WorldWideScience

Sample records for russian political economic

  1. Images of Economic Integration Groups in Russian Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Rudenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other countries, Russian citizens watch all the details of everything that happens outside the country, especially if it concerns economic partnerships and Russia’s participation in different organizations and associations. The official view of Russian cooperation with other countries in various formats is presented in nationwide media, though the public opinion is not usually accepted there. However, with the help of images, that are created in the political discourse, one can understand, what kind of support can the government expect, working in a certain direction, which is important, considering the aspiration to raise awareness and civil activity. 

  2. Russian-Saudian Political Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kosach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction after the restoration (at that time of Soviet-Saudi relations of bilateral relations in September 1990. The article focuses on the role of the Russian Muslim community in shaping the Russian politics towards Riyadh in the 1990-2000s. The authors state there are both periods of “crises” and detente in the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction that were marked by events in Chechnya and former Yugoslavia in 1994-2000, “Arab Spring” 2011, the post-September 2015 era, the Russian anti-terrorist campaign in Syria. The alternation of these periods is the constant of Russian-Saudi political contacts, despite the similarity in the approaches of both sides to the ways and methods of solving crisis situations in the Middle East region, as well as the Saudi’s pro-Russian position regarding the change in the status of the Crimea and the situation in the east of Ukraine. The general attitude of both sides towards ISIS and Jabha al-Nusra as a source of terrorism, regional instability and the challenge of international security does not remove the two main contradictions that divide Moscow and Riyadh – attitude toward the official Syrian regime and the Iran’s regional policy. The study comes to the conclusion that Russia and Saudi Arabia are interested (albeit for various reasons in diversifying their foreign policy and foreign economic relations.

  3. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-18

    polonium 210 from Moscow, through Germany, to London, apparently carried by one of the Russians Litvinenko met November 1. Russian authorities deny...Russia’s needs — food and food processing, oil and gas extraction technology, computers, communications, transportation, and investment capital — are

  4. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Stuart D

    2007-01-01

    .... Federal forces have suppressed large-scale military resistance in Chechnya and in 2006 succeeded in killing most of the remaining top Chechen rebel military and political leaders, although sporadic violence continues...

  5. The Prognosis of Political Stability of the Russian Federation on the Basis of Calculation of the Index of National External Economic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Геннадьевич Иванов

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the development of ideas presented in the previous issue of the bulletin. On the basis of the proposed by V.G. Ivanov methodology of calculation of the index of national external economic stability there has been prepared the short- mid-term prognosis of the level of stability of the Russian political regime. With a glance to the specificity of the development of the Russian Federation the methodology of calculation of the deflator of the referred index has been worked out as well.

  6. Detecting Bots on Russian Political Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukal, Denis; Sanovich, Sergey; Bonneau, Richard; Tucker, Joshua A

    2017-12-01

    Automated and semiautomated Twitter accounts, bots, have recently gained significant public attention due to their potential interference in the political realm. In this study, we develop a methodology for detecting bots on Twitter using an ensemble of classifiers and apply it to study bot activity within political discussions in the Russian Twittersphere. We focus on the interval from February 2014 to December 2015, an especially consequential period in Russian politics. Among accounts actively Tweeting about Russian politics, we find that on the majority of days, the proportion of Tweets produced by bots exceeds 50%. We reveal bot characteristics that distinguish them from humans in this corpus, and find that the software platform used for Tweeting is among the best predictors of bots. Finally, we find suggestive evidence that one prominent activity that bots were involved in on Russian political Twitter is the spread of news stories and promotion of media who produce them.

  7. Soviet nostalgia and Russian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communist rule did not end suddenly in 1989, or in 1991. And for many, at least in Russia, there was no radical break but a complex evolution in which many of the former ruling group, and many of the values of the Soviet period, remained intact. According to the evidence of national representative surveys, levels of support for the principle of a union state have consistently been very high. In 2008 survey, more than half (57% largely or entirely agreed that the demise of the USSR had been a ‘disaster’, and nearly two-thirds (64% thought the former Soviet republics that had established a Commonwealth of Independent States should reconstitute a single state or at least cooperate more closely. Across the three Slavic republics, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, it was guaranteed employment that was seen as the most positive feature of the old regime, and economic stagnation as its most serious shortcoming. Comparing the present and the Soviet period as they recalled it, ordinary Russians thought they had more opportunity to practise a religion, and to express their opinions. But ordinary people had (in their own view no more influence over the making of public policy than in the communist period, and they thought they were less likely to be treated fairly and equally by government. Age and living standards were the most powerful predictors of Soviet nostalgia when other variables were held constant. Nostalgics were much more likely to support parties of the left, or at least those that favoured public ownership, a Soviet or ‘more democratic Soviet’ system of government, and a closer association among the former Soviet republics; they were much less likely to support the parties that favoured the dissolution of the CIS, a wholly market economy, or Western-style democracy.

  8. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  9. Putin's and Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union: A hybrid half-economics and half-political “Janus Bifrons”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union is an institution formalized in January 2015 for the purpose of regional economic integration; it includes five countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, and Kyrgyzstan, and may include Mongolia and Tajikistan in the future. With a GDP of $1.59 trillion in 2015, an industrial production of $1.3 trillion in 2014, and population of almost 200 million as of 2016, the EEAU could represent a geopolitical success that supports both Putin's ambitious political agenda and the Union's economic prospects. Although the efforts of this Union are ongoing and long-term success is not certain, the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union can be considered a hybrid half-economics and half-political “Janus Bifrons” that serves as a powerful illustration of what Putin envisions for the post-Soviet space. Despite promising steps so far, more should be done toward the achievement of economic development and balanced opportunity for all Eurasian countries. Russia's longstanding role within the Union, as well as its power and political motivations, are all considerations that must be accounted for.

  10. The Features of Political Crowdfunding in the Russian Political Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Владимирович Соколов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process сrowdfunding’s formation in modern Russia. The authors highlighted the reasons for the appearance of this phenomenon. They justified choice of Russian politicians of mechanism for collecting funds in political campaigns. The article characterizes trends in political fundraising and сrowdfunding in Russia. The study highlighted their advantages and disadvantages for application in political activity. The authors give examples of successful сrowdfunding campaigns in modern Russia.

  11. Estimating the effects of regional political climate on Russian tourists to Spain

    OpenAIRE

    ALVAREZ DIAZ MARCOS; MANUEL GONZÁLEZ-GÓMEZ; OTERO-GIRÁLDEZ MARÍA SOLEDAD

    2017-01-01

    Regional political climate has become an increasingly significant force influencing travel behaviour in many tourist destinations. This paper attempts to address impacts of regional political stability on Russian inbound tourism into Spain within a demand model framework and using a cointegration approach. The results show that visa openness as well as political instability and civil unrest in substitute destinations attract more Russian tourists boosting economic growth and reducing unemploy...

  12. Future Legacy of the Russian Revolution. Participatory Political Economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), s. 565-580 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : revolution * participation * political economy * Russian revolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Political science

  13. Economics of Russian oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubenko, I.

    1993-01-01

    The main technical indicators of oil production in Russia are presented from the year 1988, when the current decline in oil production started. In 1992, only 9 new oil deposits were put into production, and average well productivity dropped to 12.4 tonnes/d. The number of idle wells reached 31,934 as compared to 8,714 in 1988. The share of low productivity deposits in 1993 was 49.7%. In the first five months of 1993, the number of new wells put into operation failed to offset the shutdown of old wells. Although the number of workovers grew by 32%, this work was insufficient to stabilize oil production. The decline in production is due to the general state of economic stability and endless reorganizations in the economy, and to the lack of sufficient investment in the industry. Oil-producing enterprises have lacked funds due to systematic and growing indebtedness of buyers of crude. This overdue indebtedness reached 393 billion rubles by the beginning of 1993. Although domestic oil prices increased sharply in 1991-92, the volume of production in real terms has dropped by nearly a third. Oil is sold at different prices to different categories of buyers. Prices include expenses, profit from which a 32% profits tax is paid, excise taxes, and payments to a centralized price-regulation fund. From the industry point of view, certain reforms are necessary to reconstruct and develop the industry. These include ensuring payments to oil producers, gradual transfer of Russian prices to world levels, lowering taxes, and adoption and refinement of a law on oil. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  14. Nuclear energy and politics in Russian ATWS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.

    1998-01-01

    Relations between politics and nuclear power in the countries of sustainable development has been many times discussed during the short history of nuclear energy, and regularly arising new events, even very important (in Sweden, USA, etc.), just add to the formed understanding of the problem. Russia for 10 years lives in conditions of a transition period, which seems similar to ATWS-type accidents at nuclear power plants. In these conditions the effect of politics on nuclear power and vice versa are seen very clearly, and, more important, change swiftly, which may present interest for the countries with smoother public processes. The role of political processes in nuclear power is obvious and may be reduced to three main factors: change of political system and transition to market economy have placed nuclear power, though still within state sector, in an absolutely new economic condition, which determine its today's situation as 'Survival'; new possibilities of political influence and opposition to nuclear power (mainly struggle against construction of new nuclear fuel cycle objects) on a levels of authority (local, regional, federal); impact of the USSR collapse on the situation in Russian nuclear power was due sooner to temporary weakening of control and regulatory structures, than to the fact, that some fuel cycle elements have found themselves abroad (the factor of uranium resources' loss is unimportant at present). Nuclear safety was chosen to be the subject of Moscow 1996 Summit, initiated with the purpose of Russia coming closer to G7. The Summit has confirmed the thesis on the possibility of nuclear power o play an important role in the world energy demand in accordance with sustainable development goals. successful activities of Russia-USA Commission for economic and technological cooperation, known as 'Gore-Chernomyrdin' Commission, is to a large extent determined by positive nuclear decisions. Eastern direction of Russian nuclear export (Iran, China

  15. Political and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

  16. CORPORATIONS IN RUSSIAN ECONOMICS OF TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shirokovskikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Russian economics there are purely Russian private corporations as well as mixed state/private owned and transnational corporations. Specific ways of forming corporations in Russia resulted in corporate management models different from those used abroad (exclusive of largest holdingcompanies with considerable participation of the state. Difference in the corporation forms is determined by relations between owners and top managers. Efficient and sustainable (in the western sense functioning of Russian corporations may become effective only after long timeprovided RF ownership right legislation gets simultaneously improved.

  17. Russian criminal political victimology: notion, object and prospects of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kabanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to describe and explain the structure of the modern Russian criminological political victimology as a special intersectoral criminological theory. Methods the research is based on the universal dialectic method of cognition of social reality. Results basing on the normative legal acts scientific literature and law enforcement practice the author proposes a concept of the structure of the modern Russian criminological political victimology as a special sphere of the Russian political criminology. Scientific novelty for the first time in the world victimology the author proposes a new prospective scientific direction studying the victims of political crimes and power abuses comprising several special victimological theories in its structure. Practical value the authorrsquos provisions allow to elaborate the complex system of measures for victimological rehabilitation and victimological prevention of crimes in the political sphere of social life. nbsp

  18. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  19. Economic Integration and Political Disintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg

    1997-01-01

    Trade liberalization and political separatism go hand in hand. In a world of trade restrictions, large countries enjoy economic benefits because political boundaries determine the size of the market. In a world of free trade and global markets even relatively small cultural, linguistic or ethnic groups can benefit from forming small and homogeneous political jurisdictions that trade peacefully and are economically integrated with others. This paper provides a formal model of the relationship ...

  20. Terms of trade and Russian economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Idrisov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses economic development trends in Russia in late 2014 and 2015 and reviews the basic mechanisms of how changes in the terms of trade affect the economic development of countries from a historical perspective and with a particular focus on those changes in the Russian economy that occurred in late 2014 and 2015. The authors demonstrate that structural reforms aimed at diversification of production and exports are necessary for sustainable economic development, for social stability and for reducing the impact of variability in the terms of trade on the Russian economy. During periods of instability in the government agenda's measures for the real and financial sectors, it is necessary not only to compensate economic agents losses caused by changes in the terms of trade but also to improve the economic structure and to develop and enhance the stability of the financial markets.

  1. RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY - INTERESTS VECTORS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT

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    ANDREEA – EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  2. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  3. POLITICAL FACTORS OF NSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF RUSSIAN PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Borshevskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the civil service as a political and administrative institution established to meet the needs in the professional performance of political decisions and providing the daily contact between the society and the political power. The definition of civil service in the Russian legislation is not fit the features of public institution, that is why the institutionalization of the civil service in post-Soviet Russia face difficulties.We see ways to overcome this contradiction, which include the improvement of legislation and implementation to the strategic documents the goals, objectives and performance criteria of civil service institution-building. This goals and objectives should orientate the civil servants to ensure economic growth and improving the quality of citizen’s life.The architecture of the civil service institution was offered, including the legal, institutional and human components. We identified the institutional characteristics and location of this institution in the environment of society.The algorithm of civil service institutional change was clarified, which includes elements such as institutional selection, the definition of institutional norms and institutional effects.The requirements for the assessment of institutional effectiveness were formulated. We proved the necessity to describe the driving forces of civil service development not only by external influences, but also its internal environment.The comparison of this set of statistics with indicators of internal development of the civil service allows concluding about the correlation between the civil service performance on different stages of its institutional transformation and attainment the priorities of the economy and society.

  4. The Western Balkans Geopolitics and Russian Energy Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhidin Mulalic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Energy politics is today at the center of the Russian and the Western Balkans relations. It is widely known that Russia has been playing significant role in world energy supply. Therefore, Russian energy companies have taken a leading role in the promotion of their businesses in the Western Balkans. The Western Balkans region has become geostrategic partner as a transit route for the integration of Russia into the global energy world market. With regards to the transportation of gas Western Balkans as a transit route is determined to fully realize South Stream project. In contrast to “a buffer zone” role, in the past few decades the Western Balkans gained an attention from Russia and became an important geopolitical bridge towards Western Europe. Such geopolitical and geostrategic planning of Russia is apparent with regards to gas and oil. Due to Russian South Stream gas pipeline project the Western Balkans became an important European energy transforming center. These new geostrategic games over the pipeline have also revived the Russian historical interests in the Balkans. This paper aims to analyze Russian-Western Balkans relations with special emphasis on energy politics and geopolitical and geostrategic interdependence of Russia and the Western Balkans.

  5. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, and to work out recommendations to adjust them. The questions put forward by the authors of this article could not be more topical at the time, when Russian economic situation is obviously getting worse and capital flight (to the neighboring EU Member States is likely to increase. The method of the study is comparative analysis of the impact on economic ties made by Russian-Estonian crisis of 2007 and the current international tension around Ukraine. The regional fossil fuel market and the possibilities of Gazprom involvement in its development are also analyzed. It is concluded that political motives are still important for Estonian decisionmaking, though they are balanced out by measures of business support (despite some of these measures being taken by the EU bodies. The role of political factor for the Russian side is increasing. It is acknowledged that there is a growing number of missed economic opportunities in the Russian Northwest.

  6. Oil: economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special view to interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused upon: (1) the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and (2) the determination of oil prices. The latter involves a discussion of, on the one hand, the political and economic behaviour of the United States and Saudi Arabia and, on the other, the combination of cooperation and conflict that has tended to characterize relations among OPEC countries. (author). 30 refs

  7. Confrontation of economic politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Keynesianism is a national focused economic theory. The Keynesian theory builds on the assumption that prices and wages are sticky sizes evolves imbalance; high inflation or deflation follows. This in combination with various market crises, such as the current financial crisis, is suggesting that the market always fails, both in achieving full employment and avoiding crisis that affects unemployment. Thus, Keynesian argues that for an active state stabilization and labor market policy in the form of fiscal and monetary policies that can create just full employment and good business, while market deregulation and laissez-faire policies fail.

  8. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  9. Choosing memories? Russian political parties as actors of historical policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikin Daniil Alexandrovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article takes an attempt to analyse the transformation of relations between the state power and political parties in Russia within the framework of implementation the politics of memory. On the basis of the content analysis, the article analyses the specifics of using the images of the past in the activities of the 7th State Duma’s political parties: mentioning the historical periods, frequency of mentions, the function of a statement containing positive, neutral or critical assessments of the past, the theme of the continuity of historical experience of the Russian statehood, ways of implementation of some elements of the politics of memory. To sum up, the stumbling block for the main parliamentary parties becomes the Soviet past concerning which there are only separate points of correlation of all political forces. Today we can talk about the process set by the parties to develop the systematic strategies for comprehending the past. The article also analyses the history of the political parties in the context of the politics of memory.

  10. Political risks of hydrocarbon deposit development in the Arctic seas of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovskaya, Y A; Boyarko, G Yu; Bolsunovskaya, L M

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the process of Arctic development has a long-term international cooperation character. Economic and geopolitical interests of both arctic and non-arctic countries meet in the region. Apart from resource development issues, there are problems concerning security, sustainable development and some others issues conditioned by climate and geographical characteristics of the region. Strategic analysis of political risks for the Russian Federation is carried out. The analysis reveals that political risks of hydrocarbon deposits development in the RF arctic seas appear as lack of coordination with arctic countries in solving key regional problems, failure to follow international agreements. Such inconsistency may lead to political risks, which results in strained situation in the region

  11. Formation of the Institute of Youth Political Elite in the Context of Political Transformation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Александровна Мясоедова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the formation of the institute of youth political elite in the Russian Federation. The author proved that the formation of youth political elites directly dependent on the fulfillment of opportunities and professional development of representatives of the youth community and requires a systematic campaign in the formation of the young man and his political socialization. Revealed aspects in the context of which it is necessary to consider the formation of the institute of youth political elite: the socio-economic, political, cognitive. Proposed key methods and forms of interaction between state institutions with the younger generation. The conditions, the implementation of which is necessary for the formation of the institute of youth political elites in Russia: the current administrative and managerial elite has to be aware of the need to create such an elite institution for young people; the existence of regulatory and organizational methods of the activities of youth leaders; a reflection of the youth leader action together communicative interactions; subject-object position of the individual in the current political process of socialization; foster civic political culture, "foundation" which are the concepts of citizenship and patriotism. In conclusion, it is concluded that the development of the political system of education and the building of the Institute of Youth elites should be based on scientific and sociological studies of actual data, reflecting the dynamics of the youth mentality and preferences. A special attention on the part of government actors should be given new urgency to inclusion of young people in the processes of formation of state policy.

  12. Place and Role of Customs Bodies of the Russian Federation in Ensuring Economic Security of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Buzlov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article author considers basics of economic security of the state, analyzes the role of the customs bodies of the Russian Federation. Author analyzes some international and national acts, opinions of scientists and practitioners. Attention is drawn to restrictions of political and economic nature imposed on the Russian Federation, officials, state and commercial organizations. In the conclusion author draws attention to some of the problems that exist in law enforcement practice.

  13. Political socialization of the contemporary Russian intelligentsia: the experience of theoretical-methodological conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartumian Arushan Arushanovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a typology of the concepts of political socialization of the Russian intelligentsia in the context of formation of modern political culture. The author substantiates the decisive role of the microenvironment in the relationship “person – politically organized society”; is actualized the thesis about the stable and homogeneous nature of the political system is actualized.

  14. Asynchrony of political culture in the context of modernization of the contemporary Russian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konovalov Valery Nikolaevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Russia is a country in which political culture takes in different stages of development. In the social and cultural life are combined two basic forms - the traditional type of political culture and modern political culture. There is asynchrony in the political culture, which creates a serious problem of managing Russian society.

  15. Economic and Other Determinants of Political Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. DiPietro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Political trust is important for the effective functioning of government. This paper uses cross country regression analysis to see whether three different measures of economic performance matter for political trust. The results lend support to the hypothesis that political trust is influenced by economic growth, the standard of living, and the appropriate use of government spending. In addition, the paper considers two institutional variables, perceived independence of the judiciary and the degree of democracy to assess their effect on political trust. It finds that perceived judicial independence has a positive effect on political trust, but democracy has a negative effect.

  16. Influence of economic sanctions on the development of Russian tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irek Ilgizarovich Ziganshin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the influence of economic sanctions on the current state of the Russian tourist market. Methods analysis and synthesis historicallogical and economicstatistical methods. Results the presanction condition of the tourist market is compared with its current condition. The problem aspects of the Russian tourist sector are shown. The complex estimation is given to the tense situation in the Russian tourist market. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used for tourism arrangement and predicting the entrance and exit tourist flow. nbsp

  17. The Russian Business as an Object for Theoretical Conception: Institutional Trajectory in Socio-Political Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Алейников

    2008-06-01

    Institutional trajectories of the business origin in the modern Russian are considered through the world of political, a logic of the modern model generation of interaction between business and power.

  18. The Social and Political Role of the Russian Orthodox Church as Perceived by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, L. A.; Andreeva, L. K.

    2015-01-01

    The article compares the data from a survey reflecting college students' perception of the social and political role of the Russian Orthodox Church with the results of nationwide Russian surveys for the purpose of determining the degree to which the basic conclusions coincide or differ. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  19. USSR Report, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 7, July 1984

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    .... This document contains articles about economics, politics and ideology. Some topics discussed are energy, nuclear nonproliferation, foreign policy, conservation, political science, labor, and book reviews of political books...

  20. Taxes and free economic zones: Russian practice and China experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Shibanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Special economic zone – the tool of regional policy of the state used in regions where increase of an economic and social level of development is required, and questions of application of tax benefits and preferences in the territory of a special economic zone acquire special relevance. The purpose of this article is research of the questions concerning the mode of the taxation of special economic zones. In Russia still there is no consensus about the sizes and the special economic zone types, the mechanism of their activity and approach to management. Development of uniform methodology is necessary for the Russian legislation for effective creation of activity of special economic zones taking into account features of a territorial arrangement. This methodology can be developed on the basis of positive experience of functioning of free economic zones of the different countries of the world. In the real work with the help of economic and statistical methods data on development and results of activity of a special economic zone in the territory of the Russian Federation and the China are collected and considered. As an example of successful functioning of the Russian special economic zone the special economic zone "Alabuga" is considered, as an example of functioning in the territory of the China special economic zone Shenzhen and joint industrial park of China and Singapore in the city of Suzhou are considered. The analysis of experience of the China has allowed to draw conclusions on efficiency of development of certain territories of the China through introduction of special economic zones. This fact substantially depends on efficiency of mechanisms of creation and development of economic educations, a possibility of self-government and financial independence in these territories, attraction of the foreign investment capital. There aren't enough these mechanisms in functioning of the Russian special economic zones where concept special

  1. How does political instability affect economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically determine the effects of political instability on economic growth. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 169 countries, and 5-year periods from 1960 to 2004, we find that higher degrees of political instability are associated with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. Regarding the channels of transmission, we find that political instability adversely affects growth by lowering the rates of pr...

  2. The consequences of political dictatorship for Russian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyfer, V N

    2001-09-01

    The Soviet communist regime had devastating consequences on the state of Russian twentieth century science. Country Communist leaders promoted Trofim Lysenko--an agronomist and keen supporter of the inheritance of acquired characters--and the Soviet government imposed a complete ban on the practice and teaching of genetics, which it condemned as a "bourgeois perversion". Russian science, which had previously flourished, rapidly declined, and many valuable scientific discoveries made by leading Russian geneticists were forgotten.

  3. Political Investment in Economic Protection: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenio M. Balisacan

    1987-01-01

    This note presents some aspects of the neoclassical political economy of economic protection. It develops a conceptual framework which focuses on the costs and benefits of investment in political in?uence to certain conditions in the society and how the benefit-cost structure may affect the level of economic protection and the amount of what Bhagwati called "directly unproductive profit-seeking" activities.

  4. Russian Military Politics and Russia’s 2010 Defense Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    63 Jacob W. Kipp 3. Russian Defense Doctrine .............................. 153 Alexander G. Savelyev About...DOCTRINE Alexander G. Savelyev After President Vladimir Putin of Russian Fed- eration (RF) approved the Military Doctrine in April 2000, experts and...from the Pennsylvania State University. ALEXANDER SAVELYEV has been head of the Strategic Studies Department, Center of International Security

  5. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The liberal promise has permeated international discourses and practices. In the ... Actually, many of the core principles of neoliberalism were specifically conceived of as ...... Di John, J. (2006) “The Political Economy of Taxation and Tax Reform in ...... Malaysia. Ireland. Guatemala. New Zealand. Italy. Honduras. Philippines.

  6. POLITICAL OPTIONS AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sandu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in the security environment of Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus have been reshaping the strategies of the six small countries in the proximity of both the EU and Russia. Their attempts to take upon themselves their Soviet heritage and their sensitive geographical position were reflected by a mix of East-West orientations. Some of them chose to create stronger economic bonds with the EU members while others decided to anticipate Russian discontent in separatist areas they shelter and became members of the EEU. Regardless of their option, the Eastern Partnership members embarked? on a long road of political, social and economic changes, so that their stability and growth would become pillars of a stronger role on the regional and international arena in the future. The EU, in turn, has been supporting its partners to the East according to their level of commitment to reform and approximation, although the economic benefits of this relation are imperceptible.

  7. Change, continuity and power in the Russian political economy in comparative BRICs perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileva, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article-based dissertation explores the development of the Russian political economy over the past 25 years in comparative BRICs perspective. The first half of the thesis describes (article 1) and compares (article 2) the evolution of the macro-configuration of Russia's political economy

  8. Economic Dominance with Political Incompetence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The fraudulent claims by policymakers and pundits that the United States is losing its economic competitiveness due to a failing education system continue unabated. However, the latest data on competitiveness suggest that it is poor economic policy, not education, that is holding back the economy.

  9. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens affect the size of government and the quality of the legal system and regulations. These effects depend on the degree of politica...

  10. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size...... of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens but not governments affect the quality of the legal system and regulations....

  11. Russian Climate Politics. Light at the end of the tunnel? Briefing Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppoo, A.; Moe, A.

    2007-04-01

    Russian climate politics were certainly a talking point a few years ago due to the country's decisive role in the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. The views of various potentially influential officials were reported by the world media almost on a daily basis. Since the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia in 2004, and its entry into force, Russian climate politics have received less attention. In this paper we update our previous analyses of Russian climate politics and policies, and report the latest developments, including material from the discussions in the 'JI in Russia' workshop 26 March 2007 organised by Oxford Climate Policy in co-operation with Climate Strategies. The main tasks of this paper are to review: the readiness of Russia to implement the Kyoto mechanisms; the fulfilment of the compliance requirements of the Kyoto Protocol; the current political debate about climate policy by various key players; the emerging discussion on the post-2012 positions of Russia

  12. Economic security of the Russian Federation: current status, level and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of national and economic security maintenanceis aggravating in modern conditions of globalization and international competition related to controlof market channels, technological, information and natural resources.Today Russia is making all efforts to protect its position on the world stage and improve the lives of its citizens.Despite the worsening of the present economic, political and social differences in the world, the Russian Federation has its own national interests, which can be possible to fulfill only on the basis of sustainable development of the national economic security system.The latter traditionally determines the ability of the state economic system to maintain normal conditions for the national economy functioning and the population activity. The national economic securitystabilitycan be estimated only by the application of elaborate tools of the economic development indicators analysis and the threshold values examinationaimed at the determination of the quality characteristic of actual and the most successful model of the economic activity.The analysis of the current Russian economic situation showed the presence of some serious problems existing in the national economy. The economic security level of Russia, having a tendency to increase in the period of 1998-2013, has been sharply reduced to critical points since 2014. So, it is necessary to take some measures to restructure the system of economic security of the state. Based on the research it was identified the list of the most dangerous threats to the modern Russian economy, which includes: low level of the country industrial production; the economy dependence on goods import and raw materials export; low living standards of the population; the rapid growth of the shadow economy and corruption; the lack of civil science and innovationdevelopment. The main strategic directions for economic security levelincrease in Russia today and in the future are aimed at

  13. ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE RUSSIAN MINORITY IN TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A. Bandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards, there was a sharp economic decline in the entire Soviet Union including Central Asia. People in general were affected due to this economic decline; however, in case of the Slav minority in Central Asia including Tajikistan the outmigration of Russian, which started from the 1980s, affected them more than that of their Central Asian counterparts. After the disintegration of Soviet Union, the condition of the leftovers was further accentuated by the language policy, ethnicisation while recruitment in the public offices, etc. Besides this Tajikistan has been the poorest country in the post Soviet space, which in turn is adding to the economic hardships of the people in general and ethnic Russians of the country in particular.

  14. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...... their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...

  15. Does Everyday Corruption Affect How Russians View their Political Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-22

    2011; Treisman 2011, 2014). At present, though, oil prices have collapsed, wage arrears have recommenced, inflation is high, pensions endangered, and...personal corrupt behavior and political attitudes. We show that participation in everyday corruption lowers a person’s support for the political regime... corruption are less, not more, happy with the regime. Street-level corruption is corrosive of the body politic. Our 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  16. Nudge this : behavioural economics & political marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Passera, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Nudge This – Behavioural Economics & Political Marketing\\ud \\ud A key aspect of a behavioural economic paradigm is that there are limitations in defining the citizen as an informed rational processing machine. Arguing that rationality is bounded: human motivation and behaviour can be viewed as more likely to be influenced by biases, perceptions and general rules of thumbs (heuristics). \\ud \\ud Sunstein & Thaler (2008) in Nudge debunk the assumption of homo economicus and focus instead on desi...

  17. Growth and Women's Economic Empowerment: Can Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will generate evidence on how women's political ... Kingdom's Department for International Development, The William and Flora Hewlett ... support 11 projects addressing barriers to women's economic empowerment and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  18. The economic and political integration of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers issues concerning US coal and mineral exports to Europe in the wake of the economic and political integration of Europe. Topics addressed include: The European Energy Charter; the implications of the European Energy Charter for coal companies; and tax issues, coal development and the European Common Market

  19. Politics, Economics, and Testing: Some Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author shares his reflections on politics, economics, and testing. He focuses on assessment and accountability and begins with some data from large scale written educational testing, "circa 1840". The author argues that people's penchant for accountability and their appetite for standardized testing are, in…

  20. China Update: Economic Reforms and Political Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates that China has been undergoing an unprecedented rapidity of change. Discusses the high unemployment rates, job markets, reform movements, differences in economic equality, the role of the National People's Congress, and the changing political climate. Reveals that freedom is subtly beginning to permeate the lives of Chinese citizens.…

  1. Energy, economics, environment and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The pressure on the Earth's environment and resources is the ultimate result of population growth and the only humane means available for stabilizing world population is to increase per capita living standards in the developing countries. However, this will require a very large increase in global energy consumption. If, as at present, the energy demand is met largely by fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 will rise rapidly. Until the end of the century, and perhaps beyond it, any actions to control CO 2 emissions will be taken for precautionary reasons alone, because no reliable basis will exist for predicting their global (or regional) impact on the climate. The sustainability of the natural environment is also under threat from human activities such as the clearing of forests for crop-growing and grazing. The resulting elimination of habitats for, and genetic variability in, the victor is as serious a concern as global warming. The economic and social consequences of rigidly curtailing the growth of energy use in developed countries would be severe, and in developing countries extreme; even then greenhouse gas build up could only be slowed not prevented. On the other hand, a wealthier world would be more able to bear the financial burden of protecting biodiversity. It is concluded that since the developed countries on whom the main cost would have to fall, adequate effort into both biodiversity and greenhouse gas reduction, biodiversity must take procedence. (1 figure, 2 tables). (UK)

  2. Russian Far East's future hinges on political fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that according to recent geological surveys, the Russian Far East (RFE), encompassing former Soviet territories east of Eastern Siberia and Transbaikalia, is endowed with impressive fossil fuel resources, However, up to now, this energy resource potential has been rather modestly explored and developed. In particular, explored (proved and probable) reserves of liquid hydrocarbons (crude and condensate) in 40 known oil and gas accumulations are estimated at only 2.2 billion bbl, corresponding to one-seventh of RFE potential, recoverable oil resources. Putting these reserves data into the frame of national comparisons, one can conclude that, on the whole, explored RFE oil potential constitutes a negligible fraction (less than 1%) of Russia's oil reserves, while the region's gas endowment, though modest compared with that of northwestern Siberia, contributes nearly 60% of the Russian Federation's offshore gas reserves

  3. COUNTERMAJORITARIAN INSTITUTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1993 AS AN INSTRUMENT ENSURING CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shakhray

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article enriches the discussion on the legal reasons and conditions fostering the viability of democratic constitutions by analyzing the rich experience of the Russian Constitution of 1993. Particular attention is paid to the concept of countermajoritarian institutions. The authors elaborate the idea that countermajoritarian institutions can play an important role in ensuring the viability (put in other terms, the proper balance between stability, adaptability, and dynamic development of modern democratic constitutions as well as political regimes.The article presents evidence-based data showing that the President and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation systematically acted as countermajoritarian institutions at the initial stage of the implementation of the “blueprint for the future” set down in the 1993 Russian Constitution. As a result of the activities of these institutions, strong legal frameworks were created that are necessary for the establishment of anew constitutional system of the Russian state and law.Today, the Russian Constitution of 1993 is one of the longest lasting democratic constitutions in the world (the average “life expectancy” of democratic constitutions adopted over the past 250 years is about seventeen years. The study of the countermajoritarian provisions in the 1993 Russian Constitution is of both theoretical and practical importance. In particular, the results of the study can be useful in creating efficient legal instruments for the maintenance of political stability and social development management both within sovereign states and within interstate communities.

  4. Byzantine history and the discourse of the Russian political/intellectual underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shlapentokh

    2012-01-01

    In the view of the producer, the Byzantine Empire was strong when it followed its autocratic tradition and was attached to Orthodoxy. The movie generated extensive discussions, including among those who belong to Russia's political and intellectual fringe. Quite a few of them were neo-pagans; for them, Christianity, including Orthodox Christianity, was Russia's curse. For them, it was an Asian creed foreign to Aryan Russians. The fact that it was accepted by Russians implied that Russians had been subjugated by an alien, Asiatic, force. Many of these neo-pagans were quite pessimistic in regard to the country's future; and, indeed, their response indicates the deep alienation of quite a few Russians, which hardly bodes well for the country's future.

  5. Exploring democracy in the Russian Federation: political regime, public opinion and international assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three questions: what is the purpose of ‘democratic’ institutions and practices in Russia's authoritarian political system; how do these institutions and practices resonate with Russian public opinion; and how do they relate to the international democracy-promotion effort in

  6. Political institutions as substitute for democracy: a political economy analysis of economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos; Teles, Vladimir Kühl

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript empirically assesses the effects of political institutions on economic growth. It analyzes how political institutions affect economic growth in different stages of democratization and economic development by means of dynamic panel estimation with interaction terms. The new empirical results obtained show that political institutions work as a substitute for democracy promoting economic growth. In other words, political institutions are important for increasing economic growth, ...

  7. Political Dialogue As The Basis Of Foreign Policy: A Case Study Of Modern Russian-German Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zaytseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available His article deals with political dialogue as the basis of the progressive development of interstate cooperation and one of the few ways to diminish interstate tensions without use of military force. With the growing list of new threats and challenges it is very important to work out an effective mechanism of interstate cooperation and to use it in foreign policy. Political dialogue helps to form the basis for cooperation between states to ensure the security, political and socio-economic stability of countries. Moreover, the political dialogue in its various forms is no longer a seldom-used private practice. It is the "all-encompassing reality" now the study of which is necessary for understanding of the social, economic, and humanitarian phenomena in the international relations. The author analyzes principles, functions, rules of constructive interstate dialogue, reflects the conditions of the development of a true political dialogue and reveals the situation of its "stylization" The provisions presented in this article are presented from the viewpoint of practical use in the development of a constructive foreign policy. At the same time the author points to their philosophical basis, identifies regularities and characteristics from the standpoint of philosophical knowledge. As a practical demonstration of carrying on the political dialogue the article presents a brief description of Russian-German political relations at the present stage. Bilateral relations between these two countries, based on the rich history, consilience of main positions in resolving of international problems, largely reflect the basic terms and principles of a competent political dialogue.

