Sample records for rustom jal vakil

  1. Rustom Jal Vakil and the saga of Rauwolfia serpentina. (United States)

    Goenka, Ajit H


    Dr Rustom Jal Vakil was India's pioneer in cardiology. He introduced the discipline of cardiology in his country. His mixture of clinical acumen, research and writing has survived him. Through his work with an ancient Indian folk remedy, Rauwolfia serpentina, he ushered in the modern era of effective pharmacotherapy of hypertension. His work was particularly significant since it galvanized other workers into finding more effective agents for the treatment of hypertension. He is remembered fondly by his acquaintances as an unassuming man in whom a multitude of choicest qualities blended seamlessly with each other.

  2. JAL/JAS Integration: Toward a New Era of Competition (United States)

    Kanenari, Hideyuki


    On October 2, 2002, JAL and JAS established a new holding company after obtaining the necessary approval from the government bodies. Full integration is planned to take place in April 2004. This paper will primarily explain how JAL/JAS integration will enable JAL to compete effectively with ANA, the giant in the domestic market, and how it will reinforce JAL's competitiveness through further cost reduction and revenue enhancement. In addition, the paper will explain how the keener domestic competition brought about by this integration could resolve the following two issues for the first time in the Japanese aviation history. Those two issues are: (1) providing better service to domestic customers, and (2) making Japanese airlines more competitive against foreign airlines in the international market. As a result, the paper will argue that such an integration, a logical outcome of the post-war civil aviation history of Japan, will significantly benefit customers, Japanese aviation industry and Japanese society as a whole.

  3. "edo jal̀qkina üts̀varòkaetus ma vaelda ..." : [luuletused] / Andreas Kalkun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalkun, Andreas, 1977-


    Sisu: "edo jal̀qkina üts̀varòkaetus ma vaelda ..." ; "tsirguq ku kiviq no satassõ taivast aràlaq ..." ; "vahtsõq silmäq pitsitä pääluu sisse ..." ; "tõppõ tõmmat haigõst ma haarõt jal̀ki ..." ; "arsatas njago sisse aigopiteh ..." ; "rühkeq yks jumalat pallõlda jaloh ..." ; "mu süä om no süüdläne täǹtäseq kuvvõ ..." ; "halvaq haavaq häitsese veiga silmih. Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 379

  4. A Study on the Impact of Observation Assimilation on the Numerical Simulation of Tropical Cyclones JAL and THANE Using 3DVAR

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu


    In this work, the impact of assimilation of conventional and satellite remote sensing observations (Oceansat-2 winds, MODIS temperature/humidity profiles) is studied on the simulation of two tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal region of the Indian Ocean using a three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) technique. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model is used to simulate the severe cyclone JAL: 5–8 November 2010 and the very severe cyclone THANE: 27–30 December 2011 with a double nested domain configuration and with a horizontal resolution of 27 × 9 km. Five numerical experiments are conducted for each cyclone. In the control run (CTL) the National Centers for Environmental Prediction global forecast system analysis and forecasts available at 50 km resolution were used for the initial and boundary conditions. In the second (VARAWS), third (VARSCAT), fourth (VARMODIS) and fifth (VARALL) experiments, the conventional surface observations, Oceansat-2 ocean surface wind vectors, temperature and humidity profiles of MODIS, and all observations were respectively used for assimilation. Results indicate meager impact with surface observations, and relatively higher impact with scatterometer wind data in the case of the JAL cyclone, and with MODIS temperature and humidity profiles in the case of THANE for the simulation of intensity and track parameters. These relative impacts are related to the area coverage of scatterometer winds and MODIS profiles in the respective storms, and are confirmed by the overall better results obtained with assimilation of all observations in both the cases. The improvements in track prediction are mainly contributed by the assimilation of scatterometer wind vector data, which reduced errors in the initial position and size of the cyclone vortices. The errors are reduced by 25, 21, 38 % in vector track position, and by 57, 36, 39 % in intensity, at 24, 48, 72

  5. Aesthetics of the Classical Period of the Islamic Mughal Empire in India through a Portrait of Abū al-Fath Jalāl al-Dīn Muhammad Akbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina PETEK


    Full Text Available The reign of Abū al-Fath Jalāl al-Dīn Muhammad Akbar (1556–1605 was a fruitful period of the political, cultural and spiritual synthesis of Persian, Indian, and European tradition, as well as an artistic and aesthetic renaissance. This cosmopolitan, universal and charismatic ruler strived for the external, political, material and spiritual well-being of his colourful empire. In search of a balance between the external and internal, and in his endeavours for the unification and uniformity of India he gradually created a completely new style of Mughal arts, which is a stunning reflection of his personality’s transformations, principles, insights, interests, and spiritual growth. The paper focuses on a psychological portrait of the ruler, who dictated aesthetics and the style of the classical period of Mughal arts which consists of the three basic developmental phases of Akbar’s enigmatic character. The thesis on the parallel development of Akbar’s personality and Mughal arts is supported by research on the influence of certain European and Persian aesthetic elements, and mainly on the influence of Indian philosophical-religious tradition (the doctrines on rasa, bhakti, yoga, and tantra. The early period of Mughal arts, with predominantly realistic elements, coincides with the ruler’s dynamic, youthful enthusiasm and immense curiosity to acquaint himself the most varied aspects of external events and appearances. The second, the mature period, which enriches this earlier realism by means of mystical elements and the symbolism of Indian pre-Mughal painting, is marked by the shift into the interior and by searching for the harmony between the material and spiritual. In the late period of Mughal painting, however, reflexive and lyrical works prevail, which are a reflection of completion of Akbar’s spiritual quests, and the unique project of multifaceted synthesis that he undertook and promoted.

  6. Mevlânâ’da İlahî Sıfatlar The Divine Attributes in Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna TUNAGÖZ


    Full Text Available In this article we study Mawlânâ Jalâl al-Dîn al-Rûmî’s (d.A.H.672/A.D.1273 approach to the divine attributes, who is a poet andthinker has an important place in sufistic circles and Anatolian Islamicculture, by comparison with the Theologians’ views. It is expected thatQur'ân which calls for believing in God, speaks of His existence, and of topics related to His existence. Even though Qur'ân gives prominencefor divine names and puts the theoretical details aside, God’s attributestake place in its field of interest. Muslim theologians detailed thosereligious texts and systematized rationally with Greek Philosophy’ssupport. Muslim mystics, including Mawlânâ, reduce the obtainableknowledge about God to vision and inspiration, that is religiousexperience, exposed by the spiritual purity. This methodical differenceconstitutes essence of separation between the two schools. As is known,Sunni theology’s concept of divine attribute is an antithesis ofMu’tazilite theology seeing God’s essence the same of His attributes.Sunni thesis can be summarized in such a way that God has attributesveritably and those attributes neither are identical with His essence, norare they different from it. Mawlânâ’s views on the divine attributes, asthe subject of our article, are clearly compatible with the Sunni Islamictheology. The thinker attributing “the essential (nafsî, negative,positive, actual and textual” attributes to God presents his ideas mostlywithin the poems unsystematically but never goes into theoreticaldetails. But Mawlânâ’s agreement with the theologians expresses theonly one side of his concept of attributes. For Mawlânâ makes hisselection for the sufistic thought at the points that the sufistic thoughtdiffers from the theological thoughts, especially on being andknowledge, and reflects it to all the practical and theoreticalconclusions he drew. Bu makalede tasavvufî çevrelerde ve Anadolu İslâm k

  7. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone Jal simulations to physics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tial to predict a mesoscale weather system. Previ- ous sensitivity studies ... Forecast System (GFS) real time prediction. In this study, the ... time prediction is akin to running a real time fore- cast. Furthermore ...... Operating system. Red hat Linux.

  8. Water and Urban Development. Zapopan Jal. MÉXICO (United States)

    Flores, R. M., Sr.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Pena, L. E.; Lucia, G. I.


    Recently there is a need to make a land management project for the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (GDL), the objective is the momentum of an "orderly growth" however there are a number of problems associated with urban growth, one of which is the provision of Water. There is not an adequate exploration of our resources, nor an adequate record of the minimum parameters that can be measured in the case of groundwater, such as the level of infiltration and extraction volume. The extraction is carried out in the northwest of the GDL (currently the area is more urban development), is approximately greater than 658 l / s (SIAPA 2016), beyond the capacity of natural recharge since precipitation of an average of 850 mm. Besides which currently anthropically waterproof. There is a record of more than 40 existing in this sector of the GDL wells, wells and springs are not accounted for, the production areas varies from 14.45 to 180.55 m depth In the study area (approximately 80km2), there are urban uses, industries, airports, agricultural areas in transition to residential areas and a protected natural area. cracks have already appeared in different years and places, some authors propose that are associated with geological structures and others say it is by massive extraction of water. Mitigation measures or water injection wells to recharge aquifers is poor, not considered as a priority for the territorial urban planning element. Which leads to a significant lowering of the aquifers that is up to 67.2 m in a span of two years in some cases. Some urban developments with golf course, contribute significantly to the purification of waste water and recharge of aquifers for irrigation they do, what should force by the state or municipality to issue a series of fiscal stimulus.

