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Sample records for russia steppe soil

  1. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  2. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  3. Composition and structure of aggregates from compacted soil horizons in the southern steppe zone of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Kust, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and structure of aggregates from different agrogenic soils in the southern steppe zone of European Russia have been studied. It is shown that the multi-level study (from the macro- to microlevel) of these horizons makes it possible to identify soil compaction caused by different elementary soil processes: solonetz-forming, vertisol-forming, and mechanical (wheel) compaction in the rainfed and irrigated soils. The understanding of the genesis of the compaction of soil horizons (natural or anthropogenic) is important for the economic evaluation of soil degradation. It should enable us to make more exact predictions of the rates of degradation processes and undertake adequate mitigation measures. The combined tomographic and micromorphological studies of aggregates of 1-2 and 3-5 mm in diameter from compacted horizons of different soils have been performed for the first time. Additional diagnostic features of negative solonetz- forming processes (low open porosity of aggregates seen on tomograms and filling of a considerable part of the intraped pores with mobile substance) and the vertisol-forming processes (large amount of fine intraaggregate pores seen on tomograms and a virtual absence of humus-clay plasma in the intraped zone)—have been identified. It is shown that the combination of microtomographic and micromorphological methods is helpful for studying the pore space of compacted horizons in cultivated soils.

  4. The Application of Soil-Agroclimatic Index for Assessing the Agronomic Potential of Arable Lands in the Forest-Steppe Zone of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, D. S.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.; Vil'chevskaya, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    An assessment of the agronomic potential of arable lands in the forest-steppe zone of Russia (by the example of separate soil-agronomic districts) on the basis of the soil-agroclimatic index developed under the supervision of I.I. Karmanov is considered. The agricultural areas (64) separated on the territory of Russia and characterizing soil-agroclimatic conditions for cultivation of major and accompanying crops are differentiated into soil-agronomic districts (SADs) with due account for the administrative division of the country. A large diversity of agroclimatic and agronomical conditions creates the prerequisites for the inclusion of administrative regions into different SADs. The SADs concept implies a detailed analysis of information on the soil properties, geomorphic conditions, and farming conditions. The agronomic potential for major crops in the key SADs in the forest-steppe zone of the East European Plain (Voronezh and Penza oblasts) is high, though it is 25-30% lower than that in the North Caucasus (for winter wheat, sugar beet, sunflower, and spring barley) and in Kaliningrad oblast (for oats). In Western Siberia (Tyumen, Omsk, and Novosibirsk oblasts) and Eastern Siberia (Krasnoyarsk region and Irkutsk oblast), the agronomic potential of spring crops (wheat, barley, and oats) is only utilized by 35-45% in comparison with their European analogues. In the Far East with its monsoon climate and soil conditions (meadow podbels, brown forest soils), the crops characteristic of the European forest-steppe (soybean, rice, sugar beet) and the Trans-Ural forest-steppe (spring wheat) are cultivated. Their biological potential is utilized by only 50-60% in comparison with the European analogues. The materials of this study give us information on the degree of correspondence between the soilagroclimatic potential of the territory and the biological potential of cultivated crops. This is important in the context of improving the natural-agricultural zoning of Russia

  5. Chronology of soil evolution and climatic changes in the dry steppe zone of the Northern Caucasus, Russia, during the 3rd millennium BC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrovskiy, AL; van der Plicht, J; Belinskiy, AB; Khokhlova, OS

    2001-01-01

    Chrono-sequences of paleosols buried under different mounds of the large Ipatovo Kurgan, constructed during the Bronze Age, have been studied to reconstruct climatic changes in the dry steppe zone of the Northern Caucasus, Russia. Abrupt climatic and environmental changes in the third millennium BC

  6. Dynamics of Carbonates in Soils under Different Land Use in Forest-Steppe Area of Russia Using Stable and Radiogenic Carbon Isotope Data

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    Olga Khokhlova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at the analysis of carbonate dynamics in soils under different land use. The studied area is located in the forest steppe - of the Central Russian Upland. Soils were sampled at four sites: a broadleaf forest, an adjacent 50-year continuously cropped field including plots under a corn monoculture, bare fallow, and a crop rotation area with a clean fallow every fourth year. The carbonates’ morphology, their chemical composition, as well as their stable and radiogenic isotopes of carbon were studied. Clear-cut distinctions were found in the carbonate distribution throughout the profiles in the microstructure of carbonate pedofeatures, carbon isotopic composition, and radiocarbon age of carbonates between the pairs of the plots as follows: the bare fallow and the crop rotation on the one hand, and the corn monoculture and forest on the other. The distinctions are commonly assumed to result from repeating upward water fluxes, which are different in the bare soils and those with plant cover. A clear difference occurred in the hydrothermal regime for soils with and without plant cover, and was found to be the key factor of the observed differences. In addition, in soils under plant cover, the carbonate migration upward occurs due to process of transpiration, whereas in soils devoid of plants, it occurs due to physical evaporation.

