lennusadama ala planeering = Plan for the Patarei Fort and Lennusadam Port Area

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Patarei ja Lennusadama ala mahulise planeerimise rahvusvaheline ideevõistlus 2007. aastal. Võistlustööd "Kolm õuna" (I preemia - Sverre Laanjärv, Ivar Lubjak), "Põhi" (II preemia - Tõnu Laanemäe, Jaak-Adam Looveer, Toomas Paaver, kaasautorid Indrek Järve ja Lauri Saar) ja "Kompass" (III preemia - Ott Kadarik ja Villem Tomiste, AB Kosmos)

  4. "LJ" Report "Anaheim, ALA 2008": Amid the Fantasy, Doses of Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Lynn; Berry, John; Fialkoff, Francine; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hadro, Josh; Horrocks, Norman; Oder, Norman; Roncevic, Mirela

    2008-01-01

    If the resort city of Anaheim, California, home of Disneyland and its "imagineers," marked a departure from the urban reality of the typical American Library Association (ALA) annual conference, it was impossible, at this 2008 meeting, to avoid urgent library issues. How do libraries maintain their value and cultural presence as users…

  5. Shifting with the Paradigm: LJ's Picks & Pans for ALA in Disneyland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    The feelings of librarians planning for the American Library Association (ALA) conference at Disneyland (aka Anaheim, California, June 26-July 2) range from moderate pleasure to dread. Some remember the joys and difficulties of Orlando, especially the exorbitant cab fares and mediocre restaurants. Others quail at screaming kids and tourists in…

  6. 5-ALA Fluorescence Image Guided Resection of Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Eljamel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is one of the most deadly cancers in humans. Despite recent advances in anti-cancer therapies, most patients with GBM die from local disease progression. Fluorescence image guided surgical resection (FIGR was recently advocated to enhance local control of GBM. This is meta-analyses of 5-aminolevulinic (5-ALA induced FIGR. Materials: Review of the literature produced 503 potential publications; only 20 of these fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this analysis, including a total of 565 patients treated with 5-ALA-FIGR reporting on its outcomes and 800 histological samples reporting 5-ALA-FIGR sensitivity and specificity. Results: The mean gross total resection (GTR rate was 75.4% (95% CI: 67.4–83.5, p < 0.001. The mean time to tumor progression (TTP was 8.1 months (95% CI: 4.7–12, p < 0.001. The mean overall survival gain reported was 6.2 months (95% CI: −1–13, p < 0.001. The specificity was 88.9% (95% CI: 83.9–93.9, p < 0.001 and the sensitivity was 82.6% (95% CI: 73.9–91.9, p < 0.001. Conclusion: 5-ALA-FIGR in GBM is highly sensitive and specific, and imparts significant benefits to patients in terms of improved GTR and TTP.

  7. The Short Life and Ignominious Death of ALA Video and Special Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handman, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of videocassettes in our culture and the function of video collections in libraries focuses on the creation and demise of a unit sponsored by the American Library Association, the ALA Video and Special Projects. The unit's role is discussed and funding decisions that led to its demise are explained. (LRW)

  8. ALA-based fluorescent diagnosis of malignant oral lesions in the presence of bacterial porphyrin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, P.; Berndt, A.; Zinner, K.; Zenk, W.; Dietel, W.; Pfister, W.

    2006-02-01

    The aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) -based fluorescence diagnosis has been found to be promising for an early detection and demarcation of superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). This method has previously demonstrated high sensitivity, however this clinical trial showed a specificity of approximately 62 %. This specificity was mainly restricted by tumor detection in the oral cavity in the presence of bacteria. After topical ALA application in the mouth of patients with previously diagnosed OSSC, red fluorescent areas were observed which did not correlate to confirm histological findings. Swabs and plaque samples were taken from 44 patients and cultivated microbiologically. Fluorescence was investigated (OMA-system) from 32 different bacteria strains found naturally in the oral cavity. After ALA incubation, 30 of 32 strains were found to synthesize fluorescent porphyrins, mainly Protoporphyrin IX. Also multiple fluorescent spectra were obtained having peak wavelengths of 636 nm and around 618 nm - 620 nm indicating synthesis of different porphyrins, such as the lipophylic Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and hydrophylic porphyrins (water soluble porphyrins, wsp). Of the 32 fluorescent bacterial strains, 18 produced wsp, often in combination with PpIX, and 5 produced solely wsp. These results clarify that ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis without consideration or suppression of bacteria fluorescence may lead to false-positive findings. It is necessary to suppress bacteria fluorescence with suitable antiseptics before starting the procedure. In this study, when specific antiseptic pre-treatment was performed bacterial associated fluorescence was significantly reduced.

  9. Potentiation of ALA-PDT antitumor activity in mice using topical DMXAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Allison; Sunar, Ulas; Sands, Theresa; Oseroff, Allan; Bellnier, David

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic treatment of subcutaneously implanted Colon 26 tumors in BALB/c mice using the aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was shown to be enhanced by the addition of the vascular disrupting agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic-acid (DMXAA; Novartis ASA404). DMXAA increases vascular permeability and decreases blood flow in both murine and human tumors. Sufficiently high parenteral DMXAA doses can lead to tumor collapse and necrosis. We have previously reported marked enhancement of antitumor activity when PDT, using either Photofrin or HPPH, is combined with low-dose intraperitoneal DMXAA. We now describe the first attempt to combine topically-applied DMXAA with PDT. For this, DMXAA was applied two hours before PpIX-activating light delivery. PDT with ALA-PDT alone (ALA 20%; 80 J/cm2 delivered at 75 mW/cm2) caused a 39% decrease in tumor volume compared to unirradiated controls. Addition of topical DMXAA to ALA-PDT resulted in a 74% reduction in tumor volume. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a non-invasive blood flow imaging method, is being used to understand the mechanism of this effect and to aid in the proper design of the therapy. For instance, our most recent DCS data suggests that the 2-hour interval between the DMXAA and light applications may not be optimum. This preliminary study suggests a potential role for topical DMXAA in combination with PDT for dermatologic tumors.

  10. Mida suudab muusikateraapia? / Melanie Voigt, Esa Ala-Ruona ; inetrvjueerinud Kristel Kossar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voigt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemias toimunud Euroopa Muusikateraapia Konföderatsiooni peaassambleel ja sümpoosionil ettekannetega esinenud muusikaterapeudid Malanie Voigt Saksamaalt ja Esa Ala-Ruona Soomest räägivad tööst puuetega lastega ja tööstressist ning heliilmast

  11. Substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala linker dramatically decreased the renal uptake of 99mTc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Adam M; Yang, Jianquan; Miao, Yubin

    2014-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala could reduce the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptides. RSD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (1) {c[Arg-Ser-Asp-dTyr-Asp]-β-Ala-Cys-Cys-Glu-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2}, RTD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (2), RVD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (3), RAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (4), NAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (5), and EAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (6) peptides were synthesized and evaluated for their melanocortin 1 (MC1) receptor binding affinities in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The biodistribution of their (99m)Tc-conjugates were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The substitution of the Lys linker with β-Ala linker dramatically reduced the renal uptake of all six (99m)Tc-peptides. (99m)Tc-4 exhibited the highest melanoma uptake (15.66 ± 6.19% ID/g) and the lowest kidney uptake (20.18 ± 3.86% ID/g) among these (99m)Tc-peptides at 2 h postinjection. The B16/F1 melanoma lesions could be clearly visualized by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT using (99m)Tc-4 as an imaging probe.

  12. Vibrational and chiroptical spectroscopic characterization of gamma-turn model cyclic tetrapeptides containing two beta-Ala residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Elemér; Majer, Zsuzsa; Kohalmy, Krisztina; Hollósi, Miklós

    2010-08-01

    The optical spectroscopic characterization of gamma-turns in solution is uncertain and their distinction from beta-turns is often difficult. This work reports systematic ECD and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopic studies on gamma-turn model cyclic tetrapeptides cyclo(Ala-beta-Ala-Pro-beta-Ala) (1), cyclo(Pro-beta-Ala-Pro-beta-Ala) (2) and cyclo(Ala-beta-Ala-Ala-beta-Ala) (3). Conformational analysis performed at the 6-31G(d)/B3LYP level of theory using an adequate PCM solvent model predicted one predominant conformer for 1-3, featuring two inverse gamma-turns. The ECD spectra in ACN of 1 and 2 are characterized by a negative n-->pi* band near 230 nm and a positive pi-->pi* band below 200 nm with a long wavelength shoulder. The ECD spectra in TFE of 1-3 show similar spectra with blue-shifted bands. The VCD spectra in ACN-d(3) of 1 and 2 show a +/-/+/- amide I sign pattern resulting from four uncoupled vibrations in the case of 1 and a sequence of two positive couplets in the case of 2. A -/+/+/- amide I VCD pattern was measured for 3 in TFE-d(2). All three peptides give a positive couplet or couplet-like feature (+/-) in the amide II region. VCD spectroscopy, in agreement with theoretical calculations revealed that low frequency amide I vibrations (at approximately 1630 cm(-1) or below) are indicative of a C(7) H-bonded inverse gamma-turns with Pro in position 2, while gamma-turns encompassing Ala absorb at higher frequency (above 1645 cm(-1)). Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Eesti kultuuridimensioonid / Maaja Vadi, Riin Meri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vadi, Maaja, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Geert H. Hofstede kultuuridimensioonide teooriast kultuuri mõju kohta organisatsiooni toimimisele. Eesti kultuuridimensionaalse asendi määratlemiseks korraldatud uurimusest 2002. aastal. Diagrammid

  14. Lups lugema! / Maaja Mänd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mänd, Maaja

    2006-01-01

    Kirjastuses "Ilo "on välja antud õppematerjalid : "Lups lugema I,II ; "Tähevihik" ; "Sõnad ja poldid" ; "Asjad meie kodus " ; "Tähepusle" ; "Numbripusle" ; "Mänge siit ja sealt"; Kaheksakand Õnnetäht

  15. Characterization of the Ala62Pro polymorphic variant of human cytochrome P450 1A1 using recombinant protein expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Sukmo [College of Veterinary Medicine, BK21plus Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research, and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Mi Sook [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung-Duck [College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseo; Rhee, Sangkee [College of Agriculture of Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Doug-Young, E-mail: dyryu@snu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, BK21plus Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research, and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is a heme-containing enzyme involved in detoxification of hydrophobic pollutants. Its Ala62Pro variant has been identified previously. Ala62 is located in α-helix A of CYP1A1. Residues such as Pro and Gly are α-helix breakers. In this study, the Ala62Pro variant was characterized using heterologous expression. E. coli expressing the Ala62Pro variant, and the purified variant protein, had lower CYP (i.e. holoenzyme) contents than their wild-type (WT) equivalents. The CYP variant from E. coli and mammalian cells exhibited lower 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (EROD) and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation activities than the WT. Enhanced supplementation of a heme precursor during E. coli culture did not increase CYP content in E. coli expressing the variant, but did for the WT. As for Ala62Pro, E. coli expressing an Ala62Gly variant had a lower CYP content than the WT counterpart, but substitution of Ala62 with α-helix-compatible residues such as Ser and Val partially recovered the level of CYP produced. Microsomes from mammalian cells expressing Ala62Pro and Ala62Gly variants exhibited lower EROD activities than those expressing the WT or Ala62Val variant. A region harboring α-helix A has interactions with another region containing heme-interacting residues. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses suggest the importance of interactions between the two regions on holoenzyme expression. Together, these findings suggest that the Ala62Pro substitution leads to changes in protein characteristics and function of CYP1A1 via structural disturbance of the region where the residue is located. - Highlights: • Ala62 is located in α-helix A of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1. • Pro acts as an α-helix breaker. • A variant protein of CYP1A1, Ala62Pro, had lower heme content than the wild-type. • The variant of CYP1A1 had lower enzyme activities than the wild-type.

  16. Structural, Mechanical, Anisotropic, and Thermal Properties of AlAs in oC12 and hP6 Phases under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural, mechanical, anisotropic, and thermal properties of oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs under pressure have been investigated by employing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, B/G ratio, and Poisson’s ratio for oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs have been systematically investigated. The results show that oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs are mechanically stable within the considered pressure. Through the study of lattice constants (a, b, and c with pressure, we find that the incompressibility of oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs is the largest along the c-axis. At 0 GPa, the bulk modulus B of oC12-AlAs, hP6-AlAs, and diamond-AlAs are 76 GPa, 75 GPa, and 74 Gpa, respectively, indicating that oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs have a better capability of resistance to volume than diamond-AlAs. The pressure of transition from brittleness to ductility for oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs are 1.21 GPa and 2.11 GPa, respectively. The anisotropy of Young’s modulus shows that oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs have greater isotropy than diamond-AlAs. To obtain the thermodynamic properties of oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs, the sound velocities, Debye temperature, and minimum thermal conductivity at considered pressure were investigated systematically. At ambient pressure, oC12-AlAs (463 K and hP6-AlAs (471 K have a higher Debye temperature than diamond-AlAs (433 K. At T = 300 K, hP6-AlAs (0.822 W/cm·K−1 has the best thermal conductivity of the three phases, and oC12-AlAs (0.809 W/cm·K−1 is much close to diamond-AlAs (0.813 W/cm·K−1.

  17. Preclinical Development of a Subcutaneous ALAS1 RNAi Therapeutic for Treatment of Hepatic Porphyrias Using Circulating RNA Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute hepatic porphyrias are caused by inherited enzymatic deficiencies in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Induction of the first enzyme 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1 by triggers such as fasting or drug exposure can lead to accumulation of neurotoxic heme intermediates that cause disease symptoms. We have demonstrated that hepatic ALAS1 silencing using siRNA in a lipid nanoparticle effectively prevents and treats induced attacks in a mouse model of acute intermittent porphyria. Herein, we report the development of ALN-AS1, an investigational GalNAc-conjugated RNAi therapeutic targeting ALAS1. One challenge in advancing ALN-AS1 to patients is the inability to detect liver ALAS1 mRNA in the absence of liver biopsies. We here describe a less invasive circulating extracellular RNA detection assay to monitor RNAi drug activity in serum and urine. A striking correlation in ALAS1 mRNA was observed across liver, serum, and urine in both rodents and nonhuman primates (NHPs following treatment with ALN-AS1. Moreover, in donor-matched human urine and serum, we demonstrate a notable correspondence in ALAS1 levels, minimal interday assay variability, low interpatient variability from serial sample collections, and the ability to distinguish between healthy volunteers and porphyria patients with induced ALAS1 levels. The collective data highlight the potential utility of this assay in the clinical development of ALN-AS1, and in broadening our understanding of acute hepatic porphyrias disease pathophysiology.

  18. The miniband spectrum in (AlAs) sub M (GaAs) sub N (111)

    CERN Document Server

    Karavaev, G F; Egunov, R M

    2002-01-01

    The electron states for energies in the conduction band of (AlAs) sub M (GaAs) sub N (111) superlattices with M >= N (N < 10) are considered. The properties of such superlattices are mainly determined by electrons of X-valley in AlAs and L-valley in GaAs. The calculations are carried out on the basis of the envelope-function model of interface band mixing. Miniband spectra, symmetry and localization of wave functions, and also probabilities of the interminiband infrared absorption are defined and analyzed. It is shown that the latter have a significant magnitude not only at light polarization along the superlattice growth axis, but also at normal incidence of a light wave to the surface. The analysis has been normal incidence of a light wave to the surface. The analysis has shown the importance of consideration of X sub 5 -states belonging to the valence band for infrared absorption

  19. Idiopathic elastosis perforans serpiginosa with satisfactory response after 5-ALA photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alique-García, S; Company-Quiroga, J; Horcajada-Reales, C; Echeverría-García, B; Tardío-Dovao, J C; Borbujo, J

    2018-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the use of photochemical reactions mediated through the interaction of photosensitizing agents, light, and oxygen for the treatment of malignant or benign diseases. Topical photosensitizers employed in dermatology are 5-aminolevulinic acid (5 ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate, classically used for the treatment of superficial non-melanoma skin cancer and their precursors. Recently the efficacy of PDT has been introduced in other benign diseases. Elastosis perforans serpiginosa (EPS) is a rare skin disorder characterized by transepidermal elimination of abnormal elastic fibers. Management of this condition is complicated, various methods have been used but with limited success. We report a case of EPS in a 30-yeard-old woman treated with 5 ALA-PDT. After 4 sessions the lesions have almost completely disappeared with no residual side effects. Therefore we present an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of EPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of 5-ALA in improving extent of tumour resection in patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Inamullah; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2017-10-01

    Goal of surgery for patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is gross total resection with no new neurological deficits. Surgical resection is often restricted due the difficulty in differentiating the tumour from surrounding normal brain using either naked eye, or standard intra-operative white light microscopy. GBM uptakes orally administered 5-ALA becomes fluorescent when viewed by a special light, and this property has been used to improve intra-operative tumour identification. This technique should therefore allow better extent of tumour resection. The hypothesis has been tested through several studies and even though most studies are of low quality, they strongly favour the use of 5- ALA in improving the extent of resection when compared to white light microscopy. A systematic review on the topic had a similar conclusion. Few studies have also hinted on a high false negative rate with the use of this technique..

  1. Rolled-Up Nanotech: Illumination-Controlled Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of AlAs Sacrificial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costescu Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of illumination on the hydrofluoric acid etching of AlAs sacrificial layers with systematically varied thicknesses in order to release and roll up InGaAs/GaAs bilayers was studied. For thicknesses of AlAs below 10 nm, there were two etching regimes for the area under illumination: one at low illumination intensities, in which the etching and releasing proceeds as expected and one at higher intensities in which the etching and any releasing are completely suppressed. The “etch suppression” area is well defined by the illumination spot, a feature that can be used to create heterogeneously etched regions with a high degree of control, shown here on patterned samples. Together with the studied self-limitation effect, the technique offers a way to determine the position of rolled-up micro- and nanotubes independently from the predefined lithographic pattern.

  2. Preparation and preliminary evaluation of 99Tcm-HYNIC-β-Ala-BBN(7-14)NH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Xin; Zhang Yan; Jia Bing; Shi Jiyun; Wang Fan; Zhao Huiyun; Yu Zilin

    2007-01-01

    99 Tc m -HYNIC-β-Ala-BBN(7-14)NH 2 is prepared by choosing Tricine and EDDA as coligands, and the in vitro stability and biodistribution are compared for the two compounds. The results of ITLC and HPLC analyses show that the labeling yield of both compounds is >95%, and the radiochemical purity (RCP) after purification of Sep-Pak C-18 cartridge is >99%. Both of the compounds show pretty good stability in saline and fetal bovine serum, but cysteine challenge assay shows that the stability of 99 Tc m -HYNIC(EDDA)- β-Ala-BBN (7-14) NH 2 is much better than 99 Tc m -HYNIC (Tricine)-β-Ala-BBN (7-14) NH 2 , with the RCP is >95% and 99 Tc m HYNIC (EDDA)-βAla-BBN (7-14)NH 2 and 99 Tc m -HYNIC (Tricine)-β-Ala-BBN(7-14)NH 2 is defined as two-compartment model, with T 1/2α calculated to be 0.27 min and 1.55 min, and T 1/2β calculated to be 18.1 min and 29.7 min, respectively. Biodistribution reveals that the radio uptake of 99 Tc m -HYNIC(Tricine)-β-Ala-BBN(7-14)NH 2 is higher than that of 99 Tc m -HYNIC(EDDA)-β-Ala-BBN(7-14)NH 2 for all of tis- sues at all time points of the experiment. The uptake in kidneys for both compounds is relatively high, as the uptake in livers and intestines for 99 Tc m -HYNIC(Tricine)-β-Ala-BBN(7- 14)NH 2 is significantly higher than that for 99 Tc m -HYNIC(EDDA)-β-Ala-BBN(7-14)NH 2 , which means that 99 Tc m -HYNIC(EDDA)-β-Ala-BBN(7-14)NH 2 is mainly excreted through kidneys, while 99 Tc m -HYNIC(Tricine)-β-Ala-BBN(7-14)NH 2 is excreted through both kidneys and hepatobiliary system. The above data demonstrate that 99 Tc m -HYNIC(EDDA)-β- Ala-BBN(7-14)NH 2 possesses better chemical and biological properties. (authors)

  3. Feasibility of Raman spectroscopy in vitro after 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis in the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; van Moorselaar, R. J. A.; Mahadevan-Jansen, A.,; Stone, N.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has become popular in bladder cancer detection. Several studies have however shown an increased false positive biopsies rate under PDD guidance compared to conventional cystoscopy. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that utilizes molecular specific, inelastic scattering of light photons to interrogate biological tissues, which can successfully differentiate epithelial neoplasia from normal tissue and inflammations in vitro. This investigation was performed to show the feasibility of NIR Raman spectroscopy in vitro on biopsies obtained under guidance of 5-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence imaging. Raman spectra of a PPIX solution was measured to obtain a characteristic signature for the photosensitzer without contributions from tissue constituents. Biopsies were obtained from patients with known bladder cancer instilled with 50ml, 5mg 5-ALA two hours prior to trans-urethral resection of tumor (TURT). Additional biopsies were obtained at a fluorescent and non-fluorescent area, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Each biopsy was thawed before measurements (10sec integration time) with a confocal Raman system (Renishaw Gloucestershire, UK). The 830 nm excitation (300mW) source is focused on the tissue by a 20X ultra-long-working-distance objective. Differences in fluorescence background between the two groups were removed by means of a special developed fluorescence subtraction algorithm. Raman spectra from ALA biopsies showed different fluorescence background which can be effectively removed by a fluorescence subtraction algorithm. This investigation shows that the interaction of the ALA induced PPIX with Raman spectroscopy in bladder samples. Combination of these techniques in-vivo may lead to a viable method of optical biopsies in bladder cancer detection.

  4. The Caenorhabditis elegans interneuron ALA is (also) a high-threshold mechanosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jarred; Nagy, Stanislav; Fetterman, Graham; Wright, Charles; Treinin, Millet; Biron, David

    2013-01-01

    Background To survive dynamic environments, it is essential for all animals to appropriately modulate their behavior in response to various stimulus intensities. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suppresses the rate of egg-laying in response to intense mechanical stimuli, in a manner dependent on the mechanosensory neurons FLP and PVD. We have found that the unilaterally placed single interneuron ALA acted as a high-threshold mechanosensor, and that it was required for this pr...

  5. Characterization of a TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159-ala Human Lymphoblast Clone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyall, L.: Gauny, S.; Kronenberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    TK6 cells are a well-characterized human B-lymphoblast cell line derived from WIL-2 cells. A derivative of the TK6 cell line that was stably transfected to express a mutated form of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL (TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159- ala clone #38) is compared with the parent cell line. Four parameters were evaluated for each cell line: growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency, and frequency of spontaneous mutation to 6‑thioguanine resistance (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase locus) or trifluorothymidine resistance (thymidine kinase locus). We conclude that the mutated Bcl-xL protein did not affect growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency or spontaneous mutation frequencies at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. Results at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus were inconclusive. A mutant fraction for TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells exposed to 150cGy of 160kVp x-rays was also calculated. Exposure to x-irradiation increased the mutant fraction of TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells.

  6. Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS: Reliability and Validity in a Nationwide Sample of Greek Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntina Kourmousi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS validity and reliability in a sample of 3955 Greek educators. The sample was randomly split and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted in the even subsample to evaluate the scale’s construct validity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed in the odd subsample to confirm the three-factor model identified by the EFA. The chi square test (χ2 of the model was significant (p < 0.05, due to the large sample size. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, the comparative fit index (CFI and the goodness of fit index (GFI values were 0.079, 0.969 and 0.960, respectively, further supporting the fit of the three-factor model. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test internal consistency reliability and was satisfactory exceeding 0.72 for ALAS subscales. The intercorrelations of the three subscales were all positive and significant (p < 0.001, ranging from 0.20 to 0.42. Student’s t-tests and the computation of effect sizes revealed that women scored higher on Listening Skill and Conversation Opportunity, while principals and participants trained on mental health promotion scored higher on all three subscales. The analyses confirmed the three-factor model of ALAS and demonstrated its validity and reliability in measuring Greek teachers’ active listening attitudes.

  7. Challenges for Community-Based Forest Management in the KoloAla Site Manompana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Zora Lea; Sorg, Jean-Pierre; Felber, Hans Rudolph

    2013-03-01

    Following the IUCN 5th World Congress on Protected Areas in 2003, the then-President of Madagascar decided to increase the area of Madagascar's protected areas from 1.7 to 6 million ha. To combine the aims of protection and timber production, a new concept was developed through the establishment of community-based forest management (CBFM) sites, called KoloAla. However, experience shows that similar management transfers to communities in Madagascar have only been successful in a very few cases. We aimed to explore the success to be expected of this new approach in the particular case of the Manompana corridor at Madagascar's eastern coast. In a first step, the readiness of the corridor's resource users for CBFM has been analysed according to the seven resource users' attributes developed by Ostrom that predict an effective self-organized resource management. In a second step, we explored how KoloAla addresses known challenges of Madagascar's CBFM. Analyses lead in a rather sober conclusion. Although KoloAla attempts to address the goals of poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation and timber production under a single umbrella, it does so in a rather non-innovative way. Challenges with regard to the state's environmental governance, agricultural inefficiency and thus deforestation remain unsolved.

  8. Association of the Pro12Ala Polymorphism with the Metabolic Parameters in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira Zaki

    2017-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism might contribute to the risk of PCOS and abnormal metabolic parameters and could be considered as a biomarker for early diagnosis and clinic prediction of metabolic complications.

  9. Arhitektuuribürood pakkusid hipodroomi ala elamukvartaliks ümberehitamiseks julgeid projekte / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Hipodroomi ala hoonestamise ideekonkursi võitsid QP Arhitektid (Tõnu Laigu, Koit Ojaliiv, Mari Rass, Asko Uukado) ja Salto Arhitektuuribüroo (Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik, Maarja Kask). Kommenteerib Endrik Mänd

  10. Growth optimization and characterization of high mobility two-dimensional electron systems in AlAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Shivaji

    2009-02-15

    In this work two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) based on AlAs/AlGaAs heterostructures doped with Si are investigated. The electrons are confined in AlAs quantum wells (QWs) sandwiched between AlGaAs buffers. Analytical calculations and simulations for AlAs QWs are presented in the first chapter. The results show a cross-over width, above which the wide (001)-oriented QWs show double valley occupancy and wide (110)-oriented QWs show single valley occupancy. We solve the Schroedinger equation analytically for anisotropic masses. The solution shows the orientation dependence of the elliptical cyclotron orbit due to the anisotropic mass. We also present an introduction to the Landau level crossings based on g{sup *}m{sup *} product. In the next chapter, we present experimental results for the double-valley (001)-oriented AlAs QWs. We present the different structures of the deep AlAs QWs along with the low temperature magnetotransport data for these QWs. Thereafter, we present the results on shallow AlAs QWs. We achieved a mobility of 4.2 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/Vs at 330 mK for the deep backside doped AlAs QW. For the shallow QWs, we achieved a mobility of2.3 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/Vs at 330 mK, for a density of 2.9 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. From the magneto-transport data, we see evidence of the double-valley occupation for the (001)-oriented AlAs wide QWs. In the next chapter, we present experimental results for the single-valley (110)-oriented AlAs QWs. We deduced the donor binding energy and the doping efficiency for this facet from a doping series of double-sided doped QWs. Thereafter, we designed different structures for the (110)-oriented AlAs QWs, which we present along with their respective low temperature magneto-transport data. We measured one of the double-sided doped AlAs QWs at very high magnetic fields and low temperatures, down to 60 mK. At the end of the chapter, we present a spike feature observed in the magneto-transport data of these QWs. This

  11. Valor educativo y generalización del grupo "Alas por la vida" Educational value and generalization of "Alas por la Vida"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Hugo Cantero Ronquillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En el tratamiento del cáncer de mama, además de la agresión quirúrgica, en ocasiones mutilante, seguida o precedida por las molestias inherentes a los tratamientos oncoespecíficos, a veces persisten "heridas", que aunque invisibles, no siempre cierran totalmente, y afectan durante mucho tiempo, o toda la vida, a un grupo importante de pacientes y familiares cercanos. El proyecto "Alas por la vida" propone nuevas alternativas en el tratamiento de la mujer con cáncer de mama, que puedan prepararla para una nueva etapa, y vivir con el estatus de enferma crónica, que no refleje invalidez en el desempeño de sus funciones, que alcance la recuperación de su equilibrio biopsicosocial, y, consecuentemente, el disfrute de una adecuada calidad de vida. Mediante intercambios entre sobrevivientes de la enfermedad, familiares y profesionales, charlas científicas, sesiones de preguntas y respuestas, reflexiones de operadas en su lucha contra el cáncer de mama y también de sus esposos, así como con actividades socioculturales, etc., se han logrado resultados muy positivos por este grupo, lo que se refleja en encuestas realizadas a tal efecto. El Grupo de Apoyo a Pacientes Mastectomizadas "Alas por la vida", ha resultado ser un instrumento muy útil para elevar la autoestima y mejorar la calidad de vida de las sobrevivientes, que a la vez ha fortalecido y humanizado nuestra lucha contra el cáncer de mama, y se han aglutinando crecientemente más seguidores en esta noble causa, por lo que recomendamos se organicen proyectos similares en todas las provincias del país.In the treatment of beast cancer besides the surgical aggression occasionally mutilating followed or precedes by the molecules inherent to specific oncologic treatments, sometimes the "wounds" persist that although invisibles, not always are totally closed involving for much time or for life to a significant group of patients and close relatives.The project "Alas por la Vida" proposes

  12. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasmin, Saira, E-mail: rimzim1612@yahoo.com [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hana [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences, 125/1, Darus Salam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216 (Bangladesh); Faruquee, M.H. [Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Chiho [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  13. Evaluation of Partial Cut-out of Sacroiliac Screws From the Sacral Ala Slope via Pelvic Inlet and Outlet View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Hamilton, Ryan; Li, Ming; Ebraheim, Nabil A; He, Xianfeng; Liu, Jiayong; Zhu, Limei

    2015-12-01

    An anatomic and radiographic study of placement of sacroiliac screws. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of partial cut-out of sacroiliac screws from the sacral ala slope via inlet and outlet view. The partial cut-out of sacroiliac screws from the superior surface of sacral ala can jeopardize the L5 nerve root, which is difficult to identify on the pelvic inlet and outlet views. Computed tomography images of 60 patients without pelvic ring deformity or injury were used to measure the width (on inlet view) and height (on outlet view) of the sacral ala. The angle of the sacral ala slope was measured on lateral view. According to the measured parameters, the theoretical safe trajectories of screw placement were calculated using inverse trigonometric functions. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a sacroiliac screw was placed close to the midline on both inlet and outlet views, including posterosuperior, posteroinferior, anterosuperior, and anteroinferior regions to the midline. The incidence of screw partial cut-out from the superior surface of sacral ala was identified. The measured widths and heights of the sacral alas were 28.1 ± 2.8 and 29.8 ± 3.1 mm, respectively. The average angle between the superior aspect of the S1 vertebral body and the superior aspect of the sacral ala was 37.2 ± 2.5 degrees. The rate of partial cut-out of the screws from the superior surface of sacral ala slope was 12.5% (5/40) in posterosuperior, 0% (0/40) in posteroinferior, 70% (28/40) in anterosuperior, and 20% (8/40) in anteroinferior. To avoid the risk of partial cut-out from sacroiliac screw placement, more precise description should be added to the conventional description: the sacroiliac screws should be placed at the inferior half portion on outlet view and at the posterior half portion on inlet view. 4.

  14. Assay for identification of heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphism (Ala67Thr in human poliovirus receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Nandi

    2016-01-01

    Results: A new SNP assay for detection of heterozygous Ala67Thr genotype was developed and validated by testing 150 DNA samples. Heterozygous CD155 was detected in 27.33 per cent (41/150 of DNA samples tested by both SNP detection assay and sequencing. Interpretation & conclusions: The SNP detection assay was successfully developed for identification of Ala67Thr polymorphism in human PVR/CD155 gene. The SNP assay will be useful for large scale screening of DNA samples.

  15. Lifelong imbalanced LA/ALA intake impairs emotional and cognitive behavior via changes in brain endocannabinoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberletti, Erica; Piscitelli, Fabiana; De Castro, Valentina; Murru, Elisabetta; Gabaglio, Marina; Colucci, Paola; Fanali, Chiara; Prini, Pamela; Bisogno, Tiziana; Maccarrone, Mauro; Campolongo, Patrizia; Banni, Sebastiano; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric α-linolenic acid (ALA)-deficient and -enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared with animals fed a standard diet that was balanced in ALA/linoleic acid (LA) ratio. In the prefrontal cortex, both diets reduced 2-AG levels and increased MAG lipase expression, whereas only the enriched diet reduced AEA levels, simultaneously increasing FAAH expression. In the hippocampus, an ALA-enriched diet decreased AEA content and NAPE-PLD expression, and reduced 2-AG content while increasing MAG lipase expression. These findings highlight the importance of a diet balanced in fatty acid content for normal brain functions and to support a link between dietary ALA, the brain endocannabinoid system, and behavior, which indicates that dietary ALA intake is a sufficient condition for altering the endocannabinoid system in brain regions modulating mood and cognition. PMID:27903595

  16. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  17. HYDROLOGIC MODELLING OF KATSINA-ALA RIVER BASIN: AN EMERGING SCENARIO FROM LAKE NYOS THREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Akinyede

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the hydrologic system surrounding crater lakes is of great importance for prevention of flooding damages, conservation of ecological environment, and assessment of socio-economic impact of dam failure on the civilians in the downstream regions. Lake Nyos is a crater lake formed by volcanic activities at the Oku volcanic field on the Cameroon Volcanic Line. It is a freshwater lake with a maximum depth of 200 meter. In 1986, a limnic eruption at the lake emitted 1.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide from the bottom of saturated water into the air and suffocated up to 1,800 people and 3,500 livestock at nearby villages. The lake waters are held in place by a natural dam composed of loosely consolidated volcanic rock, which is now at the verge of collapse due to accelerated erosion. This study was carried out to determine the flood risks and vulnerability of population and infrastructure along Katsina-Ala drainage basins. The project integrated both satellite images and field datasets into a hydrologic model for Katsina-Ala River Basin and its vicinity including the Lake Nyos. ArcHydro was used to construct a hydrologic database as 'data models' and MIKE SHE was employed to conduct hydrologic simulations. Vulnerable infrastructures, population and socio-economic activities were identified to assist the Federal and State governments in disaster mitigation and management plans. The result of the project provides comprehensive knowledge of hydrologic system of Katsina-Ala drainage basin to mitigate potential future disasters from a potential dam failure and manage water resources against such disasters.

  18. IL6R Variation Asp358Ala Is a Potential Modifier of Lung Function in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gregory A; Robinson, Mac B; Hastie, Annette T; Li, Xingnan; Li, Huashi; Moore, Wendy C; Howard, Timothy D; Busse, William W.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Peters, Stephen P; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2012-01-01

    Background The IL6R SNP rs4129267 has recently been identified as an asthma susceptibility locus in subjects of European ancestry but has not been characterized with respect to asthma severity. The SNP rs4129267 is in linkage disequilibrium (r2=1) with the IL6R coding SNP rs2228145 (Asp358Ala). This IL6R coding change increases IL6 receptor shedding and promotes IL6 transsignaling. Objectives To evaluate the IL6R SNP rs2228145 with respect to asthma severity phenotypes. Methods The IL6R SNP rs2228145 was evaluated in subjects of European ancestry with asthma from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP). Lung function associations were replicated in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) cohort. Serum soluble IL6 receptor (sIL6R) levels were measured in subjects from SARP. Immunohistochemistry was used to qualitatively evaluate IL6R protein expression in BAL cells and endobronchial biopsies. Results The minor C allele of IL6R SNP rs2228145 was associated with lower ppFEV1 in the SARP cohort (p=0.005), the CSGA cohort (0.008), and in combined cohort analysis (p=0.003). Additional associations with ppFVC, FEV1/FVC, and PC20 were observed. The rs2228145 C allele (Ala358) was more frequent in severe asthma phenotypic clusters. Elevated serum sIL6R was associated with lower ppFEV1 (p=0.02) and lower ppFVC (p=0.008) (N=146). IL6R protein expression was observed in BAL macrophages, airway epithelium, vascular endothelium, and airway smooth muscle. Conclusions The IL6R coding SNP rs2228145 (Asp358Ala) is a potential modifier of lung function in asthma and may identify subjects at risk for more severe asthma. IL6 transsignaling may have a pathogenic role in the lung. PMID:22554704

  19. Functional and Histological Evaluation following Canine Vocal Fold Reconstruction Using Composite Thyroid Ala Perichondrium Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew R; Glab, Rachel; Gunderson, McLean; Maytag, Allison L; Yang, David T; Jiang, Jack J; Dailey, Seth H

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of vocal fold reconstruction using a composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap (CTAP) after unilateral vocal fold stripping in beagles. We hypothesized that CTAP would improve glottic closure, decrease phonation threshold pressure, and decrease perturbation. In addition, vocal folds with CTAP would exhibit neovascularization and fat with increased von Willebrand factor (vWF) and smooth muscle actin (SMA), reflecting neoangiogenesis and flap viability. Randomized controlled trial using beagles. University laboratory. Ten beagles underwent unilateral vocal fold stripping. Dogs in the scar-only group (n = 5) were sacrificed at 1 month. Dogs in the CTAP group (n = 5) underwent ipsilateral reconstruction with CTAP at 1 month and were sacrificed at 2 months. Excised larynx experiments evaluated vocal fold vibration using aerodynamic, acoustic, and mucosal wave measurements. Qualitative evaluation of vocal fold morphology and quantitative analysis of elastin, collagen, glycosaminoglycans, vWF, SMA, and hyaluronic acid were performed. Phonation threshold pressure (P = .005), percent jitter (P = .010), percent shimmer (P = .007), and open quotient (P = .007) were lower in the CTAP group. Neovascularization (P = .0079) and fat (P = .1667) occurred more with CTAP, although the difference in fat was not significant. von Willebrand factor was higher with CTAP vs contralateral normal fold (P = .110), although not statistically significant. Smooth muscle actin was higher with CTAP vs contralateral normal fold (P = .038) and scarred vocal folds (P = .022). Composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap restored glottic closure and vibratory periodicity following vocal fold scarring. Additional investigation on biologic response is warranted. Composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap offers an autologous, vascularized implant that can improve both vocal fold structure and function. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. Anomalous giant piezoresistance in AlAs 2D electron systems with antidot lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, O; Gokmen, T; Shkolnikov, Y P; De Poortere, E P; Shayegan, M

    2008-01-25

    An AlAs two-dimensional electron system patterned with an antidot lattice exhibits a giant piezoresistance effect at low temperatures, with a sign opposite to the piezoresistance observed in the unpatterned region. We suggest that the origin of this anomalous giant piezoresistance is the nonuniform strain in the antidot lattice and the exclusion of electrons occupying the two conduction-band valleys from different regions of the sample. This is analogous to the well-known giant magnetoresistance effect, with valley playing the role of spin and strain the role of magnetic field.

  1. PPARγ Pro12Ala and ACE ID polymorphisms are associated with BMI and fat distribution, but not metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS results from the combined effect of environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the possible association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE I/D polymorphisms with MetS and interaction between these genetic variants. Methods Three hundred sixty four unrelated Caucasian subjects were enrolled. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI were recorded. Body composition was estimated by impedance analysis; MetS was diagnosed by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. A fasting blood sample was obtained for glucose, insulin, lipid profile determination, and DNA isolation for genotyping. Results The prevalence of MetS did not differ across PPARγ2 or ACE polymorphisms. Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but lower systolic blood pressure compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes. A significant PPARγ2 gene-gender interaction was observed in the modulation of BMI, fat mass, and blood pressure, with significant associations found in women only. A PPARγ2-ACE risk genotype combination for BMI and fat mass was found, with ACE DD/PPARγ2 Ala subjects having a higher BMI (p = 0.002 and Fat Mass (p = 0.002. Pro12Ala was independently associated with waist circumference independent of BMI and gender. Conclusions Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but not a worse metabolic profile, possibly because of a more favorable adipose tissue distribution. A gene interaction exists between Pro12Ala and ACE I/D on BMI and fat mass. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of Pro12Ala polymorphism in adiposity distribution.

  2. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein Ala54Thr polymorphism is associated with peripheral atherosclerosis combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Salma A; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Ghattas, Maivel H; Mesbah, Noha M; Mehanna, Eman T

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) is expressed in enterocytes and binds saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism has been reported to effect lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between this polymorphism and peripheral atherosclerosis combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in an Egyptian population. The study was performed on 100 T2DM patients with peripheral atherosclerosis and 100 control subjects. The Ala54Thr polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, whereas serum FABP2 levels were determined using ELISA. Fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin concentrations, HbA1c, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were determined. There was a higher frequency of the Thr54 allele among the patient group (P = 0.002). In Ala54/Thr54 heterozygotes and carriers of the rare Thr54/Thr54 genotype, there were significant increases in BMI and FABP2. Those with the Thr54/Thr54 genotype had significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations; in addition, those with the Thr54/Thr54 genotype had significantly higher SBP and DBP than subjects with the Ala54/Ala54 and Ala54/Thr54 genotypes. There was a positive correlation between FABP2 levels and BMI, SBP and DBP, and a negative correlation with HDL-C. The Thr54 allele of the FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism was associated with an increased incidence of peripheral atherosclerosis combined with T2DM in the population studied. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and MEG of group II (201.90%) was even higher than that of group IV (184.70%). Liver glycogen and blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p < 0.05). The highest level of serum thyroxine (10.07 ng/ml), insulin-like growth factor-I (52.40 ng/ml) and insulin (9.73 μ IU/mL) were observed in group V. However, diet supplemented with Ala-Gln did not affect the levels of serum glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). After fish intraperitoneally injected with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, the fish survival rates were significantly increased in all Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of Ala-Gln in benefaction of the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance in Jian carp breeding. The

  4. PVR/CD155 Ala67Thr Mutation and Cleft Lip/Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Letra, Ariadne; Silva, Renato M; Granjeiro, Jose M; Shimizu, Takehiko; Poletta, Fernando A; Mereb, Juan C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M

    2018-03-01

    The 19q13 locus has been linked to cleft lip and palate by our group and independently by others. Here we fine mapped the region in an attempt to identify an etiological variant that can explain cleft lip and palate occurrence. A total of 2739 individuals born with cleft lip and palate, related to individuals born with cleft lip and palate, and unrelated were studied. We used linkage and association approaches to fine map the interval between D19S714 and D19S433 and genotypes were defined by the use of TaqMan chemistry. We confirmed our previous findings that markers in PVR/CD155 are associated with cleft lip and palate. We studied the mutation Ala67Thr further and calculated its penetrance. We also attempted to detect PVR/CD155 expression in human whole saliva. Our results showed that markers in PVR/CD155 are associated with cleft lip and palate and the penetrance of the Ala67Thr is very low (between 1% and 5%). We could not detect PVR/CD155 expression in adult human whole saliva and PVR/CD155 possibly interacts with maternal infection to predispose children to cleft lip only.