  9. Study of the landslide on the Northwestern shore of Lake Chapala, Jal., Mexico; Estudio del deslizamiento de masa en la ribera noroeste del Lago de Chapala, Jal., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Madrigal, Victor Manuel; Garduno Monroy, Victor Hugo [Depto. de Geologia y Minerologia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Ibanez Garduno, Dolores [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico); Arreygue Rocha, Eleazar [Depto. de Geologia y Minerologia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Alvarez, Roman [UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    An unstable area of 10.34 hectares was found on the northwestern shore of Lake Chapala, 500 meters away from the city of the same name. The area shows movement mainly in a north-south direction, according to the morphology that was studied with aerial photographs, topographic maps, and slope maps. The internal structure of the sliding area was deduced by field reconnaissance and contains three unstable parts developed in different times. The parts slide and ride one upon the other by forming a structure of a Rough type. Some lithologic discontinuities, produced by faulting planes at the subsurface of the landslide, were detected by geophysical measurements with a geo-radar. [Spanish] Se determino la presencia de un area inestable de 10.34 hectareas, localizada en la ribera noroeste del Lago de Chapala, 500 metros al oeste de la ciudad del mismo nombre, que presenta un movimiento en direccion principal N-S, segun su morfologia analizada a traves de fotografias aereas, mapas topograficos y mapas de pendientes. La estructura interna del area en deslizamiento se deduce de observaciones de campo, estando constituida por tres cuerpos inestables desarrollados en tiempos diferentes, pero que en la actualidad se deslizan y cabalgan uno sobre otro, formando una estructura tipo Rough. Se detectaron tambien discontinuidades litologicas producidas por superficies de falla en el subsuelo del deslizamiento, mediante tecnicas geofisicas con georradar.

  10. 78 FR 18334 - JAL Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting... (United States)


    ... existing 26.9-acre Natick Pond with operating elevation of about 48.5 feet above mean sea level (msl); (3) a new 130-foot-long, 20-foot-wide, 6-foot-deep concrete intake channel; (4) a new 10-foot-high, 20... on the Commission's Web site . Commenters can submit...

  11. A Study on the Impact of Observation Assimilation on the Numerical Simulation of Tropical Cyclones JAL and THANE Using 3DVAR

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Srinivas, C. V.; Hariprasad, K. B R R; Baskaran, R.


    In this work, the impact of assimilation of conventional and satellite remote sensing observations (Oceansat-2 winds, MODIS temperature/humidity profiles) is studied on the simulation of two tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal region

  12. Effect of water pollution in Thane creek (Mumbai) on plankton [ Thana (Mumbai) ki Khadi me Jal Pradushan ka Patap Plavako par Prabhav

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaiswar, M.J.R

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Jala_Krishi_1995_47.pdf.txt stream_source_info Jala_Krishi_1995_47.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Rauwolfia serpentina: Protocol optimization for in vitro propagation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 3, 2008 ... stimulant to uterine contraction for insomnia and most of all for insanity (Vakil, 1949). *Corresponding author. E-mail: The plant is vegetatively ... ment Centre, Haldi, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. Endophytic microflora is a major cause of.

  14. A novel missense mutation of the DDHD1 gene associated with juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chujun Wu


    Full Text Available Background: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (jALS is a rare form of ALS with an onset age of less than 25 years and is frequently thought to be genetic in origin. DDHD1 gene mutations have been reported to be associated with the SPG28 subtype of autosomal recessive HSP but have never been reported in jALS patients.Methods: Gene screens for the causative genes of ALS, HSP and CMT using next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies were performed on a jALS patient. Sanger sequencing was used to validate identified variants and perform segregation analysis.Results: We identified a novel c.1483A>G (p.Met495Val homozygous missense mutation of the DDHD1 gene in the jALS patient. All of his parents and young bother were heterozygous for this mutation. The mutation was not found in 800 Chinese control subjects or the data of dbSNP, ExAC and 1000G.Conclusion: The novel c.1483A>G (p.Met495Val missense mutation of the DDHD1 gene could be a causative mutation of autosomal recessive jALS.

  15. Caracterización de Jales Mineros y evaluación de su peligrosidad con base en su potencial de lixiviación


    Alejandro Medel Reyes; Samanta Ramos Gomez; Francisco Javier Avelar González; Luis Arturo Godínez Mora Tovar; Francisco Rodríguez Valadez


    Se realizó una caracterización de un jal histórico y uno reciente obtenidos en el distrito minero de Guanajuato. Los análisis por ICP y AAS mostraron cantidades importantes de metales presentes en el siguiente orden de concentración: 12,185 mg/kg de Fe, 509 mg/kg de Mn, 53 mg/kg de Zn, 20 mg/kg de Pb y 8 mg/Kg de Cr en el jal reciente y 11,676 mg/kg de Fe, 862 mg/kg de Mn, 53 mg/kg de Zn, 17 mg/kg de Pb y 12 mg/Kg de Cr en el jal histórico. Los análisis mineralógicos mostraron que los jales e...

  16. Bhosle, Prof. Ushadevi Narendra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhosle, Prof. Ushadevi Narendra Ph.D. (Bombay), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 30 March 1949. Specialization: Algebraic Geometry Address: Flat No. 256, Jal Vayu Towers, NGEF Layout, Bennigannahalli, Bengaluru 560 038, Karnataka Contact: Residence: 99306 41136. Mobile: 88616 96296. Email:

  17. From Bureaucracy to Profession: Remaking the Educational Sector for the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Mehta, Jal


    In this essay, Jal Mehta examines the challenges faced by American schooling and the reasons for persistent failure of American school reforms to achieve successful educational outcomes at scale. He concludes that many of the problems faced by American schools are artifacts of the bureaucratic form in which the education sector as a whole was…

  18. Examining the Application of Deterrence in Sentencing in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter


    Dec 18, 2017 ... Various UN and regional instruments and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies echo the need for a prospect of release: see Gumboh 2017 JAL. 35. Van Den Haag 1982 J Crim L & Criminology 1034. 36. Andenaes Punishment and Deterrence 22. 37. Cavadino and Dignan Penal System ...

  19. 75 FR 52907 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747... (United States)


    ... CONTACT: Nicholas Han, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification... Airlines (JAL) reports that certain structures prevented the accomplishment of the inspection specified in... time for certain inspection locations. Boeing reports that recent engineering analysis has revealed...

  20. 76 FR 22305 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes (United States)


    ... information management system 2 (AIMS-2) software in the AIMS-2 hardware; and making certain wiring changes... wiring changes. Comments We gave the public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD. The... Installation JAL requested that we delay the issuance of this AD until GE Aviation publishes new revisions to...

  1. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the sensitivity of numerical simulations of tropical cyclones to physics parameterizations is carried out with a view to determine the best set of physics options for prediction of cyclones originating in the north Indian Ocean. For this purpose, the tropical cyclone Jal has been simulated by the advanced (or state of ...

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    does not protect the ideas that are embodied in or that may have inspired the work, ... work, but merely prevents that person from copying the form of expression used in .... 38 JAL Sterling World Copyright Law (2nd ed, Sweet & Maxwell, 2003) 43. .... National Soccer League t/a Premier Soccer League v Gidani (PTY) LTD63.

  3. 76 FR 24345 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200, -200LR, -300, and -300ER Series... (United States)


    ... acceptable level of safety. We have not changed this AD in this regard. Request To Delay Rule Pending Release of New Service Bulletins Japan Airlines (JAL) requested that we delay the issuance of this AD until...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new...

  4. The investigation of genetic and clinical features in Chinese patients with juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Liu, Z-J; Lin, H-X; Liu, G-L; Tao, Q-Q; Ni, W; Xiao, B-G; Wu, Z-Y


    Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) occurs at an age of onset below 25 years with a heterogeneous disease onset location, variable progression and survival time. To investigate whether an ALS gene profile could resolve any aspects of clinical symptom heterogeneity, we have used targeted sequencing technology in a cohort of 12 JALS patients of Chinese descent. We detected 5 likely pathogenic mutations, 2 in familial probands and 3 in sporadic patients. One was a known TARDBP mutation (p.G348V) and 4 were FUS frameshift mutations including a known p.Gln519Ilefs*9 mutation and 3 novel mutations, p.Gly515Valfs*14, p.Gly486Profs*30, and p.Arg498Alafs*32. Of the 4 FUS mutations, 2 were able to be confirmed as de novo mutations. The TARDBP mutation carrier showed a classic ALS phenotype. All patients with FUS mutations experienced limb weakness at an early age and developed bulbar symptoms during the disease course. FUS mutations have previously been associated with increased JALS disease progression, however, we found a large range 12 to 84 months in disease survival (mean 58.2 months). Our results justify future screening for variants in FUS as it remains the most frequent genetic determinant of early onset, JALS (found in 30% of our patients). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Econometric analysis of the effect of marketing costs on grain prices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric analysis of the effect of marketing costs on grain prices in Kaduna State of Nigeria. JAL Effiong. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol. 6 (1) 2006: pp. 11-14. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Oil Shocks and Stock Prices of Airlines - An East Asia Perspective


    Lee, Pau Boon


    The aim of this dissertation is to study and analyse the impact of oil price shock on the share prices of airline companies in East Asia, in particular international air carriers from Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia by looking at how the companies‘ share prices respond to the news of oil shocks. The companies involved in this study were Japan Airlines ("JAL"), All Nippon Airways ("ANA"), Cathay Pacific Airways ("Cathay"), Korean Air ("KAL"), Malaysian Airlines ("MAS") an...