  7. Sulfidogenesis in hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Zacharova, E.E.; Pimenov, N.V.; Tourova, T.P.; Panteleeva, A.N.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    The activity and culturable diversity of sulfidogens were investigated in anoxic sediments of four hypersaline lakes with pH 7.6-8.2 in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia). Sulfate reduction rates were low, varying from 0.1 to 6.0 nmol HS−/(cm3 h) with a maximum in the top 10 cm layer. Potential

  8. Soil macrofauna (invertebrates of Kazakhstanian Stipa lessingiana dry steppe

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    Bragina Tatyana М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stipa lessingiana steppes used to be prevalent on the dry Trans-Ural denudation plains, particularly, on the Sub-Ural and the Turgay Plateau. But, most of them have been lost because they were plowed up during the Virgin Land campaign in the second part of 20th century. This paper presents a detailed study of the faunistic composition and the structure of soil-dwelling invertebrate communities (macrofauna of a temperate-dry bunch feather grass steppe in the Turgai Plateau (Northern-Turgai physical-geographical province of steppe Kazakhstan, Kostanay Oblast. The study site is located in the territory of the Naurzum State Nature Reserve, a part of the UNESCO World Heritage site “Saryarka Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan”, where remnants of Virgin S. lessingiana steppes have been preserved to the present day. This region is the driest and most continental in climate of all the dry steppes of Kazakhstan. The total abundance and biomass of soil invertebrate communities in the investigated site were lower than in the northern and western steppe areas. Soil invertebrates are among the major components that determine the functioning of terrestrial natural ecosystems.

  9. Surface Runoff and Snowmelt Infiltration into the Soil on Plowlands in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of the East European Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanov, A. T.; Dolgov, S. V.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Panov, V. I.; Petel'ko, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term series of observations over the spring water balance elements on fields with hydrologically contrasting agricultural backgrounds―a loose soil after fall moldboard plowing and a plowland compacted by 12-16% compared to the former soil (perennial grasses, winter crops, stubble)―have been analyzed. The values of surface runoff and water infiltration into the soil in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have been calculated for the spring (flooding) period and the entire cold season. The hydrological role of fall plowing has been shown, and water balance elements for the current (1981-2016) and preceding (1957-1980) periods have been compared. A significant decrease in runoff and an increase of water reserve in the soil have been revealed on all plowland types. Consequences of changes in the spring water balance on plowland have been analyzed.

  10. Climatically driven loss of calcium in steppe soil as a sink for atmospheric carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Lapenis; G.B. Lawrence; S.W. Bailey; B.F. Aparin; A.I. Shiklomanov; N.A. Speranskaya; M.S. Torn; M. Calef

    2008-01-01

    During the last several thousand years the semi-arid, cold climate of the Russian steppe formed highly fertile soils rich in organic carbon and calcium (classified as Chernozems in the Russian system). Analysis of archived soil samples collected in Kemannaya Steppe Preserve in 1920, 1947, 1970, and fresh samples collected in 1998 indicated that the native steppe...

  11. Agrogenic degradation of soils in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpedt, A. A.; Trubnikov, Yu. N.; Zharinova, N. Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Agrogenic degradation of soils in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe was investigated. Paleocryogenic microtopography of microlows and microhighs in this area predetermined the formation of paragenetic soil series and variegated soil cover. Specific paleogeographic conditions, thin humus horizons and soil profiles, and long-term agricultural use of the land resulted in the formation of soils unstable to degradation processes and subjected to active wind and water erosion. Intensive mechanical soil disturbances during tillage and long-term incorporation of the underlying Late Pleistocene (Sartan) calcareous silty and clay loams into the upper soil horizons during tillage adversely affected the soil properties. We determined the contents of total and labile humus and easily decomposable organic matter and evaluated the degree of soil exhaustion. It was concluded that in the case of ignorance of the norms of land use and soil conservation practices, intense soil degradation would continue leading to complete destruction of the soil cover within large areas.