  8. Essays in Labor Economics and Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case of immigr......This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case...... in particular. The effects appear present both in municipal and national elections, despite the very different issues decided at the two levels of government. The second chapter (co-authored with Raymond Fisman, Emir Kamenica and Inger Munk) studies the effect of a salary reform in the European Parliament...... to learn about the impact of salaries on the behavior and composition of legislators. Increases in salaries cause large increases in the willingness to hold office but do not affect the level of effort exerted while in office. For the composition of legislators, increases in salaries leads to elected...

  9. Determinants of Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ledyaeva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Barro and Sala-i-Martin empirical framework of growth model is specified to examine determinants of per capita growth in 74 Russian regions during period of 1996-2005. We utilize both panel and cross-sectional data. Results imply that in general regional growth in 1996-2005 is explained by the initial level of region's economic development, the 1998 financial crisis, domestic investments, and exports. Growth convergence between poor and rich regions in Russia was not found for the period studied.

  10. On the economics of the Russian oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of political changes in the 1990s, particularly the hasty privatization of the oil industry, the all-out price liberalization and the radical transformation of the oil sector's taxation regime in Russia were examined. Details of the various tax regimes - excise duties on crude oil (introduced in 1992), contributions for mineral reserves replacement (1993), royalties on extracted and exported hydrocarbons (1992), investment fund deductions (1992, repealed in 1994), and the general tax on profits, introduced at 32 per cent in 1992, raised to 38 per cent in 1994,- were provided. As a result of this multitude of taxes, this core sector of Russia's economy has turned into the main tax-paying, but hardly profitable, business. It survives on marginal, and at times even negative, after-tax returns. According to official taxation data, in 1994 the after-tax profitability of the country's oil producing industry dropped to seven per cent, compared to 50 per cent enjoyed by Russian crude producers at the beginning of 1992. Downstream refinery margins have been equally low. Since the beginning of liberalization they have rarely exceeded five per cent and often dropped to one per cent. In an effort to save the industry, the government finally provided tax relief by removing export duties for Russian oil products effective December 1, 1995

  11. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  12. Analysis of the Russian political tolerance in society-government relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korolevska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The high culture of tolerance accelerates political socialization, improves the qualities of a citizen, a sense of ownership of public affairs, instilling respect for democratic values. Relevance of the work is determined by processes that occur in today’s society and that lead not only to confusion but to destruction of public relations. The article reviews the state of political tolerance in the system of relations society – authorities in Russia. Based on opinion polls statistical analyzes to determine trends in contemporary ensure political tolerance is conducted. Due to correlation between support for Putin and the perception of the political situation in the country as well is determined existence. Fixes sustainable public discontent actual situation in the country, however, people do not use the opportunities for political activism. Almost two thirds of Russians believe that the interests of the government and society in do not match. The low percentage of respondents believe that the political course of the country’s leadership in the interests of ordinary people. There is a steady trend to an agreement among the Russian population to concentrate power in his hands. There is a slight increase of the population of those who are ready to connect to solve their problems in life forms of protest activity.

  13. Understading neoliberal politics by the mediation of institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Akansel, İlkben

    2014-01-01

    Neoliberalism, which cannot be described by a certain rule, includes a wide range of perspective. Therefore, it is a highly effective notion in terms of economics and politics. This efficiency has a mutual meaning in socio-cultural area. However, it is obvious that the most effective area of neoliberal politics is economics, because intended efficiency in politics and socio-cultural levels are provided through applicable economics politics. Although it has some certain notions derived from al...

  14. THE FEATURES OF THE RUSSIAN LEGAL AWARENESS AND POLITICAL MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuryukin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an article on the broad theoretical material, the author attempts, on the one hand, to understand the modern domestic legal awareness as a phenomenon, identify its characteristics and features, view the contents, and, on the other hand, to draw a conclusion concerning the nature and forms of infl uence of national legal awareness to the political modernization. As a result of an analysis, it is concluded that the national legal awareness is in a state of transition, where inconsistent and sometimes paradoxical mix of traditional national elements, the elements left over from psychology and philosophy "Soviet Man", as well as actively being introduced from the beginning of the 90s XX century elements of the "market mentality", leading to a fair amount of heterogeneity proper sense of justice and situational diff erentiation behavior of citizens, that impossibly difficult to develop a single project of modernization.

  15. The Ukraine Crisis Reflections in the Speeches of USA and Russian Political Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unikaitė-Jakuntavičienė Ingrida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the rhetoric of USA and Russian political leaders during the Ukraine crisis by analyzing changes appearing in their speeches during the different stages of the crisis. The goal of the analysis is to investigate the speeches delivered by political leaders of the United States and Russia, being important actors in the Ukraine crisis, by identifying both countries’ attitudes to one another, further intentions regarding the management of the crisis and changes of topics in each stage. The speeches of the following most influential politicians in foreign policy formation in the USA and Russia are analyzed: President Barack Obama, Secretary of State John Kerry and Vice President Joe Biden, President Vladimir Putin, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and Prime Minister of Russia Dmitry Medvedev. The speeches were collected from the official websites of U.S. and Russian government institutions. The analysis revealed that from the beginning of the crisis the main tool in the Ukraine crisis was rhetoric. Western parties began to take real actions only later: sanctions on Russia were imposed, international organizations started to play more active role, ceasefire agreements were signed. In terms of communications strategies used by both countries, the USA rhetoric and its communication strategy as well as Russian leaders were using a combination of proactive and reactive strategies.

  16. The current Russian model of social development, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Paramonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Article 7 of the Constitution of Russia adopted in 1993 defines the country as a social state, the contemporary social and economic situation is significantly different from this declaration. The author considers the current situation focusing on the foundations of the welfare state. The indicators of social inequality and stratification that allow to identify the country as a social state prove the widening gap between the rich and poor. In recent years, nothing has been done to achieve the more equitable distribution of income and national wealth, which led to the further growth of social inequality exceeding the global indices. The author believes that the high level of social inequality negatively affects the economic growth. Based on the studies of Russian scientists he concludes that equal distribution of income provides higher rates of economic growth and prosperity of the country. The modified theory of the factors of production explains this interconnection, and adds a few more factors, including such a specific resource as sales market, to three factors introduced by J.B. Say at the beginning of the XIX century. The huge social inequality and, consequently, a significant number of the poor deprive the country of such an important resource. To change the situation, the author proposes to return to the progressive tax scale and introduce the zero rate of income tax for the poorest groups in order to create prerequisites for the growth of consumer demand under the economic crisis.

  17. Features of Perception of Modern Russian Political Leaders in University Students (A Psychosemantic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a research on features of perception of modern Russian political leaders in young people. A technique of multidimensional semantic differential was employed: the subjects were asked to assess 15 objects (political leaders, 'my ideal', 'ideal leader', 'antipathetic person' and 'Myself' according to 33 personality traits using a seven-point scale. The outcomes suggest that the structure of the students' perception of political leaders is quite simple and is based on three modalities: 'morality', 'power' and 'intelligence'. Comparing these outcomes with the research data obtained in 2004 using the same technique allowed the authors to conclude that the students do not assess modern political leaders according to the moral qualities of the latter, but rather perceive them through the qualities of power associated with social manipulation.

  18. The Political Position of Southeast Russian Church Council (1919 During the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biriukova Iuliia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the attitude of the Southeast Russian Church Council toward rather an inhomogeneous politically White Movement. This council took place in Stavropol in 1919. Various socio-political forces, represented at the council, tried to take advantage of that assembly in order to use its authority for political causes, but the council successfully ignored such attempts. According to the council the main purpose of the Church was to work constructively in a religious and moral sphere. Since the White Army became an ally of the Church in its struggle with militant atheism, the leader of the White Movement General Anton Denikin was the only political fi gure who received a special support from the council

  19. Features of transformation of the civil identity in the Russian political process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponedelkov Aleksander Vasilievich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the dynamics of the political process in Russia shows that institutional changes are taking place in the political system. Integration into the world community is accompanied with a request from the Russian society to a civil dialogue with the government, social stability based on democratic principles, the institutionalization of the turnover of the elites. Problems of search of civil identity are caused by the actualization in the public mind the necessity to mobilize the nation on the principles of patriotism, moral revival.

  20. CHALLENGES FOR TODAY’S RUSSIAN POLITICAL ELITE, AND WAYS TO ADDRESS THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ф И Шарков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors aimed to conduct a study of the current state and prospects for the development of elitology in Russia, and to identify the public perception of political leaders, which is necessary for federal and regional elites and for improving the efficiency of the state personnel policy, mechanisms for interaction of elites in the social-political space and, thus, for increasing the transparency of power. The authors rely on the political, historical-legal, formal-legal, and structural-functional analytical approaches. Based on the results of the panel expert surveys conducted during the First All-Russian Elitological Congress “Elitology of Russia: The Current State and Prospects for the Development” (2013, Rostov-on-Don and the Second All-Russian Elitological Congress “Elitology and Strategies for the Development of Contemporary Russia” (2016, Rostov-on-Don, the authors reconstruct the general perception of Russian elites by the expert com-munity, and the dynamics of changes in the elite group; identify the public estimates of today’s regional political elites, and a discrepancy between elitism in the traditional sense and the real political power. The comparison of the results of the panel surveys conducted in 2013 and 2016 allowed to combine the findings in the groups: general perception of the Russian elites and the reliability of information about them; estimates of the dynamics of qualitative changes in the elites; measures to promote the development of inter-elite interaction and leadership. The authors made the following conclusions: both public and expert opinions underestimate the elite capital of the ruling groups; there are system symptoms of oligarchization of the elites that tend to use non-democratic means of holding power; there is an obvious task of changing the approaches to assessing and recruiting elites in the current social-political situation in Russia; in 2017, the Russian society is at the crossroads, and the

  1. Peculiarities of the Nature and Status of the Russian Presidential Administration: Historical, Political and Legal Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vladimirovich Zuykov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Presidential Administration in the Russian Federation has never been just an adminicular mechanism of the head of state. Unlike its western analogs, it has always possessed an incomparably large resource of power. While presidents were changed, the personal stuff, structure and authorities of this body were also changed, but its central place in the management system of the Russian state remained stable. The Administration of the President of the Russian Federation is an institution, whose legal status does not have a clear legal shape. Not without reason the journalists, as well as lawyers, political scientists and historians sometimes call it the shadow government or the secret order. However, the legal nature of the administration of the President of the Russian Federation is not quite clear. Even the name "Administration" is often misleading: whether the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation may be considered the executive power or the public administration in a wider sense? This and other disputes about the nature of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation and its legal status have arisen in the expert community with the beginning of complex work on the constitutional project, and are still ongoing today. In this regard, the author of this article decided to make one of the first attempts in the country to investigate what the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation really is, what are the problems associated with its functioning, and whether there are legal means to resolve them at the present stage. To answer these questions, the author thoroughly analyzes the models and arguments proposed at different stages of the development of the new Russia, and correlates them with the basic constitutional principles.

  2. Politics or profits? Gazprom, the Kremlin, and Russian energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinn, Eric S.

    This paper adds to the ongoing discussion of Gazprom's role in Russia by placing the debate around Gazprom within the broader contexts of both the increasing prevalence of national oil companies in the world and the changing natural gas landscape. It assesses how the interplay between politics and profits has affected the way Gazprom can adapt to a rapidly changing world natural gas environment and how both the Kremlin and Gazprom are adjusting---or failing to adjust---their strategies accordingly. It concludes that Gazprom and the Kremlin are both adjusting to changes in the world natural gas environment, but they are doing so in their own ways, but given the affects the actions of one has on the other, the pace of adaptation is slower than what we might see with an entirely independent firm. The paper begins with a discussion of the tradeoffs inherent in Gazprom's relationship with the Kremlin. It identifies various factors at work politically that prevent Gazprom from profiting in the domestic economy. Primary among these factors are entrenched rent-seeking interests and philosophies about natural resources, as well as geopolitical interests. The paper identifies the 2006 and 2009 gas disputes with Ukraine as evidence of Kremlin interference in Gazprom's commercial activities and concrete examples of the boundaries between these two entities as well as the seeming blurring of these boundaries. The paper then moves into a discussion of increased volatility and risk in Gazprom's primary export market, Europe. The systemic context of a discussion of Gazprom today must include factors such as increased supply options for Europe that make natural gas a more fungible commodity than in the past and new legislation aimed at promoting energy independence via the development of a competitive natural gas market. This new context threatens Gazprom's ability to mitigate price risk in its export market, which in turn makes providing for the domestic market through gas rents

  3. The Attracting of Foreign Investment in the Russian Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Girko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The attracting of foreign investment is a strategic goal of the Russian economy’s development. Direct investment plays a special role in this process providing an access to financial resources, modern technologies, management skills, innovative goods and services as well as contributing to increase of economic competitiveness, sustained growth and improvements in living standards. In this connection, creation of an enabling environment for foreign investors is a priority sector of public investment policy. Based on the analysis of federal and regional forms of supporting investment activities, it can be concluded that the forms associated with budget injections into the economy are dominant. Co-financing of investment projects, government programs to support exports, create infrastructure (technology parks, SEZ infrastructure, TAD, create support centers for entrepreneurs, all this can be called financial stimulation of economic activity and, in particular, investment activity. The study suggest that the state has to go to these costs in connection with the reduction of the investment potential of the private sector, as a result of the economic crisis and international sanctions.

  4. Social and economic factors of the natural risk growth: estimation of the Russian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E.

    2003-04-01

    Òhe vulnerability of the population and economy territorial complexes (PETC) to the influence of unfavorable and dangerous natural processes and events is determined not only by the physical parameters of natural hazards in the given region, but also by economic and social peculiarities of the PETC by itself. It depends on economy type, on PETC’s age, structure and dimensions as well as on degree of its participation in the territorial division of labor. PETC would be more vulnerable to the natural hazards impact if its population density, concentration of the industrial capacities (especially of the objects that additionally create the potential danger of the man-caused catastrophes such as nuclear-power stations, chemical enterprises, oil refineries and so on), concentration of transport and other means of communication, the technological complexity, the originality of the objects included in it as well as the originality of PETC by itself would be higher. The PETC with the unfavorable socio-political and ecological situation and underdeveloped management structures are more vulnerable. The estimation of regions by PETC vulnerability degree to the natural hazards were marked out on a base of data about the actual distribution of the natural hazards in Russia and analysis of the economic indices of the Russian Federation subjects. Among the economic indexes the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP), population density, road density, the degree of appraisal depreciation of the fixed assets, the land cultivation degree of the territory, forest share and so on were taken into account. As the analysis showed, the economic and social factors of the natural risk growth are active in the majority of the regions of the Russian Federation. Such a situation demands the increased attention of state and local authorities to this problem for lowering the economic and social constituents of the growth of natural hazards.

  5. VERBAL REPRESENTATION OF THE CONCEPT OF POLITENESS AND ITS SPECIFICS IN RUSSIAN AND MODERN HEBREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchalnikova Vera Anatolyevna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare the content of the universal ethic notion of politeness in Russian and Modern Hebrew on the basis of structural research of word's lexical meaning. Politeness is investigated as a basic ethic value that is included into the nucleus of ethnic culture and has certain influence on the content of ethnic worldview. The verbal representation of politeness as an ethic category differs significantly revealing the different structure and specific correlation of semantic components. The authors emphasize that national and cultural specifics of communicative behavior are defined by the different content of the concept of politeness in the communicative consciousness of the representatives of different linguocultures. In the process of communication the members of an ethnos act according to different operational understanding of the politeness assimilated during the social adaptation process. The authors underline that the notions (concepts described by the same word often differ in psychological meaning within the conceptual spheres of different nations. These different parts of ethnosspecific concepts contain significant information and national specifics of communicative behavior, and that is why they are pragmatically relevant. The research of the specifics of politeness concept meaning is a theoretical and pragmatic topic of current importance. The authors describe the first stage of politeness concept modelling based on lexicographic data. By comparing the components of concepts' meaning, that are denominated by comparable words in Russian and Jewish linguocultures, the authors prove the stability of concept's structure as a specific mental unit. The structural and semantic models of ъебйга and вежливость contain discreet components of meaning that are opposed gradually. The authors believe that this could be the indication of certain universal types of relations between word's meaning components.

  6. The Political Economy of Recent Economic Growth in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha

    2004-01-01

    The political economy of India’s economic growth is an issue of abiding interest. Higher and sustained economic growth has, all over the world, been the surest and most time tested means of raising living standards and reducing poverty. Further, given that it is a functioning democracy, economic policy in India can often be dictated by political expediency as political parties indulge in competitive populism in the face of improvements in social indicators such as literacy, infant mortality a...

  7. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  8. Political and economic heritage of postcommunist Europe and energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transition countries include a group of countries with similar political, economic and social problems that signify the period after the end of the cold war and the fall of Communism. The paper presents the characteristics of the European Communist countries before and after the fall of the iron curtain, which influenced the transition process toward market economy. The centralist (Russian) economy model had enormous advantages at the beginning, particularly in the energy sector, owing to unlimited consumption of blood, sweat and tears during the construction of major power plants. The bureaucratic system executed ruthless expropriation of land and the existing power system, neglecting the environment and human health and even disregarding the feasibility of new power plants. The market creation and particularly the creation of an energy market, under which we understand selling and buying of all forms of energy, fuels, power plants' equipment and capital for energy sector, asks for a series of tasks from the Eastern European countries. They must accept market rules, standards of highly industrialised western countries and achievements in parliamentary democracy as the canon of behaviour in democracy. Setting up a legal infrastructure for the private sector, devising a taxation system, determining ownership rights, stabilising the macro economy in the sense of managing the government budget so as to avoid an excessive fiscal deficit, and stabilising monetary policy are primary tasks of the transition countries. The paper particularly reviews the tasks specifically related to the energy sector and analyses the problems taking into account national strategic interests. (author)

  9. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS IN 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Олеговна Пучинская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective collaboration between the Russian Federation and Germany at the beginning of the 21st century would be impossible without mutually beneficial economic cooperation of the two countries. The analysis of basic stages in the economic relations, achievements and problems are considered by the author to be important for lining-up an all-round picture of the Russian-German relations in the period under review. The main purpose of this article is the consideration and analysis of the economic aspects in the Russian foreign policy towards Germany. The problem considered in the article is of current importance, because in 2000-2013 the economic collaboration of Russia and the German Federal Republic was brought to a high level, but at the same time some considerable potential of cooperation was not fulfilled. With regard to complementarity of the Russian and German economies and their centuries-old experience of collaboration and mutual financial interest, it is possible to suppose that the economic sphere in particular would be a basis of optimization of the Russian-German relations in the long term. In such a way, this article deals with the basic directions of the Russian-German economic cooperation in 2000-2013.The contractual legal base of financial relations is examined with the purpose to reveal strengths and weaknesses as well as perspective possibilities of the optimization in the Russian-German relations in the future.

  10. Acculturation Profiles of Russian-Speaking Immigrants in Belgium and Their Socio-Economic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, Dmitry; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first generation) and were processed using latent…

  11. Acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium and their socio-economic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryev, Dmitry; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first

  12. Economic and Political Liberalization in Tanzania and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the onset of globalization one-party state regimes were forced to liberalize politically and economically. Liberalization was seen as beneficial for it opened up both the political and economic space for all actors in the development process. Liberalization was embraced because of its perceived advantages to all sections ...

  13. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-06

    Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ? Couverture du livre Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ? Editor(s):. Francisco Gutiérrez et Gerd Schönwälder. Publisher(s):. Pluto Press, CRDI. August 6, 2010. ISBN: 9780745330631. 360 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552504826.

  14. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ? Couverture du livre Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ? Directeur(s):. Francisco Gutiérrez et Gerd Schönwälder. Maison(s) d'édition: Pluto Press, CRDI. 6 août 2010. ISBN : 9780745330631. 360 pages. e-ISBN :.

  15. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Van Der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Conley, Dalton; Laibson, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Preferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to estimate the

  16. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); D. Cesarini (David); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); C.T. Dawes (Christopher T.); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); D. Conley (Dalton); D. Laibson (David); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.M. Visscher (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPreferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to

  17. Do Crisis Response Operations Affect Political and Economic Stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    military presence itself actually affects overall levels of political and economic stability is still an open question. We look at the following two...relationship between military actions and political and economic stability . In this paper, we focus only on the crisis response piece of the overseas presence issue.

  18. Economics and politics of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental issue is what steps, if any, nations should take to control greenhouse gas emissions. Robert Hahn argues that over the next decade the best strategy for policy makers is to build institutions that can address climate change in the future by developing a capacity at the nation-state level to measure greenhouse gas emissions and to implement and enforce cost-effective ways of limiting emissions. Policy makers must also improve the capacity of an international body to assess greenhouse gas inventories and review national policies. Hahn recommends that the developed nations craft an agreement for the next decade that provides a slight emission limitation and allows for a series of case studies, in which developing nations would participate, to preserve diversity and build useful institutional knowledge. The Economics and Politics of Climate Change is one in a series of new AEI studies related to the globalization of environmental policy. These studies will focus on specific issues and on the new institutional arrangements required to deal with them. A list of publications in this series appears inside

  19. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIOCULTURAL CONDITIONS OF FORMATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the ambiguous contextual manifestations that accompany the process of formation of Russian entrepreneurial community. The work presents the research results of the specifics of these manifestations derived based on the analysis of various materials from Russian official, scientific and sociopolitical as well as international sources. "Attitude towards entrepreneurship" is regarded as the most important sociocultural component of the development of the entrepreneurship as a social practice. The identified economic and political as well as sociocultural trends that accompany the formation of the modern Russian entrepreneurship reflect the incompleteness stage of the market reforms in Russia. The creation of the modern ethical basis of the development of the entrepreneurship and its interaction with the society is assumed as one of the ways to accelerate these reforms. The outcome of the present interdisciplinary work - which is in its own way “a view from the outside” - in the author’s opinion, indicates the equivalence of sociocultural and economic and political range of problems for the modern stage of development of the entrepreneurship in Russia.

  20. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  1. Economic Growth as a Factor of Political Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Олеговна Ярославцева

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes actual problems of the impact of economic growth on the political stability of different state. The author shows that despite the undoubted correlation of the level of economic development and political stability, economic growth by itself is not a panacea for destabilization risks because of the effects of inflated expectations and transformations of social consciousness. The author argues that the impact of economic growth on political stability is largely ambivalent. On the basis of “Tocqueville's law” and the range of theories of “relative deprivation”, the author makes a conclusion about the principal limitations of predictive and interpretive capabilities of economic indicators (primarily economic growth for the analysis of political stability.

  2. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN NORTHERN NORWAY: HISTORICAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL TIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маргарита Ольнова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the topic “Commodification of the Russian language”. The author examines the process of commodification in the Norwegian city of Kirkenes and connects this phenomenon with the rise of the new economy and the current cooperation between Russia and Norway. The paper pre-sents an analysis of the linguistic landscape of Kirkenes, newspaper publications devoted to the “Russian Kirkenes” and interviews with Russian tourists and residents of the city. According to the author, the situation in Kirkenes illustrates the transition of the old economy into a new one: the former mining city turned into a tourist Mecca of the North, a center of cooperation of the Nordic countries. In such conditions, know-ledge of the Russian language becomes beneficial for the city's residents.

  3. Economic, Political and Communicative power in the neoliberal societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bergés-Saura, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the relations between the economic, political and communicative powers in the socioeconomic model of neoliberal capitalism. Firstly, it examines the transformations in the economic power, to analyse later the various mechanisms linking this changing economic power to the media performance. Among these mechanisms, the article analyses the control of ownership and other external financial sources; the origin of commercial income; and business management techniques, while simultaneously investigating the relations between these variables and the transformations in the economic sphere. Following the political economy tradition, the article addresses the implications that the concentration of economic, political and communicative power have on democracy and freedom, taking into account the evolution of the socioeconomic and political system in the last decades.

  4. Economic growth in a politically fragmented world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2014), s. 402-416 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : economic integration * economic growth * intergenerational bargain Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2014

  5. Economic growth in a politically fragmented world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2014), s. 402-416 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : economic integration * economic growth * intergenerational bargain Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2014

  6. Linguistic dictionaries of economics in the German, Russian and Tatar languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaripova A.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available as is known, the degree of one or another professional language research is characterized by the specialized monolingual and multilingual dictionaries. This article describes the existing dictionaries with recorded German, Russian and Tatar economic vocabulary. The Russian and German languages belong to the languages that have well systematized economic vocabulary and it is presented by the large number of the linguistic, encyclopedic and multilingual dictionaries regarding this field. The situation with the dictionaries of economics in the Tatar language looks different. Dictionaries on this subject have been published periodically and economic vocabulary of the modern Tatar language is recorded by the electronic dictionaries in recent times.

  7. Political regime change, economic liberalization and growth accelerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, Richard; De Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether the type of political regime, regime changes, and economic liberalization are related to economic growth accelerations. Our results show that growth accelerations are preceded by economic liberalizations. We also find that growth accelerations are less likely to happen the longer

  8. Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Scientific, Economic and Political Realia of the New Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state and problems of nanotechnology development in the Russian Federation in modern economic, political and scientific conditions are presented. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials have already been used in all developed countries of the world in the most significant areas of human activity industry, defense, information sphere, radio electronics, energy drinks, transport, biotechnology, medicine. The Government of the Russian Federation formulated the main objectives of scientific and economic community for the development of nanotechnologies in the conditions of the demanded import substitution. In the developed countries the comprehension of the key role of nanotechnologies led to the elaboration of large-scale programs for their development on the basis of state support. Similar programs are adopted more than in thirty countries around the world, including the Russian Federation. The author of the present article studies the current state of nanotech industry in Russia and classifies nanotechnologies according to the intrinsic principle. As a result, four main directions in the field of nanotechnologies are allocated: 1 nanomaterials; 2 photonics, spintronics, nanoelectronics (devices based on the nanoprinciples; 3 nanometrology, nanomanipulators and modeling; 4 nanosensors and nanodetectors. Some perspective scientific and technological projects of nanotech industry development in Russia are also considered. The author points to economic, social, ecological, and scientific and technical opportunities of nanotechnologies development in Russia, as well as their threats.

  9. Political Component of Russian-Latvian Relations at the Present Stage (2014–early 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat F. Kasem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines origins and causes of tensions in relations between Russia and Latvia today, their manifestations, and possible scenarios of their development in the future. The dominant feature of today’s Russian-Latvian relations is their political component. This situation first emerged in 2014, the year of the coup d’etat in Ukraine and the year of the Crimea joining Russia. The spirit of confrontation in Russian-Latvian relations and the increasing degree of tension has been fueled not by Russia but by Latvia, and, in the background of the situation, NATO, and, first and foremost, the United States. In 2005 the Latvian National Security Concept Program underscored “absence of military threat for Latvia or other Baltic states,” in 2015 the new edition changes its focus completely and mentions the “Russian threat.” Latvia does not play an independent role in foreign relations with Russia, but the country is using Russia as playing the role of an aggressor. As Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia are fully dependent on the US and the EU, they are forced to comply with foreign policy orders of their Western creditors, even if these demands contradict these countries’ own interests. Considerable changes have taken place in Latvia in the early 1917, when the legal status of US military personnel was changed.Consistently implementing these changes will turn virtually the entire territory of Latvia into the military infrastructure of the United States. As US military bases are being created in Latvia, it is equivalent of having American troops on the border with Russia. Obviously, Russia does not threaten Latvia in any way. An open conflict with NATO and the US could be used only as a last resort. But nothing depends on Moscow’s wishes anymore, and we can only watch the Baltic States being dragged further away from Russia. If previously, hoping to start a major European war, Washington placed its faith in Kyiv, now they find that

  10. Economic Growth and the Rise of Political Extremism

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Hans Peter Gruner

    2011-01-01

    In many western democracies, political parties with extreme platforms challenge more moderate incumbents. This paper analyses the impact of economic growth on the support for extreme political platforms. We provide a theoretical argument in favor of growth effects (as opposed to level effects) on the support for extreme political parties and we empirically investigate the relationship between growth and extremist votes. Lower growth rates benefit right-wing and nationalist parties, but do not...

  11. Argentina: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Argentina's restructuring of over $100 billion in defaulted bond debt in June 2005 demonstrated the country's emergence from its 2001-2002 economic crisis that had caused severe stress on the political system...

  12. Security Reasoning, Spatial Politics, Patriarchy and the Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Reasoning, Spatial Politics, Patriarchy and the Economic Rights of ... find a job, start a business, and participate in the formal or informal economy. ... and engage in public policy dialogue will be an important aspect of this project.

  13. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; van der Loos, Matthijs J. H. M.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Conley, Dalton; Laibson, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPreferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to estimate the proportion of variation in these traits explained by common SNPs and to conduct genome-wide association study (GWAS) and prediction analyses. The pattern of results is consistent with ...

  14. the Arab boycott of Israel: economic political warfare against Israel.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilat, Eliyau Zeev

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the effectiveness of the Arab Boycott of Israel from an economic and a political perspective. This study covers the Arab boycott from 1946 until 1990. It demonstrates that economically and politically, the Arab boycott had three distinct phases. The first of these was the period from the declaration of the Arab boycott in 1946 until the 1973 War. The second phase took place between the 1973 War...

  15. 'Economic' and 'Political' cooperation in various climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation in the economic sense considers efficiency issues. Cooperation in the political sense, like the Kyoto Protocol, considers other issues like equity and historical responsibility. The environmental and economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol and other scenarios are thus examined. The US pullout may then be viewed, among others, as the result of not untying 'economic' and 'political' cooperation; and since the Protocol will be much less effective without the US, it is shown that an external economic stimulus should and may theoretically be found for retaining their participation

  16. ANCHORING IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of marketing, both ineconomy and in politics is to attract themaximum number of customers or voters, maximizing customer satisfaction and ,ideally, improve the quality of life.The author, in various aspects, thetechnology of anchoring used in NLP, to attract customers and voters, both in the economy and in politics.In different examples demonstrate theoverall impact on the psychology of the consumer. Separating policy and the economy, marketers are missing something. The author proposes to look at how psychologicalanchors affect these two, at fi rst glance, different vector.

  17. Integration Processes within the Common Economic Space: Hazards for Russian Milk Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Shagayda

    2013-01-01

    The principal differences between economic systems in Russia and Belarus condition price advantages of Belarusian products over those produced in Russia. Belarusian producers operate under government restrictions on prices paid by them for agricultural inputs and received by them from marketing of their produce on the domestic market. In this situation penetration into the Russian market enables them to get larger profits owing to higher market prices for food in Russia. As a result Russian b...

  18. Market and Money: Economic Instruments of Political Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Pînzaru

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.

  19. Politics, economics and the price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki Yamani, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes petroleum price instability in connection with politics intrusion into the oil business. The author shows the dominant position of OPEC on petroleum market during the 70s and the 80s, the influence of Iranian revolution, Iran / Iraq war and Kuwait invasion by Iraq on petroleum price evolution. 5 figs

  20. Practical Theory: Teaching Political and Economic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    How can philosophical instruction inform practical analysis and decision making among college students in a way that demonstrably benefits them as individual members of our polity and economy? I pose this question because each year, I introduce classic political theory to first- and second-year college students who simultaneously confront a fiscal…

  1. THE CONCEPT OF IDENTITY IN THE SOCIO-POLITICAL DISCOURSE OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Morozov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the strategy of the Russian Orthodox Church for the revival of national, state and church identity in Russia. The peculiarities of the church interpretation of the concept of identity and the risks of loss of national identity are revealed from the standpoint of the Church. The author concludes that in the socio-political discourse of the Orthodox Church the concept of identity is presented as a cultural and social marker and is comprehended in the paradigm of conformity with established standards and behavioral responses. Spiritual identity is seen in Orthodoxy through an appeal to the religious tradition and is correlated with the moral imperative formed in the past and with the social and legal code. The Church considers the Orthodox self-identification of citizens and its participation in sociocultural transformations of Russia to be important factors of state identity. In declarations on the topic of Christian identity, the leaders of the Church rely on the idea of Russian religious philosophy about the genetic connection of Orthodoxy with national consciousness. The tendency of Orthodox participation in the public examination of secular cultural events, in teaching schoolchildren (“General Professional Competences’ in the course of ‘The Basics of Religious Cultures and Secular Ethics” and in the scientific activity of higher educational institutions (the inclusion of “theology” in the list of scientific disciplines of the Higher Certifying Commission is developing. Public support for the interaction of the Church with state institutions of culture and education is regarded by the author as a factor of acquiring institutional features of identity by Orthodoxy. The active participation of the Church in the public discussion on the relationship between Russia and European countries is motivated by the desire to develop international cooperation, which is hampered by the value contradictions that the

  2. Managing Mexican Oil: Politics or Economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Puyana Mutis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During decades the policies towards oil and energy implemented in Mexico have resulted in the de pletion of reserves, the explosion of debt of Pemex (90 per cent of its capital, and the dramatic petrolization of the total fiscal revenue. High prices, the war on terror and political instability in oil rich regions have reinforced usA policy of "energy security" and the interest in the creation of the Common Market on Energy, as the way to strengthen the TLCAN. To respond to these two forces Mexico will have to reform its traditional oil policy. All possible options: to reduce the fiscal burden upon Pemex or to open to private investments the exploration of oil have excruciating political costs, which no government has shown the will to confront.

  3. The political chaff from the economic grain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The idea that economic activities may be described and studied as ‘embedded’ in social relations has been central to much debate in recent economic sociology. The present study analyses legal struggles over the status of begging in Unites States law, and argues that conflicting rhetorical accounts...

  4. Economics, Politics and Education. Sociology of the School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, David

    This monograph, one in a series on theory and educational issues in Australia, explores links between education and political and economic structures. Two sections provide an analysis of an education-work program and five readings. The Transition Education Program is described as a government response to the 1979 economic crisis. The policy and…

  5. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  6. Influence Of International Financial And Economic Organizations On The Development Of Russian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy A. Pashencev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article characteristics and patterns of the impact of the international financial and economic organizations on the development of Russian law in the present-day conditions are described. It is noted, that the international financial and economic organizations firmly rooted in the world. They are based on international agreements, which participants could be also non-State structures. The role of international financial and economic organizations in the development of the negative effects of globalization and the production of global financial crisis is considered. The necessity to change the economic course of our country was proved because of the crisis and sanctions, as well as the need to find new ways of structuring the international financial and economic space, including the basis of the new inter-state unions and a new reserve currency. It is shown that the Russian domestic law should be the barrier against the destabilizing influence of transnational corporations. Legal acts of the Russian Federation defining the terms and scope of cooperation with international economic and financial organizations were analyzed. It is noted, that in accordance with applicable Russian legislation, international financial institutions have the right to invest in Russian companies, including and strategic. It is proved that the situation in the modern world and its negative manifestations determine the need for a number of effective measures and require changes in legislation. It is necessary to make changes in the current Russian legislation, first of all, investment, banking, trade, etc., to develop effective legal mechanisms for the protection of domestic producers and the national market from the expansion of multinational corporations.