  5. Gene expression pattern at different time points following ALA-PDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwanger, T.; Sanovic, R.; Ruhdorfer, S.; Aberger, F.; Frischauf, A.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The photo sensitizer protoporphyrin IX, endogenously accumulated from the precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA), is a successful agent in photodynamic tumor therapy. In spite of encouraging clinical results, the basic mechanisms leading to cell death are not fully understood. We therefore set out to analyze the alteration of the gene expression pattern in the squamous cell carcinoma cell line A-431 at different time points after photodynamic treatment with endogenous protoporphyrin IX by cDNA-array technique. Cells were incubated for 16 hours with 100 μg/ml ALA and irradiated with a fluence of 3.5 J/cm 2 resulting in 50 % survival until 8 hours post treatment. RNA was isolated at 1.5, 3, 5 and 8 hours post treatment as well as of 3 controls (untreated, light only and dark), radioactively labelled by reverse transcription with 33P-dCTP and hybridized onto macroarray PCR filters containing PCR products of 2135 genes, which were selected for relevance in tumors, stress response and signal transduction. Verification of observed expression changes was carried out by real time PCR. We found a strong induction of expression of immediate early genes like c-fos as well as decreased expression of genes involved in proliferation like myc and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (author)

  6. AlaScan: A Graphical User Interface for Alanine Scanning Free-Energy Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Vijayaraj; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe

    2016-06-27

    Computation of the free-energy changes that underlie molecular recognition and association has gained significant importance due to its considerable potential in drug discovery. The massive increase of computational power in recent years substantiates the application of more accurate theoretical methods for the calculation of binding free energies. The impact of such advances is the application of parent approaches, like computational alanine scanning, to investigate in silico the effect of amino-acid replacement in protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes, or probe the thermostability of individual proteins. Because human effort represents a significant cost that precludes the routine use of this form of free-energy calculations, minimizing manual intervention constitutes a stringent prerequisite for any such systematic computation. With this objective in mind, we propose a new plug-in, referred to as AlaScan, developed within the popular visualization program VMD to automate the major steps in alanine-scanning calculations, employing free-energy perturbation as implemented in the widely used molecular dynamics code NAMD. The AlaScan plug-in can be utilized upstream, to prepare input files for selected alanine mutations. It can also be utilized downstream to perform the analysis of different alanine-scanning calculations and to report the free-energy estimates in a user-friendly graphical user interface, allowing favorable mutations to be identified at a glance. The plug-in also assists the end-user in assessing the reliability of the calculation through rapid visual inspection.

  7. Structural and functional analysis of the ASM p.Ala359Asp mutant that causes acid sphingomyelinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Mariana; Castro-Fernández, Víctor; Latorre, Mauricio; Castro, Juan; Schuchman, Edward H; Guixé, Victoria; González, Mauricio; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2016-10-21

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B are recessive hereditary disorders caused by deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). The p.Ala359Asp mutation has been described in several patients but its functional and structural effects in the protein are unknown. In order to characterize this mutation, we modeled the three-dimensional ASM structure using the recent available crystal of the mammalian ASM as a template. We found that the p.Ala359Asp mutation is localized in the hydrophobic core and far from the sphingomyelin binding site. However, energy function calculations using statistical potentials indicate that the mutation causes a decrease in ASM stability. Therefore, we investigated the functional effect of the p.Ala359Asp mutation in ASM expression, secretion, localization and activity in human fibroblasts. We found a 3.8% residual ASM activity compared to the wild-type enzyme, without changes in the other parameters evaluated. These results support the hypothesis that the p.Ala359Asp mutation causes structural alterations in the hydrophobic environment where ASM is located, decreasing its enzymatic activity. A similar effect was observed in other previously described NPDB mutations located outside the active site of the enzyme. This work shows the first full size ASM mutant model describe at date, providing a complete analysis of the structural and functional effects of the p.Ala359Asp mutation over the stability and activity of the enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Properties of myelin altered peptide ligand cyclo(87-99)(Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 render it a promising drug lead for immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraos, George; Rodi, Maria; Kalbacher, Hubert; Chatzantoni, Kokona; Karagiannis, Fotios; Synodinos, Loukas; Plotas, Panayiotis; Papalois, Apostolos; Dimisianos, Nikolaos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Tselios, Theodore; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Matsoukas, John

    2015-08-28

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and it has been established that autoreactive T helper (Th) cells play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Myelin basic protein (MBP) epitopes are major autoantigens in MS, and the sequence MBP87-99 is an immunodominant epitope. We have previously reported that MBP87-99 peptides with modifications at principal T-cell receptor (TCR) contact sites suppressed the induction of EAE symptoms in rats and SJL/J mice, diverted the immune response from Th1 to Th2 and generated antibodies that did not cross react with the native MBP protein. In this study, the linear and cyclic analogs of the MBP87-99 epitope, namely linear (Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 (P2) and cyclo(87-99)(Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 (P3), were evaluated for their binding to HLA-DR4, stability to lysosomal enzymes, their effect on cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from MS patients or healthy subjects (controls), and their effect in rat EAE. P1 peptide (wild-type, MBP87-99) was used as control. P2 and P3 did not alter significantly the cytokine secretion by control PBMC, in contrast to P1 that induced moderate IL-10 production. In MS PBMC, P2 and P3 induced the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ, with a simultaneous decrease of IL-10, whereas P1 caused a reduction of IL-10 secretion only. The cellular response to P3 indicated that cyclization did not affect the critical TCR contact sites in MS PBMC. Interestingly, the cyclic P3 analog was found to be a stronger binder to HLA-DR4 compared to linear P2. Moreover, cyclic P3 was more stable to proteolysis compared to linear P2. Finally, both P2 and P3 suppressed EAE induced by an encephalitogenic guinea pig MBP74-85 epitope in Lewis rats whereas P1 failed to do so. In conclusion, cyclization of myelin altered peptide ligand (Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 improved binding affinity to HLA-DR4, resistance to proteolysis and antigen-specific immunomodulation

  9. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF INTERACTIONS OF POLYMYXIN B3 AND ITS ALA-MUTANTS WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emergence of nosocomial bacterial pathogens (especially Gram-negative bacteria with multiple resistance against almost all available antibiotics is a growing medical problem. No novel drugs targeting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been developed in recent years. In this context, there has been greatly renewed interest to cyclic lipodecapeptides polymyxins. Polymyxins exhibit rapid bactericidal activity, they are specific and highly potent against Gramnegative bacteria, but have potential nephrotoxic side effects. So polymyxins are attractive lead compounds to develop analogues with improved microbiological, pharmacological and toxicological properties. A detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of polymyxin interactions with its cell targets is a prerequisite for the purposeful improvement of its therapeutic properties. The primary cell target of a polymyxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The binding site of polymyxin on LPS has been supposed to be Kdo2-lipid A fragment. Methods. For all molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation experiments the YASARA suite of programs was used. Complex of antimicrobial peptide polymyxin В3 (PmB3 with Kdo2-lipid A portion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide was constructed by rigid docking with flexible side chains of the peptide. By alanine scanning of polymyxin В3 bound to LPS followed by simulated annealing minimization of the complexes in explicit water environment, the molecular aspects of PmB3-LPS binding have been studied by 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations at 298 K and pH 7.0. The AMBER03 force field was used with a 1.05 nm force cutoff. To treat long range electrostatic interactions the Particle Mesh Ewald algorithm was used. Results. Ala-mutations of polymyxin’s residues Dab1, Dab3, Dab5, Dab8 and Dab9 in the PmB3-LPS complex caused sustained structural changes resulting in the notable loss in stability of

  10. Formação de professores e saberes docentes: trajetória e preocupações de uma pesquisadora da docência - uma entrevista com Ruth Mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Trento Rebello de Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A entrevista concedida pela pesquisadora mexicana Ruth Mercado Maldonado em outubro de 2013 traz importantes contribuições para o campo educacional ao tratar de temas contemporâneos a partir da experiência profissional de uma investigadora de renome internacional. Docente e pesquisadora do Departamiento de Investigaciones Educativas del Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (DIE-CINVESTAV, a Dra. Ruth Mercado mantém contato com pesquisadores brasileiros desde a década de 1980, debatendo temas envolvendo a etnografia e a formação de professores. A abordagem etnográfica, calcada na articulação entre trabalho empírico e conceitual, possibilita que a autora, a partir do pensamento de Agnes Heller, Mikhail Bakhtin e Lev Vigotsky, dentre outros, produza uma construção teórica própria acerca dos saberes docentes. Sua trajetória revela as concepções de uma pesquisadora que busca compreender a perspectiva do outro, distanciando-se dos olhares avaliativos e prescritivos comuns ao campo pedagógico. Na entrevista, a autora aborda, de modo instigante, questões atuais e relativas ao campo da formação inicial e continuada de professores: o processo de universitarização e suas implicações, o papel dos formadores, as relações entre cultura universitária e cultura escolar. Suas reflexões sobre a história da profissão docente no México e da criação de programas de mestrado profissional em diferentes países oferecem contribuições importantes para a comunidade educacional da América Latina. A leitura da entrevista envolve, assim, um convite à reflexão sobre os desafios que a universidade e seus profissionais enfrentam na construção de propostas de formação docente adequadas às necessidades, demandas e características próprias daqueles que atuam na educação básica.

  11. Usaha Peningkatan Konservasi Mamalia di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo melalui Wisata Safari pada Generasi Muda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina - Aulia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Wisata Safari melalui mammal watching berpotensi mendukung konservasi alam dan meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat setempat. Penelitian ini bertujuan meningkatkan kualitas apresiasi generasi muda tentang pentingnya diversitas dan konservasi mamalia melalui wisata safari di taman Nasional Alas Purwo. Penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi-experimental research design ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua perlakuan, yaitu kelompok wisatawan dan kelompok kontrol. Penelitian ini melibatkan enam wisatawan sebagai ulangan. Mammal watching berlangsung selama dua hari pada pagi hingga sore hari di tiga lokasi pengamatan yaitu Padang Rumput Sadengan, Pantai Triangulasi, dan Jalur Triangulasi-Pancur. Saat mammal watching wisatawan melihat aktifitas mamalia mencari makan, atraksi brakhiasi, serta menikmati parade senja. Penilaian persepsi awal, peningkatan kualitas apresiasi generasi muda terhadap diversitas dan konservasi serta evaluasi kegiatan secara keseluruhan diperoleh melalui kuesioner. Data berupa jawaban deskriptif dikonversi melalui penilaian kualitas jawaban 0-100. Data numerik dianalisis menggunakan uji T pada α=0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persepsi awal wisatawan lebih baik daripada kontrol. Salah satu poin penting sebelum melakukan kegiatan pengamatan satwa mamalia (mammal watching adalah pembekalan. Mammal watching menambah pemahaman mengenai diversitas dan konservasi mammalia di ranah kognitif, afektif, maupun psikomotorik wisatawan. Keseluruhan rangakaian kegiatan wisata safari meliputi pembekalan, pembagian field guide, mammal watching dan evaluasi dapat meningkatkan apresiasi wisatawan. Wisata safari dapat digunakan sebagai sarana penelitian, hiburan untuk wisatawan dan pemasukan bagi taman nasional. Kata kunci: generasi muda, konservasi, mammals watching, Taman Nasional Alas Purwo   Abstract Wildlife Tourism, especially mammals watching, have play an important role to conserve natural resources and

  12. The association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARg gene and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between the Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome-proliferator-activator receptor gamma PPARg -2 and physical activity in the association with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg m-2) was explored in 901 women and 903 men between 30 and 75 years participating in a population survey of cardiovascular...... disease risk factors in Vara, Sweden, (participation rate 81%). Questionnaires and interviews covered physical activity at leisure time (LTPA), smoking habits and socio-economic background, and anthropometric measures were ascertained. Obesity was found in 26% of the women and 20% of the men......: 0.19-5.91). This association was not seen in men or in women women above 50 years, but this risk was prevented already by a moderate level of LTPA. These findings support the emphasis...

  13. Aktivitas Manusia dan Distribusi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Imron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Activities and Distribution of Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 in Alas Purwo National Park This study aims to comprehend whether human activities contribute to the presence of banteng (Bos sundaicus d’Alton 1836 in the Alas Purwo National Park (APNP. We laid continuous strip line transects from centre of human activities to the direction of core area of APNP. Three locations were selected: Sadengan grazing area, Giri Salaka Hinduism praying area, and Kutorejo village; representing low to high human disturbance respectively. We collected both direct and indirect presence of banteng as well as human activities within 20 metre strip lines with 10 metre width. Data were compiled each 100 metres and analyzed with means comparison to observe difference among locations. Correlation analyses were used to assess the relation between distance from centre of human activities, human activities and banteng presence. Regression analysis was used when  significant correlations found. Our non parametric test showed that human disturbances are significantly different among sites (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 6.220, p< 0.05. In similar tendency but different manner, it is showed that the different levels of human disturbance conveyed significant difference in number of banteng’s tracks (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 18.888, p< 0.05. The distance from centre of human activities is negatively related to number of human tracks (Spearman rho; r2= -0.307 N= 64, p<0.05* and also to number of banteng’s tracks (Spearman rho, r2= -0.728 N= 30, p<0.05**. The regression analysis showed that number of human tracks explained 18.6% of total variation on number of Banteng’s tracks, while distance from centre of human activities explained 59%.

  14. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Martini, I A; Muskiet, F A

    Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

  15. PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK INDIVIDU TERHADAP SIKAP GOOD FORESTRY GOVERNANCE DI TAMAN NASIONAL ALAS PURWO (The influence of individual characteristic toward attitude to Good Forestry Governance in Alas Purwo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Atmojo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Organisasi taman nasional di Indonesia mengalami berbagai permasalahan di berbagai simpul dan membutuhkan upaya perbaikan kelembagaan. Salah satu upaya pembenahan adalah perbaikan aspek perilaku organisasi yang mengarah kepada pembentukan good forestry governance. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan data dan penjelasan mengenai pengaruh karakteristik individu orang-orang yang bekerja di Taman Nasional (TN Alas Purwo terhadap sikap good forestry governance (GFG. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di TN Alas Purwo pada bulan November-Desember 2011 dengan menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Responden diambil secara purposive sampling terhadap personel TN Alas Purwo. Analisis data menggunakan uji regresi sederhana. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakteristik individu berpengaruh terhadap sikap good forestry governance. Persamaan regresi yang dihasilkan adalah GFG = 27,449 + 0,463 KI dengan nilai adjusted R2 0,287. Manajemen TN Alas Purwo perlu menaikan kualitas karakteristik individu personel taman nasional dengan melakukan berbagai tindakan manajemen. Implikasi disain organisasi yang tepat untuk tindakan manajemen ini adalah struktur organisasi organik. ABSTRACT In Indonesia, most of national parks have encountered several problems, which need efforts to improve their management. good forestry governance (GFG is one conceptualisation that can be used to improve aspects of organizational behavior in the management of conservation areas. In this research, we obtain data and explanation about influence of the individual characteristic (KI of Alas Purwo National Park with GFG attitude. Using quantitative methods, this study was conducted between November-December  2011. The respondents were staff of Alas Purwo National Park who taken by purposively. We perform data analysis with a simple regression test. The results indicate that the GFG attitude affected individual characteristic. The model is GFG attitude = 27.449 + 0.463 KI with adjusted R2 0,287. We

  16. Novel Association of WNK4 Gene, Ala589Ser Polymorphism in Essential Hypertension, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Ghodsian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With-no-lysine (K Kinase-4 (WNK4 consisted of unique serine and threonine protein kinases, genetically associated with an autosomal dominant form of hypertension. Argumentative consequences have lately arisen on the association of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms of WNK4 gene and essential hypertension (EHT. The aim of this study was to determine the association of Ala589Ser polymorphism of WNK4 gene with essential hypertensive patients in Malaysia. WNK4 gene polymorphism was specified utilizing mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method in 320 subjects including 163 cases and 157 controls. Close relation between Ala589Ser polymorphism and elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP was recognized. Sociodemographic factors including body mass index (BMI, age, the level of fasting blood sugar (FBS, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglyceride (TG in the cases and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (p<0.05. The distribution of allele frequency and genotype of WNK4 gene Ala589Ser polymorphism showed significant differences (p<0.05 between EHT subjects with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and normotensive subjects, statistically. The WNK4 gene variation influences significantly blood pressure increase. Ala589Ser probably has effects on the enzymic activity leading to enhanced predisposition to the disorder.

  17. The use of 5-ALA to assist complete removal of residual non-enhancing part of childhood medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Bøgeskov, Lars; Sehested, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: The child was pretreated with 3 × 4 mg dexamethasone for 4 days prior to the second surgery. At 5 a.m. on the day of surgery, a freshly prepared solution of 5-ALA (20 mg/kg body weight; Medac, Germany) was given orally. RESULTS: At surgery, through the original opening, the vague red fluorescence...

  18. Professor Trechsel : Eesti e-valimiste aeg on liiga lühike / Alexander H. Trechsel ; interv. Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trechsel, Alexander H.

    2006-01-01

    e-valimistele pühendatud rahvusvahelisel konverentsil esinenud Genfi ülikooli e-demokraatia keskuse juhataja, poliitikateaduste professor Eesti e-valimistest ja e-valimiste tulevikust. Vt. samas: Askur Alas. Konverentsil analüüsiti e-valimiste kogemusi; Eestis hääletas digitaalselt 9317 valijat

  19. Comparison of the crystal structure and function to wild-type and His25Ala mutant human heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Pu; Zhong, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zi-Li; Xia, Zhen-Wei

    2009-03-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in heme metabolism. It regulates serum bilirubin level. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that the proximal residue histidine 25 (His25) plays a key role in hHO-1 activity. A highly purified hHO-1 His25Ala mutant was generated and crystallized with a new expression system. The crystal structure of the mutant was determined by X-ray diffraction technology and molecular replacement at the resolution of 2.8 A, and the model of hHO-1 His25Ala mutant was refined. The final crystallographic and free R factors were 0.245 and 0.283, respectively. The standard bond length deviation was 0.007 A, and the standard bond angle deviation was 1.3 degrees . The mutation of His25 to Ala led to an empty pocket underneath the ferric ion in the heme, leading to loss of binding iron ligand. Although this did not cause an overall structural change, the enzymatic activity of the mutant hHO-1 was reduced by 90%. By supplementing imidazole, the HO-1 activity was restored approximately 90% to its normal level. These data suggest that Ala25 remains unchanged in the structure compared to His25, but the important catalytic function of hHO-1 is lost. Thus, it appears that His25 is a crucial residue for proper hHO-1 catalysis.

  20. Tunnustati parimaid üliõpilasteadlasi / Elsa Suuster, Marit Alas, Annely Aleksejev ; küsitlenud Vilma Rauniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Putku, Elsa, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Vestlus üliõpilaste teadustööde riikliku konkursi kolme laureaadiga, kelle uurimistöö oli tehtud Saare maakonnas. Nendeks on Elsa Suuster ja Annely Aleksejev Eesti Maaülikoolist ning Marit Alas Tallinna Ülikoolist

  1. [Ala12]MCD peptide: a lead peptide to inhibitors of immunoglobulin E binding to mast cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buku, A; Condie, B A; Price, J A; Mezei, M

    2005-09-01

    An effort was made to discover mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide analogs that bind with high affinity to mast cell receptors without triggering secretion of histamine or other mediators of the allergic reaction initiated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) after mast cell activation. Such compounds could serve as inhibitors of IgE binding to mast cell receptors. An alanine scan of MCD peptide reported previously showed that the analog [Ala12]MCD was 120-fold less potent in histamine-releasing activity and fivefold more potent in binding affinity to mast cell receptors than the parent MCD peptide. Because this analog showed marginal intrinsic activity and good binding affinity it was subsequently tested in the present study as an IgE inhibitor. In contrast to MCD peptide, [Ala12]MCD showed a 50% inhibition of IgE binding to the Fc epsilon RI alpha mast cell receptor by using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and fluorescence polarization. Furthermore, in a beta-hexosaminidase secretory assay, the peptide also showed a 50% inhibition of the secretion of this enzyme caused by IgE. An attempt was made to relate structural changes and biologic differences between the [Ala12]MCD analog and the parent MCD peptide. The present results show that [Ala12]MCD may provide a base for designing agents to prevent IgE/Fc epsilon RI alpha interactions and, consequently, allergic conditions.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) Pro12Ala polymorphism and risk for pediatric obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedoussis, George V; Vidra, Nikoleta; Butler, Johannah; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Yannakoulia, Mary; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lyon, Helen N; Vidra, Nikoletta

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene has been reported to alter the risk for adiposity in adults. METHODS: We investigated the gender related association between the Pro12Ala variant (rs1801282) in obesity and insulin resistance traits in 794

  3. Studies of the common DIO2 Thr92Ala polymorphism and metabolic phenotypes in 7342 Danish white subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andersen, Mette K; Andreasen, Camilla H

    2007-01-01

    The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) catalyzes the conversion of T(4) to the active form of thyroid hormone, which is a critical regulator of thermogenesis and glucose metabolism. A Thr92Ala polymorphism in the gene encoding D2 (DIO2) has been reported to associate with insulin resistance....

  4. Evaluation of glucose metabolism and reproductive hormones in polycystic ovary syndrome on the basis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2 Pro12Ala genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, E C; Aktas, A; Ertunc, D; Erdal, E M; Dilek, S

    2005-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism has been suggested as a protective factor for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, we aimed to investigate metabolic features and reproductive hormones in women with PCOS and compare these features with control women on the basis of Pro12Ala genotype. This study involved 60 randomly selected women with PCOS and 60 controls. Main outcome measures were anthropometric measures, variables of glucose metabolism and reproductive hormones. All the patients were genotyped for Pro12Ala variant of PPAR-gamma2 gene. Patients with Pro12Ala polymorphism were more obese in both groups. Furthermore, they had lower fasting insulin levels, were less insulin-resistant and were less glucose-intolerant as demonstrated by 2 h glucose concentrations. However, there was no difference in reproductive hormone levels on the basis of Pro12Ala genotype. Both control women and women with PCOS had significant differences in glucose metabolism on the basis of PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism. Pro12Ala variant may break the process that leads to PCOS in susceptible women, instead of being a direct causal relationship between Pro12Ala polymorphism and PCOS.

  5. Thr92Ala polymorphism in the type 2 deiodinase is not associated with T4 dose in athyroid patients or patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, K. A.; Hoftijzer, H. C.; van der Deure, W. M.; Peeters, R. P.; Fliers, E.; Appelhof, B. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Visser, T. J.; Smit, J. W. A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: The type 2 deiodinase (D2)-Thr92Ala polymorphism has been associated with decreased D2 activity in some in vitro experiments but not in others. So far no association between the D2-Thr92Ala polymorphism and serum thyroid hormone levels has been observed in humans, but in a recent

  6. Proteomics and SSH analyses of ALA-promoted fruit coloration and evidence for the involvement of a MADS-box gene, MdMADS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-freeseparation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related gene. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1, a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX and MdUFGT in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1-silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  7. Evaluation of labelling conditions, quality control and biodistribution study of 99mTc-5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). A potential liver imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalim Ullah Khan; Mohammad Rafi; Samina Roohi; Rizwana Zahoor; Zafar Iqbal; Mushtaq Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Labelling of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with 99m Tc was achieved by using SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O as reducing agent. Radiochemical purity and labelling efficiency was determined by instant thin layer chromatography/paper chromatography. Efficiency of labelling was dependent on many parameters such as amount of ligand, reducing agent, pH, and time of incubation. 99m Tc labelled 5-ALA remained stable for 24 h in human serum. Tissue biodistribution of 99m Tc-5-ALA was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biodistribution study (% ID/g) in rats revealed that 99m Tc-5-ALA was accumulated significantly in liver, spleen, stomach and intestine after half hour, 4 and 24 h. Significant activity was noted in bladder and urine at 4 h. High liver uptake of 99m Tc-5-ALA makes it a promising liver imaging agent. (author)

  8. Impact of an AlAs window layer upon the optical properties of Al x Ga1-x As photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T.; Chen, X. J.; Johnson, E. B.; Christian, J. F.; Lee, K.; Hammig, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    Recently developed advanced scintillators, which have the ability to distinguish gamma-ray interaction events from those that accompany neutron impact, require improved quantum efficiency in the blue to near UV region of the spectrum. We utilize GaAs/Al0.8Ga0.2As photodiode elements as components in a wide band-gap solid-state photomultiplier as a lower-cost, lower logistical burden, and higher quantum efficiency replacement for the photomultiplier tube. An AlAs window layer is employed as a means to increase the diode’s optical performance. Relative to structures absent the window layer, simulations and measurements demonstrate that the AlAs layer produces a spatial coincidence between regions of large drift fields with regions of high photon absorption. In addition to the AlAs layer, secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that an unexpected high degree of inter-diffusion of GaAs and AlAs quenches the photon-detection efficiency, a decrease that can be avoided by its post-growth removal. With the AlAs layer, the peak external quantum efficiency of 49% is achieved at 450 nm with 10 V reverse bias, which does not fully deplete the device. Simulations show that full depletion can result in efficiencies exceeding 90%. In order to enhance the optical response, a simple anti-reflective coating layer is designed using the existing passivation layer components that successfully minimizes the reflection at the wavelength range of interest (300 nm-500 nm).

  9. Association of PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism with insulin sensitivity and body mass index in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Cerne, Jasmina Z; Ferk, Polonca; Simunic, Velimir; Gersak, Ksenija

    2014-03-01

    Insulin resistance is one of the key factors in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) plays a role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to establish a possible association of the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism with PCOS and its effect on family and personal history, as well as on the metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS patients. A total of 151 PCOS patients and 179 healthy women of reproductive age were enrolled. History, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio and the presence of phenotypic hyperandrogenism were recorded. Hormonal, metabolic and biochemical profiles were assessed. A molecular analysis for the genetic polymorphism was performed. One third (29.8%) of the PCOS patients were found to be carriers of at least one variant of the Ala allele (X/Ala), while 70.2% carried two wild-type Pro alleles (Pro/Pro), with an equal distribution observed in the control group. The PCOS patients carrying the X/Ala alleles exhibited lower serum fasting insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI compared to Pro/Pro carriers. This finding was significant only in the lean PCOS group. The polymorphic genotype exerted no effect on history, hormonal and clinical hyperandrogenism, lipid status or C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and ghrelin serum levels in women with PCOS. In conclusion, although the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism is not a major determinant of PCOS in the Croatian population, it may exert a positive effect on insulin sensitivity and BMI. As these associations were recorded exclusively in the lean group of patients with PCOS, this polymorphism potentially contributes to a protective role against hyperinsulinemia and obesity.

  10. Similarities and differences in political opinions of Abul A'la Mawdudi and Sayyid Qutb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ejub Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the academic literature in the West, Abul A'la Mawdudi and Sayyid Qutb are often referred to as the thinkers who have, through their thinking and activism, set the foundations for radical Islamist ideas which are said to have served as the basis for the emergence of jihadist movements. Moreover, in the West their intellectual heritage and thought have been to a great extent identified as the same. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show impartially the true nature of their political thought, and in addition to similarities in their thinking identify differences in their development, intellectual approach and activism. This attempt at differentiating opinions of the two Muslim intellectuals comes as a result of insight into the fact that scientists in the West are often inclined to a gross simplification and identifying of Islamic thinkers and movements for the sake of ideologically coloured academic prerequisites, and without deeper analyses. This paper will also provide terminology solutions for certain aspects of Islamic activism.

  11. PENGEMBANGAN MANAJEMEN DAYA TARIK WISATA BERBASIS QUALITY EXPERIENCES DI OBJEK WISATA ALAS KEDATON TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayu Indrawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent days, to understanding the consumers behaviour is becoming a primary concern in marketing.This is also including in tourism marketing particularly tourism destination. The phenomenon of understandingthe consumer taste in tourism is popularly known as quality experience. It has a meaning that when tourist spendstheir money on a certain destination they expect for quality experience. It can be seen on their satisfaction thatappear on their willingness to revisit or giving the positive impression to their friends and relatives. Today, thereis a downward point in tourist destination in the last five years. Previously there were 1500 visitors per day, butlately it is only 10.000 both for international and domestic visitors. It is caused by the raise of competitor’s numberand the tourist responses towards Alas Kedaton site. Such impression comes from its cleanliness, the hospitalityof the staff, the price of entrance fee, and lack of facilities. Other instances are the uncomfortable way to get tothe site, as well as the absence of spiritual facilities for Muslim visitors for praying during their visit to this place.

  12. Integration of seismic and petrophysics to characterize reservoirs in "ALA" oil field, Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, P A; Olabode, S O; Opeloye, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of -2,453 to -3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  13. Study of false positives in 5-ALA induced photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draga, Ronald O. P.; Grimbergen, Matthijs C. M.; Kok, Esther T.; Jonges, Trudy G. N.; Bosch, J. L. H. R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a technique that enhances the detection of tumors during cystoscopy using a photosensitizer which accumulates primarily in cancerous cells and will fluoresce when illuminated by violetblue light. A disadvantage of PDD is the relatively low specificity. In this retrospective study we aimed to identify predictors for false positive findings in PDD. Factors such as gender, age, recent transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT), previous intravesical therapy (IVT) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were examined for association with the false positive rates in a multivariate analysis. Data of 366 procedures and 200 patients were collected. Patients were instilled with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) intravesically and 1253 biopsies were taken from tumors and suspicious lesions. Female gender and TURBT are independent predictors of false positives in PDD. However, previous intravesical therapy with Bacille Calmette-Guérin is also an important predictor of false positives. The false positive rate decreases during the first 9-12 weeks after the latest TURBT and the latest intravesical chemotherapy. Although shortly after IVT and TURBT false positives increase, PDD improves the diagnostic sensitivity and results in more adequate treatment strategies in a significant number of patients.

  14. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPase ALA3 Reduces Adaptability to Temperature Stresses and Impairs Vegetative, Pollen, and Ovule Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowell, Stephen C.; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager

    2013-01-01

    , a P4-ATPase associated with the trans-Golgi network (ALA3) was previously reported to be important for vegetative growth and reproductive success. Here we show that multiple phenotypes for ala3 knockouts are sensitive to growth conditions. For example, ala3 rosette size was observed to be dependent...

  15. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. © 2013.

  16. cDNAs encoding [D-Ala2]deltorphin precursors from skin of Phyllomedusa bicolor also contain genetic information for three dermorphin-related opioid peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, K; Egger, R; Negri, L; Corsi, R; Severini, C; Kreil, G

    1990-01-01

    We present the structure of four precursors for [D-Ala2]deltorphins I and II as deduced from cDNAs cloned from skin of the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. These contain the genetic information for one copy of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II and zero, one, or three copies of [D-Ala2]deltorphin I. In each case, the D-alanine of the end product is encoded by a normal GCG codon for L-alanine. In addition, the existence of three peptides related to dermorphin was predicted from the amino acid sequence of the pre...

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) Pro12Ala polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shao, Yan; Tang, Shenhua; Cheng, Xianyong; Lian, Haifeng; Qin, Chengyong

    2015-01-01

    The association between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) Pro12Ala polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and CRC risk. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. A total of 17 case-control studies with 12635 and 15803 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism was associated with CRC risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.94, P = 0.003, I(2) = 35%). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was found among Caucasians (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96, P = 0.007, I(2) = 38%) but not among Asians (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.51-1.12, P = 0.17, I(2) = 28%). In the subgroup analysis by CRC site, a significant association was found among colon cancer (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-0.98, P = 0.03, I(2) = 16%) but not among rectal cancer (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.57-1.21, P = 0.34, I(2) = 63%). The sensitivity analysis did not influence the result by omitting low-quality studies (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.93, P = 0.006, I(2) = 51%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism was significant associated with CRC risk.

  18. Habitat Dan Perilaku Kangkareng Perut-putih (Anthracoceros Albirostris Convexus Temm. 1832) Di Resort Rowobendo Tn Alas Purwo

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Salvionita BR; Hernowo, Jarwadi Budi

    2016-01-01

    Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) is one of hornbill spesies (Bucerotidae) that protected in Indonesia based on Goverment Regulation No. 7/1999. The habitat of oriental pied hornbillin Resort Rowobendo Alas Purwo National Park (APNP) are natural forest and mixed forest plantation. The characteristic of the bird feeding site is a fruiting tree with a thick meat with the shaped is an oval, thin rind, soft, and contain more water and has sweet taste. The characteristic for the b...

  19. HABITAT DAN PERILAKU KANGKARENG PERUT-PUTIH (Anthracoceros albirostris convexus Temm. 1832) DI RESORT ROWOBENDO TN ALAS PURWO

    OpenAIRE

    Salvionita BR Tarigan; Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2017-01-01

    Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) is one of hornbill spesies (Bucerotidae) that protected in Indonesia based on Goverment Regulation No. 7/1999. The habitat of oriental pied hornbillin Resort Rowobendo Alas Purwo National Park (APNP) are natural forest and mixed forest plantation. The characteristic of the bird feeding site is a fruiting tree with a thick meat with the shaped is an oval, thin rind, soft, and contain more water and has sweet taste. The characteristic for the b...

  20. Dietary ALA, EPA and DHA have distinct effects on oxylipin profiles in female and male rat kidney, liver and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shan; Winter, Tanja; Aukema, Harold M

    2018-04-18

    There is much data on the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on tissue fatty acid compositions, but comparable comprehensive data on their oxygenated metabolites (oxylipins) is limited. The effects of providing female and male rats with diets high in α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA or DHA for 6 weeks on oxylipins and fatty acids in kidney, liver and serum were therefore examined. The oxylipin profile generally reflected fatty acids, but it also revealed unique effects of individual n-3 fatty acids that were not apparent from fatty acid data alone. Dietary ALA increased renal and serum DHA oxylipins even though DHA itself did not increase, while dietary EPA did not increase DHA oxylipins in kidney or liver, suggesting that high EPA may inhibit this conversion. Oxylipin data generally corroborated fatty acid data that indicated that DHA can be retroconverted to EPA and that further retroconversion to ALA is limited. Dietary n-3 fatty acids decreased n-6 fatty acids and their oxylipins (except linoleic acid and its oxylipins), in order of effectiveness of DHA > EPA > ALA, with some exceptions: several arachidonic acid oxylipins modified at carbon 15 were not lower in all three sites, and EPA had a greater effect on 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and its metabolites in the liver. Oxylipins were predominantly higher in males, which was not reflective of fatty acids. Tissue-specific oxylipin profiles, therefore, provide further information on individual dietary n-3 fatty acid and sex effects that may help explain their unique physiological effects and have implications for dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Refractive properties of imidazolium ionic liquids with alanine anion [C n mim][Ala] ( n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cai-bin; Li, Jing; Yi, Zhe; Ai, Hong-jun

    2017-10-01

    Imidazolium ionic liquids with alanine anion, [C n mim][Ala] ( n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), were prepared and characterized. The standard addition method was used to measure refractivity of the synthesized ionic liquids in order to eliminate the effect of water traces in the ionic liquids. The molar refraction and molecular polarizability were also calculated by Lorentz-Lorenz's method. Using liner extrapolation, the semiempirical estimation method for optical properties of other ionic liquids with amino acid anions was established.

  2. Association of Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-γ2 Gene and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the relationship between Prol2Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ2(PPAR-γ2gene and diabetic retinopathy(DRwith type 2 diabetic mellitus(T2DMof the Han nationality in Shanxi province. METHODS: Totally 90 patients with T2DM were selected into our research, who were at the age of 40 to 70 years old, diabetic duration from 10 to 20 years, blood pressure PPAR-γ2 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms(PCR-RFLPassay in all the patients. RESULTS: PCR results showed that there were 2 alleles and 3 genotypes in the groups. The frequency of genotype PP, PA, AA were 40.0%, 53.3%, 6.7% in NDR group, 70.0%, 30.0%, 0.0% in BDR group, 76.7%, 23.3%, 0% in PDR group, respectively. The allele frequency(χ2=10.208and gene frequency(χ2=10.351were statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: The alanine variant of Prol2Ala polymorphism of PPAR-γ2 gene is associated with DR in type 2 diabetes among the Hans in Shanxi area, and the Ala allele might be a protective factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Spinal antinociceptive effects of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II, a novel and highly selective delta-opioid receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, G; Broccardo, M

    1992-01-01

    Pharmacological assays in isolated tissues and binding tests have recently shown that two peptides, with the sequence Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Asp-(or Glu)- Val-Val-Gly-NH2, isolated from skin extracts of Phyllomedusa bicolor and named [D-Ala2]deltorphin I and II, respectively, possess a higher affinity and selectivity for delta-opioid receptors than any other known natural compound. Since much evidence supports the role of spinal delta-opioid sites in producing antinociceptive effects, we investigated whether analgesia might be detected by direct spinal cord administration of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II (DADELT II) in the rat. The thermal antinociceptive effects of intrathecal DADELT II and dermorphin, a potent mu-selective agonist, were compared at different postinjection times by means of the tail-flick test. The DADELT II produced a dose-related inhibition of the tail-flick response, which lasted 10-60 min depending on the dose and appeared to be of shorter duration than the analgesia produced in rats after intrathecal injection of dermorphin (20-120 min). The analgesic effect of infused or injected DADELT II was completely abolished by naltrindole, the highly selective delta antagonist. These results confirm the involvement of delta receptors in spinal analgesic activity in the rat.

  4. Surgical strategy for malignant gliomas involving pyramidal tracts guided by functional neuronavigation and 5-ALA fluorescence navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ken-ichi; Ito, Tamio; Seo, Yoshinobu; Sunohara, Tadashi; Maeda, Masana; Sasaki, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2009-01-01

    For patients with malignant glioma invading pyramidal tracts, maximal resections are difficult to accomplish while preserving their motor function. We used tractography-integrated functional neuronavigation and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided resection for removal of malignant gliomas involving pyramidal tract. In this study, we analyzed postoperative motor function and extent of resection in a series of patients who underwent surgery in our department. Ten patients with malignant glioma invading pyramidal tracts underwent radical surgery. To preserve pyramidal tracts, we developed a functional neuronavigation-guided fence-post procedure to avoid the problem of brain shift, a disadvantage of the existing neuronavigation systems. Furthermore we have achieved precise resection of tumors using 5-ALA fluorescence navigation. Intraoperatively, tumor fluorescence was visualized using a modified operating microscope. All fluorescing tumor tissue was resected. Motor function was preserved after appropriate tumor resection in all cases. Postoperatively, improvement of motor weakness was observed in seven patients, whereas transient mild motor weakness occurred in two patients. Gross total removals were accomplished in seven patients, and subtotal removal was accomplished in one patient, and partial removal was accomplished in two patients. Combined use of tractography-integrated functional neuronavigation and 5-ALA fluorescence-guided resection contributes to maximal safe resection of malignant gliomas with pyramidal tract involvement. (author)

  5. EDUCACIÓN Y RESILIENCIA: ALAS DE LA TRANSFORMACIÓN SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana López Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tratándose de un nuevo paradigma de desarrollo, la resiliencia propone que no todas las personas que crecen en condiciones de adversidad, pobreza y desigualdad social serán adultos condenados al fracaso, a la delincuencia o a la locura; por el contrario, este concepto enfatiza en el potencial humano y hace un llamado a la esperanza y a la responsabilidad colectiva en la promoción de cambio social. El presente ensayo parte de una revisión analítica de literatura reciente sobre resiliencia, en el marco del trabajo realizado durante el año 2009 por el grupo "Esperanza y Vida", en la línea de investigación denominada "Resiliencia y contextos psicosociales", perteneciente al programa de Psicología de la Universidad Antonio Nariño (UAN Bogotá, Colombia. Este ejercicio reflexivo tiene como propósito analizar el concepto de resiliencia en el contexto escolar, considerando que este es uno de los primeros contactos de la infancia con la cultura, el lugar en donde las niñas y los niños van a preguntarse cómo funciona el mundo, el sitio donde pueden encontrar respuestas honestas y sugerencias útiles sobre cómo comprenderlo y cómo transformarlo; además, señala cómo acciones pedagógicas fundamentadas en el reconocimiento del estudiante como un agente responsable y activo en el proceso de aprendizaje, favorecen actitudes de compromiso en la promoción de la transformación social positiva.

  6. Tallinna sadama ümbruse maa-ala renoveerimise ideekonkurss 1996 = The area around the port of Tallinn : contest for renovation ideas 1996 / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    Tallinna sadamapiirkonnast. Linnaehituslik ideekava Tallinna kesklinna sadama ümbruse maa-ala renoveerimiseks (ideekonkursi võistlustöö arhitektuurne osa, 1996). Autorid: A. Alver, V. Kaasik, T. Trummal. Kaasautorid: T. Laht, S. Koppel, U. Mets

  7. Sperm quality after swim up and density gradient centrifugation sperm preparation with supplementation of alpha lipoic acid (ALA): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Silvia W.; Lestari, Sarah H.; Pujianto, Dwi A.

    2018-02-01

    Intra uterine insemination (IUI) as one of the treatment for infertility, persists low success rate. A factor that contributes to the unsuccessful of IUI is sperm preparation, performed through Swim-up (SU) and Density Gradient Centrifugation (DGC) methods. Furthermore, studies have shown that Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant that could enhance the sperm motility and protect the DNA integrity of the sperm [1]. This study is aimed to re-evaluate the efficiency of the DGC and SU methods in selecting sperm before being transferred for IUI by the supplementation of ALA based on the sperm DNA integrity. Semen samples were obtained from 13 men from partners of women who are infertile (normozoospermia) and underwent IUI. Semen analysis based on the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 was performed to measure the sperm motility and velocity, before and after sperm preparation. Then, samples were incubated with Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) in 0.625 mg (ALA 1), 1.25 mg (ALA 2) and 2.5 mg (ALA 3). The Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test was performed to evaluate the sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). The percentage of motile sperm was higher in prepared sperm (post-DGC and post-SU) than in whole semen. Furthermore, the percentage of motile sperm was higher in post-DGC compared to post-SU. The level of DFI after the supplementation of ALA was decreased in prepared sperm compared to the whole semen. ALA was proved capable to select the better sperm quality with decreased sperm DNA fragmentation of prepared sperm in the all of DFI category.

  8. Nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family regulates 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) gene expression in steroidogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yunfeng; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Yazawa, Takashi; Matsumura, Takehiro; Kawabe, Shinya; Kanno, Masafumi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2012-11-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) is a rate-limiting enzyme for heme biosynthesis in mammals. Heme is essential for the catalytic activities of P450 enzymes including steroid metabolic enzymes. Nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family proteins, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) play pivotal roles in regulation of steroidogenic enzymes. Recently, we showed that expression of SF-1/LRH-1 induces differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into steroidogenic cells. In this study, genome-wide analysis revealed that ALAS1 was a novel SF-1-target gene in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays revealed that SF-1/LRH-1 up-regulated ALAS1 gene transcription in steroidogenic cells via binding to a 3.5-kb upstream region of ALAS1. The ALAS1 gene was up-regulated by overexpression of SF-1/LRH-1 in steroidogenic cells and down-regulated by knockdown of SF-1 in these cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, a coactivator of nuclear receptors, also strongly coactivated expression of NR5A-target genes. Reporter analysis revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α strongly augmented ALAS1 gene transcription caused by SF-1 binding to the 3.5-kb upstream region. Finally knockdown of ALAS1 resulted in reduced progesterone production by steroidogenic cells. These results indicate that ALAS1 is a novel NR5A-target gene and participates in steroid hormone production.

  9. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA modulates expression of apoptosis associated proteins in hippocampus of rats exposed during postnatal period to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the role of exogenous alpha lipoic acid (ALA in amelioration of inorganic arsenic (iAs induced effects on apoptosis and apoptosis associated proteins in developing rat hippocampus. NaAsO2 (1.5/2.0 mg/kg bw alone or along with ALA (70 mg/kg bw was administered to rat pups (experimental groups by intraperitoneal (i.p. route from postnatal day (PND 4–15. Controls received no treatment/distilled water/ALA. On PND 16, the animals were perfusion fixed and the brains were processed for paraffin embedding (CV and TUNEL staining and cryopreservation (immunohistochemistry. The fresh brain tissue was used for Western blotting. Significant increase was observed in TUNEL positive cells and Bax (pro-apoptotic protein expression in hippocampal sub-regions of iAs alone treated groups, whereas Bcl-2 expression was intensified in animals receiving ALA with iAs. Densitometric analysis (Western blots revealed optimal restoration of Bax and Bcl-2 ratio in animals receiving ALA with iAs, thereby suggesting the protective role of ALA in iAs induced developmental neurotoxicity.

  10. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) modulates expression of apoptosis associated proteins in hippocampus of rats exposed during postnatal period to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shilpi; Dhar, Pushpa; Mehra, Raj D

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the role of exogenous alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in amelioration of inorganic arsenic ( iAs ) induced effects on apoptosis and apoptosis associated proteins in developing rat hippocampus. NaAsO 2 (1.5/2.0 mg/kg bw) alone or along with ALA (70 mg/kg bw) was administered to rat pups (experimental groups) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route from postnatal day (PND) 4-15. Controls received no treatment/distilled water/ALA. On PND 16, the animals were perfusion fixed and the brains were processed for paraffin embedding (CV and TUNEL staining) and cryopreservation (immunohistochemistry). The fresh brain tissue was used for Western blotting. Significant increase was observed in TUNEL positive cells and Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) expression in hippocampal sub-regions of iAs alone treated groups, whereas Bcl-2 expression was intensified in animals receiving ALA with iAs . Densitometric analysis (Western blots) revealed optimal restoration of Bax and Bcl-2 ratio in animals receiving ALA with iAs , thereby suggesting the protective role of ALA in iAs induced developmental neurotoxicity.