  12. Influence of shrubs on soil chemical properties in Alxa desert steppe, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua Fu; Shifang Pei; Yaming Chen; Changgui Wan

    2007-01-01

    Alxa desert steppe is one of severely the degraded rangelands in the Northwest China. Shrubs, as the dominant life form in the desert steppe, play an important role in protecting this region from further desertification. Chemical properties of three soil layers (0 to 10, 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 cm) at three locations (the clump center [A], in the periphery of shrub...

  13. Erosion Losses of Soils on Arable Land in the European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, K. A.; Yermolaev, O. P.

    2018-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of potential soil losses in arable lands of the European part of Russia is carried out in the article. The assessment was carried out using a mathematical model based on the mathematical dependencies of the universal soil loss equation and the mathematical dependencies of the State Hydrological Institute of Russia. Assessment of potential soil losses was performed using calculations in a geographic information system. To perform the calculations the database was created containing information on: the relief; properties of soils; climate and land use. The raster model of data organization was used to create the database and subsequent calculations. The assessment shows that the average amount of soil loss in the plowed land of the European territory of Russia is 11 t/ha per year. At the same time, about half of the territories are located in conditions where the soil loss value does not exceed 0.5 t/ha per year. The potential loss of soil taking into account the soil protection role of vegetation is 3.3 tons/ha per year. In addition, a spatial analysis of the distribution of soil loss by landscape zones shows that there is a consistent reduction in the potential loss of soil from the forest zone (20.92 t/ha per year) to the forest-steppe (10.84 t / ha per year), steppe (8.13 t/ha per year) and semi-desert (4.7 tons/ha per year) zone.

  14. Soil nitrogen availability in the open steppe with Stipa tenacissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosadova, Irena; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Iberian Peninsula and show a higher degree of variability in composition and structure (Maestre et al., 2007). Vegetation patchiness, which are seen as mosaics including vegetated and non-vegetated components, is a common feature of such open steppes (Valentin et al., 1999). Ecosystem functioning is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath S. tenacissima grass show higher fertility and improved microclimatic conditions, favouring the formation of "resource islands" (Maestre et al., 2007). First, soil moisture is greater beneath the clumps, due to water harvesting through rainfall interception, uptake by roots from adjacent unvegetated areas and water redistribution from gaps to clumps (Bergkamp et al., 1999; Puigdefá bregas et al., 1999). Second, the canopy diminishes the intense solar radiation (Maestre et al., 2001) avoiding the sun-baking effect, which is an important factor for soil temperature change and physical disruption (Magid et al., 1999). Plant clumps either functioned as microbial hotspots where enhanced microbially driven ecosystem processes took place or as microbial banks capable of undergoing a burst of activity under favourable climatic conditions (Goberna et al., 2007). The competition for water and resources between plants and microorganisms is strong and mediated trough an enormous variety of exudates and resource depletion intended to regulate soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere, control herbivory, encourage beneficial symbioses, and change chemical and physical properties in soil (Pugnaire et Armas, 2008). On the other hand there exists experimental evidence of a non-patchy distribution of certain soil microbial properties in semi-arid Mediterranean patchy ecosystems (Goberna et al., 2007). The microbial nutrient release processes have a fundamental role in ecosystem

  15. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russian steppe soil

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    K. Hammes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m−2, or about 7–10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182–541 years, much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  16. Specific Features of Profile Distribution and Crystallochemistry of Phyllosilicates in Soils of the Cisbaikal Forest-Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Gamzikov, G. P.; Chechetko, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of agrogray, dark gray, and agro-dark gray soils (Luvic Greyzemic Retic Phaeozems); agro-dark gray residual-calcareous soils (Calcaric Cambic Phaeozems); clay-illuvial agrochernozems (Luvic Chernic Phaeozems); and agrochernozems with migrational-mycelial carbonates (Haplic Chernozems) developed in the forest-steppe of Central Siberia within the Irkutsk Depression has been studied. The clay (smectite, vermiculite, and chlorite; the proportions between them change within the soil profiles. The clay fraction also contains hydromicas, kaolinite, chlorite, and some admixture of the fine-dispersed quartz. Each type of the soils is characterized by its own distribution pattern of clay material with specific alternation of layers in the mixed-layer formations. Mixed-layer minerals of the chlorite-vermiculite type predominate in the upper horizons of texture-differentiated soils. Down the soil profile, the content of mixed-layer mica-smectitic minerals increases. In the clay fraction of arable dark gray-humus soils with residual carbonates, the distribution of the clay fraction and major mineral phases in the soil profile is relatively even. An increased content of well-crystallized kaolinite is typical of these soils. The parent material of agrochernozems has a layered character: the upper horizons are generally depleted of clay, and the middle-profile and lower horizons are characterized by the considerable kaolinite content. In general, the clay material of soils of the Tulun-Irkutsk forest-steppe differs considerably from the clay material of foreststeppe soils developed from loesslike and mantle loams in the European part of Russia. In particular, this difference is seen in the proportions between major mineral phases and between biotitic and muscovitic components, as well as in the degree of crystallinity and behavior of kaolinite and chlorite.