  7. Aircraft Control Using Engine Thrust: A History of Learning TOC Real-Time (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer H.; Batteas, Frank; Fullerton, Gordon


    A history of learning the operation of Throttles Only Control (TOC) to control an aircraft in real time using engine thrust is shown. The topics include: 1) Past TOC Accidents/Incidents; 2) 1972: DC-10 American Airlines; 3) May 1974: USAF B-52H; 4) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 5) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 6) 1981: USAF B-52G; 7) August 1985: JAL 123 B-747; 8) JAL 123 Survivor Story; 9) JAL 123 Investigation Findings; 10) July 1989: UAL 232 DC-10; 11) UAL 232 DC-10; 12) Eastwind 517 B-737; 13) November 2003: DHL A-300; 14) Historically, TOC has saved lives; 15) Automated Throttles-Only Control; 16) PCA Project; 17) Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft; 18) MD-11 PCA System and Flight Test Envelope; 19) MD-11 Simulation, PCA ILS-Soupled Landing Dispersion; 20) Throttles-Only Pitch and Roll Control Power; 21) PCA in Commercial Fleet; 22) Fall 2005: PCAR Project; 23) PCAR Background - TOC; and 24) PCAR Background - TOC.

  8. Improving Stability and Convergence for Adaptive Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Algorithm. (On-Line Harmonics Estimation Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad K Almaita


    Keywords: Energy efficiency, Power quality, Radial basis function, neural networks, adaptive, harmonic. Article History: Received Dec 15, 2016; Received in revised form Feb 2nd 2017; Accepted 13rd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Almaita, E.K and Shawawreh J.Al (2017 Improving Stability and Convergence for Adaptive Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Algorithm (On-Line Harmonics Estimation Application.  International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(1, 9-17.

  9. Crítica de Libros.


    Fernando Colina Pérez; Ana Isabel Segura; Loreto García; Mauricio Jalón; María Bolaños Atienza


    Robert J. STOLLER, Dolor y pasión. Un psicoanalista explora el mundo sadomasoquista, Buenos Aires, Manantial, 1998. Fernando Colina Harold I. KAPLAN, Benjamin J. SADOCK, Sinopsis de Psiquiatría, Madrid, Médica Panamericana, 1999.Ana Isabel Segura Azucena COUCEIRO, Bioética para clínicos, Madrid, Triacastella, 1999. Loreto García Armando GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ, Raquel ÁLVAREZ PELÁEZ, En busca de la raza perfecta. Eugenesia e higiene en Cuba (1898-1958), Madrid, CSIC, 1999. Mauricio Jalón Raquel ÁLVAR...

  10. La gestión de costos ambientales: Una aproximación al desarrollo sostenible en el sector textil ecuatoriano


    Paredes Cabezas, Maribel del Rocío


    Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en 2013. Directores de la Tesis: Javier de Esteban Curiel y María Luisa Delgado Jalón La globalización, liberalización comercial, y la industrialización han brindado oportunidades de desarrollo económico. Sin embargo al mismo tiempo han dado lugar a una creciente competencia por conquistar mercados, en donde uno de los aspectos fundamentales que ha resultado perjudicado, ha sido la Naturaleza. En definitiva el calentamiento...

  11. Movilidad de metales en jales procedentes del distrito minero de Guanajuato, México


    RAMOS-GÓMEZ, Magdalena; AVELAR, Javier; MEDEL-REYES, Alejandro; YAMAMOTO, Laura; GODINEZ, Luis; RAMIREZ, Marcela; GUERRA, Ricardo; RODRÍGUEZ, Francisco


    Se realizó la caracterización de tres jales del distrito minero de Guanajuato: uno abandonado hace 20 años (Presa Abandonada), uno reciente (Presa en Operación) y un jal proveniente de la mezcla de diferentes compañías (Presa Mezcla). Los tres jales presentaron carácter alcalino, condiciones aerobias con tendencias oxidantes, bajo contenido de humedad, muy baja capacidad de intercambio catiónico y ausencia de materia orgánica. Estas condiciones limitan la lixiviación de metales. Los análisis ...

  12. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  13. Silicon Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement Employing the Photoluminescent, Down-Shifting Effects of Carbon and CdTe Quantum Dots (Open Access Publisher’s Version) (United States)


    Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Gral. Marcelino Garcı́a Barragán 1421, Olı́mpica, 44430 Guadalajara, Jal., México 3 Departamento de Fı́sica... Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico 123 Mater Renew Sustain Energy (2016) 5:5 DOI 10.1007/s40243-016-0070-4 of these nano structures, their...descendente basado en puntos cuánticos de telururo de cadmio aplicado a celdas solares de silicio cristalino. Dissertation, Universidad de


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Rajesh Pandey


    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are the most notorious type of infection in the probiotic and dairy fermentations. Two phage resistant mutants viz. B. co PIII and B. co MIII (B. coagulans mutants PIII and MIII obtained in previous studies (Dubey and Vakil, 2010, were further characterized for their protein profile in comparison with the parental probiotic strain –B. coagulans. The cell lysates were subjected to ultra-centrifugation and the purified membrane fractions were resolved using 2D gel electrophoresis. The Isoelectric focussing showed 187, 202 and 154 protein spots for the parental strain, mutant B. co PIII and mutant B. co MIII, respectively. Ten and 18 protein spots were missing as compared to parent for mutants PIII and MIII whereas there were 21 and 14 new spots noticed for these two mutants. Eight membrane proteins present only in the phage sensitive parental culture could be tentatively identified by comparison with the complete proteome of B. coagulans by use of UniprotKB and then CELLO database It is quite likely that some of these identified membrane proteins may be also functioning as receptors for phage adsorption followed by entry of nucleic acid into the phage sensitive host cell.

  15. Effects of Chinese opera on the reproductions of Ibsen's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Leung Che LAU


    Full Text Available As part of a globalized phenomenon, the reproductions of Ibsen’s plays on the Chinese theatrical stage increasingly focus upon the exploration and expansion of new cultural forms, as Patrice Pavis defines interculturalism as “grasping the dialectical of exchanges of civilities between cultures”. However, how do we evaluate the effectiveness of the many “intercultural” productions that surround us today? I attempt to answer this question by comparing two Chinese reproductions of Ibsen’s plays that employ elements of Chinese opera on varying scales. The first one is a total transformation of Hedda Gabler into a Hangzhou yue opera form, Xin Bi Tian Gao (Aspirations Higher than the Sky, 心比天高 in 2006. As part of the yue opera tradition, Hedda Gabler was staged in an all-female cast. The second one is a fragmented insertion of a Peking opera excerpt into the staging of A Doll’s House by the National Experimental Theatre of China in 1998. One of the highlights of the play is a Norwegian actress, who plays Nora, singing and dancing a short Peking opera excerpt, thus replacing the tarantella dance in the original play. Contextualising the multiple perspectives towards interculturalism by Patrice Pavis, Richard Schechner and Rustom Bharucha, I aim to explore how the appropriation of Chinese opera in such performances might strengthen or weaken the reciprocal flows between the source and target cultures in Pavis’s “hourglass model”, and whether the initial attempt of revitalising both Chinese and Western art forms has backfired and misproduced Bertolt Brecht’s alienation effect directed at the contemporary audience.

  16. Analysis of Electromagnetics Forces on Magnetically Suspended High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayer


    Full Text Available High-speed superexpresses (HSST developed by Japanese airlines (JAL are based on the electrodynamics principle of magnetic suspension. The track contains short-circuited coils and interaction between them and superconductive coils in the vehicle produces its suspension. The paper includes a mathematical model for traction electrodynamics suspension device HSST represented by a system of linear differential equations with coefficients varying in time. Numerical analysis of this model fields the velocity-dependent lift and drag forces acting on the system. The time distribution of the lift force exhibits certain oscillations that may be suppressed by suitable placement of several superconductive levitation wings in the vehicle. The results obtained are in a good agreement with the knowledge found by various authors on prototype vehicles.

