Sample records for russia steppe soil

  1. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.


    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  2. Composition and structure of aggregates from compacted soil horizons in the southern steppe zone of European Russia

    Sorokin, A. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Kust, G. S.


    The composition and structure of aggregates from different agrogenic soils in the southern steppe zone of European Russia have been studied. It is shown that the multi-level study (from the macro- to microlevel) of these horizons makes it possible to identify soil compaction caused by different elementary soil processes: solonetz-forming, vertisol-forming, and mechanical (wheel) compaction in the rainfed and irrigated soils. The understanding of the genesis of the compaction of soil horizons (natural or anthropogenic) is important for the economic evaluation of soil degradation. It should enable us to make more exact predictions of the rates of degradation processes and undertake adequate mitigation measures. The combined tomographic and micromorphological studies of aggregates of 1-2 and 3-5 mm in diameter from compacted horizons of different soils have been performed for the first time. Additional diagnostic features of negative solonetz- forming processes (low open porosity of aggregates seen on tomograms and filling of a considerable part of the intraped pores with mobile substance) and the vertisol-forming processes (large amount of fine intraaggregate pores seen on tomograms and a virtual absence of humus-clay plasma in the intraped zone)—have been identified. It is shown that the combination of microtomographic and micromorphological methods is helpful for studying the pore space of compacted horizons in cultivated soils.

  3. Wildfire effects on biological properties of soils in forest-steppe ecosystems of Russia

    E. Maksimova


    Full Text Available Soils affected by forest wildfires in 2010 in Russia were studied on postfire and mature plots near the Togljatty city, Samara region. Soil biological properties and ash composition dynamics were investigated under the forest fire affect: a place of local forest fire, riding forest fire and unaffected site by fire-control (mature during 3 yr of restoration. Soil samples were collected at 0–15 cm. Soil biological properties was measured by the fumigation method. The analytical data obtained shows that wildfires lead to serious changes in a soil profile and soil chemistry of upper horizons. Wildfires change a chemical composition of soil horizons and increase their ash-content. Fires lead to accumulation of biogenic elements' content (P and K in the solum fine earth. Calcium content is increased as a result of fires that leads to an alkaline pH of the solum. The values of nutrients decreased as a result of leaching out with an atmospheric precipitation during the second year of restoration. Thus, when the upper horizons are burning the ash arriving on a soil surface enrich it with nutrients. The mature (unaffected by fire soils is characterized by the greatest values of soil microbial biomass in the top horizon and, respectively, the bigger values of basal respiration whereas declining of the both parameters was revealed on postfire soils. Nevertheless this influence does not extend on depth more than 10 cm. Thus, fire affect on the soil were recognized in decreasing of microbiological activity.

  4. Soil macrofauna (invertebrates of Kazakhstanian Stipa lessingiana dry steppe

    Bragina Tatyana М.


    Full Text Available Stipa lessingiana steppes used to be prevalent on the dry Trans-Ural denudation plains, particularly, on the Sub-Ural and the Turgay Plateau. But, most of them have been lost because they were plowed up during the Virgin Land campaign in the second part of 20th century. This paper presents a detailed study of the faunistic composition and the structure of soil-dwelling invertebrate communities (macrofauna of a temperate-dry bunch feather grass steppe in the Turgai Plateau (Northern-Turgai physical-geographical province of steppe Kazakhstan, Kostanay Oblast. The study site is located in the territory of the Naurzum State Nature Reserve, a part of the UNESCO World Heritage site “Saryarka Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan”, where remnants of Virgin S. lessingiana steppes have been preserved to the present day. This region is the driest and most continental in climate of all the dry steppes of Kazakhstan. The total abundance and biomass of soil invertebrate communities in the investigated site were lower than in the northern and western steppe areas. Soil invertebrates are among the major components that determine the functioning of terrestrial natural ecosystems.

  5. Variations of the aerosol concentration and chemical composition over the arid steppe zone of Southern Russia in summer

    Artamonova, M. S.; Gubanova, D. P.; Iordanskii, M. A.; Lebedev, V. A.; Maksimenkov, L. O.; Minashkin, V. M.; Obvintsev, Y. I.; Chketiani, O. G.


    Variations in the surface aerosol over the arid steppe zone of Southern Russia have been measured. The parameters of atmospheric aerosol (mass concentration, both dispersed and elemental compositions) and meteorological parameters were measured in Tsimlaynsk raion (Rostov oblast). The chemical composition of aerosol particles in the atmospheric surface layer has been determined, and the coefficients of enrichment of elements with respect to clarkes in the Earth's crust have been calculated. It is shown that, in summer, arid aerosols are transported from both alkaline and sandy soils of Kalmykia to the air basin over the observation zone. Aerosol particles in the surface air layer over this region have been found to contain the products of combustion of oil, coal, and ethylized fuel. These combustion products make a small contribution to the total mass concentration of atmospheric aerosol; however, they are most hazardous to the health of people because of their sizes and heavy-metal contents. A high concentration of submicron sulfur-containing aerosol particles of chemocondensation nature has been recorded. Sources of aerosol of both natural and anthropogenic origins in southern Russia are discussed.

  6. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russian steppe soil

    K. Hammes


    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded. We use soils sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. BC stocks (initially 2.5 kg m-2 decreased 25% with cessation of biomass burning. BC turnover in the soil was 293 y (best estimate; range 212–541 y, much faster than inert/passive carbon in soil models. Such results provide a new constraint on theories of soil carbon stabilization. Most importantly, BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils; other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  7. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    N. M. Tsvetkova


    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  8. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal dynamics of green house gases emission urban ecosystems of forest-steppe zone of Russia

    Sarzhanov, Dmitrii; Vasenev, Viacheslav; Sotnikova, Iuliia; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo


    Global climate change, mainly determined by increased anthropic emissions of green house gases (GHG) (CO2, CH4, N2O), is among the key contemporary environmental problems. Land use is a principal parameter, distinguishing GHG fluxed in terrestrial ecosystems. Urbanization increase is an important feature of recent land-use change. Formation of urban soils, which are significantly different form natural ones, is one of urbanization results. Urban soils provide a key element of urban ecosystems. Urban ecosystems located in forest-steppe zone in Central-Chernozemic region of Russia are of especial interest, since zonal soil in the region are represented by chernozems and dark grey soils, having the largest carbon stocks and the highest rate of soil respiration. Spatial and temporal variability of urban soil's respiration was carried out over vegetation seasons of 2013-2014 in different functional zone of the Kursk city: residential, recreational and industrial. GHG fluxes were measured once in 10 days before 12 am by chamber approach. CO2 flux was measured in situ using Li-820 close-path analyzer. Diurnal dynamic of CO2 efflux from soil was measured twice a year: in cold and warm season. Soil air samples were collected by syringe into glass vials and further analyzed on GC to estimate CH4 and N2O fluxes. Soil temperature and moisture was measured in parallel to soil respiration. CO2emission estimated for urban soils in 2013-2014 was 20-25% higher than in reference zonal soils. Obtained seasonal dynamics showed the highest СО2 emissions in August of 2013 (39-83 g СО2/m2 day) with further decrease by the end of October for major part of the plots. Significant diurnal dynamics was found for the case of the industrial zone. Maximal CO2 emission was obtained between maximal 40 g СО2/m2 day at 5 AM and 1 PM and minimal 28 g СО2/m2 day at 23 PM in June. Soil CO2 efflux was positively correlated with soil temperature (r = 0.65) and negatively correlated with soil

  9. Comparison of Levels and Sources of Lead in Modern and Ancient Soils in Low Volga Steppes

    Pampura T. V.


    Full Text Available Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the total and mobile (acid-soluble and carbonate- bound forms were determined in remote and roadside Chestnut soils in the dry steppe region of Low Volga, Russia. As a reference to evaluate the level of modern soil contamination with lead, we used ancient soil buried under a Bronze Age kurgan about 4500 years ago. In comparison with buried soil, the roadside modern soils showed clear signs of anthropogenic influence such as elevated total and mobile Pb concentrations and fractions of the mobile forms in the total pool of Pb, higher ratios of Pb/Ti and Pb/Sc, and a shift of Pb isotopic compositions towards the less radiogenic signatures found in modern Russian aerosols and gasoline. In the remote modern soils, however, these signs of anthropogenic influence were much less pronounced and could be observed only in the mobile fractions of Pb, but were practically undetectable in terms of concentrations and isotopic compositions of total lead.

  10. Soil nitrogen availability in the open steppe with Stipa tenacissima

    Novosadova, Irena; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose; Záhora, Jaroslav


    Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Iberian Peninsula and show a higher degree of variability in composition and structure (Maestre et al., 2007). Vegetation patchiness, which are seen as mosaics including vegetated and non-vegetated components, is a common feature of such open steppes (Valentin et al., 1999). Ecosystem functioning is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath S. tenacissima grass show higher fertility and improved microclimatic conditions, favouring the formation of "resource islands" (Maestre et al., 2007). First, soil moisture is greater beneath the clumps, due to water harvesting through rainfall interception, uptake by roots from adjacent unvegetated areas and water redistribution from gaps to clumps (Bergkamp et al., 1999; Puigdefá bregas et al., 1999). Second, the canopy diminishes the intense solar radiation (Maestre et al., 2001) avoiding the sun-baking effect, which is an important factor for soil temperature change and physical disruption (Magid et al., 1999). Plant clumps either functioned as microbial hotspots where enhanced microbially driven ecosystem processes took place or as microbial banks capable of undergoing a burst of activity under favourable climatic conditions (Goberna et al., 2007). The competition for water and resources between plants and microorganisms is strong and mediated trough an enormous variety of exudates and resource depletion intended to regulate soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere, control herbivory, encourage beneficial symbioses, and change chemical and physical properties in soil (Pugnaire et Armas, 2008). On the other hand there exists experimental evidence of a non-patchy distribution of certain soil microbial properties in semi-arid Mediterranean patchy ecosystems (Goberna et al., 2007). The microbial nutrient release processes have a fundamental role in ecosystem

  11. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    Kuzyakov, Yakov


    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  12. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

    Polchaninova Nina


    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.


    A. A. Batukaev


    Full Text Available Dynamics of material composition, migration and accumulation of salts is determined by chemical equilibrium in soil solution. Soil solution contains associated electrically neutral ion pairs CaCO30; CaSO40, MgCO30, MgSO40, charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, MgOH+. Calculation method is proposed for quantitative assessment of real ion forms in the soil solution of chestnut solonetz soil complex. Were proposed equations to calculate free and associated forms of ions. To solve the equations were used an iteration, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a Method of Ionic Pairs including a law of initial concentration preservation, a law of the operating masses of equilibrium system, the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation on the law of operating masses. Was determined the quantity of ion free form and a coefficient of ion association as ratio of ions free form to analytical content ?e = Cass/Can. The association of ions varies in individual soils and soil layer. Increasing soil solution salinity amplifies the ions association. In form of ionic pairs in soil solution are: 11.8-53.8% of Ca2+; 9.4-57.3% of Mg2+; 0.7-11.9% of Na+; 2.2-22.3% of HCO3-, 11.8-62.7% of SO42-. The ion CO32- is high associated, the share of ions in associated form is up to 92.7%. The degree of soil solution saturation was obtained for three level of approximation accounting on analytical concentration, calculated association coefficient, calculated coefficient of association. Relating to thermodynamic solubility product S0, the mathematical product of analytical ionic pairs

  14. The Yukagir Bison : The exterior morphology of a complete frozen mummy of the extinct steppe bison, Bison priscus from the early Holocene of northern Yakutia, Russia

    Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Potapova, Olga R.; Protopopov, Albert V.; Plotnikov, Valery V.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Kirikov, Konstantin S.; Pavlov, Innokenty S.; Shchelchkova, Marina V.; Belolyubskii, Innocenty N.; Tomshin, Mikhail D.; Kowalczyk, Rafal; Davydov, Sergey P.; Kolesov, Stanislav D.; Tikhonov, Alexey N.; van der Plicht, Johannes


    The paper presents analyses of the exterior morphology of one of the extinct and dominating species of the Late Pleistocene megafauna of Eurasia, the steppe bison, Bison priscus. The frozen mummy of the Yukagir Bison found in northern Yakutia, Russia represents the most complete specimen of this spe

  15. Color estimation of forest-steppe soils by digital photography under laboratory conditions

    Valeeva, A. A.; Aleksandrova, A. B.; Koposov, G. F.


    Numerical values in the RGB, HSB, and L*a*b systems for the colors of structurally differentiated soils (Luvisols) in the Volga-Kama forest-steppe have been obtained using a digital camera. A high correlation has been revealed between the soil color and the content of humus in the range 0.39-6%. When the content of humus exceeds 6%, the color of humus horizon varies only slightly. A regression equation within the RRGB range from 85 to 173 has been calculated for the rapid determination of humus content in low- and medium-humus texturally differentiated soils of the Volga-Kama forest-steppe.

  16. Impact of Climate and Grazing on Biomass Components of Eastern Russia Typical Steppe

    Ubugunov Leonid; Rupyshev Yuriy; Ubugunov Vasiliy; HOU Xiang-yang; Vishnyakova Oxana; Lavrentieva Irina; Ubugunova Vera; REN Wei-bo; DING Yong


    Spatial and structural characteristics of plant communities in the steppe ecosystems of the Baikal region, Russian Federation have been researched in connection with climate change and grazing. The present study, based on a total of 15 typical steppe sampling plots, investigated above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB), total biomass (TB) and root:shoot ratios (R:S) and their relationships with climatic factors and grazing. All biomass components varied widely depending on the climatic parameters and the degree of grazing affected transformation. A strong negative correlation between mean annual temperature (MAT) and total plant biomass was revealed for all study area. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) signiifcantly affected communities productivity increasing only in the south of the region. Due to the large and mountainous territory, the inlfuence of latitude and elevation (mountain) factors on the components of the biomass were studied. Although all studied plant steppe communities were transformed by uncontrolled grazing, their productivity is signiifcantly reduced only at plots with maximum digression. Vegetation shift is an indicator of climate change, as well as providing a diagnostic tool to build predictive models. Based on the complex index of effective precipitation, it was revealed that at the end of last century in the steppes of the Baikal region the structural and production processes will be affected by an arid climate trend.

  17. Soil microbial community and endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Jiří; Pižl, Václav


    The earthworm activity is generally recognized as an important factor changing the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil environment including the microbial constituents. In central Europe, about 40% of earthworm species are endemic to this region, some of them dominating forest and grassland ecosystems and playing a keystone role in the soil food-web. However, current knowledge about the effects of earthworms on soil microorganisms derives from studies on a few peregrine species only. Our study brought a view on the microbial component of the steppe soil affected by the activity of Allolobophora hrabei, an endemic earthworm fragmentary distributed in the border regions of the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The study was carried out in three steppe fragments, where A. hrabei represented a key earthworm species. Comprehensive approach based on bio-indicating quantitative and qualitative options of extended phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) of bulk soil, drilosphere sensu lato and casts was used on data from two-years monitoring. In situ observation was completed by detailed observation of the casts-microbiota succession under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results showed that A. hrabei significantly affected soil microorganisms mainly via its extremely high casting activity. The doubled biomass, new qualitative composition, better growth and nutritional status of microbial community together with significantly higher availability of phosphorus and organic carbon in casts in contrast to bulk soil confirmed beneficial impact of A. hrabei on the soil environment. A. hrabei has burrowed up to more than one metre depths and produced more than 3 kg . m-2 of casts per year.

  18. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.


    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  19. Experimental warming does not enhance soil respiration in a semiarid temperate forest-steppe ecosystem

    Lellei-Kovacs, E.; Kovacs-Lang, E.; Kalapos, T.;


    The influence of simulated climate change on soil respiration was studied in a field experiment on 4 m x 5 m plots in the semiarid temperate Pannonian sand forest-steppe. This ecosystem type has low productivity and soil organic matter content, and covers large areas, yet data on soil carbon fluxes......) moisture content by 0.45 vol%. Drought treatment decreased soil moisture content by an average of 0.81 vol%. Soil respiration rate tended to decrease by 7-15% and 13-15% in response to heat and drought treatment, respectively, although the changes were not statistically significant. Nocturnal warming...

  20. Magnetic Soils Profiles in the Volga-Kama Forest-Steppe Region

    L.A. Fattakhova


    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of virgin forest-steppe soils developed on the originally vertically uniform unconsolidated parent material have been investigated. The profile samples of virgin dark-grey forest light-clayey soil derived from a siltstone of the Kazan layer of the Upper Permian and virgin leached medium-thick fertile light-clayey chernozem derived from a Quaternary heavy deluvial loam have been considered. Both soils are characterized by the accumulative type of magnetic susceptibility and F-factor values distribution patterns with depth. In the humus part of the soil profile, magnetics are present pre-dominantly in the < 2.5 µm fraction. The coercivity spectra allowed to determine the contribution of dia-/paramagnetic and ferromagnetic components to magnetic susceptibility. It has been found that magnetic susceptibility enhancement in the organogenic horizons of virgin forest-steppe soils occurs due to the contribution of ferromagnetic components. The results indicate a strong positive linear correlation between the magnetic susceptibility and oxalate-extractable Fe, as well as between the magnetic susceptibility and Schwertmann’s criterion values. Using the method of thermomagnetic analysis of the < 2.5 µm fraction, it has been found that the magnetic susceptibility enhancement in the profiles of forest-steppe soils took place due to the formation of maghemite-magnetite associations. The predominantly ferromagnetic fraction consists of small single-domain grains.

  1. Improved grazing management may increase soil carbon sequestration in temperate steppe.

    Chen, Wenqing; Huang, Ding; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Yingjun; Badgery, Warwick B; Wang, Xiaoya; Shen, Yue


    Different grazing strategies impact grassland plant production and may also regulate the soil carbon formation. For a site in semiarid temperate steppe, we studied the effect of combinations of rest, high and moderate grazing pressure over three stages of the growing season, on the process involved in soil carbon sequestration. Results show that constant moderate grazing (MMM) exhibited the highest root production and turnover accumulating the most soil carbon. While deferred grazing (RHM and RMH) sequestered less soil carbon compared to MMM, they showed higher standing root mass, maintained a more desirable pasture composition, and had better ability to retain soil N. Constant high grazing pressure (HHH) caused diminished above- and belowground plant production, more soil N losses and an unfavorable microbial environment and had reduced carbon input. Reducing grazing pressure in the last grazing stage (HHM) still had a negative impact on soil carbon. Regression analyses show that adjusting stocking rate to ~5SE/ha with ~40% vegetation utilization rate can get the most carbon accrual. Overall, the soil carbon sequestration in the temperate grassland is affected by the grazing regime that is applied, and grazing can be altered to improve soil carbon sequestration in the temperate steppe.

  2. Alkalization of irrigated soils suitable for orchard growing in steppe Crimea and prospects for their use

    Klimenko, O. E.


    Data of large-scale soil surveys performed by the Ukrgiprosad Institute (Ukrainian Institute for Orchard Growing) in 1997-2013 on irrigated soils of steppe Crimea reserved for orchards on the area of about 3000 ha are discussed. It is shown that all the studied soils are subjected to alkalization with the presence of soda and with an increase in concentrations of sodium and magnesium bicarbonates up to the values toxic for fruit crops. The concentrations and occurrence frequencies of alkaline salts depend on the soil type, the presence of solonetzic features, the amount of carbonates, the particular depth in the soil profile, the subsoiling, and other factors. Within the studied area, some soils are unsuitable or partly suitable for orchard growing. To improve the soil conditions for orchard growing in the areas subjected to alkalization, alkaline salts should be neutralized to nontoxic level, and the soil alkalinity should be reduced using chemical reclamation methods.

  3. Scale- and taxon-dependent patterns of plant diversity in steppes of Khakassia, South Siberia (Russia)

    Polyakova, M.A.; Dembicz, I; Becker, T;


    species richness was controlled predominantly by heat load index, mean annual precipitation, humus content and soil skeleton content. The positive role of soil pH was evident only for vascular plant species richness. Similar to other studies, we found that the importance of environmental factors strongly...

  4. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo


    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  5. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  6. Changes in the properties of solonetzic soil complexes in the dry steppe zone under anthropogenic impacts

    Lyubimova, I. N.; Novikova, A. F.


    Long-term studies of changes in the properties of solonetzic soil complexes of the dry steppe zone under anthropogenic impacts (deep plowing, surface leveling, irrigation, and post-irrigation use) have been performed on the Privolzhskaya sand ridge and the Khvalyn and Ergeni plains. The natural morphology of solonetzic soils was strongly disturbed during their deep ameliorative plowing. At present, the soil cover consists of solonetzic agrozems (Sodic Protosalic Cambisols (Loamic, Aric, Protocalcic)), textural (clay-illuvial) calcareous agrozems (Eutric Cambisols (Loamic, Aric, Protocalcic)), agrosolonetzes (Endocalcaric Luvisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Protosodic), agrochestnut soils (Eutric Cambisols (Siltic, Aric)), and meadowchestnut soils (Haplic Kastanozems). No features attesting to the restoration of the initial profile of solonetzes have been found. The dynamics of soluble salts and exchangeable sodium differ in the agrosolonetzes and solonetzic agrozems. A rise in pH values takes place in the middle part of the soil profiles on the Khvalyn and Ergeni plains.

  7. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.


    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). The aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch mainly due to increases of aggregate-occluded and mineral-associated OC. This was related to a high above- and belowground biomass production of hairy vetch associated with a high input of carbon and nitrogen into arable soils. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequester substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  8. Soils on overburden dumps in the forest-steppe and mountain taiga zones of the Kuzbass

    Bragina, P. S.; Tsibart, A. S.; Zavadskaya, M. P.; Sharapova, A. V.


    The properties of the soils forming on coal dumps significantly depend on the properties of the parent rocks and the technology of creating the dumps. In the forest-steppe and mountain taiga zones of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin, argillites, siltstones, and sandstones are the overburden and enclosing rocks. They are responsible for the alkaline reaction and the same microelement composition in almost all the soils studied. The nonselective formation of the dumps and the predominance of the coarse fraction in the rocks composing the dumps is a cause of the wide distribution of petrozems and humus petrozems on their surface. The presence of a great amount of coal particles in the substrates and the incorrect planning of the dumps may be the reasons for their self-ignition, which can change the composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soils of the dumps.

  9. Do soil organisms affect aboveground litter decomposition in the semiarid Patagonian steppe, Argentina?

    Araujo, Patricia I; Yahdjian, Laura; Austin, Amy T


    Surface litter decomposition in arid and semiarid ecosystems is often faster than predicted by climatic parameters such as annual precipitation or evapotranspiration, or based on standard indices of litter quality such as lignin or nitrogen concentrations. Abiotic photodegradation has been demonstrated to be an important factor controlling aboveground litter decomposition in aridland ecosystems, but soil fauna, particularly macrofauna such as termites and ants, have also been identified as key players affecting litter mass loss in warm deserts. Our objective was to quantify the importance of soil organisms on surface litter decomposition in the Patagonian steppe in the absence of photodegradative effects, to establish the relative importance of soil organisms on rates of mass loss and nitrogen release. We estimated the relative contribution of soil fauna and microbes to litter decomposition of a dominant grass using litterboxes with variable mesh sizes that excluded groups of soil fauna based on size class (10, 2, and 0.01 mm), which were placed beneath shrub canopies. We also employed chemical repellents (naphthalene and fungicide). The exclusion of macro- and mesofauna had no effect on litter mass loss over 3 years (P = 0.36), as litter decomposition was similar in all soil fauna exclusions and naphthalene-treated litter. In contrast, reduction of fungal activity significantly inhibited litter decomposition (P soil fauna have been mentioned as a key control of litter decomposition in warm deserts, biogeographic legacies and temperature limitation may constrain the importance of these organisms in temperate aridlands, particularly in the southern hemisphere.

  10. Profile of Methane Concentrations in Soil and Atmosphere in Alpine Steppe Ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau

    Pei Zhiyong; Ouyang Hua; Zhou Caiping; Xu Xingliang


    The methane concentration profile from -1.5m depth in soil to 32m height in air was measured in alpine steppe located in the permafrost area.Methane concentrations showed widely variations both in air and in soil during the study period.The mean concentrations in atmosphere were all higher than those in soil,and the highest methane concentration was found in air at the height of 16m with the lowest concentration occurring at the depth of 1.5m in soil.The variations of atmospheric methane concentrations did not show any clear pattern both temporally and spatially,although they exhibited a more steady-stable state than those in soil.During the seasonal variations,the methane concentrations at different depths in soil were significantly correlated (R2>0.6) with each other comparing to the weak correlations (R2<0.2) between the atmospheric concentrations at different heights.Mean methane concentrations in soil significantly decreased with depth.This was the compositive influence of the decreasing production rates and the increasing methane oxidation rates,which was caused by the descent soil moisture with depth.Although the methane concentrations at all depths varied widely during the growing season,they showed very distinct temporal variations in the non-growing season.It was indicated from the literatures that methane oxidation rates were positively correlated with soil temperature.The higher methane concentrations in soil during the winter were determined by the lower methane oxidation rates with decreasing soil temperatures,whereas methane production rates had no reaction to the lower temperature.Relations between methane contribution and other environmental factors were not discussed in this paper for lacking of data,which impulse us to carry out further and more detailed studies in this unique area.

  11. The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity

    Avksentev, Alexey; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana; Moiseeva, Evgenya


    The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity Alexey Avksentev, Elena Negrobova, Tatiana Kramareva, Evgenya Moiseeva 394000 Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, 1 Voronezh State University Nitrous oxide is emitted by soil as a result of microbiological processes, ranks third in the list of aggressive greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide is formed during nitrification and denitrification of ammonia that enters the soil during microbial decomposition of complex organic compounds. Denitrification can be direct and indirect. In the microbiological process of recovery of nitrates involved of the organic substance. In aerobic conditions microorganisms denitrificator behave like normal saprotrophs and oxidize organic matter in the act of breathing oxygen. Thus, they operate at different times two enzyme systems: the electron transport chain with an oxygen acceptor in aerobic and restoration of nitrates under anaerobic conditions. Investigation of the emission of nitrous oxide by ordinary Chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region showed that it depends on the type of cenosis and the content of available forms of nitrogen. Natural ecosystems emit nitrous oxide more than the soil of arable land. The dependence of the emission of nitrous oxide from the humus content shows positive trend, but the aggregation of data, significant differences are not detected. Research shows that nitrous oxide emissions are seasonal. So the autumn season is characterized by nitrous oxide emissions than spring. Enzymatic processes are an important link in the biological cycle of elements and, consequently, participate in the process of decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and other processes. Analysis of the data on enzyme activity of ordinary Chernozem and the intensity of emission of N20 shows a clear relationship between

  12. Changes in microbial activity of soils during the natural restoration of abandoned lands in central Russia

    Ovsepyan, Lilit; Mostovaya, Anna; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina


    Most changes in land use affect significantly the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) and alter the nutrition status of soil microbial community. The arable lands withdrawal induced usually the carbon sequestration in soil, the significant shifts in quality of soil organic matter and structure of microbial community. This study was aimed to determine the microbial activity of the abandoned lands in Central Russia due to the process of natural self-restoration. For the study, two representative chronosequences were selected in Central Russia: (1) deciduous forest area, DFA (Moscow region, 54o49N'; 37o34'E; Haplic Luvisols) and (2) forest steppe area, FSA (Belgorod region 50o36'N, 36o01'E Luvic Phaeozems). Each chronosequence included current arable, abandoned lands of different age, and forest plots. The total soil organic carbon (Corg, automatic CHNS analyzer), carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic, SIR method), and respiratory activity (RA) were determined in the topsoil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm layers) for each plots. Relationships between Corg, Cmic, and RA were determined by liner regression method. Our results showed that the conversion of croplands to the permanent forest induced the progressive accumulation Corg, Cmic and acceleration of RA in the top 10-cm layer for both chronosequences. Carbon stock increased from 24.1 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 45.3 Mg C ha-1 in forest soil (Luvic Phaeozems, Belgorod region). In Haplic Luvisols (Moscow region), SOC build up was 2 time less: from 13.5 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 27.9 Mg C ha-1 in secondary forest. During post-agrogenic evolution, Cmic also increased significantly: from 0.34 to 1.43 g C kg-1 soil in Belgorod region and from 0.34 to 0.64 g C kg-1 soil in Moscow region. RA values varied widely in soils studied: from 0.54-0.63 mg C kg-1h-1 in arable plots to 2.02-3.4 mg C kg-1h-1 in forest ones. The close correlations between Cmic, RA and Corg in the top 0-5cm layer (R2 = 0.81-0.90; PSports.

  13. [Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo


    Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1).

  14. Spatial-temporal variation in soil respiration and its controlling factors in three steppes of Stipa L. in Inner Mongolia, China


    Grassland is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in China. It is of great significance to measure accurately the soil respiration of different grassland types for the contribution evaluation of the Chinese terrestrial ecosystem’s carbon emission to the atmospheric CO2 concentration. A three-year (2005-2007) field experiment was carried out on three steppes of Stipa L. in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China, using a static opaque chamber technique. The seasonal and interannual variations of soil respiration rates were analyzed, and the annual total soil respiration of the three steppes was estimated. The numerical models between soil respiration and water-heat factors were established respectively. Similar seasonal dynamic and high annual and interannual variations of soil respiration were found in all of the three steppes. In the growing season, the fluctuation of soil respiration was particularly evident. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for soil respiration in different growing seasons ranged from 54% to 93%, and the annual CVs were all above 115%. The interannual CV of soil respiration progressively decreased in the order of Stipa grandis (S. grandis) steppe > Stipa baicalensis (S. baicalensis) steppe > Stipa krylovii (S. krylovii) steppe. The annual total soil respiration for the S. baicalensis steppe was 223.62?299.24 gC m-2 a-1, 150.62-226.99 gC m-2 a-1 for the S. grandis steppe, and 111.31–131.55 gC m-2 a-1 for the S. krylovii steppe, which were consistent with the precipitation gradient. The variation in the best fitting temperature factor explained the 63.5%, 73.0%, and 73.2% change in soil respiration in the three steppes at an annual time scale, and the corresponding Q10 values were 2.16, 2.98, and 2.40, respectively. Moreover, the Q10 values that were calculated by soil temperature at different depths all expressed a 10 cm > 5 cm > surface in the three sampling sites. In the growing season, the soil respiration rates were related mostly to

  15. Influence of forest stands on soil and ecosystem carbon stocks in the conditions of the European part of Russia

    Kaganov, Vladimir


    Forest stands are one of the most important components of ecosystems, both in Russia and around the world and at the same time forest vegetation is able to provide environment-modifying effect on the occupied landscape and, in particular, on the soil cover. Currently, due to the large interest in the carbon cycle, there is a question about the influence of forest vegetation on carbon stocks in ecosystems and in particular in the soil cover. To perform the study we selected 9 objects located in the European part of Russia from the area of the southern taiga to the semi-desert zone: Novgorod region, Kostroma region, Moscow region (2 objects), Penza region, Voronezh region, Volgograd region (2 objects) and Astrakhan region. For studying the influence of forest vegetation on the soil`s carbon, we organized the following experiment scheme: in each of the objects two key sites were selected, so that they originally were in the same soil conditions and the difference between them was only in a course development of vegetation - forest or grass. One part of the experimental sites, presenting forest vegetation, were the restored forests on abandoned lands with the age of 70-200 years. The second part of the experimental sites were artificial forest plantations aged from 60 to 112 years planted on the originally treeless forest-steppe or steppe landscapes. Perennial hayfields, perennial abandoned agricultural landscapes and virgin steppe areas were used as reference sites with grass vegetation. For each forest site we estimated the major carbon pools: phytomass, mortmass (dead wood, dry grass), debris, litter and soil. All data were recalculated using the conversion factors in carbon stocks in t C ha-1. We collected soil samples every 10 cm until the depth of 50 cm, and then at 50-75 and 75-100 cm soil layers. Bulk density and total organic carbon were determined by CHN analyzer. As a result, the soil`s carbon was also calculated into t C ha-1. We found out that the total

  16. Soil-environmental index for assessment of forest-steppe soils on the territory of East European Plain

    Zhukova, Iuliia; Bulgakov, Dmitriy; Kozlov, Daniil


    A comprehensive quantitative assessment of the lands based on their agricultural efficiency is required for successful cultivation of crops and effective land management. In order to assessment and ranking of soils, various indexes taking into account edaphic and climatic conditions are applied. One of these indicators is soil-environmental index (SEI) assessing agroecological potential of lands. Forest-steppe soils of the East European Plain are characterized by high fertility and are used for the cultivation of winter wheat, sunflower, sugar beet, etc. However, agricultural ranking of these areas has still not been carried out. The aim of this study was to determine soil-environmental index values for the East European Plain soils within the administrative subjects of Russian Federation, and to test its applicability in agriculture. The study was carried out for the forest-steppe area of East European Plain within the boundaries of Central Russian natural and agricultural province (18 administrative subjects of Russian Federation). SEI of lands was calculated using Karmanov's equation. This equation takes into account three constituent elements: climatic conditions (the sum of temperatures above 10 ⁰C, humidity and continentality coefficients), agrophysical (particle size distribution, soil density) and agrochemical (total organic carbon, mobile phosphorus and potassium content) properties of soils. Agrophysical, agrochemical and climate data from the long-term observations were used. Data visualization was performed by QGIS and SAGA software. SEI clearly reflected the changes in edaphic and climatic conditions. Moreover, SEI correlated with summer and winter wheat yields (R2 = 0.69). For the western part of province, SEI ranked by regions, ranged from 49.4 to 84.0. These significant differences can be explained by gradual increasing of averaged temperatures in southern regions compared with northern, as well as by considerable shifts in soil types distribution

  17. Mechanical Mastication of Utah Juniper Encroaching Sagebrush Steppe Increases Inorganic Soil N

    Kert R. Young


    Full Text Available Juniper (Juniperus spp. has encroached on millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp. steppe. Juniper mechanical mastication increases cover of understory species but could increase resource availability and subsequently invasive plant species. We quantified the effects of juniper mastication on soil resource availability by comparing total C, total N, C : N ratio, Olsen extractable P, sulfate S, and pH using soil samples and inorganic N (NO3-+NH4+ using ion exchange membranes. We compared resource availability in paired masticated and untreated areas in three juniper-dominated sagebrush and bunchgrass ecosystems in the Utah portion of the Great Basin. Inorganic N was 4.7 times higher in masticated than in untreated areas across seasons (P<0.001. Within masticated areas, tree mounds of juniper leaf scales and twigs served as resource islands with 1.9 times higher inorganic N and total C, and 2.8 times higher total N than bare interspaces across seasons (P<0.01. Bare interspaces had 3.0–3.4 times higher inorganic N than interspaces covered with masticated trees during late-summer through winter (P<0.01. Soil fertility changes associated with mastication were not considered sufficient to favor establishment of annual over perennial grasses, and we expect both to increase in cover following juniper mastication.

  18. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy


    In the Central Region of Russia (CRR) the soil cover patterns usually play the very important role in the soil forming and degradation processes (SFP & SDP) potential and current rates, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and pools, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and soluble SOC fluxes that we need take into attention for better assessment of the natural and especially man-changed ecosystems' services and for best land-use practices development. Central Region of Russia is the biggest one in RF according to its population and role in the economy. CRR is characterized by high spatial variability of soil cover due to as original landscape heterogeneity as complicated history of land-use practices during last 700 years. Our long-term researches include the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and soil cover patterns with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe and agricultural ones) from middle-taiga to steppe zones with different level of continentality. The carried out more than 30-years region- and local-scale researches of representative natural and rural landscapes in Tver', Yaroslavl', Kaluga, Moscow, Vladimir, Saransk (Mordovia), Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov oblasts give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different soil forming and degradation processes rates and soil organic carbon dynamics due to regionally specific soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and dominated microclimate conditions, land-use current practices and history. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of SFP and SDP develop¬ment, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, ecosystem (agroecosystem) principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of SOC structure analysis, regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns detail

  19. Effects of grazing regimes on plant traits and soil nutrients in an alpine steppe, Northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Genwei; Wu, Jianbo; Hong, Jiangtao; Niu, Shuli


    Understanding the impact of grazing intensity on grassland production and soil fertility is of fundamental importance for grassland conservation and management. We thus compared three types of alpine steppe management by studying vegetation traits and soil properties in response to three levels of grazing pressure: permanent grazing (M1), seasonal grazing (M2), and grazing exclusion (M3) in the alpine steppe in Xainza County, Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that community biomass allocation did not support the isometric hypothesis under different grassland management types. Plants in M1 had less aboveground biomass but more belowground biomass in the top soil layer than those in M2 and M3, which was largely due to that root/shoot ratios of dominant plants in M1 were far greater than those in M2 and M3. The interramet distance and the tiller size of the dominant clonal plants were greater in M3 than in M1 and M2, while the resprouting from rhizome buds did not differ significantly among the three greezing regimes. Both soil bulk density and soil available nitrogen in M3 were greater than in M1 at the 15-30 cm soil depth (P = 0.05). Soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen were greater in M3 than in M1 and M2 (P = 0.05). We conclude that the isometric hypothesis is not supported in this study and fencing is a helpful grassland management in terms of plant growth and soil nutrient retention in alpine steppe. The extreme cold, scarce precipitation and short growing period may be the causation of the unique plant and soil responses to different management regimes.

  20. Effects of grazing regimes on plant traits and soil nutrients in an alpine steppe, Northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Jian Sun

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of grazing intensity on grassland production and soil fertility is of fundamental importance for grassland conservation and management. We thus compared three types of alpine steppe management by studying vegetation traits and soil properties in response to three levels of grazing pressure: permanent grazing (M1, seasonal grazing (M2, and grazing exclusion (M3 in the alpine steppe in Xainza County, Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that community biomass allocation did not support the isometric hypothesis under different grassland management types. Plants in M1 had less aboveground biomass but more belowground biomass in the top soil layer than those in M2 and M3, which was largely due to that root/shoot ratios of dominant plants in M1 were far greater than those in M2 and M3. The interramet distance and the tiller size of the dominant clonal plants were greater in M3 than in M1 and M2, while the resprouting from rhizome buds did not differ significantly among the three greezing regimes. Both soil bulk density and soil available nitrogen in M3 were greater than in M1 at the 15-30 cm soil depth (P = 0.05. Soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen were greater in M3 than in M1 and M2 (P = 0.05. We conclude that the isometric hypothesis is not supported in this study and fencing is a helpful grassland management in terms of plant growth and soil nutrient retention in alpine steppe. The extreme cold, scarce precipitation and short growing period may be the causation of the unique plant and soil responses to different management regimes.

  1. Alteration of soil hydraulic properties and soil water repellency by fire and vegetation succession in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem

    Chandler, D. G.; Seyfried, M. S.


    This study explores the impacts of fire and plant community succession on soil water repellency (SWR) and infiltration properties to improve understanding the long term impacts of prescribed fire on SWR and infiltration properties in sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. The objectives of this study were: 1) To explore the temporal effects of prescribed burning in sagebrush dominated landscape; 2) To investigate spatial variability of soil hydrologic properties; 3) To determine the relationship among soil organic fraction, soil hydrophobicity and infiltration properties. Fieldwork was conducted in paired catchments with three dominant vegetation cover communities: Low sage, big mountain sage and aspen. Detailed, heavily replicated analyses were conducted for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, sorptivity water drop penetration time and static soil-water-air contact angle. The results show that the severity and presence of surface soil water repellency were considerably reduced six years after fire and that hydraulic conductivity increased significantly in each vegetation cover compared to pre-burn condition. Comparisons among soil hydrological properties shows that hydraulic conductivity is not strongly related to SWR, and that sorptivity is negatively correlated with SWR. The spatial variance of hydraulic properties within the burned high sage and low sage, in particularly, spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity is basically controlled by soil texture and sorptivity is affected by soil wettability. The average water repellency in Low Sage area was significantly different with Big Sage and Aspen as the gap of organic content between Low Sage and other vegetation area. The result of contact angle measurement and organic content analysis shows a strong positive correlation between SWR and organic matter.

  2. [Influence of soil factors on species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in Stipa steppe of Tibet Plateau].

    Peng, Yue-lin; Yang, Min-na; Cai, Xiao-bu


    This study was based on the isolation and identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi collected from the alpine Stipa steppe of north Tibet, and focused on the influence of soil texture, pH, organic matter, and available P on the spore density, isolation frequency, relative abundance, importance value, species diversity, and species evenness of the AM fungi. In the rhizosphere soil of the steppe, a total of 15 species AM fungi were isolated and identified, including 9 species of Glomus, 6 species of Acaulospora, and 1 species of Scutellospora. Among them, Glomus and Acaulospora were the dominant genera, and Glomus claroideum and Acaulospora laevis were the dominant species. In the soils with different texture, the spore density, isolation frequency, relative abundance, and importance value of the AM fungi all showed a trend of Glomus > Acaulospora > Scutellospora. Soil pH value had no significant effects on the species composition of AM fungi. However, the isolation frequency, relative abundance, and importance value of Glomus and Acaulospora showed an increasing trend with increasing soil pH, while Scutellospora showed the contrary trend. In the soils with different organic matter content, the spore density of AM fungi all showed a trend of Glomus > Acaulospora > Scutellospora, while the distribution of AM fungi had no definite pattern. The species richness and spore density of AM fungi were less affected by the soil available P content, but the species diversity and evenness showed an increasing trend with the increasing content of soil available P.

  3. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Vasenev, I.


    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  4. Responses of soil CO2 fluxes to short-term experimental warming in alpine steppe ecosystem, Northern Tibet.

    Lu, Xuyang; Fan, Jihui; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan


    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is one of the largest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. Therefore small changes in the size of this flux can have a large effect on atmospheric CO2 concentrations and potentially constitute a powerful positive feedback to the climate system. Soil CO2 fluxes in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and their responses to short-term experimental warming were investigated during the growing season in 2011. The results showed that the total soil CO2 emission fluxes during the entire growing season were 55.82 and 104.31 g C m(-2) for the control and warming plots, respectively. Thus, the soil CO2 emission fluxes increased 86.86% with the air temperature increasing 3.74°C. Moreover, the temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q 10) of the control and warming plots were 2.10 and 1.41, respectively. The soil temperature and soil moisture could partially explain the temporal variations of soil CO2 fluxes. The relationship between the temporal variation of soil CO2 fluxes and the soil temperature can be described by exponential equation. These results suggest that warming significantly promoted soil CO2 emission in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and indicate that this alpine ecosystem is very vulnerable to climate change. In addition, soil temperature and soil moisture are the key factors that controls soil organic matter decomposition and soil CO2 emission, but temperature sensitivity significantly decreases due to the rise in temperature.

  5. Light and heavy fractions of soil organic matter in response to climate warming and increased precipitation in a temperate steppe.

    Song, Bing; Niu, Shuli; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Haijun; Li, Linghao; Wan, Shiqiang


    Soil is one of the most important carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and plays a crucial role in ecosystem C and N cycling. Climate change profoundly affects soil C and N storage via changing C and N inputs and outputs. However, the influences of climate warming and changing precipitation regime on labile and recalcitrant fractions of soil organic C and N remain unclear. Here, we investigated soil labile and recalcitrant C and N under 6 years' treatments of experimental warming and increased precipitation in a temperate steppe in Northern China. We measured soil light fraction C (LFC) and N (LFN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), dissolved organic C (DOC) and heavy fraction C (HFC) and N (HFN). The results showed that increased precipitation significantly stimulated soil LFC and LFN by 16.1% and 18.5%, respectively, and increased LFC:HFC ratio and LFN:HFN ratio, suggesting that increased precipitation transferred more soil organic carbon into the quick-decayed carbon pool. Experimental warming reduced soil labile C (LFC, MBC, and DOC). In contrast, soil heavy fraction C and N, and total C and N were not significantly impacted by increased precipitation or warming. Soil labile C significantly correlated with gross ecosystem productivity, ecosystem respiration and soil respiration, but not with soil moisture and temperature, suggesting that biotic processes rather than abiotic factors determine variations in soil labile C. Our results indicate that certain soil carbon fraction is sensitive to climate change in the temperate steppe, which may in turn impact ecosystem carbon fluxes in response and feedback to climate change.

  6. Aeolian nutrient fluxes following wildfire in sagebrush steppe: implications for soil carbon storage

    Hasselquist, N. J.; Germino, M. J.; Sankey, J. B.; Ingram, L. J.; Glenn, N. F.


    Pulses of aeolian transport following fire can profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. Our objective was to determine horizontal nutrient fluxes occurring in the saltation zone during an episodic pulse of aeolian transport that occurred following a wildfire in a semi-arid sagebrush steppe ecosystem in southern Idaho, USA. We also examined how temporal trends in nutrient fluxes were affected by changes in particle sizes of eroded mass as well as nutrient concentrations associated with different particle size classes. In the burned area, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes were as high as 235 g C m-1 d-1 and 19 g N m-1 d-1 during the first few months following fire, whereas C and N fluxes were negligible in an adjacent unburned area throughout the study. Temporal variation in C and N fluxes following fire was largely attributable to the redistribution of saltation-sized particles. Total N and organic C concentrations in the soil surface were significantly lower in the burned relative to the unburned area one year after fire. Our results show how an episodic pulse of aeolian transport following fire can affect the spatial distribution of soil C and N, which, in turn, can have important implications for soil C storage. These findings demonstrate how an ecological disturbance can exacerbate a geomorphic process and highlight the need for further research to better understand the role aeolian transport plays in the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in recently burned landscapes.

  7. Nonlinear response of soil respiration to increasing nitrogen additions in a Tibetan alpine steppe

    Peng, Yunfeng; Li, Fei; Zhou, Guoying; Fang, Kai; Zhang, Dianye; Li, Changbin; Yang, Guibiao; Wang, Guanqin; Wang, Jun; Mohammat, Anwar; Yang, Yuanhe


    Nitrogen (N) availability is a key regulator of carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Anthropogenic N input, such as N deposition and fertilization, increases N availability in soil, which has important implications for an ecosystem’s C storage and loss. Soil respiration (Rs), which is the second largest C flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, plays an important role in terrestrial C cycles. The direction and magnitude of the responses of Rs and its components to N addition have been widely evaluated, but it remains unclear how these processes change across multiple N addition levels. Here we conducted a two-year field experiment to examine the changes of Rs and its autotrophic respiration (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) components along a gradient of eight N levels (0, 1 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 g m‑2 yr‑1) in a Tibetan alpine steppe, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the relative contributions of biotic and abiotic variables and their direct and indirect pathways regulating the Ra and Rh. Our results indicated that both Rs and Ra exhibited first increasing and then subsequent decreasing trends at the threshold of 8 g N m‑2 yr‑1. In contrast, the Rh declined linearly with the N addition rate continuously increasing. SEM analysis revealed that, among various environmental factors, soil temperature was the most important one modulating Rs, which not only had a direct effect on the two Rs components, but also indirectly regulated the Ra and Rh via root and microbial biomass. These findings suggest that the nonlinear response patterns of Rs should be considered for better predicting terrestrial C balance, given that anthropogenic N input to the terrestrial ecosystems is increasing continuously.

  8. Iberian steppes

    Sainz Ollero, H.; Staalduinen, M.A. van


    In Spain, the extensive, largely treeless areas in semi-arid environments are considered as steppes, dominated by small shrubs, with forbs and grasses (dwarf shrub steppes). The main factor for their occurrence seems to be climatic continentality and drought. The Iberian steppe vegetation

  9. Iberian steppes

    Sainz Ollero, H.; Staalduinen, M.A. van


    In Spain, the extensive, largely treeless areas in semi-arid environments are considered as steppes, dominated by small shrubs, with forbs and grasses (dwarf shrub steppes). The main factor for their occurrence seems to be climatic continentality and drought. The Iberian steppe vegetation contains p

  10. Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in agricultural soils in Russia

    Danilova, Natasha; Galitskaya, Polina; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana


    Antibiotics are medicines widely used to treat and prevent bacterial infections not only in human medicine but also in veterinary. Besides, in animal husbandry antibiotics are often used in for stimulation of animal's growth. Many antibiotics used for veterinary purposes are weakly absorbed in the animal's gut. So up to 90% of the administered antibiotics are excreted with manure and urine. Therefore use of manure as an organic fertilizer leads to formation and spreading of antibiotic resistance among soil microbes. Another reason of such spreading is the horizontal transfer of genes encoding antibiotic resistance from manure to soil microflora. The level of antibiotic resistance genes pollution of soils has not been properly studied yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the contamination of agricultural soils by antibiotic resistant genes. 30 samples of agricultural soils were selected around of Kazan city (Tatarstan Republic) with 1.3 Mio citizens. Since tetracycline is reported to be the most wide spread veterinary antibiotic in Russia, we estimated the level of soil contamination by tet(X) gene encoding tetracycline decomposition in microbial cell. Real time PCR method with specific primers was used as a method of investigation. Particle size type distribution of 31% of soil samples was estimated to be sandy clay, and 69% of soil samples - to silty clay. Content of dissoluble organic carbon ranged from 0,02 mg g -1 (sample 20) to 0,46 mg g -1 (sample 16). Respiration activity and microbial biomass of soils were estimated to be 0,80-5,28 CO2 C mg g -1 h-1 and 263,51-935,77 µg kg - 1 respectively. The values presented are typical for soils of Tatarstan Republic. In terms of the antibiotic resistant gene content, 27 of 30 samples investigated contained tet(X) gene, while 52% of the samples were highly contaminated, 34% of samples were middle contaminated and 14% of samples - weakly contaminated.

  11. Water content differences have stronger effects than plant functional groups on soil bacteria in a steppe ecosystem.

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China. We found that the number and composition type of plant functional groups had no effect on bacterial diversity and community composition, or on the relative abundance of major taxa. In contrast, bacterial community patterns were significantly structured by soil water content differences among plots. Our results support researches that suggest that water availability is the key factor structuring soil bacterial communities in this semi-arid ecosystem.

  12. Ecological Catastrophes in the steppe? Landscape Archaeology at the mining and metallurgical complex of Kargaly (Region of Orenbourg, Russia

    Vicent García, Juan M.


    Full Text Available Kargaly is one of the most important centers of mining and metallurgy in the great Eurasian steppe. Dr. E.N. Chernykh and his team (Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow and various researchers at the CSIC and other Spanish institutions have developed a joint project to undertake a comprehensive study of the site's two main phases of occupation, the Bronze Age (2nd millenium BC and the first Russian industrialization (1745-1900 AD. The Russian members of the joint team are in charge of the archaeological investigations, while the Spanish members are studying metallurgical and mining technology and production, on the one hand, and the environmental context and impact of these activities, on the other. This article presents the research design and first results of the Palaeoenvironmental research at Kargaly. This work has two aspects. The first consisted of obtaining one of the most complete palaeoenvironmental data sets from the steppes through both the systematic sampling of archaeological sites to recover charcoal, seeds, fruits and pollen and the taking of palynological cores from natural deposits, on the other Both sampling programs were supported by radiocarbon dates. The second aspect, to which the greater part of this article is devoted, was dedicated to contextualizing the palaeobotanical evidence by studying the present-day landscape, with particular attention to understanding the processes which shape the variability of the pollen rain. Our purpose was to obtain explicit and measurable calibrative criteria which would enable us to answer the palaeoenvironmental questions raised by our archaeological and archaeometallurgical research. These questions include, most importantly, the following: what was the extent of forest (the energy base for the mining/metallurgical complex during the Bronze Age? and how do we evaluate subsistence practices? (an issue related to the origins of agriculture on the

  13. Precipitation Regime Shift Enhanced the Rain Pulse Effect on Soil Respiration in a Semi-Arid Steppe

    Yan, Liming; Chen, Shiping; Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi


    The effect of resource pulses, such as rainfall events, on soil respiration plays an important role in controlling grassland carbon balance, but how shifts in long-term precipitation regime regulate rain pulse effect on soil respiration is still unclear. We first quantified the influence of rainfall event on soil respiration based on a two-year (2006 and 2009) continuously measured soil respiration data set in a temperate steppe in northern China. In 2006 and 2009, soil carbon release induced by rainfall events contributed about 44.5% (83.3 g C m−2) and 39.6% (61.7 g C m−2) to the growing-season total soil respiration, respectively. The pulse effect of rainfall event on soil respiration can be accurately predicted by a water status index (WSI), which is the product of rainfall event size and the ratio between antecedent soil temperature to moisture at the depth of 10 cm (r2 = 0.92, P40 mm per event) and the long dry-spells (>5 days) during the growing seasons increased from 1953–2009. It suggests the shift in precipitation regime has increased the contribution of rain pulse effect to growing-season total soil respiration in this region. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating precipitation regime shift and its impacts on the rain pulse effect into the future predictions of grassland carbon cycle under climate change. PMID:25093573

  14. Geographic distribution of Vertisols and Vertic soils in Russia: diversity of soils and landscapes

    Khitrov, Nikolay; Chizhikova, Nataliya; Rogovneva, Ludmila


    There is a little information about geographic distribution of Vertisols and Vertic soils in Russia. Large areas of these soils (known in Russia as slitozems) are described in the Northen Caucasus Region (Bistritzkaya, Tyuryukanov, 1971; Khitrov, 2003). Swelling clay alluvial soils with microrelief gilgai were studied within the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain (Kozlovskyi, Kornblum, 1972). These and some other regions with slitozems in Russia are between latitudes 45 N and 48 N. For the north from latitude 48 N these soils have not been noted until 2006. Recently a lot of new areas of Vertisols and Vertic soils were identified in the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia (Khitrov, 2012) and in the Middle and the Lower Volga Region between latitudes 48 N and 54 N on the basis of soil studies along routes and on key plots. The portion of these soils in the soil cover patterns varies from 0,5 to 15-30%. Some areas of Vertisols and/or Vertic soils are up to 40-200 ha and more. With that their portion in the soil cover of the entire landscape is much less than 1%. All the delineated areas of vertic soils are confined to the outcrops of swelling clay sediments of different origins (marine, lacustrine, glacial, colluvial and alluvial materials) and ages (Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary). Mineral composition of clay fraction consists of smectites, irregular stratified illite-smectite, chlorite-smectite, hydromicas, chlorite and kaolinite in different proportions. Vertisols and Vertic soils may be found in different landscape positions that provides contrast water regime of soil including alternate periods of intense wetting and drying. The landscape positions are: (1) the step-like interfluvial surfaces and/or different concave slopes with swelling clay outcrops; (2) the deep closed depressions within vast flat watersheds; (3) the bottoms of wide hollows on interfluvial slopes; (4) different geomorphic positions in hydromorphic solonetzic complexes; (5) the

  15. Interactive effects of belowground organic matter input, increased precipitation and clipping on soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a temperate steppe

    L. N. Ma


    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM inputs, increased precipitation and clipping (reducing belowground photosynthates allocation are predicted to affect soil C and N cycling in temperate grassland ecosystems. However, the interactive effects between SOM inputs (or increased precipitation and clipping on soil C and N mineralization in temperate steppes are still poorly understood. A field manipulation experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of SOM inputs, increased precipitation, clipping and their interactions on soil C and N mineralization in a temperate steppe of northeastern China from 2010 to 2011. The results showed that SOM inputs significantly increased soil C mineralization rate (CMR and net N mineralization rate (NMR. Increased precipitation-induced enhancement of soil CMR essentially ceased after the first year, stimulation of soil NMR and NNR continued into the second year. However, clipping only marginally decreased soil CMR and NMR during the two years. There were significant synergistic interactions between SOM inputs (or increased precipitation and clipping on soil CMR and NMR, as SOM inputs (or increased precipitation showed greater effects on soil CMR and NMR under clipped plots than under unclipped plots, which could be explained by the relative shifts in soil microbial community structure because of bacterial biomass increases, and by the relative decreases in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biomass due to the reduction of belowground photosynthates allocation. These results highlight the importance of plants in mediating the responses of soil C and N mineralization to potentially increased SOM and precipitation by controlling belowground photosynthates allocation in the temperate steppe. Thus, the findings have important implications for improving prediction of C and N sequestration potential and its feedbacks to climate change in temperate steppe ecosystems.