  7. Technical, economical and legal aspects of repatriation of Russian-origin research reactor SNF to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Kanashov, B.; Efarov, S.; Lebedev, A.; Kolupaev, D.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the report is to find some principal decisions to implement an Agreement between the Governments of the Russian Federation and the USA on repatriation of the research reactor spent nuclear fuel (RR SNF) to the Russian Federation. The report presents some ideas and approaches to the transportation of the Russian-origin RR SNF from the technical, economical and legal viewpoints. The report summarizes the Russian experience and possibilities to fulfill the program under the Agreement. Some decisions are proposed related to application of the international transportation experience and the most advanced technologies for the RR SNF handling. At present, there is no any unified SNF transportation technology that is capable to implement the transportation program schedule set by the Agreement. The decision is in the comprehensive approach as well as in the development of mobile and flexible schemes and in implementation of parallel and combined shipments. (author)

  8. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  9. Growing Economic Inequality and Its (Partially Political Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Lehman Schlozman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing economic inequality fosters inequality in the political processes of American democracy. Since the 1970’s inequalities in earnings and wealth have increased dramatically in the United States creating a higher level of inequality in disposable income than in other developed democracies. The United States also lags behind other rich nations in the way it provides for those at the bottom of the income distribution, and there is no evidence that the opportunities for success promised by the American Dream compensate for inequality in America. Technological and economic developments are significant causes of this growing economic inequality. The role of politics is more controversial, but government policy influences the distribution of income and education by the way it determines government benefits, taxes and the way markets function. For a number of reasons—including, most importantly, the relationship between education and income and the ability of the affluent to make large campaign donations—those who are economically well-off speak more loudly in politics. They are more likely to engage in most forms of individual political participation—not only ones that involve using cash but also ones that cost nothing except time. Moreover, when it comes to political voice through organizations, a professionalized domain dominated by hired experts in which the volume of political voice can be altered to reflect available economic resources, affluent interests are more likely to be organized and active. This essay considers the growing economic inequalities that form an important part of the backdrop for unequal political voice.

  10. The Use of Migrant Labour — Threat or Advantage for Russian Economical Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Aleksandrovna Koretskaya-Garmash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a relevant problem of labour migration, the potentially possible threats and advantages of attracting and using of foreign migrant labour in the framework of the Russian economy are considered. The purpose of this work is to establish the how the migration processes influence over the current state of the Russian economy, and whether it is possible to meet the demand in the labour force by attracting labour migrants. The research method is the analysis of the statistical indicators of the Russian regions’ development, of demographic, migratory and financial situations in the Russian Federation. The results of the study are presented in the form of a quantitative assessment of the potential threats to the internal market due to the use of external migrant labour, which has already led to the Russian economic disruption, the devaluation of the Russian ruble, the growth of current account deficit, the load on the pension system of Russia. Therefore, we must not forget the positive aspects — rejuvenation of the age composition of the population, occupation of vacant jobs by the workers in the disadvantaged Russian regions, the increasing size of tax revenues to the Russian budget system by filing patents on employment activity. The presented results of the study can be used by public authorities in the migration policy, labour and social work for the development of the state programme stimulating internal and external migrants for employment in the regions with a shortage of manpower. The conducted research allows to define the relationship between labour migrants and economic activity of local population, to characterize the reasons of external labour migration and to analyse the consequences of migration for the host country

  11. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  12. Economics, political science, and law. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lasswel (harald); O. Schachter (Oscar); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractLASSWELLT:h e first of our discussants is of the discipline that the rest of the social scientists examine with mixed feelings of respect and envy, namely, economics. Prof. Jan Tinbergen. TINBERGEIN p: ropose not only to give a very brief summary of my paper but to add a few remarks that

  13. Political and economic factors of late transition in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition in Serbia is late, from the aspects of both its start and course. The initial conditionality, strategy, sequentially, prospects and results shape transition profile. Key factors of the late transition are grouped within a complex of political and economic factors, which are themselves ambivalent - their external and internal effects are evident. An institutional vacuum is especially limiting complex, with a significant influence on the political and economic aspects of the transition. An analysis of the two groups of intertwined factors serves as a basis for making a projection of future course and reform dynamics in Serbia. Different scenarios are present. An increase or decrease in the transition dynamics is conditioned by elimination of negative impacts of political and economic factors, i.e. by promotion of positive aspects of the solutions.

  14. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joi...... in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear......Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  15. Distribution of Financial Resources Within the Budget System of the Russian Federation and Regions’ Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyom Gennadyevich Isaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of central government transfers and other sources of regional budget revenues (income tax and property tax on per capita GRP growth in Russian regions. Analysis is based on official data of 78 regions for the period 2005-2014. The results indicate that transfers, while intending to be an instrument of regional incomes equalization, are negatively associated with economic growth of Russian regions, which contrasts with other estimates of federal transfers’ impact on regional economic growth in Russia. This phenomenon can be explained by high rate of social expenditures in regional governments’ spending. At the same time there is positive relationship between regional budget’s investment and economic growth that indicates significant role of public goods for regional economic development. This study can be considered as confirmation of those conclusions concerning impact of fiscal decentralization on economic growth of Russian regions which claim that current system of intergovernmental relations on sub-national level cannot embody the benefits of fiscal federalism as a principle of effective regional development. Significant factors of regional per capita GRP growth are own sources of region’s budget revenues which reflect costs of doing business. So the rise in property taxes retards economic growth in a region. For the regional authorities it makes sense to operate more flexibly with this tool, especially in periods of economic recession when inflow of corporate income tax to budget tends to decrease

  16. Striving for Economic and Political Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Hu Jintao, China’s president and Communist Party chief, is asking his government to abandon its 25-year-old policy of striving for the fastest possible economic growth, regardless of the costs to society and the environment. Instead, he wants China to balance sustainable growth with a programme to redress the many negative consequences of two decades of 9%-plus GDP growth. Although we do not expect Hu to fix China’s health care system or to deliver a clean and green environment in just five y...

  17. Demographics, political power and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz-eakin, D

    1993-01-01

    "Growth theory may be used to predict the response of saving, capital formation, and output growth to large demographic shifts. Such large shifts would also be expected to alter the demand for government services and the desired levels of taxation in the population. This paper extends the overlapping-generations model of economic growth to predict the evolution of government tax and spending policy through the course of a major demographic shift. Simulations suggest that this approach may yield valuable insights into the evolution of policy in the United States and other industrialized economies." excerpt

  18. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the turbulent year of 2016, with deep geopolitical changes, the new year of 2017 promises to be full of challenges in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. The key events of the last year (the Brexit, the elections in the USA, the events in Turkey, the force demonstrations of Russia, the situation of the migration wave etc. shall have an impact on the global economic development and on the repositioning of its main actors. This paperwork intends to analyze the main consequences of the recent events on the short term progress in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. We hereby intend to review the facts and the main potential progress on the economic status of this year which was so complicated, both for the European Union and for every member of it.

  19. How do political and economic institutions affect each other?

    OpenAIRE

    Braunfels, Elias

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides evidence for the mutually reinforcing relation of political and economic institutions. To overcome problems of endogeneity I utilize lag instruments within a GMM framework for dynamic panel data. Employing recently developed tests, I show that limiting the number of lag instruments and collapsing the instru- ment matrix eliminates many and weak instrument biases. My major findings are that (i) improving economic institutions has a large positive effec...

  20. The law, economics and politics of international standardisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    In an era of increased reliance on private regulatory bodies and globalised economic activity, standardisation is the field where politics, technical expertise and strategic behaviour meet and interact. International standard-setting bodies exemplify the rise of transnational governance and the

  1. Major socio-economic and political developments in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic and political developments that affected economy of the country in general and its currency in particular, during the period under review included: attainment of independence on 1st October, 1960, attainment of republican status in 1963, the country's civil war (1967-1970), decimalization of currency in ...

  2. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence: Utopia or Dystopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-06

    Aug 6, 2010 ... Economic Liberalization and Political Violence: Utopia or Dystopia? ... Narrowing the concept of globalization to the more manageable notion of “neoliberalism,” ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity ... of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  3. More Media for Southern Africa? The Place of Politics, Economics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with global trends, media in Southern Africa in the past decade has been moving slowly towards mergers, partnerships and multi-platform publishing. Driven by politics and facilitated by technology, the process has had to confront the difficulty of establishing viable economic models, the lack of regional integration ...

  4. The Social Composition and Main Tasks of Russian Right-Monarchist and Centrist Political Parties of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Zabolotskikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the social composition of the political parties of the Russian Empire in the early XX century and a real reflection of interests of different social groups. The estates principle of social organization of pre-revolutionary Russia, seems, was to be decisive to formation of the party organizations. However, in practice, many public organizations (in particular, the Black Hundred Party declared their all-estates character, trying to become the spokesman of the greatest possible number of social groups. By the beginning of XXcen tury in Russia there were about 60 parties, which could be called the all-Russian. Comparing the most famous of them, the author concludes that representatives of the Black Hundreds largely managed to realize the proclaimed all-estates construction principle of political organization. As stated by the leader of the Monarchist Party V.A.Gringmut, "Black Hundred-monarchists - are thousands, millions, it's - the whole Russian Orthodox people, remaining faithful to the oath unlimited Orthodox tsar" [10, p. 156]. The ideology of the Black Hundreds, which had the universal Christian character, reflecting the traditionalist outlook of the country's population, contributed to their penetration into the masses. Contrary to popular belief, the big bourgeoisie and the landlord class were not the only groups that are members of the «Union of October 17 th». However Octobrists faced with serious problems, attracting to its ranks of workers and peasants of the Russian population, because they are more focused on employers rather than workers. For example, as the researchers note, an important role in the creation of the "Union of October 17 th " played factory owners Brusnitsyns in St. Petersburg [3, p.122]. But by 1917 Octobrists altogether lost control of the labor movement. Thus, despite the constant positioning of the political parties of the Russian Empire as all-estates, in reality, they pursued the interests

  5. The Social Composition and Main Tasks of Russian Right-Monarchist and Centrist Political Parties of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Zabolotskikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the social composition of the political parties of the Russian Empire in the early XX century and a real reflection of interests of different social groups. The estates principle of social organization of pre-revolutionary Russia, seems, was to be decisive to formation of the party organizations. However, in practice, many public organizations (in particular, the Black Hundred Party declared their all-estates character, trying to become the spokesman of the greatest possible number of social groups. By the beginning of XXcen tury in Russia there were about 60 parties, which could be called the all-Russian. Comparing the most famous of them, the author concludes that representatives of the Black Hundreds largely managed to realize the proclaimed all-estates construction principle of political organization. As stated by the leader of the Monarchist Party V.A.Gringmut, "Black Hundred-monarchists - are thousands, millions, it's - the whole Russian Orthodox people, remaining faithful to the oath unlimited Orthodox tsar" [10, p. 156]. The ideology of the Black Hundreds, which had the universal Christian character, reflecting the traditionalist outlook of the country's population, contributed to their penetration into the masses. Contrary to popular belief, the big bourgeoisie and the landlord class were not the only groups that are members of the «Union of October 17th». However Octobrists faced with serious problems, attracting to its ranks of workers and peasants of the Russian population, because they are more focused on employers rather than workers. For example, as the researchers note, an important role in the creation of the "Union of October 17th" played factory owners Brusnitsyns in St. Petersburg [3, p.122]. But by 1917 Octobrists altogether lost control of the labor movement. Thus, despite the constant positioning of the political parties of the Russian Empire as all-estates, in reality, they pursued the interests of

  6. Economic and political hybridity: Patrimonial capitalism in the post-Soviet sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Hybridity in non-democratic states can be economic as well as political. Economic hybridity is produced by the same kind of pressures that create political hybridity, but the relationship between economic and political hybridity has not been as much studied by political scientists. This article uses the concept of patrimonial capitalism to look at economic hybridity, its stability and relationship to political hybridity. Using examples from Russia and other former Soviet states it argues that...

  7. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Vasilii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  8. Typological Features of Economic Development in Russian Regions under the Conditions of Development of Continuous Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Viktorovich Kroshilin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern conditions the socio-economic paradigm is changing, on the one hand, due to the transition to knowledge economy and, on the other hand, due to the need to develop innovation that determine competitiveness and the development level of national economies in the world. It is obvious that the progressive upgrade and the improvement of production processes (change in technological modes can not be implemented without the increase in the level of human capital in the society and the enhancement of potential and qualification of the workforce. These changes largely depend on the education system. In almost all world countries there is an active process of modernization and change in the system of training. New forms and approaches appear, for example lifelong education (concept “Lifelong education”, informal forms of learning, self-education, etc. Without the development of these approaches it is not possible to become a competitive state in changing social, political and economic environment. This is particularly true for countries, which experience changes in the technological mode and have the necessity to transfer to new technologies. Russia is among such countries nowadays. In our opinion, the modern reforms do not give the opportunity to fulfill the main task of education – to ensure and create conditions for self-determination and self-moralization of an individual in the society, achieve the desired level of knowledge for development of innovation in the regions. In the framework of the conducted research we get the classification of all Russian regions by indicators, such as “innovation” and “investment attractiveness”, with the levels of education being taken into account. This approach, on the one hand, shows the heterogeneity of socio-economic development of the country’s regions and, on the other hands, ‒ allows us to reveal the fact that the same federal district can include both regions-locomotives and

  9. Trade policy under imperfect competition: The economics of Russian roulette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractNeo-classical economic theory shows that managed trade or protectionism is (almost) always welfare decreasing. However, measurements of the welfare costs of protectionism based on neo-classical models seem to suggest that these costs are quite small. We discuss general new insights and

  10. Trade policy under imperfect competition : The economics of Russian roulette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S; vanMarrewijk, C

    Neo-classical economic theory shows that managed trade or protectionism is (almost) always welfare decreasing. However, measurements of the welfare costs of protectionism based on neo-classical models seem to suggest that these costs are quite small. We discuss general new insights and developments

  11. [Economic and political aspects of prostate cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Zaleski, I

    2008-04-01

    Deciding on a health policy in practice means dedicating human and financial resources and prioritising spendings. The economic evaluation of prevention strategies attempts to establish a relationship between the medical benefit of prevention and its additional cost (or in some cases cost reduction) compared to no prevention. Decisions on reimbursing drugs, interventions or funding health programmes do not usually follow efficiency criteria which define economic rationality. Politics may for example decide to make prostate cancer a public health priority if mortality in a country or in some regions of the country appears to be excessively high. Economic rationality alone is not an appropriate factor on which to base a decision which may be purely political, reflecting the actual values of the society at a given point in time.

  12. Directions of sustained economic growth of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Irina Petrovna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we’ll consider the innovative activity of company, distinguish the components preventing the introduction of innovations and investigate the main approaches to the formation of innovative development of organization in terms of economic and technological aspects. Relying on the marked-out features of introduction of technological innovations by the domestic enterprises, the directions of their development and use are proved.

  13. ECONOMIC IDENTITY OF THE SOUTH-RUSSIAN REGIONS: RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Bazhenov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the interdisciplinary expert survey «Bottom-up: how the economic identity of the region is manifested in the socio-economic behavior of the individual.» His goal was to detect and record the effects of an economic identity of the region in socio-economic behavior of individuals in various regions of six Federal districts of the Russian Federation. The article focuses on the results of the survey obtained in the regions of the South of Russia, such as the regions of the North Caucasus. The article presents the methodology, describes the technology survey and analysis of obtained results. The authors also draw conclusions about cross-cultural differences in models of economic behavior of the studied ethnic and cultural groups in the South-Russian regions. They show the relationship of economic phenomena of identity and models of economic behavior with social and cultural factors. The nature of these linkages varies among the representatives of different groups, and when we define economic identity, then the factor of religious affiliation less important than the factor of ethnicity.

  14. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  15. Assessment of the economic sanctions influence on the Russian banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara F. Zakirova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the impact of economic sanctions on the key indicators of the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks of the Russian Federation by comparing them to the indicators of nonsanctioned credit institutions. Methods logical method method of comparative analysis statistical methods method of graphic images. Results the article examines the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. The sanctions affecting the Russian banking system are presented in chronological order. It is stated that the negative impact of the Western sanctions on the banking system is not denied. The authors analyze scientific works devoted to the effect of sanctions on Russian banks. The analysis revealed the absence of comprehensive studies of the effect of sanctions on the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks. For this assessment the authors analyzed the performance indicators of six sanctioned and six nonsanctioned Russian banks with the largest assets. It is proved that economic sanctions led to deterioration of the financial results of the sanctioned banks increased their dependence on the domestic interbank market and the funds from Bank of Russia. Other changes were mainly due to the overall economic situation internal policies of banks and the policy of the Bank of Russia not the sanctions. nbsp Scientific novelty the article for the first time basing on the comparative analysis of the main performance indicators of the sanctioned and nonsanctioned banks proved the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. However despite the banking sector adaptation to the existing conditions through their reorientation to the domestic market it should be noted that a certain tension ensuring the longterm liquidity is still preserved. The cost of the available longterm resources to be attracted remains relatively high which influences the financial results of the banking sector. Therefore without

  16. GLOBALIZATION AS A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is defined as a process that integrates knowledge worldwide, has its historical reference on changes in the ways processes, methods and information are addressed; documented its inception in the late twentieth century, Castells, M. (2001 beyond the discrepancy about whether it is a product of technological development or an inevitable evolution of capitalism, research arises from the formulation of the following questions: How important is the study of globalization ?, What has produced important contributions in the scientific community about globalization? And What are the perspectives or approaches addressed? . This work aims to show how the scientific community has produced knowledge about this phenomenon addressing the political, economic and social approaches: From the economic point of view reconfigures how to address the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the world, permeating this way all international economic events. From the political point of view, besides the redistribution of emerging geopolitical blocs, it establishes a new category of state, transnational state. From the social point of view, it shows evidence of the negative effects of globalization on resizing the category personal, local or regional or even in global risk-Global group. The research is documentary literature, their contribution to social science evidence to characterize globalization as political, economic and social phenomenon of the century that permeates all areas of study applied.

  17. The Political Economy of Postwar Economic Development in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.

  18. Recognition of English and German Borrowings in the Russian Language (Based on Lexical Borrowings in the Field of Economics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrapova, Alsu; Alendeeva, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of a study of the influence of English and German on the Russian language during the English learning based on lexical borrowings in the field of economics. This paper discusses the use and recognition of borrowings from the English and German languages by Russian native speakers. The use of lexical borrowings from…

  19. Politics sans economics: commentary on the political economy of demonetization in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaad Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 8th November and 31st December 2016 the Indian government instituted one of the biggest demonetisation exercises in the world by withdrawing 86 percent of all currency in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes. This paper looks at the debate surrounding the demonetisation exercise and attempts to provide a political economy logic. Interrogating the various arguments around demonetisation, it argues that demonetisation has been reduced to a political posturing as the economic consequences remain highly debated.

  20. Russian Innovative Potential in the Conditions of Economic Sanctions: Reserves of Grown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impact of economic sanctions in general for innovative development of Russia, as well as individual sectors of oil, gas, financial and banking sector. It is shown that the ban on exports to the Russian oil and gas technology has led to the freezing of existing and refusal to enter into new projects. Increased production and export of US oil and gas have led to an increase in excess of the global scope of these types of raw materials and led to long-term downward trend in world energy prices. In recent years there has been a sharp decline in the net inflow of foreign direct investment in Russia, which exacerbates the problem of domestic sources of domestic innovation policy. The effect of sanctions on the development of the Russian economy as a whole and its individual regions is condifered. The paper describes the approaches to the definition of the innovation potential of the Russian region, identified several levels of manifestation of the region's potential and its characteristics, provides a definition of the region's innovation potential, discussed the factors influencing the development of the region's innovative capacity. The current state of the regional innovation system of the Russian Federation is analysed. The paper describes the main tasks of the Russian Federation Innovative Development Strategy for the period up to 2020. The degree of implementation of the Strategy, problems and prospects of realization of the basic provisions of the Strategy, the impact of the implementation of the Strategy on the Russian economy, its position in the index business are analysed in the paper.

  1. Political and economic situation in Ukraine: results and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Gennadievna Ilinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After November events of 2013 in Ukraine there were big political transformations: early presidential and parliamentary elections were as a result held. But whether economic and political reforms during war are possible - for Ukraine it is one of the main issues. 22-year history of the Ukrainian state including history of the "new" power (since February, 2014, testify that Ukraine everything leaves from reforms further: unstable rate of national currency, production falling, decrease in GDP, deterioration of economic and social situation of the country. The authorities of Kiev still hope that the credits from the West will help with the short term, and in long-term - Ukraine the new European markets will open. The prolonged course of Kiev on the EU, can lead not to integration, and to degradation of the Ukrainian economy.

  2. OSTEOPOROSIS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION: EPIDEMIOLOGY, SOCIO-MEDICAL AND ECONOMICAL ASPECTS (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Lesnyak; I. A. Baranova; K. Yu. Belova; E. N. Gladkova; L. P. Evstigneeva; O. B. Ershova; T. L. Karonova; A. Yu. Kochish; O. A. Nikitinskaya; I. A. Skripnikova; N. V. Toroptsova; R. M. Aramisova

    2018-01-01

    The authors performed an analysis of published stadies devoted to osteoporosis situation in Russian Federation including epidemiological, social, medical and economical aspects of this pathology. The analysis demonstrated that osteoporosis is reported in every third woman and every forth man of 50 years old and older. Seven vertebra fractures happen every minute and one fracture of proximal femur — every 5 minutes in Russia. An overall number of all key osteoporotic fractures will increase fr...

  3. Plasma technology: a technical economical and political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, V.A. de; Vicente, L.C.; Bender, O.W.; Sanches Junior, O.

    1987-01-01

    To survey the State of the Art and Technic in Material, Process and Products by Plasma, it was needed to assemble economic, political and managerial variables that will affect the absortion and implantation of this technology in Brazil. Through a survey in industries, universities, research centers, energy agencies and financial and forster institutions it was possible to build a frame that gave us conditions to forecasting and suggest some mesures to Plasma sector. (author) [pt

  4. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-13

    general election. Key observers have also pointed to decisions by Parti-Islam sa- Malaysia (PAS), Parti Keadilan Rakyat , and the Democratic Action Party...Sultan fulfills this function. Each state has a state legislature. The lower house of Malaysia’s Parliament, the Dewan Rakyat , has 193 members elected...Order Code RL33878 Malaysia : Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered February 13, 2007 Bruce Vaughn, Coordinator Specialist in

  5. Maritime Piracy: Socio-Economic, Political, and Institutional Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gries; Margarete Redlin

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years piracy has become an increasing threat. Yet there are only very few econometric studies that examine under which conditions this phenomenon arises. As the number of maritime piracy and armed robbery incidents is characterized as count data and exhibits overdispersion, we apply random-effects negative binomial regressions for a panel dataset covering the period 1991-2010. Our results indicate that poor socio-economic, political, and institutional conditions in the ho...

  6. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    RN) and the rightist Independent Democratic Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente , UDI). A third coalition, the “Broad Party of the Socialist Left...independents and members of the Regionalist Party of Independents (Partido Regionalista de los Independientes , PRI), who are unaffiliated with either of the...Wilde, “Piñera Won. Will he uphold Chile’s post -Pinochet moral legacy?” Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 2010. Chile: Political and Economic

  7. Russian Expatriate Community in A.V. Antoshin’s Monograph “Russian Emigrants in Terms of “Cold War” (Middle 1940s – Middle 1960s)”: Establishment, Political Activity, Relation with the USSR

    OpenAIRE

    Artem I. Kuritsyn

    2013-01-01

    The review considers A.V. Antoshin’s monograph “Russian Emigrants in Terms of “Cold War” (Middle 1940s – Middle 1960s)”. Special attention is attached to the problem, concerned with the second wave of emigration. The article analyses the process of Soviet citizens repatriation after the World War II, considers the issues, concerned with the political activities of Russian expatriate community, propaganda efforts of People’s Labor Union and other emigration organizations.

  8. Russian Expatriate Community in A.V. Antoshin’s Monograph “Russian Emigrants in Terms of “Cold War” (Middle 1940s – Middle 1960s”: Establishment, Political Activity, Relation with the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem I. Kuritsyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review considers A.V. Antoshin’s monograph “Russian Emigrants in Terms of “Cold War” (Middle 1940s – Middle 1960s”. Special attention is attached to the problem, concerned with the second wave of emigration. The article analyses the process of Soviet citizens repatriation after the World War II, considers the issues, concerned with the political activities of Russian expatriate community, propaganda efforts of People’s Labor Union and other emigration organizations.

  9. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992

  10. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...

  11. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Dawes, Christopher T; Koellinger, Philipp D; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Chabris, Christopher F; Conley, Dalton; Laibson, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M

    2012-05-22

    Preferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to estimate the proportion of variation in these traits explained by common SNPs and to conduct genome-wide association study (GWAS) and prediction analyses. The pattern of results is consistent with findings for other complex traits. First, the estimated fraction of phenotypic variation that could, in principle, be explained by dense SNP arrays is around one-half of the narrow heritability estimated using twin and family samples. The molecular-genetic-based heritability estimates, therefore, partially corroborate evidence of significant heritability from behavior genetic studies. Second, our analyses suggest that these traits have a polygenic architecture, with the heritable variation explained by many genes with small effects. Our results suggest that most published genetic association studies with economic and political traits are dramatically underpowered, which implies a high false discovery rate. These results convey a cautionary message for whether, how, and how soon molecular genetic data can contribute to, and potentially transform, research in social science. We propose some constructive responses to the inferential challenges posed by the small explanatory power of individual SNPs.

  12. Political instability and economic growth: an empirical evidence from the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislava Grochová; Luděk Kouba

    2011-01-01

    For more than last 20 decades, new political economics has been dealing with theories of economic growth (for example influential contributions by Mancur Olson, Dani Rodrik). However, less attention has been paid to their empirical verification. The new political economics growth theory defines some factors that are necessary for economic growth among which political stability. Our aim is to test the theory focused on political stability empirically in order to enrich the studies with recent ...

  13. Analyzing Inflation and Its Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michael K.; Leak, Sarah

    Background information for teachers on inflation and self-contained learning activities to help students view inflation from both economic and political perspectives are provided. The introduction contains economics and political science frameworks for analyzing policy issues. How to integrate economics and political science is also discussed.…

  14. German Economic Expansion under the Conditions of the European Debt Crisis and Military-Political Conflict in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Михайлович Кухтин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German economic expansion in the EU is examined in the article. Berlin is using the European debt crisis and the political instability in Ukraine to strengthen its positions in the world. Interests of weak countries of the Eurozone are being ignored. Chancellor A. Merkel is striving for a gradual revision of European legislation in Germany’s favor. Today’s Berlin is supporting Ukrainian nationalists, hoping to hinder the growth of Russian influence in Eastern Europe with their help. The aggravation of international competition does not allow Germany to pursue a different European policy.

  15. IS RUSSIAN DECOMMODIFYING IN CATALONIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микел Кабал-Гуарро

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data collected in an ethnographic study conducted between 2014 and 2016 in tourist areas in Catalonia, Spain shows that the mastery of Russian has become a profitable commodity in Spanish tourism industry. The purpose of this paper is to show where and how Russian is used in the service industry and trace the commodification of the language over time. Against the background of fluctuating numbers of Russian-speaking visitors, this analysis will contribute to a better understanding of processes of language commodification and decommodification and the relationship between wider political and economic con-texts and valorisation of particular languages and speakers.

  16. Telecommunications, politics, economics, and national sovereignty: A new game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugliarello, G.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of telecommunications on politics, economics and national sovereignty is creating a new game. Political and economic power may operate over the same territory, as in the now-rare case of isolated economies, but, more often, their domains do not coincide. Increasingly, telecommunications create major challenges for countries preoccupied with issues of national sovereignty because the national state has only a limited ability to control these intrinsic and at times potentially destabilizing powers of telecommunications and the {open_quotes}telecommunities{close_quotes} they make possible. As many traditional aspects of sovereignty are becoming weakened by telecommunications, and as the intense dynamics of networks and the expansion of telecommunities revolutionize business and politics, there is a need to prevent the situation from becoming chaotic and uncontrollable, even while recognizing the possibilities of enhanced opportunities. This requires focusing on a more flexible conception of sovereignty which can enhance the state`s attractiveness for telecommunications infrastructure, while addressing issues of ethics and morality in the new telecommications environment. A new, broad socio-technological research agenda needs to be developed - with the ultimate purpose of providing society with the tools to play the new game and thrive. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Economics of high-rise construction: the feasibility of skyscrapers building in the Russian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Artur; Petrova, Daria

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the economic aspects of constructing high-rise buildings in the world and in Russia. Data on the number of high-rise buildings in Russian cities with a million population are presented. It is proved that interest in high-rise construction in Russia has been formed only in Moscow and partly in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg. The analysis showed that the reason for this is the expensiveness of high-rise construction. According to the enlarged macro-calculation, the cost of building 1 m2 of the area of the Federation Towers complex (Moscow City) is about 2710 /m2. Practically a possibility of return on investments in the foreseeable time interval exists only in Moscow. For the regions of Russia this task is rather complicated. Population density in regional Russian cities is quite low, business entities do not have the necessary financial resources for investing in high-rise construction, and investments from abroad absent.

  18. Russian Capital in Latvia: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals the issue of the positions of Russian capital in Latvian market. The paper aims to estimate the volume and dynamics of Russian capital inflows into Latvia in compliance with Russian economic interests; to identify key sectors of Latvian economy that Russian capital is interested to invest in; to systemize information concerning Russian firms investing in Latvia; to assess the role of Russian capital in Latvian economy in comparison with other foreign investors; to propose author’s view on challenges and perspectives of Latvian-Russian investment cooperation in the situation of economic sanctions and geo-political conflict in east Ukraine. The author underlines that at the end of 2013, investments of Russian business to Latvia constituted about 5.0% of the total FDI stock and by that time Russia was the 7th largest investor with 0.5 bln euro of capital invested. The main sectors of Russian interests in Latvia are - gas supply, transport communications (transit corridors, banking and real estate. The article concludes that though the future of Russian-Latvian economic relations in the short-run is on a substantial pressure of geopolitical factors, the economic interests in mutual investment relations will prevail in the long-run perspectives.

  19. Africa's Elites Ways of Commodifying Politics to Valorise Economic Rent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with incredulity first. Whilst doing some research for this paper, I came across members of the top political elite from Zaire to Nigeria often taken as 'kleptocrat extraordinaire' to be also in the forefront in denoucing rennt-seeking and corruption with an equal extraordinaire...... on this dlemma in order to address how rent-seeking cleansing can be attempted to align the elites as part of the solution rather than the problem of African economic and political development.......' flair and completeness at the same time.Some might ignore their stance as cynical and self-servingg and move on to other concerns. Others might condemn the fadulent behaviour, add what one can expect anyway from such immoral and unethical characters and pass on to other things.... This paper reflects...

  20. Gazprom the new russian empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzes the economical and political impacts of the great Gazprom group, leader in the russian energy domain, in Russia. Already number one of the world gas industry, this Group is becoming the right-hand of the Kremlin. Thus the author wonders on this empire transparency and limits. (A.L.B.)

  1. Reforming the Russian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Mayra Rodriguez

    1999-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview; Russian energy markets; Evolution of the power sector; The electricity market; Regulation and proposed reforms; Politics in the power sector; Economics of the power sector; Regional differences; Foreign involvement; Valuation and company management; Conclusions. (Author)

  2. An Agent-Based Dynamic Model of Politics, Fertility and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zining Yang

    2016-01-01

    In the political economy of development, government policy choices at a single point in time can dramatically affect a country's development path by impacting fertility, economic and political decisions across generations. Combining system dynamics and agent-based modeling approaches in a complex adaptive system, a simulation framework of the Politics of Fertility and Economic Development (POFED) is formalized to understand the relationship between politics, economic, and demography change at...

  3. Image of «Economic Miracle of Taiwan» in Perception of Russian Society in 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Игоревич Петров

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the formation process of the image of Taiwan that was developed in the public opinion in Russia in 1991–2000. This image has become the base for the future Russian-Taiwanese economic and trade relations. In that period the stereotypes of Taiwan that appeared in the Soviet times underwent fundamental changes, and there appeared a new concept of «economic miracle of Taiwan». This completely different image of Taiwan greatly influenced the economic ties between Russia and Taiwan, and it was considered to be the most suitable model for the Russian economic development.

  4. Decommissioning wind energy projects: An economic and political analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, Shannon L.; DeVuyst, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing segment of new electrical power capacity in the United States, with the potential for significant growth in the future. To facilitate such growth, a number of concerns between developers and landowners must be resolved, including assurance of wind turbine decommissioning at the end of their useful lives. Oklahoma legislators enlisted the authors to develop an economically-sound proposal to ensure developers complete their decommissioning obligations. Economic analysis of turbine decommissioning is complicated by a lack of operational experience, as few U.S. projects have been decommissioned. This leads to a lack of data regarding decommissioning costs. Politically, the negotiation leading to the finally-enacted solution juxtaposed economic theory against political pragmatism, leading to a different but hopefully sound solution. This article will provide background for the decommissioning issue, chronicle the development of the decommissioning component of the Oklahoma Wind Energy Act, and frame issues that remain for policymakers in regulating wind power development. - Highlights: ► Wind energy is the fastest-growing component of U.S. power generation. ► Decommissioning wind projects is policy concern for wind development. ► Little public information on wind turbine decommissioning costs exists. ► Oklahoma’s solution attempts to account for both costs and risks. ► Additional research is needed to create a more precise policy solution.

  5. A demographic-economic explanation of political stability: Mauritius as a microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, D

    1987-06-01

    "This paper examines current models of economic and political development--social modernization theory, political and economic characteristics of stable regimes, and cross country analysis of political stability--and tests them on the Indian Ocean Island of Mauritius. The analysis continues with a causal explanation for political stability in Mauritius' recent history, derived from an examination of economic policies and demographic patterns. Political change in Mauritius over the past sixty years seems to be explained best by a model for political stability which integrates specific economic and demographic factors. The model, applicable to development in other third world nations, revises Malthus' conclusion that population and economic conditions move in an oscillatory relationship and replaces it with a more comprehensive theory, suggesting that political stability is a function of both economic development and a repeating cyclical relationship between economics and population." excerpt

  6. Oil: economics and politics. Preliminary considerations on the Gulf Crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oil price fixing politics are first reviewed (existence of a floor price and of a maximum price, independently of economical consideration). In fact, geopolitical consideration are of premium importance in the oil demand/supply evolution. The Gulf Crisis and its surroundings (the Israel-Arab conflict) are revealing the supply and price logics of the oil market. An oil new order should be instaured through an OPEP restructuration and/or bilaterals relations and market dominance, organized by United States and Saoudi Arabia

  7. Strategies for managing nuclear proliferation: economic and political issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, D.L.; Intriligator, M.D.; Wick, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Several new ways of approaching nuclear-weapons proliferation emerged at an April 1982 conference at Tulane University. The new ideas use statistical techniques to emphasize political and economic rather than technological determinants, recognize the possibility that proliferation could have a stabilizing influence, shift their emphasis from eliminating to managing proliferation, and focus on regional factors. The four divisions of this book reflect these new trends. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 18 individual papers selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 6 figures, 23 tables

  8. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-10

    pace to meet all eight of the United Nations ( UN ) Millennium Development Objectives by 2015.9 Recent Political and Economic Developments Bachelet...Front For Elections,” EFE News Service, June 15, 2009; “‘Hombres Fuertes’ de Las Campañas Analizan lo que Está en Juego en la Elección Presidencial...Enriquez-Ominami Paves Way For Younger Leaders,” Oxford Analytica, September 7, 2009. 42 “Marco Enríquez es, Políticamente, Hijo de Bachelet y Lagos

  9. Socio-economic monitoring of hiv/aids threat in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Aleksandrovich Chereshnev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thesubject of theinvestigation issocial and economic aspects of thethreat of HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation.Theinvestigation was aimed at improving socio-economic monitoring of the HIV / AIDS threat. The methodology of systemic analysis and statistical methods were used. Three main sections of socio-economic monitoring of HIV / AIDS were defined with their problems, challenges and areas for improvement. Results of the study are applicable in justifying and shaping public policy to counter the threat of HIV / AIDS. Planned costs of measures to counter thethreat of HIV / AIDS must be based on requirements, allocation and results achieved. Systemic approach to planning requires an analysis of interrelation between costs, requirements and results. The absence of a systemic approach to coordination of costs and requirements leads to inefficient use of resources

  10. Clustering applications in financial and economic analysis of the crop production in the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gromov Vladislav Vladimirovich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used the complex mathematical modeling, multivariate statistical-analysis, fuzzy sets to analyze the financial and economic state of the crop production in Russian regions. We developed a system of indicators, detecting the state agricultural sector in the region, based on the results of correlation, factor, cluster analysis and statistics of the Federal State Statistics Service. We performed clustering analyses to divide regions of Russia on selected factors into five groups. A qualitative and quantitative characteristics of each cluster was received.