  11. The Thr92Ala deiodinase type 2 (DIO2) variant is not associated with type 2 diabetes or indices of insulin resistance in the old order of Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentuccia, Daniela; Thomas, Matthew J; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Reinhart, Laurie J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; Celi, Francesco S

    2005-11-01

    A common polymorphism of the type 2 deiodinase gene (Thr92Ala DIO2) was found to be associated with insulin resistance in a mixed Caucasian population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the Thr92Ala DIO2 variant to indices of insulin resistance in the Old Order Amish. A genotype-phenotype association study was performed at the research clinic in Strasburg, Pennsylvania, and the molecular genetics laboratory at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, and the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. A total of 1,268 subjects participated in the Amish Family Diabetes Study. An association among the Thr92Ala DIO2 variant and type 2 diabetes, indices of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin secretion, free thyroid hormones, and thyrotropin (TSH) was found. No association was found among the Thr92Ala DIO2 variant and type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or body mass index (BMI) in the Amish. In nondiabetics (n = 747), the Ala92 allele tended to be associated with decreased rather then increased insulin secretion. No differences were observed in thyroid hormones or TSH. Contrary to prior findings, the Thr92Ala DIO2 variant tends to be associated with increased rather then decreased insulin sensitivity in the Amish. These findings could be secondary to a different genetic background or to environmental factors specific for this population.

  12. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P₄-ATPase ALA3 reduces adaptability to temperature stresses and impairs vegetative, pollen, and ovule development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C McDowell

    Full Text Available Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to help create asymmetry in lipid bilayers by flipping specific lipids between the leaflets of a membrane. This asymmetry is believed to be central to the formation of vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a P4-ATPase associated with the trans-Golgi network (ALA3 was previously reported to be important for vegetative growth and reproductive success. Here we show that multiple phenotypes for ala3 knockouts are sensitive to growth conditions. For example, ala3 rosette size was observed to be dependent upon both temperature and soil, and varied between 40% and 80% that of wild-type under different conditions. We also demonstrate that ala3 mutants have reduced fecundity resulting from a combination of decreased ovule production and pollen tube growth defects. In-vitro pollen tube growth assays showed that ala3 pollen germinated ∼2 h slower than wild-type and had approximately 2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length. In genetic crosses under conditions of hot days and cold nights, pollen fitness was reduced by at least 90-fold; from ∼18% transmission efficiency (unstressed to less than 0.2% (stressed. Together, these results support a model in which ALA3 functions to modify endomembranes in multiple cell types, enabling structural changes, or signaling functions that are critical in plants for normal development and adaptation to varied growth environments.

  13. Delta opioid peptide (D-Ala 2, D-Leu 5) enkephalin: linking hibernation and neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlongan, Cesario V; Wang, Yun; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2004-09-01

    Hibernation is a potential protective strategy for the peripheral, as well as for the central nervous system. A protein factor termed hibernation induction trigger (HIT) was found to induce hibernation in summer-active ground squirrels. Purification of HIT yielded an 88-kD peptide that is enriched in winter hibernators. Partial sequence of the 88-kD protein indicates that it may be related to the inhibitor of metalloproteinase. Using opioid receptor antagonists to elucidate the mechanisms of HIT, it was found that HIT targeted the delta opioid receptors. Indeed, delta opioid (D-Ala 2, D-Leu 5) enkephalin (DADLE) was shown to induce hibernation. Specifically, HIT and DADLE were found to prolong survival of peripheral organs, such as the lung, the heart, liver, and kidney preserved en bloc or as a single preparation. In addition, DADLE has been recently demonstrated to promote survival of neurons in the central nervous system. Exposure to DADLE dose-dependently enhanced cell viability of cultured primary rat fetal dopaminergic cells. Subsequent transplantation of these DADLE-treated dopaminergic cells into the Parkinsonian rat brain resulted in a two-fold increase in surviving grafted cells. Interestingly, delivery of DADLE alone protected against dopaminergic depletion in a rodent model of Parkinson s disease. Similarly, DADLE blocked and reversed the dopaminergic terminal damage induced by methamphetamine (METH). Such neuroprotective effects of DADLE against METH neurotoxicity was accompanied by attenuation of mRNA expressions of a tumor necrosis factor p53 and an immediate early gene c-fos. In parallel to these beneficial effects of DADLE on the dopaminergic system, DADLE also ameliorated the neuronal damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion following a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. In vitro replication of this ischemia cell death by serum-deprivation of PC12 cells revealed that DADLE exerted neuroprotection in a naltrexone-sensitive manner. These

  14. PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a prospective study of Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Majken K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ plays a key role in the regulation of the energy balance, adipocyte differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. The aim was to investigate if the polymorphism PPARγ2 Pro12Ala, which encodes a less efficient transcription factor, was associated with risk of acute coronary disease and if there were interactions between this polymorphism and factors that modify PPARγ activity, such as alcohol intake, smoking, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine. Methods A case-cohort study including 1031 ACS cases and a sub-cohort of 1703 persons was nested within the population-based prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health of 57,053 individuals. Results Homozygous male variant allele carriers of PPARγ2 Pro12Ala were at higher risk of ACS (HR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.00–4.48 than homozygous carriers of the Pro-allele. Among men, there was a statistically significant interaction between genotypes and alcohol intake such that homozygous variant allele carriers with a low alcohol intake were at higher risk of ACS (HR = 25.3, CI: 16.5–38.7 compared to homozygous common allele carriers (p for interaction Conclusion In the present study, there were no consistent associations between PPARγ Pro12Ala and risk of ACS, and no consistent interaction with alcohol, BMI, NSAID or smoking in relation to ACS.

  15. Ala397Asp mutation of myosin VIIA gene segregating in a Spanish family with type-Ib Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinós, C; Millán, J M; Sánchez, F; Beneyto, M; Nájera, C

    1998-06-01

    In the current study, 12 Spanish families affected by type-I Usher syndrome, that was previously linked to chromosome 11q, were screened for the presence of mutations in the N-terminal coding portion of the motor domain of the myosin VIIA gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the first 14 exons. A mutation (Ala397Asp) segregating with the disease was identified, and several polymorphisms were also detected. It is presumed that the other USHIB mutations in these families could be located in the unscreened regions of the gene.

  16. Motivación y Hábitos de estudio en estudiantes de la Universidad Alas Peruanas, Filial Juliaca

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Tapia, David

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente tesis es sustentar la influencia de la motivación en el habito de estudio en los estudiantes de la Universidad Alas Peruana, filial Juliaca. Asimismo, conocer de qué manera influye la motivación intrínseca y la motivación extrínseca en los hábitos de estudio. Los métodos y el estudio corresponde al tipo cualitativo, básico y con un diseño descriptivo correlacional, con una población de estudio de 160 estudiantes de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra ...

  17. PPAR gamma Pro(12)Ala polymorphism and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a prospective study of Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Segel, Stine; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) plays a key role in the regulation of the energy balance, adipocyte differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. The aim...... was to investigate if the polymorphism PPAR gamma 2 Pro(12)Ala, which encodes a less efficient transcription factor, was associated with risk of acute coronary disease and if there were interactions between this polymorphism and factors that modify PPAR gamma activity, such as alcohol intake, smoking, and use of non...

  18. Ilusast eesti keelest / Ruth Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Ruth, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Kirjastuse TEA sõnaraamatutest: TEA koolisõnastik : eesti keel. Tallinn : TEA Kirjastus, 2008 ; TEA eesti keele rahvasõnaraamat koos õigekirjareeglitega. Tallinn : TEA Kirjastus, 2008 ; TEA rahvasõnaraamat : võõrsõnad. Tallinn : TEA Kirjastus, 2006

  19. Association between PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala genotype and insulin resistance is modified by circulating lipids in Mexican children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjecki, Carolina; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Alyass, Akram; Karam-Araujo, Roberto; Suarez, Fernando; Gomez-Zamudio, Jaime; Burguete-Garcia, Ana; Cruz, Miguel; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    The Pro12Ala (rs1801282) polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) has been convincingly associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Europeans, in interaction with a high-fat diet. Mexico is disproportionally affected by obesity and T2D however, whether the Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with early metabolic complications in this population is unknown. We assessed the association of PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala with metabolic traits in 1457 Mexican children using linear regression models. Interactions between PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala and circulating lipids on metabolic traits were determined by adding an interaction term to regression models. We observed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (49.2%), dyslipidemia (34.9%) and IR (11.1%). We detected nominally significant/significant interactions between lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol), the PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala genotype and waist-to-hip ratio, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and IR (9.30 × 10−4  ≤ Pinteraction ≤ 0.04). Post-hoc subgroup analyses evidenced that the association between the PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala genotype and fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and IR was restricted to children with total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol values higher than the median (0.02 ≤ P ≤ 0.03). Our data support an association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism with IR in Mexican children and suggest that this relationship is modified by dyslipidemia. PMID:27075119

  20. Preventing pressure sores of the nasal ala after nasotracheal tube intubation: from animal model to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tze-Ta; Tseng, Chih-En; Lee, Tsan-Mu; Yeh, Jen-Ying; Lai, Yu-Yung

    2009-03-01

    Nasal-ala pressure sores induced by nasotracheal intubation are common complications of oral and maxillofacial surgery, but are easily ignored. To determine whether such sores could be prevented, we studied the effects of a combination of cushioning material in an animal model, and then analyzed the efficacy of this combination clinically. Four pigs received nasotracheal intubation. Each pig received intubation for 4, 8, 12, or 16 hours. Outcomes from pigs undergoing 500-gram-weight compression on each nostril were compared: one nostril received an application of cushioning materials, and the contralateral nostril did not. After the required study period, clinical assessment and further evaluation were performed by measuring pressure-sore dimensions and performing incisional biopsies. Clinical applications of this protective technique were then undertaken. Eight patients who underwent intubation without Soft Liner (GC Co, Tokyo, Japan) and DuoDERM CGF (ConvaTec, Inc, Princeton, NJ) protection, and 10 patients with Soft Liner and DuoDERM protection, were evaluated. The protective efficacy of the cushioning materials was significant in the animal model as well as in clinical practice. Pressure sores were avoided on the protected side, with severe tissue necrosis documented on the control side. We found that the combined use of Soft Liner and DuoDERM reduced the size and severity of nasal-ala pressure sores attributable to nasotracheal intubation during oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  1. Synthesis and Pharmacology of Halogenated δ-Opioid-Selective [D-Ala2]Deltorphin II Peptide Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Robyn; Marrone, Gina F.; Sedberry, Seth; Vinton, Daniel; Finkelstein, Netanel; Katlowitz, Yitzchak E.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Wilson, Krista R.; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-01-01

    Deltorphins are naturally occurring peptides produced by the skin of the giant monkey frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor). They are δ-opioid receptor-selective agonists. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a peptide, Tyr-D-Ala-(pI)Phe-Glu-Ile-Ile-Gly-NH2 3 (GATE3-8), based on the [D-Ala2]deltorphin II template, which is δ-selective in in vitro radioligand binding assays over the μ- and κ-opioid receptors. It is a full agonist in [35S]GTPγS functional assays and analgesic when administered supraspinally to mice. Analgesia of 3 (GATE3-8) is blocked by the selective δ receptor antagonist naltrindole, indicating that the analgesic action of 3 is mediated by the δ-opioid receptor. We have established a radioligand in which 125I isincorporated into 3 (GATE3-8). The radioligand has a KD of 0.1 nM in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the δ receptor. Additionally, a series of peptides based on 3 (GATE3-8) was synthesized by incorporating various halogens in the para position on the aromatic ring of Phe3. The peptides were characterized for binding affinity at the μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors, which showed a linear correlation between binding affinity and the size of the halogen substituent. These peptides may be interesting tools for probing δ-opioid receptor pharmacology. PMID:25844930

  2. Synthesis and pharmacology of halogenated δ-opioid-selective [d-Ala(2)]deltorphin II peptide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Robyn; Marrone, Gina F; Sedberry, Seth; Vinton, Daniel; Finkelstein, Netanel; Katlowitz, Yitzchak E; Pasternak, Gavril W; Wilson, Krista R; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-06-17

    Deltorphins are naturally occurring peptides produced by the skin of the giant monkey frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor). They are δ-opioid receptor-selective agonists. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a peptide, Tyr-d-Ala-(pI)Phe-Glu-Ile-Ile-Gly-NH2 3 (GATE3-8), based on the [d-Ala(2)]deltorphin II template, which is δ-selective in in vitro radioligand binding assays over the μ- and κ-opioid receptors. It is a full agonist in [(35)S]GTPγS functional assays and analgesic when administered supraspinally to mice. Analgesia of 3 (GATE3-8) is blocked by the selective δ receptor antagonist naltrindole, indicating that the analgesic action of 3 is mediated by the δ-opioid receptor. We have established a radioligand in which (125)I is incorporated into 3 (GATE3-8). The radioligand has a KD of 0.1 nM in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the δ receptor. Additionally, a series of peptides based on 3 (GATE3-8) was synthesized by incorporating various halogens in the para position on the aromatic ring of Phe(3). The peptides were characterized for binding affinity at the μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors, which showed a linear correlation between binding affinity and the size of the halogen substituent. These peptides may be interesting tools for probing δ-opioid receptor pharmacology.

  3. cDNAs encoding [D-Ala2]deltorphin precursors from skin of Phyllomedusa bicolor also contain genetic information for three dermorphin-related opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, K; Egger, R; Negri, L; Corsi, R; Severini, C; Kreil, G

    1990-06-01

    We present the structure of four precursors for [D-Ala2]deltorphins I and II as deduced from cDNAs cloned from skin of the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. These contain the genetic information for one copy of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II and zero, one, or three copies of [D-Ala2]deltorphin I. In each case, the D-alanine of the end product is encoded by a normal GCG codon for L-alanine. In addition, the existence of three peptides related to dermorphin was predicted from the amino acid sequence of the precursors. These peptides were synthesized with a D-alanine in position 2 and their pharmacological properties were tested. Two of them, [Lys7]dermorphin-OH and [Trp4,Asn7]dermorphin-OH, were found to have roughly the same affinity and selectivity for mu-type opioid receptors as dermorphin.

  4. CrAs(0 0 1)/AlAs(0 0 1) heterogeneous junction as a spin current diode predicted by first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Y.; Yao, K.L.; Liu, Z.L.; Cheng, H.G.; Zhu, S.C.; Gao, G.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We report on first-principles calculations of spin-dependent quantum transport in a CrAs(0 0 1)/AlAs(0 0 1) heterogeneous junction and predict a strong diode effect of charge and spin current. The minority spin current is absolutely inhibited when the bias voltage is applied to the terminals of both CrAs and AlAs. The majority spin current is inhibited when the bias voltage is applied to the terminal of CrAs and 'relaxed' when the bias voltage is applied to the terminal of AlAs. The charge and spin current diode are promising for reprogrammable logic applications in the field of spintronics

  5. The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 requires a ß-subunit to function in phospholipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 requires a ß-subunit to function in phospholipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation   Lisbeth R. Poulsen1, Rosa L. López-Marqués1, Stephen C. McDowell2, Juha Okkeri3, Dirk Licht3, Alexander Schulz1, Thomas Pomorski3,  Jeffrey F. Harper2, and Michael G....... Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation, Department of Plant Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2Biochemistry Department MS200, University of Nevada Reno, NV 89557, USA 3Humboldt-University Berlin, Faculty...... and in inducing membrane curvature, which is a requirement for vesicle formation. We show that Aminophospholipid ATPase3 (ALA3), a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and that genetic lesions of ALA3 result in impaired growth of roots and shoots...

  6. Tool John / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Autor Toivo Raidmets. Tootja: OÜ Toivo. Tool pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2004. a. aastapreemiate konkursil vormipreemia. Toivo Raidmetsast, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: arhitekti portreefoto, kaks tooli vaadet

  7. Villa peegeldustega minevikku / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Hiiul Vabaduse puiesteel asuva villa sisekujundus. 1940. aastatel valminud funkvilla on projekteerinud arhitekt Eugen Sacharias. Sisekujundaja: Juta Lember, kes kavandas ka põhiosa mööblist. Ehitaja: AS Eesti Ehitus. Sisustus: OÜ Disekt-ST, OÜ Estconde Interior. Vaibad: Peeter Kuutma. vitraažaken: Mare Lobjakas. Juta Lemberist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: 3 plaani, 13 värv. vaadet

  8. Kuidas raamida merd? / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Korter Tallinnas Pirita teel. Sisekujundus: Ilona Põldme, OÜ Põldme. Ehitaja: OÜ Onix Invest. Olulise osa mööblist kavandas I. Põldme, valmistas OÜ Timbermeister. Elutoas kompositsioon Epp Maria Kokamäe maalist ja Jaak Arro puulõikest. Ilona Põldmest, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: plaan, 19 värv. vaadet

  9. Kontorimaailma uus esteetika / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Mähe tee 1 asuva TTP ärihoone sisekujundus. Autor: Meelis Press, kes on projekteerinud ka kogu puitmööbli. Ehitus: AS TTP (peatöövõtja), AS Roxor (betoonitööd. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. ühiskondliku interjööri preemia. Ill.: 3 korruste plaani, 30 värv. vaadet

  10. Elu koos loodusega / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Villa Harjumaal Viimsi vallas Miidurannas. Arhitekt Emil Urbel. Sisekujundus: Katrin Vaikla, Argo Vaikla, Tiina Teng, AS Vaikla Disain. Villa pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2004. a. aastapreemia. Argo ja Katrin Vaiklast, AS Vaikla Disain tähtsamad tööd. Tiina Tengist, tema erialasest tegevusest. Liis Lindverest, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: 3 plaani, 11 värv. vaadet

  11. Rahvusvaheline moefestival Plovdivis / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    1987-01-01

    Plovdivi rahvusvahelise messi raames toimunud moefestivalist ja -konkursist, mille peaauhinna võitis bulgaaria disainer Vladislav Shmidt; Bulgaaria, Ungari, Rumeenia, Poola, Prantsuse ("Norbert Nel", Jean Bailly) ja NSVL'i (Üleliidulise Kergetööstuse Sortimendi Instituudi) ja Tallinna Moemaja (Liivi Raidi ja Liivia Leshkini) kollektsioonidest

  12. Eesti organisatsioonikultuur on ameerikalik / Maaja Vadi, Kaido Sirel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vadi, Maaja, 1955-

    1994-01-01

    Tabelid: W.G. Ouchi organisatsioonikultuuri mudel Jaapani ja Ameerika organisatsioonikultuuri võrdlus. Hindamissüsteem. Rahvuskultuuriline taust. Töötajate värbamine. Karjäär. Otsustamine ja vastutus. Suhtlemine ja traditsioonid

  13. ALA/LA ameliorates glucose toxicity on HK-2 cells by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis through the ROS/p38/TGF-β1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingxia; Zhang, Haifen; Zhai, Lijie; Ye, Bianliang; Cheng, Yin; Zhai, Chengkai

    2017-11-16

    Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress (OS) plays a pivotal role in Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In a previous study we demonstrated that ALA/LA protected HK-2 cells against high glucose-induced cytotoxicity. So we aimed to establish the glucose injury model of HK-2 cells and investigate the beneficial effects of ALA/LA on high glucose-induced excessive production of TGF-β1 and the possible mechanisms mediating the effects. The expression of OS markers in high glucose-induced HK-2 cells treated with ALA/LA., including the antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as the apoptosis rate were assayed by ELISA and flow cytometry. The p38/transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1 ) signal pathway were measured by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. The modeling condition of glucose toxicity on HK-2 cells was at the glucose concentration of 40.9 mM. ALA/LA can significantly increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decrease ROS production stimulated by high glucose. The study also found that ALA/LA caused a decrease in the apoptosis rate and TGF-β 1 level of HK-2 cells under high glucose stress through the ROS/p38 pathway. ALA/LA exerts protective effects in vitro through inhibition of ROS generation, down regulation of the activation of the p38MAPK pathway and the expression of TGF-β 1 in HK-2 cells.

  14. Light fractionation increases the efficacy of ALA-PDT but not of MAL-PDT: What is the role of (vascular) endothelial cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, H. S.; de Vijlder, H. C.; de Haas, E. R. M.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A.; Kruijt, B.; Poel-Dirks, D.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; ten Hagen, T. L. M.; Robinson, D. J.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using protoporpyrin IX (PpIX) precursors like 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) has shown to be effective in the treatment of various skin diseases. Using ALA we have shown in numerous studies a significantly improved efficacy by applying light fractionation with a long dark interval. In contrast, in the hairless mouse model, the PDT efficacy using MAL is unaffected by adopting this approach. More acute edema is found after ALA-PDT suggesting a difference in response of endothelial cells to PDT. To investigate the role of endothelial cells, cryo-sections of hairless mouse skin after 4 hours of topical MAL or ALA application were stained with a fluorescent endothelial cell marker (CD31). Co-localization of this marker with the PpIX fluorescence was performed using the spectral imaging function of the confocal microscope. We have also used intra-vital confocal microscopy to image the PpIX fluorescence distribution in correlation with the vasculature of live mouse skin. Our results show PpIX fluorescence at depth in cryo-sections of mouse skin after 4 hours of topical application. Co-localization has shown to be difficult due to the changes in tissue organization caused by the staining procedure. As expected we found high PpIX fluorescence levels in the epidermis after both MAL and ALA application using intra-vital microscopy. After ALA application more PpIX fluorescence was found deep in the dermal layer of the skin than after MAL. Furthermore we detected localized fluorescence in unidentified structures that could not be correlated to blood vessels or nerves.

  15. The Pro12Ala Polymorphism of PPAR-γ Gene Is Associated with Sepsis Disease Severity and Outcome in Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoda Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ is a ligand-binding nuclear receptor, and its activation plays a prominent role in regulating the inflammatory response. Therefore, PPAR-γ has been suggested as a candidate gene for sepsis. In the present study, we investigated the association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-γ and sepsis in a Han Chinese population. A total of 308 patients with sepsis and 345 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR method. No significant differences were detected in the allele and genotype distributions of the PPAR-γ Pro12Ala SNP between septic patients and controls (P=0.622 for genotype; P=0.629 for allele. However, stratification by subtypes (sepsis, septic shock, and severe sepsis revealed a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the Ala allele and Ala-carrier genotype between the patients with the sepsis subtype and the healthy controls (P=0.014 for allele and P=0.012, for genotype. Moreover, significant differences were found in the frequency of the Ala allele and genotype between the sepsis survivors and nonsurvivors (all P=0.002. In the survivors, the PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype was significantly associated with decreased disease severity and recovery time (all P<0.001. Thus, genetic polymorphism is thought to play a role in the development and outcome of sepsis.

  16. SLC6A3 coding variant Ala559Val found in two autism probands alters dopamine transporter function and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowton, E; Saunders, C; Reddy, I A; Campbell, N G; Hamilton, P J; Henry, L K; Coon, H; Sakrikar, D; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J M; Blakely, R D; Sutcliffe, J; Matthies, H J G; Erreger, K; Galli, A

    2014-10-14

    Emerging evidence associates dysfunction in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) with the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The human DAT (hDAT; SLC6A3) rare variant with an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 559 (hDAT A559V) was previously reported in individuals with bipolar disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have demonstrated that this variant is hyper-phosphorylated at the amino (N)-terminal serine (Ser) residues and promotes an anomalous DA efflux phenotype. Here, we report the novel identification of hDAT A559V in two unrelated ASD subjects and provide the first mechanistic description of its impaired trafficking phenotype. DAT surface expression is dynamically regulated by DAT substrates including the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH), which causes hDAT trafficking away from the plasma membrane. The integrity of DAT trafficking directly impacts DA transport capacity and therefore dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we show that hDAT A559V is resistant to AMPH-induced cell surface redistribution. This unique trafficking phenotype is conferred by altered protein kinase C β (PKCβ) activity. Cells expressing hDAT A559V exhibit constitutively elevated PKCβ activity, inhibition of which restores the AMPH-induced hDAT A559V membrane redistribution. Mechanistically, we link the inability of hDAT A559V to traffic in response to AMPH to the phosphorylation of the five most distal DAT N-terminal Ser. Mutation of these N-terminal Ser to Ala restores AMPH-induced trafficking. Furthermore, hDAT A559V has a diminished ability to transport AMPH, and therefore lacks AMPH-induced DA efflux. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCβ or Ser to Ala substitution in the hDAT A559V background restores AMPH-induced DA efflux while promoting intracellular AMPH accumulation. Although hDAT A559V is a rare variant, it has been found in multiple probands with neuropsychiatric disorders associated with imbalances in DA neurotransmission

  17. Biological evaluation of 177Lu-labeled DOTA-Ala(SO3H)-Aminooctanoyl-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH2 for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive prostate tumor targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Lee, So young; Nam, Sung Soo; Park, Ul Jae; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Bombesin binds with selectivity and high affinity to a Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), which is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. The present study describes the in vitro and in vivo biological characteristics of DOTA-Ala(SO 3 H)-Aminooctanoyl-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH 2 (DOTA-sBBNA), an antagonist analogue of bombesin peptide for the targeting of GRPR. DOTA-sBBNA was synthesized and labeled with 177 Lu as previously published. A saturation assay on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells revealed that the Kd value of the radiolabeled peptide was 1.88 nM with a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 289.3 fmol/10 6 cells. The radio-peptide slowly internalized, and 24.4 ± 0.5% of the total binding was internalized in 4 hr. Biodistribution studies were conducted in healthy and PC-3 xenografted balb/c mice, which showed high uptake and retention of tumor-associated radioactivity in PC-3 xenografted mice. The tumor-to-blood ratio was 126.02 ± 9.36 at 1.5 hr p.i., and was increased to 216.33 ± 61.58 at 24 hr p.i., which means that the radiolabeled peptide was highly accumulated in a tumor and rapidly cleared from the blood pool. The GRPR is also over-expressed in Korean prostate cancer patients. These results suggest that this 177 Lu-labeled peptide has promising characteristics for application in nuclear medicine, namely for the diagnosis and treatment of GRPR over-expressing prostate tumors

  18. Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, N; Shiojima, S; Hasegawa, K

    1984-01-01

    Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA ...

  19. Atomic structures of a monolayer of AlAs, GaAs, and InAs on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geunjung; Yoon, Younggui

    2010-01-01

    We study atomic structures of a monolayer of AlAs, GaAs, and InAs on a Si(111) substrate from first-principles. The surface with the stacking sequence of ...SiSiMAsSiAs is energetically more stable than the surface with the stacking sequence of ...SiSiSiAsMAs, where M is Al, Ga, or In. The atomic structure of the three top layers of the low-energy surfaces are quite robust, irrespective of M, and the atomic structure of the AlAsSiAs terminated surface and that of the GaAsSiAs terminated surface are very similar. For the high-energy AsMAs terminated surfaces, the broken local tetrahedral symmetry plays an important role in the atomic structures. The calculated atomic structures of InAs on the Si(111) substrate depart most from the structure of crystalline Si.

  20. Structural study of the AlP, GaAs and AlAs semiconductors with wurtzite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista H, A.; Perez A, L.; Pal, U.; Rivas S, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present ab initio calculations of optimization geometries, lattice constant and electronic structure for semiconductors wurtzite type, like AIN, CdS, Zn S, Zn Se, Ga N and GaAs. For this, we used the CASTEP program of CERUIS with LDA and GGA approximations, in the framework of Functional Density Theory. The used pseudopotentials are available in that program and were generated using the optimization scheme of Troullier-Martins. With the lattice constant just optimized, we calculate then the X-ray spectra for studied semiconductors.We analyzed the effect of used pseudopotentials on function of the results obtained. Finally, we predicted the geometry and X-ray pattern for AIP, AlAs and GaAs with wurtzite structure, giving evidence about the semiconductor character of these materials. (Author)

  1. L’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca a Llatinoamèrica. Acostament des d’ALAS Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Torres Frías

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El present text inclou l’anàlisi de treballs presentats en el XXX Congreso Latinoamericano de Sociología ALAS Costa Rica, celebrat el 2015, coordinat per l’Asociación Latinoamericana de Sociología (ALAS. Es prenen en consideració vuit treballs relacionats amb el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca i es recuperen les principals aportacions que han fet sobre el tema. Es discuteix sobre com s’aborda el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca en el context llatinoamericà. S’evidencia que, malgrat les diferències contextuals i institucionals, a Llatinoamèrica prevalen problemàtiques compartides sobre formació per a la recerca. Alguns dels principals aspectes que es posen de manifest estan relacionats amb la dificultat que tenen els formadors per desenvolupar el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge en el marc de les ciències socials i humanitats. Altres aspectes es vinculen amb l’experiència en recerca del formador mateix, amb l’estil que té per dur a terme la seva pròpia recerca i guiar tesis, i amb l’estil de docència que utilitza. També són un factor de rellevància els estils dels estudiants, així com les creences que tots dos actors tenen sobre la formació per a la recerca. Finalment, l’existència o no d'una cultura de recerca s’aprecia com una problemàtica que cal tenir en compte.

  2. The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 gene (PPARγ2 is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contradictory results have been reported regarding the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARγ2 and coronary artery disease (CAD. We sought to estimate the inconsistent results by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies in English or Chinese publications were identified by screening MEDLINE, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang and CBM. 22 studies including 8948 cases and 14427 controls were selected. A random-effects model was applied to combine the divergent outcomes of the individual studies, while addressing between-study heterogeneity and publication bias. RESULTS: The Pro12Ala polymorphism of control population followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all studies (P>0.05. Overall, a marginal increased risk of CAD under the recessive genetic model (AlaAla vs ProAla+ProPro: P = 0.04, OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.01-1.69, P(heterogeneity = 0.67, I(2 = 0% and the homozygote comparison (AlaAla vs ProPro: P = 0.04,OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.01-1.68, P(heterogeneity = 0.68, I(2 = 0% was observed. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, carriers of AlaAla homozygotes had a significant increased risk for CAD among Caucasians (AlaAla vs ProAla+ProPro: P = 0.01, OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.08-1.96, P(heterogeneity = 0.48, I(2 = 0%; AlaAla vs ProPro: P = 0.02,OR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.07-1.93, P(heterogeneity = 0.46, I(2 = 0%. After dividing into population source, the CAD risk magnitude of hospital-based studies was distinctly strengthened under the recessive model (P = 0.03,OR = 1.85,95%CI 1.07-3.19, P(heterogeneity = 0.87,I(2 = 0% and the homozygote comparison (P = 0.03,OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.06-3.16, P(heterogeneity = 0.88, I(2 = 0%. There was no observable publication bias as reflected by funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test (t = -0.12, P = 0.91. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism might be risk-conferring locus for the progression of CAD among Caucasians, but not among Asians.

  3. The value of polymorphism RRO12ALA gene PPARG in violation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ziablytsev

    2016-09-01

      Resume. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing in Ukraine and worldwide. The severity of this disease is determined by the number of complications, which are based on lipid peroxidation (LPO. Today, the influence of gene polymorphisms Pro12Ala PPARG on oxidative and antioxidant processes is not in doubt. We studied the association between gene polymorphism Pro12Ala rs1801282 PPARG and intensification of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems (AOS in 88 patients with type 2 diabetes, using analysis of variance. In the 12Pro allele carriers male found probable increased intensification of lipid peroxidation than in women, with increasing levels of DC (p=0,034 and MDA (p=0,001. Reducing the enzyme catalase level of AOC in patients with type 2 diabetes was observed in the case of genotype Pro12Pro gene PPARG on 21.7% compared with heterozygotes (F=8,17; p=0,005 and the presence of the allele 12Pro (F=6,28 , p=0,013. Found significantly higher activity of AOC in the form of increasing the level of α-TF (p=0,016 and catalase activity (p=0,034 among male patients with gene polymorphism Pro12Ala PPARG, than homozygotes for allele 12Pro.   Key words: lipid peroxidation; antioxidant system; type 2 diabetes mellitus; polymorphism Pro12Ala rs1801282 of gene PPARG

  4. Quantitative model calculation of the time-dependent protoporphyrin IX concentration in normal human epidermis after delivery of ALA by passive topical application or lontophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, Willem M.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Sac, Arnoldo; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a mathematical layer model to quantitatively calculate the diffusion of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the skin in vivo, its uptake into the cells and its conversion to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and subsequently to heme. The model is a modification and extension of a recently presented

  5. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  6. An insulin receptor mutant (Asp707 → Ala), involved in leprechaunism, is processed and transported to the cell surface but unable to bind insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. 't Hart (Leen); D. Lindhout (Dick); G.C.M. van der Zon (Gerard); H. Kayserilli (Hülya); M.Y. Apak (Memnune); W.J. Kleijer (Wim); E.R. van der Vorm (Eric); J.A. Maassen (Johannes)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe have identified a homozygous mutation near the carboxyl terminus of the insulin receptor (IR) α subunit from a leprechaun patient, changing Asp707 into Ala. Fibroblasts from this patient had no high affinity insulin binding sites. To examine the effect of the mutation on IR

  7. H2O2 mediates ALA-induced glutathione and ascorbate accumulation in the perception and resistance to oxidative stress in Solanum lycopersicum at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jiao; Zhang, Junheng; Du, Qingjie; Li, Jianming

    2018-02-15

    Low temperature is a crucial factor influencing plant growth and development. The chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used to improve plant cold tolerance. However, the interaction between H 2 O 2 and cellular redox signaling involved in ALA-induced resistance to low temperature stress in plants remains largely unknown. Here, the roles of ALA in perceiving and regulating low temperature-induced oxidative stress in tomato plants, together with the roles of H 2 O 2 and cellular redox states, were characterized. Low concentrations (10-25 mg·L - 1 ) of ALA enhanced low temperature-induced oxidative stress tolerance of tomato seedlings. The most effective concentration was 25 mg·L - 1 , which markedly increased the ratio of reduced glutathione and ascorbate (GSH and AsA), and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. Furthermore, gene expression of respiratory burst oxidase homolog1 and H 2 O 2 content were upregulated with ALA treatment under normal conditions. Treatment with exogenous H 2 O 2 , GSH, and AsA also induced plant tolerance to oxidative stress at low temperatures, while inhibition of GSH and AsA syntheses significantly decreased H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress tolerance. Meanwhile, scavenging or inhibition of H 2 O 2 production weakened, but did not eliminate, GSH- or AsA- induced tomato plant tolerance to oxidative stress at low temperatures. Appropriate concentrations of ALA alleviated the low temperature-induced oxidative stress in tomato plants via an antioxidant system. The most effective concentration was 25 mg·L - 1 . The results showed that H 2 O 2 induced by exogenous ALA under normal conditions is crucial and may be the initial step for perception and signaling transmission, which then improves the ratio of GSH and AsA. GSH and AsA may then interact with H 2 O 2 signaling, resulting in enhanced antioxidant capacity

  8. Impact of an AlAs window layer upon the optical properties of AlxGa1−xAs photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T; Hammig, M D; Chen, X J; Johnson, E B; Christian, J F; Lee, K

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed advanced scintillators, which have the ability to distinguish gamma-ray interaction events from those that accompany neutron impact, require improved quantum efficiency in the blue to near UV region of the spectrum. We utilize GaAs/Al 0.8 Ga 0.2 As photodiode elements as components in a wide band-gap solid-state photomultiplier as a lower-cost, lower logistical burden, and higher quantum efficiency replacement for the photomultiplier tube. An AlAs window layer is employed as a means to increase the diode’s optical performance. Relative to structures absent the window layer, simulations and measurements demonstrate that the AlAs layer produces a spatial coincidence between regions of large drift fields with regions of high photon absorption. In addition to the AlAs layer, secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that an unexpected high degree of inter-diffusion of GaAs and AlAs quenches the photon-detection efficiency, a decrease that can be avoided by its post-growth removal. With the AlAs layer, the peak external quantum efficiency of 49% is achieved at 450 nm with 10 V reverse bias, which does not fully deplete the device. Simulations show that full depletion can result in efficiencies exceeding 90%. In order to enhance the optical response, a simple anti-reflective coating layer is designed using the existing passivation layer components that successfully minimizes the reflection at the wavelength range of interest (300 nm–500 nm). (paper)

  9. Electron microscopy of GaAs-based structures with InAs and As quantum dots separated by an AlAs barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhenskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Electron microscopy studies of GaAs-based structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy and containing arrays of semiconductor InAs quantum dots and metal As quantum dots are performed. The array of InAs quantum dots is formed by the Stranski-Krastanov mechanism and consists of vertically coupled pairs of quantum dots separated by a GaAs spacer 10 nm thick. To separate the arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots and to prevent diffusion-induced mixing, the array of InAs quantum dots is overgrown with an AlAs barrier layer 5 or 10 nm thick, after which a GaAs layer is grown at a comparatively low temperature (180°C). The array of As quantum dots is formed in an As-enriched layer of the low-temperature GaAs by means of post-growth annealing at 400–760°C for 15 min. It is established that the AlAs barrier layer has a surface profile corresponding to that of a subbarrier layer with InAs quantum dots. The presence of such a profile causes the formation of V-shaped structural defects upon subsequent overgrowth with the GaAs layer. Besides, it was obtained that AlAs layer is thinned over the InAs quantum dots tops. It is shown that the AlAs barrier layer in the regions between the InAs quantum dots effectively prevents the starting diffusion of excess As at annealing temperatures up to 600°C. However, the concentration of mechanical stresses and the reduced thickness of the AlAs barrier layer near the tops of the InAs quantum dots lead to local barrier breakthroughs and the diffusion of As quantum dots into the region of coupled pairs of InAs quantum dots at higher annealing temperatures

  10. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M. Salto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2 has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele. Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes.

  11. The Association of PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T Polymorphisms with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Their Influence on Lipid and Lipoprotein Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rahimi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of present study was to clarify the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and their influence on lipid and lipoprotein profiles of patients. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study consisted of 50 women with PCOS, who referred to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Clinic between April and October 2015, and 233 unrelated age-matched healthy women from the same region (West Iran. The PPARγ Pro12Ala and PPARγ C161T polymorphisms were gen- otyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, serum triglycerides (TG, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C and estradiol levels were measured. Results The serum level of estradiol was significantly lower in PCOS patients compared to healthy women. The PPARγ Pro12Ala (CG genotype increased the risk of PCOS 2.96-fold. The frequency of the PPARγ T allele (at C161T was 21% in patients and 17.2% in controls with no significant difference (P=0.52. In all studied individuals, the PPARγ CG geno- type was associated with significantly higher levels of TG. However, significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C were observed in PPARγ TT individuals compared with those with the CC genotype. Within the PCOS group, the PPARγ CG genotype was significantly associated with lower levels of estradiol compared with the CC genotype. Also, the CG genotype was significantly associated with higher levels of TG when compared with the CC genotype. Conclusion Our study shows that, unlike PPARγ C161T, PPARγ Pro12Ala is associated with the risk of PCOS. Also, we found that the lipid and lipoprotein profiles significantly vary based on PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T genotypes.

  12. Implication of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma 2 gene in type 2 diabetes and obesity in the French population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Marie-Aline

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pro12Ala Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-gamma 2 has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D and also inconsistently with obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this SNP with regards to T2D and childhood and adult obesity in the French Caucasian population. Methods We conducted three independent case/control studies encompassing 2126 cases and 1124 controls. Results We found a significant association between PPAR-gamma 2 Pro12Ala SNP and T2D (p = 0.04, OR = 1.37, which was stronger when the T2D cohort was stratified according to the obesity status (p = 0.03, OR = 1.81 in obese T2D subjects. In contrast, there was no association between the Pro12Ala SNP and childhood and adulthood obesity. In normal glucose tolerant obese adults (but not in lean subjects, the Pro12 allele was associated with a significant increase in fasting insulin levels (p = 0.01, and in insulin resistance estimated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR (p = 0.003, after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. We didn't detect evidence for an interaction effect between the Pro12Ala SNP and the obesity status with respect to the HOMA-IR index in normal glucose tolerant children, but we found a borderline interaction (p = 0.06 in normal glucose tolerant adults. Conclusion Our results showed that the Pro12Ala polymorphism is not associated with childhood or adult obesity in the French Caucasian population. In contrast, we confirm a contribution of the PPAR-gamma 2 Pro12 allele in the genetic risk forT2D, especially in obese subjects, where this allele worsens insulin resistanceand increases fasting insulin levels.

  13. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative imaging in high-grade glioma resection; a comparative review of intraoperative ALA, fluorescein, ultrasound and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljamel, M Sam; Mahboob, Syed Osama

    2016-12-01

    Surgical resection of high-grade gliomas (HGG) is standard therapy because it imparts significant progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). However, HGG-tumor margins are indistinguishable from normal brain during surgery. Hence intraoperative technology such as fluorescence (ALA, fluorescein) and intraoperative ultrasound (IoUS) and MRI (IoMRI) has been deployed. This study compares the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these technologies. Critical literature review and meta-analyses, using MEDLINE/PubMed service. The list of references in each article was double-checked for any missing references. We included all studies that reported the use of ALA, fluorescein (FLCN), IoUS or IoMRI to guide HGG-surgery. The meta-analyses were conducted according to statistical heterogeneity between studies. If there was no heterogeneity, fixed effects model was used; otherwise, a random effects model was used. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by χ 2 and inconsistency (I 2 ) statistics. To assess cost-effectiveness, we calculated the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Gross total resection (GTR) after ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI was 69.1%, 84.4%, 73.4% and 70% respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. All four techniques led to significant prolongation of PFS and tended to prolong OS. However none of these technologies led to significant prolongation of OS compared to controls. The cost/QALY was $16,218, $3181, $6049 and $32,954 for ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI respectively. ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI significantly improve GTR and PFS of HGG. Their incremental cost was below the threshold for cost-effectiveness of HGG-therapy, denoting that each intraoperative technology was cost-effective on its own. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una función analítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodos computacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelos matemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseños asistidos por computadoras en AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados una idea global del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como la metodología seguida para obtener el perfil aerodinámico de un ala. También se exponen aspectos generales del empleo de la función AUTOLISP y el código fuente del programa diseñado.Title: Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of an airship wing profile.This article was carried out to obtain a mathematical model that allows the calculation and determination of an analytic function of symmetrical geometry profile and variable. In the article it is analyzed the methods for the elaboration of system of calculations based on mathematical models obtained with the software language LabVIEW 6.0 and it is used to developing the program attended by the computers AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. The approached topics give to the interested parties a global idea of the development it gives this technology and their application to branches of the mechanical specialties, as well as the followed methodology to obtain the aerofoil profile of a wing. General aspects are also exposed of the employment of the function AUTOLISP and the source code on the sketch program.

  15. Statistical analysis of wind speed using two-parameter Weibull distribution in Alaçatı region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozay, Can; Celiktas, Melih Soner

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wind speed & direction data from September 2008 to March 2014 has been analyzed. • Mean wind speed for the whole data set has been found to be 8.11 m/s. • Highest wind speed is observed in July with a monthly mean value of 9.10 m/s. • Wind speed with the most energy has been calculated as 12.77 m/s. • Observed data has been fit to a Weibull distribution and k &c parameters have been calculated as 2.05 and 9.16. - Abstract: Weibull Statistical Distribution is a common method for analyzing wind speed measurements and determining wind energy potential. Weibull probability density function can be used to forecast wind speed, wind density and wind energy potential. In this study a two-parameter Weibull statistical distribution is used to analyze the wind characteristics of Alaçatı region, located in Çeşme, İzmir. The data used in the density function are acquired from a wind measurement station in Alaçatı. Measurements were gathered on three different heights respectively 70, 50 and 30 m between 10 min intervals for five and half years. As a result of this study; wind speed frequency distribution, wind direction trends, mean wind speed, and the shape and the scale (k&c) Weibull parameters have been calculated for the region. Mean wind speed for the entirety of the data set is found to be 8.11 m/s. k&c parameters are found as 2.05 and 9.16 in relative order. Wind direction analysis along with a wind rose graph for the region is also provided with the study. Analysis suggests that higher wind speeds which range from 6–12 m/s are prevalent between the sectors 340–360°. Lower wind speeds, from 3 to 6 m/s occur between sectors 10–29°. Results of this study contribute to the general knowledge about the regions wind energy potential and can be used as a source for investors and academics.