  16. Soil Temperature Station Data from Permafrost Regions of Russia (Selection of Five Stations), 1880s - 2000

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes soil temperature data from boreholes located at five stations in Russia: Yakutsk, Verkhoyansk, Pokrovsk, Isit', and Churapcha. The data have...

  17. Temporal stability of soil moisture in various semi-arid steppe ecosystems and its application in remote sensing

    Schneider, K.; Huisman, J. A.; Breuer, L.; Zhao, Y.; Frede, H.-G.


    SummaryMonitoring soil moisture is often necessary in hydrological studies on various scales. One of the challenges is to determine the mean soil moisture of large areas with minimum labour and costs. The aim of this study is to test temporal persistence of sample locations to decrease the number of samples required to make reliable estimates of mean moisture content in the top soil. Soil moisture data on four experimental sites were collected during the vegetation period in 2004-2006. The experimental sites are located in a steppe environment in northern China, and are characterised by different grazing management which causes differences in vegetation cover. A total of 100 sampling points per site were ranked with respect to their difference to field mean soil moisture using the time-stability concept. We tested whether: (a) representative sample locations exist that predict field mean soil moisture to an acceptable degree, and (b) these locations are time-stable beyond a single vegetation period. Time-stable locations with a low deviation from mean field soil moisture and low standard deviation were identified for each site. Although the time-stability characteristics of some points varied between years, the selected points were appropriate to predict mean soil moisture of the sites for multiple years. On the field scale, time-stability and the persistence of patterns were analysed by the use of a Spearman rank correlation. The analysis showed that persistence depended on grazing management and the related plant cover. It is concluded that the time-stability concept provides useful information for the validation of hydrological or remote sensing models, or for the upscaling of soil moisture information to larger scales. A preliminary comparison of soil moisture measurements derived from ground-truth and remote sensing data showed that the data matched well in some cases, but that the considerable difference in spatial extent promotes differences in other cases.

  18. Effects of Permafrost Degradation on Soil Hydrological Processes in Alpine Steppe on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Yin Zhifang; Ouyang Hua; Yang Zhaoping


    Permafrost degradation is prevalent on the Qinghai-Ti-bet Plateau. This may lead to changes in water and heat transition in soils and thus affect the structure and function of ecosystems. In this paper, using the measured data of alpine steppe in Wud- aoliang assessed the model performance in simulating soil freezing and thawing processes. Comparison of the simulated results by simultaneous heat and water (SHAW) model to the measured data showed that SHAW model performed satisfactorily. Based on analyzing the simulated and predicted results, two points were obtained: (1) freezing and thawing of the active layer proceeded both from the soil surface downward. Compared with the freezing process, the thawing process was slower. The freezing period persisted in the surface layer (4 cm depth) for about 5 months; (2) in the next 50 years, frozen period would be shorten about 20 days in the top 100 cm depth while the thawing would start earlier 40 days than present. Soil water storage in the 0-60 cm would de- crease by 22% averagely, especially from June to August when the vegetation is at the dominating water consumed stage. Therefore, this kind of permafrost degradation as active layer freezing and thawing processes changes will reduce soil water content and thus influence those ecosystems above it.

  19. Using the Electromagnetic Induction Method to Connect Spatial Vegetation Distributions with Soil Water and Salinity Dynamics on Steppe Grassland

    Jiang, Z.; Li, X.; Wu, H.


    In arid and semi-arid areas, plant growth and productivity are obviously affected by soil water and salinity. But it is not easy to acquire the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil water and salinity by traditional field methods because of the heterogeneity in their patterns. Electromagnetic induction (EMI), for its rapid character, can provide a useful way to solve this problem. Grassland dominated by Achnatherum splendens is an important ecosystem near the Qinghai-Lake watershed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in northwestern China. EMI surveys were conducted for electrical conductivity (ECa) at an intermediate habitat scale (a 60×60 m experimental area) of A. splendens steppe for 18 times (one day only for one time) during the 2013 growing season. And twenty sampling points were established for the collection of soil samples for soil water and salinity, which were used for calibration of ECa. In addition, plant species, biomass and spatial patterns of vegetation were also sampled. The results showed that ECa maps exhibited distinctly spatial differences because of variations in soil moisture. And soil water was the main factor to drive salinity patterns, which in turn affected ECa values. Moreover, soil water and salinity could explain 82.8% of ECa changes due to there was a significant correlation (Psalinity. Furthermore, with higher ECa values closer to A. splendens patches at the experimental site, patterns of ECa images showed clearly temporal stability, which were extremely corresponding with the spatial pattern of vegetation. A. splendens patches that accumulated infiltrating water and salinity and thus changed long-term soil properties, which were considered as "reservoirs" and were deemed responsible for the temporal stability of ECa images. Hence, EMI could be an indicator to locate areas of decreasing or increasing of water and to reveal soil water and salinity dynamics through repeated ECa surveys.

  20. Precipitation regime shift enhanced the rain pulse effect on soil respiration in a semi-arid steppe.

    Yan, Liming; Chen, Shiping; Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi


    The effect of resource pulses, such as rainfall events, on soil respiration plays an important role in controlling grassland carbon balance, but how shifts in long-term precipitation regime regulate rain pulse effect on soil respiration is still unclear. We first quantified the influence of rainfall event on soil respiration based on a two-year (2006 and 2009) continuously measured soil respiration data set in a temperate steppe in northern China. In 2006 and 2009, soil carbon release induced by rainfall events contributed about 44.5% (83.3 g C m(-2)) and 39.6% (61.7 g C m(-2)) to the growing-season total soil respiration, respectively. The pulse effect of rainfall event on soil respiration can be accurately predicted by a water status index (WSI), which is the product of rainfall event size and the ratio between antecedent soil temperature to moisture at the depth of 10 cm (r2 = 0.92, Pmoisture ratio which is usually associated with longer dry spells. We then analyzed a long-term (1953-2009) precipitation record in the experimental area. We found both the extreme heavy rainfall events (>40 mm per event) and the long dry-spells (>5 days) during the growing seasons increased from 1953-2009. It suggests the shift in precipitation regime has increased the contribution of rain pulse effect to growing-season total soil respiration in this region. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating precipitation regime shift and its impacts on the rain pulse effect into the future predictions of grassland carbon cycle under climate change.

  1. Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)

    Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.


    Mining and ore-dressing are one of the most serious causes of environment pollution. Last century in days of active industrialization in Russia a considerable quantity of mineral deposits has been developed. It was not given sufficient attention for ecological safety at that time. After an economic crisis connected with disorder of the USSR and a planned economy, a number of the enterprises became bankrupts and have stopped the activity. As a result the broken landscapes have not been recultivated everywhere, there were numerous wastes. The negative consequences were especially strongly manifested in areas with severe climatic conditions where environmental self-renewal occurred is slowed rather down. The degree of a waste toxicity also acted as the important factor. One of such situations has arisen in Zakamensk - an administrative center of Zakamensky area of Buryat Republic (Russia). Environmental problems of the town have arisen in connection with activity of town-forming enterprise - Dzhidinsky tungsten-molybdenum industrial complex. The enterprise has been organized in 1934 and functioned within 63 years till 1997. During enterprise operating time 3 deposits have been exploited and is created 2 large (more than 40 million tons) tails depository of technogenic sands (TS), located in immediate proximity (less than 1-2 km) from a town residential zone.Sand of tails are rather toxic, the average maintenance of heavy metals in them is (mg/kg): Cd - 42, Pb - 7500, Zn - 3160, Cu - 620, Ni - 34, Co - 44, Mn - 121, Cr - 70, Hg - 0,01, As - 13, Mo - 90. Due to the lack of knowledges on the toxicity of TS in the past century, they were actively used in the road and house construction, during the erection of dams. After scientific studies they were recommended for using as fertilizers. Besides anthropogenic sands movement, there was intensive dispersion of sand by means of water and wind erosion. As a result of natural migration sands got to the subordinated elements of

  2. The influence of precipitation, vegetation and soil properties on the ecohydrology of sagebrush steppe rangelands on the INL site

    Germino, Matthew J.


    The INL Site and other landscapes having sagebrush steppe vegetation are experiencing a simultaneous change in climate and floristics that result from increases in exotic species. Determining the separate and combined/interactive effects of climate and vegetation change is important for assessing future changes on the landscape and for hydrologic processes. This research uses the 72 experimental plots established and initially maintained for many years as the “Protective Cap Biobarrier Experiment” by Dr. Jay Anderson and the Stoller ESER program, and the experiment is also now referred to as the “INL Site Ecohydrology Study.” We are evaluating long-term impacts of different plant communities commonly found throughout Idaho subject to different precipitation regimes and to different soil depths. Treatments of amount and timing of precipitation (irrigation), soil depth, and either native/perennial or exotic grass vegetation allow researchers to investigate how vegetation, precipitation and soil interact to influence soil hydrology and ecosystem biogeochemistry. This information will be used to improve a variety of models, as well as provide data for these models.

  3. Current ecosystem processes in steppe near Lake Baikal

    Vanteeva, Julia


    The steppes and forest steppes complexes of Priol'khonie at the Lake Baikal (southern Siberia, Russia) were studied in this research. Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol'khonie region. During soviet time this area was actively used for agriculture. Nowadays, this territory is the part of Pribaikalskyi National Park and special protection is needed. As the landscapes satisfy different human demands there are many land-management conflicts. The specific climate and soil conditions and human activity lead to erosion processes on study area. Sediment loads are transferred into the Lake Baikal and cause water pollution. Consequently, vegetation cover and phytomass play an important role for regulating hydrological processes in the ecosystems. The process of phytomass formation and its proactive role playing on sedimentation and mitigate silt detaching by rill and inter-rill erosion are considered in the research as important indicators of the ecosystem functions for steppe landscapes. These indicators were studied for the different land cover types identified on the area because the study area has a large variety of steppe and forest steppe complexes, differing in the form of relief, soil types, vegetation species composition and degree of land degradation. The fieldwork was conducted in the study area in the July and August of 2013. Thirty-two experimental sites (10 x 10 m) which characterized different types of ecosystem were established. The level of landscape degradation was estimated. The method of clipping was used for the valuation of above-ground herbaceous phytomass. The phytomass of tree stands was calculated using the volume-conversion rates for forest-steppe complexes. For the quantification of transferred silt by inter-rill erosion in different conditions (vegetation, slope, soil type, anthropogenic load) a portable rainfall simulator was created with taking into account the characteristics of the study area. The aboveground

  4. Responses of Plant Community and Soil Properties to Inter-Annual Precipitation Variability and Grazing Durations in a Desert Steppe in Inner Mongolia

    WANG Zhen; YUN Xiang-jun; WEI Zhi-jun; Michael P Schellenberg; WANG Yun-feng; YANG Xia; HOU Xiang-yang


    Grazing can dramatically affect arid grassland communities that are very vulnerable to environmental changes due to its relatively short and sparse ground coverage, low biomass, sandy soil and inter-annual precipitation found in the desert steppe. The study investigates the effects of different grazing durations on vegetation and soil properties of a desert steppe community. The experiment was conducted in Xisu Banner in Inner Mongolia with ifve treatments:CG (continuous grazing), 40UG (40 d ungrazed), 50UG (50 d ungrazed), 60UG (60 d ungrazed) and UG (ungrazed). The biomass of both shrub and annual-biennial plant communities were signiifcantly decreased by CG. Continuous grazing and 40UG signiifcantly reduced the ANPP (aboveground net primary productivity) by the end of the three year study. 60UG treatment increased soil organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen concentration (TN) and total phosphorus concentration (TP) concentrations and 50UG increased the TN and total phosphorus concentration (TK) concentrations, whereas CG, 40UG and 50UG decreased soil OC, TP and available phosphorus concentration (AP) concentrations. The perennial plant species of the desert steppe were generally tolerant for grazing. The annual-biennial plant species had large variability in ANPP because of the inter-annual precipitation. Our results highlight that inter-annual precipitation variations could strongly modify the community responses to grazing in arid ecosystems.

  5. Non-additive effects of litter diversity on greenhouse gas emissions from alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet.

    Chen, Youchao; Sun, Jian; Xie, Fangting; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Genwei; Lu, Xuyang


    While litter decomposition is a fundamental ecological process, previous studies have mainly focused on the decay of single species. In this study, we conducted a litter-mixing experiment to investigate litter diversity effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet. Significant non-additive effects of litter diversity on GHG dynamics can be detected; these non-additive effects were the result of species composition rather than species richness. Synergistic effects were frequent for CO2 and N2O emissions, as they were found to occur in 70.5% and 47.1% of total cases, respectively; antagonistic effects on CH4 uptake predominated in 60.3% of the cases examined. The degree of synergism and antagonism may be significantly impacted by litter chemical traits, such as lignin and N, lignin:N ratio, and total phenols during decomposition (P < 0.05). In addition, the relationship between chemical traits and litter-mixing effects changed over incubation time. Our study provides an opportunity to gain insight into the relationship between litter diversity and soil ecological processes. The results indicate that higher plant diversity may generally enhance CO2 and N2O emissions while inhibiting CH4 uptake; meanwhile, the direction and strength of non-additive effects appear to be related to litter chemical traits.

  6. Caesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer for representative agricultural crops of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in post-Chernobyl steppe landscape

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir


    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the

  7. Nitrogen addition alters elemental stoichiometry within soil aggregates in a temperate steppe

    Yin, Jinfei; Wang, Ruzhen; Liu, Heyong; Feng, Xue; Xu, Zhuwen; Jiang, Yong


    Ongoing increases in anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs have largely affected soil carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in most terrestrial ecosystems. Numerous studies have concerned the effects of elevated N inputs on soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic N (DIN), available phosphorus (AP), exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), and available iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). However, few have emphasized the stoichiometric traits of these soil parameters, especially within different soil aggregate fractions. In a semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia, we studied the effect of N addition on the ratios of DOC : DIN, DOC : AP, DIN : AP, exchangeable Ca : Mg, available Fe : Mn within three soil aggregate classes of large macroaggregates (> 2000 µm), small macroaggregates (250-2000 µm), and microaggregates (soil aggregates. The soil DOC : AP ratio significantly decreased along with increasing N gradients within large macroaggregates and microaggregates. Nitrogen significantly decreased the ratio of exchangeable Ca : Mg within soil macroaggregates. The ratio of available Fe : Mn decreased with N addition within three soil aggregate classes. Alteration of elemental stoichiometry within soil fractions that are characterized by different nutrient retention capacity will influence the chemical composition of soil microorganisms and plant quality.

  8. Responses of soil enzyme activity and microbial community compositions to nitrogen addition in bulk and microaggregate soil in the temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia

    Shi, Yao; Sheng, Lianxi; Wang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Xinyu; He, Nianpeng; Yu, Qiang


    In order to explore the responses of soil enzyme activities and microbial community compositions to long-term nitrogen (N) addition in both bulk soil and microaggregate of chestnut soil, we conducted a 7-year urea addition experiment with N treatments at 6 levels (0, 56, 112, 224, 392 and 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in a temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia in China. Soil properties and the activities of four enzymes involved in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling were measured in both bulk soil and microaggregate, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were measured in bulk soil. The results indicated that: 1) in bulk soil, N addition significantly decreased β-1,4-glucosidase (BG) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activities at the treatment amounts of 224, 392 and 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and obviously suppressed β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activity at the treatment amount of 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1. N addition enhanced total PLFAs (totPLFAs) and bacterial PLFAs (bacPLFAs) at the treatment amounts of 392 and 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively, but fungal PLFAs showed no response to N addition. The activities of BG, NAG and LAP were positively correlated with soil pH, but negatively correlated with the concentration of NH 4 + -N; 2) in microaggregate (53-250 μm), the activities of BG, NAG and AP showed no response to increased addition of N, but the significantly decreased LAP activity was observed at the treatment amount of 392 kg N ha-1 yr-1. These results suggested that enzyme activities were more sensitive to N addition than PLFA biomarkers in soil, and LAP activity in microaggregate may be a good indicator for evaluating N cycle response to long-term N addition.

  9. [Variation of soil physicochemical and microbial properties in degraded steppes in Hulunbeir of China].

    Lin, Lu; Wu, Yun-Na; Kenji, Tamura; Huo, Guang-Wei; Luo, Wen-Tao; Lü, Jian-Zhou


    To investigate the influence of degradation on grassland, we sampled soil and plants at three sites respectively under light, moderate and severe degradation in Hulunbeir Grassland in northern China and analyzed the differences and relationships among soil physicochemical characters, enzyme activity, soil microorganism quantity and aboveground biomass. The results showed that species richness of the moderately degraded site was highest while the aboveground biomass at the lightly degraded site was significantly higher than at the severely degraded site. Soil moisture content, nutrients (organic matter and total nitrogen) concentrations, soil microorganism quantity and enzyme activity were all decreased significantly in the degraded sites, whereas both the soil hardness and bulk density showed an opposite trend. The soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents ranged from 128 to 185 g x kg(-1) and from 5.6 to 13.6 g x kg(-1), respectively. The soil dehydrogenase and urease activities negatively correlated with soil bulk density but positively correlated with total nitrogen, organic matter, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The aboveground biomass showed significantly positive correlation with the number of soil bacteria and fungi.

  10. The effect of salinization on the biomass of microorganisms in the soils of different ages in the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia

    Yakutin, M. V.; Anopchenko, L. Yu.; Andrievskii, V. S.


    The study of soils of different ages developing on the drying bottom of the shallow-water Yudinsk reach of Lake Chany (Western Siberia) has shown that soil salinization is a powerful factor affecting the biomass and metabolic activity of microorganisms. Strong salinity of parent materials retards the development of microbial population in the young soils. With an increase the soil age of lake depressions, desalinization takes place, and the rate of the formation of microbial biomass increases. Its metabolic activity becomes more pronounced, though the specific rate of metabolic activity slows down. The carbon of the microbial biomass and basal respiration in the soils developing on drying lake bottoms in the forest-steppe zone reach the values typical of the zonal chernozemic soils in about 80 years.

  11. Soil water regime and crop yields in relation to various technologies of cultivation in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai Krai

    V. Beliaev


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of crop yield in areas with different technologies of cultivation based on the network of automatic stations that provide data on climatic and soil-hydrological monitoring in the dry steppe during the vegetation period of May–September 2013–2016 . These data  on regional ecological and climatic parameters are of great interest to the ecologists, plant physiologists, and farmers working in the Kulunda Plain (Altai Territory. We compared the following options for cropping technologies: the modern system, which is the "no-till", technology without autumn tillage;the intensive technology of deep autumn tillage by plough PG-3-5 at a depth of 22–24 cm. Cultivation of crops was carried out using the following scheme of crop rotation: the modern system: 1–2–3–4 (wheat – peas – wheat – rape; the intensive system: 5/6 – 7/8 – 9/10 (fallow – wheat – wheat. We believe that the use of modern technology in these conditions is better due to exchange between the different layers of soil. When  the ordinary Soviet system , the so-called "plow sole" , was used , at a depth of 24 cm , we observed that this creates a water conductivity barrier that seems to preclude the possibility of lifting water from the lower horizons. Results of the study of infiltration of soil moisture at the depth of 30 and 60 cm  have shown in some years the advantages of the modern technology over the ordinary Soviet system: in the version with the use of modern technology we can trace better exchange between the various horizons and , probably,  moisture replenishment from the lower horizons. Differences in individual observation periods are comparatively large due to the redistribution of soil moisture, depending on the weather conditions, the crops used in the crop rotations, and cultivation techniques. Moreover, the average moisture reserves within the one meter layer did not show any significant differences during the

  12. Effects of Fire on Soil Splash Erosion in Semi-steppe Rangelandof Karsanak Region,Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

    D. Baharlooi


    . Detachment rate is strongly influenced by soil properties, including soil texture and thickness of the water layer at the soil surface (De Ploey and Savat, 1968; Moss and Green, 1983; Sharma et al., 1991; Kinnell, 1991, Jomaa et al., 2010, soil strength, bulk density, cohesion, soil organic matter content, moisture content, infiltration capacity (Nearing et al., 1988; Owoputi, 1994; Morgan et al., 1998, Planchon et al., 2000, Ghahramani et al., 2011, soil initial water content, surface compaction and roughness (Planchon et al., 2000, the nature of soil aggregates and crust, porosity, capacity of ionic interchange, and clay content (Poesen and Torri, 1988. Several studies have shown that splash detachment rate is mainly related to surface rock fragments in soils with sparse vegetation cover (Jomaa et al., 2012. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of fire on splash erosion and some erosion depended properties in semi-steppe rangeland of Karsanak region in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province which affected by man-made fire during 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were obtained on 2012 from the mentioned regions (8 samplesfrom the burned area and 8 samples as a control (unburned in the adjacent burned area from 0-7 cm depth. Splash erosion under simulated rainfall intensity of 2 mm per minute was measured using multivariate splash cup apparatus considering the slope of 5 and 25 degree. Soil pH, soil electrical conductivity, equivalent calcium carbonate, soil organic matter, sand size fraction particulate organic matter (SSF POM, mean weight diameter and, geometric mean diameter of aggregates, percent of macro and micro-aggregates, percent of clay, silt, sand, water dispersible clay and soil bulk density were measured. Statistical data analysis was performed by t-test at 5% level. Results Discussion: The results showed that soil splashing increased significantly in treatment 1 year after the fire in both slope 5 and 25 degree and

  13. Distribution of soil testate amoeba assemblages along catenas in the northern taiga zone (Karelia, Russia)

    Tsyganov, Andrey; Embulaeva, Elena; Mazei, Yuri


    Topography is one of the main factors, which regulate composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationships between topography and soil protozoa remain poorly understood. We studied the distribution of testate amoeba assemblages in soil biotopes located at various topographic positions along two topographical gradients (catenas) in a forest site in the north taiga zone (Karelia, Russia). The variation in testate amoeba assemblages was estimated using univariate ass...

  14. The impact of clearcutting in boreal forests of Russia on soils: A review

    Dymov, A. A.


    Data on the impact of tree logging in boreal forests of Russia on soils are systematized. Patterns of soil disturbances and transformation of microclimatic parameters within clearcutting areas are discussed. Changes in the conditions of pedogenesis in secondary forests are analyzed. It is suggested that the changes in forest soils upon reforestation of clearcutting areas might be considered as specific post-logging soil successions. Data characterizing changes in the thickness of litter horizons and in the intensity of elementary pedogenic processes, acidity, and the content of exchangeable bases in soils of clearcutting areas in the course of their natural reforestation are considered. The examples of human-disturbed (turbated) soil horizons and newly formed anthropogenic soils on clearcutting areas are described. It is suggested that the soils on mechanically disturbed parts of clearcutting areas can be separated as a specific group of detritus turbozems.

  15. Effects of Conversion from Boreal Forest to Arctic Steppe on Soil Communities and Ecosystem Carbon Pools

    Han, P. D.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.


    The end of the Pleistocene marked the extinction of a great variety of arctic megafauna, which, in part, led to the conversion of arctic grasslands to modern Siberian larch forest. This shift may have increased the vulnerability of permafrost to thawing because of changes driven by the vegetation shift; the higher albedo of grassland and low insulation of snow trampled by animals may have decreased soil temperatures and reduced ground thaw in the grassland ecosystem, resulting in protection of organic carbon in thawed soil and permafrost. To test these hypothesized impacts of arctic megafauna, we examined an experimental reintroduction of large mammals in northeast Siberia, initiated in 1988. Pleistocene Park now contains 23 horses, three musk ox, one bison, and several moose in addition to the native fauna. The park is 16 square km with a smaller enclosure (animals spend most of their time and our study was focused. We measured carbon-pools in forested sites (where scat surveys showed low animal use), and grassy sites (which showed higher use), within the park boundaries. We also measured thaw depth and documented the soil invertebrate communities in each ecosystem. There was a substantial difference in number of invertebrates per kg of organic soil between the forest (600 ± 250) and grassland (300 ± 250), though these differences were not statistically significant they suggest faster nutrient turnover in the forest or a greater proportion of decomposition by invertebrates than other decomposers. While thaw depth was deeper in the grassland (60 ± 4 cm) than in the forest (40 ± 6 cm), we did not detect differences in organic layer depth or percent organic matter between grassland and forest. However, soil in the grassland had higher bulk density, and higher carbon stocks in the organic and mineral soil layers. Although deeper thaw depth in the grassland suggests that more carbon is available to microbial decomposers, ongoing temperature monitoring will help

  16. Grazing intensity and driving factors affect soil nitrous oxide fluxes during the growing seasons in the Hulunber meadow steppe of China

    Yan, Ruirui; Tang, Huajun; Xin, Xiaoping; Chen, Baorui; Murray, Philip J.; Yan, Yunchun; Wang, Xu; Yang, Guixia


    In this study, the effects of cattle grazing intensity on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were examined in the Hulunber meadow steppe of north-eastern China. Six stocking-rate treatments (0, 0.23, 0.34, 0.46, 0.69, and 0.92 AU ha-1) with three replicates were established, and observations were conducted from 2010 to 2014. Our results showed that substantial temporal fluctuations in N2O flux occurred amongst the different grazing intensities, with peak N2O fluxes after natural rainfall. Grazing had a long-term effect on the soil N2O flux in the grasslands. After 4-5 years of grazing, the N2O fluxes under increased levels of grazing intensity began to decrease significantly by 31.4%-60.2% in 2013 and 32.5%-50.5% in 2014 compared to the non-grazing treatment. We observed a significant negative linear relationship between the soil N2O fluxes and grazing intensity for the five-year mean. The soil N2O flux was significantly affected each year in all of the treatments. Over the five years, the temporal coefficient of variation (CVs) of the soil N2O flux generally declined significantly with increasing grazing intensity. The soil N2O emission rate was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture (SM), soil available phosphorus (SAP), soil {{{{NH}}}4}+-N, soil {{{{NO}}}3}--N, above-ground biomass (AGB), plant ground cover and height and was negatively correlated with total soil nitrogen (TN). Stepwise regressions showed that the N2O flux was primarily explained by SM, plant height, TN, soil pH, and soil {{{{NH}}}4}+-N. Using structural equation modelling, we show that grazing significantly directly influenced the plant community and the soil environment, which then influenced the soil N2O fluxes. Our findings provide an important reference for better understanding of the mechanisms and identifying the pathways of grazing effects on soil N2O emission rates, and the key drivers plant community and soil environment within the nitrogen cycle that are mostly likely to

  17. Mid-latitude shrub steppe plant communities: Climate change consequences for soil water resources

    Palmquist, Kyle A.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, Willliam K.


    In the coming century, climate change is projected to impact precipitation and temperature regimes worldwide, with especially large effects in drylands. We use big sagebrush ecosystems as a model dryland ecosystem to explore the impacts of altered climate on ecohydrology and the implications of those changes for big sagebrush plant communities using output from 10 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We ask: 1) What is the magnitude of variability in future temperature and precipitation regimes among GCMs and RCPs for big sagebrush ecosystems and 2) How will altered climate and uncertainty in climate forecasts influence key aspects of big sagebrush water balance? We explored these questions across 1980-2010, 2030-2060, and 2070-2100 to determine how changes in water balance might develop through the 21st century. We assessed ecohydrological variables at 898 sagebrush sites across the western US using a process-based soil water model, SOILWAT to model all components of daily water balance using site-specific vegetation parameters and site-specific soil properties for multiple soil layers. Our modeling approach allowed for changes in vegetation based on climate. Temperature increased across all GCMs and RCPs, while changes in precipitation were more variable across GCMs. Winter and spring precipitation was predicted to increase in the future (7% by 2030-2060, 12% by 2070-2100), resulting in slight increases in soil water potential (SWP) in winter. Despite wetter winter soil conditions, SWP decreased in late spring and summer due to increased evapotranspiration (6% by 2030-2060, 10% by 2070-2100) and groundwater recharge (26% and 30% increase by 2030-2060 and 2070-2100). Thus, despite increased precipitation in the cold season, soils may dry out earlier in the year, resulting in potentially longer drier summer conditions. If winter precipitation cannot offset drier summer conditions in the future, we expect big

  18. Mid-latitude shrub steppe plant communities: climate change consequences for soil water resources.

    Palmquist, Kyle A; Schlaepfer, Daniel R; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K


    In the coming century, climate change is projected to impact precipitation and temperature regimes worldwide, with especially large effects in drylands. We use big sagebrush ecosystems as a model dryland ecosystem to explore the impacts of altered climate on ecohydrology and the implications of those changes for big sagebrush plant communities using output from 10 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We ask: (1) What is the magnitude of variability in future temperature and precipitation regimes among GCMs and RCPs for big sagebrush ecosystems, and (2) How will altered climate and uncertainty in climate forecasts influence key aspects of big sagebrush water balance? We explored these questions across 1980-2010, 2030-2060, and 2070-2100 to determine how changes in water balance might develop through the 21st century. We assessed ecohydrological variables at 898 sagebrush sites across the western US using a process-based soil water model, SOILWAT, to model all components of daily water balance using site-specific vegetation parameters and site-specific soil properties for multiple soil layers. Our modeling approach allowed for changes in vegetation based on climate. Temperature increased across all GCMs and RCPs, whereas changes in precipitation were more variable across GCMs. Winter and spring precipitation was predicted to increase in the future (7% by 2030-2060, 12% by 2070-2100), resulting in slight increases in soil water potential (SWP) in winter. Despite wetter winter soil conditions, SWP decreased in late spring and summer due to increased evapotranspiration (6% by 2030-2060, 10% by 2070-2100) and groundwater recharge (26% and 30% increase by 2030-2060 and 2070-2100). Thus, despite increased precipitation in the cold season, soils may dry out earlier in the year, resulting in potentially longer, drier summer conditions. If winter precipitation cannot offset drier summer conditions in the future, we expect big

  19. Cartographic analysis of the distribution of saline soils in Russia depending on some climatic parameters

    Kalinina, N. V.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Pankova, E. I.; Chernousenko, G. I.; Koroleva, P. V.


    The subdistrict zoning map distinguishes 27 subjects of the Russian Federation, 109 municipal districts, and 142 districts and subdistricts along the latitude line at 53°44' N in Russia. Among them, soil salinization is observed in 13 subjects of the Russian Federation, 39 municipal districts, and 41 districts and subdistricts. The total length of the transect is 6354 m. The relationship between the distribution of saline soils and climatic parameters has been analyzed in the districts and subdistricts of the subdistrict zoning map. Information about soil salinity has been borrowed from the Soil Salinization Map of Russia (2003) and some regional salinization maps (Khakassia, Barguzin Depression). Climate is the main factor affecting the distribution of soil salinity. Among the analyzed climatic parameters, the Ivanov wetting coefficient (WC) best describes the relationship between climate and soil salinity. The share of saline soils in a district is inversely proportional to the WC value. The degrees of drainage and dissection of the area limit the effect of climate on soil salinity. It is proposed to subdivide the relief into three groups depending on the degree of dissection in order to correct the calculations of relationship between WC and soil salinity. With consideration for relief features, the relationship between soil salinity and WC is represented by a segment of the coordinate plane with WC as the ordinate and the share of saline soils as the abscissa. The segment is limited by two lines corresponding to the maximum and minimum soil salinities at given WC values. The use of the limiting equations allows predicting, with a high probability, the presence and distribution area of saline soils at a given latitude at 0.85 ≥ WC ≥ 0.5.

  20. Effects of Nitrogen and Water on Soil Enzyme Activity and Soil Microbial Biomass in Stipa baicalensis Steppe,Inner Mongolia of North China

    WANG Jie


    Full Text Available In this paper, eight nitrogen treatments were applied at 0 g·m -2(N0, 1.5 g·m -2(N15, 3.0 g·m -2(N30, 5.0 g·m -2(N50, 10.0 g·m -2(N100, 15.0 g·m -2(N150, 20.0 g·m -2(N200, 30.0 g·m -2(N300 as NH 4 NO 3 and adding water to simulate summer rainfall of 100 mm, the interactive experiment was set to explore the effects of nitrogen and water addition in Stipa baicalensis steppe on soil nutrients, enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass. The results showed that the nitrogen and water addition changed soil physico-chemical factors obviously, the content of soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen increased along with the increasing of application rate of nitrogen, on the contrary, the soil pH value had decreasing trend. Appropriate application of nitrogen could enhance the activity of urease and catalase but decreased the activity of polyphenol oxidase. Nitrogen and water addition had significant effect on soil microbial biomass C and N. Higher level of N fertilizer significantly reduced microbial biomass C, and the microbial biomass N was on the rise with the application rate of nitrogen. The addition of water could slow the inhibition of nitrogen to microorganism and increase the microbial biomass C and N. A closed relationship existed in soil nutrient, activities of soil enzyme and soil microbial biomass C and N. The significantly positive correlation existed between total N, organic C, nitrate N and catalase, significantly negative correlation between nitrate N, ammonium N, total N and polyphenol oxidase. Microbial biomass N was significantly positive correlated with total N, nitrate N, ammonium N, catalase, phosphatase, and was negative correlated with polyphenol oxidase. Microbial biomass C was significantly positive correlated with polyphenol oxidase, and was negative correlated with catalase.

  1. Mycelial actinobacteria in salt-affected soils of arid territories of Ukraine and Russia

    Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.; Zenova, G. M.; Kozhevin, P. A.; Dubrova, M. S.; Lubsanova, D. A.; Chernov, I. Yu.


    A high population density (up to hundreds of thousands or millions CFU/g soil) of mycelial bacteria (actinomycetes) is determined in salt-affected soils of arid territories of Ukraine, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Of all the studied soils, the lowest amounts of actinomycetes (thousands and tens of thousands CFU/g soil) are isolated from sor (playa) and soda solonchaks developed on the bottoms of drying salt lakes in Buryatia and in the Amu Darya Delta. Actinomycetes of the Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Nocardiopsis genera were recorded in the studied soils. It is found that conditions of preincubation greatly affect the activity of substrate consumption by the cultures of actinomycetes. This could be attributed to changes in the metabolism of actinomycetes as a mechanism of their adaptation to the increased osmotic pressure of the medium. The alkali tolerance of halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from the salt-affected soils is experimentally proved.

  2. Long-term nitrogen addition leads to loss of species richness due to litter accumulation and soil acidification in a temperate steppe.

    Ying Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although community structure and species richness are known to respond to nitrogen fertilization dramatically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying specific species replacement and richness loss. In an experiment in semiarid temperate steppe of China, manipulative N addition with five treatments was conducted to evaluate the effect of N addition on the community structure and species richness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness and biomass of community in each plot were investigated in a randomly selected quadrat. Root element, available and total phosphorus (AP, TP in rhizospheric soil, and soil moisture, pH, AP, TP and inorganic N in the soil were measured. The relationship between species richness and the measured factors was analyzed using bivariate correlations and stepwise multiple linear regressions. The two dominant species, a shrub Artemisia frigida and a grass Stipa krylovii, responded differently to N addition such that the former was gradually replaced by the latter. S. krylovii and A. frigida had highly-branched fibrous and un-branched tap root systems, respectively. S. krylovii had higher height than A. frigida in both control and N added plots. These differences may contribute to the observed species replacement. In addition, the analysis on root element and AP contents in rhizospheric soil suggests that different calcium acquisition strategies, and phosphorus and sodium responses of the two species may account for the replacement. Species richness was significantly reduced along the five N addition levels. Our results revealed a significant relationship between species richness and soil pH, litter amount, soil moisture, AP concentration and inorganic N concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that litter accumulation and soil acidification accounted for 52.3% and 43.3% of the variation in species richness, respectively. These findings would advance our knowledge on the

  3. Soil respiration and its role in Russia's terrestrial C flux balance for the Kyoto baseline year

    Stolbovoi, Vladimir


    This study introduces a transparent, operational model of estimating soil respiration (SR) to meet the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change within a framework of full carbon accounting (Nilsson et al, 2000). By applying this model, we are able to define SR for the Kyoto 1990 baseline year for Russia (3200 Tg C), and establish soil emission thresholds for any spatial units, e.g. vegetation zones and land-use patterns. This model is built upon a fundamental biogeochemical cycle and provides a scientific basis for carbon management. SR comprised about 74% of the photosynthetically assimilated carbon in 1990, with the remainder accounted for in several areas. The carbon flux balance is, therefore, found to be closed for Russia. Our findings suggest that incomplete accounting is the reason for missing carbon globally.

  4. Regional clarkes of chemical elements in soils of southern European Russia

    D'yachenko, V. V.; Matasova, I. Yu.


    Distribution patterns of 19 elements in soils of the southern part of European Russian were estimated on the basis of the analysis of more than 9000 soil samples; regional clarkes of the elements were compared with their global clarkes, The obtained data attest to the fact that southern Russia is characterized by increased concentrations of most of the microelements with a tendency for their rise in the recent decades. The great role of the aerial migration and deposition of elements results in the enrichment of the soils with technophilic elements, so that the geochemical convergence of the soils is observed. It can be concluded that natural element abundances in soils are subjected to the technogenic transformation reflecting the high rate of contamination of the biosphere.

  5. Paleosols and climate of the steppe zone in early iron age: Identifying short term warming of climate on slightly-sensors soils

    Liudmila N. Plekhanova


    Full Text Available Studies on paleosols under an archaeological landmark of a rare type (a complex of kurgans with “whiskers” dating from the Early Iron Age (the fourth century AD have been performed in the steppe zone of the Transural Plateau. The size and shape of third-order soil polygons under stony ridges (“whiskers” between the kurgans have been described in detail. The results have shown that the paleosol under the kurgans erected at the turn of the Late Sarmatian and Hun times (1600 years ago is characterized by a higher humus content and deeper location of the carbonate horizon, compared to the recent soil. This indicates that an increase in atmospheric humidity took place in the fourth century AD.

  6. 不同植被被覆下温性草原土壤养分分异特征%Differentiation characteristics of soil nutrients in temperate steppe under different vegetation types

    李以康; 张法伟; 林丽; 杜岩功; 曹广民; 郭小伟; 周国英; 韩发


    Taking the temperate steppe under four vegetation types around the Qinghai Lake of Northwest China as test objects,this paper studied the distribution patterns of soil nutrient heterogeneity under natural condition and grazing disturbance.There existed obvious layering characteristics in the soil available N,P,and K,being the highest in surface layer (0-10 cm) and decreased with soil depth.In degraded Stipa purpurea steppe,the available nutrient contents in different soil layers were lower than those in Poe steppe,Elymus nutans steppe,and Leymus secalinus steppe.The Poe steppe which was restored for a longer time and experienced exotic substance input had higher contents of soil available nutrients.The soil total N content in degraded S.purpurea steppe and E.nutans steppe was higher in 0-20 cm layer,but decreased sharply below 20 cm depth.In contrast,both Poe steppe and L.secalinus steppe showed a higher soil total N content at each depth.The soil total P content had no significant correlation with soil depth (P>0.05),but was significantly lower at the depths 0-10 cm,10-20 cm,20-30 cm,and 30 -40 cm in degraded S.purpurea steppe than in other three steppes (P<0.05).The soil total K and organic matter contents in degraded S.purpurea steppe were also lower than those in other three steppes.Soil organic matter content had significant correlations with soil total and available N,P,and K (P<0.01).Soil bulk density increased with soil depth.Degradation resulted in the increase of soil pH value.After 6 years recovery of degraded temperate steppes,the soil could be basically recovered.It was suggested that both grazing disturbance and natural factors could affect the soil nutrient status in temperate steppe.%以青海湖区4种不同植被被覆下温性草原为对象,研究在自然及放牧因素影响下土壤异质性分布格局.结果表明:速效养分(速效氮、速效磷、速效钾)具有明显的分层特征,表层土壤含量最高,随土层加深含量

  7. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia.

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per


    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources.

  8. Reconstruction of climate, soil, and vegetation conditions of the Srubnaya cultural epoch on the basis of kurgan studies in the Cis-Ural forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan

    Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Rohozin, Ye. P.; Chaplygin, M. S.


    The reconstruction of soil, vegetation, and climatic conditions for the Srubnaya cultural epoch (3660 ± 40 (date wood), 3860 ± 120 (bones date) was performed on the basis of palynological and paleosol studies with radiocarbon dating of bones and wood fragments from two kurgans in the Cis-Ural forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Morphological features and chemical properties of the modern background soils, the soils formed on the surface of burial mounds (kurgans), and the soils buried under them were characterized. According to palynological data, the climate of this territory in the period of construction of these kurgans was more humid than the modern climate. The paleovegetation of the Srubnaya epoch was represented by mesophilic herbaceous steppes with a lower participation of xerophytic species as compared to the modern steppe and by small forest groves composed of birch and pine trees with some admixture of lime trees. The temperature conditions were close to those at present, or somewhat cooler, which is evidenced by the lower content of pollen of the broadleaved trees. The modern background soils and the soils buried under the kurgans are classified as thin light loamy typical calcareous chernozems; they have similar morphologies and physicochemical properties. However, the reconstructed organic matter content in the upper 50 cm of the buried paleosols is higher than that in the modern soils. This attests to more favorable climatic conditions during the Srubnaya epoch and is in agreement with palynological data.

  9. Quantification of DOC concentrations in relation with soil properties of soils in tundra and taiga of Northern European Russia

    M. R. Oosterwoud


    Full Text Available Potential mobilization and transport of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC in subarctic river basins towards the oceans is enormous, because 23–48% of the worlds Soil Organic Carbon (SOC is stored in northern regions. As climate changes, the amount and composition of DOC exported from these basins are expected to change. The transfer of organic carbon between soils and rivers results in fractionation of organic carbon compounds. The aim of this research is to determine the DOC concentrations, its fractions, i.e. humic (HA, fulvic (FA, and hydrophilic (HY acids, and soil characteristics that influence the DOC sorptive properties of different soil types within a tundra and taiga catchment of Northern European Russia. DOC in taiga and tundra soil profiles (soil solution consisted only of HY and FA, where HY became more abundant with increasing depth. Adsorption of DOC on mineral phases is the key geochemical process for release and removal of DOC from potentially soluble carbon pool. We found that adsorbed organic carbon may desorb easily and can release DOC quickly, without being dependent on mineralization and degradation. Although Extractable Organic Carbon (EOC comprise only a small part of SOC, it is a significant buffering pool for DOC. We found that about 80–90% of released EOC was previously adsorbed. Fractionation of EOC is also influenced by the fact that predominantly HA and FA adsorbed to soil and therefore also are the main compounds released when desorbed. Flowpaths vary between taiga and tundra and through seasons, which likely affects DOC concentration found in streams. As climate changes, also flowpaths of water through soils may change, especially in tundra caused by thawing soils. Therefore, adsorptive properties of thawing soils exert a major control on DOC leaching to rivers. To better understand the process of DOC ad- and de-sorption in soils, process based soil chemical modelling, which could bring more insight in solution

  10. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of urban areas of Yamal autonomous region (Russia)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Abakumov, Evgeny; Shamilishvili, George


    This investigation is devoted to evaluation of heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of different functional localities within the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region (YaNAR, North-Western Siberia, Russia). Geo-accumulation indices Igeo (Müller 1988) were calculated in order to assess soil contamination levels with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Hg) in the studied settlements: Harsaim, Aksarka, Labytnangy, Harp and Salekhard. The degree of soil pollution was assessed according to seven contamination classes (Förstner et al. 1990) in order of increasing numerical value of the index. Cd's regional soil background concentrations of the Yamal peninsula (Moskovchenko 2010), Hg's Earth crust clarke (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2008) and concentrations of the rest trace elements in natural sandy soil from the Beliy island, YaNAR (Tomashunas & Abakumov, 2014) were used in calculations. In general terms, obtained Igeo values in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. However, considerable Igeo values of Zn, Pb and Ni were revealed in several samples, suggesting different soil pollution levels, namely: Zn Igeo in Harsaim soil sample of 2.22 - moderate polluted to highly polluted soil; Pb Igeo in Aksarka soil sample of 4.04 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil; Ni Igeo in Harp soil sample of 4.34 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil. Soil contamination level was additionally evaluated, comparing with the maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) of the trace elements in soil (SANPIN 4266-87), established by the national legislation. Almost all samples exceeded the MPC for As in soils (2 mg•kg-1). Concentrations of Ni in several soil samples taken in Harp were 19 times higher than recommended level (20 mg•kg-1). Moderate excess of Zn, Pb and Cu MPCs was also noted. Data obtained will be used in further environmental researches and environmental management purposes in this key

  11. Soil microbial respiration (CO2) of natural and anthropogenically-transformed ecosystems in Moscow region, Russia

    Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Rogovaya, Sofia; Vasenev, Viacheslav


    The CO2 concentration in modern atmosphere is increasing and one of the most reasons of it is land use changing. It is related not only with soil plowing, but also with growing urbanization and, thereby, forming the urban ecosystems. Such conversion of soil cover might be affected by efflux CO2 from soil into atmosphere. The soil CO2 efflux mainly supplies by soil microorganisms respiration (contribution around 70-90%) and plant roots respiration. Soil microbial respiration (MR) is determined in the field (in situ) and laboratory (in vitro) conditions. The measurement of soil MR in situ is labour-consuming, and for district, region and country areas it is difficult carried. We suggest to define the MR of the upper highest active 10 cm mineral soil layer (in vitro) followed by the accounting of area for different ecosystems in large region of Russia. Soils were sampled (autumn, 2011) in natural (forest, meadow) and anthropogenically-transformed (arable, urban) ecosystems of Sergiev-Posad, Taldom, Voskresenk, Shatura, Serpukhov and Serbryanye Prudy districts in Moscow region. In soil samples (total 156) the soil MR (24 h, 22°C, 60% WHC) were measured after preincubation procedure (7 d., 22°C, 55% WHC). The soil MR ranged from 0.13 (urban) to 5.41 μg CO2-C g-1 h-1 (meadow), the difference between these values was 42 times. Then, the soil MR values (per unit soil weight) were calculated per unit soil area (1 m2), the layer thickness of which was 0.1 m (soil volume weight was equaled 1 g cm-3). The high MR values were noted for forests soil (832-1410 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1) of studied districts, and the low MR values were for arable and urban soils (by 1.6-3.2 and 1.3-2.7 times less compared to forests, respectively). The MR rate of urban soil in Voskresenk district was comparable to that of corresponding meadows and it was even higher (in average by 2.3 times) in Serpukhov district. The soil MR rate of studied cities was higher by 20%, than in corresponding arable soils

  12. The history and assessment of effectiveness of soil erosion control measures deployed in Russia

    Valentin Golosov


    Full Text Available Research activities aimed at design and application of soil conservation measures for reduction of soil losses from cultivated fields started in Russia in the last quarter of the 19th century. A network of "zonal agrofor-estry melioration experimental stations" was organized in the different landscape zones of Russia in the first half of the 20th century. The main task of the experiments was to develop effective soil conservation measures for Russian climatic,soil and land use conditions. The most widespread and large-scale introduction of coun-termeasures to cope with soil erosion by water and wind into agricultural practice supported by serious governmental investments took place during the Soviet Union period after the Second World War. After the Soviet Union collapse in 1991 ,general deterioration of the agricultural economy sector and the absence of investments resulted in cessation of organized soil conservation measures application at the nation-wide level. However, some of the long-term erosion control measures such as forest shelter belts, artificial slope terracing, water diversion dams above formerly active gully heads survived until the present. In the case study of sediment redistribution within the small cultivated catchment presented in this paper an attempt was made to evaluate average annual erosion rates on arable slopes with and without soil conservation measures for two time intervals. It has been found that application of conservation measures on cultivated slopes within the experimental part of the case study catchment has led to a decrease of average soil loss rates by at least 2. 5 2. 8 times. The figures obtained are in good agreement with previously published results of direct monitoring of snowmelt erosion rates, reporting approximately a 3 -fold decrease of average snowmelt erosion rates in the experimental sub-catchment compared to a traditionally cultivated control sub-catchment. A substantial decrease of soil

  13. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo


    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and # regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  14. The contribution of root respiration to soil CO2 efflux in Puccinellia tenuiflora dominated community in a semi-arid meadow steppe


    In this study, the linear regression between soil respiration rate and root biomass was adopted to estimate the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration in Puccinellia tenuiflora dominated community of a semi-arid meadow steppe in northeast China. The soil respiration rate reached the maximum value 2.45μmol·m-2·s-1 in late June and the minimum value 0.39 μmol·m-2·s-1 in late September. Soil temperature is the major environmental factor controlling the seasonal variation of soil respiration. The root biomass ranged from 0.54 to 0.97 kg·m-2, showing insignificant seasonal variation. Microbial biomass C reached the maximum value 0.50 g·m-2 in mid August, presenting the least within- site variation. The pattern of seasonal change in root respiration rate was different from that in microbial respiration. Root respiration rate ranged from 0.19 μmol·m-2·s-1 in May, to the maximum value 1.39μmol·m-2·s-1 in late June, then down to 0.28 μmol·m-2·s-1 in late September; whereas, microbial respiration rate ranged from 0.61 μmol·m-2·s-1 in May, to the maximum value 1.27 μmol·m-2·s-1 in July, then down to 0.11 μmol·m-2·s-1 in late Sep- tember. There was a significant exponential correla- tion between microbial respiration rate and soil tem- perature, whereas not so for root respiration rate. We estimated that the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration ranged within 24%-57% in spring and summer, and increased to 73% in autumn.

  15. Regional Assessment of soil organic matter profile distribution in the boreal forest ecosystems of Russia

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Belousova, Nataliya; Vasenev, Ivan


    Boreal forest ecosystems play one of the key roles in the Global Change challenges responses. The soil carbon stocks are principal regulators of their environmental functions. Boreal forest soil cover is characterized by mutually increased spatial variability in soil organic matter content (SOMC) that one need to take into attention in its current and future environmental functions state assessment including the potential of regional soil organic matter stocks changes due to Global Change and inverse ones. Knowledge of the regional regularities in SOMC profile vertical distribution allows improving their soil environmental functions prediction land quality evaluation. More than 900 profiles of SOMC distribution were studied using the database Boreal that contains data on Russian boreal soils developed in drained conditions on loamy soil forming rocks. These soil profiles belong to seven main types of forest soils of Russian classification and six major regions of Russia. The predomination of accumulation profile type was observed for all cases. Thus the vertical distribution of OMC in the profiles of boreal soils can be described as follow: the layer of maximum OMC is replaced by the layer of dramatic OMC reduction; then the layer of minimal OMC extends up to 2.5 m. The layer of maximal OMC accumulation has the low depth of 5-15 cm. It carried out in different genetic horizons: A1, A1A2, A2, B, AB; sometimes it captures the A2B horizon or the upper part of the illuvial horizon. The OMC in this layer increases from the northern taiga to the southern taiga and from the European part of Russia to Siberia. The second layer is characterized by its depth and by the gradient of OMC decreasing. A great variety of the both parameters is observed. The layer of the sharp OMC fall most often fits with the eluvial horizons A2 or А2В or even the upper part of the Вt (textural) or Bm (metamorphic) horizons. The layer of permanently small OMC may begin in any genetic horizon

  16. Evaluation and Control of Soil Degradation in Russia on the Basis of the Assessment of Soil Ecological Functions

    Yakovlev, Aleksandr


    Sustainable development of the territory is possible only under certain environmental requirements. These requirements are based on the implementation of the concept, conventionally called "zero land degradation", which cannot be reached in the process of real land use. "Zero degradation" is the establishment of acceptable ecological state of the environment and permissible anthropogenic impact on it, wherein self-healing of nature quality is possible and there is no accumulation of irreversible environmental damage. The values of parameters that characterize the relationship between the ecological state of the environment, in particular, land degradation, and the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation are represented in the materials of recent issues of the Russian State environmental report (2012 - 2014). Environmental problems in Russia are actively discussed in relation to issues of environmental and socio-economic development of the neighboring countries of the Eurasian region. So the Law "On Soil Protection", which was developed and adopted by the Union: Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, is dedicated to the protection of soil and soil degradation control. Ecological Doctrine of Russia (2012) and the State Environmental Program (2012-2020) identify the main strategic steps to combat land degradation in our country. In the first place, it has been tasked to identify and eliminate past environmental damage followed by the organization of nature "from scratch", in accordance with environmental regulations. Currently the Ministry of natural resources of Russia started implementation of the Federal program on environmental-economic assessment and the elimination of past environmental damage. The main steps of this program are: the works related to the inventory of degraded and contaminated lands and their subsequent reclamation and return to the appropriate land use system. The territory must comply with officially approved environmental requirements. The

  17. Climate dependency of tree growth suppressed by acid deposition effects on soils in Northwest Russia

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lapenis, A.G.; Berggren, D.; Aparin, B.F.; Smith, K.T.; Shortle, W.C.; Bailey, S.W.; Varlyguin, D.L.; Babikov, B.


    Increased tree growth in temperate and boreal forests has been proposed as a direct consequence of a warming climate. Acid deposition effects on nutrient availability may influence the climate dependency of tree growth, however. This study presents an analysis of archived soil samples that has enabled changes in soil chemistry to be tracked with patterns of tree growth through the 20th century. Soil samples collected in 1926, 1964, and 2001, near St. Petersburg, Russia, showed that acid deposition was likely to have decreased root-available concentrations of Ca (an essential element) and increased root-available concentrations of Al (an inhibitor of Ca uptake). These soil changes coincided with decreased diameter growth and a suppression of climate-tree growth relationships in Norway spruce. Expected increases in tree growth from climate warming may be limited by decreased soil fertility in regions of northern and eastern Europe, and eastern North America, where Ca availability has been reduced by acidic deposition. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  18. [Analysis of difference between ecosystem respirations of Leymus chinensis steppe and Stipa baicalensis steppe].