  17. Soil microbes and soil respiration of Mongolian Steppe soils under grazing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölter, Manfred; Krümmelbein, Julia; Horn, Rainer; Möller, Rolf; Scheltz, Annette

    2012-04-01

    Soils of Northern China were analysed for their microbiological and soil physical properties with respect to different grazing stress. An important factor for this is soil compaction and related aeration due to pore size shifts. Bulk density increases significantly with increasing grazing intensity and soil carbon contents show decreasing values from top to depth. Organic carbon (LOI) concentrations decrease significantly with increasing grazing intensity. The data on LOI (2-5.8%) approximate 10-30 mg C, our data on glucose show values between 0.4-1.2 mg, i.e. approx. 4% of total carbon. Numbers and biomass of bacteria show generally a decreasing trend of those data at grazed and ungrazed sites, numbers range between 0.4 and 8.7 x10(8) g(-1) d.wt., bacterial biomass between 0.4 and 3.8 microg Cg(-1). This need to be recorded in relation to soil compaction and herewith-hampered aeration and nutrient flow. The temperature-respiration data also allow getting an idea of the Q10-values for soil respiration. The data are between 2.24 (5-15 degrees C) and 1.2 (25-35 degrees C). Our data are presented with a general review of biological properties of Mongolian Steppe soils.

  18. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

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    Polchaninova Nina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.

  19. Micromorphological characteristics of sandy forest soils recently impacted by wildfires in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2017-04-01

    Two fire-affected soils were studied using micromorphological methods. The objective of the paper is to assess and compare fire effects on the micropedological organisation of soils in a forest-steppe zone of central Russia (Volga Basin, Togliatti city). Samples were collected in the green zone of Togliatti city. The results showed that both soils were rich in quartz and feldspar. Mica was highly present in soils affected by surface fires, while calcium carbonates were identified in the soils affected by crown fires. The type of plasma is humus-clay, but the soil assemblage is plasma-silt with a prevalence of silt. Angular and subangular grains are the most dominant soil particulates. No evidence of intensive weathering was detected. There was a decrease in the porosity of soils affected by fires as a consequence of soil pores filled with ash and charcoal.

  20. Ecological risk assessment: influence of texture on background concentration of microelements in soils of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    , organic matter content, concentration of microelements and pH value. On the basis of this data base massive of data for Forest-steppe and Steppe regions was create, which was divided by texture. For all data statistics method was done and was calculated maximum level natural microelements content for soils with different texture (?+3*δ). As a result of our statistic calculation we got middle and the top limit of background concentration of microelements in sandy and clay soils (conditional border - sandy loam) of two regions. We showed, that for all territory of European part of Russia and for Forest-steppe and Steppe regions separately middle content and maximum level natural microelements concentrations (?+3*σ) are higher in clay soils, rather then in sandy soils. Data characterizing soils, in different regions, of similar texture differs less than the data collected for sandy and clay soils of the same region. After all this calculation we can notice, that data of middle and top limit of background microelements concentration in soils, based on statistic method, can be used in the aim of ecological risk assessment. Using offered method allow to calculate top limit of background concentration for sandy and clay soils for large-scale geographic regions, exceeding which will be evidence of anthropogenic contamination of soil.