  16. Comment: studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene in the Danish MONICA cohort: homozygosity of the Ala allele confers a decreased risk of the insulin resistance syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Laura; Brødbaek, Kasper; Fenger, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    with the frequency in the non-IRS group [2.8% (2.1-3.5%); P = 0.02; odds ratio, 0.24 (0.06-0.99)]. Moreover, in the total study population, homozygous carriers of the variant had lower levels of fasting serum triglyceride [1.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/liter (means +/- SD) vs. 1.4 +/- 0.9 mmol/liter; P = 0.04] and a lower...... was examined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in a phenotypically well characterized population-based sample of 2245 nondiabetic subjects. The study participants were characterized by a number of anthropometric and biochemical measurements and the European Group for the Study of Insulin...... Resistance criteria enabling a classification of the study population in an IRS group and a non-IRS group. The allelic frequency of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the total study sample was 14% (95% confidence interval, 13-15%). Two hundred ninety-four subjects fulfilled the European Group for the Study...

  17. The Thr92Ala 5′ Type 2 Deiodinase Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with a Delayed Triiodothyronine Secretion in Response to the Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone–Stimulation Test: A Pharmacogenomic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Peter W.; Smith, Sheila M.; Linderman, Joyce D.; Brychta, Robert J.; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Dubaz, Ornella M.; Luzon, Javier A.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Cochran, Craig S.; Wesley, Robert A.; Pucino, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background The common Thr92Ala D2 polymorphism has been associated with changes in pituitary–thyroid axis homeostasis, but published results are conflicting. To investigate the effects of the Thr92Ala polymorphism on intrathyroidal thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) conversion, we designed prospective pharmacogenomic intervention aimed to detect differences in T3 levels after thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)–mediated TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland. Methods Eighty-three healthy volunteers were screened and genotyped for the Thr92Ala polymorphism. Fifteen volunteers of each genotype (Thr/Thr, Thr/Ala, and Ala/Ala) underwent a 500 mcg intravenous TRH stimulation test with serial measurements of serum total T3 (TT3), free T4, and TSH over 180 minutes. Results No differences in baseline thyroid hormone levels were seen among the study groups. Compared to the Thr/Thr group, the Ala/Ala group showed a significantly lower TRH-stimulated increase in serum TT3 at 60 minutes (12.07 ± 2.67 vs. 21.07 ± 2.86 ng/dL, p = 0.029). Thr/Ala subjects showed an intermediate response. Compared to Thr/Thr subjects, the Ala/Ala group showed a blunted rate of rise in serum TT3 as measured by mean time to 50% maximum delta serum TT3 (88.42 ± 6.84 vs. 69.56 ± 6.06 minutes, p = 0.028). Subjects attained similar maximal (180 minutes) TRH-stimulated TT3 levels. TRH-stimulated TSH and free T4 levels were not significantly different among the three genotype groups. Conclusions The commonly occurring Thr92Ala D2 variant is associated with a decreased rate of acute TSH-stimulated T3 release from the thyroid consistent with a decrease in intrathyroidal deiodination. These data provide a proof of concept that the Thr92Ala polymorphism is associated with subtle changes in thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:21054208

  18. A determination of occlusal plane comparing different levels of the tragus to form ala-tragal line or Camper's line: A photographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Garg, Sandeep; Gupta, Seema

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine accurately the part of the tragus to be used to form the Ala-Tragal line or Camper's line in orthognathic profile patients. 150 dentate subjects with age of 18-40 years with orthognathic profile were sampled. Life-size lateral digital photographs of the face with fox plane were taken in natural head position. Different angles between Eye-Ear plane and occlusal plane (OT1-OP), Eye-Ear plane and ala-superior border of tragus (OT1-AT1), Eye-Ear plane and ala-middle border of tragus (OT1-AT2) and Eye-Ear plane and ala-inferior border of tragus (OT1-AT3) were calculated using computer software package, AutoCAD 2004. From the three angles formed by the Eye-ear plane (OT1 or FH plane) and the ala-tragal lines, the one closest to the angle formed between Eye-Ear plane (OT1) and occlusal plane (OP) was used to determine the occlusal plane of orientation. The obtained results were subjected to ANOVA F test, Tukey's Honestly significant difference test, followed by Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation test. P values of less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. The mean of base line angle i.e. OT1-OP angle (11.96 ± 4.36) was found to be close to OT1-AT2 angle (13.67 ± 1.93) and OT1-AT3 angle (10.31 ± 2.03), but OT1-OP angle was found to be more closer to OT1-AT3 angle. Comparison of mean angles showed that OT1-OP angle in both males (11.68) and females (12.51) is close to OT1-AT3 angle (males- 11.01, females- 11.95). The line joining from ala to the lower border of the tragus was parallel to the occlusal plane in 53.3% of the subjects. There was no influence of the sex on the level of occlusal plane.

  19. In vivo wide-field multispectral dosimeter for use in ALA-PpIX based photodynamic therapy of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRochelle, Ethan P. M.; Davis, Scott C.; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Pogue, Brian W.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for Actinic Kertoses (AK) using aminoluvelinic acid (ALA) is an FDA-approved treatment, which is generally effective, yet response rates vary. The origin of the variability is not well characterized, but may be related to inter-patient variability in the production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). While fiber-based point probe systems provide a method for measuring PpIX production, these measurements have demonstrated large spatial and inter-operator variability. Thus, in an effort to improve patient-specific dosimetry and treatment it is important to develop a robust system that accounts for spatial variability and reduces the chance of operator errors. To address this need, a wide-field multispectral imaging system was developed that is capable of quantifying maps of PpIX in both liquid phantoms and in vivo experiments, focusing on high sensitivity light signals. The system uses both red and blue excitation to elicit a fluorescent response at varying skin depths. A ten-position filter wheel with bandpass filters ranging from 635nm to 710nm are used to capture images along the emission band. A linear least-square spectral fitting algorithm provides the ability to decouple background autofluorescence from PpIX fluorescence, which has improved the system sensitivity by an order of magnitude, detecting nanomolar PpIX concentrations in liquid phantoms in the presence of 2% whole blood and 2% intralipid.

  20. Structural requirements of acylated Gly-l-Ala-d-Glu analogs for activation of the innate immune receptor NOD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobec, Martina; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Jakopin, Žiga

    2016-06-30

    The fragment of bacterial peptidoglycan muramyl dipeptide (MDP) has long been known for its adjuvant activity, however the underlying mechanism of this action has only recently been elucidated. It is ascribed to its agonist action on the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2). In spite of the pressing need for novel adjuvants for human use, this discovery is hampered, by not knowing the structural requirements underlying the immunostimulatory activity. We have investigated how minor modifications of hit compound acyl Gly-L-Ala-D-Glu derivative I modulate the molecular recognition by NOD2. A series of novel desmuramyldipeptides has been designed and synthesized leading to the identification of compound 16, in which the sugar moiety is replaced by a 6-phenylindole moiety, that exhibits the strongest NOD2 activation to date sans the carbohydrate moiety. The results have enabled a deeper understanding of the structural requirements of desmuramylpeptides for NOD2 activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Pressure dependence of backbone chemical shifts in the model peptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlach, Markus Beck; Koehler, Joerg; Crusca, Edson; Kremer, Werner; Munte, Claudia E; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-06-01

    For a better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detected pressure responses of folded as well as unstructured proteins the availability of data from well-defined model systems are indispensable. In this work we report the pressure dependence of chemical shifts of the backbone atoms (1)H(α), (13)C(α) and (13)C' in the protected tetrapeptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH2 (Xxx one of the 20 canonical amino acids). Contrary to expectation the chemical shifts of these nuclei have a nonlinear dependence on pressure in the range from 0.1 to 200 MPa. The polynomial pressure coefficients B 1 and B 2 are dependent on the type of amino acid studied. The coefficients of a given nucleus show significant linear correlations suggesting that the NMR observable pressure effects in the different amino acids have at least partly the same physical cause. In line with this observation the magnitude of the second order coefficients of nuclei being direct neighbors in the chemical structure are also weakly correlated.

  2. Nonconserved Residues Ala287 and Ser290 of the Cryptosporidium hominis Thymidylate Synthase Domain Facilitate Its Rapid Rate of Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan,L.; Martucci, W.; Vargo, M.; Atreya, C.; Anderson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis TS-DHFR exhibits an unusually high rate of catalysis at the TS domain, at least 10-fold greater than those of other TS enzymes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have mutated residues Ala287 and Ser290 in the folate-binding helix to phenylalanine and glycine, respectively, the corresponding residues in human and most other TS enzymes. Our results show that the mutant A287F, the mutant S290G, and the double mutant all have reduced affinities for methylene tetrahydrofolate and reduced rates of reaction at the TS domain. Interestingly, the S290G mutant enzyme had the lowest TS activity, with a catalytic efficiency {approx}200-fold lower than that of the wild type (WT). The rate of conformational change of the S290G mutant is {approx}80 times slower than that of WT, resulting in a change in the rate-limiting step from hydride transfer to covalent ternary complex formation. We have determined the crystal structure of ligand-bound S290G mutant enzyme, which shows that the primary effect of the mutation is an increase in the distance between the TS ligands. The kinetic and crystal structure data presented here provide the first evidence explaining the unusually fast TS rate in C. hominis.

  3. HABITAT DAN PERILAKU KANGKARENG PERUT-PUTIH (Anthracoceros albirostris convexus Temm. 1832 DI RESORT ROWOBENDO TN ALAS PURWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvionita BR Tarigan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris is one of hornbill spesies (Bucerotidae that protected in Indonesia based on Goverment Regulation No. 7/1999. The habitat of oriental pied hornbillin Resort Rowobendo Alas Purwo National Park (APNP are natural forest and mixed forest plantation. The characteristic of the bird feeding site is a fruiting tree with a thick meat with the shaped is an oval, thin rind, soft, and contain more water and has sweet taste. The characteristic for the birdresting site is a tree with dense leaf, horizontal withstrong enough branch to withstand oriental pied hornbill. The tree height is about 10-26 m and the diameters  about 29-71 cm. The nesting site characteristic the bird is a tree with diameters about ≥ 50 cm and the height is about ≥10 m. The tree has a hole, main branch that is large and fairly flat with the height of the nest from the ground level of 12-30 m. Behavior of oriental pied hornbill observed are eating, resting, calling, flying and nesting. Keywords: APNP, behavior, habitat, oriental pied hornbill

  4. Microstructural features associated with the effect of temperature on the dimensional stability of an automotive Al-A319 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an automotive Al-A319 was given a solid solution heat treatment (T4 at 753 K (480 °C for 4.5 hours and an ageing treatment (T7 at 513 K (240 °C for various times up to 3.0 h. The alloy in the T4 condition was dilatometrically tested at various temperatures in order to measure its relative dimensional changes. It was found that the dimensional changes are due to both, alloy thermal expansion and nucleation and growth of second phases. In addition, in the T7 condition the alloy strength and ductility were determined as a function of ageing times. Ageing promoted alloy strength but at the expenses of a rather poor alloy ductility (down to 1%. Apparently, Cu rich intermetallic phases and regions provided a brittle path for fracturing. In particular, microstructural characterization using high resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that not all the Cu in the matrix was dissolved during the T4 treatment. Hence, after ageing (T7 these Cu-rich regions seemed to coarsen into spherical particles.

  5. Survey of Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate Health Condition in Terms of Parasites and Microbes in Alas Purwo National Park, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurrota A'yunin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian waters have six types of turtles that can live, spawn and breed. Sea turtle conservation becomes an important and urgent program to be done in order to protect and save sea turtle population in Indonesia. One of the factors that most affect the turtle population is the cause of degradation of pathogenic factors. Alas Purwo National Park, East Java, there is some communities that have activities turtle conservation. Conservation is done by securing and protecting turtle eggs. Turtle eggs that have hatched are released into the sea once it is ready. This study aims was to determine the type of bacteria and fungi that infect hatchlings and environmental factors that influence. This research is descriptive method to Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate is by way of random sampling. Sampling of microbes in sea turtle was conducted using cotton swab method and then microbes was cultured and indentified in laboratory. The results showed The kind of parasites and microbes which were indentified in hatching and adult Hawksbill sea turtles were fungus with genus Aspergillus sp., Geotrichum sp., Fusarium sp., and Gliocladium sp. ; bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloaceae; and parasite is Chelonibia testudinaria barnacles.  The parameter average value of water in pond indicated 28.1 – 29.2°C for temperature, 32 - 34 ‰ for salinity, 7.78 – 8.2 for pH, and 3.86 – 4.21 mg/L for DO.

  6. Pressure dependence of backbone chemical shifts in the model peptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlach, Markus Beck; Koehler, Joerg [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry and Centre of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry and Biomedicine (Germany); Crusca, Edson [University of São Paulo, Physics Institute of São Carlos (Brazil); Kremer, Werner [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry and Centre of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry and Biomedicine (Germany); Munte, Claudia E. [University of São Paulo, Physics Institute of São Carlos (Brazil); Kalbitzer, Hans Robert, E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@biologie.uni-regensburg.de [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry and Centre of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry and Biomedicine (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    For a better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detected pressure responses of folded as well as unstructured proteins the availability of data from well-defined model systems are indispensable. In this work we report the pressure dependence of chemical shifts of the backbone atoms {sup 1}H{sup α}, {sup 13}C{sup α} and {sup 13}C′ in the protected tetrapeptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH{sub 2} (Xxx one of the 20 canonical amino acids). Contrary to expectation the chemical shifts of these nuclei have a nonlinear dependence on pressure in the range from 0.1 to 200 MPa. The polynomial pressure coefficients B{sub 1} and B{sub 2} are dependent on the type of amino acid studied. The coefficients of a given nucleus show significant linear correlations suggesting that the NMR observable pressure effects in the different amino acids have at least partly the same physical cause. In line with this observation the magnitude of the second order coefficients of nuclei being direct neighbors in the chemical structure are also weakly correlated.Graphical Abstract.

  7. Application of evolutionary algorithm methods to polypeptide folding: comparison with experimental results for unsolvated Ac-(Ala-Gly-Gly)5-LysH+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo, Martin; Kinnear, Brian S; Hartings, Matthew R

    2004-01-01

    We present an evolutionary method for finding the low-energy conformations of polypeptides. The application, called FOLDAWAY,is based on a generic framework and uses several evolutionary operators as well as local optimization to navigate the complex energy landscape of polypeptides. It maintains...... mobility measurements. It has a flat energy landscape where helical and globular conformations have similar energies. FOLDAWAY locates several large groups of structures not found in previous molecular dynamics simulations for this peptide, including compact globular conformations, which are probably...... two complementary representations of the structures and uses the CHARMM force field for evaluating the energies. The method is applied to unsolvated Met-enkephalin and Ac-(Ala-Gly-Gly)(5)-Lys(+)H(+). Unsolvated Ac-(Ala-Gly-Gly)(5)-Lys(+)H(+) has been the object of recent experimental studies using ion...

  8. In vitro Evaluation of a Bombesin Antagonistic Analogue Conjugated with DOTA-Ala(SO3H)-Aminooctanoyl for Targeting of the Gastrin-releasing Peptide Receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, So Young; Choi, Sang Mu

    2014-01-01

    As Bombesin (BBS) binds with high affinity to GRPR, BBS derivatives have been labeled with various radionuclides such as 99 mTc, 111 In, 90 Y, 64 Cu, 177 Lu, 68 Ga, or 18 F and have proved to be successful candidates for peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT). In this study, we employed Ala(SO 3 H)-Aminooctanoyl as a linker of BBS antagonistic peptide sequence, Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH 2 , with DOTA to prepare radiolabeled candidates for GRPR targeting. A DOTA-conjugated BBS antagonistic analogue was synthesized and radiolabeled with 177 Lu, and in vitro characteristics on GRPR-overexpressing human prostate tumor cells were evaluated. In conclusion, a novel BBS antagonistic analogue, 177 Lu-DOTA-sBBNA, is a promising candidate for the targeting of GRPR-over-expressing tumors. Further investigations to evaluate its in vivo characteristics and therapeutic efficacy are needed

  9. Association of Polymorphous Markers Ala(-9Val of SOD2 Gene and C(-262T of CAT Gene in Patients with Hashimotos’ Thyroiditis and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mkrtumyan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of distribution of alleles and genotypes of polymorphous markers Ala(-9Val of SOD2 gene and C(-262T of CAT gene was performed. Eighty six patients with Hashimotos’ thyroiditis (HT were enrolled in the study. Significant deferens were found by comparison of alleles and genotypes incidence of polymorphous marker Ala(-9Val of SOD2 gene in HT-patients and in control group. Significant increase of incidence of Val/Val genotype (OR = 15,6; p = 0.04 in HT-patients may reflect a higher risk of HT in Val/Val individuals. This hypothesis may be confirmed by increase of malonic dialdehyde and antithyroid antibodies in Val/Val carriers.

  10. Lack of association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma 2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Qatari consanguineous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Ramin; Bener, Abdulbari; Zirie, Mahmoud; Al-Rikabi, Ammar; Simsek, Mehmet; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O A A; Ghoussaini, Maya; Froguel, Philippe; Wareham, Nick J

    2008-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear hormone receptor that serves as a master regulator for adipocytes-specific genes contributing to adipocytes differentiation, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. The substitution of proline to alanine at codon 12 of the PPAR gamma 2 gene (Pro12Ala polymorphism) is most widely studied, and the associations with diabetes, obesity, and other clinical parameters have been reported and discussed in several ethnic groups. Among native Qatar ethnicity, however, there is no report about this polymorphism. The aim of this study was to estimate the allele frequency of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR gamma 2 gene among Qatari population and investigate the association between this polymorphism and obesity or type 2 diabetes. This is a matched case-control study. It was carried out among diabetic patients and healthy subjects at the Primary Healthcare Clinics, and the survey was conducted from February 2003 to March 2006 in Qatari male and female nationals aged 35 to 60 years. The study was based on matched age, sex, and ethnicity of 400 cases (with diabetes) and 450 controls (without diabetes). Face-to-face interviews were based on a questionnaire that included variables such as age, sex, sociodemographic status, body mass index (BMI), and obesity. Their health status was assessed by medical conditions, family history, and blood pressure measurements. The allele frequency of Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR gamma 2 gene among Qataris is lower than that in many Caucasian ethnic groups. No association is seen between the Pro12Ala and type 2 Diabetes (0.055 vs 0.059, OR = 1.1311, P = 0.669). Nearly half of the diabetic type 2 patients (48.5%) were obese (BMI > 30) compared to nondiabetic subjects (29.8%) (P Qatar.

  11. Thr202Ala in thyA Is a Marker for the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Rather than Para-Aminosalicylic Acid Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Feuerriegel, S.

    2010-08-30

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in the development of resistance represent powerful markers for the rapid detection of first- and second-line resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates. However, the association between particular mutations and phenotypic resistance is not always clear-cut, and phylogenetic SNPs have been misclassified as resistance markers in the past. In the present study, we investigated the utility of a specific polymorphism in thyA (Thr202Ala) as a marker for resistance to para-aminosalicyclic acid (PAS). Sixty-three PAS-susceptible MTBC strains comprising all major phylogenetic lineages, reference strain H37Rv, and 135 multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains from Germany (comprising 8 PAS-resistant isolates) were investigated for the presence of Thr202Ala. In both strain collections, the Thr202Ala SNP was found exclusively in strains of the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage irrespective of PAS resistance. Furthermore, PAS MICs (0.5 mg/liter) for selected LAM strains (all containing the SNP) and non-LAM strains (not containing the SNP), as well as the results of growth curve analyses performed in liquid 7H9 medium in the presence of increasing PAS concentrations (0 to 2.0 mg/liter), were identical. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the Thr202Ala polymorphism in thyA is not a valid marker for PAS resistance but, instead, represents a phylogenetic marker for the LAM lineage of the M. tuberculosis complex. These findings challenge some of the previous understanding of PAS resistance and, as a consequence, warrant further in-depth investigations of the genetic variation in PAS-resistant clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants.

  12. Assessment of the Pro12Ala Polymorphism in the PPAR-γ2 Gene among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in a Nigerian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwill Azeh Engwa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARγ2 gene, type 2 diabetes (T2D, and obesity in certain ethnic populations has been reported. However, this relationship has not yet been described among diabetes patients in Nigeria. This study investigated the relationship between the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene, obesity, and lipid abnormalities characterizing T2D among patients in Nigeria. This case-control study recruited 73 T2D and 75 non-diabetic (ND patients. Demographic and clinical data were collected and blood glucose levels together with serum lipid profile for patients were measured. Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene was genotyped by restriction fragment length-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR. The PPAR-γ2 gene (amplicon size = 270 base pair was successfully amplified for all samples. Following restriction enzyme digestion and analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis, amplicons from samples showed a band of size 270 bp and were of the wild homozygous Pro/Pro genotype. Ala12 variant was totally absent from the study population. Obesity, estimated using Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, was significantly higher (p < 0.05 in T2D patients compared to the non-diabetic patients. More so, the prevalence of lipid abnormalities; hypercholesterolaemia (TC > 200 mg/dL, hypertriglyceridaemia (TG > 150 mg/dL, high HDL (>100 mg/dL, and low HDL (<50 mg/dL was significantly greater (p < 0.001 in T2D patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Results obtained further indicated lack of significant association between PPAR-γ2 gene polymorphism, T2D, and obesity. However, obesity and dyslipidaemia were strongly associated in T2D patients.

  13. Ala54Thr fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2 polymorphism in recurrent depression: associations with fatty acid concentrations and waist circumference.

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    Roel J T Mocking

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. RESULTS: FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2ω6; P=.009 and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II lower waist circumference (P=.019. In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I mediated by its effect on C20:2ω6, and (II different from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.

  14. THz emission of donor and acceptor doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures with inserted thin AlAs monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paphavee; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Kalasuwan, Pruet

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we explore THz range optical intersubband transition energies in a donor doped quantum well of a GaAs/AlGaAs system as a function of the insertion position of an AlAs monolayer in the GaAs quantum well. In simulated models, the optical transition energies between electron subband levels 1 and 2 were higher in the doped structure than in the undoped structure. This may be because the envelope wave function of the second electron subband strongly overlapped the envelope wave function of the first electron subband and influenced the optical intersubband transition between the two levels in the THz range. At different levels of bias voltage at the Schottky barrier on the donor doped structure, the electric field in the growth direction of the structure linearly increased the further away the AlAs monolayer was placed from the reference position. We also simulated the optical transition energies between acceptor energy levels of the acceptor doped structure as a function of the insertion position of the AlAs monolayer. The acceptor doped structure induced THz range emission whereas the undoped structure induced mid-IR emission.

  15. Expanding phenotype of p.Ala140Val mutation in MECP2 in a 4 generation family with X-linked intellectual disability and spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sophie; Maystadt, Isabelle; Boulanger, Sébastien; Vrielynck, Pascal; Destrée, Anne; Lederer, Damien; Moortgat, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in MECP2 (MIM #312750), located on Xq28 and encoding a methyl CpG binding protein, are classically associated with Rett syndrome in female patients, with a lethal effect in hemizygous males. However, MECP2 mutations have already been reported in surviving males with severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, or with X-linked intellectual disability associated with psychosis, pyramidal signs, parkinsonian features and macro-orchidism (PPM-X syndrome; MIM3 #300055). Here we report on the identification of the p.Ala140Val mutation in the MECP2 gene in 4 males and 3 females of a large Caucasian family affected with X-linked intellectual disability. Females present with mild cognitive impairment and speech difficulties. Males have moderate intellectual disability, impaired language development, friendly behavior, slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and dystonic movements of the hands. Two of them show microcephaly. The p.Ala140Val mutation is recurrent, as it was already described in 4 families with X-linked mental retardation and in three sporadic male patients with intellectual disability. We further delineate the phenotype associated with the p.Ala140Val mutation, illustrating a variable expressivity even within a given family, and we compare our patients with previous reported cases in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14 as an agent for pancreas tumor detection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Carlesso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr, including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14 as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control, and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14 uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14 may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  17. Thermal conductivity of InAs quantum dot stacks using AlAs strain compensating layers on InP substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, S.; Folliot, H.; Le Pouliquen, J.; Chevalier, N.; Rohel, T.; Paranthoën, C.; Bertru, N.; Labbé, C.; Letoublon, A.; Le Corre, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermal conductivity of InAs on InP (1 1 3)B quantum dots stacks is measured. ► The growth of a close stack of 100 layers of InAs using AlAs strain compensating layers is presented. ► New data on the thermal conductivity of InP n-doped susbtrate are given. - Abstract: The growth and thermal conductivity of InAs quantum dot (QD) stacks embedded in GaInAs matrix with AlAs compensating layers deposited on (1 1 3)B InP substrate are presented. The effect of the strain compensating AlAs layer is demonstrated through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction structural analysis. The thermal conductivity (2.7 W/m K at 300 K) measured by the 3ω method reveals to be clearly reduced in comparison with a bulk InGaAs layer (5 W/m K). In addition, the thermal conductivity measurements of S doped InP substrates and the SiN insulating layer used in the 3ω method in the 20–200 °C range are also presented. An empirical law is proposed for the S doped InP substrate, which slightly differs from previously presented results.

  18. Long-sustaining response in a patient with non-resectable, distant recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme treated by interstitial photodynamic therapy using 5-ALA: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stummer, Walter; Beck, Tobias; Beyer, Wolfgang; Mehrkens, Jan Hendrik; Obermeier, Andreas; Etminan, Nima; Stepp, Herbert; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Herms, Jochen; Kreth, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2008-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme continues to be a devastating disease despite modest improvements in survival achieved at present, and there is an urgent need for innovative treatment concepts. Five-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a drug which induces protoporphyrin IX accumulation in malignant gliomas and has been explored for fluorescence-guided resections of these tumors. ALA is also under investigation as a photosensitizer. We report a case of a patient with prior left frontal glioblastoma multiforme treated by surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, who developed a remote lesion in the left insula, which was refractory to secondary treatments. In a compassionate use setting she was treated by oral application of ALA (20 mg/kg bodyweight), and stereotactic phototherapy achieved by positioning four laser diffusors using 3-dimensional irradiation planning, and a 633 nm diode laser. The lesion disappeared 24 h after therapy. Circumferential contrast enhancement was observed at 72 h, which disappeared in the course of subsequent months. Edema resolved completely. The patient is still free of recurrence 56 months after treatment, demonstrating an impressive and long-lasting response to this novel mode of therapy.

  19. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} as an agent for pancreas tumor detection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlesso, F.N.; Fuscaldi, L.L.; Araujo, R.S.; Teixeira, C.S.; Oliveira, M.C.; Fernandes, S.O.A.; Cassali, G.D.; Reis, D.C.; Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N., E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr), including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control), and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (author)

  20. Structures of an alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (BA0252) in the presence and absence of (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (l-Ala-P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Kinfai; Ren, Jingshan; Walter, Thomas S.; Harlos, Karl; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J.; Stuart, David I.; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Structures of BA0252, an alanine racemase from B. anthracis, in the presence and absence of the inhibitor (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (l-Ala-P) and determined by X-ray crystallography to resolutions of 2.1 and 1.47 Å, respectively, are described. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has been targeted by the Oxford Protein Production Facility to validate high-throughput protocols within the Structural Proteomics in Europe project. As part of this work, the structures of an alanine racemase (BA0252) in the presence and absence of the inhibitor (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (l-Ala-P) have determined by X-ray crystallo@@graphy to resolutions of 2.1 and 1.47 Å, respectively. Difficulties in crystallizing this protein were overcome by the use of reductive methylation. Alanine racemase has attracted much interest as a possible target for anti-anthrax drugs: not only is d-alanine a vital component of the bacterial cell wall, but recent studies also indicate that alanine racemase, which is accessible in the exosporium, plays a key role in inhibition of germination in B. anthracis. These structures confirm the binding mode of l-Ala-P but suggest an unexpected mechanism of inhibition of alanine racemase by this compound and could provide a basis for the design of improved alanine racemase inhibitors with potential as anti-anthrax therapies

  1. Strategi Pengembangan Wista Mangrove Di “Blok Bedul” Taman Nasional Alas Purwo Kabupaten Banyuwangi Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah Saifullah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ekowisata dapat dilihat sebagai suatu konsep pengembangan pariwisata berkelanjutan yang bertujuan untuk mendukung upaya-upaya pelestarian lingkungan dan meningkatkan partisipasi masyarakat dalam pengelolaannya. Oleh karena itu diperlukan penelitian tentang strategi pengembangan ekowisata kawasan mangrove untuk mendukung pelestarian lingkungan pesisir yang berkelanjutan. Hasil penelitian menujukan Potensi mangrove yang terdapat di kawasan ini 4 species dari 2 famili yaitu : Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia alba dan Cariop tagal, selain itu dari hasil studi literatur diketahui bahwa terdapat 24 species dari 12 famili di sepanjang kawasan segara anakan Taman Nasional Alas Purwo. Untuk inventarisasi satwa, dari hasil studi literatur dan pengamatan dilapang terdapat jenis burung air, burung darat, burung pemangsa, mamalia, reptile, pisces dan crustacea. Untuk potensi budaya terdapat upacara petik laut dan sumber air randu telu yang dipercaya dapat menyembuhkan penyakit. Dari hasil analisa kuisioner 47% dari jumlah pengunjung mengetahui tentang ekosistem mangrove. Dan 47% dari responden yang memahami tentang fungsi ekosistem mangrove. Dari pengenalan tentang ekowisata mempunyai nilai-nilai konservasi atau perlindungan, 85% responden memahami hal tersebut. Untuk pemberdayaan masyarakat, 67% memahami ekowisata harus disertai dengan pemberdayaan dan partisipasi masyarakat. Dan 50% responden menyetujui bahwa ekowisata harus memberikan nilai ekonomi kepada masyarakat. Dan untuk persepsi bahwa ekowisata harus dapat memberikan nilai pendidikan kepada pengunjung, 73% responden mengetahuinya. Dari hasil perhitungan menggunakan konsep surplus konsumen didapat total valuasi ekonomi kawasan ekowisata mangrove blok bedul adalah Rp. 88.606.183,00. Nilai ini untuk per 1000 orang dalam kunjungan pertahun. Arahan strategi kebijakan pengembangan antara lain: (a Kelembagaan pengelola ekowisata harus dapat meningkatkan pelayanannya, (b Pengembangan

  2. Pressure dependence of side chain 13C chemical shifts in model peptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck Erlach, Markus; Koehler, Joerg; Crusca, Edson; Munte, Claudia E; Kainosho, Masatsune; Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2017-10-01

    For evaluating the pressure responses of folded as well as intrinsically unfolded proteins detectable by NMR spectroscopy the availability of data from well-defined model systems is indispensable. In this work we report the pressure dependence of 13 C chemical shifts of the side chain atoms in the protected tetrapeptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH 2 (Xxx, one of the 20 canonical amino acids). Contrary to expectation the chemical shifts of a number of nuclei have a nonlinear dependence on pressure in the range from 0.1 to 200 MPa. The size of the polynomial pressure coefficients B 1 and B 2 is dependent on the type of atom and amino acid studied. For H N , N and C α the first order pressure coefficient B 1 is also correlated to the chemical shift at atmospheric pressure. The first and second order pressure coefficients of a given type of carbon atom show significant linear correlations suggesting that the NMR observable pressure effects in the different amino acids have at least partly the same physical cause. In line with this observation the magnitude of the second order coefficients of nuclei being direct neighbors in the chemical structure also are weakly correlated. The downfield shifts of the methyl resonances suggest that gauche conformers of the side chains are not preferred with pressure. The valine and leucine methyl groups in the model peptides were assigned using stereospecifically 13 C enriched amino acids with the pro-R carbons downfield shifted relative to the pro-S carbons.

  3. Investigation of a potential scintigraphic marker of apoptosis: radioiodinated Z-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethyl ketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkorn, Uwe E-mail: uwe_haberkorn@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krammer, Peter H.; Mier, Walter; Eisenhut, Michael

    2001-10-01

    The imaging of apoptosis represents an attractive diagnostic goal in the area of tumor therapy, degenerative diseases and organ transplantation. Since caspases play a key role during the early period of the intracellular signal cascade of cells undergoing apoptosis we considered benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethyl ketone [Z-VAD-fmk], a pan-caspase inhibitor, as a potential apoptosis imaging agent. Applying the Tl(TFA){sub 3}/[{sup 131}I]iodide method Z-VAD-fmk was successfully labeled at the benzyloxycarbonyl protecting group. The success of radioiodination, however, depended on the presence of carrier iodide resulting in specific radioactivities of 2.6 GBq/{mu}mol and the formation of a mixture of the 2- and 4-iodophenyl derivative (61%) which could not be separated by HPLC. Uptake measurements were performed with Morris hepatoma cells (MH3924Atk8) which showed expression of the Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene. Apoptosis was induced by treatment of the cells with 25 {mu}M ganciclovir. The TUNEL assay revealed 1.3{+-}0.3 and 23{+-}1.1% apoptotic cells immediately and 24 h after therapy, respectively. A two-fold increase of [{sup 131}I]IZ-VAD-fmk uptake was found at the end of treatment with the HSVtk/suicide system which constantly remained elevated for the following 4 hours. The slow cellular influx and lack of uptake saturation of [{sup 131}I]IZ-VAD-fmk are evidence for simple diffusion as transport mechanism. In addition, the absolute cellular uptake of [{sup 131}I]IZ-VAD-fmk was found to be low. This quality was related to the rather high lipophilicity of [{sup 131}I]IZ-VAD-fmk causing unspecific binding to macromolecules in the medium. Instead of using an inhibitor, synthetic caspase substrates are currently investigated which may accumulate in the apoptotic cell by metabolic trapping thereby enhancing the imaging signal.

  4. HABITAT DAN PERILAKU ELANG JAWA (Nisaetus bartelsi DI SPTN 1 TEGALDLIMO TAMAN NASIONAL ALAS PURWO, JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Natalia Sitorus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Javan Hawk-eagle (Nisaetus bartelsi considered as endangered species by IUCN redlist 2015 and protected species by Government Regulation No.7/1999. Alas Purwo National Park (APNP is a conservation area and its one of the natural habitat of Javan Hawk-eagle distribution (endemic species of java. The study was aimed to analysis its habitat and the behavior. Purposive sampling was used on focused observation area base on direct contex with the bird. The habitat analysis was approach with vagetation analysis dan habitat used method. Focal animal sampling used as approach describe to know the daily activities. The result showed that the bird used of natural lowland forest as main habitat and the bird distibute as equal (focused at natural lowland forest. Characteristic of sheltering site of the bird using tree in A strata and B strata, which have horizontal and strong enough branch. The javan hawk-eagle choising at emergent tree for the nesting site, with characteristic of emergent tree, with crown not so dense of the leaf and the position of the tree close to hunting area. Characteristic of hunting areas of the bird is natural lowland forest with diverse and abundant of preys. The bird like preys on mammals such as giant squirrel and bird such as red jungle fowl. The behavior was most often observed was resting in natural lowland forest with five times encounter (58,06%. But the bird also done activities of preening and observing surrounding to focus on seaching food. Hunting activity was observed used perch hunting in natural low land forest in APNP. Keywords: APNP, habitat, javan hawk-eagle

  5. The Effect of Visitor Satisfaction Level on Willingness to Pay at Plengkung, in Alas Purwo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Annisa Matondang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of ecotourism destinations in Indonesia is located in the Plengkung Beach at Alas Purwo National Park, Banyuwangi, East Java. Plengkung is one of the world's best locations for surfing activities which can be equated with Hawaii, Australia and South Africa. It was attract tourists to visit Plengkung. Each investor should pay attention to visitor satisfaction in order to maintain and increase the number of visitors. However, visitor satisfaction could be reflected through the improvement of service quality. The purpose of this study was to measure the level of visitor satisfaction based on service quality at PT Plengkung Indah Wisata and PT Wanasari Pramudita Ananta in Plengkung, to measure the value of ecotourism satisfaction using the willingness to pay (WTP approach and to know the effect of visitor satisfaction level on WTP after doing ecotourism activities. The research was conducted in June-October 2016 with data collection method using quesionnaires, interviews and literature studies. The effect of visitor satisfaction level on WTP of ecotourism activities in Plengkung was analyzed using bivariate correlation analysis (parson correlation coefficient with p-value <0,05. The results showed that PT WPA had better service quality, hence it got higher satisfaction score which is 4,8. The WTP in PT WPA was greater than PT PIW, that is Rp 15.452.370 since PT WPA had a higher level of visitor satisfaction than PT PIW. The correlation test results proved that the level of visitor satisfaction significantly affect the WTP with a value of 0,031.Keyword: ecotourism, visitor satisfaction level, WTP.

  6. Delta-ALA-mediated fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors: comparison of in vivo and in vitro results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, B.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2007-06-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection of dysplastic changes of mucosa are significant challenge and initiate development of new photodiagnostic techniques, additional to diagnostic possibilities of standard endoscopic equipment. One of the most widely examined optical modalities is the laser- or light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS), because of its rapid and highly sensitive response to early biochemical and morphological changes in biological tissues. In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/protoporphyrin IX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The δ -ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from in vivo tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Mucosa autofluorescence lies at 450-600 nm region. The fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced at the 630-710 nm region. Deep minima in the tumor fluorescence signals are observed in the region 540-575 nm, related to hemoglobin re-absorption. Such high hemoglobin content is an indication of the tumors vascularization and it is clearly pronounced in all dysplastic and tumor sites investigated. After formalin conservation for in vitro samples hemoglobin absorption is strongly reduced that increases mucous fluorescence signal in green-yellow spectral region. Simultaneously the maxima at 635 nm and 720 nm are reduced.

  7. ERCC1 Cys8092Ala and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms predict progression-free survival after curative radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekun Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in DNA repair genes can alter gene expression and activity and affect response to cancer treatment and, correspondingly, survival. The present study was designed to evaluate the utility of the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and ERCC1 Cys8092Ala SNPs, measured in pretreatment biopsy samples, as predictors of response to radiotherapy in patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 75 consecutive patients with stage II-IVA-B NPC. XRCC1 Arg399Glu and ERCC1 Cys8092Ala SNPs were identified from paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens via Sanger sequencing. Expression of p53 and pAkt protein was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Potential relationships between genetic polymorphisms and progression-free survival (PFS were analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards model, the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that carriers of the ERCC1 8092 Ala/Ala genotype [hazard ratio (HR 1.882; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.031-3.438; P = 0.039] and heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years carrying the XRCC1 Arg/Arg genotype (HR 2.019; 95% CI 1.010-4.036; P = 0.047 had significantly lower PFS rates. Moreover, combined positive expression of p53 and pAkt led to significantly increased PFS in subgroups carrying the XRCC1 Gln allele (HR 7.057; 95% CI 2.073-24.021; P = 0.002 or the ERCC1 Cys allele (HR 2.568; 95% CI 1.056-6.248; P = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: The ERCC1 Cys8092Ala polymorphism is an independent predictor of response to radiotherapy for NPC, and the XRCC1 Arg399Glu mutation combined with smoking status seems to predict PFS as well. Our results further suggest a possible correlation between these genetic polymorphisms and p53 protein status on survival.

  8. Popmuusika / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Kode 9 And Spaceape "Memories Of The Future", Nitrous "Dominant Force", Jamelia "Walk With Me", Sparklehorse "dream For Light Years", Mocky "Navy Brown Blues", Pat Metheny & Brad Mehldau, Enigma "A Posteriori"

  9. Draamalaborite tuleproov / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Cabaret Rhizomes 12. märtsil esietenduvast Päär Pärensoni lavastusest "Ürgne kutse" ja Solarise maa-aluses parklas 15. ja 17. märtsil etenduvast Tamur Tohveri lavastusest "Kas ma olen nüüd elus"

  10. Two 24-hour Studies of Water Quality in the Ala Wai Canal during March and July, 1994 for the Mamala Bay Study, Pollutant Source Identification Project MB-3, (NODC Accession 0001188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset focuses on studies of water quality in the Ala Wai Canal in order to determine its role of point and non point source disharge into Mamala Bay. The...

  11. A New Ala-122-Asn Amino Acid Change Confers Decreased Fitness to ALS-Resistant Echinochloa crus-galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Panozzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene mutations conferring herbicide resistance may cause pleiotropic effects on plant fitness. Knowledge of these effects is important for managing the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds. An Echinochloa crus-galli population resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS herbicides was collected in a maize field in north-eastern Italy and the cross-resistance pattern, resistance mechanism and fitness costs associated to mutant-resistant plants under field conditions in the presence or absence of intra-specific competition were determined. The study reports for the first time the Ala-122-Asn amino-acid change in the ALS gene that confers high levels of cross-resistance to all ALS inhibitors tested. Results of 3-year growth analysis showed that mutant resistant E. crus-galli plants had a delayed development in comparison with susceptible plants and this was registered in both competitive (3, 7, and 20 plants m-2 and non-competitive (spaced plants situations. The number of panicles produced by resistant plants was also lower (about 40% fewer panicles than susceptible plants under no-intraspecific competition. Instead, with the increasing competition level, the difference in panicle production at harvest time decreased until it became negligible at 20 plants m-2. Evaluation of total dry biomass as well as biomass allocation in vegetative parts did not highlight any difference between resistant and susceptible plants. Instead, panicle dry weight was higher in susceptible plants indicating that they allocated more biomass than resistant ones to the reproductive organs, especially in no-competition and in competition situations at lower plant densities. The different fitness between resistant and susceptible phenotypes suggests that keeping the infestation density as low as possible can increase the reproduction success of the susceptible phenotype and therefore contribute to lowering the ratio between resistant and susceptible alleles. If adequately

  12. A New Ala-122-Asn Amino Acid Change Confers Decreased Fitness to ALS-Resistant Echinochloa crus-galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Silvia; Scarabel, Laura; Rosan, Valentina; Sattin, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Gene mutations conferring herbicide resistance may cause pleiotropic effects on plant fitness. Knowledge of these effects is important for managing the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds. An Echinochloa crus-galli population resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) herbicides was collected in a maize field in north-eastern Italy and the cross-resistance pattern, resistance mechanism and fitness costs associated to mutant-resistant plants under field conditions in the presence or absence of intra-specific competition were determined. The study reports for the first time the Ala-122-Asn amino-acid change in the ALS gene that confers high levels of cross-resistance to all ALS inhibitors tested. Results of 3-year growth analysis showed that mutant resistant E. crus-galli plants had a delayed development in comparison with susceptible plants and this was registered in both competitive (3, 7, and 20 plants m -2 ) and non-competitive (spaced plants) situations. The number of panicles produced by resistant plants was also lower (about 40% fewer panicles) than susceptible plants under no-intraspecific competition. Instead, with the increasing competition level, the difference in panicle production at harvest time decreased until it became negligible at 20 plants m -2 . Evaluation of total dry biomass as well as biomass allocation in vegetative parts did not highlight any difference between resistant and susceptible plants. Instead, panicle dry weight was higher in susceptible plants indicating that they allocated more biomass than resistant ones to the reproductive organs, especially in no-competition and in competition situations at lower plant densities. The different fitness between resistant and susceptible phenotypes suggests that keeping the infestation density as low as possible can increase the reproduction success of the susceptible phenotype and therefore contribute to lowering the ratio between resistant and susceptible alleles. If adequately embedded in a

  13. Low-Centred Polygons and Alas-Like Basins as Geological Markers of Warming Trends Late in Mars' History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Conway, S. J.; Godin, E.; Osinski, G.; Hawkswell, J.; Bina, A.