    Luo, Guang-Qiang; Geng, Yuan-Bo


    Static opaque chamber-chromatographic technique was applied to measure the ecosystem respirations of Leymus chinensis steppe and Stipa baicalensis steppe. The affecting factors of ecosystem respiration were analyzed. The difference between ecosystem respirations of the two grasslands was compared and the reasons resulting in the difference were analyzed. Ecosystem respiration of Leymus chinensis steppe [averaged (12.03 +/- 2.10) mg x (m2 x min)(-1)] was significantly smaller than that of Stipa baicalensis steppe [averaged (20.09 +/- 4.41) mg x (m2 x min)(-1)], while aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis steppe was significantly larger than that of Stipa baicalensis steppe (p soil temperature at 5 cm and 15 cm depth. The results of partial correlation analysis showed that there were no significantly correlation between CO2 flux and Eh, pH, biomass of litter when soil temperature was unchanged, while it shows some correlation with biomass of living plant. The apparent liner relationship between CO2 flux and Eh, pH may be caused by the change of soil temperature. The CO2 fluxes of the two grasslands can be well explained by exponential models based on temperatures. Soil temperature can explain more variations of ecosystem respirations (R2 0.568-0.639) than air temperature in chamber (R2 0.323-0.426). Soil temperature was the most important affecting factor of ecosystem respiration and it may had concealed the effect of aboveground biomass on CO2 flux. The contribution of soil respiration to ecosystem respiration was large in this region and its higher soil organic matter content led to higher CO2 flux of Stipa baicalensis steppe.

  19. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  20. Carbon fluxes and the carbon budget in agroecosystems on agro-gray soils of the forest-steppe in the Baikal region

    Pomazkina, L. V.; Sokolova, L. G.; Zvyagintseva, E. N.


    Field studies devoted to the transformation of the carbon cycle in agroecosystems on agro-gray soils (including soils contaminated with fluorides from aluminum smelters) in dependence on the changes in the hydrothermic conditions were performed for the first time within the framework of the long-term (1996-2010) soil monitoring in the forest-steppe zone of the Baikal region. The major attention was paid to the impact of the environmental factors on the synthesis and microbial destruction of organic carbon compounds. Certain differences in the fluxes and budget of carbon were found for the plots with cereal and row crops and for the permanent and annual fallow plots. The adverse effect of fluorides manifested itself in the enhanced C-CO2 emission under unfavorable water and temperature conditions. The long-term average C-CO2 emission from the soils contaminated with fluorides in agroecosystems with wheat after fallow was higher than that from the uncontaminated soil (179 and 198 g of C/m2, respectively) and higher than that in the agroecosystems with a potato monoculture (129 and 141 g of C/m2, respectively). At the same time, no significant variations in the content of the carbon of the microbial biomass (Cmicr) in dependence on the environmental factors were found. The utilization of carbon for respiration and for growth of the soil microorganisms on the contaminated soil were unbalanced in particular years and for the entire period of the observations. The ratio between the fluxes of the net mineralized and re-immobilized carbon was used for the integral assessment of the functioning regime of the agroecosystems and the loads on them. Independently from the soil contamination with fluorides, the loads on the agroecosystems with wheat were close to the maximum permissible value, and the loads on the agroecosystems with potatoes were permissible. It was shown that the carbon deficit in the uncontaminated soils was similar under the wheat and potatoes (-30 and -28 g

  1. Ecological restoration of peatlands in steppe and forest-steppe areas

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Sirin, Andrey; Dugarjav, Chultem


    steppe of Russia and steppe zone of Mongolia. Functional ecosystem characteristics, including hydrology, productivity and carbon accumulation rate studied in the intact and disturbed areas. Two pilot projects are set up, including monitoring program in forest steppe (Bashkiria) and steppe (Mongolia) areas.

  2. Black earth bonanza? : Soil, soul and depth in large-scale farmland investments in Russia and Ukraine

    O. Visser (Oane)


    textabstractThis paper deals with the centrality of what is called here the ‘celebration’ of black earth soil (fertility) in driving foreign investors’ land rush in the fertile black earth region of Russia and Ukraine. Since the mid-2000s, this region experienced a quick rise of farmland investment

  3. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna


    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  4. Soil microbial communities of postpyrogenic pine forests (case study in Russia)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina


    Soil microbial communities of postpyrogenic pine forests (case study in Russia) Ekaterina Maksimova Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Applied Ecology, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation Institute of Ecology of Volga basin, Togljatty city, Russian Federation Soils, affected by catastrophic wildfires in 2010, were investigated in pine woods of Togljatty city, Samara region with the special reference to soil biological parameters. The analysis of microbial community of pine wood soils was carried out. It was revealed that wildfires have a negative impact on structure and functional activity of the microbial community postpyrogenic soils. In particular, they influence on values of eukaryotes-prokaryotes ratios, on CO2 emission intensity and on microorganisms functional state (as it was determined by microbial metabolic quotient) after wildfires. It has been revealed that microbial biomass values and basal respiration rate shows the trend to decrease in case of postfire sites compared with control (in 6.5 and 3.4 times respectively). The microbial biomass and basal respiration values have annual natural variability that testifies to a correlation of this process with soil hydrothermal conditions. However, it was also noted that wildfires don't affect on measured microbiological parameters in layers situated deeper than top 10 cm of soil. An increasing of the values, mentioned above, was observed 2-3 years after wildfires. Zone of microorganisms' activity has been moved to the lowermost soil layers. A disturbance of soil microbial communities' ecophysiological status after the fire is diagnosed by an increase of microbial metabolic quotient value. The metabolic activity of the microbial community decreases in a row: control→crown fire→ground fire. That testifies to certain intensive changes in the microbial community. High-temperature influence on microbial community has a significant effect on a total amount of bacteria, on a length of actinomycetes

  5. Transformation of dry-steppe soils under long-term agrogenic impacts in the area of ancient Olbia

    Lisetskii, F. N.; Rodionova, M. E.


    The results of the study of dark chestnut soils (Kastanozems) differing in the time and intensity of their agricultural use and in the duration of the fallow stage are analyzed. Soil sequences differing in the character of their agrogenic changes were studied in the rural area of ancient Olbia with a centuries-long history of diverse economic activities, including crop growing. The agrophysical, agrochemical, and geochemical characteristics were examined in order to assess the soil transformation processes in a sequence from the initial virgin soil to the cultivated soil of the antique period in the fallow stage, the soil under recent (three-five years) fallow, and modern plowed soils in the area of ancient farming. It was found that the contents of humus, total nitrogen, and carbonates; the water stability of the soil aggregates; and the portion of coprolites in the agronomically valuable aggregate fraction are sensitive indicators of the duration of the agrogenesis in the dark chestnut soils. The manifestation of agrogenic processes at different hierarchical levels of the spatial and temporal organization of the soil system depended on the duration and intensity of the farming practices. Temporal abandonment of intensely cultivated lands in traditional farming practices with periodic initiation of the natural processes of restoration of the soil fertility can be considered a suitable measure to regulate agrogenic loads on the soils with the aim to enhance the self-organization processes in the soil system.

  6. 肃北高寒草原不同放牧强度土壤养分变化特征%Study on Contents of Soil Nutrients in Different Grazing Intensities on Subei Alpine Steppes

    杨红善; 常根柱; 周学辉; 路远; 那·巴特尔


    研究了肃北高寒草原不同放牧强度下不同土层土壤养分及5种微量元素有效态含量变化特征.结果表明:①高寒草原土壤物理性质的变化对土壤养分及微量元素具有重要的调控作用;②随着放牧强度的提高,0~10、10~20 cm土层土壤体积质量均呈不同程度的增加,土壤孔隙度和土壤含水量则呈显著的递减趋势;③轻度放牧草地土壤有机质、土壤全N含量高于中度放牧和重度放牧草地;20~30 cm土层有机质随放牧强度的增大呈明显下降趋势,即随放牧强度的增大深层土壤肥力呈退化趋势;肃北高寒草原的速效养分以多N少P富K为特点,土壤速效N、P、K含量在总体上随放牧强度的增加呈下降趋势;④肃北高寒草原5种微量元素的高低顺序依次是:Na>Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn,不同放牧强度下各微量元素的变化一致,顺序依次是:轻度放牧>对照>中度放牧>重度放牧;⑤放牧强度对10~20 cm的土层影响最大,随放牧强度的增大,地表植物营养吸收层土壤营养成分、微量元素呈降低,导致地表植被生长能力降低,最终导致地表土壤沙化,最后使草地大面积退化.%Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn contents in soil samples in 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm layers in Subei alpine steppe were studied under four kinds of grazing intensities, i.e., no grazing, light grazing, middle grazing and high grazing. The results indicated that: 1) grazing intensity had consistent effect on soil physical, chemical and biological fertilities, which were associated with each other and determined the evolution direction of soil fertility; 2) With the increase of steppe grazing intensity, soil bulk density at both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers increased, while soil porosity and moisture content decreased significantly, steppe grazing intensity influenced soil moisture content more strongly than soil porosity; 3) Soil organic matter and total N contents of light grazing steppes

  7. Profile distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of drained peatlands after wildfires (Moscow region, Russia)

    Tsibart, Anna; Gennadiev, Alexander; Koshovskii, Timur; Kovach, Roman


    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) are formed in different natural and anthropogenic processes and could be found in many landscape components. These compounds are carcinogenic and belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants. The anthropogenic sources of PAHs are well-studied, but insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in natural processes. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAHs sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are on this topic. The soils of drained peatlands affected by catastrophic wildfires of 2010 and 2002 were studied in the Eastern part of Moscow Region (Russia). A total of 14 profiles of histosols and histic podsols were investigated. These series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities and age, as well as soils of the background plots. Soil samples were taken from genetic horizons and from every 10 cm. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 14 prevailing individual compounds: fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, anthracene, tetraphene, benz[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[e]pyrene, coronene, dibenztiophene, triphenilene, benz(k)fluorantene. Morfological properties of soils after wildfires on drained peatlands were changed dramatically, the horizons of ash and char instead of organic layers were formed. These new horizons differ in the capability of PAHs accumulation. The char horizons have the highest concentrations of PAHs - up to 300 ng/g because of incomplete burning of organic matter in this sites, and the ash horizons, where the complete burning occured, contain only 10 ng/g PAHs. The highest concentrations of PAHs in soil profiles were detected after recent fires, and in cases of thick peat layers. After the combustion of peat chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, benz[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benz(k)fluorantene and tetraphene accumulated in soils. This is mainly the group of 4-6-nuclear compounds. The formation of

  8. Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia

    Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.


    The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found

  9. Agrogenic transformation of soil organic C in conditions of southern-taiga zone, European Russia

    Yashin, Ivan; Vasenev, Ivan; Atenbekov, Ramiz


    The principal regional features of soil organic carbon (SOC) agrogenic transformation and water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) genesis and environmental functions have been investigated in the Podzols and Podzoluvisols of the representative natural and agro- ecosystems in the southern taiga subzone of the European part of Russia. Especial attention has been done to the role of SOC agrogenic degradation and WSOS with acidic and ligand properties in soil carbon dioxide emission. The long-term agroecological investigations run in the regional set of representative agrolandscape monitoring stations in the educational farm "Mikhailovskoye" (Podolsk district, Moscow region), Field experimental station and Forest experimental station (RTSAU campus, Moscow) and in the Central Forest biosphere reserve (Nelidovo district, Tver region). Field research methods include sorption lysimetry and radioactive tracers. The laboratory ones - chromatography and spectrophotometry. There were used activated charcoal brand "Carbolite", chemically purified quartz sand and barley plant residues (2-3 mm), totally labeled with 14C in the soil-horizontally distributed sorption columns. Obtained results became useful for quantitative assessment of the principal stages and processes in soil CO2 emission, including the water-soluble organic substances formation (3.0 g of SOC per 100 g of plant litter or 60-75 g of SOC per square meter of the organo-mineral horizon A0 per year) and CO2 emission. In the middle taiga ecosystem conditions (with relatively low soil biological activity) the highest emission of CO2 (83,0±4.1 % of the newly formed WSOS) was in case of arable Podzoluvisols, and lowest one (32,4±2,5%) - in their semihydromorphic versions.

  10. Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana


    The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have

  11. Steppe expansion in Patagonia?

    Veblen, Thomas T.; Markgraf, Vera


    Westward expansion of the Patagonian steppe and retrocession of Andean forests due to increasing aridity over the past one or two millennia has been a persistent theme in the ecological and paleoecological literature for at least half a century. New evidence from pollen profiles, tree-ring analysis, vegetation structure, and photographic and documentary historical sources does not show the expansion of the steppe. Instead, over the past century trees have invaded the steppe as a consequence mainly of human-induced changes in the fire regime, and trees have regenerated in forest areas that were heavily burnt at the onset of European colonization.

  12. Carbon dioxide emission and soil microbial respiration activity of Chernozems under anthropogenic transformation of terrestrial ecosystems

    Nadezhda D. Ananyeva


    Full Text Available The total soil CO2 emission (EM and portion of microbial respiration were measured (in situ; May, June, July 2015 in Chernozems typical of virgin steppe, oak forest, bare fallow and urban ecosystems (Kursk region, Russia. In soil samples (upper 10 cm layer, the soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic, basal respiration (BR and fungi-to-bacteria ratio were determined and the specific microbial respiration (BR / Cmic = qCO2 was calculated. The EM was varied from 2.0 (fallow to 23.2 (steppe g СО2 m-2 d-1. The portion of microbial respiration in EM was reached in average 83, 51 and 60% for forest, steppe and urban, respectively. The soil Cmic and BR were decreased along a gradient of ecosystems transformation (by 4 and 2 times less, respectively, while the qCO2 of urban soil was higher (in average by 42% compared to steppe, forest and fallow. In urban soil the Cmic portion in soil Сorg and Сfungi-to-Сorg ratio were by 2.6 and 2.4 times less than those for steppe. The relationship between microbial respiration and BR values in Chernozems of various ecosystems was significant (R2 = 0.57.

  13. Evolution of soils and natural environment in the south area of the east european forest-steppe (on example investigation of the hill-forts located in Kharkov oblast

    V.V. Koloda


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to soil and archaeological investigations of hill forts located in the southern part of the Central Russian Upland forest-steppes, which made it possible to identify directions and stages of the Late Holocene evolution of plant cover within river valley parts of watersheds. Two types of hill forts were studied: those referring to the same historical epoch (Scythian and Saltov-Mayatsk ones and those having many layers. Paleoecological reconstructions have been carried out on the basis of comparative analysis of modern and ancient soils, buried under the defensive ramparts of the hill forts. In Scythian time, the watersheds adjacent to river valleys were open grasslands surrounded by forest vegetation. In the second half of the 1st millennium BC, these watershed lands were fully occupied by forests, which had displaced the steppe. The oscillatory nature of climate change in the Late Holocene influenced the spatial-temporal dynamics of vegetation and soil fertility. At the beginning of the Holocene Sub-Atlantic period 2800–2500 years ago, climate moistening favoured the expansion of woods along the slopes of river valleys and gorges to watersheds. Subsequent climate aridization (2500–1700 years ago stopped this process. A new stage of watershed covering with forests started no earlier than 1700 years ago – after new climate moistening. Episodes of climate aridization and steppe areas expansion in the Late Holocene favoured soil fertility growth in the territory of hill forts and around them. The expansion of woods related to climate moistening decreased soil fertility and negatively influenced grain farming capabilities.

  14. History of East European Chernozem Soil Degradation; Protection and Restoration by Tree Windbreaks in the Russian Steppe

    Yury G. Chendev


    Full Text Available The physiographic region of the Central Russian Upland, situated in the Central part of Eastern Europe, is characterized by very fertile grassland soils—Chernozems (Mollisols in the USDA taxonomy. However, over the last several centuries this region has experienced intense land-use conversion. The most widespread and significant land-use change is the extensive cultivation of these soils. As a result, Chernozems of the region that were some of the most naturally fertile soils in the world with thick A horizons had become, by the second half of the 19th century, weakly productive, with decreased stocks of organic matter. When not protected by plant cover, water and wind erosion degraded the open fields. The investigation of methods for rehabilitation and restoration of Chernozems resulted in the practice of afforestation of agricultural lands (mainly by windbreak planting. Preferences of agroforestry practices were initially connected with protection of cropland from wind and water erosion, improvement of microclimate for crop growth, and providing new refugia for wild animal and plant habitats. During the last several decades, tree windbreaks have begun to be viewed as ecosystems with great potential for atmospheric carbon sequestration, which plays a positive role in climate change mitigation. For the evaluation of windbreak influence on Chernozem soils, a study was developed with three field study areas across a climatic gradient from cool and wet in the north of the region to warm and dry in the south. Windbreak age ranged from 55–57 years. At each site, soil pits were prepared within the windbreak, the adjacent crop fields of 150 years of cultivation, and nearby undisturbed grassland. Profile descriptions were completed to a depth of 1.5 m. A linear relationship was detected between the difference in organic-rich surface layer (A + AB horizon thickness of soils beneath windbreaks and undisturbed grasslands and a climate index, the

  15. Effects of soil C:N:P stoichiometry on biomass allocation in the alpine and arid steppe systems.

    Wang, Xiaodan; Ma, Xingxing; Yan, Yan


    Soil nutrients strongly influence biomass allocation. However, few studies have examined patterns induced by soil C:N:P stoichiometry in alpine and arid ecosystems. Samples were collected from 44 sites with similar elevation along the 220-km transect at spatial intervals of 5 km along the northern Tibetan Plateau. Aboveground biomass (AGB) levels were measured by cutting a sward in each plot. Belowground biomass (BGB) levels were collected from soil pits in a block of 1 m × 1 m in actual root depth. We observed significant decreases in AGB and BGB levels but increases in the BGB:AGB ratio with increases in latitude. Although soil is characterized by structural complexity and spatial heterogeneity, we observed remarkably consistent C:N:P ratios within the cryic aridisols. We observed significant nonlinear relationships between the soil N:P and BGB:AGB ratios. The critical N:P ratio in soils was measured at approximately 2.0, above which the probability of BGB:AGB response to nutrient availability is small. These findings serve as interesting contributions to the global data pool on arid plant stoichiometry, given the previously limited knowledge regarding high-altitude regions.

  16. Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon

    Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.


    At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

  17. The study of the cumulative effects of the application of urban sewage sludge on an eroded soil cultivated in the Algerian steppe

    Boutmedjet, Ahmed; Boukkaya, Nassira; Houyou, zohra; Ouakid, Mohamed; Bielders, Charles


    Since the seventies, desertification is one of the major problems faced by the Mediterranean climate regions. These problems are inherent in the soil and climate characteristics of these regions, but their magnitude and acuity depend mainly on human activities. The process of desertification that affects more and more land is more pronounced as soil degradation, which accelerates constantly reduced resources farmland and pasture. Especially in areas bordering the Sahara, as the Algerian steppe, a real belt between the Sahara and the Algerian tell As part of the study of the cumulative effect of the application of urban sewage sludge on sandy soil and culture that is a cereal (barley), we had results that enabled us to identify some precepts,. The short-term effects studied in this experiment indicate that the amendment of the sewage sludge had a beneficial effect on the fertilizing qualities of the soil and therefore the performance of barley. To observations of Culture (barley), indicate that the best grain yield was obtained with D3 (28.76 quintals / ha) and D2 (33.91 quintals / ha). This is due to the effect of the sludge by the addition of required nutrients crop production. The lowest yield (24.11 quintals / ha) being obtained for the control (D0). It is the same for straw yield, with 47.5 quintals / ha in D2. The D3 treatment (30 t / ha) has previously presented the best results, but after 3 years we noticed that the best yields are obtained with D2 (10 t / ha). Except the pH and the rate of limestone that are related to changes in the characteristics of the site, there was an improvement in some physical and chemical properties of the soil. The contributions of sewage sludge amended greater quality soil biology D2 (number and effective species collected). Increasing the organic matter content (1.45%) and electrical conductivity (0.18 microseconds / cm) in the soil is only significant for the highest dose (30t/ha), although a tendency to enrichment in

  18. History of east European chernozem soil degradation: Protection and restoration by tree windbreaks in the Russian steppe

    The physiographic region of the Central Russian Upland, situated in the Central part of Eastern Europe, is characterized by the most fertile grassland soils – Chernozems (Mollisols in the USDA taxonomy). However, over the last several centuries this region has experienced intense land-use conversion...

  19. Herbivore effects on above- and belowground plant production and soil nitrogen availability in the Trans-Himalayan shrub-steppes.

    Bagchi, Sumanta; Ritchie, Mark E


    Large mammalian herbivores may have positive, neutral, or negative effects on annual net aboveground plant production (NAP) in different ecosystems, depending on their indirect effects on availability of key nutrients such as soil N. In comparison, less is known about the corresponding influence of grazers, and nutrient dynamics, over annual net belowground plant production (NBP). In natural multi-species plant communities, it remains uncertain how grazing influences relative allocation in the above- and belowground compartments in relation to its effects on plant nutrients. We evaluated grazer impacts on NAP, NBP, and relative investment in the above- and belowground compartments, alongside their indirect effects on soil N availability in the multiple-use Trans-Himalayan grazing ecosystem with native grazers and livestock. Data show that a prevailing grazing intensity of 51% increases NAP (+61%), but reduces NBP (-35%). Grazing also reduced C:N ratio in shoots (-16%) and litter (-50%), but not in roots, and these changes coincided with increased plant-available inorganic soil N (+23%). Areas used by livestock and native grazers showed qualitatively similar responses since NAP was promoted, and NBP was reduced, in both cases. The preferential investment in the aboveground fraction, at the expense of the belowground fraction, was correlated positively with grazing intensity and with improvement in litter quality. These results are consistent with hypothesized herbivore-mediated positive feedbacks between soil nutrients and relative investment in above- and belowground compartments. Since potentially overlapping mechanisms, such as N mineralization rate, plant N uptake, compositional turnover, and soil microbial activity, may contribute towards these feedbacks, further studies may be able to discern their respective contributions.

  20. Modeling of the evolution of steppe chernozems and development of the method of pedogenetic chronology

    Lisetskii, F.N.; Stolba, Vladimir; Goleusov, P.V.


    Geoarchaeological methods were used to study chronosequences of surface soils in the steppe zone and to trace soil evolution during the Late Holocene in northwestern Crimea. It was found that the morphological and functional “maturity” of the humus horizons in steppe chernozems of the Late Holocene...

  1. Hydrologic impacts of soil water repellency on fine-to-coarse-textured soils of wooded shrublands and shrub-steppe communities

    The potential for soil water repellency to dominate rangeland hydrologic responses has significant implications for ongoing plant community transitions and disturbance regimes. Naturally occurring soil water repellency has been well documented on semiarid rangelands and chaparral plant communities....

  2. 藏北羌塘草原土壤中的暗色丝孢菌%Soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Changtang Steppe in northern Tibet

    耿月华; 张天宇


    A total of 21 isolates of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes belonging to 15 species in 11 genera were obtained from 20 soil samples from Changtang Steppe in northern Tibet. Among them, Phialophora tibetensis is a new species; Phialophora melinii and Scopulariopsisfusca are new records for China. Brief descriptions and illustrations are provided based on Chinese isolates. The other 12 species previously known from China are also listed. The holotype and isotype specimens are deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University: Plant Pathology (HSAUP) and the Herbarium Myeologicurn Aeademiae Sinicae (HMAS), respectively. The other specimens of all fungi studied are kept in HSAUP.%作为对青藏高原土壤中暗色丝孢菌属、种多样性系统调研的一部分,笔者从采自藏北羌塘草原的20份土样中,分离获得21个暗色丝孢菌分离物,经鉴定分别属于11属中的15种,其中包括1个新种,西藏瓶霉Phialophora tibetensis和2个中国新记录种:蜜色瓶霉Phialophora melinii和暗色帚霉Scopulariopsis fusca,多数种为在此区域首次发现.对新种和中国新记录种进行了描述和图示,对其他12个中国已报道种亦作了分离地点和生境的引证.主模式和等模式标本(干制培养物)分别存放在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP)和中国科学院菌物标本馆(HMAS).其余研究过的标本(干制培养物)与活菌种保存在HSAUP.

  3. Transformation of soil organic matter in leached chernozems under minimized treatment in the forest-steppe of West Siberia

    Sharkov, I. N.; Samokhvalova, L. M.; Mishina, P. V.


    Changes in the contents of total organic carbon and the carbon of easily mineralizable fractions of organic matter (labile humus, detritus, and mortmass) in the layers of 0-10, 10-25, and 0-25 cm were studied in leached chernozems ((Luvic Chernozems (Loamic, Aric)) subjected to deep plowing and surface tillage for nine years. In the layer of 0-25 cm, the content of Corg did not show significant difference between these two treatments and comprised 3.68-3.92% in the case of deep plowing and 3.63-4.08% in the case of surface tillage. Tillage practices greatly affected the distribution of easily mineralizable fractions of organic matter in the layers of 0-10 and 10-25 cm, though the difference between two treatments for the entire layer (0-25 cm) was insignificant. Surface tillage resulted in the increase in the contents of mortmass (by 59%), detritus (by 32%), and labile humus (by 8%) in the layer of 0-10 cm in comparison with deep plowing. At the same time, the contents of these fractions in the layer of 10-25 cm in the surface tillage treatment decreased by 67, 46, and 3%, respectively. The estimate of the nitrogen-mineralizing capacity made according to the data on the uptake of soil nitrogen by oat plants in a special greenhouse experiment confirmed the observed regularities of the redistribution of easily mineralizable organic matter fractions by the soil layers. In case of surface tillage, it increased by 23% in the layer of 0-10 cm; for the layer of 0-25 cm, no significant differences in the uptake of nitrogen by oat plants were found for the two studied treatments.

  4. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia


    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  5. Spatial heterogeneity of Cs-137 soil contamination at the landscape scale of the Bryansk Region (Russia)

    Sokolov, Alexander; Sokolov, Anton; Linnik, Vitaly


    The passage of the Chernobyl plume over the Bryansk region (Russia) in the end of April 1986 led to the deposition of radionuclides on the ground by wet and dry deposition processes. According to the results of the Cs-137 air gamma survey (AGS, grid size: 100 m x100 m), which was conducted in summer 1993, it was shown that the processes of Cs-137 lateral migration took place due to nearly a fourfold increase of Cs-137 in the lower slope as compared to the upper part of the slope during a seven-year period after the Chernobyl accident. The variability patterns of Cs-137 could be described by a stochastic or a deterministic function of the measurement location. The patterns variations could be associated with the nonlinear response of many interacting variables within the landscape system. In the test area located at a distance of about 280 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cs-137 surface activity typically ranges from below 7 kBq/m2 to approximately 50-60 kBq/m2 reflecting the combination of deposition due to global fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, and the relatively low levels of Chernobyl deposition to the area. To model the Cs-137 distribution depending on complex landscape attributes the following information layers were used: 1) the soil map at the scale of 1:50,000; 2) SRTM elevation data acquired from the Global Land Cover Facility at a 3 arc second resolution. Fundamental difficulties in distributed erosion modelling arise from the natural complexity of landscape systems and Cs-137 spatial heterogeneity. The SRTM DEM of the test site has a grid size about 90 m, which is not sufficient for distributed hydrological modelling at the landscape scale. The scaling problem arises because of the mismatch between SRTM DEM pixel dimensions and the size of erosion network (width about 10-50 m) that concentrates Cs-137 run-off from the overlying slopes and watershed areas. To build a hydrologically correct local drain direction (LDD) with

  6. 青海环湖地区草原土壤含水量及富集规律%Soil Moisture and Enrichment Regularity of Steppe Soil in Qinghai Lake Area

    马延东; 赵景波; 邵天杰; 邢闪


    [Objective]The aim of this study on the steppe soil in Qinghai Lake area is to explore the soil moisture migration and its enrichment characteristics, soil moisture distribution model, hydrological cycle and balance and reveal the characteristics of soil reservoirs, dried soil layer and its recovery conditions, and then provide a scientific basis for protecting soil water resources and steppe vegetation, construction of soil reservoir and sustainable development of grassland ecological environment.[Method]A series of experiments were performed to determine soil moisture, soil suction, infiltration rate and particle size. More than 600 soil moisture samples were collected by Light-duty Human Drill in 2009-2012. Drying weighing method was used to determine soil water content. Bicyclic infiltration method was used to determine soil infiltration rate in situ. Soil particle size was analyzed by Laser Particle Analyzer. Soil suction was measured by Tensiometers in situ.[Result]The distribution of soil water at soil profile has a certain stability, that is, in dry season or rainy season, the soil water in this area is enriched about 65%at 0-0.4 m depth and is quite shortage under 0.6 m depth. The soil suction in this area ranging from 0.17 MPa to 0.42 MPa suggests that field capacity of this area is about 20%. The infiltration rate of soil in this area varying from 1.3 mm·min-1 to 3.0 mm·min-1 shows that it is high and advantageous to precipitation into soil. The soil moisture is about 23%and 6.5%at 0-0.4 m depth and under 0.6 m depth, respectively. Field capacity of this area is about 20%, meaning that there is about 3%gravity water at 0-0.4 m depth of soil. The soil usually develops a dried soil layer with different levels under about 0.6 m in this area, and the greater soil thickness, the more seriously dried soil layer develops. Under 0.4 m depth of soil, the relationships between soil moisture and depth can be described by power function. The parameters of power

  7. Effect of short-term grazing on soil microorganisms and soil enzyme activities in Meadow Steppe%短期放牧对草甸草原土壤微生物与土壤酶活性的影响

    曹淑宝; 刘全伟; 王立群; 王浩然; 王婧瑶


    [Objective] In order to provide microbiology basis for protection, restoration and reconstruction of meadow steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolian Region. To investigate the response of grassland soil microbes and enzyme activity in different grazing intensity. [Methods] Soil samples were collected from six different grazing intensity, the variation of different grazing intensities on the soil microorganisms, soil microbial biomasses (Carbon and nitrogen), soil enzyme activity and the interrelationship among them were analysised. [Results] The reseults showed that the number of microorganisms in different grazing areas had the same changing trends: bacteria>actinomycetes>fungi. The number of soil microorganisms and soil microbial biomass (Carbon and nitrogen) were higher in grazing areas than no-grazing areas. In 0-10 cm soil depth, the trend of the activities of catalase, invertase and protease was performed increased first and then decreased along with the increasing of grazing intensity, Moreover the activities of these enzymes in grazing areas was higher than no-grazing area. Compared with 0-10 cm, the descending range of the number of bacteria and fungi and the microbial biomasses (Carbon and nitrogen) were increased along with the increasing of grazing intensity in 10 cm-20 cm soil depth. The number of soil microorganism, soil microbial biomass, the activity of soil enzyme were higher in soil depth 0-10 cm than 10 cm-20 cm in the vertical distribution. Correlation analysis indicated that the number of soil microorganism was significantly correlated with soil microbial biomass. The soil enzyme activ-itiy was positively related to the number of soil microorganism and soil microbial biomass. The activities of catalase and invertase were extreme-significantly correlated with the number of bacteria and actinomycetes (P<0.01), and significantly related to soil microbial biomass C (P<0.05); the activity of the protease was extreme-significantly correlated with

  8. 内蒙古东部过渡带大型土壤节肢动物多样性调查%Community Structure and Diversity of Soil Macro-arthropod in the Forest-steppe Ecotone

    朱新玉; 高宝嘉; 胡云川


    利用样带法对河北北部,内蒙古东部林牧过渡带不同生境中大型土壤节肢动物群落进行调查,研究过渡带大型土壤节肢动物群落结构及多样性变化.共获得大型土壤节肢动物2 134只,隶属6纲18目,其中优势类群为膜翅目和蜘蛛目,常见类群为同翅目、鳞翅目、鞘翅目成虫、鞘翅目幼虫、双翅目幼虫、石蜈蚣目和地蜈蚣目,其余类群为稀有类群.大型土壤节肢动物在3个地带中的森林带的种类最高(17类),且对土壤环境响应敏感的稀有类群数最多的出现在植被丰富、土壤疏松和枯枝落叶层厚度最高的森林带(8类),初步认为这些稀有类群对指示土壤肥力质量变化具有巨大潜力.在土壤动物群落多样性研究中,DG指数比Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)更能体现土壤动物群落多样性.群落聚类及排序结果显示,9种不同生境的大型土壤节肢动物群落可以分为3大类:森林类、森林-草甸类和草甸-草原类,同时土壤pH值对土壤节肢动物的类群数影响较大,而土壤温度对土壤节肢动物的个体数影响较大.%To understand the composition and structure of soil macro-arthropod community and diversity of soil macro-arthropod community, soil macro-arthropods were investigated in the forest-steppe ecotone in northern Hebei Province. A total of 2 134 individuals of soil macro-arthropods were collected, which belonged to 6 classes, 18 orders. The dominant orders were Hymenoptera and Araneae, Homoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Coleoptera larva, Diptera larva, Lithobiomorpha and Geophilomorpha were common orders, and others were rare orders. The highest groups of soil arthropod were in the forest zone, and the increased abundance of rare groups in the forest zone with the richer vegetation, higher arthropod abundance and more substantial litter depth, could be interpreted as a reaction to the suitable soil environment. And these rare groups were sensitive to

  9. 呼伦贝尔-锡林郭勒大草原土壤中的暗色丝孢菌%Soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Hulunbuir and Xilin Gol Steppe,Inner Mongolia,China

    吴悦明; 张天宇


    A total of 59 isolates of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes belonging to 28 species in 16 genera were obtained from Hulunbuir and Xilin Gol Steppe.Scolecobasidium tuberculosum is a new species morphologically resembling S.constrictum but having conspicuously tuberculate and dark brown conidia.Latin diagnosis is given for the new species.Cordana pauciseptata,Doratomyces columnaris,Bipolaris indica,Periconia jabalpurensis and Trichocladium opacum are new to Chinese fungal flora,and brief descriptions and illustrations of them are also provided based on Chinese isolates.The other 22 species previously known from China are also listed.All studied specimens(dried cultures)and living cultures are deposited in the Herbarium of Plant Pathology,Shandong Agricultural University(HSAUP).

  10. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng


    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios. PMID:27721480

  11. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng


    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios.

  12. Soil Properties Following Growing Process of Artificial Forests(Caragana microphylla) in Desert Steppe%荒漠草原区固沙人工柠条林生长过程中土壤性质演变规律

    刘任涛; 杨新国; 宋乃平; 柴永青; 王磊; 朱凡


    The soil properties during the growing process of artificial forest(C, microphylla) were a valuable indicator for soil quality and rational management of desert steppe. The soil mechanical composition, nutrient, pH and electrical conductivity, together with soil temperature and moisture, were measured by field sample and indoor analysis in desert steppe. The results showed that the soil coarse sand and fine sand content increased significantly with marked decrease in soil very fine sand content from 6 to 15 years of C. rnicrophylla forests (P~0.05). But the significant decrease in soil coarse and fine sand content, and the significant increase in soil very fine sand and silt clay content were found beginning from of 24-year forests(P~0.05). At the same time, the soil organic carbon, total N and total P, together with soil electrical conductivity and moisture were all significantly enhanced(P〈0.05), with the marked decrease in soil pH and temperature(P〈0.05). The cumulative content of soil total nitrogen was higher than that of soil organic carbon, and soil C/N tended to decrease following growing process of these artificial forests. It was suggested that the growing process of C. microphylla forests could facilitate the improvement of soil fertility and microhabitat, and it needed a long time.%开展荒漠草原区固沙人工林生长过程中土壤性质研究,对于沙化草地土壤质量演变规律分析和人工林有效管理均具有重要的指导价值。通过野外调查取样和室内分析,测定6,15,24,36年柠条林地土壤机械组成、土壤养分、pH和电导率以及土壤水分与温度等指标变化,分析荒漠草原区种植固沙柠条人工林对土壤性质的影响。结果表明,从6年到15年柠条林地,土壤粗沙粒和细沙粒成分显著升高(P〈0.05),但从24年柠条林地开始土壤粗沙粒和细沙粒含量显著下降(P〈0.05),土壤极细沙粒和粘粉粒

  13. Cultural and wild plant species as bio indicators and phyto-remedies of PHC contaminated soils in Russia

    Breus, I.; Larionova, N.; Semenova, E.; Breus, V. [Kazan State Univ., Dept. of Geography and Geoecology (Russian Federation)


    The biological indicators are widely used along with the chemical and physical soil characteristics for the ecological risk assessment for soils during and after anthropogenic impacts. In many cases it often happens that only biological indicators are capable of establishing the physiological activity of contaminant complex in soil and of revealing the critical levels of soil contamination. Bio-testing is often used to determine the toxicity of various environmental objects - soils, waters, sediments and wastes. Firstly bio-testing demands the selection of testable biological organisms adequate to studying objects. The test objects must be representative for a given contaminated ecosystem community which is influenced by toxicants. So one can obtain data adequate to the real situation and also minimise the mistakes during the extrapolation of data obtained in bio-testing. Among bio-testing methods the methods of soil toxicity determination using high plants gained wide distribution. And moreover, if such plants are relatively tolerant to soil contamination and can accumulate sufficient plant biomass, it is possible to expect their phyto-remediation effect, which can be realized by different mechanisms. But the experimental investigations of the plant use for soil remediation in Russia are now still under development. The aims of this work were: i) the determination and selection of informative bio-indicative parameters could be used for evaluation of PHC (petroleum hydrocarbons) - soil contamination levels; ii) the choose of test plants based on these values; and iii) the revelation of the possible phyto-remediation effects in soil contaminated with PHC.In laboratory experiments the phyto-toxicity of soil contaminated with PHC was evaluated in relation to 35 plant species and sorts traditional and non-traditional for Russia and cultivated for fodder green biomass purposes, and also for some wild plant species. The following parameters were determined in the

  14. Structural state of migrational-mycelial (typical) agrochernozems of the Kamennaya Steppe on plowed fields of different ages

    Lebedeva, I. I.; Cheverdin, Yu. I.; Titova, T. V.; Grebennikov, A. M.; Markina, L. G.


    Changes in the structural state of migrational-mycelial (typical) chernozems (Haplic Chernozems (Clayic, Aric, Pachic)) as dependent on the duration of their cultivation (from 20 to 120 years) are considered. Field studies were performed in 2013 on the fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia (the Kamennaya Steppe area) used for growing cereals and row crops in rotation. The study showed that the most intensive degradation of the structure of chernozems takes place during the first two decades of their agricultural use. The maximum transformation of the soil structure is observed in the upper 10 cm, as this layer is subjected to the most frequent and intense mechanical impacts. The rate of structural degradation decreases with time until the equilibrium between disaggregation and aggregation processes is reached. The time required for this largely depends on the applied crop rotation systems and agrotechnologies. In this context, flexible assessment scales for the structural state of agrochernozems under conditions of different farming systems should be developed in order to perform monitoring of the physical properties of cultivated chernozems for their long-term efficient and ecologically sustainable use. Despite general disintegration and destruction of granular aggregates, the structural state of agrochernozems in the Kamennaya Steppe area remains sufficiently good even on the old-cultivated (120 yrs.) fields.

  15. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg{sup -1} at the current {sup 137}Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg{sup -1}). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of {sup 137}Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of {sup 137}Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers

  16. Characteristics of 137Cs deposition in steppe area


    Soil wind erosion in the semiarid steppe area was studied using the 137Cs tracing technique. Comparisons of 137Cs deposition characteristics between different soil profiles indicated that slight aeolian activities occurred on sandy grasslands and semi-fixed dunes with erosion/deposition rates of less than 0.108 cm/a, whereas they were intense on semi-shifting dunes with erosion/deposition rates of higher than 1.35 cm/a.

  17. Cadmium accumulation in soil, fodder, grain, organs and muscle tissue of cattle in West Siberia (Russia

    Kirill Nikolaevich Narozhnykh


    Full Text Available The content of cadmium in the soil, fodder, grain, organs and muscle tissue of animals from two ecological zones of the Novosibirsk Region, marked by different prevalent breeds of cattle – Hereford breed (beef cattle and Black-and-White breed (dairy cattle – was studied. The concentrations of elements in the soil, fodder, and grain were measured by flame atomic absorption, using Kvant-2A spectrometer, and expressed on a dry weight basis. The cadmium content in soil, fodder, and grain did not exceed maximum permissible concentrations (MPC. The chemical composition of organs and muscle tissue was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry, using Shimadzu AA-7000 spectrometer. Average cadmium content in liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, lungs and muscle tissue over the populations was determined for Hereford and Black-and-White cattle. The cadmium levels in forage and soil from the first and second zones were not different. Maximal cadmium content was observed in kidneys of the animals of the studied breeds, whereas minimal content was observed in heart. Interbreed differences in cadmium content in lungs, liver, spleen, and heart were determined. The West Siberia territories are suitable for yielding ecologically safe production, concerning the content of cadmium in the soil, fodder, grain, meat and by-products of cattle.

  18. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    Sizhong Yang; Xi Wen; Liang Zhao; Yulan Shi; Huijun Jin


    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ biore...

  19. Technogenic contaminations of the soil-plant cover in the Primorsky Krai, Russia

    Molchanova, Inna; Pozolotina, Vera; Mikhailovskaya, Ludmila; Antonova, Elena; Zhuravlev, Yury; Timofeeva, Yana; Burdukovsky, Maxim


    All economical development of the countries carries out monitoring as with the aim to estimate impact of the industrial enterprises and nuclear-energetic complexes as consequences of the nuclear accidents. The investigation the region of the Far East due to proximity to epicentre of accident on Fukushima-1 NPP is of a great interest. The aim of this work are radioecological investigations and estimate technogenic load on the ecosystems of tightly populated plots of the shore zone of the Vladivostok region. Eight plots were located on the investigated territory. The tree fall, forest litters and soils were sampling from the profile cuts of layer by layer, up to 20 cm. The artificial radionuclides (Sr-90 and Cs-134,137), as heavy metals and microelements (Co, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mn) content in the prepared samples was determined. The stock of Sr-90 fluctuates from 0.3 to 1.3 kBq/m2 and Cs-137 was from 0.4 to 3.0 kBq/m2 in the examined soils. On the whole, the level of the radionuclides content in the soil cover is within the limits of the background that was formed in the belt between 50° and 60° of northern latitude. The presence in investigated samples of Cs-134 indicates to contribution of accidental fallout of Fukushima-1 into contamination of the components of the natural ecosystems. In a year's time after the accident the stock of this isotope in the soils was 0.01-0.20 kBq/m^2. It is by factor of 10-100 lower than the stock of Cs-137. Taking into account that the ratio Cs-134/Cs-137 on the moment of accident was equal to unity (1:1). It can be estimated the quantity of Cs-137 entering into environment during post - accident period. This quantity was an average 0.03-0.30 kBq/m2 (with correction on radionuclides decay). The observation for the state of the soil cover includes the estimate of the level and peculiarities of distribution in the soils of heavy metals and microelements. Their content in the soils is formed from Clarke number and additional industrial

  20. Phosphorus in agroecosystems on gray forest soils in the opolie regions of Central Russia

    Nikitishen, V. I.; Lichko, V. I.; Kurganova, E. V.


    Long-term stationary field experiments revealed a poor supply of gray forest soils with available phosphorus, which provides no more than half the amount necessary for optimum nutrition of plants. It was found that agricultural crops with different capacities to assimilate phosphates from the soil and fertilizers have strong requirements for phosphorus fertilizers and abruptly increase their utilization in the production process with increasing level of nitrogen nutrition. Crops with the optimum level of nitrogen nutrition uptake a double amount of phosphorus compared to crops depleted in nitrogen. Clover and barley have an increased capacity to mobilize soil phosphates from the lower horizons at an extremely low content of available forms of them in the plow layer. Winter wheat and corn are characterized by an active uptake of phosphorus applied with fertilizer and its efficient utilization in the production process if the nitrogen supply is not a limiting factor. The level of phosphorus nutrition of subsequent rotation crops increases due to the enrichment of the root-inhabited soil layer with phosphorus from clover root and harvest residues. Based on the data about the unacceptably abrupt decrease in the application of mineral fertilizers in Russian agriculture (90% of fertilizers are exported now), it is shown that the export of fertilizers should be limited at the state level, because chemicals, and primarily phosphorus fertilizers, should be considered strategic resources for internal use only.

  1. Transformation of the organic matter of steppe soils of the Trans-Ural region after their conversion into the reserved regime

    Prikhodko, V. E.; Manakhov, D. V.


    Soils of the Arkaim Reserve were studied before the establishment of the reserve and, then, 12 and 18 years after the reservation of this territory. Former pastures and hayfields occupy 70% of the reserve, and former plowlands occupy about 30%. Some of them have been converted into sown meadows. The soil cover of the reserve is composed of chernozems (about 50% of the area), solonetzes and salt-affected soils (32%), meadow-chernozemic soils (7%), and forest soils (1%). In eighteen years of reservation, the Corg content in the upper 20 cm has increased by 0.5-0.8%, or by 14-25% of the initial content with the average rate of 60-100 g C/m2 per year. The accumulation of Corg has been more intensive in the soils of former plowlands than in the soils of former pastures and in the chernozems than in the meadow-chernozemic soils. Self-restoration of most of the soils of the reserve is accompanied the rise in the content of the labile fraction of organic carbon. In some soils, the contents of the labile fraction (0.3%) and light-weight fraction (>25% of Corg) have reached optimum values. After 18 years of reservation, the biomass of microorganisms has reached 500-800 μg/g of soil (or 1.1-1.9% of Corg); the basal respiration has reached 0.7-1.5 μg C-CO2/g per hour. These characteristics are the highest for meadow-chernozemic soils under former pasture and the lowest for postagrogenic chernozems. The rise in the Corg content and changes in the particular forms of soil organic matter under the regime of a reserve greatly depend on the soil type and on the former land use. The role of parent materials is smaller. Many soils of the reserve require a long period of rehabilitation.

  2. 载畜率对短花针茅荒漠草原土壤物理特性的影响%Effect of Stocking Rate on Soil Physical Properties in a Stipa breviflora Desert Steppe

    王忠武; HAO Xi-ying; 赵萌莉; Walter D.Willms; 焦树英; 齐小军; 韩国栋


    放牧对土壤物理特性的影响至关重要.为了研究放牧对土壤物理特性的影响,在内蒙古荒漠草原上开展了不同绵羊载畜率放牧试验.试验采取完全随机区组设计,设置4个不同载畜率处理,3次重复.4个处理分别是对照(CK)、轻度放牧(LG)、中度放牧(MG)和重度放牧(HG),相应的载畜率分别是0,0.15,0.30和0.45只羊/(公顷·月).放牧时间为每年6月-11月.从2004年到2006年的放牧期间,每月测定一次土壤含水量和土壤容重,土壤紧实度和机械组成每年秋季测定一次.通过对测定数据的分析表明,土壤表层(0-10cm)的含水量从对照到轻度放牧显著(p<0.05)增加,然后随着载畜率的增大明显(p<0.05)降低.土壤容重在不同载畜率条件下没有明显变化(p>0.05),但土壤紧实度随载畜率的增加显著(p<0.05)增大.中度和重度放牧显著降低了土壤黏粒的含量(p<0.05).重度放牧加快了草地土壤水分的损失,进而增加了土壤的紧实度,使草地土壤发生退化.载畜率和土壤水分是影响荒漠草原可持续管理的关键因子,轻度载畜率是实现草地的可持续发展的最适宜载畜率.%Grazing has a critical effect on the soil physical properties in the desert steppe.An experiment was conducted to investigate how soil physical properties were affected by sheep stocking rate in a desert steppe of Inner Mongolia P.R.China.A randomized complete block design was used with 3 replications × four grazing treatments:non-grazed exclosure(Control),lightly grazed (LG),moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed(HG).The stocking rates were 0,0.15,0.30 and 0.45 sheep per hm2 per month,for the Control,LG,MG and HG,respectively.Sheep were grazed from June to November.Soil water and bulk density were measured monthly during the grazing period from June to November,during 2004 to 2006.Soil compaction and particle size analysis were conducted once in autumn each year.The results showed that

  3. Problems of using digitized thematic maps on the territory of the former soviet union upon the creation of the "Soils of Russia" geographic information system

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Wagner, V. B.; Vil'Chevskaya, E. V.; Kalinina, N. V.; Koroleva, P. V.


    Soviet and Russian pedologists, ecologists, geobotanists, geographers, and other specialists created a large set of maps on the territory of the former Soviet Union. In most cases, these maps were published; at present, they are available as hardcopies. Their digitization clearly shows various merits and demerits of thematic maps on the territory of the Soviet Union and Russia. A 20-year experience of the Laboratory of Soil Informatics at the Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute on the creation of digitized maps integrated into the "Soils of Russia" geographic information system (GIS) is discussed. The major stages of this work and the technology developed to solve the problems appearing during it are described. The reasons for certain difficulties in matching cartographic information contained on the maps of different and similar scales, the problems of georeferencing of the maps, and the problems related to the use of remote sensing materials and digital elevation models are discussed. The necessity of creating a unified cartographic base for thematic maps included in the GIS "Soils of Russia" [28] and the technology for its development are characterized. The distortions on the original topographic maps are corrected with the use of locally affine transformation functions realized in the GeoDraw-GeoGraph software package. The requirements for the quality of the maps—their suitability for georeferencing, topological correctness, and compatibility of different versions—are formulated. The problems of digital soil mapping upon the use of object-oriented GIS are elucidated. The Soil Map of the Russian Federation (1: 2.5 M scale) was initially digitized in 1997. Since that time, four digital versions of this map have been created to reduce the initial errors and inconsistencies. It is argued that the fifth and sixth versions of this map should be created with allowance for the accumulated experience.

  4. 放牧与围栏内蒙古针茅草原土壤微生物生物量碳、氮变化及微生物群落结构PLFA分析%Analysis of Microbial Biomass C, N and Soil Microbial Community Structure of Stipa Steppes Using PLFA at Grazing and Fenced in Inner Mongolia, China

    赵帅; 张静妮; 赖欣; 杨殿林; 赵建宁; 李刚; 邹雨坤


    Soil microbial biomass and community structure were analyzed by using chloroform-fumigation extraction and phospholipid fatty acid( PLFA ) methods, based on 3 different Stipe types(Stipa baicalensis meadow steppe, Stipa grandis typical steppe, and Stipa krylovii typical steppe) in Hulunbeier in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that there were significant differences in soil microbial biomass and community structure at grazing and fenced steppes inside and outside fence. Soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen content ranged from 166.6 mg·kg-1 to 703.5 mg·kg-1, 30.34 mg·kg-1 to 92.15 mg·kg-1, respectively. The analysis of Chloroform-fumigation extraction showed that the microbial biomass at Stipa baicalensis meadow steppe was largest, followed by Stipagrandis typical steppe, and the lowest was at Stipa krylovii typical steppe. The microbial biomass at the fenced plots in Stipa baicalensis meadow steppe and Stipa grandis typical steppe was significantly lower than that at the grazing plots, and there was no difference in Stipa krylovii typical steppe. The results of PLFAs displayed that Stipa communities in Inner Mongolia showed abundant species and quantity in soil microbial communities. Total 28 PLFAs biomarkers were detected in the soil samples, with saturated fatty acids and branched fatty acids accounting for 2/3, Stipa baicalensis meadow steppe had the highest content of fatty acid, being 27.3 nmol·g-1. The bacteria PLFAs and total PLFAs in the fenced plots were much higher than those at the grazing plots. The changes of fungi PLFAs varied with different grassland types. Grazing decreased significantly the ratio of gram-positive bacteria PLFAs/gram-negative bacterium PLFAs(GP PLFAs/GN PLFAs ) and remarkably increased the ratio of bacterial PLFAs/fnngi PLFAs except at Stipa krylovii typical steppe. Principal component analysis(PCA) indicated that soil microbial community structure was influenced by different regimes of grassland utilization, grazing


    汪诗平; E.Schnug; 等


    The sulphur status of 4 soils and 122 common plants from Inner Mongolia steppe were determined and evaluation was made of the sulphur nutrition of grazing animals. The results showed the organic sulphur content ranged from 17 μg*g-1 in the 0.2-0.4 m soil layer to 397 μg*g-1 in the top soil. The mean sulphate-S concentrations were less than 10 μg*g-1; while greater concentrations were found in only the chernozem soil. Biomass-S accounted for 1.78%-2.80% of total S in 4 soils. Seventy five percent of plant samples examined had less than 0.16% S, and more than 80% of them had a N∶S ratio greater than 14∶1. More than 80% of the plants were deficient in S. There was a close relationship between plant available soil sulphur and total plant sulphur concentrations. It was concluded that sulphur deficiency is widespread in the Inner Mongolia steppe and that sulphur fertilizer requirements should be evaluated.%通过对内蒙古典型草原4种主要土壤类型及122种主要植物硫含量的分析,并与主要放牧家畜的营养需要相结合,综合评价了内蒙古典型草原硫的营养状况.研究表明:4种主要土壤类型不同层次(0.2~0.4 m,0.1~0.2 m和0~0.1 m)的土壤中有机硫的含量变化很大,为17~397 μg*g-1,有机硫的含量与土壤中有机碳和全氮含量呈高度正相关.土壤中平均无机硫含量低于10 μg*g-1,但黑钙土土壤中无机硫的含量较高,达20 μg*g-1左右.土壤中微生物硫含量占土壤中全硫含量的1.78%~2.80%.所测定的122种主要植物中有75%的植物体内硫含量低于0.16%,氮/硫比大于14∶1;与主要放牧家畜的营养需要相比,有约80%的植物缺硫.植物体中硫的含量与土壤中有效硫的含量显著正相关.

  6. Defining Russia

    Wang Lijiu


    @@ Russia is a state stretching over the Eurasian land mass and with a mixture of both East and West cultures. During the historical process of its shaping, particularly sea changes took place, Russian leaders and the elites as well have always asked the following questions about the definition and orientation of their country: "Who am I?" "How to do?" and "Where to?" At present, Russia finds itself in a critical stage of social transition and adjustment of international status. "What country is Russia like?" "What image should Russia show on the international arena?" "What is its strategic trend?" These questions would directly affect the development of Russia.

  7. Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe

    The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

  8. Changes in the agrochemical properties of major arable soils in the south of the Far East of Russia under the impact of their long-term agricultural use

    Burdukovskii, M. L.; Golov, V. I.; Kovshik, I. G.


    Agrochemical properties of meadow-brown (Gleyic Cambisols (Clayic, Aric)) and meadow-chernozemic (Luvic Gleyic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)) soils under the impact of long-term application of mineral and organic fertilizers were studied. The investigations were performed at the agrochemical experimental stations of the Primorskii region and Amur oblast founded in 1941 and 1962, respectively. It was shown that the long-term crop cultivation without fertilizers or with great rates of mineral fertilizers and lime resulted in the soil dehumification, a rise in the soil acidity, and a decrease of the content of exchangeable bases. These processes were slowed down by the application of organic fertilizers. Agrochemical parameters of meadow-chernozemic and floodplain meadow (Fluvic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Oxyaquic)) soils of Amur oblast (Russia) and the Heilongjiang border province (China) were compared.