  17. Sharp Nose Lens Design Using Refractive Index Gradient (United States)


    guided munitions infrared optics gunsunhe ramjet A AT(CaN011m0. = reerfse aide It nRa6"uWF 4191 #ifaU~ IV Week an For infrared sensors located at the...014-6601 uii THIS PAaE(Uha D heem ABSTRACT For infrared sensors located at the nose of a missile or a projectile, an age-olQ problem occurs. A conflict...JalA..... IaW3. *a aaa a w o. a 0 % a * J. 4 a N N.t 6 N6 N16 N6 vN6 36 ,43NNh 3..~. N N."J2SO N N 3j61 ~N N 2N N N.a~w3 W ww2 .~ w2fw W N

  18. [Ambroise Paré, his death and his historians]. (United States)

    Dumaître, P


    Ambroise Paré died December the 20th., 1590. What happened after his death and what are we knowing about his life? Never forgotten, though a lack of care, we were waiting till the XIXth. century to get recollection upon a subject sustained only by accounts of his travels. After Percy, a surgeon who tried to write Paré's biography through the "Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne, de Michaud (1822)" and some second rank authors, Malgaigne is the first who inside a printing of the "Oeuvres complétes de Paré (1840-41)" has a fine look upon the question, though his work is incomplete and allows many mistakes. Doctors Chéreau and Jal, an historian, analysing civil status records, gave new information enlarged by doctors Le Paulmier, Turner and the U.S. native Janet Doe.

  19. Crítica de Libros.


    Ramón Esteban Arnáiz; Mauricio Jalón; Fernando Colina Pérez; José Antonio Espina Barrio


    Robert GAUPP, El caso Wagner, Madrid, Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría, 1998. Ramón Esteban Arnáiz Pierre JANET, L’automatisme psychologique, París, Odile Jacob, 1998. Mauricio Jalón Pedro LAÍN ENTRALGO, La historia clínica.Historia y teoría del relato patográfico, Madrid, Triacastela, 1998. Ramón Esteban Arnáiz Henry EY, Estudios sobre los delirios, Madrid, Tricastela, 1998. Fernando Colina L. E. FONSECA FÁBREGAS, «Las Formas del Círculo»-Test Proyectivo Psicodramático, Barcelona, L.E...

  20. AIDS Risk Perception and its related factors in Women with High-Risk Behaviors in Iran

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    Mahin Tafazoli


    Full Text Available Background & aim: AIDS is one of the major public health challenges all over the world. Perceived risk is a significant predictor of high-risk behaviors related to AIDS. Women constitute more than half of the HIV patients, and the rate of female sex workers with AIDS is more than the rest of female population. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate AIDS risk perception and its related factors in females with high-risk behaviors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 58 women who were arrested on prostitution charges and imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad Prison in 2013. The data were collected using self-designed questionnaires assessing knowledge regarding AIDS as well as sexual activities and also perceived risk of HIV questionnaire. One-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, linear regression, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean score of HIV risk perception was 18.43±5.92, which was average. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of perceived risk of HIV and knowledge regarding AIDS (P=0.005, alcohol consumption (P=0.04, history of addiction (P=0.008, using contraceptive methods (P=0.01, condom use during intercourse (P=0.02, voluntary HIV testing (P=0.001, and follow-up of HIV test (P=0.009. Conclusion:The findings of the present study revealed that knowledge, alcohol consumption, history of addiction, contraceptive methods, the rate of condom use during intercourse, as well as voluntary HIV testing and follow-up were associated with perceived risk of HIV infection. Therefore, taking the necessary steps towards health promotion through appropriate training and interventional approaches seems to be mandatory for reducing high-risk behaviors in populations with low risk perception.

  1. PRISM, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Measures Symptom Change in Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. (United States)

    Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Whitman, Cynthia; Talley, Jennifer; Erder, M Haim; Joseph, Alain; Silberg, Debra G; Spiegel, Brennan


    Most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) experience relief following treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (Vakil et al. in Am J Gastroenterol 101:1900-1920, 2006; Everhart and Ruhl in Gastroenterology 136:376-386, 2009). As many as 17-44% of patients, however, exhibit only partial response to therapy. Most extant GERD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments fail to meet development best practices as described by the FDA (Talley and Wiklund in Qual Life Res 14:21-33, 2005; Van Pinxteren et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18:CD002095, 2004; El-Serag et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:720-737, 2010). To develop and validate a PRO instrument for clinical trials involving patients with GERD who are PPI partial responders. We prepared a systematic literature review, held patient focus groups, convened an expert panel, and conducted cognitive interviews to establish content validity. Eligible participants took PPI therapy for at least 8 weeks, had undergone an upper endoscopy, and scored at least 8 points on the GerdQ [6]. Qualitative data guided development of 26 draft items. Items were reviewed by expert panels and debriefed with patients. The resulting 21-item instrument underwent psychometric evaluation during a Phase IIB trial. During the trial, confirmatory factor analysis (n = 220) resulted in a four-factor model displaying the highest goodness of fit. All domains had a high inter-item correlation (Cronbach's α > 0.8). Test-retest reliability and convergent validity were strong, with highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations between average weekly PRISM scores and severity anchors and significant (p < 0.05) correlations with anchor subscales. Cumulative distribution functions revealed significant differences between responders and non-responders. Analysis in a clinical trial setting demonstrated strong psychometric properties suggesting validity of PRISM. Developed in line with FDA guidance on PROs, PRISM represents an

  2. Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc, 1792, Apalone spinifera emoryi (Le Sueur, 1827 y Gopherus berlandieri (Agassiz, 1857: reptiles exóticos en el área urbana de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupul-Magaña, Fabio Germán


    Full Text Available Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc, 1792; Material examinado: 1 ejemplar, hembra, longitud hocico-punta de la cola 628 mm, colectado el 8 de febrero del 2011 en una calle del área urbana de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, 20º 35' 48" N y 105º 13' 52" O, col. personal de la Subdirección de Ecología Municipal del H. Ayuntamiento de Puerto Vallarta, depositado y en resguardo del Reptilario Cipactli del Centro Universitario de la Costa de la Universidad de Guadalajara en Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México (permiso de funcionamiento del reptilario INE/ CITES/DGVS-CR-IN-0610-JAL./00; no hay número de registro individual del ejemplar. Gopherus berlandieri (Agassiz, 1857; Material examinado: 1 ejemplar, macho, longitud de caparazón 270 mm, colectado el 4 de mayo del 2005 en un parque urbano del Barrio Santa María de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, 20º 37' 53" N y 105º 12' 4" O, col. personal de la Policía Ecológica del H. Ayuntamiento de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, depositada y en resguardo en una casa particular en la ciudad de León, Guanajuato (esta ciudad se encuentra aproximadamente a 370 km al noreste de Puerto Vallarta; no hay más datos del registro. Apalone spinifera emoryi (Le Sueur, 1827; Material examinado: 1 ejemplar, macho, longitud del caparazón 240 mm, capturado el 20 de mayo del 2011 en una laguna artificial de agua dulce del área suburbana de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, 20º 42' 15" N y 105º 13' 18" O, col. Helios Hernández, depositado y en resguardo del Reptilario Cipactli del Centro Universitario de la Costa de la Universidad de Guadalajara en Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México (permiso de funcionamiento del reptilario INE/ CITES/DGVS-CR-IN-0610-JAL./00; no hay número de registro individual del ejemplar.

  3. A large impact of tropical biomass burning on CO and CO{sub 2} in the upper troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidekazu Matsueda; Shoichi Taguchi; Hisayuki Y; Inoue & Masao Ishii [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba-shi (Japan). Geochemical Research Department


    A large interannual variation of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia is associated with the ENSO events. During 1997/98 and 1994 El Nino years, uncontrolled wildfires of tropical rainforests and peat lands in Indonesia were enlarged due to a long drought. Enhanced CO injection into the upper troposphere from the intense Indonesian fires was clearly observed in the 8-year measurements from a regular flask sampling over the western Pacific using a JAL airliner between Australia and Japan. This airliner observation also revealed that upper tropospheric CO{sub 2} cycle largely changed during the 1997 El Nio year due partly to the biomass burning emissions. Widespread pollution from the biomass burnings in Southeast Asia was simulated using a CO tracer driven by a 3D global chemical transport model. This simulation indicates that tropical deep convections connected to rapid advection by the subtropical jet play a significant role in dispersing biomass-burning emissions from Southeast Asia on a global scale.

  4. On the high energy gamma ray spectrum and the particle production model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Itaru; Tezuka, Ikuo.