  11. SIMULATION OF STRATEGIC SOLUTIONS ON FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROVISION OF RUSSIAN DEFENCE INDUSTRY COMPLEX ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Dobrova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of tools making it possible to efficiently control financial and production capability of industrial corporations making part of the Russian military-industrial complex are discussed for aviation enterprises as an example. A system of balanced indicators is proposed to be used to develop corporation’s adaptive management strategies. The enterprise production activity financial optimization task is solved on the basis of specific cost optimization criteria by means of linear programming. Economic mathematical models are proposed to optimize the scopes andtime terms of financing to be attracted over the planning intervals.

  12. Local natural resource curse and sustainable socio-economic development in a Russian mining community of Kovdor

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Kristian Suutarinen

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource extraction forms the backbone of the Russian economy and characterizes the majority of regions and communities in the Russian North. The long-term socio-economic sustainability of natural resource extraction in resource abundant countries has been questioned and discussed in various social sciences with the resource curse theory, which, however, is understudied on the local level. This study creates a local resource curse theory that is based on the basic idea that there are ...

  13. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  14. Anti-Americanism: A Perfect Addition to a Russian Authoritarian’s Political Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and Putin responding with poultry embargos, claiming America was intentionally selling Russians tainted chicken.96 NATO expansion further into... Thomas Remington, Vladimir Putin effectively subjugated the Parliament and ushered in “a party system in which United Russia dominates regional and...a Weak State, 5–7. 224 Thomas Remington, “Parliament and the Dominant Party Regime,” in After Putin’s Russia, ed Stephen Wegren and Dale Herspring

  15. POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RICE SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice self-sufficiency is an important programme in Indonesia. The programme has four major targets, i.e. increasing production, stabilizing prices and reserve stocks, and minimizing import. For that purpose, the government gave a mandate to a parastatal, namely National Logistic Agency (Bulog in implementing the rice policies. Some studies found that involvement of such a parastatal could lead to government failure in budget allocation. The study aimed to estimate social cost of rice self-sufficiency programme based on the implementation of rice instrument policies by Bulog. The study used the national annual data of 2002–2014 period. The method used was the political preference function model to estimate economic rent and dead-weight loss using rice price elasticity of demand and supply. The result showed that in terms of percentage of food security budget, the average of economic rent reached IDR 6.37 trillion per annum (18.54%, while the average of dead-weight loss amounted at IDR 0.90 trillion per annum (2.34%. It proved that rice self-sufficiency programme along with the involvement of Bulog was economically inefficient. The government should provide better agricultural infrastructure, review governmental procurement prices, and stop rice import policy to remedy market failure.

  16. Tobacco, politics and economics: implications for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K R

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the expanding presence of multinational cigarette companies into almost every country in the world, and discusses the health implications of this global penetration. Cigarettes deserve special attention because tobacco is the only legally available consumer product that is harmful to one's health when used as intended. A temptation exists to blame governments for the existence of health-threatening products within their borders. However, this paper illustrates the extent to which extra-national forces influence domestic policies and circumstances. Cigarette smokers are often blamed for their lethal habit, despite billion-dollar promotional schemes which attract people to smoking, obscuring the harmful consequences of consuming a highly addictive drug. Multinational cigarette companies are increasingly targeting Asian and Third World populations. To facilitate this market penetration, political avenues are often pursued with considerable success, disregarding the health implications associated with cigarette tobacco. The use of tobacco in development programs (e.g. the U.S. 'Food for Peace' program) has political and economic implications for donor and recipient countries, and lucrative advantages for the tobacco companies. However, this paper recommends that corporate profits and foreign policy should not be pursued at the expense of tobacco-related diseases and premature deaths among Third World peoples.

  17. Challenges in Swedish hydropower – politics, economics and rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  18. Relative Importance of Political Instability and Economic Variables on Perceived Country Creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Suk Hun Lee

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of political instability and economic variables on perceived country creditworthiness. Our results indicate that both political instability and economic variables are taken into account in evaluating country creditworthiness; however, it appears that bankers assign larger weight to economic performances, which we except of reflect longer term political stability. In addition, the frequency of changes in the regime and armed conflict, both proxying f...

  19. Corruption, Political Instability and Economic Development in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Is There a Causal Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Nurudeen Abu; Mohd Zaini Abd Karim; Mukhriz Izraf Azman Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundant research on economic development, corruption and political instability, little research has attempted to examine whether there is a causal relationship among them. This paper examines the causal relationship among corruption, political instability and economic development in the ECOWAS using the Granger causality test within a multivariate cointegration and error-correction framework for the 1996 - 2012 period. The findings indicate that political instability Granger-caus...

  20. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  1. Public-Private Partnership as Political Phenomenon: Perspectives of Adaptation of Successful Foreign Practices to the Russian Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надежда Викторовна Шуленина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership show great development in modern Russia. Since the technology of interaction between business and government came from abroad it requires detailed consideration of the successes and current practices in the modern world. It is particularly important to identify relationships between form of government and decision making, both for political and economic decisions, as in most cases, these factors have the strongest influence on the formation of public-private partnership as an institution of the modern political process in Russia.

  2. Political Psychology in Russia: Current Issues in International Studies (Interview with Nikolay Kosolapov, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Andreevna Chmyreva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interview with Professor N. Kosolapov is devoted to the most urgent and complex problems of modern international relations and world politics, reveals the current state of political psychology in Russia and abroad, as well as the evolution of the science. As estimated by N. Kosolapov, the viability of political-psychological projects in Russia has fallen sharply compared to 1990's. They are not fully used in the development of political strategies, as well as in the process of operational decision making and its realization. In the interview are marked the obstacles to the emergence of theoretical and applied research in Russia, as well as key milestones for future development of political psychology. It also touches upon the most important questions of psychology of leadership within the framework of modern Russian and international practice, the political process as a whole, shows the differences in the approaches of European and Russian scientific schools in the analysis of political leadership. The author’s vision of key issues of contemporary international relations is of particular interest: we are witnessing the fact that American global leadership is experiencing an acute crisis, which contributes to the escalation of inter-state conflicts. However, the positive effect of the international crisis for our country is that it led the elites to reconsider their own ideological guidance with respect to Russia's role in world politics and forced to fight for the «new position».

  3. Political instability and economic growth: an empirical evidence from the Baltic states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislava Grochová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than last 20 decades, new political economics has been dealing with theories of economic growth (for example influential contributions by Mancur Olson, Dani Rodrik. However, less attention has been paid to their empirical verification. The new political economics growth theory defines some factors that are necessary for economic growth among which political stability. Our aim is to test the theory focused on political stability empirically in order to enrich the studies with recent European results. The paper uses a single-equation model to reject a hypothesis that political stability is a necessary condition for economic growth finding a relationship between economic growth and political instability. A demonstration that political stability is not a crucial factor for economic development in general then represents the main goal of the contribution. There are distinguished two types of political instability – elite and non-elite – in topical literature. While non-elite political instability concerns about violent coups, riots or civil wars, elite political instability is represented with “soft changes” such as government breakdowns, fragile majority or minority governments. A number of government changes is used as a proxy of elite political instability. The disproof of the hypothesis is demonstrated on data from the Baltic states where number of government changes takes place and still fast economic growth could be seen within last two decades. Since it is shown that political instability has almost no impact on economic growth, we consider the hypothesis regarding a necessity of political stability for economic development to be only a specific non-generalizable case.

  4. Socio-Economic Priorities for the Sustainable Development of Russian Arctic Macro-Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolaevich Leksin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To properly justify the priorities for the Russian Arctic Zone sustainable development is methodologically challenging for two reasons. Firstly, this challenge is due to fast changes of external and internal conditions for the development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF. Secondly, the interpretation of the concept of “sustainability” is too wide inconsistent. As the concepts of “sustainability” as well as the concept of “sustainable growth” in this wide sense are frequently used to characterize economic, social and other processes and systems, these key categories are difficult to apply as development’ targets and evaluation criteria practice of public administration in Russia. Using the case of Arctic macro-region, the paper substantiates the concept of spatial systems’ sustainability as their ability to maintain functionality under destabilizing impact of exogenous and endogenous factors. Such an ability is particularly important because of variations in structure and intensity of these negative impacts, including from climate change. Within this methodological framework, we have specified the indicators of sustainability relating to the practice of public management in the AZRF development. The paper has discussed the existing and emerging exogenous and endogenous impacts on the AZRF development sustainability. We set two priorities among the goals and objectives for ensuring the AZRF sustainable functioning under the conditions of climate. In social (socio-economic sphere, it is necessary to maintain and improve the public health. In economic sphere, the most needed are strengthening of coherency and reliability of the transportation system, energy supplies to distant consumers, and stimulating of investment and industrial activities of the large industrial corporations.

  5. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

  6. Determinants of the Russian Banking Sector Development as the Drivers of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya Stepanovna Voronova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the relationship between the situation in the national banking sector and Russia’s economy. Using the data provided by the Bank of Russia [8; 9; 10], Federal State Statistics Service [2], IBM SPSS Statistics software product, the authors have carried out a regression-correlation analysis of the main indicators of the Russian banking sector in 2005–2015 and GDP. It has been found that there is the strongest positive correlation between GDP and aggregate banking risks and also the profit of credit institutions; the correlation between GDP and aggregate financial result of the banking sector is weaker; the return on equity has no significant relationship with major indicators of banking activities, except for a moderate negative relationship with the aggregate value of regulatory capital; the return on equity in the Russian banking sector is affected adversely by subordinated debt in the structure of capital. In a stable economic situation (2005–2007, 2010–2013 the authors point out a correlation between capital and the profit of the banking sector; in a crisis situation (2008–2009, 2014–2015, there is a correlation between capital and the profit of profitable credit institutions alone. A positive correlation has been revealed between the proportion of profit of the reserve fund in the structure of capital and risks undertaken. Taking into consideration the correlations identified, the authors make a forecast model for aggregate profits of Russia’s banking sector

  7. IMPACT OF CIVILIZATIONAL SPECIFICS OF THE BIGGEST COUNTRIES ON THEIR SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Lunev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to civilizational factors of the largest Asian states, which attract much academic attention around the world, India and China, and the infl uence of these factors and their peculiarities on social, political and economic development. The article is prepared as a discussion of two books prepared by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences: “Indian Civilization in the Globalizing World” and “Chinese Civilization in the Globalizing World”. The authors rely on comparative method to analyze civilizational codes of India and China, to define key peculiarities of cultural and political development of the both states, to speculate on their historical paths, political systems, religious and ideological factors in the context of civilizational codes. Moreover, the article discusses international environment and the level and trends of economic development. The authors draw a number of conclusion about similarities and differences in two ancient civilizations, as well as their modernization patterns.

  8. Thinking Like an Economist: The Neoliberal Politics of the Economics Textbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    This article surveys 10 introductory economics textbooks to examine whether and how economics contributed to the rise of neoliberalism. It defines neoliberalism as a political rationality characterized by market constructivism. In contrast with conventional liberal approaches that view limited

  9. An Agent-Based Dynamic Model of Politics, Fertility and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zining Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the political economy of development, government policy choices at a single point in time can dramatically affect a country's development path by impacting fertility, economic and political decisions across generations. Combining system dynamics and agent-based modeling approaches in a complex adaptive system, a simulation framework of the Politics of Fertility and Economic Development (POFED is formalized to understand the relationship between politics, economic, and demography change at both macro and micro levels. First, a new political capacity measurement is used; and the system dynamics model is validated with the latest data. Second, the endogenous attributes are fused with non-cooperative game theory in an agent-based framework to simulate the interactive political economic dynamics of individual intra-societal transactions. Finally, macro and micro levels are connected with policy levers of political capacity and political instability by merging system dynamics and agent-based components. This paper also explores the agent-based model's behavioral dynamics via simulation methods to identify paths towards economic development and political stability. This model demonstrates micro level human agency can act, react and interact, thus driving macro level dynamics, while macro structures provide political, social and economic environments that constrain or incentivize micro level human behavior.

  10. Political discussion in Western Europe on the future of Russian-designed NPPs in reform states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breyer, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, the debate on nuclear power in Western Europe centered on the future of the nuclear power plants of Russian technology in the former East-block countries. The topic has got additional fuel by the current talks between the EU and the accession candidates. At stake is, however, not only the extent of nuclear power generation in reform states but also the role of nuclear power in the West or, more specifically, in Western Europe. Chernobyl changed the world for nuclear power. Green parties and anti-nuclear NGOs recognized their chance to deal a deadly blow to nuclear power. It couldn't surprise that the principal interest of the Western countries was to save their own nuclear power programs. Nuclear power in Western Europe regains public acceptance. The collapse of socialism in the COMECON countries in 1989 and 1990 paved the way for openness and cooperation between countries that had for decades belonged to antagonistic blocks. The new democracies looked to the West for help in reforming their economies and their administrative structures. Following a German initiative, the G7 summit in Munich in June 1992 agreed on a multilateral Action Program for improving the safety of Russian-design reactors in Central and Eastern Europe. In its diplomatic language, the Communique made clear that assistance for short-term improvements for RBMKs and first-generation WWERs would be conditioned to commitments to a shut-down 'as soon as possible' and that assistance for safety upgrades of newer plants would require safety studies and analyses of energy policies, energy alternatives and financing. World Bank and EBRID were put in charge of this. It should be noted that the G7 program met with strong opposition by anti-nuclear NGOs. They are focusing on shut-down dates

  11. Economic Co-operation Across the Finnish-Russian Border - Factors of Sluggish Development and Success of Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Rautio, V.; Tykkylaeinen, M.

    2000-01-01

    The post-Cold War era in Europe in the 1990s has caused people to recognize the complexity of economic development and economic co-operation. The opening of borders has not always meant an increase cross-border economic activities in general. On the contrary, the adverse socio-economic development of many border areas has been unanticipated. The Finnish-Russian border is one example of this dissonance. This paper analyses the operation of Finnish companies in economic activities in Russ...

  12. The Economic Performance and Size of Firms: the Case of Russian Health Resort Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Victorovna Pakhomova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how external and internal macro-economic factors (the reduction of real income of the population, the depreciation of the local currency to the US dollar in 2014 -2015, the promotion of Crimea as a direction for health and resort services for Russian citizens impact on the financial and economic indicators of health and resort organizations in Russia during 2012–2015. The calculations based on a variety of Federal Service of State Statistics data demonstrate the positive dynamics of the development of regional markets of health and resort services, due to the regional markets of health and resort services of Krasnodar, Stavropol and Altai regions and due to the inclusion of the Federal District of Crimea within the Russian macroeconomic indicators. The econometric model based on a sample of 272 organizations proves the hypothesis about the more beneficial impact of the changes in macroeconomic factors for large health and resort organizations (with a total annual revenue of 400 million roubles compared with smaller organizations. It is expressed in the growth of sales profitability and annual revenue. The calculations have shown that the organization size as an independent variable in a sample of data related to 2014–2015, increased its positive influence on the dependent variable of annual revenue growth comparing to sampling for 2012–2013. The tough financial constraints in the country trigger the discussion of new opportunities and tools for the development of market conditions, which will stimulate the demand for investment in material and technical base renewal and innovations from the side of large health and resort organizations. In addition to improving the transport accessibility of federal resort regions and measures for promoting and improving the quality of the general health and resort infrastructure, there are discussions to create a favorable competitive environment, improve the public procurement system

  13. Economic Sanctions as a Factor of Modernizing of Russian Defense Industry Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the defense-industrial complex (DIC of Russia in the conditions of economic sanctions. And although the center was the oil and gas industry, as well as the banking sector, economic sanctions against Russia affected the DCI. They touched first of all on such large Russian defense concerns as air defense "Almaz- Antey", "Sirius", "Stankoinstroment", "Kalashnikov", "Tula Arms Factory", NGO "Oriental Complexes", as well as "Dobrolyte". The prohibition of debt financing has affected such major enterprises of the defense industry as "Uralvagonzavod", "Oboronprom", "United Aircraft Corporation". The article shows, in general, the favorable impact of sanctions on the industry. At the end of 2016, Russia took the second place in world arms exports with a share of 23%, the US became the leader – their share was 33%. But the structure of the share capital in the defense industry companies is completely different if we compare these two countries: in the US, private companies dominate the market, in Russia – the largest enterprises are owned by the state. In the course of the analysis, it turned out that Russian defense industry enterprises are unprofitable or unprofitable, they do not have stability in financial performance, since they are highly dependent on government spending. To improve the current situation in this sector, it is advisable for the state to modernize the military-industrial complex companies in order to enhance the role of market mechanisms that will stimulate R & D, as under modern conditions of competition in any market, innovations represent an exclusive advantage for enterprise prosperity.

  14. THE DE-OFFSHORE-ISATION OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY AS A FACTOR IN THE RECOVERY OF THE ECONOMIC SOVEREIGNTY OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla L. Dykhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to problems of offshorization of the Russian economy andthe development of effective antioffshore policy aimed at restoring economic sovereignty of the country. The article examinesthe main causes of offshorization Russian business and the threat of economic security-related offshorization economy, and discusses the main directions of the development of a comprehensive antioffshore policy.

  15. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  16. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  17. The Political and Economic Perspectives of the Tiv-Jukun Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These conflicts, which have political and economic undertones, hinge on the struggle for political appointments and control of cherished economic resources in the area such as farmland. In order to achieve lasting peace in the area, the paper proposes reconciliatory efforts on the part of the belligerents. On the other hand, ...

  18. The Impact of China on South American Political and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2018-01-01

    The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development.......The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development....

  19. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    these policy recommendations are second best in strict economic terms, they are the best economic designs given that they must be politically feasible. Understanding the politics of green taxation is the prerequisite for the development of effective green taxation models which have a chance of being...

  20. A Study of the Organizational Culture at a Higher Education Institution [Case Study: Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyakin, Bogdan S.; Ivleva, Marina I.; Pozharskaya, Yelena L.; Shcherbakova, Olga I.

    2016-01-01

    The article offers an analysis of the organizational culture at a higher education institution as in the case of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, conducted in order to study the students' involvement in this culture and to draw conclusions as to what organizational culture principles are internalized by the students. The study used…

  1. The Adoption of E-Learning Technology at the Faculty of Distance Learning of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Vera G.; Melamud, Marina R.; Tutaeva, Dinara R.; Romanova, Yuliya D.; Zhenova, Nataliya A.

    2018-01-01

    The authors review application of information technologies and systems at the Faculty of Distance Learning of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. General aspects of organizing training in e-learning environment, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of such approach are also examined. The authors study and analyze a number of…

  2. Impact of Globalisation On Economic Growth in Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Its Economic, Social and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.

  3. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Sustainable development in the EU: a political and economic explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaco, Salvo

    2005-01-01

    envisaged when the recent European environmental policy was adopted. With the inevitable consequence that the most common environmental policy solution had frequently continued to be direct regulations. The scant progress in widening the range of instruments for control and behavioural change confirms the existence of a large disagreement between the normative prescriptions of economic theory and decisions effectively taken within the political process. If a large divergence between theory and practices often prevails, the relevant issue is then to understand why ED and Member States have failed to refer to the proposed wider box of instruments. In this direction, this paper points out the usefulness of the contribution that public choice theory can provide for understanding why particular environmental instruments are actually adopted and implemented. According to the individualistic approach of public choice, the paper deals with the issue concerning the choice and implementation of environmental policy tools through the analysis of the functioning of two strictly connected markets: the political market and the para-political market, and tries to give an explanation as to why in representative democracies, in which forces may be identified as demand and supply, an incentive-oriented environmental policy has many difficulties of being implemented [it

  5. The main trends of dynamics of incomes of Russians in times of economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Petryakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A research objective which result was this article is the analysis of dynamics of the income of families during the last economic crisis in Russia and influence of change of the standard of living on performance by a family of the main functions, first of all reproductive, zhizneokhranitelny and educational. Now quite steady growth of birth rate, improvement of the indicators characterizing family trouble (refusals of the born children, deprivation of the parental rights, deviant behavior of children and teenagers and health of children and teenagers is observed, however, as a result of decrease in the standard of living, increase in employment of parents, violation of this favorable tendency is possible. The research is based on the analysis of statistical and sociological information, including results of polls of the population, in him the research of ranks of dynamics, graphic and tabular methods is applied. In article sources of the income of the population, first of all – the salary and social payments exerting the greatest impact on the level of the income in general are considered. On the basis of the carried-out analysis the main tendencies characterizing extent of fall of the income of families with children proceeding from this research are formulated, it is possible to speak about increase of needs of families in measures of economic support. However, at the same time becomes the negative moment on the one hand, extremely low knowledge of families of already available measures of such help, and with another – their low assessment and unwillingness to participate in these or those programs offered by the state. In turn it is the factor worsening financial position of families too. High prosperity, material security still (as well as the 90th years, as well as at the beginning of this century are on an equal basis with a family and children the leading value of Russians. It is connected, first of all

  6. Political realities and economic realities towards a Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdaire, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The current climate change commitments and the negotiating positions of Annex I countries were discussed. It was pointed out that the energy sector is not homogeneous and therefore, climate change should focus on the areas all over the world which are most sensitive to a carbon value. It was also noted that while the present time is ripe for action on climate change, actions should not take place at any cost. A scenario based on the three principal functions of energy, i.e. to supply mobility, electricity and heat was proposed. It was claimed that this proposal had the potential to bridge the gap between the political reality of Kyoto and the economic realities of the energy sector. The essence of the proposal centred around the concept of 'carbon value'. The effect of establishing carbon values for each of the different energy services worldwide, was discussed. Various mechanisms for establishing carbon values, such as emission trading, joint implementation with non-Annex I parties, penalties for non-compliance, mitigation efforts in least-cost options, were also reviewed

  7. Corruption, Political Instability and Economic Development in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS: Is There a Causal Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen Abu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant research on economic development, corruption and political instability, little research has attempted to examine whether there is a causal relationship among them. This paper examines the causal relationship among corruption, political instability and economic development in the ECOWAS using the Granger causality test within a multivariate cointegration and error-correction framework for the 1996-2012 period. The findings indicate that political instability Granger-causes economic development in the short term, while political instability and economic development Granger-cause corruption in the long term. In addition, we employed the forecast error variance decomposition and impulse response function analyses to investigate the dynamic interaction between the variables. The results demonstrate positive unidirectional Granger causality from political instability to economic development in the short term and positive unidirectional Granger causality from political instability and economic development to corruption in the long term in ECOWAS countries. Thus, ECOWAS governments should employ policies to promote political stability in the region.

  8. South African oil dependency : geo-political, geo-economic and geo-strategic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ph.D. There is little research undertaken on the economic assessment of oil security of supply from the dimensions of geo-politics, geo-economics and geo-strategy. This study seeks to bridge the gap by providing new analytical and empirical work that captures the impact of geo-politics, geo-economics and geo-strategy on oil supply, consumption and price. This study is the first to define, analyse and contextualise the South African oil security of supply from a geo-political, geo-economic ...

  9. Russian energy prices, taxes and costs 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Russian energy industry may be the country's most promising exporter, but it is struggling to free itself from the heavy regulation and economic distortions inherited from the Soviet era. This analysis examines Russian price and tax policies as well as production costs in 1993, and their effect on supply and demand in the oil, coal, gas and electricity sectors. The study underscores the broad consensus among both Western and Russian experts that primary energy prices should be lifted to world levels. It offers a framework for addressing the great question about how fast this should be done in a country undergoing a tremendous social and political transformation

  10. Complete characteristics of rating estimations economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamid Nurislamovich Gizatullin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper allocates complete characteristics of indicators of economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation. Their system representation has appeared more informative, than system of simple social and economic indexes as allows reflecting variety of communications between them, providing preserving and development of researched objects. It is established that at deterioration of state of the economy of regions of their structure change the role in formation of base indicators. At the first stage it is expressed by change of a vector of development with an opposite direction; on the second — in transition from an optimum condition of available structures on periphery; on the third — in the termination of their participation in forming of under laying echelons. At transition of subsystems of social and economic indexes from the first on the second echelon the contribution of the moved potential from structures «resource-product» and «process» for elements of activization increases, for structures «object», on the contrary, decreases, while for final elements the opposite situation is observed. As approaching the top echelon there is a reduction of interaction of base indicators from structures «resource-product» and «process», and on the contrary, growth to structures «object». The conclusion is drawn that successful social and economic activity of regions is determined by synchronous interaction of all allocated structures («resource-product», «process» and «object». Use of the offered algorithm on the basis of complete characteristics allows not only to find out problem regions, but also shows possibility of management on the basis of revealed statistical regularities their condition by forming of optimum mutual relations between the allocated subsystems and, finally, creation of the big possibilities for realization of the having potential

  11. How do Five American Political Science Textbooks Deal with the Economic Dimension?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2011-01-01

    Politics and economics interact. As a consequence, political science textbooks must often relate to the economic dimension—implicitly or explicitly. But we know very little about how these textbooks relate to economics. Are they merely unreflective customers of neoclassical economics or do...... they strive for a cross-disciplinary approach? An analysis of five American textbooks identifies two very different and concurrent interactions between politics and economics. The first is a theoretically conceived market economy in which market forces independently drive growth and create equilibrium, where...... politics has a rather secluded role. The second is the actually existing mixed economy, characterized by increased inequality, economic concentration, power, and environmental problems, influenced by a state forced to regulate. The problems of operating with such a dichotomy— and possible solutions...

  12. An economic analysis of the political promotion system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiancai Pi

    2017-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the political promotion system in China. Specifically, we develop a generalized analytical framework by introducing the contest success function. On the one hand, the central government can give the optimal political promotion benefits to local officials to incentivize them to exert desirable developmental efforts. On the other hand, the central government can undertake a further design of the political promotion system to motivate local officials vi...

  13. Social and economic factors of the natural risk increasing: estimation of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to assess quantitatively social and economic factors that determine vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk, to trace the space differences of the considered factors, and to group the regions by their similarity. In order to indicate the regional differences in social and economic development, equipment condition, dangerous substances accumulation, and social trouble four the most suitable parameters were estimated, including the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP, capital consumption, volume of total toxic waste, and crime rate. Increase of the first parameter causes vulnerability reducing, the increase of the last three causes its increasing. Using multidimensional cluster analysis five types of regions were found for Russia according to similarity of the considered parameters. These types are characterized with higher value of a single (rarely two chosen parameter, which seems to be sufficient enough to affect natural risks increasing in these regions in near future. Only few regions belonging to the fifth type proved to have rather high value of GRP and relatively low values of the other parameters. The negative correlation was found between a number of natural disasters (ND and the per capita GRP in case when some parameters reached anomalously high value. The distinctions between regions by prevailing different parameters, which result in natural risk increasing, help risk management to find directions where to focus on.

  14. The Effect of Political and Economic Factors on Corporate Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Åsa; Porter, Susan; Perry Williams, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Economists and political scientists have long been interested in factors that affect the statutory tax rate on businesses set by federal governments. In this study, we examine the impact of political and economic factors on several measures of tax rates and tax incentives offered across 19 developed countries for the years 1979 through 2005. Our results indicate that while economic conditions such as openness, strategic interaction, budget constraints, economic downturns and an aging populati...

  15. The Political Economy of India’s Economic Reforms: Three Periods from 1947-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ECONOMY OF INDIA’S ECONOMIC REFORMS: THREE PERIODS FROM 1947–2016 by Vinamra V. Pande June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Naazneen Barma Co-Advisor...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF INDIA’S ECONOMIC REFORMS: THREE PERIODS FROM 1947–2016 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...India’s economic history. This research explores some of the most notable parts of India’s political economy and analyzes the domestic and

  16. Welcome Aboard Starship MIR: Mission Is Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullickson, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Six years ago Project Starship MIR, the Russian language "shuttle," launched at Turnagain Elementary, one of the Anchorage School District's 65 elementary schools. The MIR "peace" mission originated with encouragement from the local business community to prepare students for Alaska's future economic, social and political ties…

  17. The political economics of the permanent war and the political economics of the nuclear war. Strategic approaches for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez L, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the

  18. Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this project will ... While the Arab revolts brought with them a wave of political change and ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  19. Gray Zone Warfare: German and Russian Political Warfare, 1935-1939, and 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    51 the economic collapse of the Great Depression , and an existential crisis of confidence in representative government.133 For this study, there are... depression worsened in the Saar, Germany exploited this narrative in their propaganda to argue for return to Germany.185 The League of Nations...demonstrations; defamatory YouTube videos; direct messages by SMS, or even just walking up to somebody on the street and telling them something.211 Robert Szwed

  20. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  1. Evidence-Based Model of Integration of Regions for Ensuring Economic Security and Sustainable Development of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O. Smirnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main objective of preparation of article consists in formation of conceptual reasons for the new approach to administrative-territorial division of the Russian Federation corresponding to the relevant calls facing the country in the modern economic conditions. For achievement of this purpose in article the following research tasks are delivered and successfully solved: 1 to create new approach to administrative-territorial division of the Russian Federation on the basis of stability of her subjects; 2 to develop conceptual model of acceptance of the administrative decision on enlargement of regions by use of the modern methods of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of nature of regional development and a status of an economic security of the territory; 3 to define composition and structure of regional clusters, to give their characteristic in specific parametric space; 4 to develop recommendations about formation of administrative decisions on enlargement of regions taking into account specifics of development of the territories in a section of each cluster. Methods: by preparation of article general scientific methods of researches, such as systematization, generalization, cause-effect analysis and also receptions of the quantitative are used (hierarchical and iterative methods, statistic analysis and qualitative (methods of the spatial analysis, theory of image identification analysis. The new conceptual model based on synthesis of qualitative and quantitative methods of assessment of effectiveness of association of territories is developed for achievement of the goal of a research. According to the offered model making decision on association of the region is carried out in four steps. At the first stage justification of expediency of integration of territories is carried out and the general concept of association of regions is formed; at the second stage – holding a procedure of the cluster analysis and registration of

  2. Russian Societies of the Mutual Credit in the years of Economic Recovery (1909–1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Kattsina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Тhe article is dedicated to one of the poorly studied branches of the bank loan system in the Russian Empire, i.e. the mutual loan societies. While making investments in industry and sales turnover, mutual loan societies contributed to their widening scope by means of remote areas of the country. The most important factor to determine the peculiarities of mutual loan societies development was their bankruptcy during the economic recovery before World War I. That is why main focus is made on internal causes (that developed on the activity of the organization itself of financial insolvency (bankruptcy occurrence of mutual loan societies. They allowed show basic problems of mutual loan societies on the example of particular organizations, due to which the factors of crisis and financial insolvency (bankruptcy risks appeared. The article reveals such inefficient strategies of mutual loan society’s development and management as lack of real-life experience (qualifications of the staff, use of investors' finances for the administration personal needs (malpractice, inefficient management of the floating capital, poor loan policy connected with illegal profit withdrawal.

  3. OSTEOPOROSIS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION: EPIDEMIOLOGY, SOCIO-MEDICAL AND ECONOMICAL ASPECTS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lesnyak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors performed an analysis of published stadies devoted to osteoporosis situation in Russian Federation including epidemiological, social, medical and economical aspects of this pathology. The analysis demonstrated that osteoporosis is reported in every third woman and every forth man of 50 years old and older. Seven vertebra fractures happen every minute and one fracture of proximal femur — every 5 minutes in Russia. An overall number of all key osteoporotic fractures will increase from 590 thousand up to 730 thousand cases by the year 2035. Osteoporosis is financially demanding for healthcare due to high treatment cost of fractures that are accompanied by life quality deterioration, high mortality and invalidization of patients. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that due to high fracture risk the osteoporosis therapy should be assigned to 31% of female and 4% of male patients over 50 years old. Such factors of osteoporosis risks are widespread in the society: smoking, low food calcium consumption, vitamin D deficit, low physical activity. The authors analyzed the problems in organization of medical care to patients with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures and possible solutions to existing issues. The organization of healthcare should be addressed at identification of high risk patient groups, early diagnosis and assignment of corresponding treatment aimed at decreasing potential fracture risk as well as at pathology prophylaxis.

  4. Divided politics and economic growth in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Batalla, Eric Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    As the 2016 elections drew near and the prospects of a Rodrigo Duterte presidency became stronger, there were concerns that the economy might be adversely affected by the expected political volatility under the new regime. Since the start of the campaign season, Duterte had been rocking the establishment through controversial pronouncements and outbursts, attracting the enmity of leaders of the Catholic Church, the United States, and the United Nations. Based on a review of recent political a...

  5. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  6. Economics, funding and the influence of politics on the UMTRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamp, S.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation discusses the factors contributing to the cost of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project and the political process involved in the funding. Topics covered include the following: Funding estimate and growth of estimate; Management actions during process; how the political process worked; cost of completed sites; economic benefit analysis of the project to Colorado; cost reduction program for the UMTRA project

  7. Gifted Education's Reflection of Country-Specific Cultural, Political, and Economic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; McClarty, Katie Larsen

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies and practices are influenced by cultural, political, and economic factors, and this is also true of specialized educational approaches such as gifted education. Factors such as a country's cultural tendency toward egalitarianism or meritocracy, whether the political system is centralized or decentralized, and the degree to…

  8. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POLITICAL INSTABILITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF TURKEY (1987-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELİM ŞANLISOY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economy and policy are always in mutual interaction. Especially the fact that sharp judgement between economical variables and democratization cannot be put forward shows that the relationship between political instability and economical variables should be analysed. In recent studies political stability or instability variables including more comprehensive variables instead of democratization variables have been used. The main aim of this study is to analyse the effects of political instability often experienced in Turkey’s conditions on economic growth. Here in terms of the analysis of variables (data time series a model with single equation was established and within the framework of this model some analyses were carried out with the help of main and control variables. To the findings, in accordance with the literature, it is verified that there is a reverse relationship between political instability and economic growth in Turkey and in the light of the findings, some policy suggestions are also made.

  10. Sovereign Wealth Funds as Global Economic and Political Actors: Defining of Notions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Алексеевич Кинякин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to consideration of sovereign wealth funds (SWF as economic and political actors as well as analysis of different forms of their activity in the contemporary global economics and politics. The author comes to the conclusion, that sovereign wealth funds play not only the role of providers of interests of the national states, but being the special purpose vehicles (SPV, designated to fulfill the different tasks, turn out to be the new type of global actors.