  9. 不同封育年限宁夏荒漠草原土壤种子库研究%A Study on soil Seed Bank in Desert Steppe of Different Enclosing Years in Ningxia

    刘华; 蒋齐; 王占军; 潘占兵


    针对宁夏天然草原实施禁牧封育的现状,采用种子萌发法对不同封育年限的荒漠草原土壤种子库进行了研究。结果表明:种子萌发主要集中在0-5cm土层中,6-10cm土层种子萌发较少,0-5cm土层中,随封育年限的增加,一年生草本植物逐渐减少,多年生草本植物增加,半灌木或灌木逐渐增加;在垂直分布上,随土层深度的增加单位面积的种子数量减少;土壤种子库的密度随封育时间的增加而增加;在0-5cm土层中,封育使土壤种子库的物种多样性和丰富度明显增加;在0-5cm土层和6-10cm土层中,土壤种子库和地上植被的相似性都较低,在0-5cm土层,随封育年限的增加土壤种子库与地上植被的相似性程度逐渐增加。%According to the present situation of Ningxia natural grassland enclosure,the method of seed germination was used to study soil seed bank in desert steppe of different enclosing years.The result shows: seed germination mainly occurred in 0-5 cm soil,seed germination in 6-10 cm soil was less.In 0-5 cm soil,annual herbs gradually reduce,the perennial herbs increase,half shrubs or shrubs increase gradually with the increase of the enclosing year.In vertical distribution,along with the increase of soil depth,the seeds decreased in the number of unit area.The density of the soil seed bank increased with increase of enclosing year.In 0-5 cm soil,enclosing made the species diversity of the soil seed bank and abundant degree increase.In 0-5 cm and 6-10 cm soil,the soil seed bank and the similarity of above-ground vegetation are low.In 0-5 cm soil layer,with the increasing of enclosing year,soil seed banks and the similarity degree of above-ground vegetation increase gradually.

  10. Accumulation of organic carbon in chernozems (Mollisols) under shelterbelts in Russia and the United States

    Chendev, Yu. G.; Sauer, T. J.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Novykh, L. L.; Petin, A. N.; Petina, V. I.; Zazdravnykh, E. A.; Burras, C. L.


    Shelterbelts that were created in place of meadow and meadow-steppe landscapes of the forest-steppe zone of northern continents serve as areas of carbon accumulation and participate in the formation of soil organic matter. In the Great Plains of the United States (in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska) and on the Central Russian Upland (Belgorod, Voronezh, and Kursk oblasts), a general tendency toward an increase in the Corg pool in the topsoil (0-30 cm) from the marginal parts of the shelterbelts toward their central parts by about 3.5-10.0 t per each 10 m has been identified. In 55 years of the existence of shelterbelts on chernozems in the European part of Russia, the mean annual rate of the organic carbon accumulation in the upper meter has been varying within 0.7-1.5 t/ha. In 19 years of the existence of a shelterbelt in the area of Huron (South Dakota), the mean annual rate of the organic carbon accumulation in the 1-m-thick layer of the Bonilla soil series (Haplustolls) has reached 1.9 t/ha.

  11. Using remote-sensing technologies in combination with Cesium-137 measurements to estimate soil-erosion quantity in semi-arid steppe areas

    ZhanJiang Sha; HaiZhou Ma; LingQin Li; Jinzhou Du; FeiQuan Wu; QiShun Fan


    Soil erosion by wind is one of the most important processes in the changing the earth's surface in semi-arid areas, Thus it is of great importance to study soil-erosion action. Using integrated technologies of remote sensing and geochemistry radioactivity isotope to extract regional soil-erosion information and to calculate quantity of soil erosion is accomplished successfully in this paper by means of beneficial experiments in the Talatan region of the Gonghe Basin, which is located in northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. The results show that the soil erosion by wind is not intensive in this region; the erosion types belong to the classes of very-soft erosion and soft-erosion type, which account for 47.12 percent and 35.58 percent, respectively, of the total study area.In total, two kinds of soil erosion account for 82.70 percent of the study area; only a small area belongs to the classes of severe erosion and very-severe erosion; this area is about 22.14 km2. Severe deposition activity has taken place in this region, and has appeared in a large area (322.67 km2), which accounts for 11.78 percent of the total study area. The results of this study show that soil erosion and deposition inventories are 870,000-1,150,000 tons and 550,000-780,000 tons, respectively, per year. The soil inventory shows about 320,000-370,000 tons from Talatan to Longyangxia reservoir per year. Using remote-sensing technology and 137Cs techniques is a valid means to analyze and to evaluate the quantity of soil erosion by wind in semi-arid environments.

  12. Using remote-sensing technologies in combination with Cesium-137 measurements to estimate soil-erosion quantity in semi-arid steppe areas


    Soil erosion by wind is one of the most important processes in the changing the earth’s surface in semi-arid areas,Thus it is of great importance to study soil-erosion action.Using integrated technologies of remote sensing and geochemistry radioactivity iso-tope to extract regional soil-erosion information and to calculate quantity of soil erosion is accomplished successfully in this paper by means of beneficial experiments in the Talatan region of the Gonghe Basin,which is located in northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Pla-teau in China.The results show that the soil erosion by wind is not intensive in this region;the erosion types belong to the classes of very-soft erosion and soft-erosion type,which account for 47.12 percent and 35.58 percent,respectively,of the total study area.In total,two kinds of soil erosion account for 82.70 percent of the study area;only a small area belongs to the classes of severe erosion and very-severe erosion;this area is about 22.14 km2.Severe deposition activity has taken place in this region,and has appeared in a large area(322.67 km2),which accounts for 11.78 percent of the total study area.The results of this study show that soil erosion and deposition inventories are 870,000-1,150,000 tons and 550,000-780,000 tons,respectively,per year.The soil in-ventory shows about 320,000-370,000 tons from Talatan to Longyangxia reservoir per year.Using remote-sensing technology and 137Cs techniques is a valid means to analyze and to evaluate the quantity of soil erosion by wind in semi-arid environments.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen compounds and emission of greenhouse gases in ancient and modern soils of the Arkaim Reserve in the Steppe Trans-Ural Region

    Inubushi, K.; Prikhodko, V. E.; Nagano, Kh.; Manakhov, D. V.


    Carbon and nitrogen compounds and the emission of CO2, CH4, and N2O were studied in the ancient buried and modern background soils developed from different parent materials in the Arkaim Reserve of Chelyabinsk oblast. The studies were performed after an 18-year-long period of absence of anthropogenic loads on the local ecosystems. Element contents in the humus horizons of the chernozems of the former plowland and pastures and of the forest soil reach 28-45.6 g/kg for Corg, 2.5-4.5 g/kg for Ntot, 140-423 mg/kg for labile carbon (Cl), 32-73 mg/kg for labile nitrogen (Nl), 350-952 mg/kg for carbon of microbial biomass (Cmic), and 38-85 mg/kg for nitrogen of microbial biomass (Nmic). The contents of different forms of C and N depend on the soil type and texture and on the type of land use, including that before reservation of the territory. The emission of greenhouse gases was examined in this area for the first time. The production of CO2 by the soil buried about 4000 years ago is an order of magnitude lower than that by the modern soil. The emission and sink of N2O are small in both modern and ancient soils. The behavior of methane is clearly different in the automorphic and hydromorphic soils: the former serve as methane sinks, whereas the latter act as methane sources. The rate of the CO2 emission from the soils is controlled by many factors, including the soil type, texture, degree of hydromorphism, composition of parent materials, and type of land use.

  14. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman


    Based on analysis of the extensive source base, including complex landscape, component, paleogeographic and archeological published and scientific materials as well as the connected analysis of published paleogeographical, paleolandscape and historical and geographic maps of the territory of Russia landscape and zonal features of the transition from appropriating economy to producing economy were determined. All the specifics of historical changes in the landscape use of the vast areas of Russia is caused by the variety of its landscape zones and the specifics of their constituent landscapes. Human economic activities as a factor of differentiation and development of landscapes became apparent almost in all landscape zones together with the emergence of the producing type of economy from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age (Atlantic period) in the southern steppe regions (in the northern areas of the main centers of the producing economy) and from the Bronze Age in the forest areas. The emergence of the producing economy in the forest-steppe and steppe landscape zones on the territory of Russia is dated IV (Aeneolithic) - III (Early Bronze Age) millennium BC. It is from this period that on the European part of Russia and in Siberia the so-called Neolithic revolution begins. The use of copper and bronze axes helped to develop new areas for planting crops in the forest-steppe zone. In the forest-steppe zone swidden and lea tillage cultivation develops. In the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia depending on the local landscape conditions two ways of producing economy with a predominance of cattle-breeding developed: nomadic cattle breeding and house cattle breeding with a significant influence of agriculture in the economy and long-term settlements. The steppe areas were completely dominated by the mobile nomadic herding, breeding cattle and small cattle. Along with the valley landscapes the interfluvial landscapes were also actively explored. Almost in all the steppe areas

  15. Interactions of water and nitrogen addition on soil microbial community composition and functional diversity depending on the inter-annual precipitation in a Chinese steppe

    SUN Liang-jie; QI Yu-chun; DONG Yun-she; HE Ya-ting; PENG Qin; LIU Xin-chao; JIA Jun-qiang; GUO Shu-fang; CAO Cong-cong


    Water and nitrogen are primary limiting factors in semiarid grassland ecosystems. Our knowledge is stil poor regarding the interactive effects of water and N addition on soil microbial communities, although this information is crucial to reveal the mechanisms of the terrestrial ecosystem response to global changes. We addressed this problem by conducting a ifeld experiment with a 15%surplus of the average rainfal under three levels of N addition (50, 100, and 200 kg N ha–1 yr–1) in two consecutive years in Inner Mongolia, China. Microbial community composition and functional diversity were analyzed based on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and BIOLOG techniques, respectively. The results showed that water addition did not affect the soil microbial community composition, but much more yearly precipitation general y decreased the PLFA concentration, which implied a fast response of soil microbes to changes of water condition. Soil fungi was depressed only by N addition at the high level (200 kg N ha–1 yr–1) and without hydrologic leaching, while Gram-negative bacteria was suppressed probably by plant competition at high level N addition but with hydrologic leaching. The study found unilateral positive/negative interactions between water and N addition in affecting soil microbial community, however, climate condi-tion (precipitation) could be a signiifcant factor in disturbing the interactions. This study highlighted that:(1) The sustained effect of pulsed water addition was minimal on the soil microbial community composition but signiifcant on the microbial community functional diversity and (2) the complex interaction between water and N addition on soil microbial community related to the inter-annual variation of the climate and plant response.

  16. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A


    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  17. Effects of Vegetation Coverage Change on Soil Conservation Service of Typical Steppe in Inner Mongolia%草地覆盖度变化对生态系统防风固沙服务的影响分析--以内蒙古典型草原区为例

    巩国丽; 刘纪远; 邵全琴


    China is one of the countries suffering severely from soil wind erosion in the world, especially in the typical northern steppe. Xilingol League in Inner Mongolia is a part of the typical steppe zone. Ever since Bei-jing-Tianjin Dust Storms Sources Control Project was established in 2002, the grassland degradation situation has been controlled. The change of vegetation coverage can affect the ecological function of windbreak and sand-fixation. In order to prepare the prevention and control measures for regional ecological restoration, to un-derstand the practical significances of sustainable development of grassland ecosystem, and to control soil wind erosion, in this study, based on the meteorology and remote sensing data, combined with grassland degradation and recovery in Xilingol League, the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) was applied to quantitatively evaluate the spatio-temporal variations of soil conservation service function since the 1990s and to reveal the ef-fects of the change of vegetation coverage on soil wind erosion control service. The results are shown as follows. The intensity of soil wind erosion was low in the most regions of Xilingol League, Especially in the eastern, cen-tral and southern regions, with higher vegetation coverage, lower wind field intensity, and abundant rainfall. The wind erosion regions with medium and higher soil wind erosion intensity were mainly distributed in the western desert steppe and Otindag Sandy Land, and the area of these regions decreased progressively as the erosion inten-sity increased. The distribution pattern of soil retention was similar to soil wind erosion modulus. The distribu-tion characteristics of the soil retention rate were similar to the vegetation coverage, indicating a gradually in-creasing trend from northwest to southeast. Under the comprehensive influence of the warming-drying climate and the implementation of Beijing-Tianjin Dust storm Source Control Project, the vegetation coverage

  18. Effects of burning and raking on soil properties of steppe%火烧和刈割耙除对草原土壤理化性质的影响

    原烨; 张钊; 赵宁; 张永娟; 梁虹; 戎郁萍


    An experiment was conducted to examine if raking was an alternative management strategy to replace burning by comparing the effect of burning and raking on soil properties of steppe. This study showed that the burning and the annual mowing-raking increased soil temperature by about 2.26 ℃ and 1.48 ℃ at 5 cm and 10 cm depth, and 1.74 ℃ and 0.87 ℃ at 15 cm and 20 cm depth, respectively, and that the burning and the mowing-raking significantly reduced the content of soil micro-aggregate (P 0.05), the diameter of which was over 0.25 mm. However, no significant difference in soil micro-aggregate was found between burning and annual mowing-raking. The burning and mowing-raking significantly decreased the organic carbon and total N (P〈0.05), and the burning decreased more soil organic carbon and total N than the mowing-raking did. Annual burning reduced soil organic carbon by 11.69 g/kg at the 10 cm depth and 8.00 g/kg at the 20 cm depth, and reduced total N by 0. 633 g/kg at the 10 cm depth and 0. 752 g/kg at the 20 cm depth, while annual mowing-raking decreased less soil organic carbon and total N had than burning did. This study also showed that the burning decreased the C/N ratios of soil at the 10 cm depth(P〈0.05), while mowing-raking did not affect the C/N ratios of soil.%本研究探讨草地植被恢复中刈割耙除是否可以成为代替火烧刷寄施。结果表明,与对照相比,火烧、刈割耙除均可提高土壤温度,火烧5、10cm土层土壤温度升高2.26℃,刈割耙除可增加1.48℃;火烧提高15、20cm土层土壤温度1.74℃,刈割耙除可提高0.87℃;与对照相比,火烧和刈割耙除均可显著降低土壤大于0.25mm团聚体的含量,但火烧和刈割耙除两者间的差异不显著(P〉0.05);火烧和刈割耙除均可显著降低土壤有机碳和全氮含量(P〈0.05),土壤有机碳和全氮含量均表现为对照〉刈割耙除〉火

  19. Different effects of identical mowing pattern on plant community and soil microbe of meadow steppe in different land use backgrounds in Inner Mongolia, China

    Jin, D.; Xin, X.


    The appropriate mowing pattern is necessary to be investigated for ensuring the maximum extent feeding supply to livestock and avoiding grassland degradation simultaneously. Previous research about mowing pattern mostly focused on the impact of different cutting ways, such as cutting height, frequency and times, but the land use background factor was commonly ignored. For this reason, we conducted an identical mowing interval gradients experiment (mowing in every 1, 2 and 3 years) in two plots under different land use backgrounds from 2005. One plot was mowed (MP) in every year dominant by Leymus chinensis(Trin.) Tzvel. and the other plot was grazed (GP) before experiment conducted which is dominant by Stipa Baicalensis Roshev. Our results indicate that GP has significant advantages on species diversity, biomass and root-shoot ratio than that in MP under the same mowing interval pattern. Conversely, content of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient (total nitrogen, TN and total phosphorus, TP) in MP is significant greater than that in GP. Moreover, in terms of the amount of soil microflora, ammonifier abounded in MP, but anaerobic azotobacteria abounded in GP instead, which may confirm the higher content of TN in MP soil. In summary, the impact of identical mowing interval pattern on vegetation and soil performed diversely in MP and GP suggesting that land use background factor should be taken into account when a mowing pattern is made by government. Further work will be conducted to identify the different nutrient allocation patterns in each components on both individual and community scales which will help us to better understand the mechanisms of land use changing in semi-arid grassland ecosystem.

  20. Humus and Humic Acids of Luvisol and Cambisol of Jiguli Ridges, Samara Region, Russia

    Evgeny Abakumov


    Full Text Available Luvisols and Cambisols are two types of sub-boreal soils, which are known as continental and humid-ocean types of soils in deciduous forests respectively. Morphological features of soil, which are frequently used as the main argument in solum diagnostics, are subjective and do not give final decision that continental Cambisols are a specific type of soils different from Luvisols. These soils were studied in a mountain massive—Jiguli ridges of Samara region, Russia, East European part. Humid climate of northern slopes leads to formation of brown type of humic acids (HA, while the conditions of eastern slopes assist to formation of gray HA. These HAs of different soils are different in elemental composition (C and N are higher in Cambisols, O is higher in Luvisols, carbon species according to 13-C NMR (aromaticity is higher in Luvisols, while the aliphatic, carbonylic and carboxylic compounds are higher in Cambisols. Cambisols are characterized by dominance of fulvic acids (FAs on HAs, while the ratio of HA to FA groups in Luvisols is about 1,0. Essential differences in humus composition and humic acids properties confirm that local humid climate in continental forest-steppe leads to formation of Cambisols instead of zonal Luvisols.

  1. 水热因子对克氏针茅草原土壤呼吸及其土壤温度敏感性的影响%The influence of hydrothermal factors on soil respiration and soil temperature sensi-tivity of Stipa krylovii steppe,Inner Mongolia,China

    谷蕊; 潮洛濛; 张立欣; 苏力德; 万志强; 闫玉龙; 陈雅丽; 高清竹


    作为内蒙古重要的草地资源,克氏针茅草原在我国畜牧业生产中占有重要的地位。土壤呼吸是大气与陆地生态系统碳循环的主要通量,是土壤碳输出的主要途径。试验区设置在内蒙古锡林浩特市东部毛登牧场内以克氏针茅建群的典型草原;在2011-2013年采用开顶式生长室(OTC)对试验样地进行模拟增温增雨处理,在生长季(5-9月份)使用开路式土壤碳通量测量系统(LI-8100,LI-COR,NE)对试验样地土壤呼吸强度进行测定;同时监测试验样地气温、土壤温湿度等环境因子,采集土壤样品并室内分析土壤养分特征和微生物生物量,并对土壤呼吸与环境因子间进行相关性分析。克氏针茅草原土壤呼吸受空气温度和土壤含水量影响显著(P <0.05),分别呈现出二项函数和线性相关关系;不同处理下土壤呼吸在相同时间存在显著差异(P <0.05),2012年增温增雨与增温处理下土壤呼吸速率分别为2.60和1.96μmol/(m2·s),2013年增温增雨与增温处理下土壤呼吸速率分别为3.38和2.09μmol/(m2·s);增温增雨处理下,克氏针茅草原空气温度的升高和土壤含水量的降低均对土壤呼吸产生了抑制。土壤呼吸温度敏感度(Q10)在2011-2012年中增温增雨处理明显高于对照处理和控温处理;2011-2013年控温处理都低于对照处理。本研究表明,土壤呼吸主要受水热条件影响,并且空气温度升高和土壤含水量的降低均对土壤呼吸有抑制作用,增温增雨处理下土壤呼吸速率要高于增温处理;土壤呼吸温度敏感系数与土壤温度、土壤含水量、土壤有机碳、全氮和微生物等环境因子之间的关系较为复杂,还有待深入研究。%The grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Stipa krylovii steppe make an important contribution to ani-mal production in China.Soil

  2. Influence of moisture conditions and mineralization of soil solution on structure of litter macrofauna of the deciduous forests of Ukraine steppe zone

    V. V. Brygadyrenko


    Full Text Available The accounting of litter mesofauna was carried out in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Nikolaev,Donetsk regions of Ukrainein the natural forest ecosystems in 2001–2014. 339 forest ecosystems were surveyed; xeromesophilic conditions of moistening were characteristic for 47 trial sites, mesophilic conditions – for 99 sites, hygro-mesophilic conditions – for 50 sites, meso-hygrophilic conditions – for 89 sites, hygrophilic conditions – for 54 sites; trophotope C was represented by 35 trial sites, Dc – by 44, Dac – by 76, Dn – by 128, De – by 37, E – by 19 forest ecosystems, accordingly. The relative number of saprophages reaches maximum values in hygro-mesophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions, and minimum values – in mesophilic conditions of moistening. The share of rare species is maximum in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening. The minimum quantity of mass species is also observed in conditions of hygro-mesophilic and meso-hygrophilic deciduous forests. With the growth of moistening of the soil, quantity of species of Carabidae, Formicidae and other dominant families remains without significant changes. The relative number of Formicidae is maximum in xeromesophilic and mesophilic conditions of soil moistening. In these hygrotopes, as well as in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening the Julidae numbers are maximum. The Isopoda percent in mesofauna significantly grows in meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions of moistening. The share of other dominant taxonomical groups in the structure of litter mesofauna remains without significant changes in numbers. In the majority of the analysed hygrotopes 7–8 families are withing the structure of dominants. In the conditions of salinization (trophotopes De and E, and also on light sandy loam soils, the numbers of litter mesofauna decrease. Share of saprophages is minimum in trophotopes Dc and E, while it increases in trophotopes C, Dac, Dn

  3. Soil and dasometric characterization of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantation and management proposal in the lower montane thorny steppe zone, Riobamba, Ecuador

    Miguel Guallpa


    Full Text Available There is limited information on the growth and yield of the Tasmanian blue gum plantation in Tunshi-ESPOCH homestead in varying physiographic conditions, soil properties and management; for this reason it was decided to assess its forest mass. Circular plots were installed with 12.62 m radius at an intensity of 5-6% ha-1. Through systematic unaligned sampling for lifting dasometric information and digging three pits stand-1, using stratified sampling for variables of the place. The application of statistical estimators, determined at an altitude of 2755 amsl, a total average tree volume estimated-1 of 2.32 m3 compared with 0.25 m3 at an altitude of 2929 amsl. Two areas of conservation and other forest use were defined. There are significant associations between total unit volume of T. blue against altitude, organic matter content, cationic exchange capacity at surface level and level of boron underlying level, generating a management strategy for each defined area.

  4. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun


    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  5. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Sizhong Yang

    Full Text Available The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  6. Ecology and Conservation of Steppes and Semi-Natural Grasslands

    Valkó Orsolya


    Full Text Available Palaearctic grasslands encompass a diverse variety of habitats, many of high nature value and vulnerability. The main challenges are climate-change, land-use change, agricultural intensification and abandonment. Many measures are in place to address these challenges, through restoration and appropriate management, though more work is necessary. We present eight studies from China/Germany, Greece, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine. The papers cover a wide range of grassland and steppe habitats and cover vegetation ecology, syntaxonomy and zoology. We also conducted a systematic search on steppe and grassland diversity. The greatest number of studies was from China, followed by Germany and England. We conclude that the amount of research being carried out on Eurasian grasslands is inadequate considering their high levels of biodiversity and vulnerability. We hope to encourage readers to address current major challenges, such as how to manage grasslands for the benefit of diverse taxa, to ensure that conservation initiatives concentrate on sites where there is good potential for success and for the generation of realistic and viable conservation strategies.

  7. The influence of climate cycles on the water regime and carbonate profile in chernozems of Central European Russia and adjacent territories

    Bazykina, G. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.


    The influence of long-term "dry" and "wet" climatic cycles on the water regime, hydrological parameters, and carbonate profiles of chernozems in Central European Russia and adjacent territories was studied. The hydrological and carbonate profiles were found to change during the wet cycle. However, the upper part of the hydrological profile is basically unchanging, whereas in its lower part, the number of hydrological horizons and contrast in their moistening decrease in the forest-steppe chernozems and increase in the steppe chernozems. The frequency of through wetting of chernozems increases during the wet cycles. The vertical lithological heterogeneity of the parent material affects the soil moisture status. In the wet climatic cycle, the moisture content above the lithological contact increases resulting in the development of the features of soil hydromorphism. In the carbonate profile, the character of pedofeatures is changing: some carbonate neoformations disappear, while the other ones develop. Possible variations of the periodically percolative water regime were revealed in chernozems. The classification of water regime proposed by A.A. Rode may be updated based on the data obtained during the dry climatic cycle. Rode's hypothesis about cyclic variations in the soil water regime is confirmed.

  8. Ferrihydrite in soils

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Shoba, S. A.


    Ferrihydrite—an ephemeral mineral—is the most active Fe-hydroxide in soils. According to modern data, the ferrihydrite structure contains tetrahedral lattice in addition to the main octahedral lattice, with 10-20% of Fe being concentrated in the former. The presence of Fe tetrahedrons influences the surface properties of this mineral. The chemical composition of ferrihydrite samples depends largely on the size of lattice domains ranging from 2 to 6 nm. Chemically pure ferrihydrite rarely occurs in the soil; it usually contains oxyanion (SiO14 4-, PO4 3-) and cation (Al3+) admixtures. Aluminum replace Fe3+ in the structure with a decrease in the mineral particle size. Oxyanions slow down polymerization of Fe3+ aquahydroxomonomers due to the films at the surface of mineral nanoparticles. Si- and Al-ferrihydrites are more resistant to the reductive dissolution than the chemically pure ferrihydrite. In addition, natural ferrihydrite contains organic substance that decreases the grain size of the mineral. External organic ligands favor ferrihydrite dissolution. In the European part of Russia, ferrihydrite is more widespread in the forest soils than in the steppe soils. Poorly crystallized nanoparticles of ferrihydrite adsorb different cations (Zn, Cu) and anions (phosphate, uranyl, arsenate) to immobilize them in soils; therefore, ferrihydrite nanoparticles play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle of iron and other elements.

  9. Effect of desertification on productivity in a desert steppe

    Tang, Zhuangsheng; An, Hui; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yingying; Zhu, Guangyu; Shangguan, Zhouping


    Desertification, one of the most severe types of land degradation in the world, is of great importance because it is occurring, to some degree, on approximately 40% of the global land area and is affecting more than 1 billion people. In this study, we used a space-for-time method to quantify the impact of five different desertification regimes (potential (PD), light (LD), moderate (MD), severe (SD), and very severe (VSD)) on a desert steppe ecosystem in northern China to examine the relationship between the productivity of the vegetation and soil properties and to determine the mechanism underlying the effects of desertification on productivity. Our results showed that the effects of desertification on TP (total phosphorus) and AP (available phosphorus) were not significant, and desertification decreased productivity in the desert steppe as a result of direct changes to soil physical properties, which can directly affect soil chemical properties. Therefore, intensive grassland management to improve soil quality may result in the long-term preservation of ecosystem functions and services.

  10. Russia report

    Along with cementing the joint Shuttle-Mir Program in late June with a $400 million contract, the U.S. and Russia signed a deal to team up on global environmental issues. Under the agreement, U.S. and Russian scientists will establish modern facilities for petroleum research, including advanced geographic systems technology, petroleum geochemistry, and seismic processing to help Russia transition to a “market” economy, Interior Secreary Bruce Babbitt reports. The program, to be funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, will produce maps, technical reports, and other data for investment decisions.

  11. Patterns and drivers of phytodiversity in steppe grasslands of Central Podolia (Ukraine)

    Kuzemko, Anna; Steinbauer, Manuel; Becker, Thomas;


    nested-plot series ranging from 0.0001 to 100 m2 and additional 10-m2 plots, covering different vegetation types and management regimes in steppes and semi-natural dry grasslands of Central Podolia (Ukraine). We recorded all terricolous taxa and used topographic, soil, land-use and climatic variables...

  12. Chernozems microbial community under anthropogenic impact (Russia)

    Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Sushko, Sofia; Vasenev, Viacheslav


    Chernozems is important natural resource, which in the last decade under intense influence as a result of plowing and urbanization. The parameters of soil microbial community functioning might be identify some soil deterioration under the impacts. Our research was focused on assessment of microbial community status in different soil layers of virgin steppe, bare fallow and urban ecosystems (Kursk region). In each ecosystem, we chose randomly 3-5 spatially distributed sites, where soil samples were collected by auguring up to 0.5 m depth (each layer 10 cm thickness) and up to 1.5 m depth (0-10, 10-50, 50-100, 100-150 cm layers), totally 127 samples. The bulk density was measured for these soil layers. In all soil samples the microbial biomass carbon content (Cmic) was analyzed by substrate-induced respiration (SIR) method and basal respiration (BR) was assessed by CO2 rate production. The fungi-to-bacteria ratio (selective inhibition technique with antibiotics) was determined and portion of Cmic in soil organic carbon (Corg) content was calculated in topsoil (0-10 cm). The Corg (dichromate oxidation) and pHw (potentiometry) values were measured. The Cmic and BR profile pools were calculated using bulk density and thickness of studied layers. The Cmic (0-10 cm) was varied from 84 to 1954 µg C g-1 soil, in steppe it was on average 3-4 times higher than those in bare fallow and urban. The BR rate was amounted from 0.20 to 1.57 µg CO2-C g-1 soil h-1, however no significant difference between studied ecosystems was found. It was shown the relationship between Cmic, BR and Corg (the linear regression, R2=0.92 and 0.75, respectively, pfungi-to-bacteria ratio was decreased along ecosystems row: virgin steppe>bare fallow>urban, and it was on average 6.0, 5.2 and 1.8, respectively. The Cmic profile pool (0.5 m) of steppe was reached up on average 206 g C m-2, and it was 2.0 and 2.5 times higher those bare fallow and urban, respectively. The BR profile pool (0.5 m) in steppe

  13. Mercury in soil, earthworms and organs of voles Myodes glareolus and shrew Sorex araneus in the vicinity of an industrial complex in Northwest Russia (Cherepovets).

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Poddubnaya, N Y; Gremyachikh, V A


    The characteristic properties of uptake and distribution of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems have received much lesser attention compared to aquatic particularly in Russia. Terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to large industrial manufactures-potential sources of mercury inflow into the environment frequently remain unstudied. This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the basic elements of terrestrial ecosystems situated close to a large metallurgical complex.Mean values of mercury concentration (mg Hg/kg dry weight) in the vicinity of city of Cherepovets were the following: 0.056 ± 0.033-in the humus layer of soil; 0.556 ± 0.159-in earthworms; in the organs of voles Myodes glareolus (kidneys-0.021 ± 0.001; liver-0.014 ± 0.003; muscle-0.014 ± 0.001; brain-0.008 ± 0.002); in the organs of shrew Sorex araneus (kidneys-0.191 ± 0.016; liver-0.124 ± 0.011; muscle-0.108 ± 0.009; brain-0.065 ± 0.000). Correlation dependences between Hg content in soil and earthworms (r s  = 0.85, p < 0.01) as well as soil and all studied shrews' organs (rs = 0.44-0.58; p ≤ 0.01) were found.The results obtained evidence for a strong trophic link in the bioaccumulation of Hg in terrestrial food webs. Despite the vicinity to a large metallurgical complex, mercury content in the studied objects was significantly lower than values of corresponding parameters in the soils and biota from industrial (polluted) areas of Great Britain, the USA, and China.

  14. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    Muskett, Reginald; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Cable, William; Kholodov, Alexander


    . , Romanovsky, V. , Cable, W. and Kholodov, A. (2015) Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 through 2014. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (1), 12-41. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.61002.

  15. Agricultural crops and soil treatment impacts on the daily and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes in the field agroecosystems at the Central region of Russia

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Berezovskiy, Egor; Djancharov, Turmusbek


    The problem of greenhouse gases' concentrations increasing becomes more and more important due to global changes issues. The main component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. The researches focused on its fluxes in natural and anthropogenic modified landscapes can help in this problem solution. Our research has been done with support of the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # and of FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C in the representative for Central Region of Russia field agroecosystems at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University with cultivated sod podzoluvisols, barley and oats - vetch grass mix (Moscow station of the RusFluxNet). The daily and seasonal dynamics of the carbon dioxide have been studied at the ecosystem level by the Eddy covariance method (2 stations) and at the soil level by the exposition chamber method (40 chambers) with mobile infra red gas analyzer (Li-Cor 820). The primary Eddy covariance monitoring data on CO2 fluxes and water vapor have been processed by EddyPro software developed by LI-COR Biosciences. According to the two-year monitoring data the daily CO2 sink during the vegetation season is usually approximately two times higher than its emission at night. Seasonal CO2 fluxes comparative stabilization has been fixed in case the plants height around 10-12 cm and it usually persist until the wax ripeness phase. There is strong dependence between the soil CO2 emission and the air temperature with the correlation coefficient 0.86 in average (due to strong input of the soil thin top functional subhorizon), but it drops essentially at the end of the season - till 0.38. The soil moisture impact on CO2 fluxes dynamics was less, with negative correlation at the end of the season. High daily dynamics of CO2 fluxes determines the protocol requirements for seasonal soil monitoring investigation with less limitation at the end of the season. The accumulated monitoring data will be

  16. Plant biodiversity and soil nitrogen and carbon pools changes as a result of nitrogen deposition at permanent pine plots in Central Russia

    Komarov, Alexander; Priputina, Irina; Zubkova, Elena; Shanin, Vladimir


    We present results of analysis of increased rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition observed in Central Russia between 1960 and 2010, and dealt with air pollution by NOx, on a biodiversity and main pools of C and N in pine forests of Moscow region, Russia. Shifts in nitrogen availability of three pine plots have been analyzed using presence/absence records on dynamics of understory plant communities (chronosequence consisting of four surveys from 1959-61 up to 2003) and a set of specialist plant species as bioindicators of soil richness. Atmospheric N loads received by ecosystems in 1950-1960 were estimated equal 5-7 kg ha-1 yr-1 with N-NH4 prevalence. In 1975-1990, NOx were more severe air contaminants that increased the N loads up to 15-20 kg ha-1 yr-1. Because of the economic decline of soon after 1990, general air pollution and the N deposition rates in Moscow region reduced, but a short time later started to increase again. We assume that those changes might be caused by atmospheric N input rates and to examine this assumption (i) analyze of species composition in understory has been done using Ellenberg indicator values and Tsyganov interval ecological scales developed for European Russia, and (ii) modeling of dynamics of main C and N pools in forest have been additionally carried out using EFIMOD and ROMUL models. Two nitrogen deposition scenarios have been simulated: (i) the steady background rate of N deposition equal to the one in the middle of last century, and (ii) the real ambient level of N depositions in last 50 yrs. Results have confirmed changes of understory species composition sustaining an eutrophication have been revealed in all plots. Number of specialists which mark rich soil conditions increases from 1950 and reaches maximum at 1990 for all plots. There is a difference between sample plots. Increasing number of specialists for rich conditions is very expressed for the richest mixed pine-lime stand and mixed pine-oak stand. Number of

  17. Efectos del pastoreo sobre el suelo y la vegetación en la Estepa Patagónica Grazing effects on soil and vegetation in the Patagonian Steppe

    Juan José Gaitán


    Full Text Available La ganadería ovina durante más de 100 años produjo grandes cambios en los ecosistemas y es una de las principales causas de la desertificación en la estepa patagónica. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo evaluar los efectos del pastoreo sobre el suelo y la vegetación mediante la aplicación de una versión modificada de la metodología «Landscape Function Analysis» desarrollada en Australia. El estudio se realizó en siete sitios con distintos niveles de degradación por pastoreo en Pilcaniyeu (noroeste de Río Negro: tres clausurados al pastoreo (CLA, tres bajo pastoreo moderado (PM y uno bajo pastoreo intenso (PI. Se evaluaron indicadores de la composición florística y estructura espacial de la vegetación, del estado de la superficie del suelo en los interparches, los cuales fueron integrados en tres Índices de Función (Estabilidad -EST-, Infiltración -INFy Reciclaje de nutrientes -NUT- y el stock de carbono orgánico (CO. Al incrementarse la intensidad de pastoreo se observó una disminución en la cobertura basal de la vegetación (47,4; 23,2 y 17,4% en CLA, PM y PI, respectivamente, parches vegetados más distanciados entre sí (61,9; 117,9 y 181,7 cm, menor cobertura de gramíneas palatables (26,3; 3,4 y 2,1% y mayor de no palatables (4,4; 15,8 y 17,6%. También se observó una tendencia a disminuir en los Índices de Función del suelo (EST: 43,0; 42,3 y 36,2; INF: 48,3; 41,7 y 36,2; NUT: 33,1; 23,5 y 18,1 y del CO (33,8; 26,5 y 7,9 t/ha al incrementarse la intensidad de pastoreo. Se requieren más estudios para adaptar esta metodología a las condiciones de Patagonia y testear con datos experimentales de que manera los índices reflejan adecuadamente los procesos y funciones de estos ecosistemas.More than 100 years of sheep breeding has caused profound changes to ecosystems and is one of the main causes of desertification in the Patagonian steppe. The aim of this study was to evaluate sheep grazing effects on soils and

  18. Metals in the 0.25-0.05 mm sand fraction of forest soils in central European Russia

    Samonova, Olga; Aseyeva, Elena


    This study was undertaken to examine the vertical and lateral geochemical differentiation of 0.25-0.05 mm sand fraction partitioned from uncontaminated forest soils on the central part of the Russian Plain. The vertical distribution of Fe, Ti, Mn, Zr, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Co was examined in 5 soil profiles: two podzoluvisols developing on sheet loam on interfluvial summits, two poorly differentiated soddy and soddy gleyic soils occupying slope and footslope positions, and one floodplain soil. The spatial variations of 0.25-0.05 mm fraction geochemistry were characterized using elemental data from the humus horizons of two soil catenas and the topsoil of an erosional landform (a gully system), typical for the study area. Analyses show the following median concentrations in the sand fraction: Fe - 3,2%, Ti - 3000 ppm, Mn - 500 ppm, Zr - 640 ppm, Zn, Cu, Cr - 50 ppm, and Ni, Pb and Co - 23, 18 and 8 ppm, respectively. Variation coefficients diminish in magnitude: Mn, Cu (70-80%) > Co, Zn, Ni, Fe (60-65%) >Zr, Ti (45%) > Cr, Pb (35%). The sand fraction content in the soils varied widely, from 0.4 to 56% depending on the lithological features of parent material and underlying strata. No even distribution of the fraction across soil profiles was registered. In soils on loamy deposits sand enrichment was observed in the upper horizons, in contrast to the lower horizons for soils underlain by sandy glacio-fluvial deposits. The higher contents of metals in the sand fraction in all soil profiles were found in the topsoil, characterized by more active humus accumulation, biogeochemical processes and sand grain weathering. However, Ti and Zr were distributed more evenly, implying their presence in a form of stable primary minerals. The spatial distribution of the metals in 0.25-0.05 mm particles revealed important soil-geochemical convergence processes in lateral direction along catenas. Fraction samples partitioned from soils in the lowermost positions on the two catenas


    Kunah O. N.


    Full Text Available The Chilopoda of steppe Dnieper area was presented by 15 species. The most typical species are Lithobius forficatus L. and Monotarsobius curtipes C.K. The greatest diversity of studied territory has been registered in natural complexes of Black wood which situated on the border of steppe and forest-steppe zones. We founded strin decrease of biodiversity along the gradient from forest-steppe zone into the south. We discovered the domination and a high diversity of Lithobiomorpha in the north of the studied territory and domination of Geophilimorpha in the central and southern part. The Scolopendromorpha play the important role in the termophulous biogeocenosis n the south part of the investigated area. The considerabletransformation of microclimatic conditions within an industrial city explains the appearance of the synantropic scutigeras in technogenic landscapes of Dnepropetrovsk.

  20. Windthrow and fallow-forest successions impacts in soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics in the Central Russia' reserve spruce ecosystems

    Vasenev, Ivan; Ivanov, Alexey; Komarova, Tatyana; Valentini, Riccardo


    High spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most forest soils that is especially obvious in case of their carbon stocks and GHG fluxes. This phenomenon is generally well-known but not so often becomes the object of special precision investigation in detail and small scales so there are still serious gaps in its principal factors understanding due to their high bioclimatic, regional, landscape, tree species and temporal variability. Southern taiga is one of the most environmentally important world zonal forest ecosystems due to its still comparatively intensive carbon biogeochemical cycle and huge area in the northern Eurasia with strong anthropogenic impacts by Western & Central European and Southern & Eastern Asian regions. Central Forest Biospheric Reserve (Tver region, 360 km to North-West from Moscow) is the principal southern-taiga reserve in the European territory of Russia. Since start of its research activity in 1939 the reserve became the regional center of mature spruce ecosystem structure and dynamics investigation. In 1970-1980-s there have been done complex investigations of windthrow soil patterns and fallow-forest successions. Since middle of 1990-s the ecosystem-level GHG fluxes have been observed by eddy covariance method. Since 2012 the detailed year-round monitoring is running in the southern-taiga zonal station of the regional system RusFluxNet with especial attention on the soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics due to windthrow and fallow-forest successions (in frame of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and # Soil carbon dynamics is investigated in decades-hundred-year chronosequences of dominated parcels and different-size windthrow soil cover patterns, including direct investigation during last 33 years with detailed mapping, soil profile morphometrics and bulk density, morphogenetic and statistical analysis of mass data. Morphogenetic analysis of microrelief, soil profile

  1. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia

    I. Antcibor


    Full Text Available Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N–69.5° N representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe, arsenic (As, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co and mercury (Hg in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were

  2. The geochemical characteristics of soils of vineyards and tea gardens before and after their use in the South of Russia

    Alekseenko, Vladimir; Alekseenko, Alexey; Vlasova, Elena; Voronets, Svetlana


    The concentrations of 25 chemical elements in the forest soils, where formerly the vineyards and tea gardens were cultivated, and in the soils of functioning and abandoned 5, 10, 25, 30 and 50 years ago vineyards and tea gardens were considered. The loss and accumulation of elements were studied in the top-horizon (30 centimeters) during the human impact and after its ending. All the data are given with the probability of 95 %. The analyses of more than 1000 samples were used. Comparing to the forest soils, in the tea gardens soils has accumulated P (+702) and leached away Ge (-0.36), Yb (-0.54), Be (-0.84), Ba (-114) (in the gapes - concentration, tons per square kilometer). The leaching of row of elements has continued in the soils of abandoned plantations comparing to the forest soils with some changes in intensity; besides the accumulation of Mn (+318) and Ti (+804) had been occurred during the last 50 years. Comparing to the contemporary plantations in the soils of abandoned ones had been taken place the accumulation of elements during the last 50 years. Its maximum had manifested after 30 years: Mn (366) > Zn (34.8) > V (28.2) > Ni (6.6) > Ga (1.8) > Sn (0.4). The loss was detected for P. The intensity of all considered processes of loss and accumulation was spasmodic changing in the different time periods. During the last 50 years ecology-geochemical "recovery" of abandoned tea gardens soil has not happened. In the functioning vineyards soils, comparing to the initial forest soils has raised the concentrations of Cu (+16.1) and P (+96); declined - Bi (-0.12), Mo (-0.4), Co (-3), Ga (-4.3), Pb (-5.3), Li (-5.5), Mn (-126) and Ti (-684). In the soils of abandoned vineyards, comparing to the forest soils, during the last 25 years had been taken place accumulation of Mo (+0.7), Cr (+29.4), Cu (+50.3) and leaching away Co (-1.8), Ga (-3.7), Ni (-4.2), Li (-7.4). In the soils of abandoned vineyards, comparing to the functioning ones, during the last 25 years had

  3. 短期放牧强度对典型草原土壤有机碳及pH值的影响%Effects of Short-term Grazing Intensities on Soil Organic Carbon and pH Value in the Typical Steppe

    萨仁高娃; 曹芙; 敖特根; 叁巴; 王成杰


    选择克氏针茅典型草原放牧的西门塔尔牛为研究对象,分析研究短期不同放牧强度(零放牧、轻牧、中牧、重牧)对草地土壤有机碳及pH值的影响,以探索典型草原适宜的载畜率。结果表明:①0~20 cm土层,有机碳含量随着放牧强度的增大而降低,且在重度放牧条件下呈显著差异;而20~30 cm土层,有机碳含量大小顺序为重牧>中牧>零放牧>轻牧,且重牧与轻牧呈显著差异。②土壤pH值随着放牧强度的增大而显著增加。③垂直分布上,土壤有机碳含量随着土层深度的增加而减少,而pH值大小顺序均呈现为10~20 cm>20~30 cm>0~10 cm。由此可见,制定适宜的载畜率,维持土壤养分平衡,是遏制草地退化的必要措施。%Taking Simmental cattle grazed in the typical steppe of Stipa krylovii Roshev as the research object, the effects of different short-term grazing intensities (non-grazing, light-grazing, moderate-grazing and heavy-grazing)on the soil organic carbon and pH value in the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia were analyzed and the suitable stocking rate of the typical steppe was discussed, in order to alleviate the grassland soil degradation and enhance the sustained utilization of grassland. The results showed that the content of organic carbon in 0-20 cm soil layer decreased with the increase of grazing intensities and there was significant difference under the heavy-grazing conditions. The organic carbon content in 20-30 cm soil layer was heavy-grazing>moderate-grazing>non-grazing>light-grazing and there was significant difference between the heavy-grazing and light-grazing. The soil pH value significantly increased as the grazing intensities decreased. The organic carbon content in soil decreased as the soil depth increased and the order of pH value was 10-20 cm>20-30 cm>0-10 cm in the vertical distribution. Therefore it was essential for preventing the grassland

  4. Soils of the Eastern mountainsides of the southern Sikhote-Alin (on the example of Lazovsky nature reserve, Russia)

    Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Victoria; Nesterova, Olga; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis


    The most common soils of the southern Far East are Brownzems under Russian classification (Cambisols), which are the zonal ones, emerging on the steep slopes and tops of hills, on high river terraces under broad-leaved and cedar-broad-leaved forests. Those soils formed due to two processes: organic matter metamorphism and clayization by siallite, leading to the formation of clay-metamorphic horizon Bw. The main morphological features of Cambisols are not deep soil profile (50 - 70 cm), weak horizons differentiation, with lots of cobble. Chemically those soils are low saturated, even in the humus horizon. Distribution of total absorbed bases is mostly accumulative, which is related to the distribution of humus in these soils, and the predominant type of clay fraction distribution of. The only exception are Humic Cambisols and Humic Cambisols Calcic which were formed on redeposited products of limestone rock weathering. Fine-grained deposits are mainly loams with a low content of silt. Silt distribution has an accumulative character with a gradual decrease in the content of silt down from the top of the profile. Layer of fresh leaf fall is very common for the Humic Cambisols surfaces, and under it there is the litter of plant residues with different degrees of decomposition. Accumulative humus horizon is dark gray with brownish tint, thin, from 10 to 15 cm in depth, loose, crumbly, highly penetrated by roots, with a strong granular structure, with aggregates tightly attached to the root hairs, sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The middle horizon is brown, yellowish-brown, divided into sub-horizons, with different color intensity, density, soil texture and amount of cobble. Dystric Cambisols are acidic or strongly acidic with low saturation of soil absorbing complex. Due to amount and distribution of organic matter these soils can be divided into two groups. The first group is soils with accumulative humus distribution: with a low depth humus-accumulative horizon (11

  5. Diversity and Distribution of Culturable Microbial Communities of Semiarid Desert Steppe and Cultivated Land in Northwestern China

    LI Yan-lin CHEN Ji-xiang


    Full Text Available The diversity and community distribution of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi in semiarid desert steppe in northwestern part of China were studied by using dilution plate count, clone isolation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis methods. The results showed that the numbers of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi of desert steppe were 1.23×106 cfu·g-1, 0.19×106 cfu·g-1 and 0.18×106 cfu·g-1, respectively, compared with those of the cultivated land, whose numbers were 3.03×106 cfu·g-1, 0.53×106 cfu·g-1 and 0.05×106 cfu·g-1 respectively. The numbers of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes in the desert steppe soil were lower than those of the cultivated land, while the fungal number in desert steppe soil was higher than that of the cultivated land. A total of 14 bacterial strains were isolated from the desert steppe soil. The strains belonged to the following three phyla:γ-Proteobacteria(Psychrobacter), Actinobacteria(Kytococcus), and Firmicutes(Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Solibacillus, Aerococcus). Among which Bacillus and Psychrobacter were the predominant genus. Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from the cultivated land and were further affiliated to four phyla:ɑ-Proteobacteri(Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium), γ-Proteobacteria(Pseudomonas), Firmicutes(Bacillus) and Actinobacteria(Microbacterium, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Kocuria). Actinobacteria was the predominant phylum(occupied 57.9%). A total of 8 actinomycetes strains were isolated from the desert steppe soil and were identified to belong to three phylogenetic groups:Atreptomyces, Micromonspora, Intrasporangium. And Atreptomyces, Micromonspora were the dominant communities in cultivated land. The fungi strains from the desert steppe were identified and designated as Alternaria and Cladosporium. But Penicillium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Mucor and Coniothecium were isolated from cultivated land. The results indicated that the

  6. Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome


    This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in

  7. Modeling of the evolution of steppe chernozems and development of the method of pedogenetic chronology

    Lisetskii, F. N.; Stolba, V. F.; Goleusov, P. V.


    Geoarchaeological methods were used to study chronosequences of surface soils in the steppe zone and to trace soil evolution during the Late Holocene in northwestern Crimea. It was found that the morphological and functional "maturity" of the humus horizons in steppe chernozems of the Late Holocene was reached in about 1600-1800 yrs. After this, their development decelerated irreversibly. The maximum concentration of trace elements accumulated in these horizons in the course of pedogenesis was reached in 1400 yrs. A new method of pedogenetic chronology based on the model chronofunction of the development of irreversible results of pedogenesis over time is suggested. Original pedochronological data and growth functions—the most suitable models for simulating pedogenesis over the past three thousand years—suggest that the development of morphological features of soil as an organomineral natural body follows growth patterns established for biological systems.

  8. [Effects of short-term fencing on organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe of Northwest China].

    Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Li, Xue-Bin; Liu, Bing-Ru


    In order to explore the change patterns of organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe at the early stage of fencing, 0-40 cm soil samples were collected from a 5-year fenced desert steppe (inside the fence) and a free grazing steppe (outside the fence) in Yanchi County of Ningxia, Northwest China, with the soil organic carbon, labile organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon contents and soil particle composition analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the soil organic carbon content and soil particle composition inside and outside the fence. The average soil organic carbon inside and outside the fences was 3.25 g x kg(-1), the percentages of sand, silt, and clay were averagely 72%, 16%, and 12%, respectively, and the soil physical stability index was 1.30% -1.31%. The soil active organic carbon showed a significant change in 10-20 cm layer. The soil labile organic carbon content was 0.80 g x kg(-1) inside the fence, which was significantly higher than that outside the fence (0.62 g x kg(-1)). The percentage of soil particulate organic carbon was 50.9% inside the fence, which was also significantly higher than that outside the fence (31.7%). The soil texture inside the fence changed from sandy to loam, and the soil labile organic carbon content increased gradually; while the soil texture outside the fence was sandy, and its vertical change was relatively smooth. The organic carbon of sandy si- erozem in the desert steppe under the conditions of short-term fencing was still in a balance between consumption and accumulation, the soil texture was relatively stable, and the soil physical stability changed little. It was suggested that the soil active organic carbon content and its relative percentage in 10-20 cm layer could be used as the indicators of early soil quality change of desert steppe.

  9. 不同放牧管理模式对高寒草甸草原土壤呼吸特征的影响%Analysis of soil respiration under different grazing management patterns in the alpine meadow-steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    李文; 曹文侠; 刘皓栋; 李小龙; 徐长林; 师尚礼; 冯今; 周传猛


    为探讨不同放牧管理模式对青藏高原东缘高寒草甸草原土壤呼吸速率的影响,于2014年5-10月用土壤呼吸测量仪(LI-8100A,LI-COR,Lincoln,USA)对禁牧(NG)、全生长季休牧(RG)、传统夏季休牧(TG)和全年连续放牧(CG)4种不同放牧管理模式高寒草甸草原土壤呼吸速率进行测定,并分析了土壤呼吸速率与其影响因子间的关系。结果表明:1)不同放牧管理模式高寒草甸草原土壤呼吸速率月动态均表现出先增加后降低的变化态势,峰值出现在8月,除 CG 外,8月显著高于其余月份;2)在整个生长季,NG,RG 和 TG 平均土壤呼吸速率显著高于 CG,其中,NG 和 RG 间无显著差异,但均显著高于 TG;3)除 CG 外,NG,RG 和 TG 土壤呼吸速率与土壤温度呈显著正相关,Q10值排序为:NG>RG>TG>CG;4)土壤质量含水量对土壤呼吸速率的影响存在一个临界值,30%左右为临界值,在此之前二者呈正相关,此后呈负相关;5)地上、地下生物量均与土壤呼吸速率呈显著正相关。在保障牧民收入稳定的前提下,为实现草地资源的可持续利用与牧草的更新,相对于全年禁牧,全生长季休牧既可充分利用牧草资源,也能有效保护草地系统稳定与生态恢复,是青藏高原高寒草甸草原类草地放牧管理的理想选择。%In recent decades,the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems has become a hot topic in global climate change research.Soil respiration is the main route by which soil organic carbon (SOC)enters the atmosphere, and also the main contributor to increased atmospheric carbon globally.As the earth’s largest terrestrial eco-system,grassland is a very important carbon sink that stores one-quarter of the world’s SOC.The alpine meadow-steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is known as the roof of the world,as it is the highest,largest, and most unique type of


    Shcherbina V.V.


    Full Text Available Characteristics of daily dynamics of seaweeds abundance and biomass were determined for steppe biogeocoenosis and agrocoenosis of Biosphere reserve “Askaniya-Nova” in spring of 2011. Fluctuation ranges in seaweeds abundance and biomass have been registered.Analyzing the indices of total number and algae biomass in studied biogeocoenoses it should be noted that the maximal values of alga number in virgin soil steppe exceeded minimal in 3,3 times; biomasses - in 2,1. For virgin soil steppe of post-fire-induced development the relation between maximum and minimal value of total number of algae was up to 2,1; biomass - 2,4. For agrocoenosis we noted the largest ranges in variation of number and biomass. In conditions of dry-land arable land the maximum values of total number of alga exceeded minimal in 21,9 times; biomasses - in 8,7; for irrigated arable land - in 12,5 and 5,6 respectively.In soil samples, selected within the limits of virgin soil biogeocoenoses of biosphere reserve “Askania-Nova” and agrocoenosis of dry-land and irrigated arable land in biosphere reserve by direct count, the algae species of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta have been found. The largest contribution to number and biomass of algae belonged to Bacillariophyta. The number and biomass of agrocoenosis algae is more dynamic feature, than for algae of virgin soil biogeocoenoses.

  11. Sage steppe ecosystem restoration strategy : Final environmental impact statement

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sage Steppe Ecosystem Restoration Strategy EIS focuses on therestoration of sage steppe ecosystems that have come to be dominated by juniper, as the densityof...

  12. Carbon implications of Virgin Lands Campaign cropland expansion and post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Prishchepov, A. V.; Kurganova, I.; Schierhorn, F.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V.; Müller, D.; Kuzyakov, Y.


    Political economy and institutional changes regarding land use play crucial role in shaping land cover worldwide. Among such events was the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, when 45.2 million ha of virgin steppes were ploughed up from 1954 to 1963 in northern Eurasia. We took opportunity to evaluate carbon (C) costs of this Campaign, particularly with the account of massive cropland abandonment in the former Campaign area after demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Within cropland mask produced with remotely sensed data, we spatially disaggregated historical annual sown area statistics at the provincial level for Russia and Kazakhstan based on cropland suitability assessment. We also adjusted our cropland allocation model with the use of 1:3,000,000 map depicting cropland expansion in Northern Kazakhstan. We used C bookkeeping approach to assess C dynamics based on soil stratification and C field measurements. The Campaign resulted in huge C losses from soils, which accounted for 611±47 Mt C in Russia and 241±11 Mt C in Kazakhstan for upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation. Such C losses could be compared with C losses due to plowing up the prairies in the mid-1930s in USA. Despite the huge C losses from soils during the Campaign, the total C budget in soils of both countries at national level was positive after 1991 due to sequestered C on abandoned lands, albeit the patterns of C loss during the Campaign and C sink in post-Soviet period differed. The C sink from 1991 to 2010 on abandoned croplands in Russia (45.5Mha) comprised 976±108Mt C and Kazakhstan (12.9Mha) comprised 240±34Mt C. However, already ongoing recultivation of abandoned cropland in Kazakhstan and already planned such activities in Russia, can release stored C on abandoned lands. Our study highlights the importance of environmental evaluation of such governmental programs and their alternatives, particularly, since such programs are not rare events in modern land

  13. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe.