    A small emulsion chamber, 25 cm x 20 cm in area and 12 radiation lengths in thick, was exposed with JAL jet-cargo at an atmospheric depth of 260 g/cm 2 during 150 hrs. The gamma ray spectrum derived by combining data from X-ray films and nuclear emulsions is well represented by I sub(r) (>=Er) = (3.65 +- 0.30) x 10 -8 [E sub(r)/TeV]sup(-1.89+0.06-0.09)/cm 2 sr sec in the energy range 200 - 3,000 GeV. This result is in good agreement with those of several other groups. We discuss our data in terms of Feynman's and Koba-Nielsen-Olesen's scaling law of high energy particle production model. Interpreted in terms of an assumption of mild violation of the scaling law as x.d delta-s / delta-s indx = AE sup(2a)exp (-BE sup(a)x), our gamma ray spectrum results suggest an existence of a violation parameter of a = 0.18, which is consistent with results from gamma ray spectrum observations at great depth such as the mountain elevations. (author)

  5. La necrópolis musulmana de Valdeherrera (Calatayud, Zaragoza: nuevos datos cronológicos sobre la fundación de Calatayud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Una de las novedades más importantes del recién iniciado proyecto de investigación en el yacimiento de Valdeherrera ha sido el descubrimiento de una necrópolis musulmana o maqbara de cronología emiral ubicada entre los restos de la ciudad celtíbero-republicana existente en el lugar. Dada la ausencia total de materiales islámicos en el yacimiento, este descubrimiento ha marcado un hito en la investigación histórica de la ocupación islámica del territorio y del origen de Qal’at Ayyub, confirmando lo que las fuentes escritas musulmanas narraban. En este trabajo no pretendemos ofrecer una visión de conjunto ni un estudio exhaustivo de la maqbara descubierta, ya que los trabajos de excavación continúan y todavía no ha sido posible determinar su extensión. El fin último es dar a conocer su descubrimiento y aportar una secuencia cronológica que complete el vacío de información existente en este momento sobre el inicio de la presencia árabe en el valle medio del Jalón, donde se encuentra la ciudad de Qal’at Ayyud, que jugará un importante papel a lo largo de la Edad Media.

  6. A Study on the Perception of Jordanian EFL Learners’ Pragmatic Transfer of Refusals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fathi Huwari


    Full Text Available This study investigates the perception of Jordanian EFL learners’ (JEFL pragmatic transfer of refusal strategies in terms of contextual and cultural factors. Data were collected using a discourse completion test (DCT and a scaled-response questionnaire (SRQ to elicit perception data from the participants. Data from the SRQ were analyzed based on the speaker’s right to refuse the initiating act. Findings revealed that the right the speaker has to refuse the initiating act was assigned high ratings by the three groups (i.e., M > 3.00 in all social categories. Individually, however, the groups displayed the rating value differently where the AEL1 group’s perception of the speaker’s right was relatively higher than that of the JEFL and JAL1 groups in all the social categories. The JEFL participants’ negative pragmatic transfer criteria were met in the first and third social categories. The study concludes with a discussion of important directions for future research. Keywords: Perception, Refusal, Pragmatic transfer, Pragmalinguistic transfer, Sociopragmatic transfer

  7. Scholasticism, the dilemma for a radical reformation of our educational thought and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Helberg


    Full Text Available Those who have acquainted themselves with the work of Prof J.A.L. Taljaard will undoubtedly agree as regards the following two issues. First of all, Taljaard, theoretically and practically, reveals a special interest in education in general as well as in the furtherance of Christian educational thought and practice. On the other hand, Taljaard has set himself the aim in his philosophical work of attaining a radical biblical approach and a radical biblical philosophy. This implies not only a profound ‘No’ to Humanism, but also an effort to get ‘reformed’ philosophy disentangled from the shackles of Scholasticism which still persists as an active power that must never be underestimated. This leads him, naturally, more than once, to a confrontation with authors of reformed philosophy and theology, who, aware of it or not, did not succeed in freeing themselves from old Scholastic influences. To fight Scholasticism, in our ‘reformed’ Christian society, demands moral courage as well as a firm belief in one’s calling. It also includes the risk of becoming alienated by those who, usually or naturally, (should stand very close to you. This, however, is sad when viewed in terms of the confession which Taljaard never gets tired to accentuate, namely, that life is to be a religious worship of our Lord, the Creator and Redeemer in Jesus Christ.

  8. Inclusion of tank configurations as a variable in the cost optimization of branched piped-water networks (United States)

    Hooda, Nikhil; Damani, Om


    The classic problem of the capital cost optimization of branched piped networks consists of choosing pipe diameters for each pipe in the network from a discrete set of commercially available pipe diameters. Each pipe in the network can consist of multiple segments of differing diameters. Water networks also consist of intermediate tanks that act as buffers between incoming flow from the primary source and the outgoing flow to the demand nodes. The network from the primary source to the tanks is called the primary network, and the network from the tanks to the demand nodes is called the secondary network. During the design stage, the primary and secondary networks are optimized separately, with the tanks acting as demand nodes for the primary network. Typically the choice of tank locations, their elevations, and the set of demand nodes to be served by different tanks is manually made in an ad hoc fashion before any optimization is done. It is desirable therefore to include this tank configuration choice in the cost optimization process itself. In this work, we explain why the choice of tank configuration is important to the design of a network and describe an integer linear program model that integrates the tank configuration to the standard pipe diameter selection problem. In order to aid the designers of piped-water networks, the improved cost optimization formulation is incorporated into our existing network design system called JalTantra.

  9. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  10. Variación de los Organismos Fitoplanctónicos y la Calidad del Agua en el Lago de Chapala, Jalisco, México Variación de los Organismos Fitoplanctónicos y la Calidad del Agua en el Lago de Chapala, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith García Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The Chapala lake has been exposed to several sources and levels of contamination, like municipal discharges of different communities, waters of agricultural return and residual waters poured by industries, coming from the Lerma river. Therefore, it is important to characterize both, the conditions through time and the phytoplanktonics organisms in this aquatic system in every phase, as well as to analyze the variations of the water quality and their relationships in three areas of the lake. These activities were carried out every three months from May, 1992 to February, 1993, sampling the surface and to one meter deep in 21 stations in the Chapala lake. Later, a qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried of the phytoplanktonics organisms. The water quality was evaluated considering 23 parameters with data provided by the Centro de Estudios Limnológicos de Guadalajara, Jal. The higest phytoplanktonic abundance was of 16 048 cel/mL at the surface and to one meter deep of 8 309 cel/mL. Alogenics processes related to the different conditions presented by the phytoplankton structure were presented; turbidity was caused in a smaller scale by the algal quantity and affected directly the abundance of the organisms, the pH was basic and the nutrients like phosphorus a total match, ortophosphates and organic nitrogen were abundant, therefore no restrictive constraints were considered. Through the time the Chapala Lake has shown continuous values of quality of the water with fluctuations in some registrations but the eutrophic phase stays as a result of the indiscriminate contribution of pollutants of diverse types.El Lago de Chapala ha estado expuesto a diversas fuentes y niveles de contaminación, como descargas municipales de diferentes comunidades, aguas de retorno agrícola y aguas residuales provenientes del río Lerma, vertidas por industrias. Por ello, es importante determinar las variaciones que presentan a través del tiempo los

  11. Development of extended WRF variational data assimilation system (WRFDA) for WRF non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (United States)

    Pattanayak, Sujata; Mohanty, U. C.


    The paper intends to present the development of the extended weather research forecasting data assimilation (WRFDA) system in the framework of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model core of weather research forecasting system (WRF-NMM), as an imperative aspect of numerical modeling studies. Though originally the WRFDA provides improved initial conditions for advanced research WRF, we have successfully developed a unified WRFDA utility that can be used by the WRF-NMM core, as well. After critical evaluation, it has been strategized to develop a code to merge WRFDA framework and WRF-NMM output. In this paper, we have provided a few selected implementations and initial results through single observation test, and background error statistics like eigenvalues, eigenvector and length scale among others, which showcase the successful development of extended WRFDA code for WRF-NMM model. Furthermore, the extended WRFDA system is applied for the forecast of three severe cyclonic storms: Nargis (27 April-3 May 2008), Aila (23-26 May 2009) and Jal (4-8 November 2010) formed over the Bay of Bengal. Model results are compared and contrasted within the analysis fields and later on with high-resolution model forecasts. The mean initial position error is reduced by 33% with WRFDA as compared to GFS analysis. The vector displacement errors in track forecast are reduced by 33, 31, 30 and 20% to 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr forecasts respectively, in data assimilation experiments as compared to control run. The model diagnostics indicates successful implementation of WRFDA within the WRF-NMM system.