  11. Communication through Foreign Languages: An Economic Force in Chinese Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.; Liu, Jinyun

    1991-01-01

    Second-language use by Chinese business managers illustrates that second-language competence is driven partly by economic and political forces. Although Russian language knowledge is typical of the older managers, English and Japanese are favored by younger managers, reflecting the wane of Russian political influence and the growing importance of…

  12. THE ROLE OF THE ECONOMIC RENTS IN THE POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION OF TURKEY AFTER THE 1980S*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugra Kalkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is claimed in this article that one of the main aims of the “bureaucratic tutelage” system in Turkey is to control the distribution of the economic rents created by the import-substituting industrialization. Thus, economic statism and the bureaucratic control over elected politicians were compatible with each other until economic liberalization in 1980. Even a limited economic liberalization created great opportunities for the politicians to weaken the power of the bureaucratic elites, particularly military officers. Thus, there is a strong relationship between economic liberalization and democratization in Turkey after 1980. However, even though, bureaucratic tutelage is regressed, Turkey is still far from having a transparent government and efficient public organizations. The conventional explanations are not adequate to grasp the intermingled relations between economic and political institutionalization in Turkey. Therefore, public choice may help to understand the role of the economic motivations of the political actors/elites in the context of shaping the political institutions. The political actors are seen as utility maximizers within the limits of institutional rules and practices, and the institutional change is explained with the help of changing interests and power relations of these actors. Enlarging economic liberties have gradually forced bureaucratic tutelage system to dissolve. For sure, dissolving the bureaucratic tutelage system is not a perfect or an intended process but examining this process from Turgut Ozal to Tayyip Erdogan gives us a theoretical framework to understand the political transformation of Turkey in the era of an open economy.

  13. Political and Economic Scope for Permit Markets in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    (organized polluters) due to the possibility of a free, initial distribution (grand-fathering). As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically...... of permit markets in the US. Therefore, the policy recommendation for e.g. CO2 reduction in Europe is to apply taxation in relation to large and non-organized groups only, such as households and the transportation sector. A permit market, on the other hand, is politically more attrac-tive to the industry...

  14. Political Capitalism: The Interaction between Income Inequality, Economic Freedom and Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we study the relationship between income inequality and economic freedom for a panel of 100 countries for the 1971-2010 period. From a panel causality study we find that income inequality has a negative causal effect on economic freedom, while causation does not run in the opposite direction. We argue that the negative effect of inequality on economic liberty is due to the elite's political power stemming from its disproportionate control over a country's economic resourc...

  15. Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, William H

    2006-01-01

    At several meetings with Russian President Vladimir Putin, President George W. Bush stated that his administration will work with the Congress to grant Russia permanent "normal trade relations" (PNTR) status...

  16. Ethnic Entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the Era of Economic Modernization in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Century (as Illustrated in the Example of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 19th century brought about the modernization reforms in the Russian political system, which accelerated the development of the country's capitalist economy. The abolition of segregationist regulations contributed to the development of bourgeois relations in industry and agriculture. The pace of economic modernization was faster in European Russia, while the country’s frontier regions in the Asiatic part of the Russian Empire seriously lagged behind the center. The role of agents for capitalist change in industry and agriculture was accepted by the members of non-Russian ethnic groups, such as Jews, Germans, Poles and others. They became new bourgeois who were former government officials who had required connections to establish factories, and traders, who accumulated significant capital. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, a major role was performed by individual entrepreneurship inside ethnic communities. Its scope comprised the sectors which generated no economic interest among Russians living in Siberia, and which required large capital investments (distilling, shipping companies. In the early 20th century the social composition of communities was blurry thanks to peasants who formed a key component in migratory flows to Siberia. This shifted emphasis to small and medium-sized enterprises in the agricultural sector. The purpose of the paper is to use specific examples to show how ethnic entrepreneurship depended on a community's social composition, and determine its place in the regional economy in the conditions of ongoing political modernization and initial steps to industrialization. The foundation for the study is built on the archival documents, statistical digests and current research. The work is based on comparativism.

  17. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,

  18. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,

  19. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political

  20. Spatial Regulation, Politics of Access and Informal economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to draw attention to the political contestation over space. The city was 'invaded' and 'conquered' by traders who were formerly excluded (Nesvag, 2000, 2001; Tsoeu, 2003). At the same time, attention is drawn to the current attempts by city managers to control and regulate this contested space in an environment of flux.

  1. Iran’s Political, Demographic, and Economic Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    were able to uti - lize the political system to bolster their agenda while undermining the forces of change. For example, in 2000, Khatami and his...their pregnancies , discouraged women under the age of 18 or over 35 from becoming pregnant, and encour- aged families to limit themselves to two to

  2. Beyond Political Rhetoric and Discourse: What Type of Educational, Socio-Economic, and Political Change Should Educators Expect of President Barack Obama?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orelus, Pierre W.

    2009-01-01

    This article critically analyzes Obama's singular political victory. The author begins by laying out current racial, socio-economic, educational and political challenges that await President-elect Obama. He goes on to analyze Obama's political discourse and then questions whether or not Obama would be able to meet these challenges. The author…

  3. An assessment of potential hydro-political tensions in transboundary river basins using environmental, political, and economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Lucia; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob; Sproles, Eric; Eynard, James; Wolf, Aaron T.

    2015-04-01

    Globally 286 river basins extend across international borders, covering over 61.9 million km2 of the earth's surface and hosting a total of approximately 2.7 billion people. In these basins, transboundary water resources support an interdependent web of environmental, political, and economic systems that can enhance or destabilize a region. We present an integrated global-scale assessment of transboundary watersheds to identify regions more likely to experience hydro-political tensions over the next decade and beyond based upon environmental, political, and economic indicators. We combine NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements of changes in terrestrial water storage with metrics of projected climate change impacts on water variability, the institutional capacity of countries to manage shared water resources, the development of new water infrastructure, per capita gross national income, domestic and international armed conflicts, and recent history of disputes over transboundary waters. The construction of new water-related infrastructure is on-going or planned in many basins worldwide. New water infrastructure is foreseen also in areas where instruments of international cooperation are still absent or limited in scope, e.g. in Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central America, the northern part of the South American continent, and the southern Balkans as well as in different parts of Africa. Moreover, in Central and Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and Central, South and South-East Asia there is a concomitance of several political, environmental and socioeconomic factors that could exacerbate hydropolitical tensions. Our analysis integrates political, economic and environmental metrics and is part of the United Nation's Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme to provide the first global-scale assessment of its type.

  4. Low income Russian families adopt effective behavioral strategies to maintain dietary stability in times of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Anna R; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-11-01

    The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also assessed to evaluate coping strategies adopted in the face of decreasing economic stability. Low income children maintained a steady energy intake per kilogram weight throughout the study period (251.0-259.4 kJ/kg), whereas intake for high income children increased significantly to a per capital average of 297.1 kJ/kg by 2000. At the food group level, the trend in per capita intake for all food groups was maintained for low income children except for a 22% decrease in meat and poultry consumption (P economic crisis.

  5. Oil and natural gas in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the political and economic situation in the Russian Federation, now that the Communist system no longer rules Russia. To address the political risk associated with doing business in Russia, the US provides insurance coverage through the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). This is a federally chartered program that insures new investments, if approved by the Russian government, and benefit the socio-economic development of the country. The paper then describes petroleum production and resource development in the Volga-Urals province, West Siberia, Komi province, East Siberia, and the Far East province. Joint ventures and the current status of production are described for major regions of each province

  6. The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

  7. The Russian Federation State Program «Socio-Economic Development of the Far East and the Baikal Region»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses draft versions of two program documents of socio-economic development of the Far East and the Baikal Region which were prepared by the Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Development of the Far East. It is shown that the above documents are not programs in the classic sense because they don’t include the centralized and precisely targeted mechanisms of project financing, aimed at maximizing systemic effects. The authors find the programs objectives fuzzy and overly broad. As a way of increasing the practical implementability of the program the study suggests simplifying the initial system, ensuring the formalizability of goals and clarifying linkages. This can be done on the basis of the principle of diversity reduction to the minimum required size

  8. Economic Prospects for African Americans, 2001-2010: Politics and Promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimmer, Andrew F.

    Given the different economic policy approaches of the two candidates for the 2000 presidential election, Vice President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush, the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies analyzed and assessed the plans put forth by both candidates, focusing on the expected impacts on African Americans. Six analyses were…

  9. From Whitlam to Economic Rationalism and Beyond: A Conceptual Framework for Political Activism in Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Thirty years after the dismissal of the Whitlam Government, the Australian political, economic and social landscape is dominated by discourses of economic rationalism. The reification of market forces presents challenges for early childhood professionals seeking to establish a viable future trajectory for children's services that includes…

  10. The impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth in the MENA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chor Foon; Abosedra, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Using panel data of 24 countries in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region from 2001 to 2009, the purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth within the neoclassical growth framework. To address the objective of this study, we utilise both the static panel data approach as well as the dynamic generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator to examine the impact of candidate variables. Our results show that energy consumption and tourism significantly contribute to the economic growth of countries in the MENA region. Hence, our study lends some support to the existence of the tourism-led growth and energy-led growth hypotheses in the region. In line with our expectation, our estimation results also reveal that political instability impedes the process of economic growth and development in the MENA region. Therefore, macroeconomic policies to promote expansion in tourism and energy consumption will directly stimulate economic growth. Additionally, efforts to help the region overcome its history of political instability would attract more international tourist arrivals and further invigorate economic growth. - Highlights: • Tourism and energy consumption have positive impacts on GDP growth. • GDP reacts negatively to political instability. • Energy-led growth and tourism-led growth hypotheses are validated in MENA countries. • Supporting tourism, energy use and political stability will enhance economic growth

  11. Economic Sanctions of the West and Russian Anti-sanctions: Success or a Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work is the analysis of the consequences for Russian economy from the imposition of sanctions by Western countries. The paper discusses issues related to the effectiveness of the sanctions on South Africa, Iraq, and Haiti; the work presents the consequences of imposition of sanctions for Russian economy as a whole, as well as highlight the impact of the introduction of anti-Russian and Russian sanctions on two sectors: banking and food industry. The first was chosen because it is an indicator of what is happening in the economy since a funding stream from the west has been blocked. As for the food industry - it is expected that the introduction of the embargo of the product will allow Russian companies to realize their potential and lead to the development of this sector. The imposition of sanctions, the fall of the ruble, as well as the decline in oil prices had a negative impact on Russian economy and the continuation of the current situation can greatly slow down its development in the future. According to our analysis we can draw the following conclusions: the banking sector came under several attacks at once (the prohibition of monetary financing from the west, the growth of past due accounts, the policy of the Central Bank. The food sector has potential for growth, but there is a lack of clear boundaries for the period of sanctions (which does not allow companies to invest in the development of food industry considerable sums, and declining purchasing power due to a significant increase in inflation for the past 2 years. The imposition of sanctions, the fall of the ruble, as well as the decline in oil prices had a negative impact on the Russian economy and the preservation of the current situation in the international arena can greatly slow down its development in the future.

  12. Political economy with affect: on the role of emotions and relationships in political economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and provides experimental evidence on the role of emotions and, in particular, the neglected role of endogenous affective relationships (bonding) in three key areas of political economy: (i) appropriation, with compliance or resistance as response; (ii) competition for access to

  13. Does extreme political ideology predict conspiracy beliefs, economic evaluations and political trust? Evidence from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwel, Andre; Kutiyski, Yordan; van Prooijena, Jan Willem; Martinsson, Johan; Markstedt, Elias

    2018-01-01

    A large volume of academic research has demonstrated that individuals who profess radical political ideology, both left- and right-wing, tend to share similar underlying psychological patterns. By utilizing data collected through a voting advice application in Sweden, this study aims to assess

  14. The equilibrium price range of oil: economics, politics and uncertainty in the formation of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.-N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the articulation between economic and political factors in the formation of petroleum prices. The essential point is that when factors control significant low cost reserves and will not or cannot adopt behaviour of a 'substantial economic rationality' then the economic analysis does not allow a unique dynamic equilibrium price to be determined. However, it does permit definition of an equilibrium price range within which political preferences may be expressed. Finally, the paper draws some conclusions on what could be discussed within the scope of a new oil producer-consumer dialogue. (author)

  15. Political freedom and the response to economic incentives: labor migration in Africa, 1972-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, A P; Mcmillan, J

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the thesis that political institutions and the freedoms and civil rights generated by these institutions affect migration decisions. The hypothesis is based on one stated by Adam Smith in 1776, that economic conditions that reflect greater political freedoms and civil liberties harbor higher levels of resource mobility in response to economic incentives. Pooled cross-sectional and time-series analysis is based on data from the World Bank for 32 African countries during 1972-87. Findings support the hypothesis that migration rate is more affected by the expected returns ratio to labor in countries where civil liberties are greater than in nations with fewer civil liberties. The implication, from the inclusion of institutional factors in the model, is that civil liberties have an indirect impact on the rate of labor migration out of agriculture in Africa. The impact is a mix of economic incentives and civil liberties. In the political rights model, the most free countries had the largest migration elasticity. The findings on political rights impacts support findings by Friedman and McMillan that civil liberties are a more important determinant of economic growth than political rights. Further testing for measurement error confirmed that the data were flawed, but not so greatly that the basic findings were overturned. The migration out of African agriculture was found to be sensitive to the effect of price signals, which were conditioned by the degree of political rights and civil liberties. Policy makers are urged to consider both changes in pricing and institutions.

  16. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce; Martin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This report discusses key aspects of the U.S.-Malaysia relationship, including economics and trade, counterterrorism cooperation, defense ties, and Malaysia's external posture as it affects Amen can interests...

  17. Aid as a catalyst to development? : the Case of Ghana’s Political and Economic Transformation (1957-2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vondee-Awortwi (Joana)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractGhana’s economic and political past and present show that foreign aid has provided support for infrastructural development, budget financing, macroeconomic policy reforms, institutional restructuring and political reforms. Existing literature and pronouncements by leading aid

  18. The Arab Boycott of Israel Economic Political Warfare Against Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Corollas a year in Israel beginning in 1992. Nissan has indicated it is ready to make a similar move, and Mazda appears to be not far behind. [Ref. 104...Political and Diplomatic History of the Arab World, 1900-1967, A Chronological Study, vol.1, Information Handling Services Publishers, Washington D.C...pp.167-170, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1987. 48. Faud Rouhani, A History of OPEC, pp.5-13, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1970. 49. Faisal and Oil

  19. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND CIVIL SOCIETIES AT PEMUTERAN VILLAGE, BALI IN COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Mudana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on questions (1 what factors caused the economic, political, and civil societies to invest their social capital in the preservation of marine and coastal environments at Pemuteran Village? (2 What was the social capital invested by the economic, political, and civil societies in the preservation of coastal and marine environments at Pemuteran Village like? (3 What was done to discipline the maintenance of the social capital invested in the preservation of the coastal and marine environments at Pemuteran Village? Some critical theories were used to analyze the answers to the problems. Qualitative research method with the approach of cultural studies was employed in this study. The data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and library research. The data were qualitatively and descriptively analyzed. The result of the study showed that the cooperation among the economic, political, and civil societies to invest their social capital in the preservation of the marine and coastal environments at Pemuteran Village was based on the awareness of the condition of the natural environment, ecological smartness, meaningfulness which was economic, political, sociological, and socio-religious in nature, and developmental policy. The social capital invested by the economic, political and civil societies was in the forms of the ideologies of tri hita karana, nyegara-gunung, menyama braya, kinship system, neighborhood relation, traditional village, and administrative village. It was maintained through cultural socialization process, and physical and spiritual disciplining process.

  20. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-05

    At minimum, these activities ... aimed at drastically reducing Russia’s influence.... At worst, they constituted a dress rehearsal for...in some areas, such as agriculture, Russia has become an important market for U.S. exports. Russia is the largest foreign market for U.S. poultry

  1. Econophysics and evolutionary economics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 November 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The scientific session 'Econophysics and evolutionary economics' of the Division of Physical Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) took place on 2 November 2010 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. The session agenda announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Maevsky V I (Institute of Economics, RAS, Moscow) 'The transition from simple reproduction to economic growth'; (2) Yudanov A Yu (Financial University of the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow) 'Experimental data on the development of fast-growing innovative companies in Russia'; (3) Pospelov I G (Dorodnitsyn Computation Center, RAS, Moscow) 'Why is it sometimes possible to successfully model an economy?' (4) Chernyavskii D S (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) 'Theoretical economics'; (5) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, RAS, Moscow) 'Nonclassical random walks and the phenomenology of fluctuations of the yield of securities in the securities market'; (6) Dubovikov M M, Starchenko N V (INTRAST Management Company, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow) 'Fractal analysis of financial time series and the prediction problem'; Papers written on the basis of these reports are published below. The transition from simple reproduction to economic growth, V I Maevsky, S Yu Malkov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 729-733. High-growth firms in Russia: experimental data and prospects for the econophysical simulation of economic modernization, A Yu Yudanov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 733-737. Equilibrium models of economics in the period of a global financial crisis, I G Pospelov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 738-742. On econophysics and its place in modern theoretical economics, D S Chernavskii, N I Starkov, S Yu Malkov, Yu V Kosse, A V Shcherbakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number

  2. Econophysics and evolutionary economics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 November 2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-31

    The scientific session 'Econophysics and evolutionary economics' of the Division of Physical Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) took place on 2 November 2010 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. The session agenda announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Maevsky V I (Institute of Economics, RAS, Moscow) 'The transition from simple reproduction to economic growth'; (2) Yudanov A Yu (Financial University of the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow) 'Experimental data on the development of fast-growing innovative companies in Russia'; (3) Pospelov I G (Dorodnitsyn Computation Center, RAS, Moscow) 'Why is it sometimes possible to successfully model an economy?' (4) Chernyavskii D S (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) 'Theoretical economics'; (5) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, RAS, Moscow) 'Nonclassical random walks and the phenomenology of fluctuations of the yield of securities in the securities market'; (6) Dubovikov M M, Starchenko N V (INTRAST Management Company, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow) 'Fractal analysis of financial time series and the prediction problem'; Papers written on the basis of these reports are published below. The transition from simple reproduction to economic growth, V I Maevsky, S Yu Malkov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 729-733. High-growth firms in Russia: experimental data and prospects for the econophysical simulation of economic modernization, A Yu Yudanov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 733-737. Equilibrium models of economics in the period of a global financial crisis, I G Pospelov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 738-742. On econophysics and its place in modern theoretical economics, D S Chernavskii, N I Starkov, S Yu Malkov

  3. Econophysics and evolutionary economics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 November 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The scientific session "Econophysics and evolutionary economics" of the Division of Physical Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) took place on 2 November 2010 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. The session agenda announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Maevsky V I (Institute of Economics, RAS, Moscow) "The transition from simple reproduction to economic growth"; (2) Yudanov A Yu (Financial University of the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow) "Experimental data on the development of fast-growing innovative companies in Russia"; (3) Pospelov I G (Dorodnitsyn Computation Center, RAS, Moscow) "Why is it sometimes possible to successfully model an economy? (4) Chernyavskii D S (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Theoretical economics"; (5) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, RAS, Moscow) "Nonclassical random walks and the phenomenology of fluctuations of the yield of securities in the securities market"; (6) Dubovikov M M, Starchenko N V (INTRAST Management Company, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow) "Fractal analysis of financial time series and the prediction problem"; Papers written on the basis of these reports are published below. • The transition from simple reproduction to economic growth, V I Maevsky, S Yu Malkov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 729-733 • High-growth firms in Russia: experimental data and prospects for the econophysical simulation of economic modernization, A Yu Yudanov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 733-737 • Equilibrium models of economics in the period of a global financial crisis, I G Pospelov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 738-742 • On econophysics and its place in modern theoretical economics, D S Chernavskii, N I Starkov, S Yu Malkov, Yu V Kosse, A V Shcherbakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume

  4. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringos, Dionne S; Boerma, Wienke G W; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-12-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda, economy, prevailing values, and type of healthcare system are all important factors that influence the development of strong PC. Wealthier countries are associated with a weaker PC structure and lower PC accessibility, while Eastern European countries seemed to have used their growth in national income to strengthen the accessibility and continuity of PC. Countries governed by left-wing governments are associated with a stronger PC structure, accessibility and coordination of PC. Countries with a social-security based system are associated with a lower accessibility and continuity of PC; the opposite is true for transitional systems. Cultural values seemed to affect all aspects of PC. It can be concluded that strengthening PC means mobilising multiple leverage points, policy options, and political will in line with prevailing values in a country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between Institutional Economics of Cooperation and the Political Economy of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernandéz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisationtal knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.

  6. Political competition, economic reform and growth : theory and evidence from transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pavletic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Which political and institutional factors trigger reforms that enable the poor to benefit from the process of economic growth? How can the incentives of policy makers be influenced in order to achieve such a dynamic? These are the questions this study seeks to address by examining the transition process in post-communist countries. The author argues that political competition within an accepted and respected institutional environment has been a driving force in shaping the direction and succe...

  7. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    under the Concertación’s free market economic policies and moderate social programs, which have produced notable economic growth and considerable...April 8, 2009. 21 “Supera Enríquez-Ominami a Candidato Presidencial Oficialista en Chile,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, June 2, 2009. 22 “People...Negociaría Estado Chileno Con Bancos Que Ocultaron Dinero de Pinochet,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, March 15, 2009. 34 Helen Hughes & Jack Chang, “Ex

  8. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    On August 17, 1998, Russia defaulted on its domestic public debt, declared a moratorium on the private banks foreign liabilities which was equivalent to an outright default, and abandoned its exchange rate regime. The depth of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets, and precipitated

  9. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    On August 17, 1998, Russia defaulted on its domestic public debt, declared a moratorium on the private banks foreign liabilities which was equivalent to an outright default, and abandoned its exchange rate regime. The depth of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets, and precipitated

  10. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Отставнов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors  based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports.Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies  (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource.The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-31

  11. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    On 17 August 1998 Russia abandoned its exchange rate regime, defaulted on its domestic public debt and declared a moratorium on banks' foreign liabilities. This was equivalent to an outright default. The depth and speed of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets and precipitated a

  12. A Legacy of Peaceful Coexistence: Historico-Political and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the relations between Nigeria and Benin Republic in various aspects of life before and after colonialism. The paper discovered that historical, cultural and economic relations between the two countries predate colonialism and this is due to the belief by the people that they are one and belong to same ...

  13. The history, economics, and politics of CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evens, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the historical medical background in which computed tomography (CT) has been introduced. Early investigations in CT are discussed. The clinical development of both CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The economics and efficacy of both techniques is discussed and compared

  14. Security Reasoning, Spatial Politics, Patriarchy and the Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 mars 2010 ... This grant will allow MADA al-Carmel (the Arab Center for Applied Social Research) to undertake a comprehensive investigation of Palestinian women's economic situation in Israel, with particular focus on the policies and processes that affect their ability to obtain an education, find a job, start a business, ...

  15. RUSSIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CRISIS OF 2014-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya V. Detochenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role and place of the tourism industry at the present stage in the world economy and Russian economy. The authors show the change in the ratio between the number of tourists leaving Russia and the number of foreign citizens visiting the Russian Federation with tourist purposes during the crisis 2014-2016 years. The possibilities of developing the international Russian outbound tourism are studied. The authors consider the role and place of Russia as a supplier of tourists to other countries: dynamics, factors that promote and prevent the development of international outbound travel from Russia, change of trips geography, distribution of Russian tourists by the types of tourism. The analysis is carried out, and the changes of the top ten leading countries on the reception of Russian tourists in 2014-2016 are shown. The authors mark the countries with significant growth, and the countries that show a decline in the reception of tourists from Russia. The article describes the possibilities of international inbound tourism in Russia, involvement of tourists from around the world in the tourist industry in Russia: dynamics, geography of inbound tourism, changes in the share of countries, factors affecting the visiting of Russia by foreign tourists. The analysis is carried out, and the changes of the top ten leading countries on tourist visits in Russia in 2014-2016 are shown. The authors indicate the increasing role of tourists from the Asian region – from China, South Korea, India, Iran, which are interested in different types of tourism (including recreational beach tourism in the territory of Russia in the incoming tourist flows to our country. The features of the development of domestic tourism in the Russian Federation, the factors that promote and prevent the growth of the share of Russian domestic tourism at the present stage are shown. It is noted that, in the opinion of the authors, as early as in 2017

  16. How great is Latvia's success story? The economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Austers, Aldis

    2014-01-01

    The current state of Latvia can be best described in medical terms: the patient is pale, but alive. The financial woes have been successfully resolved, but economic, social and political challenges remain. The crisis is continuing to affect the fabric of social and political life in Latvia. This paper looks at the economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic collapse in Latvia and suggests some remedial actions.

  17. Economical, political and social aspects of atomic energy in Bulgaria; Dvadtsat` let atomnoj ehnergetiki Respubliki Bolgarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervashidze, N

    1996-12-31

    The future of atomic energy in Bulgaria is discussed in terms of the challenge to make correct political and economical decisions. The building of a second nuclear power plant at Belene should be considered taking into account the time needed for project realisation and the adherence to standards. The political aspects are connected closely to the financial crediting and to marketing research for electricity export. It is stressed that the development of atomic energy is closely related to the national stability and economical independence.

  18. Socio-economic, scientific, and political benefits of mycotourism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Latorre, J.; Egli, S.; Martinez-Pena, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2017), č. článku e01870. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * economic crisis * Iberian Peninsula * long-term drying * non-wood forest products * Perigord black truffle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  19. Political Authoritarianism and Economic Success in Indonesia and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    liberal in philosophy , yet it contained nepotism, corruption, and cronyist behaviors in practice that produced inefficiency and growth-inhibiting...build a developmental state. The bifurcated economic strategy pursued by Suharto was neo-liberal in philosophy , yet it contained nepotism, corruption...and moral life. This educational achievement is a dedication to them. Lastly, I hope this thesis one day provides policymakers with an avenue for a

  20. The Economics of "Private Politics": Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Brøns-Petersen

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, private corporations engage in “private politics”, or “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). In some cases, such as the infamous Enron affair, huge discrepancies between stated and actual policies have been revealed, while in others corporations seem to have been taken hostage by interest groups, even if stated and actual polices matched. The paper attempts to model the “private politics” of CSR in economic terms. On the one hand, it is assumed that corporations can generate e...

  1. The cost of nuclear electricity: economic values and political calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (monetary inflation; US-style rate-base formula; cost escalation); electricity generation costs (rate-base calculation formula; regulatory versus economic costs; inflationary case; cost-of-service rates versus inflation; first year electricity costs); rate shock (A. comparison with oil; B. nuclear case; C. comparison with coal/nuclear system; vintaged electricity costs versus growth and inflation); conclusions. (U.K.)

  2. THE ROLE OF THE RUSSIANS OF TAJIKISTAN IN TRANSFORMING TAJIK SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian population of Tajikistan has traditionally played a prominent role in political, economic, cultural and scientifi c development of the country despite the fact that Russian diaspora has always lacked consolidation. However the collapse of the USSR was followed by increasing deprivation of the Russians insofar as they adapt slowly to a new political and socio-economic system of Tajikistan, feel discriminated, are classifi ed as “poor” and tend to migrate to Russia. According to the author, the problem of the Russians in Tajikistan is a part of a broader “Russian problem of the XXIth century” and stresses the necessity to develop a national policy strategy of Russia.

  3. Organizational Development of Russian SMEs: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper sheds a light on Russian SMEs transition and specifically on their current development and evolution. The paper attempts to explain what are the main drivers and antecedents on SMEs during the period 2010-2015. Along with it, it is applied detailed analysis of Russian SMEs in terms of key performance indicators, turnover and volume of sales. Further, are given potential developments and trends within SMEs in Russia. The paper draws attention to socio-economic and political factors influencing SMEs development.

  4. Management of Russian military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose and discuss a solution which enables storing as quickly as possible all weapons-grade plutonium from Russian military program in a way which would prevent diversion. Two main conditions apply to this solution. First, it should be achieved in a manner acceptable to Russian government, notably by preserving plutonium for possible future energy production, and second, the economics of the total system should be good enough to ensure no charge or limited charge for the storage of plutonium. A proposal is made to store plutonium in a specially designed fast reactor or specially designed reactor core. This solution could be favorable in comparison to other solutions applying the above mentioned goal and conditions. Additionally the proposed solution would have the following side advantages: utilizing available personnel and installations of the Russian nuclear complex; providing possible basis for decommissioning of older and less safe Russian reactors; giving experience of construction and operation of a series of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The major problem however is the need for large capital investment with the risk of getting no adequate return on investment due to difficult political and economic situation in Russia

  5. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  6. Finnish-Russian Relationships: the Interplay of Economics, History, Psychology and Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Арто Мустайоки

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the territories adjacent to the core Russia, the Russian language has had for centuries an established position as a language of culture, trade, war, statehood, and education. The theoretical framework of the study reflects the field of cross-cultural communication, with special reference to Finnish-Russian intercultural encounters. There is a certain set of prejudices connected with Russia that date back centuries and are periodically revived. Recent events have reinforced some of them, and have enhanced the demand for experts on Russia and everything connected with it. The language is undoubtedly considered the key to understanding what is happening with Finland’s Eastern neighbour. The article aims to present the current discussions in the media, their meanings and functions.

  7. Economic, social and political consequences in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1997-01-01

    There have been and remain tremendous psychosocial and economic effects effects of the accident. In particular in the western parts of the former Soviet Union, against the background of disintegrating structures, have been a distrust of inefficient and corrupt administrators, poor medical services and food supplies, destabilization and serious economic problems of large population groups, losses of agricultural areas, and problems caused by large-scale evacuation and resettlement programs. A large number of psychosomatic and neurological disorders including alcoholism, loss of hair, impotence, even laziness and traffic accidents, have been attributed to radiation effects and strange new deseases such as ''chronic radiation sickness'' or ''radiation AIDS'' have been claimed. Most radiobiologists would, however, consider such claims as nonsense, even if some highly indirect relationships may perhaps be established. Unfortunately, many of such problems attributed by some to the Chernobyl accident can also be observed in other parts of the former Soviet Union which have not been affected by fallout. Many people, in particular children, cannot be classified as ''healthy'' according to the WHO definition, and life expectancy has dropped substantially in many parts of the former Soviet Union in the past decade

  8. Political Ideonomy of Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mozafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of success and reasons for failure of development strategies and plans, are among the most important “development studies” issues. This has been explained in different ways: for example, there is a strong relationship between the efficiency of development strategies and plans and development theories. Based on paradigmatic-implicative theory, which explains the relationship between development theories and political thought and considers the development theory as one of the practical implications of political thought, a condition for the success of development strategies and development plans can be found to be rooted in the political thought foundation. Therefore, in the present article we explore the political thought supporting Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth theory, as one of the oldest and most important development theories which in the 1960s resulted in understanding development as “growth”. We use qualitative content analysis method to show that the political foundation of Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth theory is based on the principle of “the most utility for the most people” in accordance with Bentham’s utilitarian political thought.

  9. Does political and economic freedom matter for inbound tourism? A cross-national panel data estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Shrabani; Su, Jen-Je; Campbell, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of political and economic freedom on inbound tourism for over 110 countries during 1995-2012. Panel country fixed-effects techniques are utilized to examine the relationship after controlling for other factors that contribute to inbound tourism. The results show that civil liberties and economic freedom (among several other freedom measures) are positively and significantly associated with inbound tourism. Examination of the moderation effect revea...

  10. Nuclear power debate: moral, economic, technical, and political issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, D. III.

    1977-01-01

    The pace at which nuclear power will develop is clouded with uncertainties. At the end of 1976 in the United States, 61 nuclear reactors were operating, representing slightly more than 9 percent of the country's total generating capacity. Another 168 reactors were either planned, under construction, or on order. Outside the United States, commitments to nuclear power grew by 17 percent in 1975 over 1974. Indonesia, Turkey, and Poland ordered nuclear plants, bringing to 41 the number of countries committed to nuclear energy. In 1976, 112 nuclear reactors were operating in 18 countries; an additional 342 plants were planned, on order, or under construction. The speed at which nuclear power will continue to grow is dependent on a number of factors: the rate at which demand for energy increases, the changing economics of alternative methods of energy production, the processes by which decisions affecting nuclear power development are made, and the degree to which they satisfy public concerns about the safety of nuclear energy. This book addresses itself to these factors as follows: Economic issues: At what rate will demand for energy increase, and how can that demand be met. (Chapter 2.) How cost-competitive are the major alternative methods of producing electricity that now exist--nuclear power and coal. (Chapter 3.) Decision making issues: Are the processes by which decisions to proceed with development of nuclear power, both in government and in industry, adequate to protect the interests of the public and of investors. (Chapters 4 and 5.) Safety issues: Are nuclear power plants themselves safe. (Chapters 6 and 7.) Can adequate safeguards be established to ensure protection against misuse of the products or by-products of those plants and to ensure the permanent safe storage of radioactive wastes

  11. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  12. On the biopsychosocial model: the example of political economic causes of diabetes in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Palafox, N

    2001-10-01

    Biomedical reductionism, the unwritten theory underlying the practice of medicine, is being supplanted by the biopsychosocial model. The explanatory power of the biopsychosocial model, however, is hampered by an inadequate mechanism to account for the social production of disease. We examine diabetes in the Marshall Islands to explore a conceptual approach that incorporates ecology, history, and political economy into the biopsychosocial model. The use of the Marshall Islands by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear war has led to ecological destruction, population displacement, and economic dependency. The consequence at the biological level has been an epidemic of weight gain, altered metabolism, and diabetes. A political economic perspective reveals that such outcomes are the result of decisions made by those who do not live with these decisions. Such a perspective points the way for social engagement and political work toward justice and health.

  13. From Kundun to Mulan: A Political Economic Case Study of Disney and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the Walt Disney Company’s foray in the Chinese market from a political economic perspective. It focuses on two film-related events: 1 the 'Kundun' incident in 1996 that displays the ideological confrontation between Disney and China in the post-Cold War era, and 2 the production of 'Mulan 'in 1998 as both a political compromise and a strategic marketing decision for Disney to regain the Chinese market. The conflicts and negotiations between Disney and China provide a telling example to study the local operation of global capitalism, especially in terms of its interaction with the state. While many believe that the advent of globalization will open more free markets for fair competition, this study reveals how government policy intervenes in the global entertainment industry, and sheds light on the political and economic struggles behind the silver screen.

  14. Social, economic, and political forces affecting the future of occupational health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A

    1989-09-01

    1. By monitoring the major social, economic, and political forces affecting health care, one can predict how these forces may impact the role of occupational health nurses. 2. Nursing can and must chart its own course in the midst of these social, economic, and political changes. 3. Changes which have major implications for occupational health nurses are: health care needs, cost containment, multi-hospital chains, alternative approaches to health care, the workplace, ethical concerns, biomedical technology, nursing shortage, and oversupply of physicians. 4. Nursing implications can also be drawn in the areas of autonomy, political skills, and education. Active involvement and a desire to shape professional change and the future of nursing are keys.

  15. Society as a victim of bearers of economic and political power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transition countries, politics and economics are so connected and interrelated that many individuals who take high governmental positions or who have economic power abuse their status in order to make huge profits and commit criminal acts without impunity. The aim of this paper is to indicate the basic characteristics of this kind of crime and its negative consequences to the society as a whole. The abuse of economic and political power results in increasing economic inequalities, decreasing chances of entering foreign direct investments, and falling economic growth. Besides, this contributes to creating fertile soil for populism and supporting political elites that are not committed to building rule of law, stable democratic society and fair market economy. As a result, citizens’ confidence in the state and its institutions weakens, while the normative system of values in the society is jeopardized. In this way, the society becomes the victim of irresponsible individuals, and of those who abuse their economic and social power.