    Haak, Wolfgang; Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Llamas, Bastien; Brandt, Guido; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fu, Qiaomei; Mittnik, Alissa; Bánffy, Eszter; Economou, Christos; Francken, Michael; Friederich, Susanne; Pena, Rafael Garrido; Hallgren, Fredrik; Khartanovich, Valery; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kunst, Michael; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vayacheslav; Nicklisch, Nicole; Pichler, Sandra L; Risch, Roberto; Rojo Guerra, Manuel A; Roth, Christina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Wahl, Joachim; Meyer, Matthias; Krause, Johannes; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt Werner; Reich, David


    We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000-5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ∼8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ∼24,000-year-old Siberian. By ∼6,000-5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ∼4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ∼75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ∼3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.

  14. Moscow, Russia


    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  15. Using of the geoinformation technologies for estimation of heavy metals distribution in the soils of urban ecosystems (on example of the city of Kaliningrad, Russia)

    Chupakhina, Nataliia; Skrypnik, Lubov; Maslennikov, Pavel; Belov, Nicolai; Feduraev, Pavel; Chupakhina, Galina


    Urbanization can be described as a global socio-economic process, accompanied by a profound change of the anthropogenic environment and as a replacement of the natural ecosystems by the urban ones. Heavy metals occupy an important place among the different types of urban environmental pollutants. Since they do not undergo physico-chemical and biological degradation, they can accumulate in the surface soil layer for a long time, being available for the roots of plants and actively involved in the migration processes via trophic pathways. Study of accumulation of heavy metals in the most important component of urban ecosystems, which is soils, allows us to get a reliable estimate of the intensity of technogenic processes and to trace the major migration flows of these toxicants in the urbanized area. The geographic information systems (GIS) are a useful tool for collection, analysis, processing, synthesis and management of the spatially-distributed and other types of data. They provide the two-way communication between cartographic objects and databases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using of GIS technologies for estimating of distribution of heavy metals in the soil of the city of Kaliningrad. A Kaliningrad land region of 18.4 was investigated. Locations for the collection of samples were determined based on the analysis of anthropogenic loading of the streets of Kaliningrad. The total number of the locations was 57. The selected locations were marked with squares of 1.5 km per 1.5 km. Within each square 7-9 soil samples were collected using the "envelope" method, each sample was collected three times. The abundances of heavy metals (strontium, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, arsenic) in the soil was determined using the X-ray fluorescence method (Spectroscan Max, NPO Spektron, Saint-Petersburg, Russia). Each sample was purified, in order to remove roots, large rocks, glass, etc., before placing to the cell of the

  16. Influence of Grazing Intensity on the Soil Organic Carbon and Microbial Biomass Carbon of Meadow Steppe in Zhaosu Area%放牧强度对昭苏草甸草原土壤有机碳及微生物碳的影响

    蒲宁宁; 孙宗玖; 范燕敏; 杨合龙


    采用2 a短期小区控制放牧试验,设置了不放牧(0头牛/hm2)、轻度放牧(0.38头牛/hm 2)、中度放牧(0.64头牛/hm2)、重度放牧(0.90头牛/hm2)4个处理,在伊犁昭苏草甸草原上研究放牧强度对草地土壤有机碳、土壤微生物量碳及土壤微生物商的影响.结果表明,短期放牧条件下,随放牧强度的增加,0~30 cm土层土壤微生物量碳含量及土壤微生物熵均呈先增加后降低趋势;短期放牧下,放牧强度对土壤有机碳含量影响较小(P>0.05),对土壤微生物量碳含量的影响较显著(P<0.05),土壤微生物量碳对放牧的响应较土壤有机碳更敏感:中度放牧下土壤微生物量碳含量明显高于对照、轻度放牧和重度放牧(P<0.05),0~10 cm土层、10~20 cm土层、20~30 cm土层微生物量碳含量依次为1 074.77,667.94,392.54 mg/kg.无论放牧与否,土壤微生物量碳含量、土壤有机碳含量及土壤微生物商均随剖面深度的增加呈现显著降低趋势.%The influence of grazing intensity,including the control (0 cattle/hm-2),light grazing (0.38 cattle/bm2),moderate grazing (0.64 cattle/hm2) and heavy grazing (0.90 cattle/hm2) on the soil organic carbon,soil microbial biomass carbon and soil microbial quotient in Zhaosu Meadow Steppe by plot control grazing experiment during 2-years was studied.The result showed that during the short grazing period the content of soil microbial biomass carbon and soil microbial quotient of 0-30 cm appeared the trend of first increasing then decreasing with the increase of grazing intensity.The grazing intensity has smaller influence on content of soil organic carbon under grazing in a short period (P >0.05),but it had more significant influence on soil organic carbon,which indicated that the response to grazing of soil microbial biomass carbon was more sensitive than that of soil organic carbon.The content of soil microbial biomass carbon under moderate grazing was higher than that

  17. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Soil Moisture Content and Aboveground Biomass under Different Terrains in Desert Steppe%荒漠草原不同地形条件下土壤水分和地上生物量的时空分异

    方楷; 宋乃平; 魏乐; 安慧


    运用方差分析、多重比较、Pearson相关系数及克里格插值方法,在时间和空间尺度上分析了荒漠草原地形因素对土壤水分及草地生物量异质性的影响以及土壤水分和生物量的关系。结果表明:荒漠草原地区土壤水分垂直分布规律明显,土壤水分的变异系数在0~20 cm最小、60~80 cm最大;地上生物量在整个生长季的空间异质性较大。3种地形条件下土壤水分含量及时空分布格局各不相同,说明地形是土壤水分异质性的关键影响因子;地形对植物的生长动态规律影响很大,却对地上生物量的空间分异影响较小。不同生育期,土壤水分与地上生物量的关系不同,生长初期地上生物量与60~100 cm土壤水分显著负相关,说明生长初期的土壤水分是植物生长的关键影响因子,并且植物生长耗水主要来自60~100 cm土层;生长旺期和末期的生物量与土壤含水量相关性较弱,这可能与干旱区植物耐旱器官的建成有关。%It is of significance to investigate soil moisture content and aboveground biomass under different ter- rains in desert steppe for understanding the effects of terrain on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of soil moisture content and aboveground biomass. Based on the TDR and field survey, we analyzed the heterogeneity of soil moisture con- tent and aboveground biomass under 3 different terrains using the multivariate analyses, such as the one-way ANO- VA, multiple comparison and Kriging interpolation. We also used the person correlation coefficient to analyze the relationship between soil moisture content and aboveground biomass and to clarify the effects of soil moisture content in different soil layers on vegetation at different growth stages. The results are as follows : ( 1 ) The vertical distribu- tion of soil moisture content was obvious, and CV was the lowest in soil layer of 0 - 20 cm but the highest in soil layer of 60 - 80 cm. The

  18. Grazing effects on surface energy fluxes in a desert steppe on the Mongolian Plateau.

    Shao, Changliang; Chen, Jiquan; Li, Linghao; Dong, Gang; Han, Juanjuan; Abraha, Michael; John, Ranjeet


    Quantifying the surface energy fluxes of grazed and ungrazed steppes is essential to understand the roles of grasslands in local and global climate and in land use change. We used paired eddy-covariance towers to investigate the effects of grazing on energy balance (EB) components: net radiation (Rn ), latent heat (LE), sensible heat (H), and soil heat (G) fluxes on adjacent grazed and ungrazed areas in a desert steppe of the Mongolian Plateau for a two-year period (2010-2012). Near 95% of Rn was partitioned as LE and H, whereas the contributions of G and other components of the EB were 5% at an annual scale. H dominated the energy partitioning and shared ~50% of Rn . When comparing the grazed and the ungrazed desert steppe, there was remarkably lower Rn and a lower H, but higher G at the grazed site than at the ungrazed site. Both reduced available energy (Rn - G) and H indicated a "cooling effect" feedback onto the local climate through grazing. Grazing reduced the dry year LE but enhanced the wet year LE. Energy partitioning of LE/Rn was positively correlated with the canopy conductivity, leaf area index, and soil moisture. H/Rn was positively correlated with the vapor pressure deficit but negatively correlated with the soil moisture. Boosted regression tree results showed that LE/Rn was dominated by soil moisture in both years and at both sites, while grazing shifted the H/Rn domination from temperature to soil moisture in the wet year. Grazing not only caused an LE shift between the dry and the wet year, but also triggered a decrease in the H/Rn because of changes in vegetation and soil properties, indicating that the ungrazed area had a greater resistance while the grazed area had a greater sensitivity of EB components to the changing climate.

  19. An Inventory of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from the Rostov-on-Don province of Russia.

    Poltavsky, Alexander N


    Records of leafroller moths (Tortricidae) from the Rostov-on-Don province of southern Russia are presented based on 10 years of field work (2005-2014). The list includes 91 species from 43 collecting sites; 80 species are recorded from the region for the first time. Compared to other well-surveyed, adjacent areas, the tortricid fauna is considerably more depauperate, and this may be explained in part by the predominance of steppe vegetation.


    Yu. I. Gavrilin


    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  1. The critical factors that affected the distribution of aboveground biomass in the alpine steppe and meadow, Tibetan Plateau

    J. Sun


    Full Text Available Tibetan Plateau – the third pole of the world, with its extremly harsh and fragile ecological environment, is so sensitive to global change that it attracts many scientists' attention. Alpine grassland here is an important component of the global carbon cycle. Many studies have examined links between environmental factors and distribution of biomass, but little showed the critical environmental factors affecting the distribution of biomass. To document the general relationships between the habitat factors and aboveground biomass (AGB in Tibetan Plateau, and to identify the critical factors for the distribution of AGB in the alpine steppe and meadow, the data of AGB and habitat factors from 110 field sites across the widely distributed alpine steppe and meadow of the plateau were compiled and analyzed with the classification and regression tree (CART model, and the generalized additive model (GAM. The results showed that (1 the spatial pattern of AGB in alpine steppe was determined by six major environmental factors: soil organic carbon density of soil 0–30 cm depth (SOC1, longitude, mean annual precipitation (MAP, latitude, clay and soil moisture. As to the alpine meadow, the major factors were altitude, soil moisture, nitrogen, MAP and mean annual temperature (MAT. (2 As to the alpine steppe, increased SOC1, MAP and latitude were associated with increased AGB abundance, but increased longitude resulted in lower abundance of AGB. As to the alpine meadow, the distribution of AGB had strong negative relationships with altitude and soil moisture, but a positive correlation with soil nitrogen content across sites. The results suggested that the combined effects of meteorological factors, topographic factors, and soil factors were more significant for the spatial pattern of AGB in Tibetan Plateau. In addition, our work highlights the importance of further studies to seek effects of slope and aspect in alpine grassland.

  2. Diachronic analysis of the occupation of the steppe area of the department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria)

    Hellal, B.; Ayache, A.; Ayad, N.; Hellal, T.


    Modes of occupation of the soil of the steppe area of the department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria) know lots of mutations during the period 1987/2013; compromising the future of pastoral activity. This dissection based on supervised classification TSAVI values (Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) using images of remote sensing of average spatial resolution of type Landsat-TM 5 and 8. The determination of the state of occupation of the ground and validation of remote sensing map shows that the status of the halophytic/psammophytic steppes and the Matorrals are detected in 38.38 % and 55,71 % of cases, respectively. On the other hand, the steppes chamaephytic mark -9,81 % regression only, agricultural land -24,51 %, and -46,24 % dense vegetation are correctly mapped. The sensing medium resolution is therefore, in the light of these figures, a management tool of the steppe field relevant and effective, which, in addition, allows enriching the field for a proper plan for the fight against desertification.

  3. Effect of water stress on ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration of a Leymus chinensis steppe in Inner Mongolia


    <正>Many studies on global climate have forecast major changes in the amounts and spatial patterns of precipitation that may significantly affect temperate grasslands in arid and semi-arid regions. As a part of ChinaFLUX, eddy covariance flux measurements were made at a semi-arid Leymus chinensis steppe in Inner Mongolia, China during 2003-2004 to quantify the response of carbon exchange to environmental changes. Results showed that gross ecosystem production (FGEP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) of the steppe were significantly depressed by water stress due to lack of precipitation during the growing season. Temperature was the dominant factor affecting FGEP and Reco in 2003, whereas soil moisture imposed a significant influence on both Reco and FGEP in 2004. Under wet conditions, Reco showed an exponentially increasing trend with temperature (Q10 = 2.0), but an apparent reduction in the value of Reco and its temperature sensitivity were observed during the periods of water stress (Q10=1.6). Both heat and water stress can cause decrease in FGEP. The sea-sonality of ecosystem carbon exchange was strongly correlated with the variation of precipitation. With less precipitation in 2003, the steppe sequestrated carbon in June and July, and went into a senescence in early August due to water stress. As compared to 2003, the severe drought during the spring of 2004 delayed the growth of the steppe until late June, and the steppe became a CO2 sink from early July until mid-September, with ample precipitation in August. The semi-arid steppe released a total of 9.7 g C·m-2 from May 16 to the end of September 2003, whereas the net carbon budget during the same period in 2004 was close to zero. Long-term measurements over various grasslands are needed to quantify carbon balance in temperate grasslands.

  4. Carbon Balance in an Alpine Steppe in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Zhi-Yong Pei; Hua Ouyang; Cai-Ping Zhou; Xing-Liang Xu


    Carbon fluxes were measured using a static chamber technique in an alpine steppe in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from July 2000 to July 200t. It was shown that carbon emissions decreased in autumn and increased in spring of the next year, with higher values in growth seasons than in winters. An exponential correlation (Ecarbon = 0.22(exp(0.09T) + In(0.31P + 1)), R2 = 0.77, P < 0.001) was shown between carbon emissions and environmental factors such as temperature (T) and precipitation (P). Using the daily temperature (T) and total precipitation (R), annual carbon emission from soil to the atmosphere was estimated to be 79.6 g C/m2, 46% of which was emitted by microbial respiration. Considering an average net primary production of 92.5 g C/m2 per year within the 2 year experiment, alpine steppes can take up 55.9 g CO2-C/m2 per year. This indicates that alpine steppes are a distinct carbon sink, although this carbon reservoir was quite small.

  5. 锡林郭勒典型草原不同放牧强度下土壤微生物数量的分布特征%Distribution Characteristics of the Number of Soil Microorganisms under Different Grazing Intensity in Xilingol Typical Steppe

    邵玉琴; 杨桂霞; 崔宇新; 辛小平; 刘钟龄; 戴雅婷; 赵吉


    Distribution characteristics of the number of soil microorganisms under different grazing intensity in Xilingol typical steppe was investigated. The results showed that the total aerophile bacteria and actinomycetes numbers in the 0~10 cm and 10~20 cm soil depth were in the order of grazing for 3 days >no grazing > grazing for 12 days. In 0 ~ 10 cm soil depth, aerophile bacteria numbers had significant differences among grazing for 3 days, grazing for 12 days and no grazing; In 10~20 cm soil depth, there were significant differences in number of aerophile bacteria among grazing for 3 days, grazing for 12 days and no grazing. In 0~10 cm and 10~20 cm soil depth, there were significant differences in actinonycetes number between grazing for 3 days and grazing for 12 days. The number of fungi in 0~ 10 cm soil depth was in the order of grazing for 12 days > grazing for 3 days > no grazing. Fungi number in grassland grazing for 3 days were increased by 5.88% than that in no grazing. Conservative grazing was beneficial to increase of soil microorganisms, but heavy grazing resulted in the reduction of soil microorganisms.%比较研究了锡林郭勒典型草原不同放牧强度下土壤微生物数量的分布特征.平板计数的结果表明:在0~10cm和10~20cm土层中,土壤好气性细菌(Aerophilebacteria)和放线菌(Actinomycetes)数量均表现为放牧3d(G3)>不放牧(G5)>放牧12d(G1)样地的趋势;好气性细菌数量在0~10cm土层中,放牧3d与放牧12d和不放牧样地之间有显著性差异;在10~20cm土层,放牧3d和不放牧与放牧12d之间有显著性差异.放线菌数量在0~10cm和10~20cm土层中均为放牧3d与放牧12d之间有显著性差异.土壤真菌数量在0~10cm土层中,放牧12d>放牧3d>不放牧,其中放牧3d比不放牧增加5.88%.可见,适当放牧有助于土壤微生物数量的增加,而过度放牧会导致土壤微生物数量明显减少.

  6. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    L. Belelli Marchesini


    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 g C m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 g C m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its

  7. Carbon Balance Assessment of a Natural Steppe of Southern Siberia by Multiple Constraint Approach

    Belelli, L.; Papale, D.; Reichstein, M.; Vuichard, N.; Tchebakova, N.; Valentini, R.


    Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002). Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003), make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches. We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion. The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 gC m-2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 gC m-2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty \\(±130%\\) considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover) have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its own merits and flaws.

  8. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    L. Belelli Marchesini


    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman, 2002; Curtis, 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7± 30.1 gC m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 gC m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its own merits and

  9. Studies on functional groups of macro-soil animals in Daqing meadow steppe based on the new classification%大庆草甸草原区大型土壤动物功能类群

    林琳; 邬天媛; 李景科; 张雪萍


    The study of soil fauna functional groups is important to the research of soil animal ecology. Many species have similar feeding habits and functions in a wide range of soil fauna, as well as in ecosystems. Species composition of soil fauna varies in different regions, however, there is a certain rule for them to respond to the environmental change. So soil fauna is regarded as a stable indicator to reflect changes in the environment. Researching functional groups of macrofauna is meaningful to reduce the complexity of soil fauna biodiversity, and increase the reliability of system analysis. However, very little work has been done with respect to functional categories of soil fauna in Chinese grassland ecosystems. In this paper, dynamic investigation of soil fauna was systematically done in six sites in Daqing meadow zone, which revealed compositions, characteristics and distribution law of macrofauna, response to environmental change and role of functional group. In this paper, based on the study of three function groups of soil animals in China, systematic investigation was done on soil fauna. Omnivore was divided into the original three groups, and the classification was supplemented and perfected. Thus, relatively complete function groups were formed, and soil fauna could be divided into saprophyte, herbivore, omnivore and predatory animals. The classification system of four functional groups was more scientific, accurate and operational than three previous functional group systems. In this survey, a total of 1432 soil animals were collected, which belonged to 39 categories, 4 classes and 3 phyla. There was a large number and low biomass in herbivore, which indicated that the size of this group was small. The horizontal distribution of soil fauna showed that saprophyte, herbivore and predatory animals were the dominant groups in stable environment, such as in the forest and in the slightly degraded pasture. The omnivore was the dominant groups in unstable

  10. [Responses of ecosystem carbon budget to increasing nitrogen deposition in differently degraded Leymus chinensis steppes in Inner Mongolia, China].

    Qi, Yu-Chun; Peng, Qin; Dong, Yun-She; Xiao, Sheng-Sheng; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Quo, Shu-Fang; He, Yun-Long; Yan, Zhong-Qing; Wang, Li-Qin


    Based on a field manipulative nitrogen (N) addition experiment, the effects of atmospheric N deposition level change on the plant biomass and net primary productivity (NPP), soil respiration (Rs) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were investigated respectively in 2009 and 2010 in two differently degraded Leymus chinensis steppes in Inner Mongolia of China, and the difference in the response of NEE to equal amount of N addition [10 g x (M2 x a)(-1), MN] between the two steppes was also discussed. The results indicated that for the light degraded Leymus chinensis steppe (site A) , the average plant aboveground biomass (AGB) in MN treatment were 21.5% and 46.8% higher than those of CK in these two years. But for the moderate degraded Leymus chinensis steppe (site B), the N addition decreased the plant AGB and ANPP in 2009, while showed positive effects in 2010. N addition increased the belowground biomass (BGB) of the both sites and belowground NPP (BNPP) of site B in both years, but decreased the BNPP of site A in 2010. The increase of N input in the two steppes did not change the seasonal variation of Rs. The cumulative annual soil C emissions in MN treatment in site A showed an increase of about 14.6% and 25.7% of those in the CK respectively for these two years, while were decreased by about 10.4% and 11.3%, respectively in site B. The NEE of MN treatments, expressed by C, for the two steppes were 59.22 g x (m2 x a)(1) and 166.68 g x (m2 x a)(-1), as well as 83.27 g x (m2 x a)(-1) and 117.47 g x (m2 x a)(-1), respectively in these two years. The increments in NEE originated from N addition for these two years were 15.79 g x (M2 x a)(-1) and 82.94 g x (M2 x a)(-1) in site A and 74.54 g x (M2 x a)(-1) and 101.23 g x (M2 x a)(-1) in site B. The N input per unit could obtain greater C sink effect in the steppe with lower initial N level.

  11. Environmental and biophysical controls on the evapotranspiration over the highest alpine steppe

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Yinsheng; Guo, Yanhong; Gao, Haifeng; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yefan


    Characterizing the water and energy flux in the alpine steppe ecosystem in Tibetan Plateau (TP) is of particular importance for elucidating hydrological cycle mechanisms in high altitude areas. In the present study, two years of actual evapotranspiration (ET) values from a semi-arid alpine steppe region (4947 m above sea level) and their environmental and biophysical controls were investigated using the energy balance Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) method. Seasonally, ET was much lower in frozen soil period and transition period mainly because of low soil water availability. However, ample soil water supplied by rainfall during the rainy period substantially increased ET. The available energy played an important role in controlling ET in the rainy period. Also, the leaf-level stomata closure and plant leaf development could impact the ET through changing bulk surface conductance (Gs) in rainy period. Similarly, the land-atmosphere energy exchange was dominated by latent heat flux (λE) in July, but was dominated by sensible heat flux (H) in December and May. Annual ET (plus sublimation) were 362.9 mm and 353.4 mm in the first and second observation year, respectively, which were close to the annual precipitation. On annual scale, the low Gs (3.30-3.62 mm s-1), decoupling factor (Ω, 0.25-0.27) and the ratio of ET to equilibrium evapotranspiration (ET/ETeq, 0.34-0.35) corroborated the overall water-limited conditions for the high-altitude alpine steppe. This research provides not only the ground truth data for future hydrological modeling in the data scarce region of TP but also the insights for elucidating how the environmental and biophysical stress factors control the land surface ET in high-altitude region.

  12. CH4 uptake flux of Leymus chinensis steppe during rapid growth season in Inner Mongolia,China


    The influence of near ground atmosphere CH4 concentration, soil water content, soil Eh, plants, soil temperature, and pH on CH4 uptake flux of Leymus chinensis steppe during rapid growth season was studied using field in-situ measurement in Xilin River basin of Inner Mongolia, China. The results showed that CH4 uptake flux was positively correlated with near ground atmosphere CH4 concentration and soil Eh but negatively correlated with soil water content. Precipitation may decrease the CH4 flux by increasing the soil water content. The average fluxes of three treatments during the observation period were 1.52 (natural conditions, 1.51 (aboveground plants were excluded), and 2.00 mg m?2 d?1 (all plants were removed), respectively. The difference between the CH4 flux of natural condition treatment and that of removing aboveground plants treatment is small, whereas the flux of removing all plants treatment is larger than the other two treatments. This means that the contribution of aboveground plants to CH4 uptake flux is smaller than that of roots or roots-removing process. CH4 uptake flux is not sensitive to soil temperature and the narrow-ranged soil pH (6.36–7.86). The Leymus chinensis steppe acts as a sink for CH4, and thus more studies should be focused on its affecting factors and related mechanisms.

  13. 不同利用方式下春秋草地植物群落特征及土壤养分的变化%Change of Plant Community Character and Soil Nutrients under Different Utilization Modes of Spring-autumn Steppe

    范燕敏; 武红旗; 靳瑰丽; 刘伟; 阿德列提


    [Objective]Comparing with the effects of utilization modes on the grass community characteristics and soil nutrients. To provide a scientific basis for reasonable utilization of grassland. [Method]The four utilization modes of spring - autumn steppe were determined by investigation in Zeketai Town, Xinyuan County , which are mowing grass, normal grazing, sectional grazing and rotational grazing. The objective is to study the effects of utilization modes on the community characteristics and soil nutrients. [Result] The high soil organic matter, available N and Olsen - P contents can be maintained by grazing rather than mowing. And the organic matter content of normal grazing and rotational grazing is higher than that of sectional grazing place, the contents of available K and Olsen - P of sectional grazing and rotational grazing areas are higher than those of normal grazing. The plant species of sectional grazing and rotational grazing are the highest, and the aboveground biomass of rotational grazing is the highest. [Conclusion] Considering the community characteristics and soil nutrients, grazing modes are superior to mowing grass in maintaining soil nutrients, which im-prove community quantity characteristics and productivity. And rotational grazing is appropriate mode of production for that place, and sectional grazing has potential advantage over long - term freedom grazing, which is disadvantageous to grassland sustainable development.%[目的]对比不同利用方式对草地群落和土壤养分的影响,为制定合理的草地利用方案提供科学依据.[方法]调查确定新源县则克台镇春秋草地不同利用方式,对比分析草地植物群落特征和土壤养分的变化.[结果]放牧利用方式下土壤有机质、碱解氮、有效磷含量高于打草地,其中,划区轮牧和自由放牧草地土壤有机质含量高于分段放牧方式,划区轮牧和分段放牧草地土壤P、K含量高于自由放牧方式.分段放牧和划区

  14. Environmental change and the natural link between Kazakh Steppe and Northern Eurasia

    Baibatsha, Adilkhan


    In the early to the middle of the Quarternary the southern region of the Kazakh steppe was under the favorable influence of high temperature coming from the depths along faults of mountain ranges and warm moist air mass is nearby at the time of the Indian Ocean. In connection with this region ranges Karatau, western spurs of the Alatau and the southern suburbs Saryarka maintained favorable environmental conditions for life. In periods of prolonged freezing of adjacent territories of Eastern Europe and Western Siberia in the northern regions of the Kazakh steppe developed freezing phenomenon, frozen soil conditions, extended cold snap. The alternation of glaciations with warm interglacial periods caused significant changes of ecological conditions in the environment. In periods of cold weather, caused by glaciation in North Eurasia, animals and primitive people The alternation of cold and warm periods that are favorable and unfavorable conditions for life continues to this day. This life is transitory. Ended and the cold period, which seemed endless. Special cosmic phenomena gave rise to the surface of the earth's unknown in previous epochs of events about 12 thousand years ago, at the turn of the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs of the Quarternary active tectonic movement. Fallen from the sky and the comet's impact with the ground and burning in the atmosphere flows meteor caused a sharp rise in temperature on the surface of the earth. The sudden rise in temperature caused extensive melting of glaciers and permafrost, the flood was on Earth. Eastern Europe and the western part of the Kazakh steppe fully embraced the flood; it flooded the Black Sea and Caspian Sea area. Raising the water level of the seas caused flooding of the isthmus connecting Eurasia and Africa, lost his connection by land between the continents. After a sudden strong warming that caused floods and fires, about 10-9 thousand years BC in the environment established standard conditions with

  15. The Influence of Woodland Encroachment on Runoff and Erosion in Sagebrush Steppe Systems, Great Basin, USA.

    Pierson, F. B.; Kormos, P. R.; Williams, C. J.


    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have expanded 10 to 30% in the past 30 years and now occupy nearly 20 million hectares of sagebrush shrub steppe in the Great Basin Region and Colorado Plateau, USA. The conversion of sagebrush steppe to pinyon and juniper woodlands has been linked to changes in plant community structure and composition and respective increases in overland flow and erosion from these landscapes. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP, was implemented in 2005 as a 5 year interdisciplinary research study to evaluate restoration methodologies for sagebrush rangelands degraded by woodland and grassland encroachment over a six state area within the Great Basin. The hydrology component of SageSTEP focuses on the relationships between changes in vegetation and groundcover and runoff/erosion processes. In 2006, 140 small scale (0.5 m2) rainfall simulations were conducted at 2 locations within the Great Basin to determine whether critical thresholds exist in vegetation and ground cover that significantly influence infiltration, runoff, and erosion in pinyon and juniper woodlands. Simulation plots were distributed on interspaces (areas between shrub/tree canopies) and juniper, pinyon, and shrub coppices (areas underneath canopy). Water drop penetration times and litter depths were also collected for each plot to explore controls on soil hydrophobicity. Preliminary results suggest a positive correlation between litter depth and hydrophobicity, as soils under thick pinyon and juniper coppices are strongly water repellant and soils in interspaces and under shrub coppices are easily wettable. Interspace plots with varying amounts of grasses and forbs have the highest erosion and runoff rates due to higher percentages of bare ground and relatively low soil stability. Pinyon coppices have the least runoff and erosion due to very high litter depths and low bare ground cover, even though surface soils are hydrophobic. Juniper and

  16. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan


    into account conditions of the particular type of agricultural landscape, possible changes in the characteristics and structure of land use, direct and indirect effects on the ecosystem components and biodiversity. North-Western, Central and Southern regions of the European part of Russia have great potential to produce biofuels. While there is a clearly expressed zonal agroclimatic potential of growing bio-energy crops (1.5 times increase of PAR in the forest-steppe zone in comparison with the area of the southern taiga) and there is a steady trend of further growth with a parallel increase in the amount of rainfall and the amount of active temperatures for the XXI century forecast. Particular attention should be payed to areas with high population density and industrial production with the possibility of combining the cultivation of oilseed rape for the bio-energy purpose with phytoremediation and soil improving effect of the contaminated and unproductive soils. The increasing potential of atmospheric carbon's temporary binding in the biomass of the bio-energy crops and consequently in the biofuels produced from them can significantly reduce total emissions of greenhouse gases in the conditions of the European part of Russia, but there is the need for more detailed balance calculation for specific soil and climatic conditions and land-use systems.




    Full Text Available Turkish people have spreaded on a large area historically. They have left a mark on all the places they reach. The history of Turks begun in Central Asian Steppes. In reaction to the steppe culture, the human communities of Turks are hunter-nomad communities. The hunter-nomad comminuties make a living from stockfarming and apiculture. The deer is one of the essential animals for t he hunter-nomad communities in the daily life. In the steppe, the deer is seen in all area of social life. Further, the deer motives are commonly used in political, military, financial, the most religious areas. The hunter-nomad comminuties benefit by the meat, milk, leather, horns, nails, etc of the deer. In this study, we dwell on the deer with regard to its intended purposes and usage areas according to steppe culture. The references of this study are references are inscriptions, mythologic stories and archeological datas.

  18. Paleoecological crisis in the steppes of the Lower Volga region in the Middle of the Bronze Age (III-II centuries BC)

    Demkina, T. S.; Borisov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kuznetsova, T. V.; El'tsov, M. V.; Udal'tsov, S. N.


    Diagnostic features of a catastrophic aridization of climate, desertification, and paleoecological crisis in steppes of the Lower Volga region have been identified on the basis of data on the morphological, chemical, and microbiological properties of paleosols under archeological monuments (burial mounds) of the Middle Bronze Age. These processes resulted in a certain convergence of the soil cover with transformation of zonal chestnut (Kastanozems) paleosols and paleosolonetzes (Solonetz Humic) into specific chestnut-like eroded saline calcareous paleosols analogous to the modern brown desert-steppe soils (Calcisols Haplic) that predominated in this region 4300-3800 years ago.1 In the second millennium BC, humidization of the climate led to the divergence of the soil cover with secondary formation of the complexes of chestnut soils and solonetzes. This paleoecological crisis had a significant effect on the economy of the tribes in the Late Catacomb and Post-Catacomb time stipulating their higher mobility and transition to the nomadic cattle breeding.

  19. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.


    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrushobligate animals. This restoration handbook is the first in a three-part series on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. In Part 1, we discuss concepts surrounding landscape and restoration ecology of sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse that habitat managers and restoration practitioners need to know to make informed decisions regarding where and how to restore specific areas. We will describe the plant dynamics of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and their responses to major disturbances, fire, and defoliation. We will introduce the concepts of ecosystem resilience to disturbances and resistance to invasions of annual grasses within sagebrush steppe. An introduction to soils and ecological site information will provide insights into the specific plants that can be restored in a location. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are described as a tool for determining resilience and resistance and the potential for various restoration actions. Greater sage-grouse are considered landscape birds that require large areas of intact sagebrush steppe; therefore, we describe concepts of landscape ecology that aid our decisions regarding habitat restoration. We provide a brief overview of

  20. Effects of fencing on vegetation community characteristics and soil properties of a typical steppe in Inner Mongolia%围封对内蒙古典型草原群落特征及土壤性状的影响

    杨勇; 刘爱军; 李兰花; 陈海军; 宋向阳; 王保林; 罗冬; 王明玖


    围封作为退化草原恢复与重建的重要措施之一,已被广泛应用于我国草原生态恢复工程中。为科学评价围封对退化草原的恢复效果,在内蒙古典型草原,选择围封及其对应的围栏外自由放牧草原,采用野外样方调查与室内分析相结合的方法,分析了围封对群落植物种组成、功能群组成、物种多样性、地上生物量及土壤有机碳和全氮的影响。结果表明,围封处理中植物种类(22种)多于自由放牧处理(17种),群落多样性指数(H )、丰富度指数(Pa)、均匀度指数(J P )和地上生物量在围封和自由放牧处理间无显著差异(P >0.05)。灌木、半灌木和多年生杂类草的重要值、物种所占比例、地上生物量和3种多样性指数(H 、Pa 和 J P )在围封处理中显著大于自由放牧处理(P <0.05);多年生禾草仅地上生物量在围封处理中高于自由放牧(P <0.05);一、二年生草本的重要值、物种所占比例、地上生物量和3种多样性指数在围封处理中显著小于自由放牧处理(P <0.05)。生态类型功能群物种所占比例和地上生物量在围封和自由放牧处理间无显著差异(P >0.05)。土壤有机碳和全氮含量在两种处理间未达到显著差异(P >0.05),但都随土层深度的增加呈现显著下降的趋势(P <0.05),围封处理下降幅度小于自由放牧处理。%Fencing is one of the important means of restoration and reconstruction of degraded grassland,and has been widely used in grassland ecological restoration programs in China.This study monitored fenced and free-grazed grassland plots,to evaluate the impacts of fencing on community plant species composition,compo-sition of functional groups,species diversity,aboveground biomass,soil organic carbon (C)and total nitrogen (N)contents of degraded grassland.The plant species number in fenced

  1. 不同利用方式下羊草草原土壤生态系统微生物群落结构的PLFA分析%Phospholipid fatty acid analysis of microbial community structure under different land use patterns in soil ecosystems of Leymus chinensis steppes

    邹雨坤; 张静妮; 杨殿林; 陈秀蓉; 张天瑞; 赵建宁; 赵帅


    本研究利用磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)法分析了不同利用方式对羊草草原土壤生态系统微生物群落结构的影响.结果表明,不同利用方式下羊草草原土壤微生物群落结构发生显著变化.刈割下表征土壤微生物的PLFA总量显著高于围封和放牧利用,围封条件下PLFA总量最低,相关分析表明,PLFA总量与土壤微生物量碳(熏蒸提取法)极显著正相关.刈割显著提高了土壤细菌含量,围封使土壤中放线菌含量显著增加,土壤中真菌含量在3种利用方式下则无显著变化.刈割样地表征细菌的PLFA量最高,为29.6 nmol/g,放牧和围封样地中细菌的含量分别比刈割样地降低了27.8%和49.3%.刈割样地的优势PLFA类型为a15∶0,15:0,16:0和18:0,占PLFA总量的64.6%,放牧样地中优势PLFA类型为i15:0,i16:0和18∶1ω9t,占PLFA总量的45.6%;围封样地中,优势PLFA类型为a15:0,15∶0和i16:0,占PLFA总量的46.3%.%Effects of different land use patterns on the structure of microbial communities of the Leymus chinen-sis steppe soil ecosystems were studied by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Soil microbial community structure changed under different land use patterns. Microbial characterization of the total PLFA content of mown plots was significantly higher than those of the fenced and grazed plots, and total PLFA content of the fenced plots was the lowest. Correlation analysis showed that the total concentration of PLFA was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon as determined by the fumigation-extraction method. Mowing significantly increased both soil bacterial content and actinomycete content of fenced plots but soil fungal content was not significantly affected under different land use patterns. Bacterial characterization of PLFA in mown plots was the highest (29. 6 nmol/g. Bacterial contents) with grazed and fenced plots at 27. 8% and 49. 3% respectively. Dominant PLFA type of mown plots were al5:0, 15

  2. Dollarization Hysteresis in Russia

    Shinkevich Andrey


    This project aims to (1) explain the forces that lead to dollarization in Russia, (2) analyze the cost and benefits of dollarization, (3) design a policy aimed at reducing dollarization, and (4) predict the consequences of making dollarization official.

  3. China-Russia Bond

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi


    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  4. Limiting factors for nomadic pastoralism in Mongolian steppe: A hydrologic perspective

    Sugita, Michiaki; Yoshizawa, Shintaroh; Byambakhuu, Ishgaldan


    In this study, limiting factors for continuing nomadic pastoralism in steppe areas were studied based on a hydrologic perspective. Two small watersheds in central Mongolia were selected for an assessment of water balance and hydrologic processes. We determined that the majority of annual precipitation, ∼88-96 mm, was lost by evaporation (82%) while only a small proportion went to groundwater discharge, surface runoff, and groundwater consumption by nomadic activities. The soil column was found to absorb large fluctuations in precipitation although its connection to groundwater was very weak. Groundwater recharge was, therefore, very small and occurred only rarely during heavy rainfall events in valley bottoms. However, current water storage in shallow groundwater was determined to be quite sufficient for continuing nomadic pastoralism when compared to the drinking water requirements of livestock. The main limiting factors identified were a temporal lack of feed to animals due to a loss of aboveground biomass resulting from soil moisture shortages during drought conditions, and a decline in the number and maintenance level of the traditional well network that, due to access to shallow groundwater, has allowed herders to migrate to areas with better conditions in remote Mongolian steppe.

  5. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III


    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  6. Russia air management program

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)


    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  7. Ecosystem engineering of harvester ants: effects on vegetation in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem

    Gosselin, Elyce N; Holbrook, Joseph D.; Huggler, Katey; Brown, Emily; Vierling, Kerri T.; Arkle, Robert; Pilliod, David


    Harvester ants are influential in many ecosystems because they distribute and consume seeds, remove vegetation, and redistribute soil particles and nutrients. Understanding the interaction between harvester ants and plant communities is important for management and restoration efforts, particularly in systems altered by fire and invasive species such as the sagebrush-steppe. Our objective was to evaluate how vegetation cover changed as a function of distance from Owyhee harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex salinus) nests within a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. We sampled 105 harvester ant nests within southern Idaho, USA, that occurred in different habitats: annual grassland, perennial grassland, and native shrubland. The influence of Owyhee harvester ants on vegetation was larger at the edge of ant nests, but the relationship was inconsistent among plant species. Percent cover was positively associated with distance from harvester ant nests for plant species that were considered undesirable food sources and were densely distributed. However, percent cover was negatively associated with distance-from-nests for patchily distributed and desirable plant species. For some plant species, there was no change in cover associated with distance-from-nests. Total vegetation cover was associated with distance-from-nests in the shrubland habitat but not in the 2 grasslands. The dominant plant species in the shrubland habitat was a densely distributed shrub (winterfat, Krascheninnikovia lanata) that was defoliated by harvester ants. Our results suggest that Owyhee harvester ants increase spatial heterogeneity in plant communities through plant clearing, but the direction and magnitude of effect will likely be contingent on the dominant vegetation groups. This information may inform future management and plant restoration efforts in sagebrush-steppe by directly considering the islands of influence associated with harvester ant engineering.


    Koshelev A.I.


    Full Text Available In recent decades the number of gray ducks within range of the species has declined sharply, it has been includedin several national Red books, including the Ukrainian one. Restoration of this species is only possible by studying ofthe features of its biology and amendments to the game hunting. The lake forest-steppe part of Western Siberia is stillthe center of the reproduction of gray duck. Reproductive capacity of this species is extremely high. The brood had upto 6-13 eggs, with an average of 8. Early clutches contain on average 9-11, late - 6 eggs. In broods there are 6-11, withan average of 8 chicks. Mixed stack with other species of ducks make up to 2,7%. The breed mortality in different yearswas up to 66,7%, the eggs - up to 20,5%, mortality of nestlings - 30,9%. To restore the population of gray duck huntingreserves it is recommended to conduct the biotechnology activities, to create special conditions for transition to colonialtype of breeding.

  9. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V


    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  10. Effect of Soil Nutrient on Community Composition and Diversity of Caragana intermedia in Desert Steppe%荒漠草原中间锦鸡儿林土壤养分效应对群落组分和多样性的影响

    安超平; 王兴; 宋乃平; 周娟; 随金明


    In order to understanding the characteristics and evolution trend of Caragana intermedia planta‐tion herbaceous vegetation systematically and the response of soil nutrients in desert steppe ,we used spati‐otemporal substitution method ,toke natural meadow as control ,constructed three C . intermedia age as research sequence ,and investigated inside and outside of different soil vegetation and shrubs and analyzed the relationship between them .The results showed that :(1)with the increasing of the planting years of C . intermedia ,different groups of plants showed different trends to the overall important values :a significant increase in grasses ,a significantly reduce in legume ,and the weed species increase after the first decrease . (2)α diversity :the biodiversity index including Richness (S) Shannon Wiener index ( H ) had a highest value in 16a outside shrub (P<0 .01) .Evenness index (J) and Dominance index (P) did not showed sig‐nificant trend in different stand ages .(3)β diversity :The change of Cody index (βc )and Morisita‐Horn (CMH ) similarity index indicated that :the species of 16 a ,25 a and 37 a were quite different ,while the differences were relatively small between 25 a and 37 a .The composition between 37 a Caragana forest and natural grassland species were similar .The βws index had the highest value in 25 a .(4)There was a significant “fertile island effect”of soil carbon and nitrogen in Caragana intermedia forest .The soil organ‐ic carbon had a significantly influence on community group for different artificial Caragana forest .The effect of soil nitrogen on plant diversity was not significant in shrubs interior while was significant in shrubs external .The study illustrated that :the positive effect of soil nutrient succession could improve the plant diversity in C .intermedia forest and enhance the degree of replacement of plant species .However , plant community succession had a trend from presence to natural meadow on

  11. Towards a New Russia Policy


    Daryl Press about U.S. strategic capabilities that generated so much heat in Russia,130 The reason why hardliners in Russia pay so much at- tention...No. 1, January, 2007, pp. 1-2; Angela Stent , “Berlin’s Russia Challenge,” The National Interest, No. 88, March-April 2007, pp. 46-51. 253

  12. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason


    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  13. Russia energy survey 2002

    Murray, Isabel


    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  14. Singing Praise for Russia


    Younger generations in China and Russia need to learn more about each other Few in China’s younger generations know more Russian than the names of the charismatic Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the anti-virus software brand Kaspersky or super tenor Vitas. Their

  15. Exporting to Russia?

    Thomsen, Lotte


    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  16. Terrorism Mounts in Russia


    The new year starts ominously with Moscow airport attack The year 2011 did not begin happily for Russia. On January 24,a bomb attack at Moscow’s Domodedovo Airport-the city’s largest-killed at least 35 people and injured more than 130. This tragedy shed light

  17. Home Education in Russia

    Staroverova, T. I.


    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  18. Analysis of the variability of canopy resistance over a desert steppe site in Inner Mongolia, China

    Zhang, Guo; Zhou, Guangsheng; Chen, Fei; Wang, Yu


    Canopy resistance substantially affects the partitioning of available energy over vegetated surfaces. This study analyzed the variability of canopy resistance and associated driving environmental factors over a desert steppe site in Inner Mongolia, China, through the use of eddy-flux and meteorological data collected from 2008 to 2010. Distinct seasonal and interannual variabilities in canopy resistance were identified within those three years, and these variabilities were controlled primarily by precipitation. Strong interannual variability was found in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), similar to that of air temperature. Based on the principal component regression method, the analysis of the relative contribution of five major environmental factors [soil-water content (SWC), leaf-area index (LAI), photosynthetically active radiation ( K p), VPD, and air temperature] to canopy resistance showed that the canopy-resistance variation was most responsive to SWC (with > 35% contribution), followed by LAI, especially for water-stressed soil conditions (> 20% influence), and VPD (consistently with an influence of approximately 20%). Canopy-resistance variations did not respond to K p due to the small interannual variability in K p during the three years. These analyses were used to develop a new exponential function of water stress for the widely used Jarvis scheme, which substantially improved the calculation of canopy resistance and latent heat fluxes, especially for moist and wet soils, and effectively reduced the high bias in evaporation estimated by the original Jarvis scheme. This study highlighted the important control of canopy resistance on plant evaporation and growth for the investigated desert steppe site with a relatively low LAI.

  19. Evolution of soil and vegetation cover on the bottom of drained thermokarst lake (a case study in the European Northeast of Russia)

    Kaverin, Dmitry; Pastukhov, Alexander


    The evolution of soils and landscapes has been studied in a lake bed of former thermokarst lake, which was totally drained in 1979. Melioration of thermokarst lakes was conducted experimentally and locally under Soviet economics program during 1970-s. The aim of the program was to increase in biomass productivity of virgin tundra permafrost-thermokarst sites under agricultural activities. The former thermokarst lake "Opytnoe" located in the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra, Russian European Northeast. The lake bed is covered by peat-mineral sediments, which serves as soil-forming sediments favoring subsequent permafrost aggradation and cryogenic processes as well. Initially, after drainage, swampy meadows had been developed almost all over the lake bed. Further on, succession of landscape went diversely, typical and uncommon tundra landscapes formed. When activated, cryogenic processes favored the formation of peat mounds under dwarf shrub - lichen vegetation (7% of the area). Frost cracks and peat circles affected flat mounds all over the former lake bottom. On drained peat sites, with no active cryogenic processes, specific grass meadows on Cryic Sapric Histosols were developed. Totally, permafrost-affected soils occupy 77% of the area (2011). In some part of the lake bed further development of waterlogging leads to the formation of marshy meadows and willow communities where Gleysols prevail. During last twenty years, permafrost degradation has occurred under tall shrub communities, and it will progress in future. Water erosion processes in the drained lake bottom promoted the formation of local hydrographic network. In the stream floodplain grassy willow-stands formed on Fluvisols (3% of the area). The study has been conducted under Clima-East & RFBR 14-05-31111 projects.

  20. Soil cover patterns and dynamics impact on GHG fluxes in RF native and man-changed ecosystems

    Vasenev, Ivan; Nesterova, Olga


    The increased soil spatial-temporal variability is mutual feature for most mature natural and particularly man-changed terrestrial ecosystems in Central and Far-East regions of Russia with soil cover strongly pronounced bioclimatic zoning and landscape-geomorphologic differentiation. Soil cover patterns (SCP) detailed morphogenetic analysis and typification is useful tool for soil forming and degradation processes quantitative evaluation, land ecological state and functional quality quantitative assessment. Quantitative analysis and functional-ecological interpretation of representative SCP spatial variability is especially important for environmentally friendly and demand-driven land-use planning and decision making. The carried out 33-years region- and local-scale researches of the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and SCP with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe, agricultural and recreational ones) give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. Succession process-based analysis of modern evolution of man-changed and natural soils and ESCP essentially increases accuracy of quantitative assessments of dominant soil forming and degradation processes rate and potential, their influence on land and soil cover quality and ecosystem services. Their results allow developing the regional and landscape adapted versions of automated land evaluation systems and land-use DSS. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and develop¬ment, ecosystem principal services (with especial attention on greenhouse gases emissions, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, biodiversity and productivity, hydrological regimes and geomorphologic stabilization), land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and

  1. Quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics in changing land-use and landscape conditions at the Central region of Russia

    Vasenev, I. I.; Valentini, R.


    Terrestrial ecosystems are a major player in the global and regional carbon cycles acting as carbon stocks and carbon sources. Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest carbon stock in the most of terrestrial ecosystems.Soil CO2 emission is a predominant terrestrial carbon outflow, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic microbial respiration. The capacity for carbon sequestration is widely accepted as a principal soil ecological function. Soil respiration is assumed as an important carbon source, included in the studies, assessing carbon budget in changing land-use and landscape conditions. The Central region of the European territory of Russia is especially interested for this kind of researches due to essential original spatial heterogeneity of its forest and forest-steppe soils and landscapes that has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions as a results of past century environmental changes and human impacts. SOM stocks and especially CO2 emission demonstrates a very high spatial and temporal variability here, which is mutual feature for most regional natural and man-changed ecosystems and may have a strong influence on land-use and farming change strategy and climate change. However quite a few studies focus on this problem here with application of modern field tools and quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics variability at the level of changing elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) that includes in the key issues of our project. Development the zonal-regional set of criteria for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature southern taiga ecosystems mutual for them the

  2. The relationship between soil physical properties and alpine plant diversity on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Lin Tang


    Full Text Available Through a large-scale research, we examined the heterogeneity of soil properties and plant diversity, as well as their relationships across alpine grassland types on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The soil pH and EC value increased with the constant deepening of the soil in all the three alpine grassland types which in order of absolute value in every soil layer were alpine desert steppe, alpine steppe and alpine meadow. Among the three grassland types, the alpine meadow possessed the highest SM but the lowest SBD. For plant diversity, alpine meadow was the highest, alpine desert steppe ranked the second and alpine steppe was the last. SM and SBD were the highest influential soil physical properties to species richness, but with opposite effects.

  3. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs


    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  4. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin


    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very


    Maltsev Yevhen


    The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the v...

  6. Relationships Between Visual Obstruction and Aboveground Biomass in Shortgrass Steppe

    Visual obstruction is increasingly used by management agencies for decision-making and monitoring of remaining residue levels. Applicability of this technique for shortgrass steppe may be limited, however, given the dominance of short-statured vegetation such as blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (Will...


    Gurs’ka O.V.


    Full Text Available The characteristics of the growth and development of four varieties of Pyrethrum parthenium (L. Smith., introduced in edaphic-climatic conditions of Western Steppes of Ukraine were studied. The duration of plant growth on the field was 150-165 days, the flowering period was 80-90 days. The ecological and biological characteristics of this species (soil indifference, heliophile and thermophyte features were described. It is showed that plants were successfully vegetated and fruited in this edaphic-climatic zone and were remained high decorative quality throughout the vegetative period.

  8. Quantification of the areas of saline and solonetzic soils in the Ural Federal Region of the Russian federation

    Chernousenko, G. I.; Kalinina, N. V.; Khitrov, N. B.; Pankova, E. I.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Yamnova, I. A.; Novikova, A. F.


    Soil Salinization Map of Russia on a scale of 1: 2500000 (the paper version) has been used for compiling an electronic map of the Ural Federal Region and an attribute database containing twelve characteristics of soil salinization. The areas of saline soils have been quantified for the entire region and its administrative districts. The total area of saline soils in the 0- to 200-cm layer averages up to 6.85 million ha or 5.53% of the plains in the region. The area of soilssaline in the 0- to 100-cm layer averages up to 4.91 million ha, including 4.13 million ha of weakly solonchakous soils (84%) and 0.78 million ha of solonchakous ones (16%). More than half of them (58.3%) are assigned to the moderately and strongly saline soils. The soils saline in the 0- to 100-cm layer are characterized by the neutral salinization type (45%) or the types of soda salinization and neutral salinization with soda (55%). The areas of the region with saline soils are dominated by solonetzic microassociations. The average area of the solonetzes is about 3 million ha. The area of solonchaks is about 0.09 million ha. The area of saline soils is the greatest in Kurgan oblast and the lowest in Sverdlovsk oblast and the Yamal-Nenets autonomous okrug. The formation of saline soils in the Ural Federal Region is related to the climatic conditions of the steppe zone with insufficient moistening and lithologicgeomorphologic conditions (saline Paleogene-Neogene deposits and poor drainage of the area).

  9. Russia's Development Strategy


    @@ Acomplex process characterizes the evolvement of Russia's development strategy from general and ambiguous to specific and clear. In the immediate post-independence days, former President Boris Yeltsin's zeal for wholesale leaning to and meshing with the West only ended up in the loss of initiative and national assertiveness. Since his assumption of office, President Vladimir Putin came up with a "national resurgence strategy" aimed at economic rejuvenation for recovery of the country's status as a big power by proceeding from its current post-Soviet weakened conditions. This pragmatic popular approach is generally believed to have a rosy future ahead.Even so it would still be a bumpy, uphill path, replete with challenges due to trammels of domestic opposition and resentment or obstruction from the West. In addressing these issues under international limelight, after briefly reviewing Russia's post-independence trajectory, this article will focus on President Putin's "strong national strategy" and do some crystal ball gazing for its future.

  10. German Business in Russia

    Irakliy D. Gvazava


    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  11. American Studies in Russia

    Olga Antsyferova


    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  12. Russia: Background and Strategy


    1 (Spring 2014), 24 Ibid. 25 Lukas Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in Crimea...Parameters 44, no. 2 (Summer 2014), 26 Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in...changed 126 Ibid. 127 Milevski , “Strategy Versus Statecraft in Crimea.” 128 Ibid. 35 with Russia

  13. Microbiomes structure and diversity in different horizons of full soil profiles

    Chernov, Timofey; Tkhakakhova, Azida; Zhelezova, Alena; Semenov, Mikhail; Kutovaya, Olga


    Topsoil is a most common object for soil metagenomic studies; sometimes soil profile is being formally split in layers by depth. However, Russian Soil Science School formulated the idea of soil profile as a complex of soil horizons, which can differ in their properties and genesis. In this research we analyzed 57 genetic soil horizons of 8 different soils from European part of Russia: Albeluvisol, Greyzemic Phaeozem, three Chermozems (different land use - till, fallow, wind-protecting tree line), Rhodic Cambisol, Haplic Kastanozem and Salic Solonetz (WRB classification). Sampling was performed from all genetic horizons in each soil profile starting from topsoil until subsoil. Total DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA sequencing was provided together with chemical analysis of soil (pH measurement, C and N contents, etc.). Structure and diversity of prokaryotic community are significantly different in those soil horizons, which chemical properties and processes of origin are contrasting with nearest horizons: Na-enriched horizon of Solonetz, eluvial horizon of Albeluvisol, plough pan of Agrochernozem. Actinobacteria were abundant in top horizons of soils in warm and dry climate, while Acidobacteria had the highest frequency in soils of moist and cold regions. Concerning Archaea, Thaumarchaeota prevailed in all studied soils. Their rate was higher in microbiomes of upper horizons of steppe soils and it was reducing with depth down the profile. Prokaryotic communities in Chernozems were clustered by soil horizons types: microbiomes of A (organic topsoil) and B (mineral) horizons formed non-overlapping clusters by principal component analysis, cluster formed by prokaryotic communities of transitional soil horizons (AB) take place between clusters of A and B horizons. Moreover, prokaryotic communities of A horizons differ from each other strongly, while microbiomes of B horizons formed a narrow small cluster. It must be explaned by more diverse conditions in upper A horizons

  14. Climate change and grazing interact to alter flowering patterns in the Mongolian steppe.

    Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B


    Socio-economic changes threaten nomadic pastoralism across the world, changing traditional grazing patterns. Such land-use changes will co-occur with climate change, and while both are potentially important determinants of future ecosystem functioning, interactions between them remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of grazing by large herbivores and climate manipulation using open-top chambers (OTCs) on flower number and flowering species richness in mountain steppe of northern Mongolia. In this region, sedentary pastoralism is replacing nomadic pastoralism, and temperature is predicted to increase. Grazing and OTCs interacted to affect forb flowering richness, which was reduced following grazing removal, and reduced by OTCs in grazed plots only. This interaction was directly linked to the soil moisture and temperature environments created by the experimental treatments: most species flowered when both soil moisture and temperature levels were high (i.e. in grazed plots without OTCs), while fewer species flowered when either temperature, or moisture, or both, were low. Removal of grazing increased the average number of graminoid flowers produced at peak flowering in Year 1, but otherwise grazing removal and OTCs did not affect community-level flower composition. Of four abundant graminoid species examined individually, three showed increased flower number with grazing removal, while one showed the reverse. Four abundant forb species showed no significant response to either treatment. Our results highlight how climate change effects on mountain steppe could be contingent on land-use, and that studies designed to understand ecosystem response to climate change should incorporate co-occurring drivers of change, such as altered grazing regimes.