    2017-12-01

    Expansive assemblages of low/high centred (ice-wedge) polygons and (polygonised) flat-floored thermokarst-basins (alases) are ubiquitous on Earth where the permafrost is continuous, metres to decametres-thick and ice rich, i.e. the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands of northern Canada and the Yamal Peninsula of eastern Russia. These assemblages are geological bellwethers of transient and on occasion, long-term rises of sub-aerial and thaw-generating mean temperatures, for two principal reasons. First, high-centred (ice-wedge) polygons evolve from low-centred (ice-wedge) polygons when ice wedges that have aggraded and uplift overlying sediments above the elevation datum at the polygon centres, degrade, by thaw, and induce the loss of elevation below that datum. Second, thermokarst terrain comprises sediments whose pore volume is exceeded by the presence of water ice. A thermokarst basin (an alas) forms if and only when this ice undergoes thermal destabilisation and where thaw-generated meltwater is lost by evaporation or drainage. Spatially-associated and morphologically-similar assemblages of polygons and basins are commonplace throughout the mid-latitudes of eastern Utopia Planitia (UP), Mars. Under current conditions of extreme aridity, low atmospheric-pressure and frigid mean-temperatures, the widespread formation of ice-rich terrain by freeze-thaw cycling, let alone of near-surface ice-wedges and/or thermokarst basins, seems implausible. Against this environmental backdrop, sublimation seemingly stands alone in being able to revise ice-rich landscapes. However, multiple strands of data point to the possible periglacial-assemblages (PPAs) being youthful but not current in their formation. First, the sub-regional and dark-toned terrain incised by the PPAs is cratered more densely than would be expected. Second, the PPAs reside at a lower relative and absolute elevation than a light-toned and region-wide latitude-dependent mantle that is generally thought to be very recent in

  14. Meta-analysis of association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 gene and diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians and Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinlan; Li, Yan; Zhou, Fang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Guo, Gang; Qu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2) gene is reported to be associated with diabetes. However, the gene's association with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been investigated in numerous epidemiologic studies with controversial results. This meta-analysis aimed to collectively assess the association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism with DR in T2DM. An electronic literature search was conducted on PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and the China National Knowledge Internet. A dominant model [(Pro/Ala +Ala/Ala) versus Pro/Pro] was used to ensure adequate statistical power. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the fixed effect model. Potential sources of heterogeneity and bias were explored. This meta-analysis included genotype data from 2,720 cases with DR and 2,450 controls free of DR from eight eligible publications. The results showed the Ala allele had a protective effect on DR in T2DM (OR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.98, p=0.03). There was no significant evidence against homogeneity (I(2)=46%, P(heterogeneity)=0.07). The sensitivity analysis showed a robust association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism with DR in T2DM after a study involving Caucasians that presented a big effect on heterogeneity (OR=0.75; 95% CI: 0.62-0.91, p=0.003) was excluded. Possible ethnic differences in the association of the Pro12Ala single nucleotide polymorphism and DR were demonstrated; a significant association was illustrated in the Caucasian subgroup (OR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.59-0.94, p=0.01) but was not found in the Asian subgroup (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.55-1.07, p=0.12). No publication bias was observed. This meta-analysis suggested a significant association exists between the Pro12Ala polymorphism and DR in T2DM with ethnic differences. The Ala allele had a significant protective effect against DR in T2DM.

  15. Gömülmüs Atom Potansiyeli Kullanarak CuNi Alasımının Moleküler Dinamik Simulasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eşe Ergün AKPINAR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmada, CuNi alasımının moleküler dinamik simulasyonu, Sutton-Chen (SC potansiyeli kullanılarak incelendi. Bu potansiyel Cu, Ni ve CuNi in deneysel bilgilerinin fonksiyon parametrelerine fit edilmesiyle elde edildi. CuNi alasımının kristalizasyon sürecini atomik olarak tanımlamak için, gömülmüs atom yöntemini esas alan sabit basınç, sabit sıcaklık (NPT moleküler dinamik simulasyonu uygulandı. Sıvı fazda iken 4x1011 K/s sogutma hızında sogutulan CuNi alasımının yapısı ve kristallesme olusum yetenegi radyal dagılım fonksiyonuyla incelendi. Simulasyon, üç temel dogrultu boyunca periyodik sınır sartlarını saglayan kübik bir hücrede 1024 atom içeren sistemle gerçeklestirildi. Hareket denklemleri Verlet algoritması kullanılarak sayısal olarak çözüldü. Sogutma deneyi için sıvı hal baslangıcı, katının sıvı sıcaklıgına ısıtılmasıyla elde edildi. Sistem 1300-1550K sıvılasma bölgesi üzerindeki sıcaklıkta eritildi ve homojenize edildi ve hızla oda sıcaklıgına sogutuldu.

  16. Analysis of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD: Ala-9Val and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px: Pro 197 Leu gene polymorphisms in mood disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Elbozan Cumurcu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the etiopathogenetic role of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD (Ala-9Val and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px (Pro 197 Leu gene polymorphisms in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar I disorder (BD. Eighty patients with MDD, 82 patients with BD (total 162 patients and 96 healthy controls were enrolled in this study and genotyped using a Real Time-Quantitative Polymer Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR-based method. The patients with BD and MDD and the controls had a similar distribution of the genotypes and alleles in the Ala-9Val MnSOD gene polymorphism. Comparison of the MDD group and control group regarding the Pro197 Leu GSH-Px gene polymorphism revealed similar genotype distribution but different allele distribution. The BD group and control group were similar both for genotypes and for alleles when compared regarding the Pro 197 Leu GSH-Px gene polymorphism. The combined analysis (MDD plus BD also failed to find any association between the Ala-9Val MnSOD and Pro 197 Leu GSH-Px gene polymorphism. Although small statistical power of the current study the significant difference between patients with depression and the control group for the Pro 197 Leu GSH-Px polymorphism indicates that the distribution of these alleles may have a contribution in the physiopathogenesis of depression. One of the limitation of the current study is that the sample size is too small. Understanding of the exact role of Pro 197 LeuGSH-Px polymorphism in the development of depression needs to further studies with more sample size and high statistical power.

  17. The cisproline(i - 1)-aromatic(i) interaction: Folding of the Ala-cisPro-Tyr peptide characterized by NMR and theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, Frederico; Kemmink, Johan; Sattler, Michael; Wade, Rebecca C. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (Germany)

    2000-05-15

    Cisproline(i-1)-aromatic(i) interactions have been detected in several short peptides in aqueous solution by analysis of anomalous chemical shifts measured by {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. This formation of local structure is of importance for protein folding and binding properties. To obtain an atomic-detail characterisation of the cisproline(i-1)-aromatic(i) interaction in terms of structure, energetics and dynamics, we studied the minimal peptide unit, blocked Ala-cisPro-Tyr, using computational and experimental techniques. Structural database analyses and a systematic search revealed two groups of conformations displaying a cisproline(i-1)-aromatic(i) interaction. These conformations were taken as seeds for molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent at 278 K. During a total of 33.6 ns of simulation, all the 'folded' conformations and some 'unfolded' states were sampled. {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-chemical shifts and {sup 3}J-coupling constants were measured for the Ala-Pro-Tyr peptide. Excellent agreement was found between all the measured and computed NMR properties, showing the good quality of the force field. We find that under the experimental and simulation conditions, the Ala-cisPro-Tyr peptide is folded 90% of the time and displays two types of folded conformation which we denote 'a' and 'b'. The type a conformations are twice as populated as the type b conformations. The former have the tyrosine ring interacting with the alanine {alpha} proton and are enthalpically stabilised. The latter have the aromatic ring interacting with the proline side chain and are entropically stabilised. The combined and complementary use of computational and experimental techniques permitted derivation of a detailed scenario of the 'folding' of this peptide.

  18. Deciphering a molecular mechanism of neonatal diabetes mellitus by the chemical synthesis of a protein diastereomer, [D-AlaB8]human proinsulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital-Shmilovici, Michal; Whittaker, Jonathan; Weiss, Michael A; Kent, Stephen B H

    2014-08-22

    Misfolding of proinsulin variants in the pancreatic β-cell, a monogenic cause of permanent neonatal-onset diabetes mellitus, provides a model for a disease of protein toxicity. A hot spot for such clinical mutations is found at position B8, conserved as glycine within the vertebrate insulin superfamily. We set out to investigate the molecular basis of the aberrant properties of a proinsulin clinical mutant in which residue Gly(B8) is replaced by Ser(B8). Modular total chemical synthesis was used to prepare the wild-type [Gly(B8)]proinsulin molecule and three analogs: [D-Ala(B8)]proinsulin, [L-Ala(B8)]proinsulin, and the clinical mutant [L-Ser(B8)]proinsulin. The protein diastereomer [D-Ala(B8)]proinsulin produced higher folding yields at all pH values compared with the wild-type proinsulin and the other two analogs, but showed only very weak binding to the insulin receptor. The clinical mutant [L-Ser(B8)]proinsulin impaired folding at pH 7.5 even in the presence of protein-disulfide isomerase. Surprisingly, although [L-Ser(B8)]proinsulin did not fold well under the physiological conditions investigated, once folded the [L-Ser(B8)]proinsulin protein molecule bound to the insulin receptor more effectively than wild-type proinsulin. Such paradoxical gain of function (not pertinent in vivo due to impaired secretion of the mutant insulin) presumably reflects induced fit in the native mechanism of hormone-receptor engagement. This work provides insight into the molecular mechanism of a clinical mutation in the insulin gene associated with diabetes mellitus. These results dramatically illustrate the power of total protein synthesis, as enabled by modern chemical ligation methods, for the investigation of protein folding and misfolding. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Relationship between the occlusal plane corresponding to the lateral borders of the tongue and ala-tragus line in edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Carole Abi; Zogheib, Carla; Makzoumé, Joseph E

    2012-09-01

    Definitions of the ala-tragus line (ATL) cause confusion, because the exact points of reference for this line do not agree. This study determined the relationship between the prosthetic occlusal plane (OP) corresponding to the lateral borders of the tongue and ATL which was established by using the inferior border of the ala of the nose and (1) the superior border of the tragus (ATL 1), (2) the tip (ATL 2) and (3) the inferior border of the tragus (ATL 3). Neutral zone moldings using phonation and autopolymerizing acrylic resin were recorded and leveled with the lateral borders of the tongue. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken of each subject by a standard method. Tracings were obtained on acetate paper to show the prosthetic OP and the three ATLs. The relationship between the prosthetic OP and each of ATL was measured for each subject. Mean and standard deviation values were then calculated for the relationship. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measure analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni pairwise comparisons and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Significant difference was found between the three mean angles (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between the mean angle (5.00° ± 4.38) formed by OP and ATL 2, and the mean angle (4.90° ± 3.50) formed by OP and ATL 3 (p = 1.00) which revealed the smallest. The findings of this study indicated that ATLs, extending from the inferior border of the ala of the nose to (1) the tip of the tragus of the ear, and (2) the inferior border of the tragus presented the closest relationship to the prosthetic OP corresponding to the lateral borders of the tongue. When the ATL is used for orientation of the OP in denture construction, it would seem preferable to define it as running from the inferior border of the ala of the nose to the tip or to the inferior border of the tragus of the ear.

  20. A retrospective review of pain control by a two-step irradiance schedule during topical ALA-photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitouni, Nathalie C; Paquette, Anne D; Housel, Joseph P; Shi, Yi; Wilding, Gregory E; Foster, Thomas H; Henderson, Barbara W

    2013-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) of non-melanoma skin cancers is often associated with treatment-limiting pain. A previous study on basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) at Roswell Park Cancer Institute evaluated a two-step irradiance scheme as a means of minimizing pain, preserving outcomes, and limiting treatment time. We used an initial low irradiance until 90% of the protoporphyrin IX was photobleached, followed by a high irradiance interval until the prescribed fluence was delivered. Success of this pilot investigation motivated integration of the protocol into routine practice. Here, we present a retrospective review of recent clinical experience in a broad patient population. This was a retrospective review of an existing dermatology database. Fourteen caucasion patients-nine men and five women, ages 18-80, with a total of 51 superficial and 73 nodular BCCs, and three Bowen's disease lesions-were included. ALA was applied to each lesion for approximately 4 hours. Lesions received an initial irradiance of 30-50 mW/cm(2) for 20 J/cm(2) , followed by 150 mW/cm(2) for a total fluence of 200-300 J/cm(2) . Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Clinical outcome was determined at 6-12 months. Median VAS scores were 1.0 for both irradiances. Five of 127 lesions required pain control with 1% xylocaine. Pain was strongly influenced by lesion location but not by lesion type, number, or size. Complete responses were achieved in 84.1% of BCCs, which compares favorably with reported results for single ALA-PDT treatments. Two of three Bowen's disease lesions showed a complete response. Complete responses for nodular BCCs were 37%, which are also within the range of reported outcomes. A two-step irradiance protocol in ALA-PDT effectively minimizes pain, maintains excellent clinical outcomes in superficial lesions, and adds minimal treatment time. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. MTHFR Glu429Ala and ERCC5 His46His polymorphisms are associated with prognosis in colorectal cancer patients: analysis of two independent cohorts from Newfoundland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit A Negandhi

    Full Text Available In this study, 27 genetic polymorphisms that were previously reported to be associated with clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients were investigated in relation to overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS in colorectal cancer patients from Newfoundland.The discovery and validation cohorts comprised of 532 and 252 patients, respectively. Genotypes of 27 polymorphisms were first obtained in the discovery cohort and survival analyses were performed assuming the co-dominant genetic model. Polymorphisms associated with disease outcomes in the discovery cohort were then investigated in the validation cohort.When adjusted for sex, age, tumor stage and microsatellite instability (MSI status, four polymorphisms were independent predictors of OS in the discovery cohort MTHFR Glu429Ala (HR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.04-2.84, p = 0.036, ERCC5 His46His (HR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.15-2.76, p = 0.01, SERPINE1 -675indelG (HR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.32-0.84, p = 0.008, and the homozygous deletion of GSTM1 gene (HR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.03-1.92, p = 0.033. In the validation cohort, the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism was associated with shorter OS (HR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.18-2.49, p = 0.005, although with a different genotype than the discovery cohort (CC genotype in the discovery cohort and AC genotype in the validation cohort. When stratified based on treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU-based regimens, this polymorphism was associated with reduced OS only in patients not treated with 5-FU. In the DFS analysis, when adjusted for other variables, the TT genotype of the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism was associated with shorter DFS in both cohorts (discovery cohort: HR: 1.54, 95%CI: 1.04-2.29, p = 0.032 and replication cohort: HR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.11-2.94, p = 0.018.In this study, associations of the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism with OS and the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism with DFS were identified in two colorectal cancer patient cohorts. Our results also suggest

  2. EDUCACIÓN Y RESILIENCIA: ALAS DE LA TRANSFORMACIÓN SOCIAL ( EDUCATION AND RESILIENCE: WINGS OF SOCIAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Torres Viviana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Tratándose de un nuevo paradigma de desarrollo, la resiliencia propone que no todas las personas que crecen en condiciones de adversidad, pobreza y desigualdad social serán adultos condenados al fracaso, a la delincuencia o a la locura; por el contrario, este concepto enfatiza en el potencial humano y hace un llamado a la esperanza y a la responsabilidad colectiva en la promoción de cambio social. El presente ensayo parte de una revisión analítica de literatura reciente sobre resiliencia, en el marco del trabajo realizado durante el año 2009 por el grupo “Esperanza y Vida”, en la línea de investigación denominada “Resiliencia y contextos psicosociales”, perteneciente al programa de Psicología de la Universidad Antonio Nariño (UAN Bogotá, Colombia. Este ejercicio reflexivo tiene como propósito analizar el concepto de resiliencia en el contexto escolar, considerando que este es uno de los primeros contactos de la infancia con la cultura, el lugar en donde las niñas y los niños van a preguntarse cómo funciona el mundo, el sitio donde pueden encontrar respuestas honestas y sugerencias útiles sobre cómo comprenderlo y cómo transformarlo; además, señala cómo acciones pedagógicas fundamentadas en el reconocimiento del estudiante como un agente responsable y activo en el proceso de aprendizaje, favorecen actitudes de compromiso en la promoción de la transformación social positiva.Abstract:Being a new development paradigm, resilience suggests that not all people who grow up in conditions of adversity, poverty and social inequality will be adults doomed to failure, delinquency or madness; on the contrary, this concept emphasizes the human potential and calls for hope and collective responsibility in promoting social change. This essay is an analytical review of recent literature on resilience in the context of the work performed during 2009 by the group "Esperanza y Vida" in the line of research called

  3. The History of the Foundation of the Iranian National Blood Transfusion Service in 1974 and the Biography of its Founder; Professor Fereydoun Ala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Nayernouri, Touraj; Bahadori, Moslem

    2015-06-01

    The history of early attempts of blood transfusion in Iran traces back to the 1940s; however, around three decades later in 1974, the Iranian National Blood Transfusion Service (Sazeman-e Melli-e Enteqal-e Khun-e Iran) was founded by the outstanding hematologist, Professor Fereydoun Ala. The main goals of this centralized organization were to collect blood from healthy voluntary donors, to screen the donated blood and to provide various safe blood products based on scientific and ethical standards. In due course, a new era of blood transfusion service in Iran had begun to such a degree that after more than four decades of its activity, it is now considered the best-developed blood service in the eastern Mediterranean region. Here, a brief historical account of the early blood transfusion efforts and the establishment of the modern Iranian National Blood Transfusion Service in Iran is discussed in addition to the life and career of its founder and first director, Professor Fereydoun Ala.

  4. Research of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced s180 ascitic tumor cells, death or apoptosis on cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Yan, Min; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Li, Enling; Luo, Hongyu

    2005-07-01

    To ascertain the adequate dosage of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced tumor cell death or apoptosis on cytology. And to study the different effect of ALA-PDT and HPD-PDT used only. Rat ascitic tumor cells(S180) were randomly divided into several groups and incubated with ALA(20μg/ml 、40μg/ml、80μg/ml 、160μg/ml)、HPD(2.5μg/ml、5μg/ml、10μg/ml)and their combination dosages. 630nm light (total output 2W) was delivered to tumor cells at a constant fluence rate: 200mw/cm2 and a constant irradiated time period: 20 minutes. We set 3 groups (no photosensitizers or no irradiation or neither) to be the control groups. We used inversion microscopy to observe the morphological change of tumor cells and flow cytometry technology to detect the death or apoptosis of tumor cells during the experiment. ..

  5. In vitro Evaluation of a Bombesin Antagonistic Analogue Conjugated with DOTA-Ala(SO{sub 3}H)-Aminooctanoyl for Targeting of the Gastrin-releasing Peptide Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, So Young; Choi, Sang Mu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    As Bombesin (BBS) binds with high affinity to GRPR, BBS derivatives have been labeled with various radionuclides such as {sup 99}mTc, {sup 111}In, {sup 90}Y, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 68}Ga, or {sup 18}F and have proved to be successful candidates for peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT). In this study, we employed Ala(SO{sub 3}H)-Aminooctanoyl as a linker of BBS antagonistic peptide sequence, Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH{sub 2}, with DOTA to prepare radiolabeled candidates for GRPR targeting. A DOTA-conjugated BBS antagonistic analogue was synthesized and radiolabeled with {sup 177}Lu, and in vitro characteristics on GRPR-overexpressing human prostate tumor cells were evaluated. In conclusion, a novel BBS antagonistic analogue, {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-sBBNA, is a promising candidate for the targeting of GRPR-over-expressing tumors. Further investigations to evaluate its in vivo characteristics and therapeutic efficacy are needed.

  6. Hydrogeological Modelling of the Geothermal Waters of Alaşehir in the Continental Rift Zone of the Gediz, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ӧzgür, Nevzat; Bostancı, Yesim; Anilır Yürük, Ezgi

    2017-12-01

    In western Anatolia, Turkey, the continental rift zones of the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes and Gediz were formed by extensional tectonic features striking E-W generally and representing a great number of active geothermal systems, epithermal mineralizations and volcanic rocks from Middle Miocene to recent. The geothermal waters are associated with the faults which strike preferentially NW-SE and NE-SW and locate diagonal to general strike of the rift zones of the Menderes Massif. These NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults were probably generated by compressional tectonic regimes which leads to the deformation of uplift between two extensional rift zones in the Menderes Massif. The one of these rift zones is Gediz which is distinguished by a great number of geothermal waters such as Alaşehir, Kurşunlu, Çamurlu, Pamukkale and Urganlı. The geothermal waters of Alaşehir form the biggest potential in the rift zone of Gediz with a capacity of about 100 to 200 MWe. Geologically, the gneisses from the basement rocks in the study area which are overlain by an Paleozoic to Mesozoic intercalation of mica schists, quartzites and marbles, a Miocene intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones and Plio-Quaternary intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones discordantly. In the study area, Paleozoic to Mesozoic quartzites and marbles form the reservoir rocks hydrogeologically. The geothermal waters anions with Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and HCO3>Cl> dominant anions are of Na-HCO3 type and can be considered as partial equilibrated waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures area of about 185°C in accordance with measured reservoir temperatures. Stabile isotopes of δ18O versus δ2H of geothermal waters of Alaşehir deviate from the meteoric water line showing an intensive water-rock interaction under high temperature conditions. These data are well correlated with the results of the

  7. Use of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesina(7-14) peptide for the identification of prostate tumor, LNCaP line, in an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent tumors in men, showing high mortality rates. Current diagnostic methods are not able to identify early prostate carcinoma, often resulting in a late diagnosis with established metastasis. Thus, there is by the scientific community an incessant search for diagnostic methods for early assessment of prostate cancer, facilitating the treatment and increasing the chances of cure. In this context, nuclear medicine provides a diagnostic method which can detect tumors at an early stage, because it is based on biochemical and physiological changes of the tissue, such as overexpression of gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPr's) by prostate cancer cells. Bombesin, a tetradecapeptide isolated from the frog Bombina bombina, has a high affinity for the GRPr's, since it is analogous to gastrin releasing peptide. Therefore, this study aims to prepare the complex 99m Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesina (7-14) and use it for the identification of prostate tumor, LNCaP line, in an experimental model. For in vitro assays, aliquots of 0.026 MBq of the radiopeptide were incubated with 2x10 6 LNCaP cells in a water bath at 37 deg C, for 1 and 4 hours, with and without prior addition of cold peptide (n=3). Prostate tumors were induced into the upper right flank of male BALB/c nude mice by subcutaneous injection of 5x106 LNCaP cells resuspended in 150 μL of Matrigel:RPMI-1640 medium (1:1). Biodistribution profile (n=5) and scintigraphic images (n=3) were obtained at 1 and 4 hours after intravenous injection of 7.4 MBq of 99m Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesina (7-14) . To assess this, healthy male BALB/c mice and tumor-bearing male BALB/c nude mice with 15, 20 and 25 days of tumor development were used. In vitro study results showed that the fraction of the radiopeptide which bound to LNCaP cells was 2.08 +- 0.30% (1 hour) and 2.44 +- 0.18% (4 hours). From the percentage which was bound, the internalized fractions were 25.64 +- 3.14% (1 hour) and 25.27 +- 2

  8. Meat, milk, saturated fatty acids, the Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms of the PPARgamma gene and colorectal cancer risk in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Kiyonori; Hirose, Kaoru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wakai, Kenji; Ito, Hidemi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Hirai, Takashi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takezaki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Saito, Toshiko; Tanaka, Rie; Tajima, Kazuo

    2006-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene plays important roles in energy homeostasis. To examine interactions between consumption of foods and fatty acids and the Pro12Ala and C161T (His447His) polymorphisms for colorectal cancer, we performed two case-control studies in Japanese. In study 1, there were 128 colorectal cancer cases and 238 non-cancer controls, and in study 2 there were 257 cases and 771 (age- and sex-matched) non-cancer controls. Assessment of food and nutrients consumption in study 1 was via a nine-item questionnaire, while in study 2 assessment of consumption was according to a more detailed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of foods and fatty acids was divided into low, moderate and high groups. The overall frequency of the Ala allele was frequencies of the Pro/Pro + C/C and Pro/Pro + (C/T + T/T) genotypes were 70-73% and 20-26%, respectively. Compared with subjects with low meat intake and the Pro/Pro + C/C genotype, those with high meat consumption and the same genotype had a stronger increased risk in study 1 [OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.14-7.30; P for trend = 0.02], but a positive association with processed meat consumption was greatest in those with the Pro/Pro + (C/T + T/T) genotype (P for trend = 0.05) in study 2. Likewise, high consumption of saturated fatty acids and milk appeared to confer marginal increased risk and stronger decreased risk, respectively, in those with the Pro/Pro and Pro/Pro + C/C genotypes (OR, 1.35 and 0.65; 95% CI, 0.93-1.96 and 0.43-1.00; P for trend = 0.10 and 0.06). Further large-scale studies are needed to determine colorectal cancer risk according to relationships between the PPARgamma gene polymorphisms and dietary intakes of meat, processed meat, milk and saturated fatty acids in Japanese with very low frequency of the Ala allele.

  9. The association between the FABP2 Ala54Thr variant and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis based on 11 case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng; Yu, Dan; Jin, Xiaoping; Li, Cai; Zhu, Feng; Zheng, Zhou; Lv, Chenlin; He, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) Ala54Thr gene polymorphism has been suggested to be associated with the increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but some studies show the inconsistent result. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to assess the association between FABP2 Ala54Thr gene polymorphism variants and the T2DM. A total of 7095 subjects in 11 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Under the allele model (T versus A), the pooled OR of Asian sub...

  10. GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1-xAs: Material parameters for use in research and device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Sadao

    1985-08-01

    The AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure system is potentially useful material for high-speed digital, high-frequency microwave, and electro-optic device applications. Even though the basic AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure concepts are understood at this time, some practical device parameters in this system have been hampered by a lack of definite knowledge of many material parameters. Recently, Blakemore has presented numerical and graphical information about many of the physical and electronic properties of GaAs [J. S. Blakemore, J. Appl. Phys. 53, R123 (1982)]. The purpose of this review is (i) to obtain and clarify all the various material parameters of AlxGa1-xAs alloy from a systematic point of view, and (ii) to present key properties of the material parameters for a variety of research works and device applications. A complete set of material parameters are considered in this review for GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1-xAs alloys. The model used is based on an interpolation scheme and, therefore, necessitates known values of the parameters for the related binaries (GaAs and AlAs). The material parameters and properties considered in the present review can be classified into sixteen groups: (1) lattice constant and crystal density, (2) melting point, (3) thermal expansion coefficient, (4) lattice dynamic properties, (5) lattice thermal properties, (6) electronic-band structure, (7) external perturbation effects on the band-gap energy, (8) effective mass, (9) deformation potential, (10) static and high-frequency dielectric constants, (11) magnetic susceptibility, (12) piezoelectric constant, (13) Fröhlich coupling parameter, (14) electron transport properties, (15) optical properties, and (16) photoelastic properties. Of particular interest is the deviation of material parameters from linearity with respect to the AlAs mole fraction x. Some material parameters, such as lattice constant, crystal density, thermal expansion coefficient, dielectric constant, and elastic constant

  11. Photoaffinity labeling of opiate (enkephalin) receptor of rat brain plasma membranes with 125I(D-Ala2, p-N3-Phe4-Met5)-enkephalin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, C.W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A photoreactive (D-Ala 2 , p-N 3 -Phe 4 -Met 5 )enkephalin derivative was prepared, iodinated with carrier free 125 I and then purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The purified radioactive photoprobe was monoiodinated at the amino terminal tyrosine residue. This radioactive photoprobe was used to photoaffinity label plasma membranes prepared from rat brain, spinal cord and cerebellum. The photolabeled plasma membranes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. A 46,000-daltons band was specifically photolabeled in the plasma membranes of brain and spinal cord but not in the plasma membranes from cerebellum. The photolabeling of this band was inhibited by peptides related to enkephalin by not but substance P or gastrin tetrapeptide. These data demonstrate that the labeled 46,000-daltons band is a protein of the opiate (enkephalin)receptor

  12. Two-peaked 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence emission spectrum distinguishes glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcel, Bruno; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Armoiry, Xavier; Meyronet, David; Guyotat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence enables to guiding in intra-operative surgical glioma resection. However at present, it has yet to be shown that this method is able to identify infiltrative component of glioma. In extracted tumor tissues we measured a two-peaked emission in low grade gliomas and in the infiltrative component of glioblastomas due to multiple photochemical states of PpIX. The second emission peak appearing at 620 nm (shifted by 14 nm from the main peak at 634 nm) limits the sensibility of current methods to measured PpIX concentration. We propose new measured parameters, by taking into consideration the two-peaked emission, to overcome these limitations in sensitivity. These parameters clearly distinguish the solid component of glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas.

  13. The critical main-chain length for helix formation in water: determined in a peptide series with alternating Aib and Ala residues exclusively and detected with ECD spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Edoardo; Moretto, Alessandro; Formaggio, Fernando; Toniolo, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Critical main-chain length for peptide helix formation in the crystal (solid) state and in organic solvents has been already reported. In this short communication, we describe our results aiming at assessing the aforementioned parameter in water solution. To this goal, we synthesized step-by-step by solution procedures a complete series of N-terminally acetylated, C-terminally methoxylated oligopeptides, characterized only by alternating Aib and Ala residues, from the dimer to the nonamer level. All these compounds were investigated by electronic circular dichroism in the far-UV region in water solution as a function of chemical structure, namely presence/absence of an ester moiety or a negative charge at the C-terminus, and temperature. We find that the critical main-chain lengths for 3(10)- and α-helices, although still formed to a limited extent, in aqueous solution are six and eight residues, respectively. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Association of the SOD2 polymorphism (Val6Ala and SOD activity with vaso-occlusive crisis and acute splenic sequestration in children with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina Cordeiro Farias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The SOD2 polymorphism Val16Ala TàC influences the antioxidative response. This study investigated the association of the SOD2 polymorphism and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity with vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC and acute splenic sequestration (ASS in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. One hundred ninety-five children aged 1-9 years old were analyzed. The TC and CC genotypes were associated with lower SOD activity compared with the TT genotype (p=0.0321; p=0.0253, respectively. Furthermore, TC/CC were more frequent in patients with VOC or ASS (p=0.0285; p=0.0090, respectively. These results suggest that the SOD2 polymorphism associated with low SOD activity could be involved in SCA physiopathology.

  15. Seismic examination for assessment of safety of location of atomic energy objects (by the example of the WWR-K reactor, Ala-Tau village)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashova, N.N.

    2001-01-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan there are 3 research reactors (the fourth one is temporarily stopped). One of the reactors in 1998 (WWR-K, situated in the Ala Tau village, nearby Almaty city) was conserved because of a number of reasons. Including the reason of the earth crust geological structure insufficient study for the ensuring the seismic safety of the reactor site location. In 1994-1996 a number of geological-geophysical studies was carried out by Kazakhstan specialists confirming the the geological-geophysical conditions in the reactor site location in view of its safety. These condition are meeting to IAEA requirements and up-to-date standards acting in Kazakhstan

  16. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the electron g|| factor and g-factor anisotropy in GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum wells under magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras-Montenegro, N; Duque, C A; Oliveira, L E; Reyes-Gomez, E

    2008-01-01

    The hydrostatic-pressure effects on the electron-effective Lande g || factor and g-factor anisotropy in semiconductor GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells under magnetic fields are studied. The g || factor is computed by considering the non-parabolicity and anisotropy of the conduction band through the Ogg-McCombe effective Hamiltonian, and numerical results are displayed as functions of the applied hydrostatic pressure, magnetic fields, and quantum-well widths. Good agreement between theoretical results and experimental measurements in GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum wells for the electron g factor and g-factor anisotropy at low values of the applied magnetic field and in the absence of hydrostatic pressure is obtained. Present results open up new possibilities for manipulating the electron-effective g factor in semiconductor heterostructures.

  17. Evaluation of the water quality related to the acid mine drainage of an abandoned mercury mine (Alaşehir, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemici, Unsal

    2008-12-01

    Mobility of metals in water, mine wastes, and stream sediments around the abandoned Alaşehir mercury mine was investigated to evaluate the environmental effects around the area. Mine waters are dominantly acidic with pH values of 2.55 in arid season and 2.70 in wet season and are sulfate rich. Acidity is caused mainly by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Pyrite is the main acid-producing mineral in the Alaşehir area. Of the major ions, SO(4) shows a notable increase reaching 3981 mg/l, which exceeds the WHO (WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, 1993) and TS (Sular-Içme ve kullanma sulari. Ankara: Türk Standartlari Enstitüsü, 1997) drinking water standard of 250 mg/L. Mine waters have As, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Al with concentrations higher than drinking water standards. Hg concentrations of adit water samples and surface waters draining the mine area are between 0.25 and 0.274 microg/L and are below the WHO (WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, 1993) drinking water standard of 1.0 microg/L. However, the concentrations are above the 0.012 microg/L standard (EPA, Water quality standards. Establishment of numeric criteria for priority toxic pollutants, states' compliance, final rule. Fed. Reg., 40 CFR, Part 131, 57/246, 60847-60916, 1992) used to protect aquatic life. Stream sediment samples have abnormally high values of especially Hg, As, Ni, and Cr metals. Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) values are significantly high and denote heavy contamination in stream sediments. The stream sediments derived from the mining area with the surface waters are potentially hazardous to the environment adjacent to the abandoned Hg mine and are in need of remediation.

  18. Fabrication of Al/A206–Al2O3 nano/micro composite by combining ball milling and stir casting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahamtan, S.; Halvaee, A.; Emamy, M.; Zabihi, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Uniform distribution of alumina particles in molten Al alloy by using MMMC. ► Improvement in wettability of alumina particles with molten Al alloy by using MMMC. ► Porosity content in Al/A206-alumina composite decreased by using MMMC. ► Improvement in tensile strength of Al/A206-alumina composite by using MMMC. ► Decrease in interfacial reaction product by incorporating MMMC in semi-solid state. - Abstract: Al206/5vol.%Al 2 O 3p cast composites were fabricated by the injection of reinforcing particles into molten Al alloy in two different forms, i.e. as Al 2 O 3 particles and milled particulates of alumina with Al and Mg powders. The resultant milled powders (Master Metal Matrix Composite (MMMC)) were then added into the molten Al alloy both in semi-solid state and above liquidus temperature. Effects of powder addition technique, reinforcement particle size and casting temperature on distribution and incorporation of reinforcing particles into molten Al alloy were investigated. Morphology evolution of powders during milling, microscopic examinations of composite and matrix alloy were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also used to determine the possible interaction between powders after ball milling process. Results showed that injection of powders in the form of MMMC leads to considerable improvement in incorporation and distribution of Al 2 O 3p in the Al206 matrix alloy leading to the improvement in tensile properties. Improvement in tensile properties is attributed to the better wetting of Al 2 O 3p by melt as well as removing microchannels and roughness on alumina particles as a consequence of ball milling process

  19. Biological profile of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-betaAla-NT(8-13) in MDAMB-231 breast cancer cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Faintuch, Bluma L.; Wiecek, Danielle P.; Silva, Natanael G.; Vallejo, Natalia M., E-mail: teodoro_rodrigo@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2009-07-01

    Introduction: Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide involved in several growth-steps of human cancers. Recent studies postulated the role of NT and NT-receptor subtype 1 in breast cancer progression. However, the main drawback of natural NT is its rapid degradation in plasma. In an effort to develop a NT peptide-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of breast cancer, the aim of this study was the radiolabeling of the double stabilized NT(8-13) peptide using HYNIC as chelating agent. Methods: Conjugated HYNIC-betaAla-NT(8-13) was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using tricine and EDDA as coligands. Radiochemical purity was checked by TLC and confirmed by RP-HPLC. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-betaAla-NT(8-13) (0.1 mL/74 MBq) was administered in Nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and biodistribution studies were carried out at 30 and 90 min postinjection (pi). Blocking evaluation was also conducted by co-injection of 115 nmol of cold NT (8-13) analog. Planar gamma-camera imaging was acquired at the earlier time point studied. Results: Radiochemical purity of the radioconjugate was higher than 99%. Biodistribution studies revealed a very fast accumulation in tumor (1.97+-0.18% ID/g, 30 min pi) with a sharply decrease at the later time point studied (0.44+-0.02% ID/g). The specificity of the radioconjugate was evaluated with blockade studies. A reduction of 45.94%, 27.73% and 36.39% was found for tumor, large and small intestines, respectively, at 30 min pi. Otherwise, a less impressive blockade was observed for tumor and small intestine (28.68% and 24.90%, respectively) at the later time point studied. Conclusion: The results provide encouraging evidence in the development of radiolabeled NT(8-13) analogues for breast cancer diagnosis. (author)

  20. Biological profile of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-NT(8-13) in MDAMB-231 breast cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Faintuch, Bluma L.; Wiecek, Danielle P.; Silva, Natanael G.; Vallejo, Natalia M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide involved in several growth-steps of human cancers. Recent studies postulated the role of NT and NT-receptor subtype 1 in breast cancer progression. However, the main drawback of natural NT is its rapid degradation in plasma. In an effort to develop a NT peptide-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of breast cancer, the aim of this study was the radiolabeling of the double stabilized NT(8-13) peptide using HYNIC as chelating agent. Methods: Conjugated HYNIC-βAla-NT(8-13) was labeled with 99m Tc using tricine and EDDA as coligands. Radiochemical purity was checked by TLC and confirmed by RP-HPLC. 99m Tc-HYNIC-βAla-NT(8-13) (0.1 mL/74 MBq) was administered in Nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and biodistribution studies were carried out at 30 and 90 min postinjection (pi). Blocking evaluation was also conducted by co-injection of 115 nmol of cold NT (8-13) analog. Planar gamma-camera imaging was acquired at the earlier time point studied. Results: Radiochemical purity of the radioconjugate was higher than 99%. Biodistribution studies revealed a very fast accumulation in tumor (1.97±0.18% ID/g, 30 min pi) with a sharply decrease at the later time point studied (0.44±0.02% ID/g). The specificity of the radioconjugate was evaluated with blockade studies. A reduction of 45.94%, 27.73% and 36.39% was found for tumor, large and small intestines, respectively, at 30 min pi. Otherwise, a less impressive blockade was observed for tumor and small intestine (28.68% and 24.90%, respectively) at the later time point studied. Conclusion: The results provide encouraging evidence in the development of radiolabeled NT(8-13) analogues for breast cancer diagnosis. (author)

  1. Transthyretin Ala36Pro mutation in a Chinese pedigree of familial transthyretin amyloidosis with elevated vitreous and serum vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xuan; Dong, Fangtian; Zhang, Shuying; Tian, Rong; Sui, Ruifang

    2013-05-01

    The familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis (FTA) demonstrates variable penetrance of clinical features associated with mutations in the plasma thyroid hormone-binding protein TTR gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the ocular features, to analyze vitreous and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, and to identify the genetic defect in a Chinese family with TTR FTA. The pedigree of interest was a three-generation family with eleven members. The primary ocular signs were vitreous opacities, beginning from the third or fourth decade, accompanied by retinal vasculitis, hemorrhages, and widespread pinpoint deposits in the peripheral retina. Two patients underwent vitrectomy with marked improvement of visual acuity postoperatively. Vitreous and serum samples for VEGF were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty-eight healthy adult volunteers were enrolled as a control group for the analysis of serum VEGF. Eight subjects who underwent vitrectomy for a macular epiretinal membrane or macular hole were enrolled as control for the analysis of vitreous VEGF. Both serum and vitreous VEGF levels of patients were raised compared to that of controls. Venous blood was collected from family members and the genomic DNA was extracted. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of the TTR gene were sequenced. A previously-described pathogenic transversion in exon 2 (c.G106C, p.Ala36Pro) was identified. Within this family eight individuals were confirmed as affected. In conclusion, a Chinese family with TTR Ala36Pro associated FTA is characterized by early ocular involvement. Widespread pinpoint lesions indicate RPE lesions caused by TTR deposition. FTA is associated with increased VEGF levels, both in serum and vitreous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, J; Andersen, G; Urhammer, S A

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) dia......-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus among Scandinavian Caucasians....

  3. Studies of the Ala/Val98 polymorphism of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene and the relationship to beta-cell function during an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, J; Damm, P; Ek, J

    2004-01-01

    In pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) an increased demand for insulin is not met due to beta-cell dysfunction. An Ala/Val polymorphism at codon 98 of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene has been associated with decreased serum insulin and C-peptide r...

  4. Rationally designed chimeric peptide of met-enkephalin and FMRFa-[D-Ala2,p-Cl-Phe4]YFa induce multiple opioid receptors mediated antinociception and up-regulate their expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Ishwar Dutt; Chaudhary, Snehlata; Sharma, Ahuti; Nath, Mahendra; Pasha, Santosh

    2010-07-25

    The physiological role of NPFF/FMRFa family of peptides appears to be complex and exact mechanism of action of these peptides is not yet completely understood. In same line of scrutiny, another analog of YGGFMKKKFMRFamide (YFa), a chimeric peptide of met-enkephalin and FMRFamide, was rationally designed and synthesized which contain D-alanine and p-Cl-phenylalanine residues at 2nd and 4th positions, respectively i.e., Y-(D-Ala)-G-(p-Cl-Phe)-MKKKFMRFamide ([D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa) in order to achieve improved bioavailability and blood brain barrier penetration. Therefore, present study investigates the possible antinociceptive effect of [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa on intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration using tail-flick test in rats followed by its opioid receptor(s) specificity using mu, delta and kappa receptor antagonists. Further, its antinociceptive effect was examined during 6 days of chronic i.p. treatment and assessed effect of this treatment on differential expression of opioid receptors. [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa in comparison to parent peptide YFa, induce significantly higher dose dependent antinociception in rats which was mediated by all three opioid receptors (mu, delta and kappa). Importantly, it induced comparable antinociception in rats throughout the chronic i.p. treatment and significantly up-regulated the overall expression (mRNA and protein) of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors. Therefore, pharmacological and molecular behavior of [D-Ala(2), p-Cl-Phe(4)]YFa demonstrate that incorporation of D-alanine and p-Cl-phenylalanine residues at appropriate positions in chimeric peptide leads to altered opioid receptor selectivity and enhanced antinociceptive potency, relative to parent peptide. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure-activity relationships of the unique and potent agouti-related protein (AGRP)-melanocortin chimeric Tyr-c[beta-Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Asn-Ala-Phe-Dpr]-Tyr-NH2 peptide template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Andrzej; Wilson, Krista R; Scott, Joseph W; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2005-04-21

    The melanocortin receptor system consists of endogenous agonists, antagonists, G-protein coupled receptors, and auxiliary proteins that are involved in the regulation of complex physiological functions such as energy and weight homeostasis, feeding behavior, inflammation, sexual function, pigmentation, and exocrine gland function. Herein, we report the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a new chimeric hAGRP-melanocortin agonist peptide template Tyr-c[beta-Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Asn-Ala-Phe-Dpr]-Tyr-NH(2) that was characterized using amino acids previously reported in other melanocortin agonist templates. Twenty peptides were examined in this study, and six peptides were selected for (1)H NMR and computer-assisted molecular modeling structural analysis. The most notable results include the identification that modification of the chimeric template at the His position with Pro and Phe resulted in ligands that were nM mouse melanocortin-3 receptor (mMC3R) antagonists and nM mouse melanocortin-4 receptor (mMC4R) agonists. The peptides Tyr-c[beta-Asp-His-DPhe-Ala-Trp-Asn-Ala-Phe-Dpr]-Tyr-NH(2) and Tyr-c[beta-Asp-His-DNal(1')-Arg-Trp-Asn-Ala-Phe-Dpr]-Tyr-NH(2) resulted in 730- and 560-fold, respectively, mMC4R versus mMC3R selective agonists that also possessed nM agonist potency at the mMC1R and mMC5R. Structural studies identified a reverse turn occurring in the His-DPhe-Arg-Trp domain, with subtle differences observed that may account for the differences in melanocortin receptor pharmacology. Specifically, a gamma-turn secondary structure involving the DPhe(4) in the central position of the Tyr-c[beta-Asp-Phe-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Asn-Ala-Phe-Dpr]-Tyr-NH(2) peptide may differentiate the mixed mMC3R antagonist and mMC4R agonist pharmacology.