  1. Magnetic Soils Profiles in the Volga-Kama Forest-Steppe Region

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    L.A. Fattakhova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of virgin forest-steppe soils developed on the originally vertically uniform unconsolidated parent material have been investigated. The profile samples of virgin dark-grey forest light-clayey soil derived from a siltstone of the Kazan layer of the Upper Permian and virgin leached medium-thick fertile light-clayey chernozem derived from a Quaternary heavy deluvial loam have been considered. Both soils are characterized by the accumulative type of magnetic susceptibility and F-factor values distribution patterns with depth. In the humus part of the soil profile, magnetics are present pre-dominantly in the < 2.5 µm fraction. The coercivity spectra allowed to determine the contribution of dia-/paramagnetic and ferromagnetic components to magnetic susceptibility. It has been found that magnetic susceptibility enhancement in the organogenic horizons of virgin forest-steppe soils occurs due to the contribution of ferromagnetic components. The results indicate a strong positive linear correlation between the magnetic susceptibility and oxalate-extractable Fe, as well as between the magnetic susceptibility and Schwertmann’s criterion values. Using the method of thermomagnetic analysis of the < 2.5 µm fraction, it has been found that the magnetic susceptibility enhancement in the profiles of forest-steppe soils took place due to the formation of maghemite-magnetite associations. The predominantly ferromagnetic fraction consists of small single-domain grains.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulate soil respiration and its response to precipitation change in a semiarid steppe.

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    Zhang, Bingwei; Li, Shan; Chen, Shiping; Ren, Tingting; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Hanlin; Liang, Yu; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-28

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are critical links in plant-soil continuum and play a critical role in soil carbon cycles. Soil respiration, one of the largest carbon fluxes in global carbon cycle, is sensitive to precipitation change in semiarid ecosystems. In this study, a field experiment with fungicide application and water addition was conducted during 2010-2013 in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and soil respiration was continuously measured to investigate the influences of AMF on soil respiration under different precipitation regimes. Results showed that soil respiration was promoted by water addition treatment especially during drought seasons, which induced a nonlinear response of soil respiration to precipitation change. Fungicide application suppressed AMF root colonization without impacts on soil microbes. AMF suppression treatment accelerated soil respiration with 2.7, 28.5 and 37.6 g C m(-2) across three seasons, which were mainly caused by the enhanced heterotrophic component. A steeper response of soil respiration rate to precipitation was found under fungicide application treatments, suggesting a greater dampening effect of AMF on soil carbon release as water availability increased. Our study highlighted the importance of AMF on soil carbon stabilization and sequestration in semiarid steppe ecosystems especially during wet seasons.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulate soil respiration and its response to precipitation change in a semiarid steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingwei; Li, Shan; Chen, Shiping; Ren, Tingting; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Hanlin; Liang, Yu; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are critical links in plant-soil continuum and play a critical role in soil carbon cycles. Soil respiration, one of the largest carbon fluxes in global carbon cycle, is sensitive to precipitation change in semiarid ecosystems. In this study, a field experiment with fungicide application and water addition was conducted during 2010-2013 in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and soil respiration was continuously measured to investigate the influences of AMF on soil respiration under different precipitation regimes. Results showed that soil respiration was promoted by water addition treatment especially during drought seasons, which induced a nonlinear response of soil respiration to precipitation change. Fungicide application suppressed AMF root colonization without impacts on soil microbes. AMF suppression treatment accelerated soil respiration with 2.7, 28.5 and 37.6 g C m-2 across three seasons, which were mainly caused by the enhanced heterotrophic component. A steeper response of soil respiration rate to precipitation was found under fungicide application treatments, suggesting a greater dampening effect of AMF on soil carbon release as water availability increased. Our study highlighted the importance of AMF on soil carbon stabilization and sequestration in semiarid steppe ecosystems especially during wet seasons.

  4. Quantitative assessment of pedodiversity and soil erosion within a karst sinkhole in the dry steppe subzone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, M. A.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2017-08-01