  15. [Dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    Zhang, Guo; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Yang, Fu-Lin


    This paper studied the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, based on the 2008 observation data from eddy covariance tower. The diurnal patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes over the ecosystem were both single kurtosis, with the maximum value being 319.01 W x m(-2) (on May 30th, 2008) and 425.37 W x m(-2) (on Jun 2nd, 2008), respectively, and occurred at about 12:00-13:30 (local time), which was similar to the diurnal pattern of net radiation but lagged about one hour of the maximum net radiation. The maximum diurnal variations of monthly mean sensible and latent heat fluxes occurred in May and June, and their minimum diurnal variations occurred in January and November, respectively. There was a closer relationship between soil moisture content and precipitation. Surface soil moisture content was most sensitive to precipitation, while the moisture content in deeper soil layers had a lagged response to precipitation. The seasonal dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes was similar to that of net radiation, and affected by precipitation. Sensible heat flux was obviously affected by net radiation, but latent heat flux was more sensitive to precipitation and mainly controlled by soil moisture content.

  16. Soils

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert


    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  17. Effects of Irrigation on Nitrous Oxide,Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in an Inner Mongolian Steppe

    LIU Chunyan; Jirko HOLST; Nicolas BR(U)GGEMANN; Klaus BUTTERBACH-BAHL; YAO Zhisheng; HAN Shenghui; HAN Xingguo; ZHENG Xunhua


    Increased precipitation during the vegetation periods was observed in and further predicted for Inner Mongolia.The changes in the associated soil moisture may affect the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases.Therefore,we set up an irrigation experiment with one watered(W) and one unwatered plot(UW) at a winter-grazed Leymus chinensis-steppe site in the Xilin River catchment,Inner Mongolia. UW only received the natural precipitation of 2005(129 mm),whereas W was additionally watered after the precipitation data of 1998(in total 427 mm).In the 3-hour resolution,we determined nitrous oxide(N20),methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (C02) fluxes at both plots between May and September 2005,using a fully automated,chamber-based measuring system.N2O fluxes in the steppe were very low,with mean emissions(±s.e.)of 0.9±0.5 and 0.7±0.5 μg N m-2 h-1 at W and uw,respectively.The steppe soil always served as a CH4 sink,with mean fluxes of-24.1±3.9 and-31.1±5.3μg Cm-2h-1 at W and UW. Nighttime mean C02 emissions were 82.6±8.7 and 26.3±1.7 mg C m-2 h-1 at W and UW.respectively, coinciding with an almost doubled aboveground plant biomass at W.0ur results indicate that the ecosystem C02 respiration responded sensitively to increased water input during the vegetation period,whereas the effects on CH4 and N20 fluxes were weak,most likely due to the high evapotranspiration and the lack of substrate for N20 producing processes.Based on our results,we hypothesize that with the gradual increase of summertime precipitation in Inner Mongolia,ecosystem C02 respiration will be enhanced and CH4 uptake by the steppe soils will be lightly inhibited.

  18. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Steven Rosefielde


    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  19. Biosensor development in Russia.

    Reshetilov, Anatoly N


    The review summarizes the current Russian research in the field of biological sensors for detection of carbohydrates, alcohols, medicines, enzyme inhibitors, toxicants, heavy metal ions, as well as viruses and microbial cells. Some of the presented works describe the analytical parameters of biosensors; other publications provide a basis for their development. The review covers mainly publications that have appeared over the past 10 years. As a whole, the collected material gives an idea of the main tendencies of biosensor development in Russia. The review is not meant to be comprehensive but highlights the major trends in this field in the last decade.

  20. Exporting to Russia?

    Thomsen, Lotte


    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...... the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we...

  1. Characteristics and modeling of evapotranspiration over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Yang, Fulin; Zhou, Guangsheng


    SummaryThe magnitude and seasonal dynamics of evapotranspiration ( ET) over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, were investigated during a growing season (from 1st May to 15th October 2008) using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. Diurnal variations of latent heat flux ( LE) at different phenological stages showed similar patterns with the peak value around noon. The sensible heat flux dominated the latent heat flux at midday during the whole growing season. Seasonal variation in ET followed closely the variation in soil water content ( SWC) and leaf area index ( LAI). The maximum daily ET rate was 3.8 mm day -1. Cumulative ET during the study period estimated directly by EC method was 150.9 mm, exceeding the precipitation ( PPT) received at the site during the same period (133.0 mm) by 13.4%. The daily crop coefficient ( Kc, calculated as the ratio of the measured ET (from the EC system) to the reference ET (from the Penman-Monteith model)) also showed a distinct seasonal pattern, however its value on average was considerable lower (0.17) during the measurement period than the results reported from other grasslands, suggesting that this steppe was strongly affected by the deficit of available water. SWC was the most important environmental factor controlling ET in this steppe. The correlation analysis between daily Kc and its major environmental controls indicated that SWC, relative humidity ( RH), and net radiation ( Rn) were the major explanatory variables for daily Kc. Daily Kc showed a linear increase with SWC and Rn, and an exponential increase with RH. Thus, a daily Kc model would be developed as a function of SWC, RH, and Rn. An empirical daily ET model derived from the FAO 56 crop coefficient approach was developed based on this daily Kc model and the Penman-Monteith model. This ET model was validated by the data from the growing season in 2009, and showed a good consistency between the simulated and the measured ET values. Based on the

  2. Soil carbon sequestration due to post-Soviet cropland abandonment: estimates from a large-scale soil organic carbon field inventory.

    Wertebach, Tim-Martin; Hölzel, Norbert; Kämpf, Immo; Yurtaev, Andrey; Tupitsin, Sergey; Kiehl, Kathrin; Kamp, Johannes; Kleinebecker, Till


    The break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered cropland abandonment on a continental scale, which in turn led to carbon accumulation on abandoned land across Eurasia. Previous studies have estimated carbon accumulation rates across Russia based on large-scale modelling. Studies that assess carbon sequestration on abandoned land based on robust field sampling are rare. We investigated soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks using a randomized sampling design along a climatic gradient from forest steppe to Sub-Taiga in Western Siberia (Tyumen Province). In total, SOC contents were sampled on 470 plots across different soil and land-use types. The effect of land use on changes in SOC stock was evaluated, and carbon sequestration rates were calculated for different age stages of abandoned cropland. While land-use type had an effect on carbon accumulation in the topsoil (0-5 cm), no independent land-use effects were found for deeper SOC stocks. Topsoil carbon stocks of grasslands and forests were significantly higher than those of soils managed for crops and under abandoned cropland. SOC increased significantly with time since abandonment. The average carbon sequestration rate for soils of abandoned cropland was 0.66 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) (1-20 years old, 0-5 cm soil depth), which is at the lower end of published estimates for Russia and Siberia. There was a tendency towards SOC saturation on abandoned land as sequestration rates were much higher for recently abandoned (1-10 years old, 1.04 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) compared to earlier abandoned crop fields (11-20 years old, 0.26 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ). Our study confirms the global significance of abandoned cropland in Russia for carbon sequestration. Our findings also suggest that robust regional surveys based on a large number of samples advance model-based continent-wide SOC prediction.

  3. Changing Climate and Overgrazing Are Decimating Mongolian Steppes

    Liu, Yi Y.


    Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation. © 2013 Liu et al.

  4. Changing climate and overgrazing are decimating Mongolian steppes.

    Yi Y Liu

    Full Text Available Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008 record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass, to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation.

  5. Syphilis soars in Russia.

    Ingram, M


    The number of adults with syphilis in Russia has increased 15-fold since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The rate in children is 20 times higher than it was 4 years ago. 126,500 cases were registered with the health ministry over the past year, while 7900 were in 1990. The number of cases in children increased from 38 in 1991 to 761 this year; most of these cases were acquired via sexual transmission. Lilia Tikhonova, the health ministry's chief specialist on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), blamed the increases on "the complete perversion of our society's morals," the rapid growth of child prostitution, the influx of homeless people and refugees into the cities, and miracle cures that are used in place of seeing a specialist. In communist Russia, patients were required to register passport details and previous sexual contacts, and future sexual contact was forbidden for a period; anyone breaking these rules faced 5 years in jail. Current law only punishes those who knowingly infect their sexual partners. Health officials in the Ukraine, where a similar increase in the number of STDs has been noted, blame black market condoms. Over the past 5 years, cheap foreign condoms have flooded the market.

  6. Nitrogen enrichment enhances the dominance of grasses over forbs in a temperate steppe ecosystem

    L. Song


    Full Text Available Chinese grasslands are extensive natural ecosystems that comprise 40 % of the total land area of the country and are sensitive to N deposition. A field experiment with six N rates (0, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 480 kg N ha−1 yr−1 was conducted at Duolun, Inner Mongolia, during 2005 and 2010 to identify some effects of N addition on a temperate steppe ecosystem. The dominant plant species in the plots were divided into two categories, grasses and forbs, on the basis of species life forms. Enhanced N deposition, even as little as 30 kg N ha−1 yr−1 above ambient N deposition (16 kg N ha−1 yr−1, led to a decline in species richness. The cover of grasses increased with N addition rate but their species richness showed a weak change across N treatments. Both species richness and cover of forbs declined strongly with increasing N deposition as shown by linear regression analysis (p < 0.05. Increasing N deposition elevated aboveground production of grasses but lowered aboveground biomass of forbs. Plant N concentration, plant δ15N and soil mineral N increased with N addition, showing positive relationships between plant δ15N and N concentration, soil mineral N and/or applied N rate. The cessation of N application in the 480 kg N ha−1 yr−1 treatment in 2009 and 2010 led to a slight recovery of the forb species richness relative to total cover and aboveground biomass, coinciding with reduced plant N concentration and soil mineral N. The results show N deposition-induced changes in soil N transformations and plant N assimilation that are closely related to changes in species composition and biomass accumulation in this temperate steppe ecosystem.

  7. CO2 fluxes at wetland ecosystems in European Russia

    Kurbatova, J.; Astafeva, E.; Ivanov, D.; Avilov, V.; Valentini, R.


    Peatlands are one of the main element of natural landscapes of Russia (about 10% of territory). Chamber measurements of CO2 fluxes from soil with vegetation were conducted during green seasons 2011, 2012 years in European part of Russia (Central Forest Reserve, Tver region). Two main subjects were selected for field researches: ombrotrophic bog and wet spruce forest. Our previous eddy covariance investigations in the ecosystems have allowed to determine that in common wet forest is source of CO2 for atmosphere but ombrotrophic bog is sink for CO2. Chamber measurements have evaluated net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, photosynthesis of grass cover and their depending on environmental factors. Photosynthesis of vegetation cover on the bog is significantly more than at the forest. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance as at the bog as at the wet forest mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile.

  8. Vegetation landscape structure and dynamics in sandy forest-steppe ecotone

    ZOUChun-jing; HANShi-jie; XUWen-duo; LIDao-tang


    Sandy forest-steppe ecotone in Baiyinaobao Natural Reserve of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China is one of the special landscape types in forest-steppe vegetation zone in China. Vegetation landscape types, landscape patches and patch size were measured by the field investigation, forest photograph, and airscape. The structure of landscape patches in sandy forest-steppe ecotone, including composition structure, and size structure, was studied and the dynamics and transformation of landscape patches were analyzed. The data obtained in this study could provide theoretical basis for the research on vegetation landscape in forest-steppe ecotones and other vegetation types.

  9. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Elena Sidorova


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  10. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))


    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  11. Interactive effects of multiple climate change factors on ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in a temperate steppe.

    Zhang, Cui-Jing; Shen, Ju-Pei; Sun, Yi-Fei; Wang, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Li-Mei; Yang, Zhong-Ling; Han, Hong-Yan; Wan, Shi-Qiang; He, Ji-Zheng


    Global climate change could have profound effects on belowground microbial communities and subsequently affect soil biogeochemical processes. The interactive effects of multiple co-occurring climate change factors on microbially mediated processes are not well understood. A four-factorial field experiment with elevated CO2, watering, nitrogen (N) addition and night warming was conducted in a temperate steppe of northern China. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, combined with clone library techniques, were applied to examine the effects of those climate change factors on N-related microbial abundance and community composition. Only the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria significantly increased by nitrogen addition and decreased by watering. The interactions of watering × warming on the bacterial amoA community and warming × nitrogen addition on the nosZ community were found. Redundancy analysis indicated that the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community was affected by total N and total carbon, while the community of bacterial amoA and nosZ were significantly affected by soil pH. According to a structural equation modeling analysis, climate change influenced net primary production indirectly by altering microbial abundance and activities. These results indicated that microbial responses to the combination of chronic global change tend to be smaller than expected from single-factor global change manipulations. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  12. Can Iran take Russia's place?

    Ihle, R.


    Agricultural exports. Sales of European farm products to Russia have collapsed. Could there be an alternative market for our agricultural goods in Iran? Demand is growing there for processed foods as well as unprocessed commodities and feeds.

  13. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver


    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  14. Climate change regional review: Russia

    Sharmina, Maria; Anderson, Kevin; Bows-Larkin, Alice


    With climate change, an increasingly important focus of scientific and policy discourse, the Russian government has aimed to position the country as one of the leaders of the global process for addressing climate change. This article reviews a breadth of literature to analyze the politico-economic situation in Russia with regard to international climate change negotiations, related domestic policies, societal attitudes, and climatic change impacts on Russia's territory. The analysis demonstra...

  15. Utilization of non-merchantable wood in Steppe regions

    Dobrovol' skil, E.Ya.


    A description, with diagram, is given of the design of a small mobile retort developed in the USSR for pyrolysis of unmerchantable wood in the steppe regions. The type of wood considered is the tree and shrub material in shelterbelts, e.g. Cornus sanguinea, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Ribes aureum, Cotinus coggygria (Rhus continus) and Caragana arborescens. Yields of charcoal, settled tar, alcohols, and volatile acids from each of these species are given in % of oven-dry wood for pyrolysis at 320/sup 0/C for 2 h. Comparative data are given for dry distillation of wood of birch, spruce, and pine (400/sup 0/C, 8 h).

  16. Russia skyshine experiment analysis

    Tsubosaka, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawabe, Toshiaki [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueki, Kohtaro [National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    Experimental studies of neutron and gamma-radiation skyshine at nuclear reactor are proceeding in cooperation with Russia, Kazakhstan and Japan as a project of international science technology center (ISTC). Fast neutron streaming from the vertical experimental hole of IVG.1M reactor which has a cylindrical core are analyzed by a monte carlo n-particle transport code (MCNP) with variance reduction methods, in which a weight window method and a cell importance method can be selected. Calculation results on radial distribution of fast neutron flux at 100 cm above the reactor is compared with the experimental values. The calculated values of neutron flux by using the cell importance method, however, is very different from the experimental values at close distance of 10 cm from the center. Skyshine analysis of neutron radiation streaming from the reactor are also carried out by the equivalent source model in which a point source and the detectors are located at 10 cm and 1 m above the ground, respectively. The calculated values of total neutron flux distribution are very close to the experimental values. The effects of the air composition on neutron flux calculation are also investigated. (M. Suetake)


    N. M. Dronin


    Full Text Available The combined influence of regional climate change in East European steppe biome and changing priorities of agricultural policy on the biological productivity of agrolandscapes is considered for the three decades (1980-s, 1990-s and 2000-s. Sum annual NDVI derived from remote sensing data of low and medium resolution is used as a reliable indicator of biological productivity of the semiarid landscapes. Spatial analysis of decadal trends are discussed for the different zonal landscapes of region in study with a special attention to the ongoing climate change, agricultural reforms and grain production dynamics.

  18. Community Structure and Productivity in Western Mongolian Steppe

    Kiyokazu Kawada


    Full Text Available The people of the Mongolian steppe have maintained a sustainable, nomadic lifestyle. However, several ecological processes are threatening their way of life. Ecological changan be detected through the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. It is therefore, imperative to develop a sustainable rangeland management system aimed at combating desertifi cation. In this study we quantitatively and qualitatively describe several western Mongolian steppe plant communities by examining species composition, plant volume and community structure. Study sites were located in the Uvs and Khovd provinces and had all been affected by livestock grazing. A total of 48 species were found. Stipa krylovii , S . gobica , Cleistogenes songorica , Koeleria cristata and Ajania achilleoides were dominant. There was a signifi cant relationship between biomass and plant volume at all sites. Study sites were classifi ed into four groups using cluster analysis, based on the presence or absence of several species. More than 90% of plant volumes at all groups were perennial grasses and perennial forbs. The ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants at site 3 was reversed in comparison to the other sites. Species highly palatable to livestock were dominant at all sites. To ensure the sustainable use of biological resources in these arid areas, these fi ndings should be taken into account in designing land-use plans.

  19. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Alexander A. Yanykin


    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  20. Effects of litter position on mass loss and nitrogen release in the semiarid Patagonian steppe

    Austin, A. T.


    The patchy distribution of vegetation in arid and semiarid ecosystems results in a mosaic of microsites of soil properties and variable abiotic conditions, including the well-documented "islands of fertility", low nutrient conditions in exposed bare soil and large amounts of standing dead material. I evaluated the relative importance of litter position on mass loss and nutrient release in a variety of realistic litter positions both in vegetated, unvegetated, aerial and buried microsites in a natural semiarid steppe in Patagonia, Argentina. Position demonstrated a highly significant effect on mass loss for all litter types (P<0.0001), but surprisingly, the fastest decomposition occurred in litter that was suspended in aerial positions or buried (k=0.25 and 0.32 year-1, respectively), intermediate values for mass loss of litter in bare soil and in shrub removal patches (k=0.21 and 0.24 year-1, respectively), and markedly slowest decomposition occurring under shrub patches (k = 0.018 year-1). In contrast, nutrient release showed a very different pattern with nutrient immobilization occurring only in shrub and buried microsites while all other positions demonstrated a gradual decrease in nitrogen over time. These results support the idea that abiotic photodegradation may be an important driver affecting carbon losses in litter in positions exposed to solar radiation, while nutrient dynamics appear to be largely biotically mediated and concentrated in photoprotected areas where biotic activity dominates. Global change may differentially affect carbon and nutrient turnover due to the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors affecting litter decomposition in semiarid ecosystems.

  1. Russia Cannot Be Understood By the Mind Alone


    @@ These words by the 19th-century Russian poet Fyodor Tyutchev still resonate today. Russia is beyond comprehension; it can only be felt. And to do that, you have to come to Russia, see Russia, travel through Russia.

  2. Trophic relations of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera, Carabidae with dominant species of invertebrates in forest ecosystems of steppe Dnieper region

    О. V. Korolev


    Full Text Available The features of interrelations of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 with the soil and litter mesofauna species are considered. In the conditions of forest ecosystems of steppe Dnieper region P. melanarius demonstrates trophic preference for І order zoofagoes (body mass 8.0–31.9 mg and also sapro- and phytofagoes (more than 128 mg of body mass. P. melanarius is able to change the trophic load between invertebrates’ populations depending on their number in the ecosystem. In comparison with the other ground beetle species, the P. melanarius has an extraordinarily wide trophic niche. That is one of principal reasons of the high quantity of P. melanarius in many anthropogenic and transformed ecosystems.


    O. V. Gurs'ka


    Full Text Available The characteristics of the growth and development of four varieties of Pyrethrum parthenium (L. Smith., introduced  in edaphic-climatic conditions of Western Steppes of Ukraine were studied. The duration of plant growth  on the field was 150-165 days, the flowering period was 80-90 days. The ecological and biological characteristics of this species (soil indifference, heliophile and thermophyte features were described. It is showed that plants were successfully vegetated and fruited in this edaphic-climatic  zone and were remained high decorative quality throughout the vegetative period. Keywords: Pyrethrum parthenium (L. Smith., vegetative period, ontogenesis, phenological phases, edaphic-climatic  conditions.

  4. Relations Between Russia and Serbia

    Elvin Aghayev


    Full Text Available Relations between Russia and Syria are closely allied with historical, spiritual, and cultural ties. Of all the great powers, Russia has had the strongest influence on Serbia. This paper will deal with the history of Serbian-Russian relations, starting with 16th century and Ivan the Terrible’s interests in Balkans. Since the 18th century, the opinion has emerged that Russia is a protector of Serbia. First, the Serbian Uprising was a great opportunity for Russia’s “entry” into the Balkan regions. After the October Revolution, relations tensed since the monarchy was opposed to communism. After World War II, relations improved, but only until 1948 when Tito and Stalin came into the direct conflict that lasted until Stalin’s death. The second half of the 20th century was marked by better relations between these two countries.

  5. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    Dimitry V. Kuzin


    This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia...

  6. Delineating native and invasive plant functional groups in shrub-steppe vegetation using bidirectional reflectance

    Naupari, Javier A.; Vierling, Lee A.; Eitel, Jan U. H.


    Delineating invasive and native plant types using remote sensing is important for managing rangelands. Remote characterization of rangeland vegetation often utilizes only the nadir view, which can be complicated by background soil reflectance. We therefore collected bidirectional radiometric measurements on a shrub-steppe vegetated landscape throughout the mid- to late-growing season to: (1) quantify the BRFs of four rangeland vegetation functional groups (native shrub, native grasses, invasive annual grasses, and forbs), and (2) examine ways in which bidirectional reflectance values may help delineate native and invasive vegetation types. We found that the invasive grass medusahead rye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) could be discriminated from other vegetation types at nadir and across four forward-viewing zenith angles because this species exhibited structural changes when leaf orientation changed from erectophile to planophile during and after the filling of seedheads. We also confirmed that native shrubs exhibited the highest anisotropy in all wavebands, as the relatively complex structure of the shrub canopy and concomitant shadowing greatly affected values of normalized difference vegetation index across all view angles. In order to delineate rangeland vegetation types at coarser scales, further study is needed to quantify the spectral angular signatures of these plant groups using satellite-based images.

  7. Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Fulin Yang

    Full Text Available Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO₂ flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm, while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm and 2010 (141.3 mm was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO₂ throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP and R(eco, and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco. The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution.

  8. Migration of humus substances from soil to water and the main chemical reaction (in different natural zone of Russian Federation)

    Dinu, Marina; Moiseenko, Tatiana; Gashkina, Natalia; Kremleva, Tatiana


    Migration of humus substances (HS) from soil to natural water has zonal specificity. Soil HS of different natural areas characterized by specific functional features, different molecular weight (MW) distribution and other physicochemical parameters. Due to the specifics of formation, waters in Russia widely distributed colored water with high concentrations of humus substances. HS involved in many chemical reactions in natural waters/soil. The most important: 1.Dissociation, association and same destruction - reactions are particularly important for assessing the acidification of natural waters 2.Complexation with metals - reactions reduce the toxicity of most metals We researched the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition of soil HS catchment and HS in natural waters of some climatic zones. Samples were taking: the mixing zone forests (sod-podzolic soils) and the steppe zone (black earth) European Territory of Russia (ETR). In order to examine process of migration humus substances from soil to water have been performed HPLC, IR spectrometry and mass spectrometry analyses. We funded change of HS structure and MW in soil/water. The water HS of the mixed forest characterized as same ratio of functional groups as soil catchments. The molecular weight distribution in water - predominate medium (500-1000 kDa), and low molecular weight fractions (soils. In HS catchment soils predominate nitrogen- and sulfur- functional group and in HS water - nitrogen-, oxygen- functional group. The molecular weight of HS in natural waters is macromolecular fractions ( > 1000 kDa). For evaluating of the acidification effect on structures of humic substances in natural waters/soil we used date of survey more than 300 lakes on the European Russia (ETP) and Western Siberia (WS) for assessing chemical parameters. Chemical analyzes of water samples were performed by a single method in accordance with the recommendations ICP-Water report 105/2010, 2010. We researched HS

  9. Carbon pool densities and a first estimate of the total carbon pool in the Mongolian forest-steppe.

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Degener, Jan; Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Yeruult, Yolk; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus


    The boreal forest biome represents one of the most important terrestrial carbon stores, which gave reason to intensive research on carbon stock densities. However, such an analysis does not yet exist for the southernmost Eurosiberian boreal forests in Inner Asia. Most of these forests are located in the Mongolian forest-steppe, which is largely dominated by Larix sibirica. We quantified the carbon stock density and total carbon pool of Mongolia's boreal forests and adjacent grasslands and draw conclusions on possible future change. Mean aboveground carbon stock density in the interior of L. sibirica forests was 66 Mg C ha(-1) , which is in the upper range of values reported from boreal forests and probably due to the comparably long growing season. The density of soil organic carbon (SOC, 108 Mg C ha(-1) ) and total belowground carbon density (149 Mg C ha(-1) ) are at the lower end of the range known from boreal forests, which might be the result of higher soil temperatures and a thinner permafrost layer than in the central and northern boreal forest belt. Land use effects are especially relevant at forest edges, where mean carbon stock density was 188 Mg C ha(-1) , compared with 215 Mg C ha(-1) in the forest interior. Carbon stock density in grasslands was 144 Mg C ha(-1) . Analysis of satellite imagery of the highly fragmented forest area in the forest-steppe zone showed that Mongolia's total boreal forest area is currently 73 818 km(2) , and 22% of this area refers to forest edges (defined as the first 30 m from the edge). The total forest carbon pool of Mongolia was estimated at ~ 1.5-1.7 Pg C, a value which is likely to decrease in future with increasing deforestation and fire frequency, and global warming.

  10. The problem of improvement birch stand productivity in forest steppe of Cis-Urals

    S. V. Zalesov


    Full Text Available The article deals with birch stands of the forest steppes in Cis-Urals. It is pointed out that the latter are represented both by native and derivative stands formed in the place of native coniferous forest, for the most part pine stands. Birch stands, as a rule, have vegetative origin, low density (0.3–0.5 and deposit that does not exceed 130 m3/ha. As a silvicultural measure aimed at derivative birch stands’ productivity increasing, it is offered to create under the canopy preliminary forest crops of Scotch pine. The advantage of such crops is tending of plantations cutting and terms of technic mature wood growing. It has been determined that in investigated regions with low density birch stands on grey forest soil and chernozem, Scotch pine in preliminary forest crops develops surface roots which are branching in different directions from planting sites including in the direction of the brand stems. These roots are terminated among the interplacement mass of this mass of stiffened roots. In other words, on the first step of forest growing, preliminary crops do not experience considerable root competition as concerns birch stand. Based on the research data, high safe keeping of preliminary forest crops during the initial years after planting is proved. However, delay in birch stands harvesting can result in preliminary forest crops increment reduction and, in the long run, their destruction. Thus the mean height of the preliminary pine crops at the age of 11–12 years constitutes only 42–62 % as compared with pine crops of the same age that were formed on the cutover area if agrotechnical tending is systematically carried on in the latter. The positive role of birch stands in the initial 3–4 years after preliminary forest crops of Scotch pine forming has been proven experimentally. Then the birch woody canopy must be removed. Replacement of derivative birch stands for native pine stands by forming preliminary forest crops will make

  11. Habitat selection by mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe

    Augustine, David J.


    Much of the breeding range for the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) occurs in shortgrass steppe and mixed-grass prairie in the western Great Plains of North America. Studies of mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe during the 1970s and 1990s were focused in Weld County, Colorado, which was considered a key breeding area for the species. These studies, however, did not include habitats influenced by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) or prescribed fire. The role of these 2 rangeland disturbance processes has increased substantially over the past 15 years. During 2008–2009, I used radial distance point count surveys to estimate mountain plover densities early in the nesting season in 4 habitats on public lands in Weld County, Colorado. All 4 habitats were grazed by cattle during the growing season at moderate stocking rates but had different additional disturbances consisting of 1) dormant-season prescribed burns, 2) active black-tailed prairie dog colonies, 3) black-tailed prairie dog colonies affected by epizootic plague in the past 1–2 years, and 4) rangeland with no recent history of fire or prairie dogs. Mountain plover densities were similar on active black-tailed prairie dog colonies (x = 6.8 birds/km2, 95% CI = 4.3–10.6) and prescribed burns (x = 5.6 birds/km2, 95% CI = 3.5–9.1). In contrast, no plovers were detected at randomly selected rangeland sites grazed by cattle but lacking recent disturbance by prairie dogs or fire, even though survey effort was highest for this rangeland habitat. Mountain plover densities were intermediate (2.0 birds/km2, 95% CI = 0.8–5.0) on sites where black-tailed prairie dogs had recently been extirpated by plague. These findings suggest that prescribed burns and active black-tailed prairie dog colonies may enhance breeding habitat for mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe and illustrate the potential for suppressed or altered disturbance processes to influence habitat

  12. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia


    ... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... Publication 4307 (February 2012), entitled Uranium from Russia: Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third...

  13. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia


    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia... investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  14. China Urges Russia to Honor Oil Agreements


    @@ China's Premier Wen Jiabao paid a three-day official visit to Russia in late September with a mission to secure more power supply from Russia to satisfy China's booming demand for oil and gas.This is his first visit to Russia since taking office in March last year. Oil was top of the agenda in Premier Wen's trip to Moscow.

  15. China Pins Hopes on Pipeline with Russia


    @@ China still has faith in the gigantic Sino-Russia oil pipeline, despite reports which said that Russia is inclined to build a competing pipeline in favor of Japan. CNPC, the company representing China to negotiate with Russia on the project, is reported to continue its preparation work to receive Russian crude.

  16. CPAFFC and CRFA Delegation in Russia


    <正>Invited by the Russia-China Friendship Association (RCFA), a delegation of the CPAFFC and the China-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA) led by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu paid a visit to Russia from October 7 to 13, 2010.

  17. Problems of Recreational Industry in European Russia: Changes in Infrastructure, Environment, and Climate

    Yakovleva, M.; Lyaskovskiy, S. I.


    Forest and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have a great potential for recreation, including its active form, tourism. Soft peaceful landscapes and moderate summer climate provide pleasant conditions for family vacations. Numerous lakes and rivers provide places for swimming, boating, and fishing. These pleasant environmental conditions are complemented with abundant recreational choices such as historical places, old cities, towns, and monasteries filled with museums that deliver detailed information about the millennium-long Russian history. There are the vibrant cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg; cities along the Volga River; and the oldest cities in northwestern Russia, Novgorod and Pskov provide numerous options for cultural and entertaining programs for the most demanding travelers. The country has a broad range of private tour operators that cater to national and international travelers. Still there are problems which should be taken into account by travelers who chose to spend their precious vacation time in Russia. Infrastructure problems include a deficit of three-star hotels that are the mainstream of contemporary tourist business. Their number is growing exponentially in the past decade and at present remains insufficient, but the capacity building is progressing favorably. Climatic and environmental changes became a new and unexpected factor affecting the tourist industry in European Russia. Stable and strongly sustainable climate has been interrupted by extreme events that may cause additional discomfort for some people. Tour operators and hotel hosts both need to invest more to confront incremental weather (first of all investments in air conditioning are needed) and/or have substitute travel variants that are of equivalent quality. One of the unresolved issues remains the air quality problem in Moscow due to intense traffic and the possibility of peat fires in the neighboring Shatura region southeast of the city. This increases risks that must

  18. Land-use Changes on Peatlands in Russia and Green House Gas Emissions

    Sirin, A.; Minaeva, T.; Chistotin, M.; Glagolev, M.; Suvorov, G.


    Russia possesses vast areas of peatlands and associated paludified shallow peat lands, over 8 and 20% respectively. The country is the largest World peatland nation, and thus could be responsible for the large part of GHG exchange between peatlands and the atmosphere. Russian peatlands present a high variety of natural conditions from permafrost mires to bogs, fens and swamps within boreal, temperate, steppe and semi-arid zones, which have quite different rates of GHG flux, emitting or absorbing carbon dioxide and methane. Many regions of Russia still contain vast areas of virgin mires but in the central European part of Russia, West Siberia and Far East the appreciable part of peatlands was already modified. Peatlands were used in a broad spectrum of human activities connected with direct water level draw-down: peat extraction for different purposes (up to 1.5 million ha), drainage for agriculture, and drainage for forestry (each over 3 million ha). Many peatlands all the over the country were affected by infrastructure development (by road, pipe line construction etc.) with related changes of their hydrology and GHG fluxes. These land uses are under consideration of LULUFC issues of UNFCCC, and peat excavation is directly included in IPCC 2006 Guidelines as a main wetland/peatland land use activity related to climate change mitigation. General estimates and geographical distribution of peatlands drained for agriculture and forestry as well as peatlands under excavation, extracted or abandoned are given based on existing statistical and sectoral information. GHG fluxes from disturbed peatlands are analyzed using available Russian data and the results of specially organized observations in 2004-2008 in the pilot regions in Central European Russia and West Siberia which included a variety of modified and virgin control sites.

  19. [Community features of Sacrabaeoida larvae in Stipa grandis steppe].

    Xinmin, Liu; Ning, Wu


    The study showed that in the Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, there were 4 families and 9 species of Scarabaeoidea larvae, among which, the numbers of species and individuals of Melolonthidae were more than those of other families. The important value of the dominant species in Scarabaeoidea larvae community were Trematodes tenebrioides > Serica orientalis > Amphimallon solstitialis > Cyriopertha arcuata. Based on the features of their seasonal dynamics, they could be classified into three kinds. The first kind was that their density peak occurred in spring and autumn, such as Serica orientalis. Cyriopertha arcuata belonged to the second kind, and its density had no obvious fluctuation through all the year. Trematodes tenebrioides and Amphimallon solstitialis could be classified into the third kind, and their density peak all occurred in autumn. The biodiversity index of Scarabaeoidea larvae community was relatively higher in autumn than in spring and summer. Although the richness of Scarabaeoidea larvae populations was not lower in spring, their composition was very simple.

  20. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

    Pavel Veselý


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring


    Т. А. Сухопарова


    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on > Buy now

  2. Russia s Putin Courts Europe




  3. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill


    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  4. Nikita Mikhalkov, Russia's Political Mentor

    Schmid, Ulrich


    In his political manifesto on "enlightened conservatism" film director Nikita Mikhalkov calls on Russians to submit themselves to a strong leader. Although some claim that Mikhalkov is singing Vladimir Putin's praises, in fact, he is putting himself forward as the best guide for Russia.

  5. Soil carbon fractions and enzyme activities under different vegetation types on the Loess Plateau of China

    Zhang, Haixin; Zeng, Quanchao; An, Shaoshan; Dong, Yanghong; Darboux, Frédéric


    Vegetation restoration was effective way of protecting soil erosion and water conservation on the Loess Plateau. Carbon fractions and enzyme activities were sensitive parameters for assessment of soil remediation through revegetation. Forest, forest steppe and grassland soils were collected at 0–5 cm and 5–20 cm soil layers in Yanhe watershed, Shaanxi Province. Urease, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), easily ox...

  6. Copper level and distribution in soils of forest ecosystems of Samara river region

    A. A. Dubina


    Full Text Available The level and regularities of distribution of the copper in the soils of steppe and forest ecosystems of Samara river region were determined. The data on general and mobile forms of copper combination in soils of the studied ecosystems are presented. The interval of copper variation in the soils is indicated. The distribution of copper in soil genetic horizons is shown. The distinction in the copper content in soils of different types of the landscape was revealed.

  7. Study of the Topic "The Classification of Flowering Plants" in Schools in the Steppe Region

    Manekina, N. M.


    To acquaint students with principal taxonomic terms, local plants from natural surroundings of the school that exhibit attributes of each group are used in the steppe region of the Soviet Union. (Author/ND)

  8. Management Approaches to Accomplish Contemporary Livestock Production-Conservation Objectives in Shortgrass Steppe

    Traditional rangeland management in the shortgrass steppe has emphasized livestock production with moderate stocking rates, but alternative approaches will be needed to meet production objectives under increasing demands for conservation-oriented management. We investigated the utility of very inten...

  9. Legumes mitigate ecological consequences of a topographic gradient in a northern Mongolian steppe.

    Casper, Brenda B; Goldman, Robert; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Helliker, Brent R; Plante, Alain F; Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S


    Topography should create spatial variation in water and nutrients and play an especially important role in the ecology of water-limited systems. We use stable isotopes to discern how plants respond both to ecological gradients associated with elevation and to neighboring legumes on a south-facing slope in the semi-arid, historically grazed steppe of northern Mongolia. Out of three target species, Potentilla acaulis, Potentilla sericea, and Festuca lenensis, when >30 cm from a legume, all showed a decrease in leaf δ(15)N with increasing elevation. This, together with measures of soil δ(15)N, suggests greater N processing at the moister, more productive, lower elevation, and more N fixation at the upper elevation, where cover of legumes and lichens and plant-available nitrate were greater. Total soil N was greater at the lower elevation, but not lichen biomass or root colonization by AMF. Leaf δ(13)C values for P. acaulis and F. lenensis are consistent with increasing water stress with elevation; δ(13)C values indicated the greatest intrinsic water use efficiency for P. sericea, which is more abundant at the upper elevation. Nearby legumes (<10 cm) moderate the effect of elevation on leaf δ(15)N, confirming legumes' meaningful input of N, and affect leaf δ(13)C for two species, suggesting an influence on the efficiency of carbon fixation. Variation in leaf %N and %C as a function of elevation and proximity to a legume differs among species. Apparently, most N input is at upper elevations, pointing to the possible importance of grazers, in addition to hydrological processes, as transporters of N throughout this landscape.

  10. Features of biomorphological structure of the steppe phytocenosises of Opuk Natural Reserve

    Valentina Kobechinskaya


    Full Text Available Analysis of biomorphological structure of the steppe phytocenosises of Opuksky Natural Reserve revealed regional characteristics of vegetation which were based on adaptive features of growing species. On the basis of contingency coefficients between the groups of biomorphological features were marked eco-biomorphological types of plants, which allow complete investigation on the features of individual ecobiomorphs, identification of ecological identity of steppe landscape and planning of further environmental activities.

  11. Is there any support for the humped-back model in some steppe and semi steppe regions of Iran?

    Ashouri, Parvaneh; Jalili, Adel; Danehkar, Afshin; Chahouki, Mohammad Ali Zare; Hamzeh'ee, Behnam


    One of the famous theories in ecology is the humped-back model (HBM) which explains that habitats with intermediate productivity and disturbance support the most species. Most studies on HBM patterns have been conducted for herbaceous species. Knowledge about this theory in arid and semi-arid communities is still weak, especially with severe environments and disturbances containing woody plants. In this study, an analysis is presented on species richness-productivity relationship along a gradient of disturbance and stress in some steppe and semi steppe rangelands in Iran. A nonlinear curve-fitting approach was used that fitted a three-parameter Gaussian curve between species richness and productivity across 180 plots (1 m2). Mitchell-Olds and Shaw 's test (MOS) was used to assess the significance of the humped-back curve. Data were collected from six rangelands, including all life forms of species (grasses, forbs and small shrubs) with litter. Fitted Gaussian curve showed a positive trend between productivity and species richness across a decreasing gradient of disturbance in which species richness was increased. Maximum values for species richness correspond to values of plant productivity in undisturbed sites with a moderate stress. The MOS test showed a significant positive trend in the curve which means that the observed shape in the species richness-productivity relationship covers the mechanisms located in low to medium productivity in the left-hand side of the humped-back model. In other words, this research did not detect a full unimodal curve. This is because of less productivity in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems with abiotic stress. However, there was a partial support for the humped-back model in this study. Hence, more studies to test the existence of a humped-back model in such areas, would be required to reveal all aspects of this relationship.

  12. Land-use impact on soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration in typical steppe ecosystems,Inner Mongolia%土地利用方式对内蒙古典型草地生态系统碳氮固持的影响

    HE Nianpeng; ZHANG Yunhai; DAI Jingzhong; HAN Xingguo; BAOYIN Taogetao; YU Guirui


    @@%To explore the optimal land-use for soil carbon (C) sequestration in Inner Mongolian grasslands,we investigated C and nitrogen (N) storage in soil and soil fractions in 8 floristically and topographically similar sites which subjected to different land-use types (free-grazing,grazing exclusion,mowing,winter grazing,and reclamation).Compared with free-grazing grasslands,C and N storage in the 0-50 cm layer increased by 18.3% (15.5 Mg C ha-1) and 9.3% (0.8 Mg N ha-1) after 10-yr of grazing exclusion,respectively,and 21.9% (18.5 Mg C ha-1) and 11.5% (0.9 Mg N ha-1) after 30-yr grazing exclusion,respectively.Similarly,soil C and N storage increased by 15.3% (12.9 Mg C ha-1) and 10.2% (0.8 Mg N ha-1) after 10-yr mowing,respectively,and 19.2% (16.2 Mg C ha-1) and 7.1% (0.6 Mg N ha-1) after 26-yr mowing,respectively.In contrast,soil C and N storage declined by 10.6% (9.0 Mg C ha-1) and 11.4% (0.9 Mg N ha-1) after 49-yr reclamation,respectively.Moreover,increases in C and N storage mainly occurred in sand and silt fractions in the 0-10 cm soil layer with grazing exclusion and mowing.Our findings provided evidence that Inner Mongolian grasslands have the capacity to sequester C and N in soil with improved management practices,which were in the order:grazing exclusion > mowing > winter grazing > reclamation.

  13. Chloropyrula uraliensis sp.nov.(Trebouxiophyceae,Chlorophyta), a new green coccoid alga with a unique ultrastructure, isolated from soil in South Urals

    Lira GAYSINA; Yvonne N(E)MCOV(A); Pavel (S)KALOUD; Tereza (S)EV(CI)KOV(A); Marek ELI(AS)


    Soil hosts diverse communities of photosynthetic eukaryotes (algae) that have not yet been fully explored.Here we describe an interesting coccoid green alga isolated from a soil sample from a forest-steppe in South Urals (Bashkortostan,Russia) that,based on a phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequence,appears to represent a new phylogenetic lineage related to the genus Leptosira within the class Trebouxiophyceae.This new alga is characterized by uninucleate cells with a shape ranging from spherical to ellipsoid or egg-like,occurring solitary or more often grouped in irregular masses or colonies.Remarkably,cells with a characteristic pyriform shape are encountered in cultures grown on a solid medium.The cells harbour a single pyrenoid-lacking parietal chloroplast with the margin undulated or forming finger-like projections; in mature cells the chloroplast becomes divided by deep incisions into more or less separate lobes.Transmission electron microscopy of vegetative cells revealed an unprecedented structure in the form of a cluster of microfibrils located in the cytoplasm near the plasma membrane,often appressed to the chloroplast.Reproduction takes place via autospores or biflagellated zoospores.The unique suite of characters of our isolate distinguishes it from previously described coccoid green algae and suggests that it should be classified as a new species in a new genus; we propose it be named Chloropyrula uraliensis.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of the microbiome of chernozems of the long-term agrochemical experiment in Kamennaya Steppe

    Chernov, T. I.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Ivanova, E. A.; Kutovaya, O. V.; Turusov, V. I.


    The seasonal variability (spring-summer-autumn) of the taxonomic structure of prokaryotic microbiomes in chernozems of Kamennaya Steppe was studied using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) horizons of a long-term fallow and croplands differing in the rates of application of mineral fertilizers (NPK). The seasonal dynamics of the prokaryotic community in the soils of the fallow and croplands were similar: the summer samples significantly differed from the spring ones; in autumn, the microbiome structure approached that in spring; these changes were probably related to corresponding changes in the temperature and moisture conditions of the growing season. For all the plots, significant seasonal changes in the proportions of Thaumarchaeota (Cranarchaeota), Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and V errucomicrobia phylogenetic groups were observed. The significant changes in the structure of the microbiomes (especially in the number of representatives of the Firmicutes, Cemmatiomonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia phyla) were revealed in the arable and fallow soils irrespectively of the season. The phylogenetic diversity estimated by the Shannon index, the number of the operating taxonomic units found, and the Chao1 index differed little in the soils of the studies plots. The long-term application of mineral fertilizers at different rates had little effect on the taxonomic structure and diversity of prokaryotic communities in the agrochernozems.

  15. Response of organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen to long-term grazing of the shortgrass steppe.

    Reeder, Jean D; Schuman, Gerald E; Morgan, Jack A; Lecain, Daniel R


    We investigated the influence of long-term (56 years) grazing on organic and inorganic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of the plant-soil system (to 90 cm depth) in shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado. Grazing treatments included continuous season-long (May-October) grazing by yearling heifers at heavy (60-75% utilization) and light (20-35% utilization) stocking rates, and nongrazed exclosures. The heavy stocking rate resulted in a plant community that was dominated (75% of biomass production) by the C4 grass blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), whereas excluding livestock grazing increased the production of C3 grasses and prickly pear cactus (Opuntia polycantha). Soil organic C (SOC) and organic N were not significantly different between the light grazing and nongrazed treatments, whereas the heavy grazing treatment was 7.5 Mg ha(-1) higher in SOC than the nongrazed treatment. Lower ratios of net mineralized N to total organic N in both grazed compared to nongrazed treatments suggest that long-term grazing decreased the readily mineralizable fraction of soil organic matter. Heavy grazing affected soil inorganic C (SIC) more than the SOC. The heavy grazing treatment was 23.8 Mg ha(-1) higher in total soil C (0-90 cm) than the nongrazed treatment, with 68% (16.3 Mg ha(-1)) attributable to higher SIC, and 32% (7.5 Mg ha(-1)) to higher SOC. These results emphasize the importance in semiarid and arid ecosystems of including inorganic C in assessments of the mass and distribution of plant-soil C and in evaluations of the impacts of grazing management on C sequestration.

  16. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia's Domestic Muslim Policy

    Yunus Yilmaz


    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of 'non-traditional' Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  17. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction.

    Richard B Harris

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP. Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae, assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures

  18. Effects of Different Grazing Management Methods on Plant Species Diversity and Richness in the Steppe Rangeland of Saveh, Iran

    S. Zarekia


    Full Text Available Livestock grazing is a common human-induced activity with direct and indirect effects even on the ecosystems of protected areas. The present study analyzed the effects of different grazing management methods on species diversity and richness in the steppe rangelands of Saveh, Iran. Data were collected from sixty 2×2 m plots within the areas of three, four-years protected range management projects. Margalef’s and Menhinick's indices, Simpson and Shannon-Weiner indices, and Pielou's index were used to evaluate plant species richness, diversity, and evenness, respectively. All data analyses were performed in PAST and SPSS. According to the mean values obtained for Shannon-Weiner index, Nemati rangeland (with rest-rotation grazing system and moderate grazing intensity and Shirali Baglou rangeland (with continuous grazing throughout the year and high grazing intensity had high species diversity with no significant differences among them. However, Chagneh rangeland (with continuous grazing for six months and fairly high grazing intensity had the lowest diversity. Low values of diversity indices indicated low species diversity in steppe rangelands. Moreover, Shirali Baglou rangeland had the highest species richness compared to the other sites. In the other three rangelands, both species richness and diversity decreased with increasing the grazing intensity. Despite poor range conditions in Shirali Baglou rangeland, intensive livestock grazing and the consequent rise in invasive species increased species abundance and hence, resulting in species richness and diversity in the area. Although over-grazing throughout the year can promote plant species richness through increasing annual species, consequent soil degradation and instability of rangeland ecosystem can be expected.

  19. HR technology in modern Russia

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  20. Social Media Marketing in Russia

    Ageeva, Yu. A.; Zaviyalova, Zinaida Sergeevna; Агеева, Ю. А.; Завьялова, Зинаида Сергеевна


    The article focuses on using social media for business promotion. The authors analyze and compare the SMM experience in the western countries and Russia, give examples of failed promotion. A short review of Russian social networks are given including their peculiar features, which are important to consider when planning a SMM campaign. The main problems and perspectives of Russian SMM are described in conclusion of the article. In order to present the situation and specific of use of social n...

  1. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Carmen Claudín


    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  2. Risk and Safety in Post-Soviet Russia


    Yearbook. Official Publication (1994). Goskomstat of Russia. Moscow. 3. Health Protection in Russia. Issue 1 (1995). Yuridicheskaya Literatura , Moscow... Literatura , Moscow. 4. Feshbach Murray (ed), Environment and Health Atlas of Russia (1995). PAIMS, Moscow. 5. State Report on the Environmental Conditions in...Disasters, and Cataclysms in Russia. Moscow: Finizdat (Russian) 4. Ecological Safety of Russia. Issue 1 (1994). Moscow: Yuridicheskaya Literatura

  3. Silage preparation and fermentation quality of natural grasses treated with lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in meadow steppe and typical steppe.

    Hou, Meiling; Ge, Gentu; Liu, Tingyu; Jia, Yushan; Cai, Yimin


    Silage preparation and fermentation quality of natural grasses in meadow steppe (MS) and typical steppe (TS) were studied. MS and TS contained thirty-three and nine species of natural grasses, respectively. Stipa Baicalensis in MS and Stipa grandi in TS were the dominant grasses with the highest dry matter (DM) yield. The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) of the mixed natural grasses in both steppes were 8.02 to 9.03, 66.75 to 69.47 and 2.02 to 2.20% on a DM basis, respectively. The small-scale silages and round bale silages of mixed natural grasses in both steppes were prepared using the commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and cellulase enzyme (AC, Acremonium cellulase) as additives. All silages treated with LAB and cellulase were well preserved with lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia-N content, and higher lactic acid and CP content than those of control in four kinds of silages. Compared with CH- or AC-treated silages, the CH+AC-treated silages had higher lactic acid content. The results confirmed that combination with LAB and cellulase may result in beneficial effects by improving the natural grass silage fermentation in both grasslands.

  4. CO2 fluxes in wetlands of European Russia

    Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F.; Avilov, V.; Varlagin, A.; Olchev, A.


    The question on an arrangement, scales and the factors determining ground sink of CO2 in a forest zone of Russia is opened and discussed. Peatlands located in forest zone and wetland forest are main elements of natural landscapes of Russia. During the last years through fires in forest zone and modern climate changes, connected with growth of extreme weather events, such as drought, wetlands are in the focus of scientific investigations. Two subjects for long investigations of CO2 fluxes have selected in southern taiga in European Russia (Central Forest reserve, Tver region): ombrotrophic bog and wet spruce forest. To estimate of seasonal and interannual variations of CO2 fluxes different methods such as eddy covariance, chamber methods and modeling calculations were used. Our researches have allowed to evaluate net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, photosynthesis of grass cover and their depending on environmental factors. The results of researches have confirmed strong dependence of CO2 fluxes from changes in precipitations and/or temperatures and level of ground water. Bog and wetland forests can be as sink as source of CO2 for atmosphere. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance in wetland ecosystems mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile. The modeled results supported the hypothesis that the soil processes, especially the decomposition process, in wetlands could play an important role in altering the C dynamics in the ecosystems. The studies were supported by grand RFBR No. 11-05-00854 and RF Government No. 11.G34.31.0079.

  5. Carbon dioxide enrichment alters plant community structure and accelerates shrub growth in the shortgrass steppe.

    Morgan, Jack A; Milchunas, Daniel G; LeCain, Daniel R; West, Mark; Mosier, Arvin R


    A hypothesis has been advanced that the incursion of woody plants into world grasslands over the past two centuries has been driven in part by increasing carbon dioxide concentration, [CO(2)], in Earth's atmosphere. Unlike the warm season forage grasses they are displacing, woody plants have a photosynthetic metabolism and carbon allocation patterns that are responsive to CO(2), and many have tap roots that are more effective than grasses for reaching deep soil water stores that can be enhanced under elevated CO(2). However, this commonly cited hypothesis has little direct support from manipulative experimentation and competes with more traditional theories of shrub encroachment involving climate change, management, and fire. Here, we show that, although doubling [CO(2)] over the Colorado shortgrass steppe had little impact on plant species diversity, it resulted in an increasingly dissimilar plant community over the 5-year experiment compared with plots maintained at present-day [CO(2)]. Growth at the doubled [CO(2)] resulted in an approximately 40-fold increase in aboveground biomass and a 20-fold increase in plant cover of Artemisia frigida Willd, a common subshrub of some North American and Asian grasslands. This CO(2)-induced enhancement of plant growth, among the highest yet reported, provides evidence from a native grassland suggesting that rising atmospheric [CO(2)] may be contributing to the shrubland expansions of the past 200 years. Encroachment of shrubs into grasslands is an important problem facing rangeland managers and ranchers; this process replaces grasses, the preferred forage of domestic livestock, with species that are unsuitable for domestic livestock grazing.

  6. Opportunistic Germination Behaviour of Gypsophila (Caryophyllaceae in Two Priority Habitats from Semi-arid Mediterranean Steppes

    Felix MORUNO


    Full Text Available Gypsophila tomentosa and G. struthium are closely related species, characteristic of two European priority habitats, salt and gypsum inland steppes, respectively. Germination strategies of the two taxa were investigated in plants from two nearby populations, growing under the same climatic conditions but on different types of soil, and belonging to different plant communities. Their germination patterns were studied at five constant temperatures in darkness: 5oC, 10oC, 15oC, 20oC and 25oC, and the base temperature and the thermal time requirement were calculated. As the distribution area of both species is subjected to a Mediterranean continental climate with significant differences between day and night, the possible preferences for an alternating temperature regime (25/10oC were contrasted, as well as the influence of cold stratification and freezing. The effects on seed germination of light at constant 20oC and a 12/12 h photoperiod were also compared in the two species. The main conclusions of the work are the similarity of behaviour of both species, with an absence of seed dormancy, their opportunistic germination strategy, and water availability as the principal limitation to seed germination and plant establishment. The base temperature and thermal time indicate higher competitiveness of G. struthium at low temperatures, but seed germination of G. tomentosa is the most efficient at temperatures higher than 13.3oC. Optimal temperature and illumination conditions for nursery propagation depend on the species. The high viability of seeds observed after freezing prove the orthodox character of these seeds, providing additional information for long term seed conservation procedures.