  16. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  17. Governance and Women's Economic and Political Participation : Power Inequalities, Formal Constraints and Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Milazzo, Annamaria; Goldstein, Markus

    2017-01-01

    What role do institutional constraints and social norms play in determining persistent gender gapsin economic and political participation and have institutional reforms been successful in reducing these gaps? This paper argues that, at the roots of current gender inequalities, there are traditional patriarchal social structures in which power is unequally distributed, with men traditionall...

  18. The role of finance in economic development : Benefits, risks, and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Müller, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of the financial sector for economic growth, the causes and consequences of financial fragility, and the politics behind financial deepening and fragility. In doing so, it identifies the critical role of the financial sector within capitalist economies, a role with

  19. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  20. Size, Democracy, and the Economic Costs of Running the Political System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Houlberg, Kurt; Serritzlew, Søren

    2014-01-01

    , are amalgamated to harvest scale effects. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the argument on economies of scale in the economic costs of running political systems. Our testing ground is a recent Danish reform. It allows us to avoid endogeneity problems often facing researchers of size reforms. The reform...

  1. Do political or economic factors drive healthcare financing privatisations? Empirical evidence from OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper adds new empirical evidence to the political economy literature of economic reform. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of a novel methodology to identify privatisations. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and

  2. Opinions of Illinois Secondary Business Teachers Concerning Political and Socio-Economic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene Davidson

    1975-01-01

    The results of this study point to a need for business teachers to find ways of discussing political and socio-economic issues in their classrooms and that business teacher education institutions should be certain that graduates are prepared to include these issues in the courses they teach. (Author)

  3. Earth stewardship on rangelands: Coping with ecological, economic, and political marginality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands encompass 30-40 percent of Earth's land surface and support 1-2 billion people. Their predominant use is extensive livestock production by pastoralists and ranchers. But rangelands are characterized by ecological, economic, and political marginality, and higher-value, more intensive land ...

  4. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  5. How Do Business and Government Interact? Combining Perspectives from Economics, Political Science, Public Administration, and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.; Harsell, Dana Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe the theoretical preparation provided to students in advance of a limited-duration experiential learning experience in Washington DC in a Master's level course for students in Business or Public Administration. The students consider theoretical perspectives from economics, political science, and public administration with…

  6. Neo-Pluralist Political Science, Economic Sociology and the Conceptual Foundations of the Comparative Capitalisms Literatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    the strengths of neo-pluralism and economic sociology – their attention to detail in considering the huge range of ‘types’ of capitalism that exist across the world – come at a high price. Put briefly, the redefinition of ‘capitalism’ as ‘the economy’ concentrates research agendas on the specific political...

  7. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Postmes, T.

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic

  8. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Postmes, Tom

    2012-04-01

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic livability is a viable rival explanation for the reported effects of parasitic stress on culture.

  9. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  10. Political and socio-economic instability: does it have a role in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings showed that instability in socio-economic and political aspects in these nations was responsible for creating a suitable environment for the spread of HIV/AIDS infection. This paper concludes by using the theories of collective action/responsibility and social cohesion to hypothesise that the breakdown of social ...

  11. Chlorofluorocarbons and the environment: scientific, economic, social and political issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, O; Probert, S D; O' Callaghan, P W [Cranfield Inst. of Technology, Bedford (GB). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1990-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons have been among the most useful chemical compounds ever developed. However, after more than forty years of a continuously increasing rate of worldwide use in the industrial and domestic sectors, unequivocal evidence has indicated that, if released into Earth's atmosphere, they are amongst the most devastating of pollutants that could threaten the quality of life for future generations. Thus it is not surprising that, for nearly two decades, this dichotomy of interests has been a prominent issue. This report presents the scientific evidence available concerning the impacts of chlorofluorocarbons on the ambient environment. Regional, national and international policies adopted to try to curb their emissions into the atmosphere are summarised. Economic and social consequences of these policies are discussed, together with some of the available and recommended technological solutions to the environmental problem. It is believed that agreements reached internationally to date are insufficient to ensure the adequate protection of the environment. Even an immediate total ban on the production and use of such chemical compounds would not lead to a reversal of the environmental degradation for at least a century, due to the chlorofluorocarbons already in the atmosphere. (author).

  12. Istoricheskie aspekty razvitija rossijsko-litovskih jekonomicheskih otnoshenij i sovremennost' [The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  13. Economic crisis and levels of political participation in Europe (2002-2010): the role of resources and grievances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, A.; Marien, S.; Hooghe, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of the recent economic crisis on political participation levels in Europe. As the civic voluntarism model and grievances theory predict different effects of economic downturn on political participation, the crisis provides a unique context to evaluate the explanatory

  14. [Political ecology, ecological economics, and public health: interfaces for the sustainability of development and health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.

  15. Do Better Political Relations with the USA Improve A Country's Economic Outlook?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Aridi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations of countries with the USA could be considered as helpful in their quest for enhanced economic performance. Does an improvement or deterioration in relations with the USA bring significant economic and financial benefits or costs, in areas such as, trade, capital flows, remittances, aid, military expenditures, and education? The results based on an event study are very preliminary. Nevertheless, this line of research could be fruitful and may enhance our appreciation of international political-economic relations and the ability to build more comprehensive theories of trade, capital flows and the like.

  16. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region: Beyond the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Joon Ahn

    1995-01-01

    Linked inexorably by geopolitics and geo-economics, Asia and North America are facing a number of common challenges in the aftermath of the Cold War. The prospects of a North Korea armed with nuclear weapons and medium-range ballistic missiles, and of China becoming another superpower, are impelling both Asia and America, and the US, Japan, and South Korea in particular, to strengthen their partnership for security, interdependence, and democracy. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region are at a crossroads, facing a new era of post-Cold War uncertainty. This chapter addresses the major trends emerging in the region in terms of changing national and international perspectives. It is important to examine what these changes imply for a new security and economic framework in Asia and the Pacific. The gravity of the world's political economy is shifting to this region

  17. REFORM OF THE RUSSIAN ANTI-CORRUPTION LEGISLATION: OECD ECONOMIC CONDITION OR LEGAL IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define the prospects for the criminalization of promises and offers a bribe to a foreign official or an official of a public international organization in the Russian criminal law. Despite the increased interest in the problem of implementation of international law in the national legal system, many aspects of the topic studied. These include punishment, the possibility of establishing criminal liability for bribery. OECD anti-corruption standards considered in working with three positions: through Russia ratified the convention, through the analysis of the experience of the criminalization of bribery of foreign public officials in foreign legislation and from the perspective of the established system of national criminal and administrative law. The paper presents a systematic analysis of the proposal and the promise of a bribe as socially dangerous acts. Refined methods of implementation of anti-corruption standards in the Russian legislation. Problems has led to widespread use of the system, comparative law and documentary approaches. The paper concludes formulate concrete proposals to improve the criminal law and identifies strategic directions of modern anti-corruption policy.

  18. Reform Of The Russian Anti-Corruption Legislation: Oecd Economic Condition Or Legal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define the prospects for the criminalization of promises and offers a bribe to a foreign official or an official of a public international organization in the Russian criminal law. Despite the increased interest in the problem of implementation of international law in the national legal system, many aspects of the topic studied. These include punishment, the possibility of establishing criminal liability for bribery. OECD anti-corruption standards considered in working with three positions: through Russia ratified the convention, through the analysis of the experience of the criminalization of bribery of foreign public officials in foreign legislation and from the perspective of the established system of national criminal and administrative law. The paper presents a systematic analysis of the proposal and the promise of a bribe as socially dangerous acts. Refined methods of implementation of anti-corruption standards in the Russian legislation. Problems has led to widespread use of the system, comparative law and documentary approaches. The paper concludes formulate concrete proposals to improve the criminal law and identifies strategic directions of modern anti-corruption policy.

  19. Projection of the Russian economic development in the framework of the optimal control model by investments in fixed assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikhajlovich Tarasyev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an economic growth model taking into account two factors of production: fixed capital and labor force, to study the dynamics of GDP growth. The dependence of the output of these factors is described by a production function of the exponential type. Within the framework of the optimal control theory, the optimization problem for investment levels is being solved to maximize the integral index of consumption. We study the qualitative properties of optimal trajectories as solutions of the Hamiltonian systems arising in Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The sensitivity analysis of the equilibrium solutions of the economic system is implemented with respect to the elasticity coefficients of the production function, the depreciation rate of the capital, and the discount factor, and growth trends are indicated. The econometric analysis of the model parameters is provided basing on real data for the Russian economy. In accordance with the results of the regression analysis, the projection of economic development is constructed in conditions of the applicability of the economic growth model.

  20. The political economy of trans-Pakistan gas pipeline project: assessing the political and economic risks for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing realisation among Indian policy makers to consider the import of natural gas to address India's growing energy demand. Among many policy options to import natural gas, Indo-Iran overland pipeline option is considered to be effective and economical in addressing India's long-term energy demands. Such a pipeline would have to traverse Pakistani territory thereby necessitating a role for Pakistan in the pipeline project. Though security guarantees have been offered, India refuses to entertain the role of Pakistan in the project for a fear of its energy supply being disrupted in case of a military conflict with Pakistan. This paper argues that gas pipeline project is not only aimed at addressing India's energy concerns but also to further its strategic objectives. This paper contends that India, Iran and Pakistan do not have shared objective to make the overland project a political and commercial reality. India's stakes in the overland pipeline project are high as India's economic interests in the pipeline project are not in congruence with the politico-economic and strategic objectives of Iran and Pakistan. (author)

  1. THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND POLICIES ON POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merim Kasumović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of a civil society and social systems for protection of different groups is directly related to well functioning political and economic systems. If the level of economic development or political stability is not continuous the implementation of antidiscrimination laws would most likely be at a very low level. In this case development of social rights along with implementation of antidiscrimination rights may be marginalized due to three factors: lack of cooperation among political and economic spheres, lack of knowledge about antidiscrimination laws and absence of political will for adoption and implementation of antidiscrimination laws. Therefore, we focus on the examination of specific issues concerning the three aforementioned factors primarily focusing on EU and divergence in the level of political and economic development among the member states.We will argue that antidiscrimination laws are not welcome in new member states, especially since they increase political and economic costs for the governments of respective countries. Level of political development has much to do with the acceptance and inclusion of AD laws in the decision making process. Economic development has much to do with social and living standards within a country which is directly related to the general perception of the population on AD laws. Therefore, one could say that implementation of AD laws heavily depends on the preparedness of people, economic and political system and their will to cope with costs and benefits of implementing those laws.

  2. Designer ecosystems, capitalism, and boom-bust economic cycles: linking political economy and hydroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.; Rigby, J.

    2011-12-01

    The basic premise of the term "anthropocene" is that human practices are becoming a primary force in shaping ecosystems even at the global scale. Ecohydrologists and hydroecologists often consider human effects to be a collective term that is culturally and politically invariant. "Anthropogenic change" is often cited regardless of whether these changes occur in liberal democracies or totalitarian autocracies. Yet there is potential for socio-politically driven variation in basic human impacts on the environment. Analyzing the anthropocene requires considering the rise in global population convolved with dramatically shifting political and economic conditions. How humans affect the environment, and how environmental change feedbacks operate, are likely highly dependent on cultural and political contexts. We posed the question, "Does capitalism leave a distinct signature on the hydroecological landscape?" We analyzed emerging designer ecosystems markets using Mankiw-Whinston free-entry equilibria model coupled with simple species-area curves and tested it with an extensive database of ecosystem service trades in North Carolina. Free-entry leads to a diffusion of small restored ecosystems whereas restricted entry leads to fewer, large sites; the difference in site locations and sizes in turn impact regional species distribution and water quality. We next analyzed the effect of deregulating electricity markets on river flow regimes in North Carolina; market deregulation increases potential profits derived from rapid power production in response to price changes on the spot market to which hydropower is uniquely able to respond. Results showed the potential for increased flow variability associated with price volatility in purely market-driven cases, but additional constraints required of infrastructure (e.g., flood control) restrict purely market-driven flow regimes. Changes in macro-economic conditions may also leave distinct signatures, often reflecting political

  3. Cyclicality of Economic Development of Ukraine in the Context of its Political and Legal Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryzhychenko Kostyantyn A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclicality in the development of the Ukrainian economy during the years of its independence under conditions of its political and legal transformations has been studied. On the basis of the analysis of worldwide research the problem of influence of political transformations on the socio-economic development of the state has been identified. There has been developed a methodological approach to studying the evolutionary development of the Ukrainian economy in the context of its European integration, which comprises three main blocks: Block 1 – studying the development of the legal field of Ukraine; Block 2 – studying the policy of development of Ukraine and orientation of its economic system; Block 3 – analyzing the evolutionary development of the Ukrainian economy and determining its cyclical nature. Within the developed approach there were used wavelet models, spectral analysis – Fourier expansion and Johanson test. The paper puts forward three hypotheses: hypothesis 1 – about the existence of short-term 5-year cycles of evolutionary development of the economy; hypothesis 2 – about the existence of a long-term cycle lasing 25 years and conditioned by political and legal processes in the society; hypothesis 3 – about the existence of cointegration relationships between the evolutionary development of the economy of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the modern political transformations the phases of development of the Ukrainian legal environment have been defined and comparison of these phases with the specifics of its economic development has been carried out. The analysis of the economic system of Ukraine and its policy made it possible to determine the vector of development of the Ukrainian economy. The approximating (trend and detailing (cyclic components of the economic development of Ukraine were determined with the help of wavelet expansion. Using Fourier analysis for the detailing components allowed to distinguish 5

  4. Financial potential and economic development trend of Chuvash Republic, Russian Federation

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    Lyubovtseva E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article discusses the economic potential and development trend of Chuvash Republic. All important economic indicators of Chuvash Republic like, Gross Regional Production (GRP, employment, export, import, performance of credit organization, per capita income have been taken into consideration to analyze economic performance. This paper also shows how any increase in per capita income effects socio-economic condition. Finally, this paper proposes adequate and proper measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in policy formation and use of financial resources in Chuvash Republic on the basis of analysis. Only secondary source of data has been used for analysis.

  5. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  6. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Petrica

    1997-01-01

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)

  7. Politicization in the Name of the Majority: The Role of Cultural, Economic, and Political Grievances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Simon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports two experiments that examined politicization in the name of the majority population and intergroup polarization as a function of perceived grievances of the majority population. To manipulate perceived majority grievances, we used three different injustice frames (cultural, economic, political, each of which targeted an important arena of societal participation and thus a typical breeding ground for societal injustices and psychological grievances. In addition, both experiments included a (no frame control condition. The samples recruited for the two experiments differed from each other in (left–right political orientation and consequently in their perceptions of and reactions to potential majority grievances. The most striking differential influences were observed for the cultural grievance symbolized by the political correctness norm. However, both experiments provided evidence that majority politicization mediates the effect of majority grievances on intergroup polarization and that, in contrast to the divisive role of majority politicization, majority solidarity likely fosters social inclusion.

  8. [Debating disease: the risk factor concept in political economic and scientific consideration, 1968 to 1986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarász, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The risk factor concept was developed in American epidemiological studies ongoing since the 1940s researching the causes of chronic cardiovascular diseases. By looking at the depiction of this model in a variety of media in Germany between 1968 and 1986 we can put its close interaction with contemporary socio-political debates under scrutiny. Thereby, a strong connection between the various agents' political and economic interests on the one hand and the incorporation of the risk factor concept into their specific agendas will become apparent. The risk factor concept was not fundamentally changed in the process but it was adapted to contemporary conditions and political constellations. Thereby, so it will be argued, the medical uses of the model, especially regarding the prevention of chronic cardiovascular disease, were forced into the background of public debates.

  9. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  10. Russian Language in the Central Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Petrovna Borishpolets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available He article is devoted to the role of the Russian language in Central Asia and its development perspectives in the context of the Eurasian integration processes. Russian language has a long historical tradition in Central Asia and hasn't lost its importance even at the background of two waves of "derussification" that took place after 1991. Notwithstanding the decrease of the status, it keeps substantial public significance. During last two decades only in Turkmenistan we are witnessing the decrease in spreading of the Russian language among title population of the Central Asia region. Its positions as an active communication channel is secured not only by the social tradition, but also by the competitiveness of the Russian language education, advantages of the bilingual business, requirements of the labor migrants, HR interests and by some other pragmatic thoughts, which role within the context of Eurasian economic integration will increase. Despite the difficulties, it is too early to speak about the decrease of the Russian language in the Central Asia region. It is more likely that the institutes itself that maintain it and promoting it are at the low ebb. New scales and forms of practical work that is interested not only for Russia, but also Central Asia countries are required. Pressure on the resources of the Russian language increases the possibility of ethnic conflicts and strengthens the positions of political radicalism in Central Asia region.

  11. China's Political-Economic Approach toward FTAs with East Asian Nations and Its Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-jun Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies - economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader - while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the

  12. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  13. Social traditionalism and economic conservatism: two conservative political ideologies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S D; Tamney, J B

    2001-04-01

    The authors surveyed by telephone a random sample of voters in the 1996 presidential election from the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area of Muncie, IN ("Middletown"; R. Lynd & H. Lynd, 1929) to test a model describing the nature of 2 conservative political ideologies--social traditionalism and economic conservatism. The model, based on functions of attitudes theory, predicted (a) that the 2 political ideologies would appeal to 2 rather distinct constituency groups--the former, to conservative Protestants; the latter, to people of higher incomes--and (b) that social traditionalists would be more dogmatic and economic conservatives would be more open-minded in their respective views. The findings were consistent with those predictions.

  14. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  15. ECONOMIC COOPERATION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN THE FIELD OF MIGRATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strel'chenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the general trends of migration processes between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, briefly describes the main features of the socio-economic development and migration policy of the two countries, including in the context of their cooperation within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. The article defines the key directions of economic cooperation between Russia and Belarus on migration policies and the promotion of desirable forms of migration. The relevance of the topic chosen due to both diversity and unsystematic legal framework that regulates the various aspects of migration policy and the lack of established legal concepts of migration, the migration process and the migration policy. In addition, in recent years can be seen working mobility growth in the context of globalization, which creates conditions for employment are not only highly qualified professionals in the fields of finance, insurance, banking, communications, and migrant workers employed in agriculture, construction, landscaping, catering, hotel service.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of raw data served as the information contained in scientific, reference, periodical literature on the subject in question, including the sources in the "Internet" information and telecommunications network. The basis of methodological developments laid the comparative methods of analysis and synthesis of the available data.Conclusions / relevance. Supporters of immigration openness believes that the strengthening of migration one of the solutions to the demographic problems of Russia and the problem of replenishment of the labor market. Their opponents believe that immigration creates an excess supply in the labor market, allowing employers to permanently reduce the level of payment of labor and social security, working conditions deteriorate.Practical application of the results of this work will improve the forecasting and

  16. Technological, political and economic changes and their implications for the evolution of broadcasting services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is changes in the market for broadcasting services as a result of technological, political, and economic drivers. Broadcasting services can be categorised as a part of the ICT-based information and knowledge intensive services that have gone through radical changes...... and demand sites, scarcity of transmission resources, and the historical aspects that make the development of the broadcasting service market different from other information and knowledge intensive services....

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 9, September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-10

    of its implementation, was an important factor the elite had to take into account. In the 1970’s this alternative became only a theoretical concept... philanthropy in international economics, and although America’s monopolist rivals have always relied on the stimulating role of the "Amer- ican...34scandal" among the elite . The entry of politics by novices, insufficiently investigated and "illuminated" by the mass media or by contacts with long

  18. Do political or economic factors drive healthcare financing privatisations? Empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper adds new empirical evidence to the political economy literature of economic reform. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of a novel methodology to identify privatisations. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and validation of the breaks identified by this filter using de jure evidence of reforms. 21 de facto healthcare financing privatisations are identified in a sample of 23 OECD countries. It is analysed which fa...

  19. Why has Latin America sped up ahead of the Philippines in economic and political reform?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso i Terme, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares trends in key economic, political and social development outcomes in the Philippines with those of Latin America, particularly since the 1990s. To do so, it uses standard indicators of development, including measures of institutional quality and good governance. The paper finds that Latin America is not only at a higher level of development, but has also made faster progress in most areas than the Philippines. This is especially the case as regards GDP per capita, poverty,...

  20. ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GENDER EQUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2016-01-01

    Term “gender” means socially constructed roles of man and woman, which are ascribed to them according to gender marker. Thus, gender roles depend on concrete socio-economic, political and culturological context and experience influence of various factors according to race, ethnic origin, class, sexual orientation and age. Gender roles widely differ within each culture and cultures. Unlike the individual’s biological gender, the gender role can be changed. This concept implies the views, cond...

  1. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J Matthews

    Full Text Available Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  2. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  3. Tales of two cities: political capitals and economic centres in the world city network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Taylor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of major cities in the world city network are capital cities. Between primacy and political specialization there are examples of countries where the capital city and a second city remain as major rival cities in contemporary globalization. In this paper we focus upon situations where the capital city is less important in global economic capacity: Rome and Milan, Berlin and Frankfurt, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, Delhi and Mumbai, Islamabad and Karachi. This is an exercise in double comparisons: between cities in each pairing and between the pairings. Despite the massive differences – economic, cultural and political – amongst our chosen pairs of cities we have found communalities relating to the specific circumstance we are investigating. First, there is some evidence that economic centres are more global and less local than their capital cities. Second, more particularly, we have shown that in terms of global economic connections there is a very consistent pattern: economic centres have a much more coherent and telling integration into the world city network.

  4. PROVISION FOR ECONOMIC STABILITY OF CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNSTABLE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kaminsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction enterprise economic stability is determined as condition at which there is most coordinated interaction of all activity components(financing, manufacturing, human resources, marketing, investment and management. Construction enterprise stability enhancing may beachieved through the implementation of adaptation programs. A mechanism of the impact on economic stability of individual components is described which makes it possible to increase overall stability of the construction company in different situations.

  5. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.

  6. Russia from Bust to Boom: Oil, Politics or the Ruble?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merlevede, B.; Schoors, A.; Aarle, B. van

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates a small macroeconomic model of the Russian economy. The model is tailored to analyze the impact of the oil price, the exchange rate, and political stability on economic performance. The model does very well in explaining Russia’s economic history in the period

  7. A Pharmaco-Economic Analyzis of Treating Severe Uncontrolled Child Asthma with Omalizumab — Actual Russian Clinical Practice Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kolbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omalizumab is the first and yet the only biopreparation for asthma which combines high efficiency and high cost. The clinical-economic expediency of using omalizumab in asthmatic children has not been previously studied in Russia.Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and economic expediency of using omalizumab as additive treatment (to basic or supporting therapy in children with severe uncontrolled atopic asthma under the Russian economic conditions.Methods: We conducted a mathematical simulation of asthma treatment in children with an increased frequency of hospitalization (9 times per year with an average monthly omalizumab requirement of 558 mg. The model is based on the Markov chain. The model includes direct and non-direct costs. The planning horizons were 2 and 5 years. We analyzed the efficiency and utility of the costs and their influence on the budget. The stability of received data is proven by sensitivity analyzis.Results: Over a 5-year planning horizon the cost of an additional year of quality life (due to using omalizumab was 1,259,185 roubles, while the “society’s solvency” is 1 341 308 roubles (cost utility analizis. It takes 39,820 rubles to prevent one hospitalization with omalizumab over a 5-year planning horizon (cost efficiency analizis, which is comparable to the cost of hospitalization (43,141 rubles. Total costs for treating 100 children with asthma, 7 of which would be treated with omalizumab, were equal to the amount of money which is enough to treat 105 children without omalizumab (analysis of budgetary influence.Conclusion: The analyses of cost efficiency and utility have shown that the strategy of using omalizumab together with standard treatment is economically expedient. Budgetary influence analysis has not detected a significant burden on the budget.

  8. The restructuring of the distributive relations as necessary condition of socio-economic development of Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Yuryevich Shevyakov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of inequality and poverty in the population dynamics are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of poverty indicators used in the statistics of the Russian Federation - in comparison with those in the statistics of the Soviet Union and the EU - are analyzed. A curve of income distribution in Russia in comparison with European standards is proposed. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of formation and redistribution of income from which only the rich layers of the population are currently benefiting. For the dynamics of income of the poorest layers of the population, a tendency to reduce is characteristic. To change the situation, institutional reforms in the sphere of distribution relations are required, as some groups have institutional advantages in comparison with others. I.e. it is necessary to change the view of backward and forward linkages of social inequality and socio-economic growth. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of the functional boundaries of income for different kinds of economic, social and demographic behavior of the population. Accordingly, the inequality should be divided into normal and excessive, in terms of the feasibility of human capabilities. Excessive inequality, in turn, can be surmounted by the introduction of progressive taxation.

  9. REVIEW APPROACHES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORY OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, PRESENTED IN THE FORM OF TARGET SUBSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Didenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual idea of the organization of management of development of the Arctic area of the Russian Federation in the form of a set of target subspace. Among the possible types of target subspace comprising the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, allocated seven subspace: basic city mobile Camps, site production of mineral resources, recreational area, fishing area, the Northern Sea Route, infrastructure protection safe existence in the Arctic. The task of determining the most appropriate theoretical approach for the development of each target subspaces. To this end, the theoretical approaches of economic growth and development of the theory of "economic base» (Economic Base Theory; resource theory (Staple Theory; Theory sectors (Sector Theory; theory of growth poles (Growth Pole Theory; neoclassical theory (Neoclassical Growth Theory; theory of inter-regional trade (Interregional Trade Theory; theory of the commodity cycle; entrepreneurial theory (Entrepreneurship Theories.

  10. Without blinders: Public values scholarship in Political Science, Economics, and Law—content and contribution to Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Gjalt; van der Wal, Z.

    2017-01-01

    How and why are public values studied within public administration’s cognate disciplines? This question is addressed through a qualitative analysis of 50 public values (PVs) publications in political science, economics, and law published between 1969 and 2014. The findings show that political

  11. Theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks determining in different countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashina Nadezhda, I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problems of the theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks in different countries with relative indicators of the socio-economic development level, as well as the size and condition of the public debt. Developed by the authors the methodology of determining the risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world revealed close relationship between socio-economic situation of the countries and their public debt. Within the framework of this methodology two groups of factors characterizing the socio-political and economic processes in the country are being developed. After that each exponent and indicator are being processed, using expert procedures. Maximum statutory values for tentatively referenced countries with effective and ineffective government policies are identified. Then standardization (specification and definition of integral (generalized indexes of socio-political and economic processes in the country are taking place. After that the ranking of countries by aggregated standardized ratio is arranged, taking into account the significance of the developed indicators. The final phase of implementation methodology is identifying risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world. This is the ranking of countries by ratio of stability in public policy (stability of economic and socio-political processes in the country. As the result of implementation methodology the following output was received: what really makes a difference is not the amount of the country's debt, but how effectively it manages this debt, whether it has a goal to improve social and economic indicators. Practical testing methodology has proven that studied indicators fully characterize the development of the countries, their political, social and economic situation on the world stage.

  12. [Economics, politics, and public health in Porfirian Mexico (1876-1910)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Ana María

    2002-01-01

    The article examines the scientific, political, and economic elements that permitted the birth of modern public health in Mexico under the Porfirio Díaz administration (1876-1910). Firstly, a portion of Mexican physicians were open to the discoveries of microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology. Secondly, the State's growing concentration of power in public health matters ran parallel to its concentration of disciplinary political power and enabled this new knowledge to be placed at the service of collective health problem prevention. Lastly, both imperialism and the Porfirian elite needed to protect their business interests. The article evaluates public health achievements and limitations during the Porfirian period, abruptly interrupted by the revolution begun in 1910.

  13. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  14. AHP 21: Tibetans and Muslims in Northwest China: Economic and Political Aspects of a Complex Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Horlemann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past and today, Tibetan-Muslim relations in Qinghai and Gansu are often associated with violent conflicts sparked by religious differences or 'interethnic hatred'. A more nuanced study of the history of Tibetan-Muslim relations, however, reveals complexity as well as considerable local difference with regard to how and when contacts were established, maintained, and broken off. Tibetan Muslim encounters were manifold and varied, including interethnic marriages, close business relations, political alliances, and armed conflicts. To illustrate this wide range of encounters, examples chosen for this paper, i.e., the relations between Amdo Tibetans and the Muslim Baoan nationality, the Muslim Ma warlords, and the Chinese xiejia institution, span different eras and localities. This study suggests that Tibetan-Muslim relations were predominantly shaped by socio-economic and political factors rather than by religious differences or 'interethnic hatred' as is often assumed.

  15. The models of the future, climatic change and economical scenari: scientifical and political stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan Dalmedico, A.

    2007-01-01

    The years 1960-1970 are the opening of a debate, launching by the Club of Rome, on the growth and the limits of the earth resources. This report is at the origin of an intellectual topic based on mathematical simulation, about the today sustainable development. At the end of the years 80, arrives the global warming. After the Rio convention in 1992, a global governmental process is implementing especially with the Kyoto protocol. The hybridization grows up between scientists and politicians. This report presents the different aspects of the problem, scientifical, epidemiological, economical and political. It presents the prospective simulation tools and their political use. It analyzes the implementing of the climatic regime since 1988 and precises the bonds between scientifical expertise and global governance. (A.L.B.)

  16. CHARITY INSTITUTION AS RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY FORMATION INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Goryatcheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadly supported and actively functioning charity institution may essentially influence development of both the country economics and its civil society. Theoretical aspects of the impact of charity on the economy are discussed in detail. Brought about in the article is information that reflects activities of non-commercial organizations (NCO in Russia and abroad, global charity experience, ways of raising funds for NCO, methods of assessing feasibility of investment into non-commercial projects. Social entrepreneurship experience including that of running social projects is discussed.

  17. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  18. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  19. Modern standardization case studies at the crossroads of technology, economics, and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderman, R

    2015-01-01

    Modern Standardization -- Case Studies at the Crossroads of Technology, Economics, and Politics covers the development of new technical standards, how these standards are typically triggered, and how they are submitted to standards development organizations (SDOs) for review and evaluation. It fills the gap in the shortage of reference material in the development of real-world standards. The increasing pace of innovation in technology has accelerated the competitive nature of standardization, particularly in emerging markets. Modern Standardization addresses these and other issues through a series of case studies in a format designed for academics and their engineering, business, and law school students.

  20. Overcoming political, social and economic barriers to promote solar photovoltaic technology in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesooriya, P.; Hande, H.; Gunaratne, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper narrates the experiences of a private sector commercial company and that of a private developers (non-profit organization) in their efforts to promote solar PV in a developing country. The country chosen is Sri Lanka, in which a considerable PV effort has already been witnessed. However, substantial political, economic and social barriers exist which have hindered PV promotion in that country. The authors point that similar constraints may impede promotional efforts in many developing countries and recommend that a global paradigm to promote the technology must assign an important role to the issue of obstacles

  1. Community health centers' impact on the political and economic environment: the Massachusetts example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James W

    2005-01-01

    Since their inception in 1965, community health centers have thrived against tough odds, including patchwork funding, an unpredictable public policy environment, and a volatile healthcare marketplace. Much of this long-term success has been attributed to the centers' ability to affect their economic and political environment. Massachusetts provides an excellent example of this outward orientation. It was here that the centers first took hold, grew rapidly as a result of grassroots activity, and came together as a group for advocacy and mutual assistance. This article examines the Massachusetts experience in light of the health centers' ability to survive and grow.

  2. A Translocal Perspective: Mustang Images in the Cultural, Economic and Political Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalke, Karen

    2010-12-14

    Translocal spaces are created out of the process of globalization whereby interventions such as electronic media and migration radically change social relations and breakdown the isomorphism of space, place, and culture [1]. This approach is useful in examining the controversy surrounding the mustang. This paper explores how different social constructions influence the management of mustangs as they move between the local and national level. At each cultural level, political, economic, and environmental issues converge encouraging the emphasis of some cultural constructions over others. These socially constructed images give insight into what the mustang means to a post-industrial culture and it may simultaneously contribute to the animal's eventual demise.

  3. Partial Reform Equilibrium in Russia: A Case Study of the Political Interests of and in the Russian Gas and Oil Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Rabekah

    While several theories abound that attempt to explain the obstacles to democracy in Russia, Joel Hellman's partial reform equilibrium model is an institutional theory that illustrates how weak institutions, combined with an instrumentalist cultural approach to the law and authoritarian-minded leadership, allowed the struggle over interests to craft and determine the nature of Russia's political structure. This thesis builds on the work of Hellman by using the partial reform theory to understand the evolution of interest infiltration and their impact on the formation of policies and institutions in favour of the elites or winners from 2004 to the present time period that allow them to wield law as a political weapon. The hypothesis posits that through their vested interests in state politics, the political and economic elites of the oil and gas industry have successfully stalled reform in Russia resulting in partial reform equilibrium. This is illustrated in a case study that was designed to collect the names, backgrounds, and social networks of gas and oil executives in order to determine how many of them have a history of, or are currently working as, ministers in the government or representatives in the Federation Council. The objective being to measure the degree to which gas and oil interests are present in government decision-making and conversely, the degree to which the government is present in the gas and oil industry. The thesis stresses the importance of institutional structure in determining Russia's political evolution, and uses vested interests as a primary source of structural institutional change, while also stressing on the social and international implications of this evolution.

  4. Problems of economic security in Russian transportation and intermediate carrier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatol'evich Tsvetkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basic problems of economic security in infrastructural ensuring of the implementation of transportation and intermediate carrier potential of Russia: development and reconstruction of communication lines, usage of innovative transportation methods, building a network of transportation and logistics centers, development of regional airport hubs and others. Particular attention is paid to the problems of transportation and transit potential implementation of Siberia and the Far East. It is shown that the increase of transit facilities in the territory of Russia takes place in a competitive market of infrastructure projects. At the same time it is emphasized that along with exhausting the possibilities of commodity economy development, a natural competitive advantage of Russia as a transport bridge between Europe, Asia and America will be implemented in full force.

  5. Problems of economic security in Russian transportation and intermediate carrier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatol'evich Tsvetkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basic problems of economic security in infrastructural ensuring of the implementation of transportation and intermediate carrier potential of Russia: development and reconstruction of communication lines, usage of innovative transportation methods, building a network of transportation and logistics centers, development of regional airport hubs and others. Particular attention is paid to the problems of transportation and transit potential implementation of Siberia and the Far East. It is shown that the increase of transit facilities in the territory of Russia takes place in a competitive market of infrastructure projects. At the same time it is emphasized that along with exhausting the possibilities of commodity economy development, a natural competitive advantage of Russia as a transport bridge between Europe, Asia and America will be implemented in full force.

  6. THE ENTRANCE OF VENEZUELA IN MERCOSUR: ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Schmuziger Goldzweig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the perception of the political agents of the Congress through the analysis of their votes on the context of the acceptance of Venezuela into MERCOSUR, relating it to the potential gains coming from its admission. The relevance of the topic is justified by the importance that the bloc would acquire accepting a new member, considering the expansion of the internal consumer market and the increase of oil reserves of the bloc. Therefore, the intention is to clarify the political situation favorable to the integration and, taking the Brazilian perception in consideration, establish the relationship between economic gains that would come from the acceptance of Venezuela as a state member and the political discourse regarding this subject in the National Congress. Through the votes of deputies and senators we mapped the variables that act as important factors in the decision-making process of lawmakers. It was found that the party influence, though strong, suffers marginal effects of variables such as the influence of regional and local interests when it comes to voting on foreign policy.