  12. Criteria for efficient prevention of dissemination and successful eradication of Erwinia amylovora (the cause of fire blight in Aragón, Spain

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    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora was detected on pome fruits in the Aragón region (North-Eastern Spain, in a ca. 5 km radius area located in the mid Jalón river (mid Ebro Valley in the province of Zaragoza, during 2000‒2003. Eight years have now passed since this pathogen was last detected, without new infections being reported in the same area. The bases for surveys and rapid eradication performed have been analyzed in detail to understand the reasons for the success in removing fireblight. The results demonstrate that intensive surveillance, risk assessment, plant analyses using accurate identification methods, and, especially, rapid total or selective eradication of infected trees in the plots have been very effective in preventing the generalized spread of fireblight and in delaying economic losses associated with this disease. Eradication and compensation to growers, estimated to cost approx. € 467,000, were clearly counterbalanced by the economic value of apple and pear production in the 2000‒2003 period (approx. € 368 million. Fire blight risk-assessment, using the MARYBLYT system, showed that climatic conditions in the studied area were favourable to infections during the analyzed period (1997‒2006. Molecular characterization of E. amylovora strains had revealed their homogeneity, suggesting that these fire blight episodes could have been caused by just one inoculum source, supporting the hypothesis that there was a unique introduction of E. amylovora in the studied area. Spatial spread of E. amylovora to trees was analyzed within six orchards, indicating an aggregated distribution model. This Spanish experience demonstrates the success of scientifically-based prevention methods that lead to the deployment of a fast and strict containment strategy, useful for other Mediterranean areas.

  13. MACSIMS : multiple alignment of complete sequences information management system

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    Plewniak Frédéric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the post-genomic era, systems-level studies are being performed that seek to explain complex biological systems by integrating diverse resources from fields such as genomics, proteomics or transcriptomics. New information management systems are now needed for the collection, validation and analysis of the vast amount of heterogeneous data available. Multiple alignments of complete sequences provide an ideal environment for the integration of this information in the context of the protein family. Results MACSIMS is a multiple alignment-based information management program that combines the advantages of both knowledge-based and ab initio sequence analysis methods. Structural and functional information is retrieved automatically from the public databases. In the multiple alignment, homologous regions are identified and the retrieved data is evaluated and propagated from known to unknown sequences with these reliable regions. In a large-scale evaluation, the specificity of the propagated sequence features is estimated to be >99%, i.e. very few false positive predictions are made. MACSIMS is then used to characterise mutations in a test set of 100 proteins that are known to be involved in human genetic diseases. The number of sequence features associated with these proteins was increased by 60%, compared to the features available in the public databases. An XML format output file allows automatic parsing of the MACSIM results, while a graphical display using the JalView program allows manual analysis. Conclusion MACSIMS is a new information management system that incorporates detailed analyses of protein families at the structural, functional and evolutionary levels. MACSIMS thus provides a unique environment that facilitates knowledge extraction and the presentation of the most pertinent information to the biologist. A web server and the source code are available at

  14. Impact of period and timescale of FDDA analysis nudging on the numerical simulation of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu


    In this study, the impact of four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) analysis nudging is examined on the prediction of tropical cyclones (TC) in the Bay of Bengal to determine the optimum period and timescale of nudging. Six TCs (SIDR: November 13–16, 2007; NARGIS: April 29–May 02, 2008; NISHA: November 25–28, 2008; AILA: May 23–26, 2009; LAILA: May 18–21, 2010; JAL: November 04–07, 2010) were simulated with a doubly nested Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a horizontal resolution of 9 km in the inner domain. In the control run for each cyclone, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) analysis and forecasts at 0.5_ resolution are used for initial and boundary conditions. In the FDDA experiments available surface, upper air observations obtained from NCEP Atmospheric Data Project (ADP) data sets were used for assimilation after merging with the first guess through objective analysis procedure. Analysis nudging experiments with different nudging periods (6, 12, 18, and 24 h) indicated a period of 18 or 24 h of nudging during the pre-forecast stage provides maximum impact on simulations in terms of minimum track and intensity forecasts. To determine the optimum timescale of nudging, two cyclone cases (NARGIS: April 28–May 02, 2008; NISHA: November 25–28, 2008) were simulated varying the inverse timescales as 1.0e-4 to 5.0e-4 s−1 in steps of 1.0e-4 s−1. A positive impact of assimilation is found on the simulated characteristics with a nudging coefficient of either 3.0e-4 or 4.0e-4 s−1 which corresponds to a timescale of about 1 h for nudging dynamic (u,v) and thermodynamical (t,q) fields.

  15. Reductive deconstruction of organosolv lignin catalyzed by zeolite supported nickel nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M.; Zhao, Chen; Barath, Eszter; Jentys, Andreas; Lercher, Johannes A.


    Mechanistic aspects of deconstruction and hydrodeoxygenation of organosolv lignin using supported Ni catalysts with (Ni/HZSM-5 and Ni/HBEA) and without Brønsted acid sites (Ni/SiO2) are reported. Lignin was deconstructed and converted to saturated cyclic hydrocarbons ranging from C5 to C14. In the one-stage reaction, full conversion with total yield of 70 ± 5 wt.% saturated hydrocarbons was achieved at 593 K and 20 bar H2. The organosolv lignin used consists of seven to eight monolignol subunits and has an average molecular weight of ca. 1200 g mol-1. The monolignols were mainly guaiacyl, syringyl and phenylcoumaran, randomly interconnected through β-O-4, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5’ and β-β ether bonds. In situ IR spectroscopy was used to follow the changes in lignin constituents during reaction. The proposed reaction pathways for the catalytic transformation of this organosolv lignin to alkanes start with the hydrogenolysis of aryl alkyl ether bonds, followed by hydrogenation of the aromatic compounds on Ni to cyclic alcohols. Oxygen is removed from the alcohols via dehydration on Brønsted acid sites to yield cyclic alkenes that are further hydrogenated to alkanes. Formation of condensation products may occur via intermolecular recombination of aromatic monomers or alkylation of aromatic compounds by alkenes. The financial support from TUM-PNNL cooperation project “Development of new methods for in situ characterization in liquid phase reactions” (CN-177939) is highly appreciated. The work by S.K., H.S., and J.A.L was partially supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  16. Assessing the feasibility of integrating ecosystem-based with engineered water resource governance and management for water security in semi-arid landscapes: A case study in the Banas catchment, Rajasthan, India. (United States)

    Everard, Mark; Sharma, Om Prakash; Vishwakarma, Vinod Kumar; Khandal, Dharmendra; Sahu, Yogesh K; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Singh, Jitendra K; Kumar, Ritesh; Nawab, Asghar; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Vivek; Kashyap, Anil; Pandey, Deep Narayan; Pinder, Adrian C


    Much of the developing world and areas of the developed world suffer water vulnerability. Engineering solutions enable technically efficient extraction and diversion of water towards areas of demand but, without rebalancing resource regeneration, can generate multiple adverse ecological and human consequences. The Banas River, Rajasthan (India), has been extensively developed for water diversion, particularly from the Bisalpur Dam from which water is appropriated by powerful urban constituencies dispossessing local people. Coincidentally, abandonment of traditional management, including groundwater recharge practices, is leading to increasingly receding and contaminated groundwater. This creates linked vulnerabilities for rural communities, irrigation schemes, urban users, dependent ecosystems and the multiple ecosystem services that they provide, compounded by climate change and population growth. This paper addresses vulnerabilities created by fragmented policy measures between rural development, urban and irrigation water supply and downstream consequences for people and wildlife. Perpetuating narrowly technocentric approaches to resource exploitation is likely only to compound emerging problems. Alternatively, restoration or innovation of groundwater recharge practices, particularly in the upper catchment, can represent a proven, ecosystem-based approach to resource regeneration with linked beneficial socio-ecological benefits. Hybridising an ecosystem-based approach with engineered methods can simultaneously increase the security of rural livelihoods, piped urban and irrigation supplies, and the vitality of river ecosystems and their services to beneficiaries. A renewed policy focus on local-scale water recharge practices balancing water extraction technologies is consistent with emerging Rajasthani policies, particularly Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan ('water self-reliance mission'). Policy reform emphasising recharge can contribute to water security and yield socio

  17. Broadband Internet Based Service to Passengers and Crew On-board Aircraft (United States)

    Azzarelli, Tony


    The Connexion by BoeingSM (CbB) global network will provide broadband information services to aircraft passengers and crews. Through this Ku-band (14 GHz (uplink) and 11/12 GHz (downlink)) satellite-based system, aircraft passengers and crew will no longer be limited to pre-packaged services, but instead will be able to access the full range of broadband services from their seats using their laptop, PDA or the on-board IFE console.The kind of services offered to passengers are based on the internet/intranet access via their own laptops and PDA (using Ethernet wired cable, or wireless 802.11b access), while those offered to the crew can range between various crew application (such as weather updates and travel information) and aircraft health monitoring.The CbB system is divided into four basic layers of infrastructure:(1) an airborne segment, i.e. the Aircraft Earth Station (AES) consisting of proprietary high gain antenna, transceivers and other on-board subsystems providing a nominal return link data rate of 1 Mbps and a forward link data rates up to 20 Mbps;(2) a space segment consisting of leased satellite transponders on existing in-orbit Geostationary satellites;(3) a ground segment consisting of one or more leased satellite land earth stations (LESs) and redundant interconnection facilities; and;(4) a network operations centre (NOC) segment.During 2003, trials with Lufthansa (DLH) and British Airways (BA) have proved very successful. This has resulted in the recent signing of an agreement with Lufthansa which calls for the Connexion by BoeingSM service to be installed on Lufthansa's fleet of approximately 80 long-haul aircraft, including Boeing 747-400 and Airbus A330 and A340 aircraft, beginning in early 2004. BA is expected to follow soon. In addition to the successful recent service demonstrations, both Japan Airlines (JAL) and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) have announced their intent to install the revolutionary service on their long-range aircraft.