  6. Baltimaade ja Itaalia koostööprojekt / Ruth Kivistik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivistik, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Koostööprojekti kokkuvõtvast seminarist Palermos, kus töö toimus kolmes grupis: roheline ehitus, turism ja mahetoit. Oliivide kasvatusest Itaalias ja oliiviõli pressimisest Barbera õlivabrikus ning kohalikust toidust

  7. Need sinihallid veised... : Marie Under ja Villem Ridala / Ruth Mirov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mirov, Ruth, 1928-

    2008-01-01

    Vaadeldakse kahte ühest ja samast muistendist - merest tõusnud lehmakarjast - inspireeritud ballaadi: Marie Underi "Merilehmi" (ilm. kogus "Õnnevarjutus", 1929) ja Villem Ridala "Sinist karja" (ilm. kogus "Sinine kari", 1930)

  8. Eesti koolilaps sõnaraamatu kasutajana / Ruth Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Artiklis antakse ülevaade Eesti koolilaste seas 2004/2005. õppeaastal läbiviidud uuringust, mille eesmärk oli välja selgitada õpilasest sõnaraamatukasutaja harjumused ja kogemused, kasutusprobleemid ning rahulolu oma oskustega

  9. PENDUGAAN MODEL PERTUMBUHAN DAN BENTUK SEBARAN SPASIAL POPULASI BANTENG (BOS SONDAICUS D'ALTON DI TAMAN NASIONAL ALAS PURWO JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanto Santosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Population of bulls in the world is decreasing to 80%. On Java and Bali, the habitat of the species has declined by about 20% and 30% respectively (IUCN 2003. In Java, especially in Alas Purwo National Park, the decreasing population of bulls is caused by hunting and degradation of habitat. The estimation of growth bulls population in APNP is increase. The size of population in the beginning is 588 individuals the rate of growth is 0.093 and carrying capacity of habitat is 4772 individuals. The population will reach the carrying capacity by the year of 2126. The pattern of spatial distribution of bulls in APNP based on analysis of chi-square test is grouped (2hit>220.025. The pattern of distribution in low-land forest and platation forest is randomized (20.9752hit20.025, meanwhile it is grouped in coastal forest ecosystem. The pattern of distribution in each type of ecoystem is influenced by the factor of resources (feedings, water, and salty water and predation factor

  10. Continuing evolution of canine parvovirus in China: Isolation of novel variants with an Ala5Gly mutation in the VP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianke; Lin, Peng; Zhao, Hang; Cheng, Yuening; Jiang, Zhong; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Hua; Cheng, Shipeng

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2c is a new antigenic variant of CPV-2. Since the year 2000 it has spread to several countries, causing severe hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. In 2014 and 2015, 58 fecal samples were collected from dogs in Beijing with suspected CPV infection. Regardless of the vaccination status of the dogs, 43 samples were found positive for CPV according to PCR results; i.e., 18, 7, and 18 respectively belonged to antigenic types new CPV-2a, new CPV-2b, and CPV-2c. A phylogenetic tree based on their VP2 gene sequences indicated that the Chinese CPV-2c strains form a separate cluster. In addition to synonymous mutations, the CPV-2c strains also contain a unique coding mutation in VP2 that leads to glycine at residue 5, instead of the highly conserved alanine at this position in all other CPV-2c strains sequenced to date. Using F81 cells, several novel isolates of CPV-2c, each with the Ala5Gly mutation, were obtained. One of these was used to infect experimentally beagle dogs, which subsequently developed the typical clinical symptoms of CPV infection. Hence, it appears that CPV-2c is still evolving in China, a finding that warrants continuous surveying and the eventual adaptation of current vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two Patients with Severe Short Stature due to a FBN1 Mutation (p.Ala1728Val) with a Mild Form of Acromicric Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Christiaan; Finlayson, Courtney; Funari, Mariana F A; Vasques, Gabriela A; Lucheze Freire, Bruna; Lerario, Antonio M; Andrew, Melissa; Hwa, Vivian; Dauber, Andrew; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2016-01-01

    Acromicric dysplasia (AD) and geleophysic dysplasia 2 (GD2) belong to the category of acromelic dysplasia syndromes, consisting of severe short stature, short hands and feet and skin thickening. Both can result from missense mutations in the transforming growth factor beta 5 domain of the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). Two patients (P1 age 10, and P2 age 7) from unrelated families presented to their endocrinologist with severe short stature (approx. -4 SDS). They were otherwise asymptomatic and only had mild facial dysmorphisms. Extensive endocrine work-up did not reveal an underlying etiology. Exome sequencing was performed in each family. Exome sequencing identified the presence of the same heterozygous missense variant c.C5183T (p.Ala1728Val) in the FBN1 gene in both P1 and P2. This variant was previously reported in a patient with GD2 and associated cardiac valvulopathy and hepatomegaly. Detailed clinical re-examination, cardiac and skeletal imaging did not reveal any abnormalities in P1 or P2 other than mild hip dysplasia. This report broadens the phenotypic spectrum of growth disorders associated with FBN1 mutations. Identical mutations give rise to a wide phenotypic spectrum, ranging from isolated short stature to a more classic picture of GD2 with cardiac involvement, distinct facial dysmorphisms and various skeletal anomalies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Simultaneous effects of hydrostatic stress and an electric field on donors in a GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A.L.; Montes, A.; Lopez, S.Y.; Duque, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical calculations on the influence of both an external electric field and hydrostatic stress on the binding energy and impurity polarizability of shallow-donor impurities in an isolated GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum well are presented. A variational procedure within the effective-mass approximation is considered. The pressure-related Γ-X crossover is taken into account. As a general feature, we observe that the binding energy increases as the length of the well decreases. For the low-pressure regime we observe a linearly binding energy behaviour. For the high-pressure regime the simultaneous effects of the barrier height and the applied electric field bend the binding energy curves towards smaller values. For low hydrostatic pressures the impurity polarization remains constant in all cases with an increasing value as the field increases. This constant behaviour shows that the small variations in well width, effective mass, and dielectric constant with pressure do not appreciably affect polarizability. For high hydrostatic pressure, we see a non-linear increase in polarizability, mainly due to the decrease of barrier height as a result of the external pressure, which allows further deformation of the impurity. (author)

  13. State-dependent variation in the inhibitory effect of (D-Ala sup 2 , D-Leu sup 5 )-enkephalin on hippocampal serotonin release in ground squirrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramarova, L.I.; Lee, T.F.; Cui, Y.; Wang, L.C.H. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has suggested that increased endogenous opioid activities may facilitate the onset of hibernation either directly or possibly through modulation of other neurotransmitter systems. The seasonal change of (D-Ala{sup 2}, D-Leu{sup 5})-enkephalin (DADLE), a {delta} receptor agonist, in modulating K{sup +}-induced ({sup 3}H)-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from the hippocampal and hypothalamic slices of euthermic and hibernating Richardsons' ground squirrels was therefore investigated. DADLE had no effect on 5-HT release in the hypothalamic slices but elicited a dose-related inhibition on ({sup 3}H)-5-HT release from the hippocampal slices of the euthermic ground squirrel. The inhibitory effect of DADLE was completely reversed by naloxone, but not by tetrodotoxin. In contrast, DADLE failed to alter the K{sup +}-induced 5-HT release from the hippocampal slices of the hibernating ground squirrel. This state-dependent reduction in responsiveness to an opioid is consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced endogenous opioid activity in the hibernating phase could lead to down regulation of the opioid receptors and minimize its inhibition on hippocampal serotonergic activity. A high 5-HT activity would inhibit midbrain reticular activating system indirectly through non-serotonergic fibers, which in turn facilitate the onset or maintenance of hibernation.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a d-Ala:d-Ser ligase associated with VanG-type vancomycin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Patrick; Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Haouz, Ahmed; Saul, Frederick A.; Courvalin, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The VanG d-alanine:d-serine ligase was crystallized in complex with ADP and diffraction data were collected at 2.35 Å resolution. Acquired VanG-type resistance to vancomycin in Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 arises from inducible synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-alanyl-d-serine, to which vancomycin exhibits low binding affinity. VanG, a d-alanine:d-serine ligase, catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of the d-Ala-d-Ser dipeptide, which is incorporated into the peptidoglycan synthesis of VanG-type vancomycin-resistant strains. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of VanG in complex with ADP are reported. The crystal belonged to space group P3 1 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.1, c = 177.2 Å, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. A complete data set has been collected to 2.35 Å resolution from a single crystal under cryogenic conditions using synchrotron radiation

  15. Structural, elastic, electronic, optical and thermoelectric properties of the Zintl-phase Ae3AlAs3 (Ae = Sr, Ba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benahmed, A.; Bouhemadou, A.; Alqarni, B.; Guechi, N.; Al-Douri, Y.; Khenata, R.; Bin-Omran, S.

    2018-05-01

    First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the structural, elastic, electronic, optical and thermoelectric properties of the Zintl-phase Ae3AlAs3 (Ae = Sr, Ba) using two complementary approaches based on density functional theory. The pseudopotential plane-wave method was used to explore the structural and elastic properties whereas the full-potential linearised augmented plane wave approach was used to study the structural, electronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. The calculated structural parameters are in good consistency with the corresponding measured ones. The single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic constants and related properties were examined in details. The electronic properties, including energy band dispersions, density of states and charge-carrier effective masses, were computed using Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson functional for the exchange-correlation potential. It is found that both studied compounds are direct band gap semiconductors. Frequency-dependence of the linear optical functions were predicted for a wide photon energy range up to 15 eV. Charge carrier concentration and temperature dependences of the basic parameters of the thermoelectric properties were explored using the semi-classical Boltzmann transport model. Our calculations unveil that the studied compounds are characterised by a high thermopower for both carriers, especially the p-type conduction is more favourable.

  16. Impact of the Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the PPAR-Gamma 2 Gene on Metabolic and Clinical Characteristics in the Palestinian Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ereqat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma2 (PPARγ2 represents the transcriptional master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and therefore has been suggested as a candidate gene for obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. The objective of the study was to investigate for the first time the potential association of the most common variant Pro12Ala (p.P12A substitution of the PPARγ2 gene with body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, plasma total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride in a sample of 202 (138 females and 64 male type 2 diabetic Palestinians. Genotyping of the PPARγ2 p.P12A polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. The A12 allele was associated with lower fasting plasma glucose (P=.03 but had no influence on blood pressure, BMI, or other metabolic parameters. In obese patients, the p.P12A substitution was associated with elevated total plasma cholesterol levels (P=.02 and a tendency toward increased LDL cholesterol level (P=.06. In conclusion, the p.P12A variant of the PPARγ2 may influence cardiovascular risk through effects on lipid metabolism in obese T2D Palestinian patients.

  17. Albumin Redhill (-1 Arg, 320 Ala → Thr): A glycoprotein variant of human serum albumin whose precursor has an aberrant signal peptidase cleavage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, S.O.; Myles, T.; Peach, R.J.; George, P.M.; Donaldson, D.

    1990-01-01

    Albumin Redhill is an electrophoretically slow genetic variant of human serum albumin that does not bind 63 Ni 2+ and has a molecular mass 2.5 kDa higher than normal albumin. Its inability to bind Ni 2+ was explained by the finding of an additional residue of Arg at position -1. This did not explain the molecular basis of the genetic variation or the increase in apparent molecular mass. Fractionation of tryptic digests on concanavalin A-Sepharose followed by peptide mapping of the bound and unbound fractions and sequence analysis of the glycopeptides identified a mutation of 320 Ala → Thr. This introduces as Asn-Tyr-Thr oligosaccharide attachment sequence centered on Asn-318 and explains the increase in molecular mass. This, however, did not satisfactorily explain the presence of the additional Arg residue at position -1. DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genomic DNA encoding the prepro sequence of albumin indicated an additional mutation of -2 Arg → Cys. The authors propose that the new Phe-Cys-Arg sequence in the propeptide is an aberrant signal peptidase cleavage site and that the signal peptidase cleaves the propeptide of albumin Redhill in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum before it reaches the Golgi vesicles, the site of the diarginyl-specific proalbumin convertase

  18. Variantes polimórficas Ala513Pro y Gly972Arg del gen IRS-1 no se asocian a la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en un grupo de la población cubana The Ala513Pro and Gly972ARg polymorphous variants of IRS-1 gen are not associated with type diabetes mellitus in a group of the Cuban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Pérez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es una enfermedad heterogénea y multifactorial, que está determinada por factores genéticos y no genéticos. El sustrato 1 del receptor de la insulina (IRS-1 cumple una función fundamental en la transmisión de la señal insulínica, por tanto sus variantes génicas constituyen blancos importantes en el estudio de la susceptibilidad genética a esta enfermedad en las diferentes poblaciones. Objetivo: explorar el papel de las variantes polimórficas Gly972Arg y Ala513Pro del gen IRS-1 en la susceptibilidad genética de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en un grupo de la población cubana. Métodos: se determinó la frecuencia de los polimorfismos Gly972Arg y Ala513Pro del IRS-1 en 499 ciudadanos cubanos, con un índice de masa corporal entre 22-30, con edades comprendidas entre los 40 y 70 años: de ellos 272 (54,5 % diabéticos y 227 (45,5 % no diabéticos. Resultados: la frecuencia del alelo Pro513 fue baja (1,2 % y similar para ambos grupos (1,1 % vs. 1,3 % para el grupo de diabéticos y el grupo control, respectivamente. La frecuencia del polimorfismo Gly972Arg fue de 16,2%, superior a la reportada para la mayoría de las poblaciones estudiadas. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia del alelo Arg972 entre el grupo de diabéticos y el grupo control (15,4 % vs. 17,3 %, ni cambios en los niveles de glucemia e insulinemia asociados a la presencia del alelo polimórfico Arg972. Conclusiones: en este grupo de sujetos de la población cubana, las variantes polimórficas Ala513Pro y Gly972Arg del gen IRS-1 no participan en la etiología de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2.Introduction: the type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous and multifactor disease determined by genetic and no-genetic factors. The substrate 1 of insulin receptor (IRS-1 has a fundamental function in transmission of insulin signal, thus its genic variants are significant targets in study of genetic susceptibility to

  19. A prevalent amino acid polymorphism at codon 98 (Ala98Val) of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young and younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anuradha, Shekher; Radha, Venkatesan; Deepa, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Among Europeans, mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1alpha) gene are associated with the most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3. In Asian Indians, type 2 diabetes occurs earlier and often overlaps with MODY, but the genetics of the latter are unknown....... The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Ala98Val polymorphism of the HNF1alpha gene in different types of diabetes in Asian Indians....

  20. Phenotype-genotype correlation in Wilson disease in a large Lebanese family: association of c.2299insC with hepatic and of p. Ala1003Thr with neurologic phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julnar Usta

    Full Text Available Genotype phenotype correlations in Wilson disease (WD are best established in homozygous patients or in compound heterozygous patients carrying the same set of mutations. We determined the clinical phenotype of patients with WD carrying the c.2298_2299insC in Exon 8 (c.2299insC or the p. Ala1003Thr missense substitution in Exon 13 mutations in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state. We investigated 76 members of a single large Lebanese family. Their genotypes were determined, and clinical assessments were carried out for affected subjects. We also performed a literature search retrieving the phenotypes of patients carrying the same mutations of our patients in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state. There were 7 consanguineous marriages in this family and the prevalence of WD was 8.9% and of carriers of ATP7B mutation 44.7%. WD was confirmed in 9 out of 76 subjects. All 9 had the c.2299insC mutation, 5 homozygous and 4-compound heterozygous with p. Ala1003Thr. Six of our patients had hepatic, 2 had neurologic and 1 had asymptomatic phenotype. Based on our data and a literature review, clear phenotypes were reported for 38 patients worldwide carrying the c.2299insC mutation. About 53% of those have hepatic and 29% have neurologic phenotype. Furthermore, there were 10 compound heterozygous patients carrying the p. Ala1003Thr mutation. Among those, 80% having c.2299insC as the second mutation had hepatic phenotype, and all others had neurologic phenotype. We hereby report an association between the c.2299insC mutation and hepatic phenotype and between the p. Ala1003Thr mutation and neurologic phenotype.

  1. Tessier No. 3 and No. 4 clefts: Sequential treatment in infancy by pre-surgical orthopedic skeletal contraction, comprehensive reconstruction, and novel surgical lengthening of the ala base-canthal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolyar, John L; Hnatiuk, Mark; Shaheen, Kenneth W; Mertz, Jennifer K; Handler, Lawrence F; Jarial, Ravinder; Roldán, J Camilo

    2015-09-01

    Repair of facial clefts implies wide tissue mobilization with multi-stage surgical treatment. Authors propose pre-surgical orthopedic correction for naso-oro-ocular clefts and a novel surgical option for Tessier No. 3 cleft. Two male infants, a Tessier No. 3 cleft (age 7 months) and another Tessier No. 4 (age 3 months), were treated with a modified orthopedic Latham device with additional septo-premaxillary molding and observed to age four years. Tessier No. 3 orthopedic measurements were obtained by image corrected cephalometric analysis. Subsequent repair included tissue expansion on Tessier No. 4 and naso-frontal Rieger flap combined with myocutaneous upper lid flap on Tessier No. 3. Orthopedic movements ranged from 18.5 mm in bi-planar to 33 mm in oblique analyses. Tissue margins became aligned with platform normalization. Tissue expansion on Tessier No. 4 improved distances from ala base-lower lid and subalar base-lip. The naso-frontal flap combined with myocutaneous upper lid flap on Tessier No. 3 had similar achievement, but also sufficiently lengthened ala base-canthal distance. Repairs were facilitated by pre-surgical orthopedic correction. The naso-frontal flap combined with an upper lid myocutaneous flap seems viable as a single-stage option to lengthen ala base-canthal distance to advance repair achievement in unilateral Tessier No. 3. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an evolutionarily conserved target of miR167, mediates Arabidopsis root architecture changes during high osmotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kinoshita, Natsuko

    2012-09-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress-induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Linear and Cyclic His-Ala-Val Peptides in Modulating the Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability: Impact on Delivery of Molecules to the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaofi, Ahmed; On, Ngoc; Kiptoo, Paul; Williams, Todd D; Miller, Donald W; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of peptide cyclization on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) modulatory activity and plasma stability of His-Ala-Val peptides, which are derived from the extracellular 1 domain of human E-cadherin. The activities to modulate the intercellular junctions by linear HAV4 (Ac-SHAVAS-NH2), cyclic cHAVc1 (Cyclo(1,8)Ac-CSHAVASC-NH2), and cyclic cHAVc3 (Cyclo(1,6)Ac-CSHAVC-NH2) were compared in in vitro and in vivo BBB models. Linear HAV4 and cyclic cHAVc1 have the same junction modulatory activities as assessed by in vitro MDCK monolayer model and in situ rat brain perfusion model. In contrast, cyclic cHAVc3 was more effective than linear HAV4 in modulating MDCK cell monolayers and in improving in vivo brain delivery of Gd-DTPA on i.v. administration in Balb/c mice. Cyclic cHAVc3 (t1/2 = 12.95 h) has better plasma stability compared with linear HAV4 (t1/2 = 2.4 h). The duration of the BBB modulation was longer using cHAVc3 (2-4 h) compared with HAV4 (brain delivery of IRdye800cw-PEG (25 kDa) as detected by near IR imaging. The result showed that cyclic cHAVc3 peptide had better activity and plasma stability than linear HAV4 peptide. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an evolutionarily conserved target of miR167, mediates Arabidopsis root architecture changes during high osmotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kinoshita, Natsuko; Wang, Huan; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Liu, Jun; MacPherson, Cameron R.; Machida, Yasunori; Kamiya, Yuji; Hannah, Matthew A.; Chuaa, Nam Hai

    2012-01-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress-induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Sladkaja voennaja taina / Senta Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Senta

    2006-01-01

    NATO Norra kõrgeid ametnikke ja Saksa elektroonikakontserni Siemens puudutavast korruptsiooniskandaalist: Siemens Business Service maksis Norra kõrgematele sõjaväelastele 22 miljonit norra krooni, et kindlustada firmale soodsad tellimused

  6. ALA Salary Survey: Personal Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Libraries, 1971

    1971-01-01

    A survey of the members of the American Library Association revealed that the principal salary determinants are academic degree, type of employer and sex. The obvious differences in the earnings of men and women is not only found in the early experience years but any narrowing which does take place in the wage gap seems to take place at the…

  7. Hangar con alas, Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Formando parte de su programa, la TWA ha construido recientemente un hangar para servicio y reparaciones de su flota aérea de naves ordinarias y de aviones de reacción en el aeropuerto internacional de Los Angeles (Estados Unidos. El proyecto de esta obra se encargó a la empresa constructora Holmes & Narver, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of the hepatic bioconversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in rats fed with oils from chia (Salvia hispánica or rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia O., G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The high dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids generates health disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases and other chronic diseases. The consumption of fish, which is rich in n-3 fatty acids, is low in Latin America and it is necessary to seek other alternatives, such as chia oil (CO or rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, which are rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of the n -3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. This study evaluates the hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA and the damage to the liver (histology and transaminase in Sprague- Dawley rats fed different vegetable oils. Four experimental groups (n = 9 animals each group were fed the following dietary supplements for 21 days: a sunflower oil (SFO, b RMO, c CO d olive oil with fish oil added (EPA and DHA (OO/FO. RMO and CO increased the hepatic levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p El elevado aporte en la dieta de ácidos grasos omega- 6, en relación a los ácidos grasos omega-3, genera alteraciones de la salud cardiovascular, inflamación y otras patologías crónicas no transmisibles. Por otro lado, el pescado rico en ácidos grasos omega-3 es de bajo consumo en Latinoamérica, siendo necesario buscar otras alternativas de aporte de ácidos grasos omega-3, como lo son el aceite de chía (CO o el de rosa mosqueta (RMO, ricos en ácido α-linolénico (ALA, que es el precursor de los ácidos grasos omega-3, eicosapentaenoico (EPA y docosahexaenoico (DHA. Este trabajo evaluó en forma preliminar la bioconversión hepática del ALA en EPA y DHA y el daño hepático (histología y transaminasas en ratas Sprague-Dawley alimentadas con diferentes aceites vegetales. Se conformaron cuatro grupos experimentales (n = 9 animales por grupo que recibieron durante 21 días: a aceite de girasol (SFO; b RMO, c CO y d aceite de oliva adicionado de aceite de pescado (EPA

  9. Structures of the a2 ions of Ala-Ala-Ala and Phe-Phe-Phe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, U.H.; Zhao, J.; Lau, J.K.-C.; Lam, T.-W.; Hao, Q.; Steill, J.D.; Siu, C.K.; Oomens, J.; Hopkinson, A.C.; Siu, K.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    IRMPD spectra are reported for a2 ions derived from trialanine (AAA) and triphenylalanine (FFF) and compared with spectra calculated by density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. At low collision energies the cyclic N1-protonated imidazolidinone ion C1 is dominant, but at

  10. Regulation of His-dTrp-Ala-Trp-dPhe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6)-induced GH secretion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, F; Alvarez, C V; Benitez, L; Burguera, B; Coya, R; Casanueva, F F; Dieguez, C

    1993-01-01

    His-dTrp-Ala-Trp-dPhe,Lys-NH2(GHRP-6) is a synthetic compound that releases GH in a dose-response and specific manner in several species and that may well be related to an endogenous compound of similar structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo GH responses to GHRP-6 in pentobarbital anesthetized rats. Specifically and in order to avoid the influence of endogenous GHRH and somatostatin secretion we studied the GH responses to GHRP-6 in animals with surgical ablation of the hypothalamus, confirmed by histological assessment, as well as in hypophysectomyzed-transplanted rats bearing two hypophyses under the renal capsule. Since it has been previously reported that rats pretreated with GHRH (10 micrograms/kg i.p. every 12 h for 15 days) rather than saline-treated rats have greater GH responses to acutely administered GHRH, we compared the self-potentiating effect of chronic GH pretreatment with GHRP-6 (10 micrograms/kg i.p. every 12 h). Furthermore we also studied the influence of estrogens, glucocorticoids, free fatty acids (FFA) and bombesin on somatotroph responsiveness to GHRP-6 in intact rats. We found a greater GH response to GHRP-6 in rats that underwent a surgical ablation of the hypothalamus 36 h prior to the test than in sham-operated rats. A direct stimulatory effect of GHRP-6 on in vivo GH secretion was demonstrated by a clear GH response to GHRP-6 in hypophysectomyzed-transplanted rats. In addition, we found a similar response whether the animals were pretreated with GHRH or GHRP-6 over the previous 2 weeks. Finally, we found that both estrogen- and testosterone-treated rats have greater GH responses to GHRP-6 than untreated rats. On the other hand, chronic dexamethasone administration, acute elevation of circulating FFA levels and bombesin administration markedly inhibited GH responses to GHRP-6. In contrast to the effects exerted on GH responses to GHRP-6 estrogen administration led to a decrease in GH responses to GHRH while

  11. Role of Natural IgM Autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) and IgM Anti-Leukocyte Antibodies (IgM-ALA) in Regulating Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Peter I

    2017-01-01

    Natural IgM autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) are rapidly produced to inhibit pathogens and abrogate inflammation mediated by invading microorganisms and host neoantigens. IgM-NAA achieve this difficult task by being polyreactive with low binding affinity but with high avidity, characteristics that allow these antibodies to bind antigenic determinants shared by pathogens and neoantigens. Hence the same clones of natural IgM can bind and mask host neoantigens as well as inhibit microorganisms. In addition, IgM-NAA regulate the inflammatory response via mechanisms involving binding of IgM to apoptotic cells to enhance their removal and binding of IgM to live leukocytes to regulate their function. Secondly, we review how natural IgM prevents autoimmune disorders arising from pathogenic IgG autoantibodies as well as by autoreactive B and T cells that have escaped tolerance mechanisms. Thirdly, using IgM knockout mice, we show that regulatory B and T cells require IgM to effectively regulate inflammation mediated by innate, adaptive and autoimmune mechanisms. It is therefore not surprising why the host positively selects such autoreactive B1 cells that generate protective IgM-NAA, which are also evolutionarily conserved. Fourthly, we show that IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALA) levels and their repertoire can vary in normal humans and disease states and this variation may partly explain the observed differences in the inflammatory response after infection, ischemic injury or after a transplant. Finally we also show how protective IgM-NAA can be rendered pathogenic under non-physiological conditions. IgM-NAA have therapeutic potential. Polyclonal IgM infusions can be used to abrogate ongoing inflammation. Additionally, inflammation arising after ischemic kidney injury, e.g., during high-risk elective cardiac surgery or after allograft transplantation, can be prevented by pre-emptively infusing polyclonal IgM, or DC pretreated ex vivo with IgM, or by increasing in vivo Ig

  12. Apolar Distal Pocket Mutants of Yeast Cytochrome c Peroxidase: Hydrogen Peroxide Reactivity and Cyanide Binding of the TriAla, TriVal, and TriLeu Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwai, Anil K.; Meyen, Cassandra; Kilheeney, Heather; Wroblewski, Damian; Vitello, Lidia B.; Erman, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Three yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) variants with apolar distal heme pockets have been constructed. The CcP variants have Arg48, Trp51, and His52 mutated to either all alanines, CcP(triAla), all valines, CcP(triVal), or all leucines, CcP(triLeu). The triple mutants have detectable enzymatic activity at pH 6 but the activity is less than 0.02% that of wild-type CcP. The activity loss is primarily due to the decreased rate of reaction between the triple mutants and H2O2 compared to wild-type CcP. Spectroscopic properties and cyanide binding characteristics of the triple mutants have been investigated over the pH stability region of CcP, pH 4 to 8. The absorption spectra indicate that the CcP triple mutants have hemes that are predominantly five-coordinate, high-spin at pH 5 and six-coordinate, low-spin at pH 8. Cyanide binding to the triple mutants is biphasic indicating that the triple mutants have two slowly-exchanging conformational states with different cyanide affinities. The binding affinity for cyanide is reduced at least two orders of magnitude in the triple mutants compared to wild-type CcP and the rate of cyanide binding is reduced by four to five orders of magnitude. Correlation of the reaction rates of CcP and 12 distal pocket mutants with H2O2 and HCN suggests that both reactions require ionization of the reactants within the distal heme pocket allowing the anion to bind the heme iron. Distal pocket features that promote substrate ionization (basic residues involved in base-catalyzed substrate ionization or polar residues that can stabilize substrate anions) increase the overall rate of reaction with H2O2 and HCN while features that inhibit substrate ionization slow the reactions. PMID:23022490

  13. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are probably the most prominent surface water bodies in continuous permafrost areas. As a consequence, they are also the most studied features in these regions (e.g. Fedorov et al. 2014). They are indeed of great interest, not only for local populations that use the water resource they represent both in winter and summer, but also from a climatic point of view as they can be a specific source of green-house gases due to the relatively warmer environment they create, especially associated with their taliks (thawed zone surrounded by permafrost located beneath large enough lakes). From a hydrogeological perspective, such taliks can form complex groundwater networks, thus possibly connecting sub-permafrost groundwater with surface water in the present context of climate change. On the other hand, rivers, another important feature of permafrost landscapes providing similar challenges, have drawn less attention so that only a few studies focus on river interactions with permafrost (e.g. Costard et al. 2014, Grenier et al. 2013). However, the processes of heat transfer at stake between river and permafrost strongly differ from lake systems for several reasons. The geometries differ, the river water flow and thermal regimes and interactions with the lateral slopes (valley) are specific. Of particular importance is the fact that the water, in the case of rivers, is in motion leading to specific heat exchange phenomena between water and soil. (Roux et al., accepted) addressed this issue recently by means of an experimental study in a cold room and associated numerical simulations. The present study focuses on a real river-permafrost system with its full natural complexity. A small alas-valley in the vicinity of Yakutsk (Central Yakutia, Siberia) was chosen. Monitoring was started in October 2012 to study the thermal and hydrological interactions between a river and its underground in this continuous permafrost environment. Thermal sensors were installed inside the

  14. Priit Põldme podnimajet reiting / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    28. X 2004. a. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu esimeheks valitud Priit Põldmest ja tema loomingust. P. Põldme eesti sisearhitektuuri maine tõusust Eestis, minimalismist kodukujunduses, ESL-i tulevikuplaanidest jm. 4 ill

  15. Priit Põldme tahab tõsta sisearhitektuuri mainet / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2004-01-01

    28. X 2004. a. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu esimeheks valitud Priit Põldmest ja tema loomingust. P. Põldme eesti sisearhitektuuri maine tõusust Eestis, minimalismist kodukujunduses, ESL-i tulevikuplaanidest jm. Krista Kodres P. Põldmest sisekujundajana. 4 ill

  16. Disaini- ja arhitektuurigalerii : Tallinn, Pärnu mnt. 6 / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Maile Grünberg pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2004. a. aastapreemia sisearhitektuuri populariseeriva tegevuse, Disaini- ja arhitektuurigalerii töö korraldamise ja suunamise eest. Ill.: 2 värv. vaadet galeriist

  17. Need kuldsed kuuekümnendad / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    1992-01-01

    Muutustest ühiskondlikus elus ja moes 50. ja 60. aastatel, hipistiilist, folkstiilist, dzhiinide võidukäigust, pop- ja op-kunstist moes. 1950. aastatel asutatud Tallinna Moemaja ja "Silueti" osast eesti moeelus

  18. Organizational values and organizational practice: what makes them diverge? / Krista Jaakson, Anne Reino, Maaja Vadi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaakson, Krista, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Artikkel analüüsib väärtuspõhist juhtimist mõjutavaid aspekte Eesti organisatsioonide põhjal; väärtuspõhise juhtimise ja organisatsiooni väärtuste teoreetilistest alustest ning protsessi mõjutavatest aspektidest. Tabelid. Skeemid

  19. Organizational culture and environment : dynamics in dynamics. Case of Ordi / Ann Reino, Triin Kask, Maaja Vadi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reino, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Keskkonna võimalikust mõjust organisatsioonikultuuri dünaamikale AS-i Ordi näitel. Esitatakse hüpoteetiline mudel protsessidest, mis on ettevõttes toimunud alates 90-ndate aastate algusest ning kirjeldatakse, kuidas globaalsed ja kohalikud muutused infotehnoloogiasektoris on mõjutanud ettevõtte organisatsioonikultuuri. Joonised

  20. Intimo diskreetne võlu / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Viru t. 17 asuva kaupluse Boutique Intimo sisekujundus. Sisearhitektid Jan Joonas Graps, Ken-Kristjan Ruut ja Ursula Sõber. J. J. Grapsist ja K.-K. Ruudust, nende tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: värv. foto J. J. Grapsist ja K.-K. Ruudust, plaan, 12 värv. vaadet

  1. Kontori ja klubimaailma sümbioos / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Büroohoone Jungent Tallinnas Paldiski mnt. 11. Sisekujundus: Jan Joonas Graps ja Ken-Kristjan Ruut, OÜ Jan & Ken. Pilgupüüdjaks büroos on ka Kaido Ole suureformaadilised maalid. K.-K. Ruudust ja J. J. Grapsist, nende tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: 3 plaani, 15 värv. vaadet

  2. Raamatupood kuusemetsa ja kadunud salliga / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Raamatukauplus Rahva Raamat Tallinnas Viru Keskuses. Sisekujundus: Margus Tammik ja Hannes Praks, OÜ Kohvi. Ehitaja: AS Merko Ehitus. H. Praksist ja M. Tammikust, nende tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: plaan 12 värv. vaadet

  3. On aeg mängida! / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Mänguasjamuuseumi (Tartu, Lutsu t. 8) sisekujundus. Autorid: Tea Tammelaan, Krista Lepland, Malle Jürgenson, OÜ Laika, Belka & Strelka. Maalitud põrandavaip: Kai Kaljo. Maalitud pitslinad: Tuuli Puhvel. Ehitaja: AS Facio Ehitus. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2004. a. aastapreemiate konkursil pälvis ajaloolise interjööri preemia. T. Tammelaanest, K. Leplandist ja M. Jürgensonist, OÜ Laika, Belka & Strelka tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: plaan, 23 värv. vaadet

  4. Ajaloo ja kaasaja süntees Rebala muinasmaastikul / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Arhitekt Andres Siimu projekteeritud Estonian Golf Countri Club'i Jägala golfiklubi (Mannila küla, Jõelähtme) sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember, kes projekteeris ka tammepuust mööbli. Ehitus: AS Restor. Nõupidamisruumi toolide ja nagide autor on Toivo Raidmets, metallvalgustite autor Tarmo Luisk. A. Siimu ja J. Lemberi tööd on hinnatud Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemiaga. Ill.: 3 korruste plaani, värv. välisvaade, 22 sisevaadet

  5. Mitte uhke, vaid omanäoline ja hubane / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Aaviku elurajoonis asuva eramu sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Tiiu Truus, AB Studio 3. Ehitaja: KMG Ehitus. Põrandad on betoonist, viimistlusmaterjalideks vineer, plekk ja mööblilinoleum. T. Truus on kavandanud ka osa mööblist. T. Truusist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: 2 plaani, 9 värv. vaadet

  6. Viis korrust klaasi ja betooni / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Hotell Ülemiste Tallinnas Lennujaama tee 2. Sisekujundus: Meelis Press ja Hillar Mänd, AS Meelis Pressi Arhitektuuribüroo. Ehitaja: AS FKSM. Arhitekt Martin Aunin. Meelis Pressist ja Hillar Männist, nende tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: 21 värv. vaadet

  7. Soe, kodune ja eestimaine / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Spa-hotell Georg Ots Kuressaares Tori t. 2. Sisekujundus: Liisi Murula ja Raili Paling, OÜ KOKO Arhitektid. Ehitaja: HEA 5. Hotell pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2004. a. aastapreemiate konkursil ühiskondliku interjööri preemia. L. Murulast ja R. Palingust, nende tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: 2 plaani, 15 värv. vaadet

  8. Originaalne foon rõivastele / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Viru Keskuses asuva Bastioni kaupluseketi sisekujundus. Kujundaja: Maile Grünberg, AS Grünberg. Teostus: OÜ Estconde Interior. Ehitaja: AS Merko Ehitus. Maile Grünbergist, tema tähtsamad tööd, autasud ja preemiad. Ill.: 5 värv. vaadet

  9. Kõlar Hi-Waf / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Disain: Galina Burnakova. Tootja: AS Sarkop. Kõlar Hi-Waf tehti Brüsselis galeriis Creneau International toimuvale näitusele viimiseks. Galina Burnakovast, tema erialasest tegevusest. Ill.: kõlari vaade, foto sisearhtektist

  10. Zebra - sõbralik ja lillelõhnaline / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Narva mnt. 7 asuva kohviku Zebra sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Tiiu Truus. Ehitus: AS KMG Ehitus. Materjalidest on kasutatud triibulise mustriga puitu Zebrano ja looduskivi. Laes on dekoratiivsed lipud, mille graafiline kujundus on Tiiu Priskolt ja Mati Veermetsalt. Tualettruumi looduskivist valamu ja põrandavaasi autor on Kaido Kivi. Ill.: põhiplaan, 11 värv. vaadet

  11. Planeerija korrastab linnaruumi / Irina Raud ; interv. Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Irina

    2004-01-01

    1983. a. kehtestatud Tallinna kesklinna detailplaneeringust, Rotermanni kvartalist, investori, arhitekti ja planeerija rollist, Tallinna kesklinna väljaehitamisest, ehitamisest olemasolevate hoonete vahele, peaarhitekti rollist, Linnahallist, Tallinna suhtest merega, peatänavast (Rävala pst.)

  12. Kuidas Harjumaal vanasti elati? / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Harjumaa muuseumi (Keila, Linnuse 9) püsinäitus "Harju elu". Sisekujundus: Krista Lepland, Malle Jürgenson, Hedi Roots, OÜ Laika, Belka & Strelka. Ehitus: OÜ Alpimer Ehitus. Kai Kaljo maalitud põrandavaip. Ill.: plaan, 22 värv. vaadet

  13. A cyclic carbo-isosteric penta-depsipeptide: cyclo(Phe1–d-Ala2–Gly3–Phe4–APO5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie M. Guéret

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, cyclo(Phe1–d-Ala2–Gly3–Phe4–APO5, C26H32N4O5, is the minor diastereoisomer of a cyclic penta-peptidomimetic analogue containing a novel 2-aminopropyl lactone (APO motif, which displays the same number of atoms as the native amino acid glycine and has a methyl group in place of the carbonyl O atom. The crystal structure presented here allows the analysis of the secondary structure of this unprecedented cyclic carbo-isosteric depsipeptide. The conformation of the central ring is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond between the carbonyl O atom of the first residue (Phe1 and the amide group H atom of the fourth residue (Phe4. Based on the previously reported hydrogen bond and on the values of the torsion angles ϕ and ψ, the loop formed by the first, second, third and fourth residues (Phe1, d-Ala2, Gly3 and Phe4 can be classified as a type II′ β-turn. The loop around the new peptidomimetic motif, on the other hand, resembles an open γ-turn containing a weak N—H...O hydrogen bond between the carbonyl group O atom of the fourth residue (Phe4 and the amide unit H atom of the first residue (Phe1. In the crystal, the peptidomimetic molecules are arranged in chains along the b-axis direction. Within such a chain, the molecules of the structure are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the amide group H atom of the secondary residue (d-Ala2 and the carboxy unit O atom of the fourth residue (Phe4 in a neighboring molecule. The newly formed methyl stereocentre of the APO peptidomimetic motif (APO5 was obtained as the minor diastereoisomer in a ring-closing reductive amination reaction and adopts an R configuration.

  14. Impact of dietary precursor ALA versus preformed DHA on fatty acid profiles of eggs, liver and adipose tissue and expression of genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Eck, P; House, J D

    2017-04-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply. Seventy Lohmann hens (n=10/treatment) consumed either a control diet (0.03% total omega-3 PUFA), or the control with supplementation (0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3 PUFA) from either flaxseed oil or algal product, as sources of ALA (precursor) or DHA (preformed), respectively. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design, and data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. ALA accumulated as a function of intake (PDHA-fed hens. Unlike flaxseed oil, preformed-DHA contributed to greater (P<0.0001) accumulation of LCPUFA in yolk total PL and TAG pool, as well as adipose TAG. This may relate to elevated (P<0.0001) expression of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1). No difference in hepatic EPA level in total lipids was noted between both treatment groups; EPA liver =2.1493x-0.0064; R 2 =0.70, P<0.0001 (x=dietary omega-3 PUFA). The latter result may highlight the role of hepatic EPA in the regulation of LCPUFA metabolism in laying hens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Incidencia de la comunicación 360º como estrategia para reducir el índice de morosidad en los pagos académicos de los alumnos de la universidad alas peruanas filial Cajamarca 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Huamán Alva, Ancelmo

    2017-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo determinar la incidencia de la comunicación 360° como estrategia para reducir el índice de morosidad en los pagos académicos de los alumnos de la Universidad Alas Peruanas – Filial Cajamarca, 2016. Para ello se identificaron dos variables, la primera estuvo referida a la comunicación 360º con cinco dimensiones: comunicación organizacional, fidelización, relaciones públicas, imagen corporativa y publicidad, la segunda variable fue sobre la morosida...

  16. Las competencias genéricas del estudiante y la influencia en su nivel de emprendimiento en la Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales de la Universidad Alas Peruanas – Filial Tacna

    OpenAIRE

    Eyzaguirre Mazuelos, Néstor Guido

    2014-01-01

    La presente tesis tuvo como objetivo principal determinar la influencia de las competencias genéricas del estudiante sobre su nivel de emprendimiento en la Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales de la Universidad Alas Peruanas – Filial Tacna, en el año 2013; para lo cual, se trabajó con una muestra de 150 estudiantes de las 03 Escuelas Profesionales; se encontró que existe una relación directa y significativa entre los indicadores de las competencias genéricas del estudiante y los indicadores de ...

  17. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA and -Linolenic Acid (ALA Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar Smolts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo G Nuez-Ortín

    Full Text Available Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend.

  18. Influencia de la autoeficacia académica y la procrastinación académica sobre el cansancio emocional de estudiantes de la Universidad Alas Peruanas, Lima, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Torres, Andrés Martín

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar cuánta es la influencia de la autoeficacia académica y la procrastinación académica sobre el cansancio emocional de estudiantes de la Universidad Alas Peruanas, Lima, 2015. Metodología: se usó un diseño observacional, transversal, retrospectivo y correlacional-causal. La muestra no probabilística fue de 332 estudiantes de Psicología de una universidad privada de Lima, quienes fueron evaluados con tres instrumentos: Escala de Autoeficacia para Situaciones Académicas, E...

  19. La inteligencia emocional y la gestión educativa según los estudiantes de la especialidad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Alas Peruanas, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Vila, Albert Luis

    2015-01-01

    La tesis que se presenta se inició con la formulación de la siguiente pregunta: ¿Qué relación existe entre la inteligencia emocional y la gestión educativa según los estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Alas Peruanas, 2014?, Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la relación existente entre la inteligencia emocional y la gestión educativa. El método de investigación utilizado fue el cuantitativo de tipo relacional y de diseño descriptivo correlacional. La población...

  20. Co-Circulation of the Rare CPV-2c with Unique Gln370Arg Substitution, New CPV-2b with Unique Thr440Ala Substitution, and New CPV-2a with High Prevalence and Variation in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Geng

    Full Text Available To trace evolution of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2, a total of 201 stool samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea in Heilongjiang province of northeast China from May 2014 to April 2015. The presence of CPV-2 in the samples was determined by PCR amplification of the VP2 gene (568 bp of CPV-2. The results revealed that 95 samples (47.26% were positive for CPV-2, and they showed 98.8%-100% nucleotide identity and 97.6%-100% amino acid identity. Of 95 CPV-2-positive samples, types new2a (Ser297Ala, new2b (Ser297Ala, and 2c accounted for 64.21%, 21.05%, and 14.74%, respectively. The positive rate of CPV-2 and the distribution of the new2a, new2b and 2c types exhibited differences among regions, seasons, and ages. Immunized dogs accounted for 48.42% of 95 CPV-2-positive samples. Coinfections with canine coronavirus, canine kobuvirus, and canine bocavirus were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified new2a, new2b, and CPV-2c strains in our study exhibited a close relationship with most of the CPV-2 strains from China; type new2a strains exhibited high variability, forming three subgroups; type new2b and CPV-2c strains formed one group with reference strains from China. Of 95 CPV-2 strains, Tyr324Ile and Thr440Ala substitutions accounted for 100% and 64.21%, respectively; all type new2b strains exhibited the Thr440Ala substitution, while the unique Gln370Arg substitution was found in all type 2c strains. Recombination analysis using entire VP2 gene indicated possible recombination events between the identified CPV-2 strains and reference strains from China. Our data revealed the co-circulation of new CPV-2a, new CPV-2b, and rare CPV-2c, as well as potential recombination events among Chinese CPV-2 strains.