  7. Dynamics of pedogenic carbonate accumulation in soils under different land use as an impulse to simulation study of water flows in their profiles

    Khokhlova, Olga; Arkhangelskaya, Tatiana


    Little is known about changes in pedogenic carbonate accumulation under different land use in forest-steppe ecosystems. This work was conducted to investigate the dynamics of pedogenic carbonate accumulation in cultivated Gray-Forest soils (Luvisols). These soils together with the Chernozems belong to typical soils for the forest-steppe area of the Central Russian Upland. The studied soils were formed on calcareous loess-like loam parent material in well-drained position with groundwater level at 8-10 m depth. Soils were sampled at four sites: a broadleaf forest and an adjacent 50-year continuously cropped field under corn monoculture (first plot), bare fallow (second plot) and crop rotation which includes clean fallow every fourth year (third plot) at the Experimental Station of the Voronezh Institute of Corn in the Voronezh oblast of Russia. All plowed soils are now classified as arable Chernozems (Mollisols). The carbonate status of four soils was studied using hierarchical morphological observation (macro-, meso-, micro- and sub-micro levels) and radiocarbon dating of carbonate pedofeatures. Then, the simulation of soil hydrology for two plots, under corn monoculture and bare fallow, was performed for the vegetation period. Significant differences in the down-profile carbonates distribution were apparent between pairs of soil pits: under monoculture of corn and forest on the one hand, and under bare fallow and crop rotation on the other. In pits under bare fallow and crop rotation, the depth of carbonate occurrence was about 60-80 cm higher than in the profiles under forest and corn. In addition significant differences were observed in micro- and submicrostructure of carbonate pedofeatures in these two pairs of soils. 14C-date of carbonate soft masses (cutans) from 80-90 cm in the soil under bare fallow was 10650±170 yr BP whereas practically the same date, 11100±100 yr BP, was obtained in the soil under corn from 140-160 cm. Presumably, this difference in

  8. Effect of HCA age on Germination Characteristics of Soil Seed Bank in Ningxia Desert Steppe%不同封育年限对宁夏荒漠草原土壤种子库萌发特征的影响研究

    刘华; 王占军


    采用种子萌发法对不同封育时间(封育1年、封育3年、封育6年)样地的土壤种子库萌发特征进行了研究。结果表明:在0~5 cm土层不同封育年限土壤种子库的萌发基本趋势为,在第3天开始萌发,先增大后减小,在萌发的3~13 d为快速萌发期,萌发的最大值出现在第11天至第13天,在萌发的30 d后萌发的种子数较少;与0~5 cm土层相比,6~10 cm土层土壤种子库萌发较少,萌发曲线波动较小。说明土壤中可萌发种子数量不是随着封育年限的增加而增加。%The germination characteristics of soil seed bank were studied in 1 year, 3 years and 6 years of HCA with germi-nation method. The result showed that in the 3rd day, 0~5 cm soil layer HCA seeds began to germinate, increase and then decrease; from the 3rd~13th day, the germination speed became faster; the germination maximum was in the 11th ~13th day; after 30 days the germination seeds became fewer. Compared with the 0~5 cm soil layer, the 6~10 cm layer germi-nation seeds were fewer and its germination curve changed gently. The result showed that germinating seeds in the soil and HCA ages were not proportional.

  9. [Characteristics of net ecosystem flux exchanges over Stipa krylovii steppe in Inner Mongolia].

    Yang, Juan; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Long; Wang, Yu-Hui


    Based on an entire year continuous measurement of surface fluxes by eddy covariance (EC) tower and micro-climate gradient observation system, the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of net ecosystem fluxes including carbon, water, and heat fluxes over Stipa krylovii steppe in Inner Mongolia were investigated. The results indicated that the diurnal pattern of carbon fluxes during growing season could be expressed as U curve. S. krylovii steppe ecosystem emitted CO2 before the sunrise and absorbed CO2 after the sunrise, with the maximum CO2 uptake around noon. The ecosystem had weaker CO2 uptake after the noon, and turned to emit CO2 after sunset. The CO2 uptake by S. krylovii steppe ecosystem reached the maximum in September, followed in August, and got the minimum in October. The diurnal dynamic patterns of sensible heat flux (Hs) and latent heat flux (LE) could be expressed as inverse U curves. The Hs and LE over S. krylovii steppe ecosystem were positive during the daytime, while Hs was negative and LE was close to zero during the nighttime. The ecosystem had the highest Hs and LE in May and September, respectively. In winter, the steppe acted as a weak carbon source, with the CO2 flux being small; while in summer, it became an obvious carbon sink.

  10. The role of permafrost and soil water in distribution of alpine grassland and its NDVI dynamics on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Yi, Shuhua; Wu, Qingbai; Yang, Kun; Ding, Yongjian


    Soil temperature and soil water are two important factors controlling vegetation growth. Climate warming and associated permafrost degradation might change these soil conditions and affect alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, our current understanding of the role of soil temperature and water at the plateau scale is inadequate. In this study, we used plateau scale soil water content, frozen soil type, vegetation index and land surface temperature datasets to investigate the spatial distribution, limiting factors of vegetation growth and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) changing trends in two major alpine grasslands, alpine meadow and alpine steppe, in relation to soil temperature and soil water conditions. Our results showed that: 1) alpine meadow is mainly distributed in seasonal frozen soil areas (55.90% of alpine meadow) with a soil water content between 0.15 and 0.25 m3/m3 and alpine steppe is mainly found in seasonal frozen and sub-stable permafrost areas (69.38% of alpine steppe) with a soil water content between 0.05 and 0.20 m3/m3; 2) at the plateau scale, there were 35.6% (more in colder regions) of alpine meadow pixels and 33.6% (more in wetter regions) of alpine steppe pixels having increase NDVI changing trends during 1982-2012, respectively; and the values having decrease NDVI changing trends are 7.3% and 9.7%, respectively; and 3) the vegetation growth of alpine meadow is mainly limited by soil temperature, while that of alpine steppe is limited by both soil temperature and soil water. We also find the limiting factors of temperature or water can only explain models to consider other factors, such as grazing, erosion and soil texture, among others, in addition to soil temperature and water to make proper projections when simulating the responses of vegetation growth to climate warming in alpine grasslands with different hydro-thermal conditions.

  11. Dynamic-stochastic modeling of snow cover formation on the European territory of Russia

    A. N. Gelfan


    Full Text Available A dynamic-stochastic model, which combines a deterministic model of snow cover formation with a stochastic weather generator, has been developed. The deterministic snow model describes temporal change of the snow depth, content of ice and liquid water, snow density, snowmelt, sublimation, re-freezing of melt water, and snow metamorphism. The model has been calibrated and validated against the long-term data of snow measurements over the territory of the European Russia. The model showed good performance in simulating time series of the snow water equivalent and snow depth. The developed weather generator (NEsted Weather Generator, NewGen includes nested generators of annual, monthly and daily time series of weather variables (namely, precipitation, air temperature, and air humidity. The parameters of the NewGen have been adjusted through calibration against the long-term meteorological data in the European Russia. A disaggregation procedure has been proposed for transforming parameters of the annual weather generator into the parameters of the monthly one and, subsequently, into the parameters of the daily generator. Multi-year time series of the simulated daily weather variables have been used as an input to the snow model. Probability properties of the snow cover, such as snow water equivalent and snow depth for return periods of 25 and 100 years, have been estimated against the observed data, showing good correlation coefficients. The described model has been applied to different landscapes of European Russia, from steppe to taiga regions, to show the robustness of the proposed technique.

  12. Development of Strategies for Sustainable Irrigation Water Management in Russia

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga


    During 1960 - 1990 years irrigated areas in Russia have increased rapidly, helping to boost agricultural output. Although the impressive achievements of irrigation in this period its large experience indicates problems and failures of irrigation water management. In addition to large water use and low irrigation water efficiency, environmental concerns (excessive water depletion, water quality reduction, water logging, soil degradation) are usually considered like the most significant problem of the irrigation sector. Despite of considerable shrinking of irrigated areas in Russia and decreasing of water withdrawal for irrigation purposes during two last decades a degradation of environment as well as degradation of soil and water resources in irrigated areas was prolonged and will probably continue if current irrigation practices are maintained. Nowadays, in different regions of Russia there are societal demand to restore agricultural irrigation in Russia as answer to challenges from climate pattern changes and degradation of land & water resources. In the respect of these demands there is a need to develop strategies for sustainability of agricultural irrigation in Russia that should be based on three main societal objectives: costeffective use of water in irrigated agriculture at farm level, and satisfactory preserving the natural environment. Therefore sustainable irrigation water management is not only an objective at farm level but also an overall goal at the local and regional as well. A way to achieve sustainability in irrigation water management is to solve the local conflicts arising from the interactions between water use at irrigation areas and surrounding environment. Thus should be based on the development of irrigation framework program including on the irrigation water management issues, policies & decisions making at federal and regional levels should be based on the indicators of environment & irrigation water efficiency monitoring promoting the

  13. Seasonal and diurnal variations in moisture, heat and CO2 fluxes over a typical steppe prairie in Inner Mongolia, China

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available In order to examine energy partitioning and CO2 exchange over a steppe prairie in Inner Mongolia, China, fluxes of moisture, heat and CO2 in the surface layer from June 2007 through June 2008 were calculated using the eddy covariance method. The study site was homogenous and approximately 1500 m×1500 m in size. Seasonal and diurnal variations in radiation components, energy components and CO2 fluxes are examined. Results show that all four radiation components changed seasonally, resulting in a seasonal variation in net radiation. The radiation components also changed diurnally. Winter surface albedo was higher than summer surface albedo because during winter the snow-covered surface increased the surface albedo. The seasonal variations in both sensible heat and CO2 fluxes were stronger than those of latent heat and soil heat fluxes. This implies that both sensible heat and CO2 fluxes may be more significant climate signals than latent heat and soil fluxes. Sensible heat flux was the main consumer of available energy for the entire experimental period. The energy imbalance problem was encountered and the causes are analyzed.

  14. Natural self-reclamation of soils and landscapes affected by agriculture and mining

    Alekseenko, Vladimir; Bech, Jaume; Alekseenko, Alexey; Shvydkaya, Natalya; Puzanov, Alexander; Roca, Núria


    Processes of possible self-restoration of technogenically disturbed soils are studied in Central and Southern European Russia. Reclamation procedures are mainly not implemented in this vast region, and the natural soil restoration is supposed. Heaps overlaying the former steppe and cropland landscapes are created in the course of rock waste stacking after preparative and cleaning mining works during the underground coal extraction. Approximately 1 500 heaps occupying over 8 000 ha were formed in the area of the Donets Coal Basin. Soils are destroyed under heaps, land subsidence occurs in coal mining areas and acid lakes are usually formed in these ground depressions. Spontaneous combustions happen often and can continue for decades. In order to prevent them, heap surfaces are in some cases levelled and filled with water, forming peculiar ponds. After 70 years of heaps existence and ca. 50 years after their ignition, soil formation is just in the early stages. Heap surface differs a lot in geochemical and mineralogical characteristics from those of surrounding steppe soils that suffered substantial changes at distances up to 1 km. Development of plant communities in areas near coal dumps and heaps is one of the indicators of landscape-geochemical changes. Formation of ruderal phytocenoses with 10-15 % of local flora, as well as invasive and introduced plants occurred under the complex impact of ecological conditions. Communities formed by them are distinguished by the structure simplicity, low species diversity, and plant growth anomalies. Quarries and dumps are formed during underground and open-cast mining of ore deposits. During the last 50 years after abandoning mines in forest areas, the 30 m deep quarries have filled with the creep material less for 0.5 m, and sediments from water streams have added 1-3 cm. Thickness of argillaceous layers does not exceed 1-2 cm at small rock chips of the dumps that measures up to 70 km in length. The dumps are partially

  15. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 2: Landscape level restoration decisions

    David A. Pyke; Steven T. Knick; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver


    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2015) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (...

  16. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 3: Site level restoration decisions

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Bruce A. Roundy; Eugene W. Schupp; Steven T. Knick; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver


    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...


    FODOR Cosmin


    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  18. First data on the composition of atmospheric dust responsible for yellow snow in Northern European Russia in March 2008

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Korobov, V. B.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Aleshinskaya, A. S.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Goryunova, N. V.; Grishchenko, I. V.; Dara, O. M.; Zavernina, N. N.; Kurteeva, E. I.; Novichkova, E. A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Sapozhnikov, F. V.


    The descent of a large quantity of dust responsible for bright colors of atmospheric precipitation in the temperate, subpolar, and polar zones of the northern hemisphere is rarely observed [1-5]. In the twentieth century and in the beginning of the twenty-first century in the northern part of European Russia, such events had not been registered right up to March 25-26, 2008. At that time in some parts of the Arkhangelsk region, Komi Republic, and Nenets Autonomous Area, atmospheric precipitation as moist snow and rain responsible for sand and saffron colors of ice crust formation on the snow surface was observed. Thus, due to detailed mineralogical, geochemical, pollen, diatom, and meteorological investigations, it was established that the main source of the yellow dust is the semidesert and steppe regions of the Northwest Kazakhstan, and the Volgograd and Astrakhan regions, Kalmykia.

  19. Separation of agroclimatic areas for optimal crop growing within the framework of the natural-agricultural zoning of Russia

    Bulgakov, D. S.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.; Vil'chevskaya, E. V.


    The separation of agroclimatic areas for optimal crop growing within is suggested within the framework of the natural-agricultural zoning of Russia developed under the supervision of I. Karmanov. Overall, 64 agroclimatic areas have been separated in Russia. They are specified by the particular soil and agroclimatic conditions and by the particular crops recommended for cultivation. The biological potential of these crops should correspond to the soil potential of the given area. A combined scheme of the natural-agricultural zoning of Russia and the separated agroclimatic areas is presented. It is argued that the information contained in this scheme can be used for developing landscape-adaptive farming systems, land cadaster, and land valuation; it is also helpful for terrain and remote sensing monitoring of soil fertility on arable lands and for soilecological monitoring.

  20. Meta-STEPP: subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot for individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Wang, Xin Victoria; Cole, Bernard; Bonetti, Marco; Gelber, Richard D


    We have developed a method, called Meta-STEPP (subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot for meta-analysis), to explore treatment effect heterogeneity across covariate values in the meta-analysis setting for time-to-event data when the covariate of interest is continuous. Meta-STEPP forms overlapping subpopulations from individual patient data containing similar numbers of events with increasing covariate values, estimates subpopulation treatment effects using standard fixed-effects meta-analysis methodology, displays the estimated subpopulation treatment effect as a function of the covariate values, and provides a statistical test to detect possibly complex treatment-covariate interactions. Simulation studies show that this test has adequate type-I error rate recovery as well as power when reasonable window sizes are chosen. When applied to eight breast cancer trials, Meta-STEPP suggests that chemotherapy is less effective for tumors with high estrogen receptor expression compared with those with low expression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Ein Kampf um Ordnung. Europa, die Steppe, die Leinwand und das Nichts

    Alfrun Kliems / Mathias Mesenhöller


    Full Text Available Analysing five Eastern European History films that in one way or another are set in the steppe, this essay suggests that there is an intricate connection between setting and narrative structure. The historical “Steppe” appears as a projection screen that invites a conversion of the historical material into myths of utopian, or dystopian, content. Thus, the steppe movies under scrutiny deal with “struggles for order” in a very basal sense: that is, for order as such versus existential nothingness. This mythopoetic potential of the steppe topos appears to rely on the established and densely connoted meta-narrative of East vs. West, while its actualisation seems to be provoked by an encompassing consciousness of historical discontinuity.

  2. On the issue of taxonomical status of steppe viper (Vipera renardi in Right-bank Ukraine

    A. L. Baybuz


    Full Text Available Data on morphologic variability of the steppe viper in the Kirovograd region (Right-bank Ukraine are given firstly. Tentative estimation of the similaritylevel of the local population and the populations from the Left-bank Ukraine and the Crimea was carried out using methods of the multivariate statistics. Morphological data in line with the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis show that the population in the Kirovograd region belongs to widespread Eurasian species Vipera renardiand morphologically most close to the original populations of the lowland Crimea, Sivash and Forest-Steppe of the Left-bank Ukraine. This could indicate the complicated history of the Right-bank Ukraine colonization by the steppe viper and possible influence of environmental conditions on the vipers’ morphology

  3. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim


    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age. PMID:28256537

  4. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Terekhov, Alexander I.


    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  5. Energy Fuels Booming China-Russia Relations


    In the latest visit to Russia in mid-June this year, Chinese President Hu Jintao expressed that China is willing to strengthen cooperation with Russia and other energy-producing and energy-consuming countries to jointly safeguard the stability of world en

  6. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Terekhov, Alexander I.


    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  7. Institutional Determinants of International Production in Russia

    N A Volgina


    Full Text Available The article analyses institutional determinants of foreign direct investment that substantially influences international production in Russia. Author pays special attention on the following determinants as legal infrastructure, protection property rights, including intellectual property, effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms, and corruption. Author comes to a conclusion that without development of proper institutions Russia would hardly expect dynamic development of international production.

  8. Biogerontology in Russia: from past to future.

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh; Mikhailova, Olga N


    The paper presents major steps of gerontology development in Russia. The issues of training in gerontology and geriatrics, institutional infrastructure within the Gerontological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its activities have been considered therein. Some results of Russian researchers obtained during 2005-2010 have been summarized as well. Special attention is given to the prospects of gerontology in Russia.

  9. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia


    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from...

  10. Light use efficiency over two temperate steppes in inner Mongolia, China.

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Vegetation light use efficiency (LUE is a key parameter of Production Efficiency Models (PEMs for simulating gross primary production (GPP of vegetation, from regional to global scales. Previous studies suggest that grasslands have the largest inter-site variation of LUE and controlling factors of grassland LUE differ from those of other biomes, since grasslands are usually water-limited ecosystems. Combining eddy covariance flux data with the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy from MODIS, we report LUE on a typical steppe and a desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Results show that both annual average LUE and maximum LUE were higher on the desert steppe (0.51 and 1.13 g C MJ(-1 than on the typical steppe (0.34 and 0.88 g C MJ(-1, despite the higher GPP of the latter. Water availability was the primary limiting factor of LUE at both sites. Evaporative fraction (EF or the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration (AET/PET can explain 50-70% of seasonal LUE variations at both sites. However, the slope of linear regression between LUE and EF (or AET/PET differed significantly between the two sites. LUE increased with the diffuse radiation ratio on the typical steppe; however, such a trend was not found for the desert steppe. Our results suggest that a biome-dependent LUE(max is inappropriate, because of the large inter-site difference of LUE(max within the biome. EF could be a promising down-regulator on grassland LUE for PEMs, but there may be a site-specific relationship between LUE and EF.

  11. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia



    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  12. Acker oder Weide? Die Zivilisation der Steppe und die Administration der Nomaden

    Olaf Günther


    Full Text Available The article is about the interactions between the Russian Empire and the nomadic tribes in the steppes of Central Asia. Nomadic economies and culture were urged by the Russian colonial administration to change to the sedentary lifestyle of an agrarian society. The aim was to introduce the advantages of agrarian economies through agrarian schooling. This experiment failed however, and the permanent settlement of the Steppes was only successful after the education of Russian settlers. The article follows the implementation of the school models through the debate on sedentarisation.

  13. Eurasian perspectives on the role of kurgans in the conservation and restoration of steppe vegetation

    Deák, Balázs; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Péter; Sudnik-Wójcikowska, Barbara; Moysiyenko, Ivan; Bragina, Tatyana; Apostolova, Iva; Dembicz, Iwona; Bykov, Nikolai; Tóthmérész, Béla


    Steppe is among the most endangered biomes of the world, especially in Europe, where more than 90% of original steppes have been destroyed due to conversion into croplands, afforestation and other human activities. Because of the socio-economic changes of the past centuries, steppe vegetation is now often restricted to places inadequate for ploughing, such as ancient burial mounds called kurgans. Thus, beside that kurgans are millennia-old iconic historical monuments of the steppic landscape, they are vital in preserving both our cultural and natural heritage. We collected and synthesised existing knowledge on kurgans by a review of research papers and grey literature and provided recommendations for elaborating the involvement of kurgans into agri-environmental schemes. We found that the proportions of kurgans covered by steppe vegetation increase from west to east and from lowlands to uplands. Despite their small size, kurgans act as biodiversity hotspots and harbour many red-listed plant species. High biodiversity is maintained by a pronounced fine-scale environmental heterogeneity provided by the special micro-topography of the kurgans. We found that landscape-level land use changes such as intensified agriculture and construction works are the major threatening factors for biodiversity of kurgans. Despite the vital role of kurgans in sustaining steppe vegetation, we identified serious knowledge gaps on their distribution, vegetation, flora and fauna and their potential role in steppe restoration. We conclude that these sacral places play a crucial role in preserving steppe vegetation, especially in intensively used agricultural landscapes in the western part of the steppe zone. They maintain ecosystem functions at the landscape-level by providing refugia for rare grassland specialist species and ensuring habitat connectivity in anthropogenic landscapes. Based on our results we suggest improving existing agri-environmental schemes which only focus on the

  14. Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils

    Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly


    Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120

  15. Projected Impacts of 21st Century Climate Change on Potential Habitat for Vegetation and Forest Types in Russia

    Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Cantin, A.; Conard, S. G.


    Global GCMs have demonstrated profound potential for projections to affect the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems and individual species at all hierarchical levels. We modeled progression of potential Russian ecotones and forest-forming species as the climate changes. Large-scale bioclimatic models were developed to predict Russian zonal vegetation (RuBCliM) and forest types (ForCliM) from three bioclimatic indices (1) growing degree-days above 5 degrees C; (2) negative degree-days below 0 C ; and (3) an annual moisture index (ratio of growing degree days to annual precipitation). The presence or absence of continuous permafrost was explicitly included in the models as limiting the forests and tree species distribution. All simulations to predict vegetation change across Russia were run by coupling our bioclimatic models with bioclimatic indices and the permafrost distribution for the baseline period and for the future 2020, 2050 and 2100 simulated by 3 GCMs (CGCM3.1, HadCM3 and IPSLCM4) and 3 climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1). Under these climate scenarios, it is projected the zonobiomes will shift far northward to reach equilibrium with the change in climate. Under the warmer and drier projected future climate, about half of Russia would be suitable for the forest-steppe ecotone and grasslands, rather than for forests. Water stress tolerant light-needled taiga would have an increased advantage over water-loving dark-needled taiga. Permafrost-tolerant L. dahurica taiga would remain the dominant forest across permafrost. Increases in severe fire weather would lead to increases in large, high-severity fires, especially at boundaries between forest ecotones, which can be expected to facilitate a more rapid progression of vegetation towards a new equilibrium with the climate. Adaptation to climate change may be facilitated by: assisting migration of forests by seed transfers to establish genotypes that may be more ecologically suited as climate changes

  16. Remote sensing and ecosystem simulation modeling of the intermountain sagebrush-steppe, with implications for global climate change

    Kremer, R.G.


    Three papers are presented that focus on remote sensing and ecosystem simulation modeling of the Intermountain Northwest sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. The first utilizes Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data to derive seasonal greenness indices of three pre-dominant vegetation communities in south-central WashingtoN. Temporal signatures were statistically separated, and used to create a classification for the three communities by integrating Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices over the growing season. The classification accuracy was 75% when compared to 53 ground-truthed sites, but was less accurate (62%) in a more topographically variable region. The second paper develops a logic for treating the intermountain sagebrush-steepe as a mosaic of distinct, hydrologically partitioned vegetation communities, and identifies critical ecophysiological considerations for process modeling of arid ecosystems. Soil water and nutrient dynamics of an ecosystem process model were modified to simulate productivity and seasonal water use patterns in Artemisia, Agropyron, and Bromus communities for the same study site. 60 year simulations maintained steady state vegetation productivity while predicting soil moisture content for 65 dates in 1992 with R[sup 2] values ranging from 0.93 to 0.98. In the third paper, the model was used to derive projections of the response of the ecosystem to natural and general circulation model (GCM)-predicted climate variability. Simulations predicted the adaptability of a less productive, invasive grass community (Bromus) to climate change, while a native sagebrush (Artemisia) community does not survive the increased temperatures of the GCM climates. High humidity deficits and greater maintenance respiration costs associated with increased temperatures limit the ability of the sagebrush community to support a relatively high biomass, and substantial increases in soil water storage and subsurface outflow occur was the vegetation senesces.

  17. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Cornwell, G.C.


    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  18. Application of the soil-ecological multiplicative index to assess suitability of Cis-Ural chernozems for cultivation with due account for economic parameters

    Levykin, S. V.; Chibilev, A. A.; Kazachkov, G. V.; Petrishchev, V. P.


    The evolution of Russian concepts concerning the assessment of soil suitability for cultivation in relation to several campaigns on large-scale plowing of virgin steppe soils is examined. The major problems of agricultural land use in steppe areas—preservation of rainfed farming in the regions with increasing climatic risks, underestimation of the potential of arable lands in land cadaster assessments, and much lower factual yields in comparison with potential yields—are considered. It is suggested that the assessments of arable lands should be performed on the basis of the soil-ecological index (SEI) developed by I. Karmanov with further conversion of SEI values into nominal monetary values. Under conditions of land reforms and economic reforms, it is important to determine suitability of steppe chernozems for plowing and economic feasibility of their use for crop growing in dependence on macroeconomic parameters. This should support decisions on optimization of land use in the steppe zone on the basis of the principles suggested by V. Dokuchaev. The developed approach for assessing soil suitability for cultivation was tested in the subzone of herbaceous-fescue-feather grass steppes in the Cis-Ural part of Orenburg oblast and used for the assessment of soil suitability for cultivation in the southern and southeastern regions of Orenburg oblast.

  19. The Peoples of the Steppe Frontier in Early Chinese Sources

    Edwin G. Pulleyblank


    Full Text Available Nascent Chinese civilization once shared the north China plain and the surrounding uplands with various non-Chinese “barbarians”. The Chinese language itself is related to the Tibeto-Burman language family. Some of the “barbarians” to the west belonged to this group, especially the Qiang. Of the major non-Chinese groups, the Yi, along the eastern seaboard, probably spoke an Austroasiatic language. They can be identified with a series of coastal Neolithic cultures, elements of which contributed much to the formation of Chinese civilization in the Central Plain. It has often been assumed that the non-Chinese in the north uplands, the Di and Xiongnu – in Han times nomadic rulers of the steppes of Mongolia – spoke Altaic languages. Although there is good reason to think that the Hu did speak Altaic (i.e. Mongolic, the Xiongnu, first seen in the Ordos and linked to the earlier Yiqu, were linguistically quite different. Their language may have been Yeniseian or an aberrant form of Tibeto-Burman, or without living relatives. In Han times, when hu had become a general term for horse-riding nomads, applied especially to the Xiongnu, the original Hu became known as the Eastern Hu. They were differentiated in Han sources into the Xianbei (*Särbi, ancestors of the historical Mongols, and the Wuhuan (*Awar, a name recognizable as that of the Avars who invaded Europe in the sixth century. The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples that can be identified in Chinese sources are the Dingling, Gekun or Jiankun, and Xinli, located in South Siberia. The nomadic power immediately to the west of the Xiongnu in Han times were the Yuezhi. When the Xiongnu defeated them, their main body moved west, eventually to the Amu Darya, extinguishing the Greek kingdom in Bactria and later establishing the Kushan empire. It is argued that they were Indo-Europeans, speaking a Tocharian language of the type attested in later documents from the oasis states of the Tarim basin

  20. [Priest-doctors in Russia].

    Berlan, Hélène; Triaire, Dominique


    Jean Pierre Frank offers in the early nineteenth century a revolution in medical Russian Empire. Indeed, Russia is in an emergency situation where the lack of practitioners is obvious. The imperial project is inspired by past practices in some European countries. Frank fits these transfers and implements a unique model where the priest-doctor stands out as the solution to overcome the lack of medicalization of the Empire. Even if the attempt was a failure, it remains that the proposals were part of Frank in both an ancient tradition that priests and physicians providing care for souls and bodies, but also showed that called his wishes the advent of "public health" in this country disinherited.

  1. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Yury F. Lukin


    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  2. Isotope paleohydrology at the northern Boreal treeline, Canada and Russia (paleohydrology climate change)

    Wolfe, B.B.


    A Canada-Russia international research project was established to better understand the relationship between the northern treeline region and climate change. The study involved the oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of lake sediment cores using several different sedimentological, biological and geochemical techniques. The study has provided an insight into Holocene paleohydrology and watershed carbon cycling in arctic Canada and Russia. Results showed that periods of treeline advance and climate warming in central Canada and central and eastern Russia were characterized by distinct changes in moisture conditions. During these intervals, summer relative humidity increased by 10 to 15 per cent in central Canada. Central Russia was also wetter, but a drier climate was associated with treeline advance in eastern Russia. Carbon isotope records have suggested that lake carbon reservoirs at boreal treeline were greatly influenced by catchment hydrology as well as soil and vegetation development. Nitrogen isotope composition of lacustrine bulk organic matter was also useful for determining nutrient dynamics in these watersheds. It was concluded that lake sediment organic isotope tracers are an effective approach for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

  3. Oil Deals to Widen Trade Deficit with Russia


    @@ The US$ 150 billion oil deal between China and Russia will expand bilateral trade and China's huge trade deficit with Russia, according to Chinese experts. China's exports to Russia may have increased rapidly in recent years but the nation is expected to see its trade deficit with Russia widen for the foreseeable future.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of the bronze age bone pins from Eurasian steppe

    Shishlina, Natalia I.; Van der Plicht, Johan; Zazovskaya, Elya P.


    Bone catapult and hammer-headed pins played one of very specific roles in funerary offerings in the Bronze Age graves uncovered in the Eurasian Steppes and the North Caucasus. Scholars used different types of pins as key grave offerings for numerous chronological models. For the first time eight pin

  5. Community structure affects annual grass weed invasion during restoration of a shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Phil S. Allen; Susan E. Meyer


    Ecological restoration of shrub-steppe communities in the western United States is often hampered by invasion of exotic annual grasses during the process. An important question is how to create restored communities that can better resist reinvasion by these weeds. One hypothesis is that communities comprised of species that are functionally similar to the invader will...

  6. Red fox tracking activity on the snow cover in steppe forests

    А. V. Mikheyev


    Full Text Available On the basis of field data the characteristics of red fox track activity in steppe forests of a southeast of Ukraine under the snow cover conditions were presented. The estimation of qualitative and quantitative parameters of vital activity traces as elements of an information field was carried out.

  7. The STEPPS Group Treatment Program as an alternative in helping people with borderline personality disorder

    Jerica Radež


    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a complex mental disorder which has severe impact on the quality of an individual's life. Although it is the most common type of personality disorder in the population of people with mental disorders, it has so far proven to be rather resistant to pharmacological treatments. This may suggest that effective psychotherapeutic methods need to be developed to help people with this diagnosis. There have been several attempts to develop successful therapeutic interventions for borderline personality disorder. Most of them were developed either from cognitive-behavioural or from psychoanalytic paradigm. More recent studies have focused on developing a more holistic approach. One such approach is the STEPPS program. This programme combines elements from cognitive-behavioural and systemic approaches. STEPPS is a 20-week, manually based group treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. In comparison with other established approaches, the STEPPS program does not interfere with patient's other ongoing treatments. In this article we present the basics of the STEPPS program. We also provide a review of studies, investigating the effectiveness of the program. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of the program and suggest some topics for further research.

  8. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki


    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  9. Integrating TeamSTEPPS(®) into ambulatory reproductive health care: Early successes and lessons learned.

    Paul, Maureen E; Dodge, Laura E; Intondi, Evelyn; Ozcelik, Guzey; Plitt, Ken; Hacker, Michele R


    Most medical teamwork improvement interventions have occurred in hospitals, and more efforts are needed to integrate them into ambulatory care settings. In 2014, Affiliates Risk Management Services, Inc. (ARMS), the risk management services organization for a large network of reproductive health care organizations in the United States, launched a voluntary 5-year initiative to implement a medical teamwork system in this network using the TeamSTEPPS model. This article describes the ARMS initiative and progress made during the first 2 years, including lessons learned. The ARMS TeamSTEPPS program consists of the following components: preparation of participating organizations, TeamSTEPPS master training, implementation of teamwork improvement programs, and evaluation. We used self-administered questionnaires to assess satisfaction with the ARMS program and with the master training course. In the first 2 years, 20 organizations enrolled. Participants found the preparation phase valuable and were highly satisfied with the master training course. Although most attendees felt that the course imparted the knowledge and tools critical for TeamSTEPPS implementation, they identified time restraints and competing initiatives as potential barriers. The project team has learned valuable lessons about obtaining buy-in, consolidating the change teams, making the curriculum relevant, and evaluation. Ambulatory care settings require innovative approaches to integration of teamwork improvement systems. Evaluating and sharing lessons learned will help to hone best practices as we navigate this new frontier in the field of patient safety. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  10. [Predicting drop-out during the systems training for emotional predictability and problem solving (STEPPS)].

    van Diepen, J B; de Groot, I W


    Drop-out is a complex problem in mental health care and in STEPPS. Research has revealed a variety of predicting factors and has produced contradictory results. To investigate whether the information available at the start of STEPPS can pinpoint predictors of drop-out. The ROM data for 150 patients were used to test the link between the following factors: age, gender, education, employment, substance abuse, anxiety, hostility, interpersonal relations, responsibility and social concordance with drop-out. The method used for testing was logistic regression analysis. Factors that contributed significantly to the prediction of drop-out were gender and employment status. These factors made up 16% of the explained variation (R2 Nagelkerkes) in drop-out. Gender was the strongest predictive factor. Concerning the other factors, no differences were found between groups (drop-out and non-dropouts). In its present form STEPPS does not suit a large number of the male participants. Drop-out during STEPPS is hard to predict on the basis of ROM-questionnaires. Future research should focus on preconditions and marginal conditions that influence patients to complete their training.

  11. Sagebrush steppe recovery after fire varies by development phase of Juniperus occidentalis woodland

    Pinus-Juniperus L. (Piñon- juniper) woodlands have expanded into Artemisia tridentata Beetle (big sagebrush) steppe of the western United States primarily as a result of reduced fire disturbances. Woodland control measures, including prescribed fire, have been increasingly employed to restore sagebr...

  12. Desert-steppe migration on the Loess Plateau at about 450 kaBP



    According to the field investigation, observation by an electronic microscope and x-ray identification and chemical analysis, desert-steppe migration in the Loess Plateau at about 450 kaBP was studied. The data show that gypsum illuvial horizon indicating the desert-steppe environment developed in the early stage of the formation of the fifth layer loess in Shaoling tableland in Chang'an and Bailu tableland in Xran of Shaanxi are situated in the southern Loess Plateau. This indicates that remarkable drying occurred, a large-scope migration of desert steppe took place toward south and the climate zone migrated 5 degrees in latitude to south which is the largest migration range indicated by geochemical indexes. The desert-steppe and more wild environment distributed widely on the Loess Plateau at that time. The development of gypsum also indicates that the climate changed at 450 kaBP from monsoon climate to nonmonsoon climate in the Loess Plateau, and the region was not affected by summer monsoon and was in the cold and dry environment of nonmonsoon climate. Annual mean nrecinitation was about 200 rnm. 400 mm less at that time than at oresent.

  13. Russia and Human Rights: Incompatible Opposites?

    Bill Bowring


    Full Text Available The Article raises in his article “Russia and human rights: incompatible opposites?” the question, if the currently complicated relations between Russia and the CoE concerning Russia’s obligations under the ECHR are at breaking-point. In regard to this issue he gives a description of the history of law in Russia to prove the pre-existing tradition of argument about human rights.

  14. Thresholds and interactive effects of soil moisture on the temperature response of soil respiration

    Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Kovács-Láng, Edit; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán;


    Ecosystem carbon exchange is poorly understood in low-productivity, semiarid habitats. Here we studied the controls of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in climate change field experiment in a sandy forest-steppe. Soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly from April to November in 2003......–2008 on plots receiving either rain exclusion or nocturnal warming, or serving as ambient control. Based on this dataset, we developed and compared empirical models of temperature and moisture effects on soil respiration. Results suggest that in this semiarid ecosystem the main controlling factor for soil CO2...... efflux is soil temperature, while soil moisture has less, although significant effect on soil respiration. Clear thresholds for moisture effects on temperature sensitivity were identified at 0.6, 4.0 and 7.0vol% by almost each model, which relate well to other known limits for biological activity...

  15. Seasonal and diurnal variations in moisture, heat and CO2 fluxes over a typical steppe prairie in Inner Mongolia, China

    M. Zhou


    Full Text Available In order to examine energy partitioning and CO2 exchange over a steppe prairie in Inner Mongolia, China, fluxes of moisture, heat and CO2 in the surface layer from June 2007 through June 2008 were calculated using the eddy covariance method. The study site was homogenous and approximately 1500 m×1500 m in size. Seasonal and diurnal variations in radiation components, energy components and CO2 fluxes are examined. Results show that all four radiation components changed seasonally, resulting in a seasonal variation in net radiation. The radiation components also changed diurnally. Winter surface albedo was higher than summer surface albedo because during winter the snow-covered surface increased the surface albedo. The seasonal variations in both sensible heat and CO2 fluxes were stronger than those of latent heat and soil heat fluxes. Sensible heat flux was the main consumer of available energy for the entire experimental period. The energy imbalance problem was encountered and the causes are analyzed.

  16. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of dominant steppe plants shift in response to a gradient of simulated nitrogen deposition

    An eYang


    Full Text Available We evaluated effects of 9-year simulation of simulated nitrogen (N deposition on microbial composition and diversity in the rhizosphere of two dominant temperate grassland species: grass Stipa krylovii and forb Artemisia frigida. Microbiomes in S. krylovii and A.frigida rhizosphere differed, but changed consistently along the N gradient. These changes were correlated to N-induced shifts to plant community. Hence, as plant biomass changed, so did bacterial rhizosphere communities, a result consistent with the role that N fertilizer has been shown to play in altering plant-microbial mutualisms. A total of 23 bacterial phyla were detected in the two rhizospheric soils by pyrosequencing, with Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominating the sequences of all samples. Bacterioidetes and Proteobacteria tended to increase, while Acidobacteria declined with increase in N addition rates. TM7 increased >5-fold in the high N addition rates, especially in S. krylovii rhizosphere. Nitrogen addition also decreased diversity of OTUs (operational taxonomic units, Shannon and Chao1 indices of rhizospheric microbes regardless of plant species. These results suggest that there were both similar but also specific changes in microbial communities of temperate steppes due to N deposition.

  17. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 3. Site level restoration decisions

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Knick, Steven T.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.


    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) depends on large landscapes of intact habitat of sagebrush and perennial grasses for their existence. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrush-obligate animals, livestock, and wild horses, and to provide ecosystem services for humans now and for future generations.When a decision is made on where restoration treatments should be applied, there are a number of site-specific decisions managers face before selecting the appropriate type of restoration. This site-level decision tool for restoration of sagebrush steppe ecosystems is organized in nine steps.Step 1 describes the process of defining site-level restoration objectives.Step 2 describes the ecological site characteristics of the restoration site. This covers soil chemistry and texture, soil moisture and temperature regimes, and the vegetation communities the site is capable of supporting.Step 3 compares the current vegetation to the plant communities associated with the site State and Transition models.Step 4 takes the manager through the process of current land uses and past disturbances that may influence restoration success.Step 5 is a brief discussion of how weather before and after treatments may impact restoration success.Step 6 addresses restoration treatment types and their potential positive and negative impacts on the ecosystem and on habitats, especially for greater sage

  18. Past Experience and the Present in the History of the Man and Nature Relationship in the Great Steppe



    The considerable part of the Northern Asia is occupied with the steppe and forest-steppe landscapes stretched by a wide strip from Caspian Sea to mountains of Big Khingan.Archeologists claim,that from here on the Bering Bridge after a glacial age ancestors of American Indian tribes have left to the North America.In the Baikal Lake basin we find settlements of ancient Huns,subdued the Eastern and Western Europe in the beginning of last millennium.In steppes of the Mongolian plateau in the Middle Ages arose the empire of Chingis-khan,stretched from Adriatic to Pacific Ocean.

  19. On the Succession of Sarmatian Population in the East-European Steppes

    Balabanova Mariya A.


    Full Text Available As V.P. Alekseev wrote, the succession of population has been peculiar for individual territories for centuries. Despite the fact that the Eastern European steppe in ancient times and the Middle Ages was characterized by frequent changes of the population due to its high dependence on the environmental conditions, the Sarmatian culture preservation was observed over a period of ceremonial standards and elements of material culture. In this paper an attempt is made to show the presence of a partial succession of the three chronological periods of Sarmatian population. To do this, the author conducted a comparative characteristic of physical types of nomads of Sarmatian steppes of the Eastern Europe. The results of the study of mass craniological material combined in the cultural and chronological groups, showed that on the whole range of time and space over the steppe habitat Sarmatian cultures fixed partial similarity in physical type. In this connection, it is assumed that the partial continuity of anthropological types of different cultural, historical and local groups is linked to: 1 partial preservation of substrate Early Sarmatian population over the 4th- 3rd centuries BC – first half of 2nd-4th centuries AD; 2 the direction and character of penetration of nomadic groups who migrated from the East into steppe space; 3 design of a single system of seasonal migrations which involves the presence of winter and summer camps, and the presence of burial mounds; 4 the inclusion of a horde of nomadic pastoral population groups moved all over the steppes, from between Volga and Ural to the Lower Don; 5 the fact that male migrants married local women.

  20. Predicting foundation bunchgrass species abundances: Model-assisted decision-making in protected-area sagebrush steppe

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Sheley, Roger L.; Smith, Brenda S.; Hoh, Shirley; Esposito, Daniel M.; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo


    a serious threat to protected-area bunchgrass communities. Our study area was entirely within the Wyoming big sagebrush ecological zone, understood to have inherently low resilience to disturbance and resistance to weed invasion. However, our study revealed important variation in abundance of the foundation species associated with resilience and resistance along the topographic-soil moisture gradient within this zone, providing an important foothold for conservation decision-making in these steppe ecosystems. We found the foundation species focus a parsimonious strategy linking monitoring to decision-making via biogeographic modeling.

  1. Erosion of agrochernozems under sprinkler irrigation and rainfall simulation in the southern forest-steppe of Bashkir Cis-Ural region

    Komissarov, M. A.; Gabbasova, I. M.


    Experiments on small (about 10 m in length) runoff plots on slopes of 1°-3° subjected to sprinkler irrigation in the southern Cis-Ural forest-steppe region showed that the formation of surface runoff is controlled by the intensity and character (intermittence) of sprinkler irrigation, its duration, and the state of the soil surface. On the clay-illuvial moderately leached agrochernozem, the surface runoff is developed after 14‒20 h of irrigation imitating heavy rain (180-210 mm rainfall), after 15 min (24 mm) under shower, and after 10 min (23 mm) under heavy shower. Runoff appeared on the plowed plots unprotected by plants after 100-140 mm of heavy rainfall 6 h earlier than on the fallow plot; in the case of shower and heavy shower on the unprotected plot, it appeared virtually immediately. Turbidity of runoff flows gradually increased after the beginning of runoff under heavy rain and sharply increased under heavy shower. After reaching its maximum, it decreased. The contents of fine fractions, humus, and nutrients in the solid runoff (drift) were higher under lower rain intensity (heavy rain) than under showers and heavy showers; they were higher in all the drifts than in the soil on the adjacent slope. Long (about 24 h) continuous artificial heavy rain (0.17-0.22 mm/min) caused slight soil compaction and some improvement of the structure of the surface soil layer both on the fallow plots and on the plowed plots.

  2. Financial Crisis in Russia: Cuases and Prospects

    Seungweon Suh


    Full Text Available Although we cannot exclude the reason for financial crisis in Russia's foreign exchange is the depreciation of Rupees and a loss for foreign investment caused the currency crisis in Asia, but most people predicted that by the support of the Russian government and the deflation efforts it will soon go back to stable. And other people said that there is no possibility of causing the world economic chaos but also no possibility for this situation to evolve into a situation where old policy replaced by new one and where there is Country moratorium. At the time when the prediction was made, since the Korea-Russia relationship is still weak, this Russian Crisis caused small influence on Korean Economy. But some section like exporting electronic products and food which rely Russia quite a lot, should analyze the situation carefully in order to face the shrinkage of market demand of Russia.

  3. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues


    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  4. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.


    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  5. China, US, Russia Inaugurate Global Research Network


    @@ China, the United States and Russia began on Jaunary 12 a global network for scientific research, the first of its kind in the North Hemisphere connecting major scientific centers such as Chicago, Moscow and Beijing.

  6. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina


    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  7. Elections in Russia, 1991-2008

    Treisman, Daniel


    In this paper, I review the main trends in voting in national elections in Russia since 1991, discuss the evidence of manipulation or falsification by the authorities, and use statistical techniques to examine the determinants of voting trends.

  8. Project Management in Russia: Sociologic Approach

    A O Gomaleev


    Full Text Available Sociologic approach to project management allows to highlight the problems aroused by discrepancies between real management practices and ideal models; to determine basic socio-psychological barriers that impede project management in Russia; to classify real management practices on the basis of their correlation to project management; to single out basic types of projects implemented in Russian businesses; to work out practical recommendations on overcoming social barriers of developing the system of project management is Russia.

  9. NATO Needs a Comprehensive Strategy for Russia


    February 11, 2015: 13 Dempsey, 2015. 14 See Vladimir Putin , “Meeting of the Valdai International...Crimea, presents an unequivocal challenge to European security. Russia’s actions are not just a stark rejection of Euro-Atlantic integration; Russia ...economic sanctions on Russia and NATO conventional military measures geared toward demonstrating readi- ness and new capabilities. NATO leaders clearly

  10. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.


    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  11. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Gale, B.G.


    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  12. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality



    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  13. Estimation of chlorophyll contents in leaves and canopy of steppe vegetation using hyperspectral measurements

    Wei, Dandan; Xiao, Chenchao; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wei, Hongyan; Shang, Kun


    As an important part of the Eurasian Steppe, the temperate typical steppe in Inner Mongolia is highly representative of the Eurasian vegetation. Compared to multispectral remote sensing, hyperspectral remote sensing is more sensitive in monitoring some characteristics of vegetation. However, the research on the typical temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia is still not perfect, so we selected three sampling zones with different dominant species on the typical steppe in Xilinhot of Inner Mongolia. We collected spectrum of leaves and canopy separately to estimate content of chlorophyll of steppe vegetation. In addition, we compared and analyzed the advantage and feasibility of different estimation methods in estimating chlorophyll contents of meadows which have different dominant species through cross validation. The conclusions drawn in this research are as follows: Due to significant discontinuity, maximum first derivative method and Lagrange interpolation method are not suitable for estimation of chlorophyll of typical steppe. Compared with other methods, the red edge position calculated with four points linear interpolation obviously migrates to long wave direction. Inverted Gaussian model and four points linear interpolation both show low sensitivity for Stipa grandis steppe zone (with Stipa grandis as dominant species) where chlorophyll concentration is low and there is saturation phenomenon and weak stability (obvious variation of R2) for Leymus chinensis steppe (with Leymus chinensis as dominant species) where chlorophyll concentration is high, so they are also not the best choice. Linear extrapolation and polynomial fitting show certain saturation for high concentration of chlorophyll and also high correlation coefficient for both leaves and canopy, so they are suitable for estimation of chlorophyll concentration of leaves and canopy on the steppe. The different methods of extracting red edge are better at estimating chlorophyll of leaves than canopy and the

  14. The magnetic properties of the Lake Bolshoe Yarovoe (Altai Region, Russia) sediments

    Kosareva, Lina; Nourgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriia; Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Kuzina, Diliara; Antonenko, Vadim; Akhmerov, Rinaz; Evtugyn, Vladimir; Vorob'ev, Vyacheslav


    Magnetic minerals of modern lake sediments provide unique source of information for climate changes, regionally and globally as environmental variations are recorded by them with high resolution. Here we report results of magnetic analysis of the endorheic bitter-salty lake Bolshoe Yarovoe located in the Altai Region, Russia. The lake is the deepest one in the Kulunda Steppe with the average depth 4 m and with the catchment area about 560 km2. Five cores were drileld during field research conducted by the Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies (Kazan Federal University, Russia) in 2008. Average length of cores is 4 m. The samples were studied using radiocarbon dating, magnetic susceptibility, NRM measurements, coercivity spectrometry, thermomagnetic analysis, TEM and SEM microscopy. The main components of the sediments magnetization, their variability, defined features of sedimentation processes, also the contribution of the paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic components are identified. Data variability of the paramagnetic component revealed that the lower part of the section is characterized by a gradual increase in revenues of the clay material. The presence of erosion was detected around of 7500 years ago marking occurrence of a fall of the lake level during this period. After this the flow of clay particles was steady with small fluctuations only, indicating the stabilization of sedimentation processes. Ferromagnetic fraction is mainly represented by magnitofossils of different forms, sizes and grain preservation. Such changes may be related to many factors, such as climate, nutrient availability, and environmental variability. Possible relationships between magnitofossil morphology, their magnetic signal and the depositional environment changes are proposed. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

  15. Influence of litter thickness on the structure of litter macrofauna of deciduous forests of Ukraine’s steppe zone

    V. V. Brygadyrenko


    Full Text Available The litter in a forest ecosystem acts as a trophic substrate, and at the same time it is the environment for litter invertebrates. But despite this fact, there has been very little research conducted on the influence of litter thickness on the structure of litter macrofauna. The litter of steppe forests contains most types of integrated communities of forest ecosystems. This means that its thickness cannot avoid playing a significant role in the functioning of the ecosystem. Following to the standard methodologies, Invertebrates were collected using pit-fall traps in deciduous forests of Nikolaev, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and Kharkiv oblasts, which are characterized by different types of geomorphological profile, different moisture conditions, soil salinity, tree crown and herbaceous vegetation density, soil texture and other factors. The total number of macrofauna increases in conditions where litter thickness exceeds40 mmin comparison with forest ecosystems with fragmented and average capacity litter. The number of litter macrofauna species also increases from 11–23 to 38 species on average when litter thickness increases to more than40 mm. The Shannon and Pielou diversity indexes show no definite tendencies to change in relation to changing degrees of litter thickness. At sites of greater thickness of the litter layer, the corresponding increase in the absolute number of litter mesofauna invertebrates is mostly due to saprophages, and the increase the number of species – due to zoophages. The optimum structure of domination was observed at sites with maximum thickness of litter. The proportion of large species shows no statistically significant change in relation to variations in litter thickness. The qualitative compound of the fauna at sites with thick litter changes mainly due to an increase in the number of Carabidae species.

  16. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    S. Z. Gontcharov


    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  17. [Recent fauna of ground-nesting birds in Transvolga steppes and its dynamics in the 20th century].

    Oparin, M L


    It is shown that the structure of the ground-nesting bird fauna in Transvolga steppes has changed during the 20th century. The complex of lark species characteristic of true and dry steppe has disappeared because of climate change and impact of economic activity (the establishment of windbreak and roadside forest strips), which has provided for a sharp increase in the abundance of corvid birds.

  18. [A study on the taxonomy of soil amoebas from Caspian plague foci based on an analysis of ribosomal operon sequences].

    Koshel', E I; Anisimova, L V; Novichkova, L A; Vidiaeva, N A; Guseva, N P; Eroshenko, G A; Kutyrev, V V


    The results of a study on the taxonomy and quantitative abundance of free-living amoebas in soil samples from the Russian plague foci of the northwestern Caspian steppe, the Caspian sand, and the Volga-Ural steppe are presented. Amoebas of the Willaertia and Hartmanella genera, as well as representatives of myxomycetes, were isolated from samples. From these, amoebas of the Acanthamoeba genus predominated and could be as abundantas 300000 cells per 1 g of soil. Sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene region showed that Acanthamoeba from the Volga-Ural steppe focus belonged to the A. castellanii species. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that amoebas from two other Caspian foci belonged to the species of Acanthamoeba spp.

  19. Why Russia is not a state

    Stern, J.E.


    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  20. Genetic differentiation and karyotype variation in Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum, an endemic species of Tuva Republic, Russia.

    Zvyagina, Natalia S; Dorogina, Olga V; Krasnikov, Alexander A


    Overgrazing and mining affect vegetation, particularly in mountains. At times, it goes to such an extent that the plant species become vulnerable and slowly extinct from its habitat. Such endemic species need to be protected. One such endemic species Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum Kurbatsky, a vulnerable steppe vegetation of Tuva Republic, Russia was evaluated for its genetic diversity and taxonomic definition using molecular technique and chromosome number adjustment. The genetic differentiation among H. chaiyrakanicum, H. setigerum Turcz. and H. gmelinii Ledeb. genotypes was determined using five inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and then examined with Nei's genetic distance coefficient (D) and Shannon's information index (H). A total of 134 reproducible bands were detected with polymorphism percentage of 98%. The genetic diversity of H. chaiyrakanicum was found to be 0.343 while the Shannon index H(sp) was determined as 8 06. The chromosome number 2n = 16 is newly observed within the H. chaiyrakanicum. The genetic relationship based on ISSR data supported the taxonomic distinction of H. chaiyrakanicum from H. setigerum and H. gmelinii. We recommend both in situ and ex situ conservation strategies, specially germplasm sampling, to save this endemic species.

  1. Late Glacial to Holocene paleoenvironmental change on the northwestern Pacific seaboard, Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)

    Pendea, Ionel Florin; Ponomareva, Vera; Bourgeois, Joanne; Zubrow, Ezra B. W.; Portnyagin, Maxim; Ponkratova, Irina; Harmsen, Hans; Korosec, Gregory


    We used a new sedimentary record from a small kettle wetland to reconstruct the Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of the Krutoberegovo-Ust Kamchatsk region in eastern Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). Pollen and charcoal data suggest that the Late Glacial landscape was dominated by a relatively fire-prone Larix forest-tundra during the Greenland Interstadial complex (GI 1) and a subarctic steppe during the Younger Dryas (GS1). The onset of the Holocene is marked by the reappearance of trees (mainly Alnus incana) within a fern and shrub dominated landscape. The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) features shifting vegetational communities dominated by Alnus shrubs, diverse forb species, and locally abundant aquatic plants. The HTM is further defined by the first appearance of stone birch forests (Betula ermanii) - Kamchatka's most abundant modern tree species. The Late Holocene is marked by shifts in forest dynamics and forest-graminoid ratio and the appearance of new non-arboreal taxa such as bayberry (Myrica) and meadow rue (Filipendula). Kamchatka is one of Earth's most active volcanic regions. During the Late Glacial and Holocene, Kamchatka's volcanoes spread large quantities of tephra over the study region. Thirty-four tephra falls have been identified at the site. The events represented by most of these tephra falls have not left evidence of major impacts on the vegetation although some of the thicker tephras caused expansion of grasses (Poaceae) and, at least in one case, forest die-out and increased fire activity.