  18. Frontón Euskal Jai Berri Huarte-Pamplona España

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    Guibert Tabar, Javier


    Full Text Available The Euskal Jai Berri sports pavilion in Huarte substitutes for the old Pamplona «pelota» court, and is located a few kilometers outside the city in ample grounds providing sufficient room for the building and car park area. The vast complex design plan includes from the regulationsized court, through the grandstand and boxes for the audience, to a number of facilities and services for payers, audience and staff, such as locker rooms, payers lounge, press room and book-makers hall, administration office, manager's living quarters, players lodging, a bar on each floor, cafeteria and restaurant with kitchen and a number of rest rooms. The building was designed based on three main points, namely: natural lighting, modular structure and clear visibility from all angles. Emphasis was placed on integration of the building into the surrounding landscape in an effort to avoid the contrast between the inevitable prismatic shape of the court and the rounded contour of the hails surrounding it.

    El pabellón deportivo de Euskal Jal Berrl, en Huarte, destinado a sustituir al antiguo frontón de Pamplona, se encuentra emplazado a pocos kilómetros de esta ciudad, en unos amplios terrenos que proporcionan suficiente espacio para la edificación y para una extensa zona de aparcamientos. Su complejo y vasto programa abarca desde la concha reglamentaria y las gradas y palcos para espectadores, fiesta una variada serie de instalaciones y servicios para jugadores, público y personal, tales como: vestuarios, salas para pelotaris, corredores y prensa; oficinas administrativas; vivienda para el gerente; residencias para jugadores; bares en cada planta; cafetería y restaurante con cocina; así como los correspondientes aseos. En su diseño, fundamentado en tres puntos principales —iluminación natural, modulación estructural y perfecta visibilidad—, se tuvo especial cuidado en armonizar la construcción con el paisaje circundante, con el fin de

  19. Aspergillus fumigatus in ovine lung in Brazil - Case report

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    Huber Rizzo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Rizzo H., Silva Júnior V., Mota R.A., Rocha L.L.L., Ono M.S.B., Cruz J.A.L. de O., de Torres S.M., Coutinho L.C. de A., Guimarães J.A. & Dantas A.C. [Aspergillus fumigatus in ovine lung in Brazil - Case report.] Aspergillus fumigatus em pulmão de ovino no Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:413-419, 2016. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brasil. E-mail: Its described a case of mycotic pneumonia caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in a three months old sheep, that died during the treatment period at the AGA/DMV/UFRPE consequence of skin lesions caused by dog attack. The animal did not respond to antibiotic treatment base on florafenicol, keeping high leukometric values. Macroscopically the lungs showed multifocal areas of cheesy aspect, varing shape and sizes, with yellowish tinge to the center and red at the edges. Microscopically were found granulomatous lesion with extensive dystrophic calcification area, presence of fibrin exudate in the bronchi, inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear diffuse, fibroblast proliferation delimiting a capsule around the inflammatory foci, epiteliodida robe with negative images of hyphae in the lung parenchyma, foamy macrophages, but no giant cells were seen. The blood culture on agar revealed the development of filamentous fungus with grayish color and lots of aerial hyphae, and the culture on Sabouraud media were seen colonies of dark green color with whitish borders both compatible with macromorphology colonies of A. fumigatus . The micromorphology of fungal growth revealed vesicles stick format with sporulation begins in the upper half of the vesicles. The imprints of nodular lesions of the lungs on slides, through panotic dye, showed septate hyphae and branched invading the tissue. Pulmonary infection by A. fumigatus, showed fatal and

  20. Efficacy of moxifloxacin & econazole against multidrug resistant (MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in murine model

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    U D Gupta


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Studies have shown the bactericidal potential of econazole and clotrimazole against Mycobacterium tuberculosis under in vitro and ex vivo conditions along with their synergism with conventional antituberculosis drugs. These molecules were also found to be effective against different multidrug resistant (MDR M. tuberculosis isolates in vitro. Hence the present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo antimycobacterial potential of moxifloxacin and econazole alone and in combination against multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in a mice model. Methods: Mice were infected with 2.5×10 [7] bacilli of MDR strain of M. tuberculosis by aerosol route of infection. After four weeks of infection, chemotherapy was started orally by moxifloxacin 8.0 mg/kg body wt and econazole 3.3 mg/kg alone and in combination, as well as with four first line anti-tuberculosis drugs as a positive control. The animals were sacrificed and the lungs and spleen were excised under aspetic conditions. The tissues were homogenized with sterile normal saline, an aliquot of the homogenate was plated on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with oleate albumin dextrose catalase (OADC and incubated at 37°C for four weeks. The number of visible and individual colonies were counted. Results: The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs (RIF+INH+EMB+PZA after eight weeks of therapy had no impact as the bacillary load in lungs and spleens remained unchanged. However, econazole, moxifloxacin alone as well as in combination significantly reduced the bacillary load in lungs as well as in spleens of MDR-TB bacilli infected mice. Interpretation & conclusions: Co-administration of the two drugs (econazole and moxifloxacin to MDR-TB strain JAL-7782 infected mice exhibited additive effect, the efficacy of the drugs in combination being higher as compared with ECZ or MOX alone. These results were substantiated by histopathological studies. This study suggests the utility of

  1. Elementary Steps of Faujasite Formation Followed by in Situ Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodinger, Sebastian [Institute; Vjunov, Aleksei [Institute; Hu, Jian Zhi [Institute; Fulton, John L. [Institute; Camaioni, Donald M. [Institute; Derewinski, Miroslaw A. [Institute; Lercher, Johannes A. [Institute; Department


    Ex situ and in situ spectroscopy was used to identify the kinetics of processes during the formation of the faujasite (FAU) zeolite lattice from a hydrous gel. Using solid-state 27Al MAS NMR, the autocatalytic transformation from the amorphous gel into the crystalline material was monitored. Al-XANES shows that most Al already adopts a tetrahedral coordination in the X-ray-amorphous aluminosilicate at the beginning of the induction period, which hardly changes throughout the rest of the synthesis. Using 23Na NMR spectroscopy, environments in the growing zeolite crystal were identified and used to define the processes in the stepwise formation of the zeolite lattice. The end of the induction period was accompanied by a narrowing of the 27Al and 23Na MAS NMR peak widths, indicating the increased long-range order. The experiments show conclusively that the formation of faujasite occurs via the continuous formation and subsequent condensation of intermediary sodalite-like units that constitute the key building block of the zeolite. Acknowledgement The authors thank T. Huthwelker for assistance with XAFS experiment setup at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland). Further, we would like to acknowledge V. Shutthanandan and B.W. Arey for performing Helium ion microscopy as well as Z. Zhao, N.R. Jaeger, M. Weng, C. Wan and M. Hu for aiding in the NMR experimental procedure. T. Varga is acknowledged for his help with the capillary XRD. A.V., D.M.C., J.H., J.L.F and J.A.L. were supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. S.P. and M.A.D. acknowledge support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. The in situ NMR experiments were supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences. Part of the research

  2. Kinetic Coupling of Water Splitting and Photoreforming on SrTiO 3 -Based Photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanwald, Kai E. [Department of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Center, TU München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching, Germany; Berto, Tobias F. [Department of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Center, TU München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching, Germany; Jentys, Andreas [Department of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Center, TU München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching, Germany; Camaioni, Donald M. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Lercher, Johannes A. [Department of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Center, TU München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching, Germany; Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States