  7. The economic, political and social issues, hindering the adoption of bioenergy in Pakistan: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Umair [UCH, Moonoo Chowk, Lahore (Pakistan)], e-mail: Umair@uch.com.pk

    2012-11-01

    The paper will inform the audience about the energy crisis that has crippled Pakistan's economic growth since the last 6 years, and the role that Bioenergy can play in resolving the issue. In order to help ease Pakistan in its effort to curb this crisis and to get useful insights into the role that Bioenergy can play in solving Pakistan's problems, Business planning for a Small or Medium sized enterprise was attempted. The results were not encouraging and shed light onto the financial and technical hindrances involved in creating and running Small or Medium bioenergy businesses in Pakistan. These issues themselves were linked to the more general Social, Economic and Political barriers for the adoption of Bioenergy in the country. The paper concludes by providing suggestions and recommendations, as to what the government, private sector as well as the international community can do in order to overcome the crisis.

  8. Political economic origins of Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’s new oil city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins, growth and trajectory of Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’s newest oil city, are considered by using an “institutional-analytical” method of economic history. Particular attention is given to the role of ports, harbours and railways, and how they evolved and interacted with political economic institutions in the last 100 years. This omnibus historical analysis suggests that West Africa’s newest oil city has come full circle. Its contemporary stature in national and international circles has a historical parallel in the 1920s when, as now, it captured national, regional and international attention. The evidence suggests that contemporary narratives that strike a determinist relationship between resource boom and social doom need to be reconsidered.

  9. Political-economic values and the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Miller, Dale T

    2007-02-01

    Values concerning the distribution of wealth are an important aspect of identity for many Americans, and such values may therefore influence how Americans experience their own socioeconomic status (SES). Based on this proposition, the present research examines political-economic values as a moderator of the relationship between SES and self-esteem. Results supported the hypothesis that there is a stronger relationship between SES and self-esteem among individuals who report relatively inegalitarian values than among individuals who report relatively egalitarian values. This result was replicated using both objective and subjective measures of SES. Implications of the present findings for the study of values and well-being, psychological conflict, and the influence of economic factors on self-esteem are discussed.

  10. The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun YÜKSEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

  11. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Kringos, Dionne S

    2017-08-23

    This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and political crises. The descriptive analysis used a framework operationalizing Starfield's classic primary care model for health services research. A scoping review was performed using relevant sources, and expert consultations were conducted for completing and validating data. The descriptive analysis presents a complex narrative of a primary care system undergoing classical developmental processes of transitioning middle-income countries. The system is simultaneously under tremendous pressure to adapt to the continuously changing, complex and resource-intensive needs of sub-populations exhibiting varying morbidity patterns, within the context of protracted security, humanitarian, economic, and political crises. Despite exhibiting significant resilience in the face of the ongoing crises, the continued influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees, coupled with extremely limited resources and weak governance at policy, organizational and clinical levels threaten the sustainability of KRI's public primary care system. Diverse trajectories to the strengthening and development of primary care are underway by local and international actors, notably the World Bank, RAND Corporation, UN organizations and USAID, focusing on varying imperatives related to the protracted humanitarian and economic crises. The convergence, interaction and outcomes of the diverse initiatives and policy approaches in relation to the development of KRI's primary care system are complex and highly uncertain. A common vision of primary care is required to align resources, initiatives and policies, and to enable synergy between all local and international actors involved in the developmental and humanitarian response. Further

  12. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  13. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  14. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  15. Economic, Financial, and Political Crisis and Well-Being in the PIGS-Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Halvorsen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research question in this article is threefold: To which degree is the financial crisis of 2008 and the subsequent recession associated with reduced well-being among people in the four hardest affected EURO countries? Are individual factors associated with reduced well-being the same in these countries? and Are lower socioeconomic groups more severely hit than the better off?. Data before the crisis are compared with data in 2013/2014 (EU-SILC [European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions] survey 2013 for Greece, Portugal, Ireland, and Spain. Finland is used as a reference category. Before control of individual characteristics, regressions demonstrate a small and mostly significant fall in average satisfaction with life in these countries, Portugal being an exception. According to the theory of capability and actual economic and political development, it was hypothesized that Greece—being the worst case in terms of economic development—may experience the greatest fall in life satisfaction. This hypothesis is not supported by the data. In fact, the strongest decline was found in Ireland. In particular, lack of political trust stands in Greece out as having an impact, while poor health is related to Ireland and unemployment to Portugal and Spain. Greatest socioeconomic inequality in life satisfaction was found in Portugal.

  16. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  17. THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NEWS ON THE EURO/RON EXCHANGE RATE: A GARCH APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Niţoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we try to capture the impact of political news and economic news from euro area on the exchange rate between Romanian currency and euro. In order to do this we used a GARCH model. As we observed, both variables influence the exchange rate, this fact implying national currency depreciation and a volatility growth. The political news and the economic news positively affect the euro/ron exchange rate volatility. The two factors conjugation, as it has happened in the recent period is to be avoided because it can have financial and economic consequences with a very high cost for Romania.

  18. Russian science trapped in web of rapid change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    During the Cold War, Soviet physicists were revered for their contribution to the country's prestige, economic growth, and national security, says Paul Josephson, a professor in the Department of Science, Technology, and Society at Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, New York. But the lavish support the Russian physics establishment once received is gone. In fact, the dissolution of the Soviet regime and deepening economic and political crisis have left scientists struggling to maintain their programs and keep institutes open. Internal crisis and the internationalization of science and technology have led to a drain of top Russian scientists in many fields, particularly in mathematics and theoretical physics. The West has responded to these concerns by giving financial aid and sponsoring initiatives designed to keep former Soviet scientists employed either at home or in the United States or Europe. However, the ultimate health of Russian science will depend on internal government reforms and public support, concludes Josephson

  19. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  20. Natural gas reserve/production ratio in Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan: A political and economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esen, Vedat; Oral, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    In this study, changes in natural gas reserve/production ratio (R/P) of the four countries having the highest natural gas reserves (Russia, Iran, Qatar, Turkmenistan), the importance of which increases in the world market each day due to developing technology and the demand for clean energy, has been analyzed depending on the economic and political developments in national and international fields. Change of R/P ratio depending on years has been displayed on graphics from different sources and these alterations have been tried to be associated with such issues as natural gas agreements in history, handover of political authority, economic crises etc. Therefore; it has been put forward whether or not political and economic changes of the countries are factors on the amount of natural gas production and the discovery of new reserve fields with the addition aim of providing a general overview on natural gas market. - Highlights: •Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan are the top four countries with the highest natural gas reserves. •R/P ratios of Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan are presented in this study. •Change of R/P ratio has been associated with the political and economic events of the countries are being analyzed. •The effect of political and economic changes on the ratio of natural gas R/P has been proposed.

  1. Political-economic transition in Georgia and its implications for tourism in Svaneti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voll Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Private tourism entrepreneurship relies on special knowledge of the service sector with a strong focus on individual action and a general service mentality. The organization and regulation of tourism in post-socialist European countries experienced a shift from being state-driven to being determined by individual entrepreneurs. Yet in some cases, the adoption of the new entrepreneurial business principles is contested by different cultural understandings of how tourism should be 'produced'. With examples from the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia (Svaneti we will demonstrate that these different understandings can play a major role in creating barriers for developing community-based tourism. Shortly after the transition to the market economy, a number of different small-scale, community-based tourism projects emerged, with individual entrepreneurship contesting the traditional values of hospitality in these regions (predominantly based on religious and 'tribal' values and norms rather than purely on entrepreneurial values. The methods used for this preliminary study of post-socialist tourism development included a short-term, mobile ethnography consisting of semi-structured interviews of tourism producers in the region, participant observation, as well as mapping occupancy of buildings according to unoccupied, agriculture and agritourism and second homes categories based on the condition of the gardens. Further changes in the political-economic framework have now shifted the focus towards larger-scale tourism developments supported by public-private partnerships. This paper analyses the impacts of these political-economic changes on the development of community-based tourism in Svaneti and explores in particular the friction between collective traditions and individual entrepreneurship in the experience economy of transition countries and its relationship with regional economic growth and rural depopulation.

  2. The Russian Federation Islamic Republic of Dagestan: Curricular Decentralization, Social Cohesion, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the curricular decentralization-sociopolitical stability nexus in the predominantly Muslim Russian Federation Republic of Dagestan, adjacent to war-torn Chechnya. Concomitant with the metamorphoses taking place in the economic and political sectors of society is the overhaul of institutionalized education. A major reform…

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC ACTORS IN THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM: LEGAL OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic actors are the main trade player in the World Trade Organization, although, the relation between WTO and economic actor is built by trade regulation that is negotiated among the WTO Members. Nothing in the WTO regulates economic actors to involve directly in the WTO, especially in the WTO dispute settlement system. Nevertheless, the debate amongst experts regarding the involvement of economic actors in the WTO dispute settlement system is unavoidable. This article therefore discusses the possibility of the involvement of economic actors in the WTO dispute settlement system, whether there is legal and political point of views

  4. Ecology, economics and political will: the vicissitudes of malaria strategies in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, C; Indaratna, K

    1998-06-01

    The documented history of malaria in parts of Asia goes back more than 2,000 years, during which the disease has been a major player on the socioeconomic stage in many nation states as they waxed and waned in power and prosperity. On a much shorter time scale, the last half century has seen in microcosm a history of large fluctuations in endemicity and impact of malaria across the spectrum of rice fields and rain forests, mountains and plains that reflect the vast ecological diversity inhabited by this majority aggregation of mankind. That period has seen some of the most dramatic changes in social and economic structure, in population size, density and mobility, and in political structure in history: all have played a part in the changing face of malaria in this extensive region of the world. While the majority of global malaria cases currently reside in Africa, greater numbers inhabited Asia earlier this century before malaria programs savored significant success, and now Asia harbors a global threat in the form of the epicenter of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum which is gradually encompassing the tropical world. The latter reflects directly the vicissitudes of economic change over recent decades, particularly the mobility of populations in search of commerce, trade and personal fortunes, or caught in the misfortunes of physical conflicts. The period from the 1950s to the 1990s has witnessed near "eradication" followed by resurgence of malaria in Sri Lanka, control and resurgence in India, the influence of war and postwar instability on drug resistance in Cambodia, increase in severe and cerebral malaria in Myanmar during prolonged political turmoil, the essential disappearance of the disease from all but forested border areas of Thailand where it remains for the moment intractable, the basic elimination of vivax malaria from many provinces of central China. Both positive and negative experiences have lessons to teach in the debate between eradication

  5. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these

  6. The Political Response of Spanish Youth to the Socio-Economic Crisis: Some Implications for Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Jover

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effects of the current socio-economic crisis on Spanish youth and their political response to it. It does so in three consecutive stages. In the first, it analyses the repercussion of the crisis on young people using information from certain social indicators (employment, mobility and education. It then outlines the subjective perception of the crisis, i.e., how they are experiencing it and what their hopes are regarding the economy and politics. The third part focuses on how young citizens have responded to the situation politically. The article finishes by considering what implications may be drawn from that response in terms of citizenship education.

  7. Economics vis-à-vis Politics of Venezuela under the Chavez Regime 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world most of the countries are following the market rule to determine their economic determinants with some to follow the mixed role of the government. There are a very few countries or states that are following the socialistic nature of development. One such country is Venezuela which has a long history of socialism and the degree of socialism got magnified under the regime of Hugo Chavez. The last election result in favour of Chavez has put some questions before the economists and politicians regarding its grounds. The present study has been framed in line with examining whether the role of economic factors have done the trick for Chavez to regain the presidential power. The study for the period of 1998-2010 has observed that the country has suffered in major economic factors compared to two Latin heroes Brazil and Argentina, albeit he has won the election. The study further observed that there are certain political grounds that played role for the favourable verdict.

  8. Transition of Russian energy industry to a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Russian energy industry by totality of politic, social and economic circumstances has entered into the sharpest crisis. Development of energy industry has practically ceased, it has appeared a decline in electricity , oil and coal production. However it has been accumulated a vast intact potential for energy conservation and the change of energy consuming equipment in USSR by the best models of the world could reduce the present annual consumption by about 500 millions.tonnes of coal equivalent

  9. Economic and political power relationships and price formation in strategic materials markets. The example of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The more and more generalized substitution of coordination trading mechanisms by administrated regulation forms on the world petroleum scene has led some authors to sustain the idea that oil prices can be durably fixed on a competitive market, like any ordinary good. By analysing the limits of the Hotellinian optimization approach, this work tries to demonstrate that: conformably to a theoretical trend initiated by the works of P.H. Frankel, integration and concentration are two elements indispensable to the proper operation of the petroleum domain. A non-organized market leads to a prices fight and to the reinforcement of the main actors. It demonstrates also that the interdependence between economy and politics has always been an important factor in prices making. The history of petroleum political economics has been and remains largely connected to the power relations established between governments for the share of profits. This work stresses on the necessity of the implementation by the main actors of a back-to-integration and cooperation strategy to stabilize the market and the prices and to make possible the implementation of energy mastery and environment protection policies. On the other hand, the examination of the present day situation, characterized by a very unequal share of profits and by an upstream weakness of prices and investments, reveals the existence of tension factors susceptible to start up a new oil crisis in the coming years. (J.S.)

  10. CHINESE BUSINESSMEN AND “LEADERS” IN MADRID: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Betrisey Nadali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the emergence of “leaders” of the Chinese community in Madrid, based on a study of a conflict that was brief but significant; specifically, the social protests carried out by shopkeepers and workers in the central district of Lavapiés in 2005 and 2006, and who were protesting against a controversial municipal regulations on trade. What is interesting about this study is the way that it analyses – through this experience of the mobilisation and representation of their community – the way in which these “leaders” were constituted as political entities, with links to the main relevant social actors (associationist movements, political parties and economic groups in Madrid and how they co-opted a certain ability to represent the collective by incorporating such complex, symbolic elements as “being Chinese”, social class, affiliation to local parties and discourses on belonging to the welcoming country. The analysis shows, furthermore, that the various expressions of ethnicity do not represent a fixed, inert reality, but rather a dynamic process which, in addition to the actual paths of the main characters, takes shape based on the context in which it is immersed.

  11. A Translocal Perspective: Mustang Images in the Cultural, Economic and Political Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Dalke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Translocal spaces are created out of the process of globalization whereby interventions such as electronic media and migration radically change social relations and breakdown the isomorphism of space, place, and culture [1]. This approach is useful in examining the controversy surrounding the mustang. This paper explores how different social constructions influence the management of mustangs as they move between the local and national level. At each cultural level, political, economic, and environmental issues converge encouraging the emphasis of some cultural constructions over others. These socially constructed images give insight into what the mustang means to a post-industrial culture and it may simultaneously contribute to the animal’s eventual demise.

  12. The political mobilization of corporate directors: socio-economic correlates of affiliation to European pressure groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Matthew; Glouharova, Siana; Harrigan, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Business has played a central role in the debate over Britain's place in the European Union. This paper examines the socio-economic characteristics of directors of Britain's largest corporations who affiliated either to Business for Sterling or Britain in Europe. It reports associations between directors' social backgrounds and their probabilities of affiliation. Elite university education, club membership, wealth and multiple directorships were all associated with higher propensities to affiliate. The associations are consistent with the idea that directors' social resources allow them to overcome collective action problems as well as supplying them with the motivations to affiliate. They also indicated that directors form a privileged group in that they have a number of very powerful actors who can take unilateral political actions.

  13. Iceland’s Financial Crisis In 2008. Political, Economic and Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legutko Agnieszka Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the successful strategy of overcoming financial breakdown in the case study of Iceland. The aim of the article is to verify a hypothesis that the Icelandic model could become a panacea for future crises? A document analysis method is applied to present essential indicators such as GDP and trade balance. With the use of a source analysis method, the collapse of the financial sector is determined as the main cause of the slump. The systematization of crisis events is introduced and deepened by the social and political situation. Changes in the state’s condition after the crash are provided and future forecasts about economic development are discussed. As a summing up, the author disapproves of the hypothesis that the Icelandic model of overcoming the financial breakdown as a panacea for future crises, pointing out that it is only applicable for specific cases and cannot be seen as a magical remedy for every kind of crisis.

  14. Developing drugs for the developing world: an economic, legal, moral, and political dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, D B

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, social, legal, political, and other conditions. How a company decides to exercise its social responsibilities to the developing world depends on (1) the prospects for a reasonable profit and (2) the prospects for a productive business environment. Developing nations can either help or hinder the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to exercise social responsibility through various policies and practices. To insure that companies can make a reasonable profit, developing nations should honor pharmaceutical product patents and adhere to international intellectual property treaties, such as the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. To insure the companies have a good business environment, developing nations should try to promote the rule of law, ethical business practices, stable currencies, reliable banking systems, free and open markets, democracy, and other conditions conducive to business. Overall, this paper advocates for reciprocity and cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and developing nations to address the problem of developing drugs for the developing world. In pursuing this cooperative approach, developing nations may use a variety of other techniques to encourage pharmaceutical companies to act responsibly, such as subsidizing pharmaceutical research, helping to design and implement research protocols, providing a guaranteed market, and

  15. THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NEWS ON THE EURO/RON EXCHANGE RATE: A GARCH APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Cristi Spulbar; Mihai Nitoi

    2012-01-01

    Within this study we try to capture the impact of political news and economic news from euro area on the exchange rate between Romanian currency and euro. In order to do this we used a GARCH model. As we observed, both variables influence the exchange rate, this fact implying national currency depreciation and a volatility growth. The political news and the economic news positively affect the euro/ron exchange rate volatility. The two factors conjugation, as it has happened in the recent peri...

  16. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  17. Economic, Socio-Political and Environmental Risks of Road Development in the Tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Sloan, Sean; Goosem, Miriam; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Mahmoud, Mahmoud I; Laurance, William F

    2017-10-23

    It is projected that 25 million km of new paved roads will be developed globally by 2050 - enough to encircle the planet more than 600 times. Roughly 90% of new roads will be built in developing nations, frequently in tropical and subtropical regions with high biodiversity and environmental values. Many developing nations are borrowing from international lenders or negotiating access to their natural resources in order to expand their transportation infrastructure. Given the unprecedented pace and extent of these initiatives, it is vital to thoroughly assess the potential consequences of large-scale road and highway projects. In appropriate contexts and locales, new roads can promote sizeable economic and social benefits. If poorly planned or implemented, however, new roads can provoke serious cost overruns, corruption and environmental impacts, while generating sparse economic benefits and intense social and political conflict. Using examples from developing nations, we identify risks that can hinder road projects in wet and dry tropical environments. Such risks, we assert, are often inadequately considered by project proponents, evaluators and the general public, creating a systematic tendency to overestimate project benefits while understating project risks. A more precautionary approach is needed to reduce risks while maximizing benefits of new road projects in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood, politics, and social science. Richard Titmuss and the Institute of Economic Affairs, 1957-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Philippe

    2002-09-01

    Long before his last book, The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy, was published in early 1971, Richard M. Titmuss (1907-1973), a professor of social administration at the London School of Economics, had been a major figure in the debates over the welfare state. The Gift Relationship was the culmination of an eventful relationship with the Institute of Economic Affairs, a think tank that advocated the extension of rational pricing to social services. By arguing that the British system of blood procurement and distribution, based on free giving within the National Health Service, was more efficient than the partly commercialized American system, Titmuss intended to signal the dangers of the increasing commercialization of society. What made for the impact of his book, however, was not merely its argument that transfusion-transmitted infections were much more common with paid than with voluntary donors, but also its reflections on what it is that holds a society together. And here Titmuss argued that a "socialist" social policy, by encouraging the sense of community, played a central role. The eclecticism of Titmuss's work, together with its strong ethical and political flavor, makes it a rich and original account of the "social" at a time when heated debated over social policy, both in Britain and in the United States, raised the question of the division of labor among the social sciences.

  19. Technology for whom: too dear to work. [Political, economic, and social problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, F

    1978-01-01

    In spite of growth in per capita gross national product, less-developed countries (LDCs) continue to have large numbers of people who are unemployed and living in extreme poverty. The failure of advanced technology to create adequate jobs has led to a strong movement for more appropriate technology. Advanced technology is inappropriate because the capital costs per employee are too high to equip enough workers, plants are built on too large a scale for the market, and the combination creates an economic enclave which ignores the rest of the population. Appropriate technology gives priority to the basic needs of the poor and includes raising their income level by expanding productive employment. This requires inexpensive, small-scale technology that needs few skills and uses local materials. More technological research and development is needed in the LDCs as well as changes in the way income and investment resources are distributed, but this will entail changing the decision making process to include political and socio-economic considerations.

  20. In Preparation or Response: Examining Health Care Coalitions Amid a Changing Economic and Political Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornauer, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response within the US Department of Health and Human Services leads the nation in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the adverse health effects of public health emergencies, in part through formal collaborations between hospitals, health systems, community health centers, public health departments, and community organizations via health care coalitions (HCCs). HCCs endeavor to meet the medical surge demands inherent to disasters and to improve health outcomes before, during, and after public health emergencies. Nevertheless, significant changes in health economics and policy can impact the operations, capabilities, and scope of HCCs. Specifically, hospital consolidation and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are altering the national health care landscape, as well as the emergency preparedness sector, and are challenging HCCs to adapt to large-scale, industry-wide transformations. This article examines HCCs in the context of the developments of hospital consolidation and the ACA in order to facilitate future discourse regarding the strategy and policy of HCCs amid a changing economic and political landscape.

  1. Change or continuity: an interpretation of the economic politics of Lula’s government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André MOREIRA CUNHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first year of government, the administration of Lula implanted a macroeconomic politics characterized by a strong fiscal and monetary restriction and for structural reformations (tributary and of the Social Security before criticized by the Party of the Workers and for its bases of social support in the last two decades. Keeping in mind these facts and the international expectation generated by the election of a government of left in Brazil in front of the crisis of the neoliberal pattern in Latin America, this article has for objective to analyses: (i the economic circumstances of the government’s principle Lula that conditioned the adoption of a transition strategy; (ii the results of this strategy; and (iii the aspects of continuity and change in the new government. Empiric evidences that sustain that the margin of manoeuvre of the new administration was sensibly narrow as to promote deep changes in the economic politics’s conduction, are presented. However, to part of those restrictions, inherited of the deregulated adjustment of the nineties, the government of Lula opted for the adoption of a group of politicians that will be able to generate a new trap of low growth with macroeconomic uncertainty, in the terms of that experienced in last decade.

  2. The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boezeman, Daan; Leroy, Pieter; Maas, Rob; Kruitwagen, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

  3. Do political and economic choices rely on common neural substrates? A systematic review of the emerging neuropolitics literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekoul eKrastev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to economic rewards. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making.

  4. Do Political and Economic Choices Rely on Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review of the Emerging Neuropolitics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Sekoul; McGuire, Joseph T; McNeney, Denver; Kable, Joseph W; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-01-01

    The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to "economic" reward. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making.

  5. Military Influence in Russian Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    militarization Union. I have concluded that the disappeared. 5 Indeed, a de -militarization military’s opportunity and motivation to of Soviet society and... sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse

  6. Case study: The Transnationalization of Russian Oil and Gas Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lavrov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The value of multinational enterprises (MNEs as the main players in the global economy is constantly increasing. More and more companies from developing and transition economies are starting to do business beyond their national borders. Not all of them strictly belong to the category of MNEs, as is the case for Russia’s largest companies. This article analyzes the international activities of Russian MNEs. The authors study the place of MNEs in the modern world and examine the transformation of the concept of an MNE in the international practice. They identify the internationally accepted criteria that classify a company as an MNE. They analyze the international activities of the largest Russian companies in the oil and gas sector (Gazprom, Rosneft, Lukoil, Surgutneftegas, Novatek and their possible classification as MNEs. The article also assesses the influence of the economic and political sanctions on the international activities of Russian MNEs in the oil and gas sector. The methodological basis for the study is the dialectical method of investigating phenomena and processes in the modern world as the most effective way to achieve goals. The authors pay particular attention to the practical application of comparative economic analysis, classification and empirical generalization of original data. The authors came to seven conclusions. First, there is no single approach to defining the essence of MNEs. Second, the indicators that classify a company as an MNE can be divided into qualitative and quantitative criteria. Third, not all the large companies in Russia engaged in expanding into foreign markets can be classified as MNEs by the formal criteria. Fourth, most Russian MNEs have an unstable position in international ratings of MNEs, with the exception of Lukoil. Fifth, the main problems of Russian MNEs include the inefficiency of foreign assets, the lack of experience in managing international holdings and the longstanding crisis of the

  7. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  8. Climatic change as an argument in the chase for tax money and market intervention. Political economics and scientific uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedictus, A.

    2006-01-01

    Based on a political-economical analysis of the stakeholders in the debate on climatic change the author states that the people involved use their arguments on climatic change and its consequences for their own interest and purposes. The precautionary principle is the democratic alibi for politicians and other interest groups to use those interests over the heads of the misguided public [nl

  9. Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors Influencing Access and Success of Women in Political Leadership in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluyu, Veronicah

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, women and leadership have been a global topical issue, especially with countries trying to interpret and implement the millennium development goals, and with increased awareness of human rights. In Africa, political leadership among women has had its own challenges that range from social, cultural and even economic factors. In…

  10. The political economy of dignity: monitoring the advancement of socio-economic human rights in a globalized economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dichotomy between political and socio-economic rights has been subject to criticism ever since the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, almost sixty years ago. The declaration itself leaves little doubt regarding the interconnectedness between both types of human rights.

  11. Economics, funding and the influence of politics on the Wismut Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, D.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the interactions among legal aspects, financial aspects, political reorganization of East Germany, and political issues in reference to remedial action on the Wismut Uranium mine program in Germany

  12. INFORMATION THREATS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD: ECONOMICS, POLITICS, SOCIETY (EXPERIENCE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Holovka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article deals with both integral vision of the contemporary informative risks in the globalized world and their classification. The essence of the informative security is exposed, which is one of main factors of steady development of the modern informative society. In consideration of the foreign practice, the experience of Ukraine is also analyzed in counteraction to the contemporary informative threats. The effective policy of safety and counteraction to the informative threats is one of the basic constituents of the state national safety system and at the same time testifies to the correct character of connections between the public organs and the society. Under the conditions of unrestrained progress of information technologies and general informatization in all sectors of people’s life (politics, economy, defense, energy etc., providing of control and defense of informative space of the country becomes much more difficult task. Modern Ukrainian realities certify convincingly, that Ukraine is in an extremely difficult political situation that influences all spheres of Ukrainians’ life. The key reason of such situation is a military-informative aggression against Ukraine from Russia, which is the fact of waging a «hybrid war». As it is known, this type of war combines the application of both classic soldiery instruments (military technique, firearms, regular troops and methods of informative influence (cyber-attack, informative diversions, aggressive propaganda, impact on public opinion. This factor encourages such research. The object of the study is the phenomenon of information risks in the modern world. Subject of research – is the impact of modern information threats to the state and society, namely the economic, political and social spheres. For a holistic analysis of the subject of research was used appropriate methodology – systematic approach, method of comparative analysis, general scientific methods

  13. Local power production at the end consumer - legal, political and economical external conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Hunnes, Arngrim; Naesje, Paal; Wangensteen, Ivar; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-12-01

    The report deals with the external conditions for local power production, suggested as a production close to or at the end consumer. The political, legal and economical frame conditions for such production including rating are discussed. The report shall together with a technical report regarding appropriate technologies for such production (A5712), serve as a basis for case studies and monitors later in the project. Through the case studies it will be uncovered how the external conditions are functioning which will make foundations for recommendations concerning possible alterations in the conditions in order to make the local power production more profitable. In the discussion on the political and legal external conditions the system of today is studied. From the political area the general development is described and a short analysis is made of what to expect from case handling procedures, and some challenges are pointed out At present there is a simplified handling of cases of minor and smaller power plants. In order to obtain a more realistic construction of such plants the requirements of license handling may need sharpening. The tariffing of energy deliverance is studied. The regulations for tariffing and income regulation in the distribution network is mainly designed with the consumer and the central power production in mind. A study is made of how the regulations work, to what extent precessions and additional rules are needed and to what extent alterations in the regulations are needed in order to incorporate the local power production in a rational way. While a local power producer at best, will want a price for power which is sold at the power market of the size of 20 oere/kWh, the power will increase in value further down in the voltage level. At the 230 V level the power price will be of the size of 60 oere/kWh all expenses included and the network rent (during normal precipitation conditions). Therefore the production for own consumption will be met

  14. Economic crisis, institutional confidence and political leadership in Spain / Crisis económica, confianza institucional y liderazgos políticos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Jiménez Díaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of the economic crisis in main political Spanish leaders in an exploratory way. For understanding the politics of the recent years is necessary to know the consequences of this crisis on leaders and political institutions that they manage. In representative democracies, political leaders have to maintain confidence with their followers to justify the political actions of the formers. Therefore, and according to theoretical interpretations and data presented in this paper, institutional confidence becomes a key factor to understand the effects of the economic crisis on the political leadership. Thus, the decline of institutional confidence is related with the increasing delegitimization of main political leaders and with the profound crisis of political legitimacy.

  15. A political economic explanation of the contemporary Turkish foreign policy: the case of contemporary Turkish – Russian relations

    OpenAIRE

    Sarı, Elif

    2013-01-01

    102 page Bu tez, Çağdaş Türk Dış Politikasındaki dönüşümü politik ekonomik açıdan incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Türkiye’nin son yıllarda dış ilişkilerinde izlediği aktif politika anlayışını analiz edebilmek için, son dönem dış ilişkilerin beli bir teorik çerçeveye dayandırılarak ele alınması gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle, bu çalışmada son dönem Türk dış politikasındaki dönüşümün arkasındaki ekonomik nedenleri değerlendirmek üzere karşılıklı bağımlılık teorisine, teorinin analitik konseptine ve ka...

  16. Russian Chronicles on the Submission of the Kievan Rus’ to the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present fragments of the Russian chronicles from the 13th and 14th centuries dedicated to the period of submission of Rus’ to the Mongols in 1237–1260. The process of submission of Russia to the Golden Horde is divided into two periods. The first one (1237–40 regards properly the Mongol invasion of Russian territories. The second period (1240–60 concerns the gradual submission of Russia to the Golden Horde, the process which had a more peaceful nature. The Mongol invasion was the defining moment for Kievan Rus’: for the first time in its history, the Russian population underwent a full-scale extermination with the destruction of chief towns. Contemporary to the invasion, Russian chronicles describe warfare at length and show emotional involvement as well. The requirement of the Mongol governors of absolute submission to their power with payment of the tenth share from all types of income and property are perceived as absolutely inadmissible. The succeeding destruction of the main towns of Russia, the last centres of resistance, is perceived in chronicles as a divine punishment for lack of military cooperation between the Russian princes. The Mongols themselves are presented as tabsolutely alien to orthodox culture and their pagan customs cause disgust in the authors of Russian chronicles. The subsequent period of the gradual submission of Russia to the Golden Horde is not less important in the evolution of political and cultural relations between nomads and the Russian settled population. Russian chronicles testify to fast restoration of towns after the Mongol invasion and stabilization of economic life. The governors of the Golden Horde are limited by the requirement of formal submission of the Russian princes which avoided direct military showdowns. Russia gradually became involved in the fiscal system of the Mongolian empire, but in exchange Russian princes receive a considerable political autonomy.

  17. The political-economic transition and the building of the welfare state in Spain (1975-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic policy in Spain during the govern- ments of the Spanish political transition from 1975 to 1986. It considers the different areas of economic policy with special emphasis on the development of welfare state issues in this period. Taking into account the difficult economic and political situation in 1975, there were some important advances in social policy and progressive taxation during the period. The transition to democracy in Spain changed the role and size of the public sector above all from 1975 to 1986. The social demands over the political system were possible improvements in the progressive and redistributive policies in education, health, and social programs. Spain’s transition to democracy and the first period of welfare state show a mutually reinforcing and its consequences were the modernization of the Spanish economy. However, from 1986 the economic develop- ment and the progress of welfare state have had a different growth.Key words: Welfare state, Economic transition, Spain.

  18. Socio-Economic Problems of the Russian Construction of Art Nouveau Period (on the Example of A.I. Lishnevsky’s Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr I. Chepel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the specifics of Russian architect’s work on the example of the activity of prominent architect of Art Nouveau period A.L. Lishnevsky (1868–1942. The special attention is paid to the architect’s relations with the authorities, contractors and workers, as well as with customers and colleagues. The author shows the opinion of citizens about the activities of an architect as a builder and businessman, reveals the main socio-economic problems which the architect faced from the moment of inception and approval of the project prior to its actual implementation. The author attempts to trace the mechanism of professional networking in the architecture environment of that time, and to reveal the peculiarities of private architectural bureaus (“offices”. The attention is paid to the assessment by the architect of their own professional activity. A.L. Lishnevsky’s activity is a good example of architect’s work in the construction business. A native of the city of Kherson, he received the metropolitan education at the Art Academy, then for over six years (1895–1901 he worked as a municipal architect in Elisavetgrad (Kirovograd, since 2016 – Kropivnytsky during the period of rapid economic and cultural growth of the town. After 1901 and up to 1917 he was actively engaged in municipal and private construction in the capital of the Russian Empire, Saint Petersburg. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the Art Nouveau period architect worked in capitalism construction market, and was forced to deal with issues similar to those that the architects of our time solve. The study is based on materials from Russian archives and periodicals of late 19th – early 20th century.

  19. Do Political and Economic Choices Rely on Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review of the Emerging Neuropolitics Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Sekoul; McGuire, Joseph T.; McNeney, Denver; Kable, Joseph W.; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2016-01-01

    The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to “economic” reward. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making. PMID:26941703

  20. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the 'method of difference' with the 'method of agreement', the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power.

  1. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  2. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  3. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    years passed, invested Germancarliamentary life , and politics in general, with ar increasing amount of friction and frustra-ton. The new German state...Wranslated by William C. Kirby, Cambridge: .arvaro ° Uiversity Press, 1981. George F. Kennan, The Decline of Bismarck’s European Order, .7anco-Russian...continental Empire, free from the economic pressure of Britain, America, and France. The costs of the war in human life and resources fed procressively more

  4. Rossijskaja jenergeticheskaja diplomatija i mezhdunarodnaja jenergeticheskaja bezopasnost' (geopolitika i jekonomika [Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  5. Seismic microzonation in Latin America and the Caribbean: social, cultural, economic and political aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    The lack of success, not to say failure, of seismic microzonation projects in the Latin America and Caribbean nations-and for that matter elsewhere in the world-should not be attributed to the lack of technical and scientific expertise of our engineers and scientists as there exists in our continent sufficient knowledge and information about the techniques and procedures that have been successfully used elsewhere in the world in the implementation of seismic microzonation projects. The main constrains to the implementation of seismic microzonation projects in Latin America and the Caribbean are of an economic, social, political, and cultural aspects rather than the purely scientific and engineering aspects. Another very important factor contributing to this lack of success has been the apparent failure of the scientific and technical community to convince decision makers (both official and private) that the sound implementation of seismic microzonation projects are a valid instrument to mitigate the negative effects that earthquakes have on the population, on the physical infrastructure and on the environment. An attempt will be made in this paper to analyze these "non technical" aspects and try to arrive at some conclusions as well as to some possible lines of action for the successful implementation of seismic microzonation projects in the seismic risk prone Latin American and Caribbean nations.