  2. Two new species of Perichaena (Myxomycetes) from arid areas of Russia and Kazakhstan.

    Novozhilov, Yuri K; Zemlyanskaya, Inna V; Schnittler, Martin; Stephenson, Steven L


    Two new myxomycete species from dry steppe and desert communities of the Caspian Lowland (Russia) and central Kazakhstan are described and illustrated. They are placed tentatively within genus Perichaena, which does include species with a reduced capillitium and single-layered peridium. Both species were found repeatedly in moist chamber cultures; P. heterospinispora appeared on leaf litter and twigs, whereas P. polygonospora occurred on leaf litter and weathered dung of rodents. Both species have spore ornamentation that is unique for members of genera Licea and Perichaena. The spore ornamentation of the first species includes scattered large, pyramid-like spines 0.9-1.2 microm high that sometimes have enlarged ends. Among these spines the spore surface is covered by evenly and densely distributed warts that are visible only by SEM. The second species is characterized by angular spores with a coarse network of rounded ridges. The areas among these ridges bear scattered composite warts 0.3-0.5 microm high that sometimes coalesce to form clusters but more often are distributed evenly and densely and are visible only by SEM. The stability of the taxonomic characters of both species was confirmed by several collections from different regions obtained in 2 y. The morphology of the fructifications of the two myxomycetes was examined with both scanning electron and light microscopy, and micrographs of all relevant features are presented.

  3. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla


    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  4. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  5. Changes in the content and quality of humus in leached chernozems of the Trans-Ural forest-steppe zone under the impact of their agricultural use

    Eremin, D. I.


    The results of long-term studies of changes in the content and fractional-group composition of humus in leached chernozems (Luvic Voronic Chernozems, WRB 2006) of the Trans-Ural forest-steppe since the beginning of their plowing are considered. These soils are characterized by the high humus pool (up to 500 t/ha in the virgin state and up to 430 t/ha in the plowed state) and the high degree of the organic matter humification. Humus is of the fulvate-humate type in the upper 30 cm and of the humate-fulvate type in the deeper layers. From 1968 to 2006, the total pool of humus in the 1-m-deep soil layer of the plowed chernozems decreased by 8.5% in comparison with the initial virgin soils. The rate of dehumification reached 1.0-1.4 t/ha per year. The long-term plowing of leached chernozems also led to a smaller content of nitrogen in the organic matter (the C/N ratio increased from 11.5 to 13.6). The relative content of free humic acids (HA-1) and humic acids bound to clay minerals (HA-3) increased, whereas the content of calcium humates (HA-2) decreased. The composition of fulvic acids in the plow horizon was characterized by the rise in the content of aggressive (FA-1a) and mobile (FA-1) fractions, while the amount of fulvates bound to calcium (FA-2) decreased.

  6. Housing of the Gorodets Population Forest-Steppe Area Don Region

    Razuvaev Yury D.


    Full Text Available The article studies middle – second half of the first millennium BC dwellings found on the Gorodets settlements from the forest-steppe area of the Don region. Majority of sites belonging to this culture are short-term stations without any permanent structures. Such structures were found only on stationary settlements located in river basins and on hillforts. Overall, thirteen surface (including with partly buried foundation and three half-buried dwellings were studied, including some small (3.5–7 sq.m, medium (11–17 sq.m and bigger (over 25 sq.m structures, of different shapes (rectangular, square, trapezoid. Half of the structures had open hearths. Three hillforts contained traces of dwellings forming one complex with fortifications. The studied structures find analogies both within the Gorodets area and on adjacent forest-steppe and forest areas.

  7. A leadership challenge: staff nurse perceptions after an organizational TeamSTEPPS initiative.

    Castner, Jessica; Foltz-Ramos, Kelly; Schwartz, Diane G; Ceravolo, Diane J


    The purpose of this study was to measure RNs' perceptions of teamwork skills and behaviors in their work environment during a multiphase multisite nursing organizational teamwork development initiative. Teamwork is essential for patient safety in healthcare organizations and nursing teams. Organizational development supporting effective teamwork should include a just culture, engaged leadership, and teamwork training. A cross-sectional survey study of bedside RNs was conducted in one 5-hospital healthcare system after a TeamSTEPPS teamwork training initiative. TeamSTEPPS teamwork training related to improved RN perceptions of leadership. Initiatives to align the perspectives and teamwork efforts of leaders and bedside nurses are indicated and should involve charge nurses in the design.

  8. Carbon cost of collective farming collapse in Russia.

    Kurganova, Irina; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Six, Johan; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    The collapse of collective farming in Russia after 1990 and the subsequent economic crisis led to the abandonment of more than 45 million ha of arable lands (23% of the agricultural area). This was the most widespread and abrupt land use change in the 20th century in the northern hemisphere. The withdrawal of land area from cultivation led to several benefits including carbon (C) sequestration. Here, we provide a geographically complete and spatially detailed analysis of C sequestered in these abandoned lands. The average C accumulation rate in the upper 20 cm of mineral soil was 0.96 ± 0.08 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) for the first 20 years after abandonment and 0.19 ± 0.10 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) during the next 30 years of postagrogenic evolution and natural vegetation establishment. The amount of C sequestered over the period 1990-2009 accounts to 42.6 ± 3.8 Tg C per year. This C sequestration rate is equivalent to ca. 10% of the annual C sink in all Russian forests. Furthermore, it compensates all fire and postfire CO2 emissions in Russia and covers about 4% of the global CO2 release due to deforestation and other land use changes. Our assessment shows a significant mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2 by prolonged C accumulation in Russian soils caused by collective farming collapse.

  9. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Maltsev Leonid A.


    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  10. Nighttime warming enhances drought resistance of plant communities in a temperate steppe

    Zhongling Yang; Lin Jiang; Fanglong Su; Qian Zhang; Jianyang Xia; Shiqiang Wan


    Drought events could have profound influence on plant community structure and ecosystem function, and have subsequent impacts on community stability, but we know little about how different climate warming scenarios affect community resistance and resilience to drought. Combining a daytime and nighttime warming experiment in the temperate steppe of north China with a natural drought event during the study period, we tested how daytime and nighttime warming influences drought resistance and res...

  11. Analysis of invertebrate populations inhabiting the shrub-steppe region of southcentral Washington (Hanford Reservation)

    Rogers, L. E.


    Field sampling and analytical techniques are described for quantitative shrub-steppe invertebrate ecology studies on the Hanford Reservation. A quick trap, D-vac sampling method followed by Berlese extraction is employed. Computer summarization of results permits presentation of data in terms of density (no./m/sup 2/) and biomass (g/m/sup 2/) for trophic, taxonomic, lifestage and total invertebrate groupings.

  12. [Diurnal and Seasonal Dynamic Variation of Soil Respiration and Its Influencing Factors of Different Fenced Enclosure Years in Desert Steppec].

    Cui, Hai; Zhang, Ya-hong


    The fenced measures could improve the ecological environment of degraded grassland, it's a main measure for restoration of degraded grassland vegetation in China. Soil respiration (Rs) is an important component of an ecosystem's carbon cycle and the main pathway for carbon moving from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. In order to explore soil respiration characteristics and influencing factors of the different fenced years in arid desert grassland, we continuously observed Rs rate and environmental factors in the growing season of fenced enclosure 11a, 7a and no fenced (CK) desert steppe in Ningxia. The results showed that: (1) Both the diurnal andseasonal variations of Rs rate showed a single asymmetric peak changing in fenced enclosure of 11 years, 7 years, CK desert steppe. On the daily scale, the maximum and minimum values of Rs rate were found in the periods of 12:00-16:00 and 00:00-06:00,respectively. On the seasonal variation scale, the maximum value of Rs rate occurred in August with suitable precipitation and temperature conditions. And the Rs rate of the growing season of different fenced enclosure years was in the order of 11a [0.143 g · (m² · h)⁻¹] > 7a [0.138 g · (m² · h)⁻¹] > CK [0.106 g · (m2 - h)⁻¹]. (2) According to statistical analysis, it indicated that R² rate had a significant exponential positive relationship with air and soil temperature in fenced enclosure of 11 years, 7 years, CK desert steppe (P soil surface temperature (R²: 0.408-0.413) > air temperature (R2: 0.355-0.376) > 5-20 cm soil temperature (R2: 0.263-0.394). The temperature sensitivity coefficient Q, increased gradually with the soil depth, and Q1, of different fenced enclosure years was showed as 11 a (2.728) > 7a (2.436) > CK (2.086). (3) A significant quadratic function model (P soil moisture content of fenced enclosure 11a, 7a and CK desert steppe in the whole growing season. Rs rate had a significant linear negative correlation with air carbon dioxide

  13. Aeolian Nutrient Fluxes Following Wildfire in Sagebrush Steppe: Implications for Soil Carbon Storage


    rst few months following ?re, whereas C and N ?uxes were negligible in an adjacent unburned area throughout the study. Temporal variation in C and N...throughout the study. Temporal variation in C and N ?uxes following ?re was largely attributable to the redistribution of saltation-sized particles. Total N...Geographic Science Center and USA-National Phenology Network, 1955 E 6th St, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA ****current address: Faculty of Agriculture, Food

  14. Changes in the composition of the bee populations of the Mohelno Serpentine Steppe after 70 years (Hymenoptera: Apiformes

    Antonín Přidal


    Full Text Available Mohelno serpentine steppe (Mohelenská hadcová step is a unique natural habitat of European importance. Since its last apidologic proper survey passed about 70 years. The objective of this work was to summarize the results of the apidological survey performed in the national nature reserve Mohelno Serpentine Steppe in a period of 2010–2011, characterize current changes in the composition of bee populations and propose recommendations for the management of this nature reserve.The survey was performed within 20 days and includes a total of 91 hours of observations in the field with exact records of survey localization and weather. A total of 2705 bee individuals were caught using an insect net and examined. 71 to 276 bee individuals were identified on individual days of monitoring. The bee density varied in a range of 18.4–87.1 bees per hour of the pure time of sampling. A total of 176 bee species were identified. 115 bee species from the original list of 232 bee species were confirmed by this survey (50 %. Species that were not confirmed could disappear as a result of changes which have occurred in the Steppe biotope over the past 40 years or their disappearance is generally associated with changes in the population of a particular species in Moravia. The disappearance of 17 % of unconfirmed species (20 species from the Steppe is very likely to occur but it is not associated with general changes in the population of these species in southern Moravia. 61 out of 176 bee species were recorded in the Steppe for the first time. Pyrobombus lapidarius was eudominant. The highest dominance was observed for Halictus simplex as a representative of the solitary species and for Nomada succincta as a representative of cleptoparasites. However, the major part of cleptoparasites (66 % was not confirmed. The Shannon’s index (H’ = 3.97, Equitability (e = 0.77 and the Simpson’s index (c = 0.04 were determined for bee populations. The following species

  15. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba


    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  16. Postglacial history of the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone (41-43°S)

    Iglesias, Virginia; Whitlock, Cathy; Markgraf, Vera; Bianchi, María Martha


    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 23,000 years. Although the vegetation history has been inferred from individual pollen records, the regional patterns and drivers of vegetation development are poorly understood. High resolution pollen and charcoal data from eleven sites located along the eastern flanks of the Patagonian Andes (41-43°S) were examined to reconstruct the Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of steppe/forest ecotone and separate the relative influence of climatic versus non-climatic factors in shaping the patterns of ecological change. Pollen data indicate that, as the Lateglacial climate became progressively wetter, the initial steppe vegetation was replaced by open forest of Nothofagus in the Lateglacial and early Holocene periods, and by closed forest in the late Holocene. Fire activity was lowest during the Lateglacial/early-Holocene transition and gradually increased through the Holocene. Prior to ca 5000 cal yr BP, the conifer Austrocedrus chilensis possibly persisted in isolated populations along the eastern boundary of its modern distribution. Cooler/more humid conditions after ca 5000 cal yr BP allowed the development of the modern mixed Nothofagus-Austrocedrus forest. The paleoenvironmental record points to the sensitivity of the forest/steppe ecotone in the past, not only to climate but also to complex environmental feedbacks that amplified the effects of climate change.

  17. Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe.

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim Ann; Barker, Graeme; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hanks, Bryan Kent; Li, Shuicheng; Lomitashvili, David; Ochir-Goryaeva, Maria; Sizonov, Grigory V; Soyonov, Vasiliy; Manica, Andrea


    Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA.

  18. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.


    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  19. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    T. V. Moskvina


    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  20. Russia-Georgia Conflict and Beyond

    Feng Yujun; Ma Zongshi


    Yet another Post 9/11 historical event indicating a significant turning point in the Post-Cold War era, Russia-Georgia conflict represents a remarkable change in the international strategy of a resurgent Russia. It also signifies that former Soviet republics are still groping for a new identity and that a new round of realignment will persist in the vast Eurasia region. The conflict reveals declining U.S. global control, flawed European integration, and NATO embarrassment. To a certain extent, it exposes chaos brought about by international nonpolarity and world governance vacuum. It also highlights what serious consequences can a double standard inflict on the principles of international law. A reasonable arrangement for global security and economic growth is therefore challenging the resolve and wisdom of international strategists. Actually fierce geopolitical rivalry for energy resources is at work behind the Russia-Georgia conflict. This will further compound the international energy strategic environment.

  1. Russia and the World: 2015. IMEMO Forecast1

    A Dynkin; V Baranovsky; I Kobrinskaya; G Machavariani; S Afontsev; Y Mirkin; A Kuznetsov; F Voytolovsky; V Shvydko; S Utkin; V Mikheev; S Lukonin; Y Kvashnin; B Frumkin; N Toganova; V Zhuravleva


    ... (the world's third largest, inferior only to those of the United States and Russia) is non-transparent. [...]the deep inter-dependence of the global economic system is the safety catch that makes Russia and the West...

  2. Features of Russia migration policy in the 1990

    Morozov Sergej


    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of Russia migration policy after the Soviet Union collapse. The analysis of the dynamics of the accommodation of refugees and internally displaced people on the territory of Russia is made.

  3. Reinsurance Market in Russia Requires a Restart

    I. S. Voronin


    Full Text Available Purpose: main objective of this article is to analyze dynamics and structure of the reinsurance market in Russia. Market research is conducted to understand the main trends in Russian reinsurance during period of economic sanctions. As these sanctions, affect incoming and outgoing reinsurance, as well as the development of the industry in the whole country. To achieve this goal, the article needs to address the following objectives: conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the reinsurance market; to identify the current structure of the reinsurance market in Russia; to evaluate the influence of the Russian national reinsurance company in the insurance market of the Russian Federation. Methods: this article is based on the Central Bank of Russia consolidated data on the insurance market. Results: in the period imposed against our country economic sanctions by Western countries, the topic of import substitution is relevant not only in the productive sectors of the economy and the financial markets. In particular, in the present period it is necessary to obtain additional capacity with the market of international capital loans and improve the domestic investment climate in the country. Current international practice shows that the development of any financial industry would be impossible without effective sharing of different kinds of risks and their maximum leveling. Conclusions and Relevance: analysis conducted in the article allows to identify current trends in the insurance market in Russia from both internal and external players perspectives. The data demonstrates the main problem areas of the reinsurance community in Russia and ways of solving them. In addition, the article makes predictions about the development of the reinsurance market in Russia with the imposition of a new player – the national reinsurance company. 

  4. What’s Next for Russia?


    As the United States proceeds with its missile defense plan in Eastern Europe, Russia is left with few options In May 2007, the United States launched a plan to deploy an anti-missile system in Eastern Europe, including 10 inter- ceptor missiles in Poland and a radar station in the Czech Republic. Although the system allegedly is being built to counter the threat of a ballistic missile-equipped Iran, the plan has met with vehement opposition from Russia, which insists that the system is directed against it.

  5. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.


    Full Text Available In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively. The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  6. Bioenergy Development in Russia. Comparison of the North-West of Russia and Finland.

    Rakitova, Olga (National Bioenergy Union, Saint-Petersburg, 197183 (Russian Federation)). e-mail:; Mutanen, Keijo (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, FIN-80110 Joensuu (Finland)). e-mail:


    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N-W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  7. Modernization and Traditionalism through the Prism of the Events of the 1916 Rebellion in Central Asian Border Regions of Russia

    Yuliya A. Lysenko


    Full Text Available The article within the framework of modernization theory presents an analysis of ethno-social processes in the period of the rebellion of the peoples of the Steppe Region and Turkestan in 1916. The content of this ethno-region of the Russian Empire and its modernization meant the introduction of outside institutions and values of European culture, however a short time impact of modernization trends on the traditional society (the second half of XIX – the beginning of the XX century could not give a high positive effect in the short historical perspective. Therefore a certain part of the population of Steppes and Turkestan was an active recipient of modernization, integrated into the imperial political and economic space. However, most of the traditional society perceived modernization as a form of coloniality, aimed at suppressing the cultural identity, the transformation of traditional tribal and clan ties and social relations. The analysis of the impact of modernization on the traditional society of the Central Asian border regions of Russia allowed the authors of the article to claim that contradictory of social processes of transition period was fully manifested in the course of the popular uprising in 1916. On the one hand, there were tendencies of the ethno-consolidation processes which gave to that movement a powerful impulse and scale. On the other hand, the events of 1916 demonstrated a certain division of Central Asian society, expressed in the ambiguous position of the intellectuals to the decree of Nicholas II on the mobilization of foreigners working in the rear, intra- and inter-ethnic clashes in the uprising, the restoration of archaic (from the point of view of the theory of modernization and political institutions social norms, the revival of "ethno-psychological stereotypes" of the previous era.

  8. Russia's smart power in Crimea : sowing the seeds of trust

    Roslycky, Lada L.


    The purpose of this article is to determine whether a 'dark side' exists to Russia's trust-building in the Black Sea region. An empirical analysis is made of whether, and how, Russia uses soft power to deter democratization by anchoring the promotion of pro-Russian separatism in Crimea to the Russia

  9. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    Aref'ev, A. L.


    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

  10. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia


    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ] ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia... antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be likely to lead to continuation...

  11. Oligarchs, megafarms and land reserves: understanding land grabbing in Russia

    O. Visser (Oane); N.V. Mamonova (Natalia); M.N. Spoor (Max)


    textabstractThis paper seeks to unravel the political economy of large-scale land acquisitions in post-Soviet Russia. Russia falls neither in the normal category of ‘investor’ countries, nor in the category of ‘target’ countries. Russia has large ‘land reserves’, since in the 1990s much fertile land

  12. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine


    ... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will...)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and...

  13. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine


    ... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or... 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine: Investigation Nos. 731-TA- 340-E and 340-H...

  14. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco


    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  15. Seasonal distribution and diversity of ground arthropods in microhabitats following a shrub plantation age sequence in desertified steppe.

    Rentao Liu

    Full Text Available In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was

  16. Seasonal distribution and diversity of ground arthropods in microhabitats following a shrub plantation age sequence in desertified steppe.

    Liu, Rentao; Zhu, Fan; Song, Naiping; Yang, Xinguo; Chai, Yongqing


    In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii) in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation) was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was markedly affected by

  17. Dynamics and species diversity of soil seed bank of weeds in resource-saving technologies



    The soil seed bank of weeds in No-till technology southern forest-steppe Novosibirsk region dominated by Panicum miliaceum, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum linicola. The highest soil infestation with weed seeds was marked after peas and wheat monoculture. The main factor determining the species diversity and abundance of weed seeds the weather conditions were, the impact of crop rotation was 2 times lower.

  18. Soil bacterial and fungal diversity differently correlated with soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems in response to environmental changes

    Zhang, Yong; Dong, Shikui; Gao, Qingzhu; Liu, Shiliang; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wang, Xuexia; Su, Xukun; Wu, Xiaoyu


    To understand effects of soil microbes on soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems under environmental changes, we explored relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, available nitrogen and phosphorus, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in alpine meadow, alpine steppe and cultivated grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau under three-year warming, enhanced precipitation and yak overgrazing. Soil total nitrogen, organic carbon and NH4-N were little affected by overgrazing, warming or enhanced precipitation in three types of alpine grasslands. Soil microbial biomass carbon and phosphorus along with the sucrase and phosphatase activities were generally stable under different treatments. Soil NO3-N, available phosphorus, urease activity and microbial biomass nitrogen were increased by overgrazing in the cultivated grassland. Soil bacterial diversity was positively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity negatively with soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities. Soil bacterial diversity was negatively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity positively with soil available nutrients. Our findings indicated soil bacteria and fungi played different roles in affecting soil nutrients and microbiological activities that might provide an important implication to understand why soil biochemistry was generally stable under environmental changes in alpine grassland ecosystems. PMID:28262753

  19. Soil bacterial and fungal diversity differently correlated with soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems in response to environmental changes

    Zhang, Yong; Dong, Shikui; Gao, Qingzhu; Liu, Shiliang; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wang, Xuexia; Su, Xukun; Wu, Xiaoyu


    To understand effects of soil microbes on soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems under environmental changes, we explored relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, available nitrogen and phosphorus, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in alpine meadow, alpine steppe and cultivated grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau under three-year warming, enhanced precipitation and yak overgrazing. Soil total nitrogen, organic carbon and NH4-N were little affected by overgrazing, warming or enhanced precipitation in three types of alpine grasslands. Soil microbial biomass carbon and phosphorus along with the sucrase and phosphatase activities were generally stable under different treatments. Soil NO3-N, available phosphorus, urease activity and microbial biomass nitrogen were increased by overgrazing in the cultivated grassland. Soil bacterial diversity was positively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity negatively with soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities. Soil bacterial diversity was negatively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity positively with soil available nutrients. Our findings indicated soil bacteria and fungi played different roles in affecting soil nutrients and microbiological activities that might provide an important implication to understand why soil biochemistry was generally stable under environmental changes in alpine grassland ecosystems.

  20. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich


    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  1. Russia's Precious Metals Market: Condition and Prospects

    KOTLYAR A. Yu.


    The region of existence of phases in equilibrium with the solid solution based on palladium.Presented to analyze the current situation in the market of precious metals in Russia.Provides information about the production and processing of precious metals.Prospects for the most likely path of development of the Russian market of precious metals.

  2. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Young, Simon


    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  3. Focus on Russia. Democratie a la Russe

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.


    Russian president Vladimir Putin managed to consolidate his power in parliamentary elections in December 2007. Most likely Putin will also keep a tight control over the country's energy resources. A brief overview is given of the consequences of the Russian energy policy for the energy sector in Russia and abroad.

  4. Economic sovereignty. An agenda for Militant Russia

    Silvana Malle


    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia has embarked on a difficult path to economic sovereignty and heightened security to withstand rising antagonism from the West that culminated with the application of punitive sanctions against Russia's positioning on Ukraine. With the aim of lessening economic dependence on trade with the EU, its major trade partner for decades, Russia tries to work out a patriotic model of growth based on two vectors: import and trade partner substitution. The pursuit of self-sufficiency in foodstuffs adds an important pillar to security concerns as reflected earlier in the 2010 Doctrine on Food Security. But import substitution will be costly and difficult to manage. Fiscal balances and exchange rates will need to adjust to the new challenges. Finding new partners eastwards is also complicated. Trade with China, in hydrocarbons or other commodities, requires massive infrastructural work that neither the government nor private investors can afford in a situation of financial stringency. Investment from China is slow to materialize as the economic slowdown also impinges on China's projects. Nonetheless important deals on gas and infrastructure have been agreed and are pursued despite difficulties. A favourable institutional framework aimed at attracting investors to the Far East is in place. It will be up to the local administrations to make the best of it and venture capital to run the risk. The outlook is long-term, but both Russia and China have learnt from history to be patient.

  5. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K


    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%.

  6. Vanishing voices from Russia & Eastern Europe

    de Graaf, T.


    These recordings were digitised as part of the Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) project EAP347: ‘Vanishing voices from the Uralic world: sound recordings for archives in Russia (in particular Udmurtia), Estonia, Finland and Hungary’. The project digitised sound collections from the Uralic speakin

  7. Russia and the Future Expansion of NATO


    warned it could deploy its missiles in Kaliningrad to target intended missile defense sites.26 Recently, NATO expressed that it “will actively seek...lng=en&id=38752 (accessed January 21, 2011). 26 Vladimir Socor, “Russia Warns of Forward Missile Deployment in Kaliningrad Region,” Eurasia Daily

  8. Poisonings by Cardiovascular Drugs in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    Konstantin M. Brusin


    Conclusion: The most common drugs causing hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias were clonidine, CCBs, drotaverine and the veterinary drug “veratrine”. Drotaverine, clonidine and CCBs were the most common drugs causing death. Poisonings with these agents are rare in other countries. Measures to reduce the availability of drotaverine and veratrine should be taken in Russia.

  9. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Halikova Je.A.


    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  10. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov


    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  11. Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities in the Dynamics of Land Cover in Mediterranean Steppe West Algeria

    Si Tayeb, Tayeb


    The last thirty years, there is a real dynamic change of land cover with intensive degradation of the natural vegetation especially in arid zone. Indeed, the adverse effects of drought periods from the year 1970 combined with population growth and economic conditions experienced by the country in the 1980s have greatly upset the delicate balance of the natural environment. These adverse effects may result in partial or total disappearance of some natural ecosystems.The objective of this work is to study the distribution of plant formations that constitute the ecosystem typical of west Algeria and their dynamics in time and space, as well as to develop a method to monitor the degradation process and a system capable of effectively protecting areas classified for their plant and animal species.The Landsat satellite images were used to map the vegetation of the study area at a scale of 1:200,000. A comparison was then made between the map obtained from satellite images (Landsat 8) of 2014 and (Landsat 5) of 1987.The results show the following main trends in the distribution patterns of steppe species, a strong decrease of land occupied by steppe of Stipatenacissima and steppe of Artimesiaherba-alba, witch replaced by three taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Peganumharmala. Steppe of Artemisia herbaalba has been transformed by steppe of. taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Lygeumspartum. Woody species such as Quercus ilex and Juniperusphoenicea are characterized by a large regression.

  12. Holocene vegetation and climate changes from a peat pollen record of the forest - steppe ecotone, Southwest of Patagonia (Argentina)

    Mancini, María Virginia


    Pollen analysis from a peat-bog sequence located at 50° 24' S, 72° 42' W in the Subantarctic forest - Patagonian steppe ecotone gives information about vegetation and climate changes in Southwestern Patagonia since the glacier retreat. After 11 000 cal yr BP a change from grass steppe to open Nothofagus forest indicates that climatic conditions became rapidly warmer. Development of a closed Nothofagus forest between 5800 and 3200 cal yr BP is interpreted as precipitation increase. During the late Holocene colder climate conditions prevail in response to Neoglacial events. After ca 3000 cal yr BP Nothofagus forest became opener, and after 800 cal yr BP grass steppe expanded. Changes in the forest-steppe ecotone composition as well as the ecotone longitudinal shifts suggest changes in temperature and precipitation. Present-day mean annual precipitation between 300 and 400 mm is associated with grass steppe, and 500-600 mm with a greater forest representation. During the last century, low presence of forest in the area may be related to European settlement and repeated flooding caused by periodic advances of Perito Moreno glacier.

  13. [Team Care for Patient Safety, TeamSTEPPS to Improve Nontechnical Skills and Teamwork--Actions to Become an HRO].

    Kaito, Ken


    It is important to develop safer medical systems and follow manuals of medical procedures for patient safety. However, these approaches do not always result in satisfactory results because of many human factors. It is known that defects of nontechnical skills are more important than those of technical skills regarding medical accidents and incidents. So, it is necessary to improve personal nontechnical skills and compensate for each other's defects based on a team approach. For such purposes, we have implemented TeamSTEPPS to enhance performance and patient safety in our hospital. TeamSTEPPS (team strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety) is a useful method to improve the nontechnical skills of each member and the team. In TeamSTEPPS, leadership to share mental models among the team, continuous monitoring and awareness for team activities, mutual support for workload and knowledge, and approaches to complete communication are summarized to enhance teamwork and patient safety. Other than improving nontechnical skills and teamwork, TeamSTEPPS is also very important as a High Reliability Organization (HRO). TeamSTEPPS is worth implementing in every hospital to decrease medical errors and improve patient outcomes and satisfaction.

  14. Infectivity of soilborne Frankia and mycorrhizae in Discaria trinervis along a vegetation gradient in Patagonian soil.

    Chaia, Eugenia Esther; Fontenla, Sonia Beatriz; Vobis, Gernot; Wall, Luis Gabriel


    The infective capacities of the nitrogen fixing Actinomycete Frankia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from soils near watercourses, along a vegetation gradient, were studied using plant bioassays. Frankia and arbuscular mycorrhizas capable of infecting Discaria trinervis were found at seventeen sites sampled. More specific enumeration of the infective capacities of both microorganisms in relation to environmental factors was performed in seven representative soils of the analysed vegetation zones (rainforest, xeric forest and steppe) using the most probable number method. The highest nodulation capacities ranged from 340 infective units g(-1 )soil, in a steppe marsh devoid of actinorhizas, to 61 in a coastal actinorhizal scrub (in xeric forest). The highest number of infective mycorrhizal units--also found in marsh--was 145. In general, rainforest soils had the lowest values for both microorganisms. Infective units of Frankia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil were positively correlated (r = 0.89, P < 0.05). Both soilborne symbionts showed the highest infective capacity in semi-arid conditions nearby watercourse and at the valley bottom location. Tripartite symbiosis was effective in plants inoculated with steppe and xeric forest soils and plants inoculated with Frankia BCU110501 and Glomus mosseae. Interaction between both symbionts and influence of environmental conditions, in general, would contribute to define comparable trends of their infective capacities. ((c) 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  15. Regional prediction of carbon isotopes in soil carbonates for Asian dust source tracer

    Chen, Bing; Cui, Xinjuan; Wang, Yaqiang


    Dust particles emitted from deserts and semi-arid lands in northern China cause particulate pollution that increases the burden of disease particularly for urban population in East Asia. The stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of carbonates in soils and dust aerosols in northern China were investigated. We found that the δ13C of carbonates in surface soils in northern China showed clearly the negative correlation (R2 = 0.73) with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived NDVI, we predicted the regional distribution of δ13C of soil carbonates in deserts, sandy lands, and steppe areas. The predictions show the mean δ13C of -0.4 ± 0.7‰ in soil carbonates in Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Deserts, and the isotope values decrease to -3.3 ± 1.1‰ in sandy lands. The increase in vegetation coverage depletes 13C in soil carbonates, thus the steppe areas are predicted by the lowest δ13C levels (-8.1 ± 1.7‰). The measurements of atmospheric dust samples at eight sites showed that the Asian dust sources were well assigned by the 13C mapping in surface soils. Predicting 13C in large geographical areas with fine resolution offers a cost-effective tracer to monitor dust emissions from sandy lands and steppe areas which show an increasing role in Asian dust loading driven by climate change and human activities.

  16. Emigration from Russia: New Trends and Forms

    Vladimir Alekseyevich Iontsev


    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this article is migration from Russia. The study deals with current aspects and new forms of emigration. The goal of this paper is to identify new patterns determining the emigration from Russia. The article views the emigration in a broad sense, including, in addition to classic emigration (i.e. leaving the home country for permanent residence in another country, various categories of return migration (labor migration, shuttle traders, seasonal migration, episodic migration, economic tourism, business migration, education abroad, etc.. With the emergence of these new forms and categories, there is a need to clarify the migration concepts. This analysis is built on a broad historical perspective on emigration, which has been a typical phenomenon for Russia over the last three centuries. The article is based on such economic theories, as the human capital theory, new economic theory of migration, Todaro’s economic theory of migration and other. In this article, a variety of methods are used, including historical analogy, statistical and mathematical approaches, sociological and econometric models. The article analyzes the patterns of modern emigration from Russia. It also considers certain aspects in the legal regulation of migration processes, with a focus on emigrants, including potential emigrants. In conclusion, the article notes the need for the state control of emigration processes. This means not so much the improvement of statistical records for this group of migrants, but rather specific government measures aimed at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the nonreturn migration. In other words, it is not aimed at banning the emigration (a measure, the adverse effects of which were noted as long ago as by Mikhail Lomonosov, but at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the non-return migration. The findings of this research can be

  17. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    Watson, R.K.


    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  18. Construction of a GeogDetector-based model system to indicate the potential occurrence of grasshoppers in Inner Mongolia steppe habitats.

    Shen, J; Zhang, N; Gexigeduren; He, B; Liu, C-Y; Li, Y; Zhang, H-Y; Chen, X-Y; Lin, H


    Grasshopper plagues have seriously disturbed grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, China. The accurate prediction of grasshopper infestations and control of grasshopper plagues have become urgent needs. We sampled 234, 342, 335, and 369 plots in Xianghuangqi County of Xilingol League in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively, and measured the density of the most dominant grasshopper species, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus, and the latitude, longitude, and associated relatively stable habitat factors at each plot. We used Excel-GeogDetector software to explore the effects of individual habitat factors and the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density. We estimated the membership of each grasshopper density rank and determined the weights of each habitat category. These results were used to construct a model system evaluating grasshopper habitat suitability. The results showed that our evaluation system was reliable and the fuzzy evaluation scores of grasshopper habitat suitability were good indicators of potential occurrence of grasshoppers. The effects of the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density were greater than the effects of any individual factors. O. d. asiaticus was most likely to be found at elevations of 1300-1400 m, flat terrain or slopes of 4-6°, typical chestnut soil with 70-80% sand content in the top 5 cm of soil, and medium-coverage grassland. The species preferred temperate bunchgrass steppe dominated by Stipa krylovii and Cleistogenes squarrosa. These findings may be used to improve models to predict grasshopper occurrence and to develop management guidelines to control grasshopper plagues by changing habitats.

  19. Distribution characteristics and influencing factors of soil organic carbon in alpine ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau transect, China

    Yuqiang TIAN; Hua OUYANG; Minghua SONG; Haishan NIU; Qiwu HU


    The undisturbed regions along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway crossing the natural zones of montane desert, alpine meadow-steppe, and montane shrub-conifer-ous forest were chosen as the study areas. Soil samples were collected at 23 sites and the relations between the influ-encing factors and distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) content were studied. The results indicated that the order of SOC content for the whole soil profile with differ-ent vegetations and in the horizontal direction was shown as below: forest > shrub > meadow > steppe > desert. All the SOC contents of the top 10 cm soil layers of forest, shrub and meadow vegetations, as well as that of the top 20 cm soil layers in steppe, in the vertical direction, were higher than those of corresponding lower soil layers. However, the SOC content in the desert soil was in accord-ance. The grey correlative analysis between the climatic factors and SOC content in the top soil show that precip-itation was the dominant climatic factor affecting the dis-tribution of SOC in the Tibetan Plateau transect. The influence of precipitation on the horizontal distribution of SOC decreased with the increase of precipitation in the horizontal direction. The vertical distribution of SOC along the soil profile was greatly affected by precipitation or the soil clay content in top soil layers, and was clearly influ-enced by soil silt content or sand content in lower soil layers, as well. The influences of both soil bulk density and soil pH on the vertical distribution of SOC along the soil profile gradually declined. The plant biomass was the most import-ant biotic factors affecting the distribution of the SOC.

  20. Characterization of dioxin exposure in residents of Chapaevsk, Russia.

    Akhmedkhanov, Arslan; Revich, Boris; Adibi, Jennifer J; Zeilert, Vladimir; Masten, Scott A; Patterson, Donald G; Needham, Larry L; Toniolo, Paolo


    Since 1967, a chemical plant in the town of Chapaevsk (Samara province, Russia) has produced large amounts of chlorinated compounds and is suspected to be a major source of local environmental dioxin contamination. Dioxins have been detected in the local air, soil, drinking water, vegetables, and cow's milk. Human exposure to dioxins is suspected as a factor in the deteriorating local public health. In an effort to characterize nonoccupational dioxin exposure among local residents, during the summer of 1998, 24 volunteers were recruited to donate blood and to provide information about their residence, employment, demographics, medical history, and dietary habits. Selected polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and coplanar biphenyls were measured in blood serum samples. The mean concentration of total dioxin World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ(98)) based on polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was 61.2 (range 16.4-168.1) pg/g lipid. Subjects living in close proximity to the plant (less than 5 km) had significantly higher dioxin levels (mean WHO-TEQ(98), 75.7 pg/g lipid), as compared to subjects living more than 5 km from the plant (mean WHO-TEQ(98), 44.1 pg/g lipid) (P<0.04). Comparisons of the study results with available published data indicate that average blood dioxin levels were substantially higher in Chapaevsk residents than in nonoccupationally exposed populations of other parts of Russia, Europe, and North America. Chronic exposures of such magnitude may have appreciable adverse effects on public health.

  1. Thermal diffusivity of typical Chernozems in the Kamennaya Steppe reserve

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Luk'yashchenko, K. I.; Tikhonravova, P. I.


    The thermal diffusivity of medium-deep light clayey typical chernozems (Voronic Chernozems (Pachic, Clayic)) has been studied, which varies with the soil water content in the ranges of (0.77-2.88) × 10-7 m2/s for the Ap horizon, (0.82-2.60) × 10-7 m2/s for the Ad horizon, (0.86-2.58) × 10-7 m2/s for the A1 horizon, (0.78-2.31) × 10-7 m2/s for the A1' horizon, (0.81-2.87) × 10-7 m2/s for the AB horizon, (1.01-3.33) × 10-7 m2/s for the B horizon, and (0.98-3.26) × 10-7 m2/s for the Bca horizon. The dependences of the thermal diffusivity on the water content are described by S-shaped curves with a long gently sloped segment in the region of volumetric water content below 0.15 cm3/cm3, a region of pronounced increase of thermal diffusivity in the water content range from 0.15 to 0.30-0.35 cm3/cm3, and the cessation of the increase or even some decrease in the water content range above 0.30-0.35 cm3/cm3. The approximation of the experimental curves has allowed developing a set of pedotransfer functions, which reflect the differences between the horizons and can be used for the quantification of the thermal diffusivity of the studied horizons at any water content.

  2. Molecular signals for late Tertiary/early Quaternary range splits of an Eurasian steppe plant: Clausia aprica (Brassicaceae).

    Franzke, A; Hurka, H; Janssen, D; Neuffer, B; Friesen, N; Markov, M; Mummenhoff, K


    Several vegetation belts stretch continuously from Europe to Asia, taiga and steppe being most prominent. Numerous plant species within these belts share a conspicuous distribution area, which is longitudinally contracted or disrupted approximately along longitude 70 degrees E. To date no hypothesis for this intriguing distribution pattern has been put forward. We detected molecular footprints in the contemporary genetic composition in nuclear DNA (ITS1, ITS2) and chloroplast DNA (trnL-trnF spacer region) of the steppe element Clausia aprica (Brassicaceae) providing evidence for a severe longitudinal range split and genetic differentiation east of the Ural Mountains about 1 million years ago caused by Quaternary climatic oscillations. Clausia aprica provides the first phylogeographical analysis on the intraspecific evolution of an Eurasian steppe plant.

  3. A Proposal on the Restoration of Nostoc flagelliforme for Sustainable Improvement in the Ecology of Arid Steppes in China

    Xiang Gao


    Full Text Available Nostoc flagelliforme, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, is widely distributed in arid steppes of the west and northwestern parts of China. However, as a food delicacy this species has been overexploited from 1970 to 2000. Moreover, overgrazing, land reclamation and the removal of medicinal herbs have caused severely reduced vegetation coverage there. In this communication, a badly damaged but slowly rehabilitating N. flagelliforme-inhibiting steppe is described, and the rehabilitation of desertified steppes by the renewed growth of N. flagelliforme is proposed. The restoration of this dominant nitrogen supplier would be an ecologically sustainable solution for supplementing current measures already taken in the desertified regions. In addition, a goal of 50%–60% vegetation coverage is proposed by the N. flagelliforme restoration.

  4. Habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar δ13C in temperate steppe grasses

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Niu, Haishan; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang


    A decrease in foliar δ13C with increasing precipitation is a common tendency in steppe plants. However, the rate of decrease has been reported to differ between different species or populations. We here hypothesized that plant populations in the same habitat of temperate steppes may not differ in foliar δ13C response patterns to precipitation, but could differ in the levels of plasticity of foliar δ13C across different habitats. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted controlled watering experiments in northeast China at five sites along a west–east transect at latitude 44°N, which show substantial interannual fluctuations and intra-annual changes in precipitation among them. In 2001, watering treatment (six levels, three replicates) was assigned to 18 plots at each site. The responses of foliar δ13C to precipitation (i.e., the sum of watering and rainfall) were determined in populations of several grass species that were common across all sites. Although similar linear regression slopes were observed for populations of different species growing at the same site, significantly different slopes were obtained for populations of the same species growing at different sites. Further, the slope of the line progressively decreased from Site I to Site V for all species in this study. These results suggest habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar δ13C in temperate steppe grasses. This indicates that species' δ13C response to precipitation is conservative at the same site due to their long-term acclimation, but the mechanism responsible behind this needs further investigations. PMID:25035804

  5. Holocene carbon dynamics at the forest-steppe ecotone of southern Siberia.

    Mackay, Anson William; Seddon, Alistair W R; Leng, Melanie J; Heumann, Georg; Morley, David W; Piotrowska, Natalia; Rioual, Patrick; Roberts, Sarah; Swann, George E A


    The forest-steppe ecotone in southern Siberia is highly sensitive to climate change; global warming is expected to push the ecotone northwards, at the same time resulting in degradation of the underlying permafrost. To gain a deeper understanding of long-term forest-steppe carbon dynamics, we use a highly resolved, multiproxy, palaeolimnological approach, based on sediment records from Lake Baikal. We reconstruct proxies that are relevant to understanding carbon dynamics including carbon mass accumulation rates (CMAR; g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ) and isotope composition of organic matter (δ(13) CTOC ). Forest-steppe dynamics were reconstructed using pollen, and diatom records provided measures of primary production from near- and off-shore communities. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to identify significant change points in temporal series, and by applying generalized linear least-squares regression modelling to components of the multiproxy data, we address (1) What factors influence carbon dynamics during early Holocene warming and late Holocene cooling? (2) How did carbon dynamics respond to abrupt sub-Milankovitch scale events? and (3) What is the Holocene carbon storage budget for Lake Baikal. CMAR values range between 2.8 and 12.5 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) . Peak burial rates (and greatest variability) occurred during the early Holocene, associated with melting permafrost and retreating glaciers, while lowest burial rates occurred during the neoglacial. Significant shifts in carbon dynamics at 10.3, 4.1 and 2.8 kyr bp provide compelling evidence for the sensitivity of the region to sub-Milankovitch drivers of climate change. We estimate that 1.03 Pg C was buried in Lake Baikal sediments during the Holocene, almost one-quarter of which was buried during the early Holocene alone. Combined, our results highlight the importance of understanding the close linkages between carbon cycling and hydrological processes, not just temperatures, in southern Siberian

  6. The “Steppe Belt” of stockbreeding cultures in Eurasia during the Early Metal Age

    Chernykh, Evgeny


    Full Text Available The stock-breeding cultures of the Eurasian “steppe belt” covered approximately 7-8 million square km2 from the Lower Danube in the West to Manchuria in the East (a distance of more than 8000 km. The initial formation of the “steppe belt’cultures coincided with the flourishing of the Carpatho-Balkan metallurgical province (V millennium BC. These cultures developed during the span of the Circumpontic metallurgical province (IV-III millennium BC. Their maturation coincided with the activity of the various centers of the giant Eurasian and East-Asian metallurgical provinces (II millennium BC. The influence of these stock-breeding nomadic cultures on the historical processes of Eurasian peoples was extremely strong. The collapse of the “steppe belt” occurred as late as the XVIIIth and XIXth centuries AD.

    Las culturas ganaderas del “cinturón estepario” de Eurasia cubrieron aproximadamente 7-8 millones de km2, entre el bajo Danubio al oeste y Manchuria al este (una distancia de más de 8000 km. La formación inicial de estas culturas coincide con el florecimiento de la provincia metalúrgica Cárpato-Balcánica (V milenio AC. Estas culturas se desarrollaron durante la provincia metalúrgica Circumpóntica (IV-III milenios AC. Su madurez coincide con la actividad de varios centros de las grandes provincias metalúrgicas Euroasiática y del Asia oriental (II milenio AC. La influencia de estas culturas ganaderas en los procesos históricos de las gentes de Eurasia fue muy intensa. El colapso de este “cinturón estepario” sucedió en una fecha tan tardía como los siglos XVIII- XIX AD.

  7. Morphological and anatomical treats of Campanula trachelium L. leaves in steppe zone of Ukraine

    Irina Krohmal


    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical treats of Campanula tracheliumL. leaves from 8 samples of different sites of seed origin have been studied. There were described labile and stable leaf treats of plants growing in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The labile treats, i.e. petiole length and its ratio to width of leaf blade, number of trichomes and stomata on adaxial leaf side, are not strongly relate with climatic conditions in seed origin sites. The stable treats, i.e. leaf blade size, thickness of epidermis and palisade mesophyll, relate with climatic parameters in sites of origin.

  8. Roe deer tracking activity on the snow cover in steppe forests

    А. V. Mikheyev


    Full Text Available On the basis of field research data the characteristics of the roe deer tracking activity in steppe forests of a southeast of Ukraine under the snow cover conditions were presented. The pattern of biogeocenotic and spatial distribution of signs were established. The estimation of qualitative and quantitative parameters of an information field (set of signs of this species was carried out. Its formation at this season was determined by a range of factors which included snow cover physical characteristics and its age, periodicity of snow deposition, habitat structure and human presence.

  9. Root weevils of artificial forests in Ukraine steppe area (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleonini

    Volovnik S. V.


    Full Text Available Seven species of root weevils (Cleonini: were found in man-made forests in the steppe of Ukraine. They are Asproparthenis punctiventris, Bothynoderes affinis, Bothynoderes declivis, Cleonis pigra, Cyphocleonus dealbatus, Pachycerus segnis, Temnorhinus strabus. All these species were registered in open habitats, namely forest borders, glades, sides of the roads, slopes, and connected with plants from Asteraceae, Chenopodiacea, Boraginaceae. If beet plantations situated near artificial forests then A. punctiventris, B. affinis, B. declivis could damage them in case of mass reproduction. C.dealbatus is a potential pest of the ornamental camoniles. Literary data as to real damage caused to artificial forests by root weevils need to be proved.

  10. Transformer species in the flora of the Starobilsk grass-meadow steppe (Ukraine

    Kucher Oksana O.


    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of alien species that change the character, condition, form or nature of ecosystems over large areas (transformer species in the flora of the Starobilsk grass-meadow steppe are presented. The check-list of alien plants includes over 386 species of vascular plants, of which 28 are invasive and 6 are transformer species. In this study, the data on the first records of alien species, their distribution history, ecology, occurrence in different plant communities and degree of naturalization were compiled. The distribution maps of transformer species are provided.


    Leonova, M. A.; L. V. Getmantseva; KOLOSOV A.YU.; PRISTUPA V.N.


    The article presents the results of studies of the effect gene polymorphism pituitary transcription factor (POU1F1), kappa-casein gene (k-CSN) and prolactin gene (PRL) on milk production of cows of red steppe breed. Analysis of the genotypes was performed by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism). Contains information describing how to conduct research and reagent kits for each of the genes studied. POU1F1 gene controls the transcription of genes PRL, TS...

  12. [Assemblages of bloodsucking mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe].

    Belevich, O É; Iurchenko, Iu A


    The population structure of bloodsucking mosquito larvae in temporary and constant water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe was investigated. The seasonal dynamics of the population density, the number of species in different types of reservoirs, and average density of each species are given. The productivity of water reservoirs in relation to mosquitoes of the family Culicidae is analyzed. The basic factors affecting the distribution of larvae of dominant species between different water bodies were revealed. The degree of correlation between the structure of bloodsucking mosquito larva assemblages and the type of the reservoir was established.

  13. Climate Compatible Development in the Mongolia Steppe: analysis of vulnerability and adaptation response to global changes

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtokh, C.; Galvin, K. A.


    INTRODUCTION: Climate change and variability, market and policy changes are shaping pastoral communities' decisions on what pathways their future livelihoods will take and how the steppe landscapes and river basins, are managed. Recent droughts and damaging winter storms (zuds) of the past two decades have exacerbated the situation and undermined the natural capital on which the pastoral livelihoods depend upon. River basins are critical natural resources well-being of social-ecological systems in Mongolia. River basins provide the ecosystem services which support pastoral communities and industrial and urban development. Green development strategies are strongly dependent on water resources. Consequently, integrated planning of river basin management is needed to maintain these critical ecosystem services to meet the multiple needs of livelihoods of communities in these basins and to support sustainable development activities within the basins. For this study our team worked in nine sums (i.e., county level administrative areas) in three river basins in two provinces (aimags) to collect household data from 144 households. We also collected census data from the aimags and national level to understand trends at the level of ecosystems and river basins. We have selected 3 sums in each river basis, representing forest steppe, steppe and desert steppe regions for comparison across river basins and ecological zones. FINDINGS: Integrated planning efforts would be enhanced through, one, use of a social-ecological framework and, two, the development of a cross-ministerial working group to address natural resource considerations. Across the three basins agriculture, pastoral, industrial, and urban needs vie for similar ecosystem services. The natural capital and ecosystem services of these basins need to be assessed to understand the vulnerability and capacity of the resources. The most frequently listed "best coping strategy" across all ecosystem types was for herders to

  14. Zoning of the Territory of Russia According to the Efficiency of the Use of Low-Grade Ground Heat for Heating

    Vasilyev G.P.


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of study on the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems under the climatic conditions of Russia. The study was performed using the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, which simulates the non-stationary thermal conditions of ground source heat pumps (GSHPs over several years of operation. The paper presents the results of the zoning of the territory of Russia according to the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems. The zoning was performed with consideration of the decrease of the soil temperatures over several years of heat collection system operation. The soil temperatures expected on the fifth year of operation were considered to be the design temperatures. The described study was performed with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia. Contract ID RFMEFI57914X0026.

  15. The features of silver birch Betula verrucosa Ehrh. and downy birch Betula pubescens Ehrh. seed regeneration in subtaiga and forest-steppe of Western Siberia

    B. E. Chizhov


    Full Text Available Article considers results of long-term studies of birch undergrowth in subtaiga subzone and forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia, the features of silver and downy birch seed regeneration under the canopy of parent stands, on logging, burned and abandoned arable lands, and hayfields. The distance of seed dispersal by wind, dynamics of accumulation of self-sown birch after continuous tillage and plough furrows is specified. It was found that seed regeneration under the birch stand canopy is hindered by drying of litter and root competition of the parent stand. A necessary condition for the germination of small seeds and the survival of weak shoots of birches is sufficient rainfall during the period of seed production and careful soil treatment, which provides removal of litter, total removal of herbaceous vegetation and soil reserve of weed seeds: continuous repeated plowing, bulldozing strips or shallow plow furrow with 0.7−1.0 m in width, with their additional cultivation. The most effective way of preparing land for seed regeneration of birch trees in arid steppe conditions is to transfer it under temporary cultivation of grain-crops, providing suppression of permanent weeds. Autumn plowing after harvest will provide annual readiness of the site for seed colonization of the birches. When there is an optimum combination of good seed harvest, rainy weather conditions, and appearance of mass self-sown birch, the land is excluded from the agricultural use. Prerequisites: the presence of seed productive walls of birch with preliminary removal of aspen and undesirable forms of birch. In spring of the next year an inventory is done of wintered self-sown birches, at least on 100 evenly spaced accounting plots. If the self-seeding dies, the site continues to be used by agriculture. Less reliable but acceptable is tillage by bulldozer stripes and furrows with 0.7−1.0 m in width, in a year of abundant seed production, before the start of mass seed


    Maltsev Yevhen


    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  17. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Alexander V. Fedorov


    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  18. LGBT Rights Activism and Homophobia in Russia.

    Buyantueva, Radzhana


    This article explores how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT) people's perception of increasing conservative trends and negative public attitudes affected the development of LGBT rights activism in Russia. It includes following sections: (1) the analysis of the development of LGBT community and activism in Russia; (2) the investigation of public perception of same-sex relations and how LGBT people's views of it affected their readiness to join activism; and (3) the examination of the state's policy toward LGBT people in a wake of conservative discourse and its impact on LGBT activism and LGBT people's willingness to get involved in it. The article concludes by considering implications that LGBT rights activism face nowadays in order to survive and continue its existence.

  19. Electronic geothermal atlases of Asian Russia

    Albert DDuchkov; Michael Zheleznjak; Ludmila SSokolova


    Generalized geothermal data was used to produce two electronic atlases for Asian Russia, Geothermal Atlas of Siberia (GAS) (1995-2000) and Geothermal Atlas for Siberia and Russian Far East (GASRFE) (2009-2012). The atlases include heat flow maps, temperatures at depths of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 km and lower boundary of permafrost. Quantitative values of pa-rameters are presented as isolines (GAS) and symbols (GASRFE). GAS website is located at the Trofimuk Institute ( GASRFE provides the most complete geothermal data on Asian Russia, which has been growing for the last 50 years, and is published on the Internet at In this atlas, data about the depth of permafrost lower boundary ("zero"isotherm) are pre-sented for the first time.

  20. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva


    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.




    Full Text Available Today, the problem of corruption in various fields of activities of bodies of state power and administration has acquired a global and systemic character. Corruption presents a direct threat to national security, impedes the development of institutions of democracy and civil society in our country, realization by citizens of their constitutional rights in the field of education, health, welfare, and property relations. The article focuses on the study of corruption in Russia. The authors highlight the historical aspects of the development of corruption, what allowed not only to reveal the Genesis of the issue, but also to identify the circumstances that affect directly the state of corruption in modern Russia.

  2. Specifics of Cluster Policy in Russia

    Zemtsov S.P; Pavlov P.N; Sorokina A.V.


    The article presents the results of management quality survey in Russian clusters that reveals specifics of cluster support policy in Russia. We compare 22 Russian clusters, supported by the Government, using series of indicators measuring cooperation intensity of cluster participants and activity of cluster management teams. We introduce a description of the typical Russian innovative territorial cluster, based on the average values of the indicators. Our analysis revealed that international...

  3. Georgia’s Brightest Future Includes Russia


    and Armenia. For reference, USA was 6th 59 Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco -Russian Rapprochement and the Future of...policy started by Turkey, which allows Russians in for 30 days, VISA-free. 60 Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco ...Shevtsova, L. “Imitation Russia,” Nov/Dec 2006, American Interest, pp. 67-77 78. Sidar, Cenk and Winrow, Gareth, “Turkey & South Stream: Turco

  4. Land Change in Russia since 2000

    de Beurs, K.; Ioffe, G.; Nefedova, T.


    Agricultural reform has been an important anthropogenic change process shaping landscapes in European Russia since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most evident side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. While land abandonment as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union is relatively well documented, few studies have investigated the unfolding process of abandonment that results from rural population declines. Russia’s population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050 and population dynamics are predicted to play a significant role structuring rural landscapes across European Russia. While often treated as a unified whole with respect to agricultural reform, significant regional diversity exists in Russia. Official statistics at the rayon (county) level are typically skewed toward large-scale farming and farm data from important household productions are summarized into regional averages. In addition, data at sub-district level can often only be obtained by visiting rural administrators in person. Large scale official data thus need to be interpreted with caution. Here we present data collected during the summer of 2010 from representative settlements and enterprises in selected counties within the oblasts (states) of Kostroma and Samara. These field data will provide an initial overview of the economic and social state in modern rural western Russia. We will combine the field data with established socio-demographic observations as well as satellite observations at multiple scales to understand the effect of global change and to project future developments.