    Coupling the anodic half-reactions of overall water splitting and oxygenate photoreforming (i.e., proton reduction and oxygenate oxidations) on Al-doped SrTiO3 decorated with a co-catalyst enables efficient photocatalytic H2 generation along with oxygenate conversion without accumulating undesired intermediates such as formaldehyde. The net H2-evolution rates result from the interplay between water oxidation, oxygenate oxidation, and the back-reaction of H2 and O2 to water. When the latter pathway is quantitatively suppressed (e.g., on RhCrOx co-catalyst or in excess of oxygenated hydrocarbons), the initial H2-evolution rates are independent of the oxygenate nature and concentration. This is a consequence of the reduction equivalents for H2-evolution provided by water oxidation compensating changes in the rates of oxygenate conversion. Thus, under conditions of suppressed back-reaction, water and oxygenate oxidations have equal quantum efficiencies. The selectivities to water and oxygenate oxidation depend on oxygenate nature and concentration. Transformations mediated by indirect hole transfer dominate as a result of the water oxidation at the anode and the associated intermediates generated in O2-evolution catalysis (e.g. ·OH, ·O and ·OOH). On the undecorated semiconductor, the O2 produced during overall water splitting is reductively activated to participate in glycerol oxidation without consuming evolved H2. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank ESRF in Grenoble, France, for providing beam time at the ID26 station for XAFS experiments. K.E.S. gratefully acknowledges financial support by the Fond der Chemischen Industrie (FCI). J.A.L. and O.Y.G. acknowledge support for his contribution by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a multi-program national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The authors thank Xaver Hecht for BET measurements, Martin Neukamm for

  3. Science of the Self as Depicted in the Story of the Snake-Catcher : Rumi's Mathnawī in Context

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    Amir H. Zekrgoo


    Full Text Available Abstract : The self is always become a central concept in the mysticism tradition, nonetheless for Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī  (d.1207. Through Mathnawī, Rūmī uses metaphors to presents man’s multi-layered self. He communicates through stories with great potential to be developed into various forms of visual and performing arts. Through his creative imagination, and using elements from Persian mystical literature Rūmī presents his messages in an attractive and tangible form. Adopting metaphors and symbols he pictures various faces of nafs (self relating each face to an individual animal. “The Snake Catcher’s tale” is an excellent artistic display of man’s battle with his animal self. It offers a complex religious subject in an easy-to-digest manner that can be visualized and set into play. Keyword : Rūmī, ‘Ilm al-Nafs (Science of the Self, Mathnawī, snake symbolism, artistic expression Abstrak : Persoalan diri menjadi isu yang sangat sentral dalam tradisi mistisisme, tidak terkecuali bagi Jalaluddin Rūmī (d.1207. Melalui Matsnawī, Rūmī  menggunakan metafora untuk menunjukkan lapisan diri manusia. Ia berkomunikasi melalui kisah-kisah dengan potensi besar untuk dikembangkan menjadi berbagai bentuk seni visual dan pertunjukan. Melalui imajinasi kreatifnya, dan menggunakan unsur-unsur dari literatur mistik Persia, Rūmī menyajikan pesan dalam bentuk yang menarik dan nyata yang dapat diamati dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, bahwa rangkaian simbol-simbol tersebut merepresentasikan diri manusia. Melalui metafora dan simbol, Ia menggambarkan berbagai wajah nafs (diri dan menghubungkan setiap wajah dengan hewan. “Kisah Penangkap Ular” adalah tampilan artistik yang sangat baik mengenai pertempuran manusia dengan diri hewaninya. Ia menawarkan subjek keagamaan yang kompleks yang mudah dicerna dengan cara yang dapat divisualisasikan dan dimainkan. Kata kunci : Rūmī, Ilmu Jiwa, Matsnawī, simbolisme ular, ekspresi artistik

  4. Resistance exercise-induced microinjuries do not depend on 1or 3 minutes rest time interval between series. (Las microlesiones inducidas por el entrenamiento con cargas no dependen de los intervalos de descanso entre series de 1 o 3 minutos.

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    Rafael Pereira


    Full Text Available AbstractIn order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets on the muscle fiber integrity, 14 male subjects volunteered to participate in randomized crossover design methodology. All subjects completed 2 experimental training sessions. Both sessions consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 10 repetition maximum resistance bench press, cable pulldowns, military press, biceps curl, triceps curl, leg press, leg extension, and lying leg curls. The 2 experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest period between sets and exercises: 1 session with a 1-minute and the other with a 3-minute rest period. the mechanical stress caused by the proposed training session cause similar damage in the muscle fibers do not depend of the 1 or 3 minutes of rest interval between series. ResumenEl propósito de ese estudio fue comparar los efectos de 2 diferentes períodos de descanso durante una sesión de entrenamiento con cargas en la integridad de la fibra muscular. Participaron de forma voluntaria 14 hombres en un estudio con diseño cruzado aleatorio. Todos los sujetos realizaron 2 sesiones de entrenamiento con cargas. Durante cada sesión, los sujetos completaban 3 series de 10 repeticiones máximas de press de banca, jalón en polea alta para dorsal, press militar, curl de bíceps con barra, extensión de tríceps trasnuca con mancuerna, prensa de piernas en máquina, extensión de rodillas en máquina, y flexión de rodillas en máquina. Las 2 sesiones experimentales diferían sólo en la longitud del período de descanso entre las series y los ejercicios: una sesión con 1 minuto y la otra con 3 minutos en los períodos de descanso. La tensión mecánica causada por las sesiones puede causar daños similares en las fibras musculares y no dependen de hacer 1 o 3 minutos de intervalo de descanso entre las series.

  5. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

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    Brandl, Charles McG.


    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido


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    Magally Márquez Barquero


    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue determinar los efectos crónicos del entrenamiento con pesas sobre el porcentaje de grasa y la fuerza. Los participantes, de sexo femenino, entrenadas (n=10, edad 54.6 ± 4.19 años, un peso inicial promedio de 66.08 ± 12.50 Kg y una talla promedio de 1.585 ±0.0754 m., fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: 50% de 5RM (n=5, 80% de 5 RM (n=5 y un pre test de registro de línea base. Las variables medidas fueron fuerza y porcentaje de grasa. Ambos grupos realizaron dos sesiones por semana durante doce semanas. Los ejercicios para ambos grupos fueron press de banca horizontal, extensión de rodilla, flexión de rodilla y jalón de polea frontal. El volumen de ejercicio total por sesión fue de 2550 unidades para el grupo que trabajo al 50 % (3 series x 17 rep. X 50% y 2560 para el que trabajo al 80% (4 series x 8 repeticiones x 80%. La fuerza se midió con el Test de 5 RM y el porcentaje de grasa fue estimado con la técnica de toma de siete pliegues cutáneos con el calibrador manual de piel marca Lange y subsecuentemente estimado usando la ecuación Leger y Cloutier para mujeres mayores de 50 años. Resultados: Para las pruebas de fuerza, press de banca, flexión de rodilla y extensión de rodilla hubo mejora significativa, tanto para el grupo que se ejercitó al 50 % como al 80 % de intensidad (p<0.05. Mientras que para la prueba halón de polea al frente el cambio entre mediciones (p<0.05, siendo mayor para el grupo que se ejercitó al 80 % de intensidad. En cuanto al porcentaje de grasa, disminuyó (p<0.05 similarmente a ambas intensidades de ejercicio. En conclusión, a intensidades del 50% como del 80% de 5RM, disminuye el porcentaje de grasa y aumenta la fuerza, en mujeres con una edad comprendida entre los 50 y 59 anos quienes realizaron una misma carga total de ejercicio con pesas. Los hallazgos sugieren que el entrenamiento con pesas a cargas altas, beneficia a los grandes grupos musculares.

  7. A Survey of Pen name semantic Applications in Rumis Sonnets (Ghazals

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    Zohre AhmadiPoor anari


    Full Text Available Abstract The pen name in sonnet is the poet’s poetic name which most of the poets mention it in their verses. Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Rumi lived in 13th-century was a Persian Moslem poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic. He has written more than 3229 sonnets and dedicated to Shams Tabrizi. Thus mentioned, names such “Shams”, “Shams od-Din” and “Shams al-Haq” in the ending lines of his sonnets.    One of the points which could be studied about pen name is study of theme or concepts which are mentioned alongside that. Entirely it has been said that the same theme which comes with the pen name “Shams” in 992 sonnets. In this study, we pay attention to mentioning the poets desired name which is not necessarily the pen name in Rumis’ sonnets, what theme does it carry and what is relationship of it with the previous lines?    Themes which the poets apply in their sonnets beside pen name is mostly what that has been mentioned in the previous lines. However, in times the concept mentioned along side with the pen name is independent from the sonnet concepts, mostly eulogy. Studying Hafiz and Saadi sonnets shows that the most important themes existing are: love declaration, advice, eulogizing and sometimes a mischievous concept.    Rumis’ sonnets are lover-based. Therefore, there is much talk of the lover in the whole sonnet. But in other poet’s sonnets, the lover (the poet is the main theme is the sonnet. The poet may find a way to praise his own poem or stays in his dreamy world and focuses on the romantic feelings. Considering the fact that unlike other poets Rumi has not mentioned his own pen name but his lover “Shams”, the study focuses on the themes which are mentioned by the pen name “Shams” as the following: 1-Eulogy: One third of the Shams pen names are eulogies. The sufist approach has given the lines a special color. The similes and metaphors used for him are heavenly and

  8. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia) (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor


    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001