  6. The Power of Economic Ideas: A Constructivist Political Economy of EU Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siles-Brügge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU’s 2006 Global Europe communication established an offensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA agenda premised on serving the interests of the EU’s upmarket exporters at the expense of the EU’s remaining “pockets of protection”. This has remained in place with the advent of the 2010 Trade, Growth and World Affairs strategy. Such a development defies both rationalist International Political Economy (IPE explanations – which emphasise the protectionist bias of societal mobilisation – and accounts stressing the institutional insulation of policy-makers from societal pressures because the recent economic crisis and the increased politicisation of EU trade policy by the European Parliament have coexisted without leading to greater protectionism. Adopting a constructivist approach, we show that this turn of events can be explained by the neoliberal ideas internalised by policy-makers in the European Commission’s Directorate-General (DG for Trade. We then deploy a novel heuristic to illustrate how DG Trade acted upon these ideas to strategically construct a powerful discursive imperative for liberalisation.

  7. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María, E-mail: amplata@ugr.es; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis, E-mail: jlzafra@ugr.es; Pérez-López, Gemma, E-mail: gemmapl@ugr.es; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel, E-mail: alopezh@ugr.es

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services.

  8. Socio-economic-political-cultural aspects in malaria control programme implementation in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S K; Patil, Rajan R; Tiwari, S N

    2012-01-01

    Objective. A Socio-economic-political-cultural (SEPC) study was undertaken under the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative to understand the process of programme implementation and how far in the changing malaria context, the broader environment has been understood and programme components have undergone changes. Material and Methods. Two studies were carried out; first in four villages under the primary health unit (PHU) Banavaralu in Tiptur Taluka in September 2002 and the second one in April 2003 in four villages in Chitradurga district, namely, Kappagere, Kellodu in Hosadurga Taluka, and Vani Vilas Puram and Kathrikenhally in Hiriyur Taluka. Focus group discussion and key interviews were adopted to collect the qualitative data. Results. Gender discrimination and lack of empowerment of women came out strongly in social analysis. In the rural elected bodies called Panchayats, the concept of health committees was not known. Health committees as one of the important statutory committees under every Panchayat were nonexistent in reality in these villages. Financial difficulties at Grama Panchayat level and also meager budget allocation for health have led to indifferent attitude of Panchayat members towards health. It was observed that there were generally no specific cultural practices in relation to malaria cure. Cultural and traditional practices in malaria-related issues were not predominant in the community except for some sporadic instances. Conclusion and Recommendation. SEPC study is an important indicator in malaria control programme. It is ultimately the community that takes the major decision directly or indirectly and the health authority must guide them in right direction.

  9. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Richard

    2009-07-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  10. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services

  11. Post-2012 climate change agreement - Fitting commitments by cities. Political, economic, technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, B.; Wemaere, M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the crucial role that urban territories must and can play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, along with a growing power of a lobby dedicated to supporting the voices of urban territories vis-a-vis national states. The local level of organization and policy is relevant for two main reasons: density and spatial organization are key factors that influence energy consumption in transport and building; some of the major potentials for emission abatement need local coordination to overcome transaction costs. 'Engage, Empower and Resource': this formula, forged during the C40 Seoul Summit (May 2009), calls for clear and quantified commitments with a timetable for delivery; additional power and competencies for cities to increase their capacity to act; and substantial financial resources. Road-Map: This paper identifies key elements that need to be taken into account when developing a road-map that seeks empowerment of local governments in the UN post-2012 framework. It explores political, economic, technical and legal aspects, along with respective main issues to be addressed. (authors)

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  13. Social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice across the political spectrum, but social issues are most divisive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt

    2017-03-01

    Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The new start for Russian-African relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Nikolaevich Korendyasov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia's return to Africa is widely discussed in the Russian and foreign scientific and expert circles, on the pages of newspapers and magazines. This covers a broad range of problems of country, regional and global scale, put forward and voiced conflicting estimates and judgments. Abroad, actively promoted the interpretation of the “return” of Russia to the continent as a new direction of neo-imperial ambitions of the new Russia and its aspirations to weaken the position of the West, “golden” its image in the developing countries, in the eyes of Africans. Author analyzes the impact of the emerging political, economic and social realities of the XXI century on the development prospects of the African continent in general, and on the Russian-African relations in particular. The author concludes that the increase in the weight and role of the continent in world politics and economy today requires a rethinking of the Russian approaches to the problems of scale Russian-African partnership and the formation of its long-term vision, building on the existing political, diplomatic and investment and the country's financial resources. The new dynamics of Russian-African relations is connected, first of all, with the development of partnerships in those areas where Russia has competitive potential, production capacities, high competence and experience. Including the development of natural resources, nuclear power and hydropower, military-technical cooperation, the establishment of satellite information and communication systems, cooperation in the sphere of education, health, the fight against epidemics, natural catastrophes. Russia is confident enough to overcome the deep recession of relations with Africa, recorded in the late 80's and 90-ies of XX century. However, it would be premature to claim that full-blooded “return” of Russia to the continent has already taken place. Scaling up comprehensive cooperation will depend, first, on the

  15. THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF OSTEOPOROSIS AND OSTEOARTHRITIS (ESCEO ALGORITHM FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS IS APPLICABLE TO RUSSIAN CLINICAL PRACTICE: A CONSENSUS STATEMENT OF LEADING RUSSIAN AND ESCEO OSTEOARTHRITIS EXPERTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Denisov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO treatment algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA, published in December 2014, provides practical guidance for the prioritization of interventions. This current paper represents an assessment and endorsement of the algorithm by Russian experts in OA for use in Russian clinical practice, with the aim of providing easy-to-follow advice on how to establish a treatment flow in patients with knee OA, in support of the clinicians’ individualized assessment of the patient. Medications recommended by the ESCEO algorithm are available in Russia. In step 1, background maintenance therapy with symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA is advised, for which high-quality evidence is provided only for the formulations of patented crystalline glucosamine sulphate (pCGS (Rottapharm/Meda and prescription chondroitin sulfate. Paracetamol may be added for rescue analgesia only, due to limited efficacy and increasing safety signals. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may provide additional symptomatic treatment with the same degree of efficacy as oral NSAIDs but without the systemic safety concerns. To be effective, topical NSAIDs must have high bioavailability, and among NSAIDs molecules like etofenamate have high absorption and bioavailability alongside evidence for accumulation in synovial tissues. Oral NSAIDs maintain a central role in step 2 advanced management of persistent symptoms. However, oral NSAIDs are highly heterogeneous in terms of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular safety profile, and patient stratification with careful treatment selection is advocated to maximize the risk: benefit ratio. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid as a next step provides sustained clinical benefit with effects lasting up to 6 months after a short-course of weekly injections. As a last step before surgery, the slow

  16. Political elite of modern Russia: crisis of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail A. Burda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Author analyzes the practice of functioning of political elite of modern Russia, the phenomenon of high rating of one of its actors and the crisis of alternative political leaders. The article pays special attention to the existing, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the breadth of presidential powers. Separately discusses the features of current and in General closed for the controlled companies to the private process of formation of the Russian political elite. According to the author, this process takes the form of selection of candidates by a narrow circle of senior officials for subjective reasons, in connection with which the political elite even more segregated from the controlled companies and rising to a new, unattainable level of elitism. Referring to the existing practice of the presidential elections in Russia in the early 90-ies of XX century to the present focuses on the stagnation of the political opposition, lack of political competition among major political parties and their low electoral support in view of the existing political absenteeism. In the article the author considers the historical context of the formation of elite groups and privileged minorities, and draws attention to features of "technocratic parliamentarism", which is inherent in States with a parliamentary form of government and does not implement at present in Russia, with its prevailing system of governance by public authorities. In conclusion, the special attention of author is turned on the existing in society political absenteeism, latent protest potential and, as a consequence, the request for the renewal of political elites, particularly in the framework of the upcoming presidential elections of the Russian Federation in 2018, the participation of new candidates. According to the author of the inventory of such social demand companies will allow to stop the risks enhance the destructive part of economic and regional political

  17. Sami in the History of the Norwegian-Russian Borderland: Factor of Tension or Regional Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav I. Goldin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is based of an extensive array of documents and cartographic materials of the leading archives of the Russian Federation and Norway. The authors focus their attention on the history of Russian-Norwegian border and the Sami aspect of its development. On the Scandinavian continent, the population of frontier areas was often a factor of political tension, but the ethnic picture of the Russian-Norwegian borderland distinguished by the fact that the frontier status of the Skolt was the integration factor for the formation of economic cooperation between the border provinces of Russia and Norway. This thesis the authors explain by the peculiarities of the States policy regarding the border territories, ethnic groups, economic activities and economic interaction of Skolt with other communities, as well as their perception of own inhabited space.

  18. Global and Domestic Politics in the Wake of the Financial and Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Pontusson, Harry Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The December 2012 issue of SPSR featured a collection of short essays that explored the domestic politics of the financial crisis, the ensuing international recession and the ongoing difficulties of managing the debt problems and trade imbalances of the Eurozone. The contributors to the first installment of our debate on crisis politics engaged in historical and comparative discussions of government responses to the crisis of 2007-10 and the political repercussions of the crisis. For this, th...

  19. Political Instability: Its Effects on Financial Development, Its Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Siegel, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Political instability impedes financial development and is a primary determinant of differences in financial development around the world. Four conventional measures of national political instability — Alesina and Perotti’s (1996) well-known index of instability, a subsequent index derived from Banks’ (2005) work, and two indices of managerial perceptions of nation-by-nation political instability — persistently predict a wide range of national financial development outcomes for recent decades...

  20. "Soviet" Higher Education in a Changing Political, Social, and Economic Context: A Scenario for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkuriev, Stanislav

    1991-01-01

    Describes the changes in Soviet/Russian higher education since 1986. Reviews the development of higher education since 1918 and the bureaucratic structures that stifled progress and focused on vocational preparation. Argues that decentralization of authority will lead to improved general education essential for a free society. (CFR)

  1. Russian Turn to East on the Back of the New Anti-Russian Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Borisova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been three years since the impose of anti-Russian sanctions and claimed turn to the East. It is possible to sum up some results of this politics already. Top-priority in such circumstances is China, world’s second large economy; Russian-Chinese relations “are now the best ever”. Leaders of both countries have focused on the importance of maintaining strategic partnership multiple times. While Russia turned to The East, China also chose turn to the West by declaring global “One belt — One road” initiative for development of worldwide transport and investment infrastructure in Eurasia. Moscow is the partnership of the Initiative. It was decided to cooperate in frames of Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU and Silk Road Economic Belt. However, such a high level of political communication cannot guarantee the same results in bilateral trade and economic relations. Main projects, which were agreed with the involvement of the top-officials, are in progress. Businessmen mostly have to handle with all the problems to enter new Chinese market by themselves. In addition, despite all the efforts Russia is still not developing the same good connection with other Asian countries, except Japan, South Korea and Vietnam.

  2. Political and economic conjuncture in Brazil (1950-1964: a fertile land for the 1964 coup d'État

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIANO FARIAS DE SOUZA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The years preceding the 1964 coup d’état in Brazil were marked by turbulent political moments that contributed to the accomplishment of joints and conspiracies that were plotting the overthrow of President João Goulart, seen as a solution to the end of the economic, political and social crises taking place successively in the country. In this period, society was divided between the proposals of the left and right of the political debate in effect at that time. Thus, we analyze the circumstances that forged an enabling environment for identified civil and military that communed common interest in replacing the ruling power by taking control of the Brazilian State.

  3. Russian perspectives: The past shapes the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, R.P.

    1994-11-01

    This document contains an outline of a speech given to a group of professionals at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which was intended to give an unbiased view of Soviet perceptions. Topics discussed include: The new mission of US and Soviet labs and institutions to develop products and dedicate research to post cold war threat, historical prospectives of Russia, Russian military roles and missions, ideology of Russian politics, evils of capitalism, Russian civil war, communism, world war II, Russian losses during the war, the cold war, reasons why America should care what happens in Russia, the internal threat against a market-based economy, the US should help, and the Russian people and their attitudes.

  4. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  5. Problems and Tendencies of Development of Political and Legal Environment of Public-private Partnership in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Альберт Илдусович Абдрахманов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study o/f political and legal terms for Public-Private Partnerships (PPP development while PPP becomes the issue of today for Russian political and social-economic life. The article covers particularly the analysis of the effective legislation of PPP at the federal and regional levels and appraisal of the current political trends regarding the development of legal partnership between the government and companies in the connection with the legislation. The author provides research especially of the prospects of the PPP federal Draft Law and reveals key specifics and problems of the legal environment of PPP in districts of the Russian Federation.

  6. SOCIAL AND HUMANITARIAN ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL STUDIES: THE RUSSIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Lebedeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, with the increasing role of the human factor in the world, the importance of the social and humanitarian component in world politics has also increased. This manifested itself not only in humanitarian and social issues, but also in the fact that the human factor has become an important component of other issues, including military and economic ones. The analysis of the Russian international studies on social and humanitarian issues in the article has been carried out in two main areas related to each other: 1 soft power and public diplomacy; 2 human capital. Various approaches to understanding soft power and public diplomacy in Russia are analyzed under the framework of the first area. It is shown that rather often both these terms are understood as informational and propagandistic influence on the societies of other coun­tries. In this regard, in recent years, Russian authors have paid special attention to the issues of information and hybrid wars. Russian researches on human capital in quantitative terms is much inferior to the research of the first area. At the same time Russian works on the issues of the role of higher education, its use as a soft power were to a great extend a pioneer ones. The main conclusion of the article is that humanitarian issues do not occupy the some prominaut place in the international studies they do in real life world politics.

  7. A New Economic and Political State of Play in the Energy Sector: On Jean-Pierre Hansen and Jacques Percebois, Energy. Economy and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2011-01-01

    If there is one sector in which the state of play has changed radically over a few decades, it is the energy sector. It has been affected simultaneously by the prospect that the main fossil fuels will become exhausted, by the impact on our planet's climate of the consumption of this fossil energy (implying increased recourse to renewable sources) and by the rapid economic development of large nations consuming increasing quantities of energy. Energy-related policies (particularly economic and technological policies) are, in fact, being developed in an increasingly complex and international context, which is, at times, very difficult to grasp. Fortunately, two specialists in energy matters, Jean-Pierre Hansen and Jacques Percebois, have published a very comprehensive survey of this new economic and political state of play in the energy field: 'Energie. Economie et politiques' [Energy: Economics and Policies] (Brussels: De Boeck, 2010). It clearly is not possible here to go into all the questions they confront, but in this review Jacques Lesourne, who has read the book for Futuribles, clearly demonstrates its importance and presents the reader with the main facets of the work that make it a reference tool for all involved in this sector, including the most highly specialized. (author)

  8. Politics and economics of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giersdorf, Jens

    2013-07-01

    The main assumption for the present study is that the patterns of biofuel production and utilisation in Brazil are a result of a specific institutional framework and the actions of specific groups and that these factors also change over the years To avoid of misleading generalisation, this dissertation intends to describe and analyse the current ethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil; to explain these public policies as a result of the interactions and resources of various actors involved into the formulation and implementation of these policies and to analyse selected economic impacts of these policies. The decision-making process will be analysed with the methodological toolbox of the advocacy coalition approach by Sabatier (1993). This approach is appropriate for analysing the Brazilian biofuel policies since it enables to analyse the structure as well as the actors and the coalitions that dominate in this policy field. It will be presented briefly in chapter 2.1.2. The data on which this analysis will be based comprises primary sources like laws, regulations, official programmes and statements as well as secondary sources like scientific studies about Brazilian decision-making, political system and certain actors. In addition to that, several qualitative (semi-structured) interviews were conducted during field research in Brazil between January and September 2007. The design of the outline for the interviews as well as the realisation and interpretation of the expert interviews followed the methodological recommendations of Bogner, Littig and Menz (2005) and Laudel and Gläser (2004). The methodology will be explained briefly in chapter 2.2. The main policies that shape Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel sector shall be analysed in chapter 3 and the production, distribution and consumption of biofuels in chapter 4. Based on these assessments, the analysis of the advocacy coalitions can be realised in chapter 5.

  9. Politics and economics of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giersdorf, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The main assumption for the present study is that the patterns of biofuel production and utilisation in Brazil are a result of a specific institutional framework and the actions of specific groups and that these factors also change over the years To avoid of misleading generalisation, this dissertation intends to describe and analyse the current ethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil; to explain these public policies as a result of the interactions and resources of various actors involved into the formulation and implementation of these policies and to analyse selected economic impacts of these policies. The decision-making process will be analysed with the methodological toolbox of the advocacy coalition approach by Sabatier (1993). This approach is appropriate for analysing the Brazilian biofuel policies since it enables to analyse the structure as well as the actors and the coalitions that dominate in this policy field. It will be presented briefly in chapter 2.1.2. The data on which this analysis will be based comprises primary sources like laws, regulations, official programmes and statements as well as secondary sources like scientific studies about Brazilian decision-making, political system and certain actors. In addition to that, several qualitative (semi-structured) interviews were conducted during field research in Brazil between January and September 2007. The design of the outline for the interviews as well as the realisation and interpretation of the expert interviews followed the methodological recommendations of Bogner, Littig and Menz (2005) and Laudel and Gläser (2004). The methodology will be explained briefly in chapter 2.2. The main policies that shape Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel sector shall be analysed in chapter 3 and the production, distribution and consumption of biofuels in chapter 4. Based on these assessments, the analysis of the advocacy coalitions can be realised in chapter 5.

  10. A unified world oil market: Regions in physical, economic, geographic, and political space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Banerjee, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus that the market is unified, here we quantify the factors that create regions by analyzing the price relation between 33 crude oils. ADF statistics indicate that 447 of the 528 crude oil pairings cointegrate; 81 do not. The presence/absence of cointegration is analyzed using a logit model. The likelihood that the prices for two crude oils cointegrate depends on their physical characteristics (density and sulfur content), economic factors (country risk for the nation of origin), their geographic location (distance between supply ports), and political factors (OPEC membership). Over the sample period, the technology to refine heavy crude oils penetrates the market, and this reduces the price difference between heavy and light crude oils. The effect of country risk implies that crude oils from high risk nations are not perfect substitutes for crude oils of similar quality from low risk nations. Finally, crude oils from widely separated suppliers are more likely to cointegrate than crude oils from near-by nations, which suggests consumers diversify supply across transportation chokepoints. For this sample, these sources of regionalization add $0.20 per barrel to the $2.86 average price difference between crude oils in the same market. Together, these factors have important implications for the efficacy of policy aimed at reducing dependence on unreliable suppliers and the spill-over effects of holding inventories. - Highlights: • The world oil market is not completely unified. • Regions are defined by differences in API gravity and sulfur content. • Country risk regionalizes the world oil market. • Shipping chokepoints regionalize the world oil market. • Regionalization adds $0.20 to $2.86 price difference between oils in same market

  11. Socio-Economic-Political-Cultural Aspects in Malaria Control Programme Implementation in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A Socio-economic-political-cultural (SEPC study was undertaken under the Roll Back Malaria (RBM initiative to understand the process of programme implementation and how far in the changing malaria context, the broader environment has been understood and programme components have undergone changes. Material and Methods. Two studies were carried out; first in four villages under the primary health unit (PHU Banavaralu in Tiptur Taluka in September 2002 and the second one in April 2003 in four villages in Chitradurga district, namely, Kappagere, Kellodu in Hosadurga Taluka, and Vani Vilas Puram and Kathrikenhally in Hiriyur Taluka. Focus group discussion and key interviews were adopted to collect the qualitative data. Results. Gender discrimination and lack of empowerment of women came out strongly in social analysis. In the rural elected bodies called Panchayats, the concept of health committees was not known. Health committees as one of the important statutory committees under every Panchayat were nonexistent in reality in these villages. Financial difficulties at Grama Panchayat level and also meager budget allocation for health have led to indifferent attitude of Panchayat members towards health. It was observed that there were generally no specific cultural practices in relation to malaria cure. Cultural and traditional practices in malaria-related issues were not predominant in the community except for some sporadic instances. Conclusion and Recommendation. SEPC study is an important indicator in malaria control programme. It is ultimately the community that takes the major decision directly or indirectly and the health authority must guide them in right direction.

  12. Who ‘marries' whom? The influence of societal connectedness, economic and political homogeneity, and population size on jurisdictional consolidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2011-01-01

    . In this article, the unique case of the Danish structural reform is utilised to overcome endogeneity due to migration-related sorting by studying patterns of municipal amalgamations. In the recent Danish reform, 239 of 271 municipal entities were forced to amalgamate simultaneously, while who actually amalgamated...... on the likelihood of amalgamation. Societal connectedness, population size and geography are important predictors of amalgamation patterns, while political and economic homogeneity between municipalities does not appear to matter much...

  13. Social, economic and political aspects of Chernobyl in Bulgaria - One characteristic feature of the development of the radiation situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokonski, I.I.; Bosevski, V.; Bontchev, Tz.; Marinov, V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown a characteristic feature of the progress of radiation situation in Bulgaria after the failure in Chernobyl, as this was discussed untraditionally. The raised radiation risk for population during one year after the incident is interpreted as function from the inadequate radiation protection policy of the Government at that time. Preconditions for some social, economical and political results after the accident for Bulgarian country are described

  14. Economic and political foundations of local tax structures: an empirical investigation of the tax mix of Flemish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Benny Geys; Federico Revelli

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Building on the revenue structure theory developed by Hettich and Winer (1984, 1988, 1999), this paper is the first to investigate the economic and political determinants of local tax mix choices. We thereby use panel data on 289 municipalities in the Flemish region of Belgium (period 1995-2002), where local governments enjoy extensive fiscal autonomy and have a wide choice of available tax instruments. Estimating ...

  15. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the Ameri...

  16. Political Instability: Effects on Financial Development, Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Siegel, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    We here bring forward strong evidence that political instability impedes financial development, with its variation a primary determinant of differences in financial development around the world. As such, it needs to be added to the short list of major determinants of financial development. First, structural conditions first postulated by Engerman and Sokoloff (2002) as generating long-term inequality are shown here empirically to be exogenous determinants of political instability. Second, tha...

  17. ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GENDER EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Term “gender” means socially constructed roles of man and woman, which are ascribed to them according to gender marker. Thus, gender roles depend on concrete socio-economic, political and culturological context and experience influence of various factors according to race, ethnic origin, class, sexual orientation and age. Gender roles widely differ within each culture and cultures. Unlike the individual’s biological gender, the gender role can be changed. This concept implies the views, conditioned by culture, about the intellectual potentials of man and woman, their personal features and behavior. Gender, as a construct, is formed by the society, as a social model of man and woman, which determines their role and position in all the spheres of the public life. To measure gender, like other hard-to-measure events, is of importance, in order to compare the countries, to identify the problems and to try their correction. It may be said that it enables us to disclose focus of the problems and in case of existence of proper will to positively act on it. Gender is multi-component and hard to measure. Research of the gender equality problems is important for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to men and women. It should be mentioned that the problems of women’s rights along with other barriers impeding achievement of the gender equality, have long been significant for the leading countries of Europe and America. However, one problem still remains – barriers of the so-called “Glass Ceiling”, which impede carrier advance of the female representatives. At the same time, in the countries, being on the lower level, a woman is still considered to be a being of secondary importance, which has no right to work and, compared with a man, no equal conditions to be educated. To this are added the religious laws of Islamic countries, which

  18. Body or soul: representing lesbians in post-soviet Russian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Brian James

    2011-01-01

    This article examines representations of lesbians in contemporary Russian literature and film as expressions of a host of post-Soviet anxieties over the social, political, and economic turmoil following the fall of communism. In particular, the author examines three recurrent motifs: the lesbian as narcissist; the lesbian as prostitute; and the lesbian as predator. While many authors and filmmakers present these qualities as a threat to the (patriarchal) social order, others celebrate those very attributes as a liberating alternative to the narrow roles traditionally available to Russian women, which stress their qualities of maternal love and self-sacrifice.

  19. The Specific of Political Fundraising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Евгений Викторович Смолянинов

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study is dedicated to the process of political fundraising as a subject of political science. Through the article one can find the definition of political fundraising and American political scientists' approaches to the analysis of this process. Comparative analysis of political fundraising in the U.S.A. and Russian Federation demonstrates that its' transparency has an important impact on public's control of lobby groups and other shadow political entities.

  20. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  1. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  2. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart Kößler; Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press...

  3. Many paths to walk: the political and economic integration of nomadic communities in Roman North Africa (I-III cent. A.D.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    The colonial image of endemic political and economic antagonism between nomadic and sedentary groups in the context of Roman North Africa should be discarded. Likewise, the rigid adherence to symbiosis and cooperation in more recent studies is based on a rather one-sided reading of anthropological literature. For the analysis of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources, supported by insights derived from anthropology, shows that political and economic integration trajectories of nomads...

  4. The Gift and the Theft: an Economic-Political Interpretation of Rwandan Missionary Diaries of White Fathers (1900-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristofori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an economic/political interpretation of two missionary Diaries drafted in Rwanda in the first decade of the last century. The events recorded in these documents aid the reader in understanding how the missions were, in that period, centers of power that interacted with the local environment in a manner which was relatively independent of a colonial administration that was still weak. As a result, while the missionaries learned and incorporated certain Rwandan socio-political logics, they also introduced embryonic forms of capitalism. From this paper the reader can understand how, thogether with these elements of capitalism in the daily life of mission, a policy of ethnicization and feudalization of rwandan society started to take shape. A policy, with was to be fully realized twenty years later under Belgian colonial rule.

  5. The ancestral logic of politics: upper-body strength regulates men's assertion of self-interest over economic redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Sznycer, Daniel; Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2013-07-01

    Over human evolutionary history, upper-body strength has been a major component of fighting ability. Evolutionary models of animal conflict predict that actors with greater fighting ability will more actively attempt to acquire or defend resources than less formidable contestants will. Here, we applied these models to political decision making about redistribution of income and wealth among modern humans. In studies conducted in Argentina, Denmark, and the United States, men with greater upper-body strength more strongly endorsed the self-beneficial position: Among men of lower socioeconomic status (SES), strength predicted increased support for redistribution; among men of higher SES, strength predicted increased opposition to redistribution. Because personal upper-body strength is irrelevant to payoffs from economic policies in modern mass democracies, the continuing role of strength suggests that modern political decision making is shaped by an evolved psychology designed for small-scale groups.

  6. Renovating Charity Hospital or building a new hospital in post-Katrina New Orleans: economic rationale versus political will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, Hervé; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2013-02-01

    Since September 2005, Charity Hospital of New Orleans has been closed due to Hurricane Katrina. A debate following the closing arose about whether this public hospital should be renovated or a new medical center affiliated with the Louisiana State University should be built. Using academic literature, government statistics, and popular press reports, we describe the economic implications that support the view that Charity Hospital should have been renovated. We also address why this policy was not pursued by demonstrating the influence politics and individual stakeholders (specifically, Louisiana State University) had on the eventual policy pursued. In this commentary we also note the political identity movement away from public-sector provision of services to private-sector interests.

  7. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  8. Techno-economical analysis of innovative technologies in electrical power systems. A feasibility study for a Russian distribution system operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Holger; Nikitina, Elena; Makarov, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Since the liberalization of the energy market in Europe transmission and distribution system operators have been facing fundamentally new challenges when ensuring a safe and reliable power supply. In addition to purely technical criteria economical aspects have become increasingly important in the strategic planning and operation of power systems. As described in this contribution, the results of a feasibility study demonstrate how the use of innovative technologies can make a valuable contribution to improve the economical situation.

  9. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  10. Old and New Criteria for the Governance of Political and Economic Structures on the Basis of the Bible and the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Norbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a sociological analysis of the Holy Books of two world religions (the Bible and the Quran since, according to prognoses and risk analyses, a political, economic, cultural, and religious confrontation between the world religions will be unavoidable. Special economic and political aspects also contribute to the up-to-datedness of the topic in the democratic world; in fact: the economic crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, the difficulties of managing the crisis with traditional micro- and macroeconomic tools as well as the Europe-wide issue of migration processes. These challenges have directed our attention to alternative economic solutions and policy options, including theories on ethical basis. Modern academic discourse has recently started to direct research at leadership skills as acknowledged forms of talent. The priority of moral talent is never disputed in the Bible and the Quran, more so by certain leaders holding political or economic positions.

  11. Wireless Competition in Canada: Damn the Torpedoes! The Triumph of Politics over Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Church

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Last year featured a high stakes battle between two mighty protagonists. On one side, allegedly representing the interests of all Canadians, the federal government. On the other side, Bell, Rogers, and Telus. The issue at stake: What institutions should govern the allocation of resources in the provision of wireless services? Should the outcomes — prices, quality, availability, and other terms of service — be determined by the market? Or should the government intervene? The answer to these questions should depend on the extent of competition and the ability of wireless providers to exercise inefficient market power — raise prices above their long run average cost of providing services. Do Bell, Rogers, and Telus exercise substantial inefficient market power? The accumulated wisdom of market economies is that state intervention inevitably is very costly, given asymmetries of information, uncertainty, and political pressure. At the very least the onus on those demanding and proposing government action is to provide robust evidence of the substantial exercise of inefficient market power. This paper is a contribution to the ongoing debate regarding the existence and extent of market power in the provision of wireless services in Canada. The conventional wisdom that competition in wireless services was insufficient was challenged by our earlier School of Public Policy paper.†† In that study we demonstrated that the Canadian wireless sector was sufficiently competitive. The evidentiary record we developed was not consistent with a robust finding of a substantial exercise of inefficient market power; policy efforts to create and sustain more competition were unlikely to be successful without ongoing subsidization; and to the extent those efforts were successful, they would likely to lead to an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, with the benefits of additional competition less than its costs. The federal government’s standard bearer

  12. Assessment of extreme flood events in a changing climate for a long-term planning of socio-economic infrastructure in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevnina, Elena; Kourzeneva, Ekaterina; Kovalenko, Viktor; Vihma, Timo

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming has been more acute in the Arctic than at lower latitudes and this tendency is expected to continue. This generates major challenges for economic activity in the region. Among other issues is the long-term planning and development of socio-economic infrastructure (dams, bridges, roads, etc.), which require climate-based forecasts of the frequency and magnitude of detrimental flood events. To estimate the cost of the infrastructure and operational risk, a probabilistic form of long-term forecasting is preferable. In this study, a probabilistic model to simulate the parameters of the probability density function (PDF) for multi-year runoff based on a projected climatology is applied to evaluate changes in extreme floods for the territory of the Russian Arctic. The model is validated by cross-comparison of the modelled and empirical PDFs using observations from 23 sites located in northern Russia. The mean values and coefficients of variation (CVs) of the spring flood depth of runoff are evaluated under four climate scenarios, using simulations of six climate models for the period 2010-2039. Regions with substantial expected changes in the means and CVs of spring flood depth of runoff are outlined. For the sites located within such regions, it is suggested to account for the future climate change in calculating the maximal discharges of rare occurrence. An example of engineering calculations for maximal discharges with 1 % exceedance probability is provided for the Nadym River at Nadym.

  13. IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY UNDER ANTI-RUSSIAN SANCTIONS: STATE AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vyacheslavovna Galkina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Western sanctions caused by the events in Ukraine, a sharp drop in oil prices and other commodity prices, Russia is in a difficult political and economic situation. In these conditions, pressing was the question of replacement technologies and products imported from abroad, especially from the European Union, acceding to the anti-Russian sanctions, initiated by the United States. The political leadership of the Russian Federation have repeatedly raised the issue of import substitution, and only the events of recent years have allowed to translate public policy in this area to the actual implementation of programs developed its own production of goods and technology that were previously imported from abroad.Objective: To analyze the current political developments in the modern world and show the pros and cons of the policy of import substitution in Russia in terms of anti-Russian sanctions.Method and methodology of work: Institutional and neo-institutional paradigm, systematic approach.Results: The authors note that the import substitution program in import substitution, in spite of the marked complexity, have a good chance of success, and this is the key to low-cost raw materials, relatively cheap labor, cheap energy sources – natural gas and electricity, as well as carried out in 2014–2015 devaluation of the ruble, which significantly reduce the cost of the potential costs of enterprises.Application of the results: political science and practice, economic policy.

  14. Russian Subjects on the Territory of the Grand Duchy of Finland (according to the Russian and Finnish Population Statistics of the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Kashchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical demographic research plays an important role in multi-disciplinary projects in historical, social and political sciences at the moment. It is of great importance for migration and social policy studies and also concerns economics, material and intellectual culture and inter-ethnic and inter-faith relations. The border regions with high population mobility are of particular interest. The search in the Russian State Historical Archive uncovered a complex of primary census material concerning the Russian population in the Grand Duchy of Finland. Thus it became possible to introduce previously unstudied documents, containing data on the Russian subjects, mainly military men, stationed at Helsinki, Sveaborg, Tavastgus, Torneo and a number of other garrisons into scientific use. Russian military men in those towns comprised quite a noticeable element in the composition of the population. It is no doubt that Russian officers and their family members were part of the town elite according to their social status, life experience, and level of education. Consequently the primary documents of the 1897 census give us a unique opportunity to see the demographic situation of the Russian garrisons accommodated in the Vyborg Governorate in the end of the 19th century from the inside, and add living colors related to biographies of certain people to the dry statistical picture which describes the population of the town.

  15. Introduction to “the social theories of classical political economy and modern economic policy”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carl Menger; E. Dekker (Erwin); S. Kolev (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the first-ever English translation of an 1891 essay by Carl Menger published in the most important newspaper of the Habsburg Empire, the Neue Freie Presse. Menger writes the piece as a defense of classical political economy in general and of Adam Smith in particular,

  16. The social theories of classical political economy and modern economic policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, C. (Carl); E. Dekker (Erwin); S. Kolev (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first-ever English translation of an 1891 essay by Carl Menger published in the most important newspaper of the Habsburg Empire, the Neue Freie Presse. Menger writes the piece as a defense of classical political economy in general and of Adam Smith in particular, focusing on

  17. The Politics and Economics of Body Image and Sexuality in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body image is internal and external. It is seen by ourselves and by others. Social body image constructs seem to be built on what is deemed to be beautiful within our cultural contexts, which in turn is perceived as valuable and in turn has higher social standing because everyone else looks up to it. The politics of body image ...

  18. An Interpretation of the Revolutionary Proyect of Cornelius Castoriadis against the Economic Crisis: Autonomy, Politics and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tapia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that began in 2008 has shown a deep social crisis that reflects the progressive unembeddednes of individual from society, promoting the emergence of social alternatives that sacrifice freedom in exchange for security. This article presents an interpretation of the revolutionary project of Cornelius Castoriadis as an alternative to the current liberal democracy, able to face social crisis by placing society itself as a central element in their own construction. The emergence of a lucid and thoughtful individual able to develop a conscious political action drives towards individual and social autonomy, building a democratic regime that involves the combination of freedom and equality.

  19. Social, economic, and political processes that create built environment inequities: perspectives from urban African Americans in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Yanique; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Yoshihama, Mieko; Wang, Caroline C; Kreuter, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the built environment features found in many high-poverty urban areas contribute to negative health outcomes. Both built environment hazards and negative health outcomes disproportionately affect poor people of color. We used community-based participatory research and Photovoice in inner-city Atlanta to elicit African Americans' perspectives on their health priorities. The built environment emerged as a critical factor, impacting physical and mental health outcomes. We offer a conceptual model, informed by residents' perspectives, linking social, economic, and political processes to built environment and health inequities. Research, practice, and policy implications are discussed within an environmental justice framework.

  20. A psychological look at economic growth : an omni-political manifesto

    OpenAIRE

    Elle, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis is an attempt to synthesize the psychological theory of self-esteem, as formulated by Nathaniel Branden, with economic thought in order to provide an innovative way of analyzing historical economic data. The nations of examination are The United States of America and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Initially there will be an exploration of why this type of analysis may be useful at this time in the procession of economic and psychological history. Branden's six pill...