  1. Uso de las tics en la enseñanza del inglés y rendimiento académico en estudiantes universitarios de la Universidad Alas Peruanas 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas Paredes, Ysabel Misela

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación es determinar cómo influye el uso de las Tics en el nivel del rendimiento académico del idioma inglés de los estudiantes de la Escuela Profesional de Ingeniería Mecánica de la Universidad Alas Peruanas filial Arequipa. La población estuvo conformada por 455 estudiantes, tanto varones como mujeres, del primer al noveno ciclo de la referida carrera profesional. Para la obtención de los datos usamos una encuesta referida al uso de las Tics por parte de lo...

  2. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend.

  3. Functional importance of the Ala(116)-Pro(136) region in the calcium-sensing receptor. Constitutive activity and inverse agonism in a family C G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Spalding, T A; Burstein, E S

    2000-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) belongs to family C of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. To date 14 activating mutations in CaR showing increased sensitivity to Ca(2+) have been identified in humans with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia. Four of these activating mutations are found......, suppressed the elevated basal response of the constitutively activated Ca/1a mutants demonstrating inverse agonist activity of CPCCOEt. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the Ala(116)-Pro(136) region is of key importance for the maintenance of the inactive conformation of CaR....

  4. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P DHA treatment increased (P DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently.

  5. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave. // Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of the profile of the airship wing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una funciónanalítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodoscomputacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelosmatemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseñosasistidos por computadoras en AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados una ideaglobal del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como la metodologíaseguida para obtener el perfil aerodinámico de un ala. También se exponen aspectos generales del empleo de la funciónAUTOLISP y el código fuente del programa diseñado.Palabras claves: perfil de alas, modelos matemáticos, AutoCAD, AutoLISP, medición experimental.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This article was carried out to obtain a mathematical model that allows the calculation and determination of an analyticfunction of symmetrical geometry profile and variable. In the article it is analyzed the methods for the elaboration ofsystem of calculations based on mathematical models obtained with the software language LabVIEW 6.0 and it is used todeveloping the program attended by the computers AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. The approached topics give to the interestedparties a global idea of the development it gives this technology and their application to branches of the mechanicalspecialties, as well as the followed methodology to obtain the aerofoil profile of a wing. General aspects are also exposedof the employment of the function AUTOLISP and the source code on the sketch program.Key words: Wing profiles, mathematical models, AutoCAD, AutoLISP, experimental measurement.

  6. Modulation of Colorectal Cancer Risk by Polymorphisms in 51Gln/His, 64Ile/Val, and 148Asp/Glu of APEX Gene; 23Gly/Ala of XPA Gene; and 689Ser/Arg of ERCC4 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dziki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may affect the activity of the BER (base excision repair and NER (nucleotide excision repair systems. Using DNA isolated from blood taken from patients (n=312 and a control group (n=320 with CRC, we have analyzed the polymorphisms of selected DNA repair genes and we have demonstrated that genotypes 51Gln/His and 148Asp/Glu of APEX gene and 23Gly/Ala of XPA gene may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. At the same time analyzing the gene-gene interactions, we suggest the thesis that the main factor to be considered when analyzing the impact of polymorphisms on the risk of malignant transformation should be intergenic interactions. Moreover, we are suggesting that some polymorphisms may have impact not only on the malignant transformation but also on the stage of the tumor.

  7. Anti-arrhythmic peptide N-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl Pro-Hyp-Gly-Ala-Gly-OH reduces dispersion of action potential duration during ischemia/reperfusion in rabbit hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbye, Anne Louise; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2002-01-01

    During ischemia, cardiac gap junctions close and neighboring cells uncouple. This leads to slow conduction, increased dispersion of APD90 (duration from action potential beginning to 90% of repolarization), nonuniform anisotropy, and unidirectional conduction block, all of which favor the induction...... of reentry arrhythmias. It has been suggested that anti-arrhythmic peptides increase gap junction conductance during states of reduced coupling. The aim of this study was to test the effect of the anti-arrhythmic peptide N-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl Pro-Hyp-Gly-Ala-Gly-OH (HP-5) (10(-10) ) on dispersion...... of epicardial APD90 during both normokalemic and hypokalemic ischemia/reperfusion in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. HP-5 did not affect average APD90, heart rate, left ventricular contractility (LVP dP/dtmax), or mean coronary flow. HP-5 significantly reduced the epicardial APD dispersion during hypokalemic...

  8. The novel RAF1 mutation p.(Gly361Ala) located outside the kinase domain of the CR3 region in two patients with Noonan syndrome, including one with a rare brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Frederike L; Alawi, Malik; Amor, David J; Tan, Tiong Y; Cuturilo, Goran; Lissewski, Christina; Brinkmann, Julia; Schanze, Denny; Kutsche, Kerstin; Zenker, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Noonan syndrome is characterized by typical craniofacial dysmorphism, postnatal growth retardation, congenital heart defect, and learning difficulties and belongs to the RASopathies, a group of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes encoding components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. Mutations in the RAF1 gene are associated with Noonan syndrome, with a high prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). RAF1 mutations cluster in exons encoding the conserved region 2 (CR2), the kinase activation segment of the CR3 domain, and the C-terminus. We present two boys with Noonan syndrome and the identical de novo RAF1 missense variant c.1082G>C/p.(Gly361Ala) affecting the CR3, but located outside the kinase activation segment. The p.(Gly361Ala) mutation has been identified as a RAF1 allele conferring resistance to RAF inhibitors. This amino acid change favors a RAF1 conformation that allows for enhanced RAF dimerization and increased intrinsic kinase activity. Both patients with Noonan syndrome showed typical craniofacial dysmorphism, macrocephaly, and short stature. One individual developed HCM and was diagnosed with a disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor (DOLT) of childhood at the age of 9 years. While there is a well-established association of NS with malignant tumors, especially childhood hemato-oncological diseases, brain tumors have rarely been reported in Noonan syndrome. Our data demonstrate that mutation scanning of the entire coding region of genes associated with Noonan syndrome is mandatory not to miss rare variants located outside the known mutational hotspots. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of fatty acid-binding protein 2 Ala54Thr genotype on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; Sagrado, Manuel Gonzalez; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Conde, Rosa; Primo, David

    2012-12-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 2 messenger RNA is under dietary control. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 gene on weight loss and secondarily in cardiovascular risk factors and serum adipokine after an enriched polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A sample of 111 obese patients was analyzed. The enriched polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet during 3 months' intervention consisted of 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrates, 34.4% lipids, and 19.9% proteins. The distribution of fats was as follows: 21.8% saturated fats, 55.5% monounsaturated fats, and 22.7% polyunsaturated fats. Level of significance was P fat mass (-3.1 ± 3.5 kg), and waist circumference (-3.3 ± 2.1 cm) decreased. In carriers of the Thr54 allele, body mass index (-1.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), weight (- 4.7 ± 1.4 kg), and waist circumference (-3.9 ± 3.7 cm) decreased. These changes were significantly higher in the carriers of the Thr54 allele than noncarriers. Only in the carriers of Thr54 allele, total cholesterol levels (-11.4 ± 20.6 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (-5.4 ± 10.6 mg/dL), insulin (-2.6 ± 3.4 MUI/L), and the level of homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (-0.9 ± 1.7 U) decreased. Carriers of Thr54 allele have a better metabolic response than obese carriers with Ala54Ala genotype, with a decrease of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin levels, leptin levels, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity.

  10. Cu(II) Binding to the Peptide Ala-His-His, a Chimera of the Canonical Cu(II)-Binding Motifs Xxx-His and Xxx-Zzz-His.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paulina; Vileno, Bertrand; Bossak, Karolina; El Khoury, Youssef; Hellwig, Petra; Bal, Wojciech; Hureau, Christelle; Faller, Peter

    2017-12-18

    Peptides and proteins with the N-terminal motifs NH 2 -Xxx-His and NH 2 -Xxx-Zzz-His form well-established Cu(II) complexes. The canonical peptides are Gly-His-Lys and Asp-Ala-His-Lys (from the wound healing factor and human serum albumin, respectively). Cu(II) is bound to NH 2 -Xxx-His via three nitrogens from the peptide and an external ligand in the equatorial plane (called 3N form here). In contrast, Cu(II) is bound to NH 2 -Xxx-Zzz-His via four nitrogens from the peptide in the equatorial plane (called 4N form here). These two motifs are not mutually exclusive, as the peptides with the sequence NH 2 -Xxx-His-His contain both of them. However, this chimera has never been fully explored. In this work, we use a multispectroscopic approach to analyze the Cu(II) binding to the chimeric peptide Ala-His-His (AHH). AHH is capable of forming the 3N- and 4N-type complexes in a pH dependent manner. The 3N form predominates at pH ∼ 4-6.5 and the 4N form at ∼ pH 6.5-10. NMR experiments showed that at pH 8.5, where Cu(II) is almost exclusively bound in the 4N form, the Cu(II)-exchange between AHH or the amidated AHH-NH 2 is fast, in comparison to the nonchimeric 4N form (AAH). Together, the results show that the chimeric AHH can access both Cu(II) coordination types, that minor changes in the second (or further) coordination sphere can impact considerably the equilibrium between the forms, and that Cu kinetic exchange is fast even when Cu-AHH is mainly in the 4N form.

  11. Using a Fluorescent Cytosine Analogue tC[superscript o] To Probe the Effect of the Y567 to Ala Substitution on the Preinsertion Steps of dNMP Incorporation by RB69 DNA Polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Shuangluo; Beckman, Jeff; Wang, Jimin; Konigsberg, William H. (Yale)

    2012-10-10

    Residues in the nascent base pair binding pocket (NBP) of bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69pol) are responsible for base discrimination. Replacing Tyr567 with Ala leads to greater flexibility in the NBP, increasing the probability of misincorporation. We used the fluorescent cytosine analogue, 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tC{sup o}), to identify preinsertion step(s) altered by NBP flexibility. When tC{sup o} is the templating base in a wild-type (wt) RB69pol ternary complex, its fluorescence is quenched only in the presence of dGTP. However, with the RB69pol Y567A mutant, the fluorescence of tC{sup o} is also quenched in the presence of dATP. We determined the crystal structure of the dATP/tC{sup o}-containing ternary complex of the RB69pol Y567A mutant at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution and found that the incoming dATP formed two hydrogen bonds with an imino-tautomerized form of tC{sup o}. Stabilization of the dATP/tC{sup o} base pair involved movement of the tC{sup o} backbone sugar into the DNA minor groove and required tilting of the tC{sup o} tricyclic ring to prevent a steric clash with L561. This structure, together with the pre-steady-state kinetic parameters and dNTP binding affinity, estimated from equilibrium fluorescence titrations, suggested that the flexibility of the NBP, provided by the Y567 to Ala substitution, led to a more favorable forward isomerization step resulting in an increase in dNTP binding affinity.

  12. A severe connatal form of Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease in a Czech boy caused by a novel mutation (725C>A, Ala242Glu) at the 'jimpy(msd) codon' in the PLP gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Pavel; Paderova, Katerina; Benes, Vladimir; Sistermans, Erik A

    2002-02-01

    Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder of the central nervous system myelination caused by mutations involving the proteolipid protein gene (PLP). Early nystagmus and developmental delay, progressive pyramidal, cerebellar and dystonic signs as well as white matter changes in brain MRI are typical for PMD. The PLP gene can be affected by two major types of mutations. A duplication of the whole PLP gene is the most common mutation and results usually in the milder classical phenotype, whereas point mutations in PLP gene often result in the rarer and more severe connatal form of PMD. The PLP protein is a higly conserved across species and is identical in human, mouse and rat. We describe a 13-year-old Czech boy with an early and severe developmental delay. His maternal uncle died at the age of one year and was also early and severely psychomotoricly retarded. The patient was the first child of healthy unrelated parents born after an uneventful pregnancy and delivery in 1988. Hyperbilirubinemia and bronchopneumonia and early stridor complicated his neonatal period. Diffuse hypotonia, nystagmus, psychomotor retardation, visual and hearing impairment have been observed in the patient since the age of 6 weeks. White matter abnormalities, cortical and periventricular atrophy were detected by MRI at the age of 6 and 11 years, respectively. Despite these signs and results an accurate clinical diagnosis was unclear until the age of 11 years. Last neurological examination in 1999 showed no nystagmus anymore, but extremely dystrophic limbs, truncal deformation, due to severe scoliosis, tetraplegia with hyperreflexia in C5C7 and areflexia L2S2 and positive pyramidal signs. The boy had no visual or speech contact. DNA tests followed the clinical suspicion for PMD. At first, duplication of PLP gene was excluded by quantitative comparative PCR. Direct sequencing of PLP gene detected a novel mutation in exon 6, a missense mutation 725C-->A (Ala242Glu

  13. A novel c.1037C > G (p.Ala346Gly) mutation in TP63 as cause of the ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Leandro Ucela; Pardono, Eliete; Otto, Paulo A.; Mingroni Netto, Regina Célia

    2015-01-01

    Ectrodactyly – ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome (OMIM 604292) is a rare disorder determined by mutations in the TP63 gene. Most cases of EEC syndrome are associated to mutations in the DNA binding domain (DBD) region of the p63 protein. Here we report on a three-generation Brazilian family with three individuals (mother, son and grandfather) affected by EEC syndrome, determined by a novel mutation c.1037C > G (p.Ala346Gly). The disorder in this family exhibits a broad spectrum of phenotypes: two individuals were personally examined, one presenting the complete constellation of EEC syndrome manifestations and the other presenting an intermediate phenotype; the third affected, a deceased individual not examined personally and referred to by his daughter, exhibited only the split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM). Our findings contribute to elucidate the complex phenotype-genotype correlations in EEC syndrome and other related TP63-mutation syndromes. The possibility of the mutation c.1037C > G being related both to acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome and SHFM is also raised by the findings here reported. PMID:25983622

  14. Parallel studies of His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2 and human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor-44-NH2 in rat primary pituitary cell monolayer culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, O; Bowers, C Y; Chang, D

    1985-03-01

    His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2 (GH-RP-6) is a synthetic hexapeptide that specifically releases GH both in vivo and in vitro in pituitary incubates. In this study, for the first time, GH-RP-6 was studied in primary pituitary cell monolayer culture. Parallel studies were performed with human pancreatic GH-releasing factor-44 (hpGRF-44). Culture conditions optimal for GH-RP-6 were not optimal for hpGRF-44. Both peptides released GH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In this assay system, the ED50 for GH-RP-6 was 9 nM, and the ED50 for hp-GRF-44 was 1.6 nM. Calcium-blocking agents inhibited the GH responses of both peptides as well as basal GH release. Pretreatment with GH-RP-6 decreased the subsequent response to both GH-RP-6 and hpGRF-44. hpGRF-44 down regulated itself but not GH-RP-6. Rat sera potentiated the GH response of hpGRF-44 but not that of GH-RP-6. GH-RP-6 and hpGRF-44 GH responses were additive. These results suggest that GH-RP-6 and hpGRF-44 stimulate GH release via different somatotroph receptors.

  15. The growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing peptide (His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2), GH-releasing hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, D K; Bowers, C Y; Jaffe, C A; Ho, P J; Barkan, A L

    1993-09-01

    In patients with acromegaly, GH-producing pituitary tumors release GH in response to specific stimuli such as GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and are also responsive to a variety of nonspecific stimuli, such as TRH or GnRH, and may exhibit paradoxical responses to glucose and dopamine. In healthy humans, the synthetic peptide GH-releasing peptide (GHRP) (His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) releases GH by a putative mechanism of action that is independent of GHRH. How these tumors respond to GHRP is not well characterized. We studied the GH responses to GHRH, GHRP, and TRH stimulation in 11 patients with active acromegaly. The peak GH responses to GHRP and GHRH were not correlated (r = 0.57; P = 0.066). In contrast, the peak GH responses to GHRP and TRH were highly correlated (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in patients with acromegaly, the GH response to GHRP is qualitatively normal and does not appear to depend on GHRH.

  16. Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia (sports anemia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Akimoto, Arthur K; Alves, Penha C Z; Pereira, Luiz C S; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria N; Grisolia, Cesar K

    2010-04-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptation, whereas exhaustive exercises increase reactive oxygen-species generation, thereby causing oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, fractions susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) is a Brazilian Cerrado fruit containing a carotenoid-rich oil. The aim was to investigate the effects of pequi-oil on exercise-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, after running in the same environment and undergoing weekly training under the same conditions as to type, intensity and length. Evaluations were accomplished after outdoor running on flat land before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days. Blood samples were taken after running and submitted to TBARS assay and erythrogram analysis. Haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms were priorly investigated, so as to estimate genetic influence The reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit after pequi-oil treatment was notably associated with higher plasma expansion. Except for MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and RDW (red cell distribution width), the results were influenced by the polymorphisms studied. The best response to pequi-oil was presented by MnSOD Val/Val, CAT AA or AT genotypes and the GPX1 Pro allele. The significantly lower RDW and higher MHCH values were related to pequi-oil protective effects. Pequi oil, besides possessing other nutritional properties, showed protective blood effects.

  17. Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala, CAT (21A/T and GPX1 (Pro198Leu gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia ("sports anemia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Miranda-Vilela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical training induces beneficial adaptation, whereas exhaustive exercises increase reactive oxygen-species generation, thereby causing oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, fractions susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. is a Brazilian Cerrado fruit containing a carotenoid-rich oil. The aim was to investigate the effects of pequi-oil on exercise-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, after running in the same environment and undergoing weekly training under the same conditions as to type, intensity and length. Evaluations were accomplished after outdoor running on flat land before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days. Blood samples were taken after running and submitted to TBARS assay and erythrogram analysis. Haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala, CAT (21A/T and GPX1 (Pro198Leu gene polymorphisms were priorly investigated, so as to estimate genetic influence The reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit after pequi-oil treatment was notably associated with higher plasma expansion. Except for MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and RDW (red cell distribution width, the results were influenced by the polymorphisms studied. The best response to pequi-oil was presented by MnSOD Val/Val, CAT AA or AT genotypes and the GPX1 Pro allele. The significantly lower RDW and higher MHCH values were related to pequi-oil protective effects. Pequi oil, besides possessing other nutritional properties, showed protective blood effects.

  18. Role of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 2 Ala54Thr Genotype on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors after a High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate versus a Standard Hypocaloric Diet during 9 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Primo, David; Romero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene mRNA is under dietary control. The polymorphism Ala54Thr of this protein was associated with high insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism on metabolic response, weight loss and serum adipokine levels secondary to high-protein/low-carbohydrate vs. standard hypocaloric diets during 9 months. A population of 193 obese subjects was analyzed in a randomized trial. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 9-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet HP: high-protein/low-carbohydrate vs. diet S: standard diet). With both diets and in both genotype groups, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and leptin levels decreased. With both diets and only in wild genotype (diet HP vs. diet S), glucose (-6.2 ± 2.1 vs. -4.9 ± 2.0 mg/dl; p diet HP than HS. With both diets and only in the wild genotype, total cholesterol and LDL-total cholesterol levels decreased. Carriers of Thr54 allele have a different metabolic response after weight loss than wild type non-A carriers obese, with a lack of decrease of LDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-R. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Synthesis of [64Cu]DOTA-ADIBON3-Ala-PEG28-A20FMDV2 via copper-free click chemistry for PET imaging of integrin αvβ6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drishty Satpati; Nadine Bauer; Hausner, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Catalyst-free click reactions are effective chemical tools for synthesis of radiometal-based radiopharmaceuticals offering advantages towards preparation of non-toxic agents with high specific activity. In the present study the radiotracer [ 64 Cu]DOTA-ADIBON 3 -Ala-PEG 28 -A20FMDV2, [ 64 Cu]3, was synthesized for positron emission tomography imaging of integrin α v β 6 expressing tumors via a strain-promoted click reaction using both a 'pre-click' and 'post-click' approaches. The radiotracer, prepared in >99 % radiochemical yield, was evaluated in vitro (64.6 ± 2.8 % binding to α v β 6 -positive cells vs. v β 6 -negative cells) and in vivo (α v β 6 -positive tumor uptake: 1.52 ± 0.16 % ID/g, 24 h p.i.). While the high initial renal uptake (76.2 ± 10.7 % ID/g at 1 h p.i.) was comparable to a previously reported radiotracer, [ 64 Cu]DOTA-PEG 28 -A20FMDV2, [ 64 Cu]3 showed notably improved renal clearance (11.3 ± 2.5 % ID/g at 24 h p.i.). Thus, the introduction of a chelator-strained alkyne system resulted in improved pharmacokinetics for the present radiotracer, highlighting the attractive prospects of strain-promoted click-based preparations in the construction of radiometalated bioconjugates for targeted molecular imaging and therapy. (author)

  20. Structure of N-Terminal Sequence Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser of Aβ-Peptide with Phospholipase A2 from Venom of Andaman Cobra Sub-Species Naja naja sagittifera at 2.0 Å Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenat Mirza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is one of the most significant social and health burdens of the present century. Plaques formed by extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ are the prime player of AD’s neuropathology. Studies have implicated the varied role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 in brain where it contributes to neuronal growth and inflammatory response. Overall contour and chemical nature of the substrate-binding channel in the low molecular weight PLA2s are similar. This study involves the reductionist fragment-based approach to understand the structure adopted by N-terminal fragment of Alzheimer’s Aβ peptide in its complex with PLA2. In the current communication, we report the structure determined by X-ray crystallography of N-terminal sequence Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser (DAEFRHDS of Aβ-peptide with a Group I PLA2 purified from venom of Andaman Cobra sub-species Naja naja sagittifera at 2.0 Å resolution (Protein Data Bank (PDB Code: 3JQ5. This is probably the first attempt to structurally establish interaction between amyloid-β peptide fragment and hydrophobic substrate binding site of PLA2 involving H bond and van der Waals interactions. We speculate that higher affinity between Aβ and PLA2 has the therapeutic potential of decreasing the Aβ–Aβ interaction, thereby reducing the amyloid aggregation and plaque formation in AD.

  1. The UCP2 -866G/A, Ala55Val and UCP3 -55C/T polymorphisms are associated with premature coronary artery disease and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Ricardo; Huesca-Gómez, Claudia; López-Pérez, Vanessa; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Soto, María Elena; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto

    2018-05-21

    We examined the role of UCP gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for premature coronary artery disease (pCAD). The UCP2 Ala55Val (C/T rs660339), UCP2 -866G/A (rs659366), and UCP3 -55C/T (rs1800849) polymorphisms were genotyped in 948 patients with pCAD, and 763 controls. The distribution of the UCP2 A55V (C/T rs660339) and UCP3 -55 (rs1800849) was similar in patients and controls. However, under a recessive model, the UCP2 -866 (rs659366) A allele was associated with increased risk of developing pCAD (OR = 1.43, Pc = 0.003). On the other hand, patients with pCAD and UCP2 A55V (rs660339) TT showed high levels of visceral abdominal fat (VAF) (Pc = 0.002), low levels of subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) (Pc = 0.001) and high VAT/SAT ratio (Pc cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Interactions of nickel(II) with histones. Stability and solution structure of complexes with CH3CO-Cys-Ala-Ile-His-NH2, a putative metal binding sequence of histone H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, W; Lukszo, J; Jezowska-Bojczuk, M; Kasprzak, K S

    1995-01-01

    Nickel(II) compounds are established human carcinogens, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their activity are only partially known. One mechanism may include mediation by nickel of promutagenic oxidative DNA damage that depends on Ni(II) binding to chromatin. To characterize such binding at the histone moiety of chromatin, we synthesized the peptide CH3CO-Cys-Ala-Ile-His-NH2 (L), a model of the evolutionarily conserved motif in histone H3 with expected affinity for transition metals, and evaluated its reactivity toward Ni(II). Combined spectroscopic (UV/vis, CD, NMR) and potentiometric measurements showed that, at physiological pH, mixtures of Ni(II) and L yielded unusual macrochelate complexes, NiL and NiL2, in which the metal cation was bound through Cys and His side chains in a square-planar arrangement. Above pH 9, a NiH-3L complex was formed, structurally analogous to typical square-planar nickel complexes. These complexes are expected to catalyze oxidation reactions, and therefore, coordination of Ni(II) by the L motif in core histone H3 may be a key event in oxidative DNA base damage observed in the process of Ni(II)-induced carcinogenesis.

  3. Interactions of nickel(II) with histones: enhancement of 2'-deoxyguanosine oxidation by Ni(II) complexes with CH3CO-Cys-Ala-Ile-His-NH2, a putative metal binding sequence of histone H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, W; Lukszo, J; Kasprazak, K S

    1996-03-01

    Studies of 2'-deoxyguanosine oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of CH3CO-Cys-Ala-Ile-His-NH2 (CAIH) and/or NiCl2 have been carried out in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. The dimeric CAIH oxidation product, CAIH disulfide, and its weak, octahedral Ni(II) complex, rather than the monomeric CAIH and its strong, square-planar Ni(II) complex, were found to be major catalysts of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) formation. The presence of Ni(II) largely enhanced 8-oxo-dG yield, especially at submillimolar concentrations of H2O2. The reaction was found not to involve detectable amounts of free radicals or Ni(III). These results, together with those published previously [Bal, W. et al. (1995) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 8, 683-692], lay a framework for the detailed investigations of the interactions of histone octamer with Ni(II) and other metal ions. They also suggest that molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis may involve oxidative damage processes catalyzed by weak Ni(II) complexes with cellular components.

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of ABO3 Perovskites (A=La and B=Mn, Co with Stoichiometric and Over-stoichiometric Ratios of B/A for Catalytic Oxidation of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Alagheband

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, perovskite catalysts (ABO3 were probed that site A and site B were occupied by lanthanum and transition metals of manganese or cobalt, respectively, with stoichiometric ratios as well as 20 % over-stoichiometric ratios of B/A. The perovskite samples were synthesized using a gel-combustion method and characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and O2-TPD analyses. After mounting in a fixed bed reactor, the catalysts were examined in atmospheric pressure conditions at different temperatures for oxidation of 1000 ppm trichloroethylene in the air. Evaluation of over-stoichiometric catalysts activity showed that the increased ratio of B/A in the catalysts compared to the stoichiometric one led to BET surface area, oxygen mobility, and consequently catalytic performance improvement. The lanthanum manganite perovskite with 20 % excess manganese yielded the best catalytic performance among the probed perovskites. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 28th April 2017; Revised: 31st July 2017; Accepted: 4th August 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Alagheband, R., Maghsoodi, S., Kootenaei, A.S., Kianmanesh, H. (2018. Synthesis and Evaluation of ABO3 Perovskites (A=La and B=Mn, Co with Stoichiometric and Over-stoichiometric Ratios of B/A for Catalytic Oxidation of Trichloroethylene. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 47-56 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1188.47-56

  5. A novel hemoglobin variant found on the α1 chain: Hb KSVGH (HBA1: p.Lys57_Gly58insSerHisGlySerAlaGlnValLys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Chun; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Chu, Chih-Hsun; Yu, Ming-Sun; Lam, Hing-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) is a crucial indicator for the long-term control and the diagnosis of diabetes. However, the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants may affect the measured value of Hb A1C and result in an abnormal graph trend and inconsistency between the clinical blood sugar test and Hb A1C values. In this study, laboratory data of 41,267 patients with diabetes were collected. The Hb A1C levels and the graph results were examined. We identified 74 cases containing abnormal Hb A1C graph trends. The conducted blood cell counts and capillary Hb electrophoresis were used to analyze Hb variants. We also determined gene variation for the Hb variants by a sequence approach. Fifteen different types of Hb variants were identified in this study. Among these, we found a novel variant in which the α1 subunit of Hb showed an insertion of 24 nucleotides (nts) between the 56th and 57th residues. We named this novel variant Hb Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital (Hb KSVGH) (HBA1: p.Lys57_Gly58insSerHisGlySerAlaGlnValLys).

  6. 6061 Alüminyum Alaşımının Sürtünme Karıştırma Kaynak Yöntemi ile Kaynak Edilebilirliğinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker EKER

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada sürtünme karıştırma kaynağı yöntemiyle birleştirilen alüminyum döküm levhaların kaynak bölgelerinin değişen parametrelerle mikrosertlik ve mekanik özellikleri incelenmiştir. Kaynak süresince karıştırıcı ucun devir sayısı ve kaynak ilerleme hızı değişken parametreler olarak alınmıştır. Alüminyum alaşımlı levhaların kaynağında SAE 8620 malzeme numaralı sementasyon çeliğinden imal edilmiş karıştırıcı uç kullanılmıştır. Karıştırıcı ucun devir hızı sabitken kaynak ilerleme hızı dört farklı değerde seçilmiştir. Kaynaklı birleştirmelere metalografik ve mekanik testler yapılarak işlem parametrelerinin etkileri araştırılmıştır.

  7. Retalho em ilha de tubarão: uma técnica cirúrgica reconstrutiva de defeitos localizados na área nasal alar/perialar. Um procedimento simples Shark island pedicle flap for repairing of basal cell carcinoma localized in nasal ala-perialar region: a simple procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa C André

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O Carcinoma Basocelular é a neoplasia cutânea mais frequente. Os autores descrevem uma técnica realizada unicamente num tempo operatório para correção de defeitos na asa do nariz após excisão tumoral. Esta técnica simples permite a correção cirúrgica de defeitos nesta localização possibilitando a reconstrução da anatomia local e a preservação das unidades cosméticas, sem a necessidade de enxertoBasal Cell Carcinoma is the most common skin cancer. We describe a single-staged technique for correction of nasal ala defect after the excision of a basal cell carcinoma. This technique allows correction of surgical defects of the ala rebuilding the original anatomy, maintaining cosmetic units, without need for a graft

  8. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a potent substrate analog inhibitor identified by scanning Ala/Phe mutagenesis, mimicking substrate co-evolution, against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Muhuhi, Joseck M.; Liu, Zhigang; Bencze, Krisztina Z.; Koupparis, Kyriacos; O’Connor, Carrie E.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Spaller, Mark R.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Inhibitors against MDR HIV-1 protease were designed, synthesized and evaluated. •Lead peptide (6a) showed potent inhibition (IC 50 : 4.4 nM) of MDR HIV-1 protease. •(6a) Showed favorable binding isotherms against NL4-3 and MDR proteases. •(6a) Induced perturbations in the 15 N-HSQC spectrum of MDR HIV-1 protease. •Molecular modeling suggested that (6a) may induce total flap closure inMDR protease. -- Abstract: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolate-769, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PDB ID: (1TW7)), was shown to exhibit wide-open flaps and an expanded active site cavity, causing loss of contacts with protease inhibitors. In the current study, the expanded active site cavity of MDR769 HIV-1 protease was screened with a series of peptide-inhibitors that were designed to mimic the natural substrate cleavage site, capsid/p2. Scanning Ala/Phe chemical mutagenesis approach was incorporated into the design of the peptide series to mimic the substrate co-evolution. Among the peptides synthesized and evaluated, a lead peptide (6a) with potent activity (IC 50 : 4.4 nM) was identified against the MDR769 HIV-1 protease. Isothermal titration calorimetry data showed favorable binding profile for 6aagainst both wild type and MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of 15 N-labeled MDR769 HIV-1 protease in complex with 6a showed some major perturbations in chemical shift, supporting the peptide induced conformational changes in protease. Modeling analysis revealed multiple contacts between 6a and MDR769 HIV-1 protease. The lead peptide-inhibitor, 6a, with high potency and good binding profile can be used as the basis for developing potent small molecule inhibitors against MDR variants of HIV

  9. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a potent substrate analog inhibitor identified by scanning Ala/Phe mutagenesis, mimicking substrate co-evolution, against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Muhuhi, Joseck M. [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Liu, Zhigang [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Bencze, Krisztina Z. [Department of Chemistry, Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS 67601 (United States); Koupparis, Kyriacos [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); O’Connor, Carrie E.; Kovari, Iulia A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Spaller, Mark R. [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Kovari, Ladislau C., E-mail: kovari@med.wayne.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Inhibitors against MDR HIV-1 protease were designed, synthesized and evaluated. •Lead peptide (6a) showed potent inhibition (IC{sub 50}: 4.4 nM) of MDR HIV-1 protease. •(6a) Showed favorable binding isotherms against NL4-3 and MDR proteases. •(6a) Induced perturbations in the {sup 15}N-HSQC spectrum of MDR HIV-1 protease. •Molecular modeling suggested that (6a) may induce total flap closure inMDR protease. -- Abstract: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolate-769, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PDB ID: (1TW7)), was shown to exhibit wide-open flaps and an expanded active site cavity, causing loss of contacts with protease inhibitors. In the current study, the expanded active site cavity of MDR769 HIV-1 protease was screened with a series of peptide-inhibitors that were designed to mimic the natural substrate cleavage site, capsid/p2. Scanning Ala/Phe chemical mutagenesis approach was incorporated into the design of the peptide series to mimic the substrate co-evolution. Among the peptides synthesized and evaluated, a lead peptide (6a) with potent activity (IC{sub 50}: 4.4 nM) was identified against the MDR769 HIV-1 protease. Isothermal titration calorimetry data showed favorable binding profile for 6aagainst both wild type and MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of {sup 15}N-labeled MDR769 HIV-1 protease in complex with 6a showed some major perturbations in chemical shift, supporting the peptide induced conformational changes in protease. Modeling analysis revealed multiple contacts between 6a and MDR769 HIV-1 protease. The lead peptide-inhibitor, 6a, with high potency and good binding profile can be used as the basis for developing potent small molecule inhibitors against MDR variants of HIV.

  10. Effect of the internal pressure and the anti-site disorder on the structure and magnetic properties of ALaFeTiO6 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) double perovskite oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbadawi, A.A.; Yassin, O.A.; Gismelseed, Abbasher A.

    2013-01-01

    Successful preparation of double perovskite oxides of chemical formula ALaFeTiO 6 (A=Ba, Sr and Ca) has been achieved by following the precursor method. The samples were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction data showed that all the samples have anti-site disorder. The presence of anti-site disorder has altered the electronic environment around the Fe ion sites which creates electric field gradient between two different sites. Observation of quadruple splitting in the ideal cubic perovskite BaLaFeTiO 6 (its tolerance factor equals 1) is the evidence of this anti-site generated electric field gradient. The valence state of the Fe atom determined from the measurements of the Mössbauer effect of 57 Fe at room temperature and 80 K showed that the iron ion has the Fe 3+ high spin state as extracted from the values of the isomer shift for all the samples. It is evidenced that the anti-site disorder has no appreciable effect on the spin state of the Fe ion, but alters the charge densities at the Fe sites and influences the hyperfine parameters of the present samples. Weak ferromagnetism is observed in CaLaFeTiO 6 and SrLaFeTiO 6 and is related to both the internal pressure and the anti-site effect which facilitate the occurrence of the Fe 3+ ↑−O−Fe 3+ ↓ antiferromagnetic interaction with canted spin. - Highlights: ► Anti-site disorder was revealed in (Ca,Sr,Ba)LaFeTiO 6 double perovskites. ► Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed a dependence of the quadruple splitting and the cation size mismatch. ► Weak ferromagnetism is evidenced due to internal pressure and anti-site disorder.

  11. Büroo täis metsahõngu / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    OÜ Loo Grupp büroo Tallinnas Peterburi mnt. 44. Sisekujundus: Jan Skolimowski, Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Ehitajad: AS Harju Ehitus ja OÜ Loo Grupp. Arhitekt Jan Skolimowskist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: plaan, 10 värv. vaadet

  12. Suurbritannia ja Eesti organisatsioonide majandusliku koostöö võimalused : kultuurilised ja organisatsioonikultuurilised aspektid / Kadri Karma, Maaja Vadi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karma, Kadri

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia ja Eesti majanduslikust koostööst, organisatsioonide koostööd mõjutavatest kultuurilistest ja organisatsioonikultuurilistest teguritest, ettepanekuid Inglismaa ning Eesti organisatsioonide majandussuhete arendamiseks. Diagramm. Tabel

  13. Erikoolide organisatsioonikultuur - mõõdetuna läbi organisatsiooni orientatsioonide ja metafooride / Gerli Hämmal, Maaja Vadi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hämmal, Gerli

    2004-01-01

    Uuringu tulemustest selgus, et erikoolides hinnatakse omavahelisi suhteid kõrgelt, mis loob soodsa pinnase koostööks, kuid organisatsiooni ülesandeorientatsiooni hindamisel erines eriarvamusi, mis tähendab, et töötajad ei pruugi olla teadlikud oma organisatsiooni eesmärgist. Skeem. Lisa: Intervjuu küsimused

  14. Skandinavija ne protiv Baltiiskoi AES / Senta Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Senta

    2006-01-01

    Taani keskkonnaministri Connie Hedegaardi sõnade kohaselt ei kavatse Taani ehitada oma territooriumile tuumajaama, kuid samas ei mõista hukka ka Balti riikide püüdlusi hakata enam kasutama tuumaenergiat ning ehitada jaam Leetu. Minister esines pressikonverentsil seoses novembris Nairobis toimuva ülemaailmse kliimakonverentsiga

  15. Eksistentsi krõbisev videolint / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Videokunsti näitus "Kõik saab korda" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 2. jaanuarini 2011, kuraator Maria-Kristiina Soomre. Osalevad järgmised kunstnikud: Marina Abramović, Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Kai Kaljo, Mike Marshall, Ene-Liis Semper, Santeri Tuori, Guido van der Werve. Pikemalt serbia kunstniku Marina Abramović'i ja soome kunstniku Eija-Liisa Ahtila töödest

  16. Euroopa kolm nobedaimat gaselli / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Euroopas 2006. aastal kõige kiiremini kasvanud keskmise suurusega ettevõtetest: Prantsuse IT-firma Gameloft, Islandi transpordi- ja logistikafirma Avion Group ning Prantsuse tehnoloogiafirma Assystem. Lisa: Gamelofti mängud; Gameloft, Avion Group, Assystem

  17. Eesti rahvasuitsu toodab Briti kompanii / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Sigarettide Trend suitsetajate hulgas on uuringu andmeil 87% eestlasi, enimmüüdavad sigaretid Eestis on aga Next ja L&M. Suurenemas on kõige odavamate sigarettide müük. Uus suund on isevalmistatud sigaretid

  18. Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

  19. Membaca Televisi 'ala Al-Jabiri

    OpenAIRE

    Hamad, Ibnu

    2016-01-01

     Since the New Order Era collapsed and the Reformasi Era had come out, the media freedom reached its climax. The growth of mass media had increased until the amazing number. Unfortunately, this rapid growth didn't base on the idealism, but only for the business purposes. As a consequence, the TV station owners and investors are only emphasizing how many profit they can get, without considering the importance of qualified content of TV program. This article wants to introduce a reading and mak...

  20. Railway bribery investigation falls through / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Kaitsepolitsei ei alustanud Reformierakonna võimaliku altkäemaksu nõudmise uurimist. Raudteeärimees Edward Burkhardt väitis, et Reformierakond küsis miljon eurot altkäemaksu raudtee erastamise ajal

  1. DOKTRIN WIRAUSAHA ALA RASÛLULLÂH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Firmansyah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia face the challenge of economy globalization era that isfree trade system that has been agreed by the world. Tradesystem and free-opened investment becomes globalcommitment signed by agreement of GATT (General Agreementon Tariffs and Trade and the form of world trade organization,WTO. Indonesia must be able to prepare human resource to facethis global challenge. Indonesian government needs younggeneration that has competitive advantage. It means that theyare ready to do business by following the model of a truebusinessman figure, our prophet Muhammad saw. It is hopedthat young Indonesians can develop the Indonesian economy byapplying business management that had been applied by theprophet Muhammad saw. It has been proved that hismanagement principle that he did was accurate and reliable thatmade his business form always get profit and never loss.

  2. Cinematic rebels without a cause / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    2.-9. veebr. on kinos "Sõprus" ja 11.-15. veebr. Tartu Sadamateatris 5. kultusfilmide festival Manifest, seekord 8 USA filmi aastaist 1946-2006, teemaks sõnavabadus. Filminädalale valitud filmide valikuprintsiipidest räägib Mihkel Randruut, ka näidatavate filmide lühike tutvustus

  3. "Seanahk" irriteeris ja igavles Haapsalus / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Kunstifestivalist "Seanahk 2" Haapsalus, korraldaja Jaan Toomik. Lähemalt saksa tegevuskunstniku Johannes Deimlingu performance'ist "Whats's in my head (part X) - story from the past" ja tadžiki režissööri Orzu Šaripovi dokumentaalfilmist "11 000 km from NY"

  4. Imelaps Skype sai infarkti / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Kuigi tavaliselt on igal ajahetkel Skype'i sisseloginud 8-10 miljonit inimest, ei toiminud internetitelefon augustis peaaegu kaks päeva. Skype põhjendas mittetoimimise põhjust tarkvaraprobleemidega

  5. Restor pakub kileseina asemele moodulaeda / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Tüli ehitusfirma Restor ja Tallinna linna vahel linnamüüriäärse maa täisehitamise pärast. Restori nõue ehitusloa taastamiseks jäi rahuldamata muinsuskaitsealal omavoliliselt lammutatud 18. sajandi hoonete pärast. Restoril on valminud ridaelamuboksid Plate ja Eppingi tornide vahel

  6. Academics protest election ploys / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Üle 200 Eesti haritlase kirjutasid alla avalikule kirjale, milles kutsutakse üles presidenti Riigikogus valima, samuti osalema praegust presidenti Arnold Rüütlit mitte ainult presidendivalimistel valimiskogus. Allakirjutanute seas oli ka TLÜ rektor Rein Raud

  7. Nõukogude aeg naaseb piimapakis / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Piimatööstuse kaubamärgi Turbo-lehm kolmnurkse kartongpakendi kujunduse tegi reklaamifirma DDB Eesti AS, kellega koos valmis ka Turbo-lehma tegelaskuju. Lehma joonistas kunstnik Raivo Tihhonov. Reklaamifirmade kommentaarid

  8. Exploring Missions: The 1992 ALA Midwinter Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson Library Bulletin, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents highlights of the 1992 American Library Association Midwinter Meeting, including actions of the Executive Board, subgroups of the Association of College and Research Libraries, Intellectual Freedom Committee, Committee on Accreditation, and Video Round Table and discussion of White House conference followup, patron behavior policies, the…

  9. I chocolate you = maailm estetiseeritakse / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Vene-ameerika kunstniku ja uusmeedia teoreetiku Lev Manovich'i eluloolisi andmeid, tema tegevusest. Infotehniliste vahendite estetiseerimise trendist. Mobiiltelefonide disaini muutumisest. Lev Manovich viibis Tallinna ülikoolis interaktiivse meedia ja teadmuskeskkondade magistriprogrammi kutsel

  10. 3 x EXPO / Peeter Jalakas, Ruth Alaküla, Ervin Õunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jalakas, Peeter, 1961-

    1998-01-01

    EXPO maailmanäituse Eesti paviljoni Eesti päeva üritustest osa võtnud P. Jalakase, R. Alaküla, E. Õunapuu muljeid EXPO-lt, kujundusest, Eesti päevast ja paviljonist (muusika Lepo Sumera, Tõnis Kõrvits, ekspositsiooni kontseptsiooni autor Ando Keskküla). EXPO-l osalemise mõttest ja otstarbest

  11. Reading Ruth 4 and Leviticus 25:8–55 in the light of the landless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... smart phone or mobile device ... and discrimination that women face in relation to land and poverty. As Odeny .... benefit from the use of productive land is mainly dependent ..... Both the preceding texts are problematic.

  12. Wie se grond koop Boas (Rut 4:9)?/Whose land did Boaz buy (Ruth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acta Theologica. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  13. Pirita kloostri asutamine ja ülesehitamine 1407-1436 Rootsi allikate valguses / Ruth Rajamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamaa, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Birgitiinide ordu asutamisest ja arengust, Püha Birgitta Liivimaa kloostri algusest, Vadstena kloostri abistavast ja korralekutsuvast osast Pirita tütarkloostri asutamisel aastal 1407 kuni iseseisvaks kloostriks pühitsemisel 1431

  14. Järeltuuril Moravias, Sloveenias ja Ungaris / Krista, Ruth ja Katrin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisoo, Krista

    2010-01-01

    24.-26. jaanuaril 2010 toimunud Austria ja Kesk-Euroopa turismimessil actb 2010 korraldatud konverentsist Actb Vienna osavõtjatele pakutud võimalusest tutvuda Tšehhi, Ungari või Sloveenia turismisihtkohtadega 3-päevasel õppereisil

  15. 152 Religion and Marriage in the Book of Ruth: The Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    The work considered the positive impact of this marriage for the Judeo-Christian world ... women of marriage age negatively especially the women counterparts, because many of them remain unmarried consequent upon they are waiting .... man's name and lineage in Israel as well as the retention of his property within the ...

  16. Keemiatööstus maadleb üüratu maksukoormaga / Hallar Meybaum ; kommenteerinud Ruth Oltjer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meybaum, Hallar

    2009-01-01

    Eesti keemiatööstuses on palju tehtud tootmisharu efektiivseks ja tootmissõbralikuks muutmiseks. Vaatamata sellele vajab keemiatööstus senisest rohkem finantskapitali, oskuslikku tööjõudu ja tõhusat tootearendust. Diagramm

  17. Elanike rahulolu üldarstiabi korraldusega 2002. aastal / Kaja Põlluste, Ruth Kalda, Margus Lember

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põlluste, Kaja, 1967-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Tervishoiuprojekti 2015 ja Eesti Haigekassa toetusel Tartu Ülikoolis tehtud uuringust, mille käigus küsitleti 999 Eesti Vabariigi alalist elanikku vanuses 15-74 aastat. Üldarstiabis toimunud muutusi on hinnatud võrreldes 1998. a. küsitluse tulemustega

  18. Ruth Colvin Clark - Richard E. Mayer. e-Learning and the Science of Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Giusti, Laura Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En este libro se abordarán cuestiones fundamentales tales como: ¿Qué tipos de gráficos ayuda para aprender? ¿Qué audiencias más se benefician de gráficos? ¿Cuándo y cómo utilizar mejor las animaciones? Situaciones en las que es mejor es utilizar el audio para describir gráficos. Situaciones en las que es mejor es utilizar el texto para describir gráficos. Cómo colocar texto en la pantalla para maximizar el aprendizaje ¿Cómo evitar la sobrecarga mental causado por el uso inadecuado de los gráficos, texto y audio Los beneficios de la personalización de las lecciones a través de un lenguaje informal y en la pantalla avatares. Formas de aumentar la presencia social en los eventos virtuales de aprendizaje y asíncronos.

  19. Nargen Opera lummas Kõrvitsa muusikaga / Ruth Alaküla, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alaküla, Ruth, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatris Peeter Jalaka lavastuses esietendunud Tõnu Kõrvitsa uued kammerooperid "Tuleaed" ja "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libretode autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooperid tulevad lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  20. The David and Ruth Hopper and Ramesh and Pilar Bhatia Canada ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ramesh Bhatia has spent more than 40 years working for and with developmental aid/finance institutions, including the Rockefeller Foundation, the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund — and 11 of those years with IDRC, during which time he met his wife, Pilar. Pilar Bhatia worked at ...

  1. Püha õhtu seltskonnalaud / Kaire Nurk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurk, Kaire, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    Püha õhtusöömaaja teemast kunstis. Saksa kunstiajaloolase Horst Schwebeli poolt Leonardo da Vinci "Püha õhtusöömaaja" XX sajandi "töötlustes" välja toodud poliitilise agitatsiooni ja ühisest probleemist haaratud seltskonna kujutiste suunast. Laua kujutisest kunstis

  2. Aplicación del módulo de reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) básica en recién nacidos en el currículo de enfermería y el aprendizaje de los alumnos de enfermería de la Universidad Alas Peruanas filial Chosica- durante el año académico 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Contreras, Hayder Ronald

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la influencia de la aplicación del Módulo Teórico- Práctico en la Atención en Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP) Básica en Recién Nacidos, en el aprendizaje de los estudiantes de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Alas Peruanas Filial Chosica, Lima Perú 2012. Material y métodos: Estudio es de tipo ex post facto retrospectivo que recoge los resultados de un estudio de tipo pre - experimental, con preprueba y posprueba pre-experimental reali...

  3. Inconel 718 süper alaşımının farklı gerilme ve sıcaklıklarda yüksek sıcaklık sürünme davranışının incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün Subaşı

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, havacılıkta yaygın olarak kullanılan Inconel 718 süper alaşımının sürünme davranışına sıcaklık ve gerilmenin etkileri incelenmiştir. Deneyler; 750°C, 800°C sıcaklıklarında ve 200-350MPa gerilme aralığında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Deneysel çalışma sonuçlarından, gerilme üssü (n, sürünme hızı (έ ve aktivasyon enerjisi (Q hesaplanmıştır. Hesaplanan sonuçlara göre; sürünme hızlarının artan gerilme ile arttığı, ayrıca sıcaklığın artmasıyla birlikte sürünme hızları çok daha fazla artmaktadır. Aynı şekilde, artan gerilme ile birlikte aktivasyon enerjisi artmaktadır. Deney sonuçlarından elde edilen gerilme üssü değerlerine göre; etkin deformasyon mekanizmasının dislokasyon sürünmesi olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Inconel 718 süper alaşımının kopma sürünme ömrünü tahmin etmek için, Larson Miller grafiği çizilmiştir. Bu grafikle, Inconel 718’in yüksek sıcaklık sürünme ömürleri hesaplanabilir.

  4. Preliminary Study on Relationship Between PPAR- y2 Gene Pro12Ala Polymorphism and Diabetic Retinopathy%PPAR-γ2基因Pro12Ala多态性与糖尿病视网膜病变关系的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚甜; 熊英; 朱凌燕; 施勇; 周珺

    2011-01-01

    目的 初步探讨PPAR - γ2基因Pro12Ala位点多态性与江西地区汉族人糖尿病视网膜病变(DR)的相关性.方法 临床随机筛选出无亲缘关系的研究对象共185例,其中,实验组为根据WHO1999年糖尿病诊断标准和糖尿病视网膜病变诊断标准,诊断为糖尿病视网膜病变的住院和门诊患者66例(男32例,女34例,平均年龄57.94±11.56岁);健康对照组119例(男57例,女62例,平均年龄58.54±12.56岁).采集研究对象的一般临床特征,应用全自动生化分析仪测定TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C、FPG、2hPG等临床指标,放免法测定空腹胰岛素水平,高效液相法测定HbA1c.运用实时荧光PCR方法鉴定研究对象PPAR -γ2基因Pro12Ala基因型;统计学处理运用SPSS11.5统计学软件进行数据统计分析,计数资料间的比较用卡方检验,组间计量资料均以均数±标准差(x±s)表示,用Logistic回归分析多因素相关性.结果 1.实验组和健康对照组基因型均为PP纯合子,Pro12Ala基因型频率及等位基因频率分布差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);2.实验组与健康对照组临床资料比较:实验组SBP、FPG、2hPG、HbA1c、FINS、HOMA- IR均高于健康对照组,HDL-C低于健康对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);3.Logistic回归分析发现HbA1c为糖尿病视网膜病变发生的独立危险因素.结论 1.PPAR- γ2基因Pro12Ala位点多态性与部分江西地区汉族人2型糖尿病无明显相关性.2.HbA1c为糖尿病视网膜病变发生的独立危险因素.%Objective To preliminarily explore the correlation between Prol2Ala polymorphism in PPAR - γ2 gene and diabetic retinopathy in Han population in Jiangxi. Methods Sixty - six diabetic retinopathy inpatients and outpatients (male cases= 32, female cases= 34, with the average age of 57.94 ± 11.56) were selected from 185 clinical study objects according to WHO 1999 diagnostic criteria and diabetic retinopathy diagnostic criteria. The control group was

  5. AA2024 Alüminyum Alaşımının Sürtünme Karıştırma Kaynağında Farklı Parametrelerin Mekanik Özelliklere Etkisinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın ŞIK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, genel özelliği hafifliği, işlenebilirliği, yüksek korozyon dayancı, yüksek dayanıma sahip olmasından dolayı kullanım alanı olarak özellikle uçak gövdelerinde ve kanatlarda ve otomotiv endüstrilerinde kullanılan AA2024 alaşımı sürtünme karıştırma kaynağı yöntemi ile birleştirilerek, oluşan bağlantıların yorulma, sertlik, eğme ve çekme deneyleri incelenmiştir. 4 mm kalınlığındaki levhaların kaynak esnasında kaynak ilerleme hızı ve karıştırıcı ucun dönme devri değişken parametreler olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu parametreler; 20 mm omuz genişliği, devir sayısı 1000 dev/dak, 1500 dev/dak, 2500 dev/dak ve ilerleme hızları 120 mm/dak ve 200 mm/ dak olarak alınmıştır.

  6. 5 küsimust Leila Pärtelpojale / Leila Pärtelpoeg ; interv. Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärtelpoeg, Leila, 1927-

    2006-01-01

    Leila Pärtelpojast, talle omistatud aastapreemiad, tema tuntumad tööd ja autorile kõige rohkem huvi pakkunud tööd. Leila Pärtelpoeg pälvis ESL-i 2005. a. publitsistika preemia raamatu "Pööningul. Auf dem Dachboden" eest. Autor raamatust, mille toimetaja on Krista Roosi, kujundaja ja fotograaf Maarja Roosi, ning kollektsionäär Leonhard Venest

  7. Interjöör kuningliku tõlla ja isemängiva kitarriga / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Rävala pst. 7 asuva kaupluse "Motel Paradise" sisekujundus. Autorid: Hannes Praks ja Margus Tammik, OÜ Kohvi. H. Praksist ja M. Tammikust, nende tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: kaks korruste plaani, 20 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  8. Teater täis sära ja müstikat / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 5 asuva Eesti Draamateatri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Mari Kurismaa, Stuudio Kurismaa. Arhitektuurne lahendus: AB Kolde Grupp ( arhitektid Peep Jänes, Indrek Suigusaar). Ehitus: AS Estconde E. Mari Kurismaast, tema tähtsamad loomingulised saavutused maalikunstnikuna ja sisearhitektina. M. Kurismaa kommentaarid. Ill.: plaan, 10 värv. vaadet

  9. 5 küsimust Ene Läkile / Ene Läkk ; interv. Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Läkk, Ene, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Ene Läkist, kes on alates 2005. aastast interjööri-, disaini- ja arhitektuuriajakirja "Ruum" peatoimetaja. Ene Läkk, Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. aastapreemia nominent ajakirjandusliku tegevuse eest, ajakirjast "Ruum". Ill.: 6 värv. vaadet, foto ajakirjanikust

  10. The relationships between individual values, collectivistic attitudes, and organisational culture among the Russian-speaking employees in Estonia and Lithuania / Rebekka Vedina, Elina Tolmats, Maaja Vadi...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Seostest kollektivistlike hoiakute ja organisatsioonikultuuri tajumise vahel vene keelt kõnelevate töötajate hulgas Leedu organisatsioonis. Võrdlus Eestis varem läbi viidud uurimuse tulemustega. Tabelid

  11. Bridging the ideological space: a cross-national analysis of the distance of party switching / Ruth Dassonneville, Yves Dejaeghere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dassonneville, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Artikkel keskendub selget eelistust mitteomavatele (volatiilsetele) valijatele, küsides, kas valimistulemuste ettearvamatus sõltub rohkem haritud valijate hästi läbimõeldud valikutest või on tulemus mitte nii haritud ja selget eelistust mitteomavate valijate kätes. Aluseks. valimissüsteemide võrdlevuuring, sh Eesti 2011. aasta valimiste kohta.

  12. Riiklike poliitiliste sihtide saavutamine kunsti ja kultuuripärandi valdkonnas / Ruth Towse ; tõlk. Johanna Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Towse, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Sisaldab lisa: Kunsti, muuseumide, galeriide ja kultuuripärandi rahastamine Suurbritannias : mõningaid hiljutisi andmeid. Originaali pealkiri: Achieving public policy objectives in the arts and heritage. (Cultural economics and cultural policies, 1994, lk. 143-165). Lühidalt autorist lk. 50

  13. 75 FR 51292 - Before Commissioners: Ruth Y. Goldway, Chairman; Tony L. Hammond, Vice Chairman; Mark Acton; Dan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Service requested to have the contract in Docket No. CP2010-71 serve as the baseline contract for future... reasons why the instant GEPS 3 contracts fit within the Mail Classification Schedule language for GEPS... that ``[b]ecause the agreements incorporate the same cost attributes and methodology, the relevant...

  14. 75 FR 20979 - Six Rivers National Forest, Mad River Ranger District, Ruth, CA, Beaverslide Timber Sale and Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., and policies in making the decision and stating the rationale in the Record of Decision. Scoping... supply for local economies; and Reduce fuel loading in strategic locations to improve fire protection and... loading would be reduced on approximately 2,700 acres within 20 fuel treatment units and 7 strategic fuel...

  15. In Buddha’s Company, Thai soldiers in the Vietnam War, Richard A. Ruth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Bourdeaux

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La guerre du Viêt Nam aura été le premier conflit passé à l’ère de la médiatisation mondialisée où les retransmissions d’images et de reportages télévisés souvent bouleversants doublèrent les moyens de diffusion classiques de presse et de radiodiffusion. Dès la fin du conflit, ce traitement à vif de l’information a été relayé par la publication de mémoires et d’essais d’acteurs civils et militaires, par des productions cinématographiques subjectives ou fictionnelles, par des recherches plus a...

  16. Muted Rhetors and the Mundane: The Case of Ruth Mary Weeks, Rewey Belle Inglis, and W. Wilbur Hatfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This essay reveals the importance of investigating mundane internal documents, particularly when considering muted rhetors, who may use such texts strategically in an attempt to subvert the status quo. It does so by examining the first and second women presidents of NCTE and their efforts to professionalize the organization and to strengthen the…

  17. ALA Library Schools and Subject Reference Coursework: A Short Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condic, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Reference librarians are exposed to the literature of different disciplines in a number of ways including advanced degrees, on the job training, and intellectual inquisitiveness. As students, many reference librarians were also exposed to library science programs offering coursework specializing in information sources and research within other…

  18. Valge vs must, pinnad vs varjud / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2011-01-01

    Näitus "Continuum_Kunst kui taju. Ruum kui protsess" Tallinna Kunstihoones 2. oktoobrini 2011, kuraator Maria Arusoo. Näitus "Tumedus, tume" Eesti Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumis 2. oktoobrini 2011, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt Martin Creedi, Olafur Eliassoni, Raoul Kurvitza töödest

  19. Dramatic music brings the opera to Estonia / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Etendustest Birgitta Festivali raames 11.-22. aug. Tallinnas Pirita kloostris: Astor Piazzolla tango-ooperist "Maria de Buenos Aires" 11. aug., W. A. Mozarti ooper "Tituse halastus" Moskva Helikon Opera esituses 15. aug., Shostakovitshi ooper "Mtsenski maakonna Lady Macbeth" 17. augustil

  20. ALA Conference 2009: The Second City's Newest Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robert Allen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author lists some of his favorites among Chicago's new restaurants. Most of the restaurants listed are easily accessible from the conference hotels by foot, taxi, or public transportation. The Chicago Transit Authority's (CTA) helpful trip planner can be used to determine the quickest and easiest routes. The price guide is…

  1. Library associations and social responsibilities: the cases of ALA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library associations should not only promote traditional library activities such as the promotion of reading and literacy, but also serve as progressive forces for change. They can serve to protect and enhance civil liberties and freedom of expression, and can promote community organization for enhancing the quality of life.

  2. Poem I dance Ala-Igbo | Anyanwu | Africa Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10.4314/ad.v30i3.22234 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  3. Ivorians to investigate "death ship" in Paldiski / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Paldiskisse saabusid Elevandiluurannikult uurijad, et inspekteerida laeva Probo Koala, mida kahtlustatakse mürkide lekitamises Aafrikas. Uurimisse on kaasatud Euroopa Komisjoni, Hollandi, Kreeka, Elevandiluuranniku ja Eesti võimud

  4. Staffing woes wound the Baltic tiger / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Eesti Ekspress, 26. apr. 2007, lk. A24-A25. Välismaised firmaomanikud probleemidest, mida tekitab nende ettevõtetele Eesti tööjõuturg - tõusvad palgad, madal produktiivsus, töölt puudumine jm

  5. Russian students face new Estonian-language classes / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Vene koolide üleminekust eestikeelsele õppele, Tallinna Ülikoolis selleks õpetajatele korraldatud kursustest. Haridusministeeriumi kommentaar. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnest teadmiste päeval

  6. Linn laiendab tasuta traadita interneti ala / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsuse tellimusel paigaldab Elion traadita interneti ehk WiFi seadmed kõigisse linnaosadesse, kokku 28 üldkasutatavasse kohta. Projekti maksumuseks on 800 000 krooni. Kaart: Tasuta WiFi Tallinnas. Lisa: Linna rajatud tasuta WiFi alad

  7. See mees on rikkam kui Bill Gates / Reet Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Reet

    2007-01-01

    Mehhiko telefonioperaatori Telefonos de Mexico (Telmex) ja mobiiliettevõtte Telcel ning Lõuna-Ameerika suurima mobiilsideoperaatori America Movil omanik Carlos Slim Helu Aglamazi karjäärist ja tõusust maailma rikkaimaks meheks. Lisa: Mida saaks Carlose rahaga peale hakata?; Mida rikas mees on öelnud?

  8. Reiljan, Savisaar show who's in charge / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Eestimaa Rahvaliidu esimees Villu Reiljan ja Eesti Keskerakonna esimees Edgar Savisaar otsustavad uue presidendi üle. Villu Reiljan toetab Arnold Rüütlit. Edgar Savisaare, Ene Ergma, Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja Riigikogu liikme Ain Seppiku väljaütlemised

  9. Bally's kasiino asendab lõpuks sobimatu varikatuse / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Kadrioru miljööväärtuslikus piirkonnas 19. sajandist pärinevale muinsusväärtuslikule majale sobimatu varikatus eemaldatakse ja asendatakse arhitektuuriliselt sobivaga. Keskkonnasobiliku varikatuse projekteeris DIA Design arhitekt Kaire Rjadnev-Meristo

  10. 1600 last õppis linnaökoloogiat / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    27.01 lõppenud Tallinna Elukeskkonna projektis osales vabatahtlikult rohkem kui 1600 koolilast. Tallinna elukeskkonna probleemidele pühendatud projekt algas juba novembris, säästlikku mõtteviisi ja loodushoidlikku eluviisi propageerivaid üritusi on kavas ka edaspidi

  11. Elanikud protestivad Merimetsa ja Stroomi parkmetsa ehitamise vastu / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii : Nedvizhimost, 11. veebr. 2004, lk. 8. AS Kolde kavatseb ehitada Pelguranna-Merimetsa piirkonda 360 korterit ega nõustu ehitusplaanist täielikult loobuma. AS-i Kolde esindaja Jaan Kurmi jt. arvamusi

  12. Estonia no longer a cheap labor stop - Parts / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Neli välismaalastest ettevõtte omanikku on sulgenud tehased Eestis, kuna ei leia tööjõudu. Peaminister Juhan Parts tõdes Eesti-Suurbritannia kaubanduskoja konverentsil, et Eestis pole enam odavat tööjõudu. J. Parts on pidanud vajalikuks, et Eesti ostaks tagasi Hansapanga

  13. Müüt või muinaslugu? / Arvo Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Arvo, 1943-2007

    2002-01-01

    11. jaanuarist linastub eesti kinodes esimene Peter Jacksoni käe all valmivast kolmest filmist J.R.R. Tolkieni triloogia "Sõrmuste isand" alusel - "Sõrmuse vennaskond", "The Lord of the Rings : The Fellowship of the Ring" : Uus-Meremaa, Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001. J.R.R. Tolkieni loodud maailma populaarsuse fenomenist

  14. HUBUNGAN POLA KONSUMSI ALA VEGETARIAN TERHADAP LEMAK VISCERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Lestrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian, vegan and non-vegan, can lower the risk of metabolic syndrome disease caused by central obesity by measuring waist circumference and the general obesity by assessing Body Mass Index (BMI. One of alternative to prevent can be done by changing the pattern of diet habits from omnivores (the consumption of animal products and vegetable and dairy become vegetarian (vegetable and dairy product consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in waist circumference and BMI in terms of nutrient intake in the vegetarian community members Indonesia Vegetarian Society (IVS at the age of 30-58 years in Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan. This study was an observational with cross sectional design. These research subjects are divided into two groups, 42 vegans and 42 non-vegans selected by screening, and then determined by purposive sampling. Nutrient intake data collected by interview using the 24-hour recall, while the antropometry measurement using a measuring tape, scales and microtoise. Analysis were done using Independent T-test. The results showed there’s difference of waist circumference between vegan and non vegan (p = 0.008, but there is no difference of IMT (p = 0105. Statistically,  energy and protein intake was not different (p> 0.05, however, there were differences found in carbohydrate intake (p = 0.001 and total fat (p = 0.005 in the vegan and non vegan. The continue research on the diet of vegan vegetarian adverse event to metabolic syndrome and the characteristics of the food based on local cultural wisdom needs to be done.

  15. The O.C.: Our Guide to ALA in Anaheim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstark, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    For those who grew up in Orange County (O.C.), Disneyland is the metaphoric morsel of food that gets stuck between the teeth of someone one does not like. While D-land is a must-see for millions of visitors each year, there is much more to Anaheim. Although O.C. is portrayed on numerous reality TV shows as a mecca for rich white people with…

  16. Presidents' green rhetoric at U.N. questioned / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kõneles 24. septembril 2007 ÜRO peakorteris toimunud kliimakonverentsil, tehes seda Euroopa Liidu eesistujamaa Portugali palvel kogu Euroopa Liidu nimel. Erakonna Eestimaa Rohelised liider Marek Strandberg seab kahtluse alla mõnede president T.H. Ilvese poolt esitatud väidete paikapidavuse. Leedu presidendi Valdas Adamkuse ja Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi poolt väljendatud seisukohtadest. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 20.-26.09.2007

  17. Putin calls for diaspora Russians to return home / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Venemaa president Vladimir Putin kutsus väljaspool Venemaad elavaid venelasi naasma kodumaale. Poliitik Enn Eesmaa sõnul on Venemaad juba pikemat aega probleemiks rahvastiku vähenemine, kuid vaatamata kutsele ei ole siiski oodata paljude inimeste lahkumist kodumaale

  18. Tarantino comes to the Tallinn stage / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Vene Teatris 14. aug. esietenduva Quentin Tarantino filmistsenaariumil "Marukoerad" ("Reservoir Dogs") põhinevat lavastust (lavastaja Anna Trifonova) tutvustab Liidia Kaljundi. Ka Tarantino kultusfilmist

  19. Globalizace začala v pravěku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cílek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2011), s. 42-44 ISSN 1212-9607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : geoarchaeology * globalization * society * global change * history Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. Kostja menetluskulude tagamine tsiviilkohtumenetluses / Indrek Parrest, Irina Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parrest, Indrek

    2016-01-01

    Menetluskulude katteks tagatise andmisest Eesti kohtupraktikas ja esilekerkivatest probleemidest. Asjakohaste normide kooskõlast põhiseadusega. Tagatise nõudmise vajadusest, tagatise suuruse määramisest ning tähtaegadest määratud tagatise tasumiseks

  1. Analyst: Soldier fails to sway election / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ei kuulutanud välja keelatud rajatise kõrvaldamise seadust, sest see on põhiseadusega vastuolus. Politoloog Vello Pettai hinnangul pole valijatele Tõnismäe pronkssõduri teema oluline

  2. Pembuatan lem sintetik dan aplikasinya pada alas kaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Footwear can be categorized as one of labour intensive and very superior export commodities, consequently the product quality must be maintained and be continually improved. The quality parameter of footwear is determined by the bonding strength between the uppers and the soles, it means that it depends on the adhesive applied. Soling system is widely applied in small and medium industries are cemented system used synthetic adhesive. Now, the adhesive was applied in the manufacturing of foot wear supported by binding of the soles and the uppers is easy to peel off because of the poor bonding strength. The aim of the research was to investigate a suitable synthetic adhesive formula to used in footwear manufacturing. In preparing of the adhesive formula, the effect of phenolic resin addition as tackifier were varies i.e 35, 45 and 55 phr using chloroprene rubber as raw material were observed. Synthetic adhesive compound was produce by two roll mill after that compound were dissolved in toluene with ratio 1 : 3. The prepared adhesive then was applied to manufacture footwear using cool press system. The soles used in the experiment were made of rubber and plastic material whereas the uppers made of either leather or artificial leather. The test result and data analysis showed that adhesive performed for the highest bonding strength as much as 1000 g/cm and decrease to lowest bonding strength after soaking in to water for 500 seconds one percent was obtained by the following formula that were : chloroprene rubber 100 phr, butylated hydroxyl toluene 2 phr, magnesium oxide 4 phr, zinc oxide 5 phr and phenolic resin 45 phr. The prepared formula performed a better bonding strength when it was compared with chloroperene rubber adhesive in market. The application of this prepared formula in making ladies shoes performed good bonding strength and accordance with the requierments of SNI 12-2942-1992 about Leather Pantopel Style Cemented System Ladies Shoes.

  3. Wiki-Jimmy käivitab mootori / Reet Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Reet

    2007-01-01

    Internetientsüklopeedia Wikipedia autor Jimmy Donal "Jimbo" Wales kavatseb peatselt käiku lasta uue otsingumootori Search Wikia, millest peaks saama tõsine konkurent praegustele juhtivatele Interneti otsimootoritele Google ja Yahoo. Lisa: Jimmy Wales

  4. Ilon Wiklandi Imedemaa muudab tagasi lapseks / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Haapsalus avati 1. juulil 2009. a. lastepärane teemakeskus Iloni Imedemaa, kus saab tutvuda raamatuillustraatori Ilon Wiklandi kujutatud tegelastega. Avamisel viibis ka proua Evelin Ilves koos tütre Kadri Keiuga. Samal teemal ka "Pildi sisse: Iloni Imedemaa avab tee kunstniku loomingusse" lk. 1. Fotod sündmusest vt. ka: Postimees : Arter 4. juuli 2009, lk. 16, pealk.: Imedemaa Haapsalus

  5. Staariteatri anatoomia performance'i-kunsti vormis / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Nu Performance festival III "Recycle Pop" 11.11.-14.11. 2009 Kanuti Gildi saalis Tallinnas. Norra teatritrupi Bäktruppen, prantsuse kunstniku Carole Douillard'i, Lotte Jürjendali ja Katrin Ratte, Maria Arusoo ja Maria Juure, Erki Luuki etteastetest

  6. Ars Fennica - isikliku ja poliitilise vahel / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    2008. aasta Ars Fennica kunstiauhinna kandidaatide tööde näitus Kumu Kunstimuuseumis kuni 26. aprillini. Läti kunstniku Katrina Neiburga, soomlaste Seppo Renvalli, Maria Dunckeri ja Tea Mäkipää ning Mark Raidpere näitusel eksponeeritud töödest

  7. Tantsukuningad näitavad võimu / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    19. nov. etendub Tallinnas Nokia kontserdimajas balletiprogramm "Tantsukuningad - Kings of Dance maailmatuur 2009". Esinevad erinevate maade ja balletikoolkondade tipptantsijad. Programmi lavastas Christopher Wheeldon

  8. Järvi plaanib laulukaare alla hiigelteost / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    ERSO kunstilise juhi ja peadirigendi kohale asuva dirigendi tulevikuplaanidest, sealhulgas G. Mahleri 8. sümfoonia ettekandmisest 2011. aastal Tallinna lauluväljakul Noorte laulu- ja tantsupeo eelõhtul

  9. Ambassador packs his boxes / Nigel Haywood ; interv. Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haywood, Nigel, 1955-

    2007-01-01

    Eestist lahkuv Suurbritannia suursaadik Nigel Haywood oma tööst, kohtumistest, projektidest ja tipphetkedest Eestis. Keskkonnaprobleemidest, integratsioonist ja kuninganna visiidist. Nigel Haywoodi CV

  10. Linlased saavad valida Tallinna uut logo / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna logo konkursist. Rahvusvahelise žürii poolt valitud 10 finalisti pluss Aavo Ermeli poolt 2003. a. kavandatud logo on hindamiseks veebilehel logo.tallinn.ee. Ermeli logo "mineoletulevik" on praegu kasutusel. Finalistidele annavad hinnangu linnavalitsuse liikmed, rahvusvaheline žürii ja tallinlased SMS-hääletuse teel. Žürii koosseis. Lisatud 11 kavandit

  11. Quantitative Determination of Ala-Ala Conformer Ratios in Solution by Decomposition of Raman Optical Activity Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Jakub; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Šafařík, Martin; Kapitán, J.; Bouř, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 38 (2017), s. 8956-8964 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S; GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17012 Grant - others:COST(XE) CA15214 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional theory * vibrational circular dichroism * ab initio calculation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  12. Christopher Hood & Ruth Dixon: A Government that Worked Better and Cost Less? Evaluating Three Decades of Reform and Change in UK central Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Juul

    2017-01-01

    Bogen A Government that Worked Better and Cost Less? er en evaluering af 30 års New Public Management reformer i Storbritanien. Evalueringen viser, at NPM ikke holder hvad det lover. Reformer har ikke givet mere velfærd for færre penge tværtimod, reformerne har giver mindre velfærd for flere penge....

  13. Larger, Higher-level Academic Institutions in the US Do Not Necessarily Have Better-resourced Library Web Teams. A Review of: Connell, Ruth Sara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lewis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover how library Web teams’ staffing, backgrounds, tools, and professional development differ among various types of academic libraries.Design – Survey.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – Academic library Web team members.Methods – A systematic sample of every twelfth institution on The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education list was used to establish a sample group. A Web search was carriedout to identify each institution’s library Web site and contact information for the Web site designer or most appropriate alternative person. Institutions were excluded from the sample if they had no Web site at all, had no library Web site, had a Web site that did not mention a library, or had a Spanish language Web site. In September 2006 an e-mail was sent to the contact for each institution in the sample group asking them to participate in an online survey. A follow up e-mail was sent two weeks later and the survey closed after one month. The survey respondents were asked to identify their institutions so that analysis of the results in relation to the sizeand type of institution could be carried out. The researchers used a simplified version of the Carnegie classification to sort the responding institutions into five main groups.Main Results – The systematic sample consisted of 288 institutions (sample size 6.5%. The profile of the responding institutions was as follows: associate’s colleges (35.5%, baccalaureate colleges (18.2%, master’s colleges and universities (20.9%, doctorate-granting universities (9% and special focus institutions (15.5%. A total of 110 institutions completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 38.19%, although not all respondents answered all the survey questions. The final sample of 110 was 2.5% of the total 4384 institutions on the Carnegielist. Seventy-one per cent of institutions with multiple libraries shared Web teams, with two-year colleges more likely (91.7% to share a Web team than four-year or above institutions (60.9%. The majority of responding institutions (94.4% used in-house library Web site design, with only 5.6% of respondents outsourcing this task.Nearly half (49% of respondents indicated that library Web design was done by one person and even the larger libraries did not necessarily have larger Web teams. Very few Web team members (4.9% had Web design as their primary role; the majority (83.5% indicated that it was just one component of their job. Web team members from master’s- and doctorate-granting institutions were more likely to have taught themselves Web design, while those from associate, baccalaureate and special focus colleges were more likely to have taken Web design courses. For all respondents, the most commonly listed quality for selection to the Web team was an interest in Web design and the most valued skill for library Web designers was the ability to organise information effectively.Knowledge of Web authoring software and basic HTML coding were the most commonly listed knowledge requirements for Web team members. A significant number of respondents indicated that they or other Web team members did not have access to Web authoring (36.9% and image editing (52% software. Generally (except for two very large institutions, the larger institutions were more likely to use database-driven systems for their library Web sites and the smaller institutions were more likely to use content management systems. Associate’s and special focus colleges were less likely than other types of institutions to use either database driven or content management systems. Associate’s institutions were more likely to achieve ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act Web accessibility compliance. Only 48.6% of respondents utilised usability testing during Web site design.Conclusion – The author expected that institutions providing higher levels of education would have better-resourced Web design and training, but the results of the survey did not support this expectation. One reason why associate’s colleges performed better than other institutions in some areas of Web design may be that these colleges tend to offer more Web design and computer technology courses than baccalaureate, master’s and doctorate-granting institutions. Web site design and testing attracted fewer resources than might be expected in academic libraries. Across all types of institutions, Web design tended to be the responsibility of a small team or one person, with most Web designers having other responsibilities apart from the library’s Web site. Just over half of the institutions surveyed did not implement usability testing of their library Web sites.

  14. The Good Appraisal Toolkit for Primary Care Chambers Ruth et al The Good Appraisal Toolkit for Primary Care 189pp Radcliffe Publishing 9781857756029 1857756029.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-02

    The principles and frameworks demonstrated in this book could be used in many other healthcare settings. The text is divided neatly into nine chapters and addresses practical issues such as being an effective appraiser, developing and demonstrating competence, linking appraisal with career development, and evaluation of the appraisal process. The comprehensive approach to all aspects of appraisal makes this a must-have book for all health professionals and managers undertaking appraisals. It should also appeal to clinical governance leads and individuals being appraised. There are excellent tips on how to prepare for appraisals and how to link this with reflection, lifelong learning, career direction, and so on. The book is well referenced and contains an appendix with useful examples for the appraiser.

  15. Seasonal Workers in Mediterranean Agriculture: the social costs of eating fresh, dirigé par Jörg Gertel et Sarah Ruth Sippel (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Perrotta, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    GERTEL J. and SIPPEL S.R. (eds.) (2014), Seasonal Workers in Mediterranean Agriculture. The social costs of eating fresh, Routledge, [London] 294p. Cet ouvrage collectif a trois grands motifs d’intérêt. En premier lieu, en recueillant un grand nombre de recherches empiriques réalisées dans différents domaines disciplinaires, il constitue la première tentative en langue anglaise de systématiser ce que la science sociale a produit au cours des quinze dernières années par rapport au thème des ou...

  16. Sisustusgiidi uudised / Mari Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masso, Mari

    2007-01-01

    Uut elutoa mööblit Eesti poodides - diivan Janno Roosilt ja Andres Labilt, tugitool Patricia Urquiolalt, Zaha Hadidi disainitud laud "Aqua", Mareo Marani pöördjalaga tool "Free" ja erinevate mustritega lauad disainistuudiolt Archivolto (disainerid Claudio Dondoli ja Marco Pocci). Lk. 58 Ell-Maaja Randküla kommentaar

  17. 243 The Challenges of Theatre Workshop in Katsina-Ala and Oju ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    recommends more funding by the College management for Theatre. Arts Department ... exploring and expressing human feelings and predicaments. This is because .... atmosphere where talents and creativity is built in students, fostering ...

  18. 75 FR 12254 - Official Trail Marker for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... comprehensive management and use Plan. It first came into public use in 2009. The National Park Service official... or in any other manner makes or executes any engraving, photograph or print, or impression in the...

  19. Oma ala meistriks saab igaüks isemoodi / Anna-Liisa Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Selgusid kutsemeistrivõistluse "Noor meister 2014" parimad. Edukalt esinenud õppurid meisterkondiiter Helen Laht, ehituspuussepp Mirko Pruus, logistik Karl-Erik Maripuu, keskkonnatehnika lukksepp Robert Born, elektrik Tiit Talts ja müürsepp Sander Hindrikus räägivad oma ametiõpingutest ja tulevikuplaanidest

  20. Sumberg ehitab vanalinna veel ühe viietärnihotelli / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna vanalinnas Vene ja Apteegi tänava nurgal asuv endine telegraafimaja rekonstrueeritakse viietärnihotelliks ja selle sõjas hävinud tiib ehitatakse uuesti üles. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti autor on Martin Aunin. Hoone kavandas 1873. aastal Peterburist pärit arhitekt Schreiberg (P. Schreiber?) pangahooneks

  1. Gaa'ilaa Fi Gaa'ilaan Ala Akka Dhirsaa Fi Niitiitti Waliin Jiraachuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... depending on the regional law, the Federal Supreme Court Cassation Bench reverses such decisions based on the federal family law in a way that contravene with Oromia Family Law. It is clear that such practices disregard the principle of self rule which is the heart of federalism and object of enacting state Family Laws.

  2. Fotofilm - hall ala või sümbioos? / Greta Varts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varts, Greta, 1986-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu raames 14. okt.-l Tallinnas kinos Sõprus toimunud esimesest Eesti fotofilmide festivalist, kuraatorid Anna Hints ja Alis Mäesalu. Kunstnik Liina Siibi ja Saksa fotofilmi veterani Gusztáv Hámosi ettekannetest. Rahvusvahelisest fotofilmi konkursist "Ajatu lugu", mille võitis Anu-Laura Tuttelberg. Gusztáv Hámosi kureeritud ning tema osalusel valminud Saksa parimate fotofilmide valikust

  3. Investors ponder private bridge for Narva-Ivangorod / Gary Peach, Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peach, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Tiit Vähi ja Andrei Katkovi lubadusest ehitada Narva jõele uus sild, kuna valitsused silla ehitamises niipea kokkuleppele ei jõua. Tiit Vähi, Edgar Savisaare, Raivo Vare ja Igor Gräzini arvamused

  4. Uuring : 3G vajab läbilöögiks televisiooni / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Analysys'i uuringu kohaselt võivad need mobiilsideoperaatorid, kes pakuvad 3G võrgus televisiooni või filmide vaatamise võimalust, olla edukamad kui need, kes piirduvad ainult heli ja tavalise andmeside võimalustega

  5. UNESCO otsustab vanalinna saatuse kahe aasta pärast / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna külastanud UNESCO maailmapärandi komitee esindaja professor Giorgio Piccinato hoiatab linnavõime, et uute kõrghoonete ehitamine kesklinna ja Skoone bastioni erastamine võib kaasa tuua Tallinna vanalinna maailmapärandi nimistust väljaarvamise. Intervjuu Piccinatoga. Kommentaarid Jaan Tammelt, Indrek Toomelt, Yrjo Vanhanenilt

  6. Kiur Aarma väntab islandlastega dokumentaalmärulit Baltikumi taasiseseisvumisest / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilmist "Need, kes julgevad - väikerahvaste solidaarsusest". Filmi islandlannast stsenarist on Kolfinna Baldvinsdottir, kelle isa Jón Baldvin Hannibalsson'i silmade läbi kujutatakse 1991. aasta sündmusi - Islandi Baltimaade iseseisvuse tunnustamist

  7. 87_Imam MI et al.,_A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON LUNG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    Physical activities in the form of sports and exercis performed regularly have ... no significant difference in the mean FEV1/FVC% amongst the grou ... are: age, gender,. , ethnicity ..... induced ventilatory responses to external restive loads in ...

  8. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi Sound...

  9. Spetsialistid soovitavad kesklinnas piirata sõidukite kiirust 40 km/h-ni / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Liiklusspetsialistid soovitavad inimvigastustega õnnetuste vähendamiseks piirata Tallinna kesklinnas kiirust 40 km/h-ni. Linna liiklusteenistus ei pea seda põhjendatuks. Lisa: Helsingi positiivne kogemus

  10. Con las alas de la radio : Comunicación, escuela y territorio

    OpenAIRE

    Cedrón, Candela; Peysse, Isabel; Chiappari, Julia

    2015-01-01

    El Seminario de Comunicación Radiofónica Escolar Comunitaria que se lleva adelante a partir de un convenio de asesoramiento y capacitación entre el gremio docente SUTEBA (Sindicato Unificado de Trabajadores de la Educación de la pcia. De Buenos Aires) y la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicación Social de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata es un ejemplo de articulación, a través de la capacitación, entre el estado y una organización político sindical. El Seminario propone capacitar, ...

  11. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  12. Local sleuth's research kick-starts war crimes case / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Tartumaale Vara valda Metsakivi külla väidetavalt kohalike elanike initsiatiivil kavandatud II maailmasõja ohvrite mälestuskivi püstitamine ajendas kaitsepolitseid algatama kriminaalmenetlust, et uurida külaelanike tapmist Kirepi külas 1941. aastal

  13. Properties of Soils in River Katsina-Ala Catchments Area, Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soil. The surface soil had granular structure, which changed to transited medium blocky and angular structure with depth while the horizons were generally massive. The CEC, organic carbon, Organic matter, total phosphorus (Bray I) and total ...

  14. Tallo: IT-ala vajab arhitekti kätt / Ivar Tallo ; intervjueerinud Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tallo, Ivar, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Autor analüüsib ebaõnnestumisi avaliku sektori IT-projektides ning ütleb, et kõige suurem kaotus on olnud usalduse kaotus uute e-lahenduste vastu. Riigis peaks olema üks inimene, kes vastutaks kogu avaliku sektori IT eest

  15. Hästi restaureeritud raekoda sai Euroopast kõrge tunnustuse / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna raekoda sai Euroopa Liidu ja Euroopa pärandkultuuri organisatsiooni Europa Nostra kultuuripärandi medali. Europa Nostra nõukogu liikme Karin Hallas-Murula sõnul arvestatakse auhindade jagamisel nii mälestise säilitamist kui ka kasutamist tänapäeval. Mainekas auhind on tunnustus Teddy Böcklerile, kellele raekoja restaureerimine oli elutööks. Lisatud Europa Nostra peapreemiad

  16. Overview on Topical 5-ALA Photodynamic Therapy Use for Non Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cantisani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UV contributes to a variety of skin diseases including inflammation, degenerative aging, and cancer. Historically, humans have been exposed to UV radiation mainly through occupational exposure; recreational UV exposure, however, has increased dramatically in recent years, because of outdoor leisure activities and to purposely tan for cosmetic purposes. Both UVB and UVA radiation have been shown to cause DNA damage and immunosuppression, the important forms of biological damage that lead to NMSC. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized which continues to grow at an alarming rate, becoming an occupational disease. Available treatments alternative to surgery include photodynamic therapy, electrochemotherapy, cryotherapy, ablative lasers, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, ingenol mebutate, and diclofenac. Among these, photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive technique with excellent cosmetic outcome and good curative results, when used in initial stages of skin cancers for superficial lesions. It is administered under numerous and significantly varied regimens and there are a wide range of cure rates reported, permitting treatment of large and multiple lesions with excellent cosmetic results. This is an overview of photodynamic applications especially for the treatment of NMSC, with a short focus on daylight modality.

  17. 5_29 - 37_Dikko et al.,_A New Generalized-Exponential-Weibull ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    ction, survival and hazard function, order statistics of the distribution. were estimated using ... he mathematical properties eibull distribution .... 2 December, 2017. Applying binomial expansion and further simplification, equation (15) become.

  18. PacIOOS Water Quality Buoy AW (WQB-AW): Ala Wai, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water quality buoys are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed points....

  19. Nõmme ja Kristiine piirikünkale Järvel kerkib sihvakas torn / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Järve keskuse naabrusesse ehitatavast 15-korruselisest büroohoonest, Böckleri majast. Autorid Studio Paralleeli arhitektid Jaak Huimerind ja Indrek Saarepera. Lisaks "Kõrghoonete katusevaated võiksid olla avalikud"

  20. Crystal structure of raw pure Mysore silk fibre based on (Ala-Gly)2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-03-23

    Mar 23, 2005 ... at sites 1′ and 2′ by the 2-fold screw symmetry, respec- tively. ..... Demura M, Minami M, Asakura T and Cross T A 1998 Structure of Bombyx more ... A34 3–11. Spek A L 2003 Single-Crystal structure validation with the pro- ... Takahashi Y, Gehoh M and Yuzuriha K 1999 Structure refinement and diffuse ...