    A detailed study of the soil cover of a sinkhole (300 m2) in the dry steppe landscape of the Bogdinsk-Baskunchak Natural Reserve in Astrakhan oblast has been performed, and the factors of its differentiation have been analyzed. The indices of pedodiversity have been calculated and compared for karst sinkholes in the dry steppe and northern taiga landscapes. Quantitative parameters of the lateral migration of solid soil substances on the slopes of the sinkhole have been determined. The rate of soil erosion decreases from the slope of southern aspect to the slopes of western, northern, and eastern aspects. On the average, it is estimated at 0.4 mm/yr. The average rate of accumulation of solid substances on the lower parts of the slopes and in the bottom of the sinkhole reaches 0.74 mm/yr. A comparative analysis of the soil properties attests to their dependence on the particular position of a given soil within the sinkhole. Downward the slopes of the sinkhole, full-profile brown arid soils (Cambic Calcisols) are replaced by sierozem-like soils (Haplic Calcisols), light-humus poorly developed soils (Luvisols), lithozems (Leptosols), and stratified soils (stratozems, or Colluvic Regosols). The soils within the upper ring-shape soil microzone are more diverse and contrasting with respect to their morphological, physical, chemical, and physicochemical properties. The degree of soil contrasts decreases down the slopes of the sinkhole towards its bottom. The studied sinkhole is characterized by considerable pedodiversity. Quantitative parameters of pedodiversity for the sinkhole in the dry steppe zone are higher than those form the sinkholes in the northern taiga zone.

  5. [Algo-bacterial communities of the Kulunda steppe (Altai region, Russia) soda lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samylina, O S; Sapozhnikov, F V; Gaĭnanova, O Iu; Riabova, A V; Nikitin, M A; Sorokin, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    The composition and macroscopic structure of the floating oxygenic phototrophic communities from Kulunda steppe soda lakes (Petukhovskoe sodovoe, Tanatara VI, and Gorchiny 3) was described based on the data of the 2011 and 2012 expeditions (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology). The algo-bacterial community with a green alga Ctenocladus circinnatus as an edificator was the typical one. Filamentous Geitlerinema sp. and Nodosilinea sp. were the dominant cyanobacteria. Apart from C. circinnatus, the algological component of the community contained unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis and cf. Chlorella minutissima, as well as diatoms (Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brchysira brebissonii, Brachysira zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia communis, and Nitzschia sp.1). The latter have not been previously identified in the lakes under study. In all lakes, a considerable increase in salinity was found to result in changes in the composition and macroscopic structure of algo-bacterial communities.

  6. Experimental warming does not enhance soil respiration in a semiarid temperate forest-steppe ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lellei-Kovacs, E.; Kovacs-Lang, E.; Kalapos, T.

    2008-01-01

    are still limited. Soil respiration rate-measured monthly between April and November from 2003 to 2006-remained very low (0.09 - 1.53 mu mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1))in accordance with the moderate biological activity and low humus content of the nutrient poor, coarse sandy soil. Specific soil respiration rate...... ( calculated for unit soil organic matter content), however, was relatively high (0.36 - 7.92 mu mol CO g(-1) C(org)h(-1)) suggesting substrate limitation for soil biological activity. During the day, soil respiration rate was significantly lower at dawn than at midday, while seasonally clear temperature......The influence of simulated climate change on soil respiration was studied in a field experiment on 4 m x 5 m plots in the semiarid temperate Pannonian sand forest-steppe. This ecosystem type has low productivity and soil organic matter content, and covers large areas, yet data on soil carbon fluxes...

  7. Response of soil methane uptake to simulated nitrogen deposition and grazing management across three types of steppe in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglan; He, Hong; Yuan, Wenping; Li, Linghao; Xu, Wenfang; Liu, Wei; Shi, Huiqiu; Hou, Longyu; Chen, Jiquan; Wang, Zhiping

    2018-01-15

    The response of soil methane (CH 4 ) uptake to increased nitrogen (N) deposition and grazing management was studied in three types of steppe (i.e., meadow steppe, typical steppe, and desert steppe) in Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment was designed with four simulated N deposition rates such as 0, 50, 100, and 200kgNha -1 , respectively, under grazed and fenced management treatments. Results showed that the investigated steppes were significant sinks for CH 4 , with an uptake flux of 1.12-3.36kgha -1 over the grass growing season and that the magnitude of CH 4 uptake significantly (Prates. The soil CH 4 uptake rates were highest in the desert steppe, moderate in the typical steppe, and lowest in the meadow steppe. Compared with grazed plots, fencing increased the CH 4 uptake by 4.7-40.2% with a mean value of 20.2% across the three different steppe types. The responses of soil CH 4 uptake to N deposition in the continental steppe varied depending on the N deposition rate, steppe type, and grazing management. A significantly positive correlation between CH 4 uptake and soil temperature was found in this study, whereas no significant relationship between soil moisture and CH 4 uptake occurred. Our results may contribute to the improvement of model parameterization for simulating biosphere-atmosphere CH 4 exchange processes and for evaluating the climate change feedback on CH 4 soil uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  9. [Responses of soil fauna to environment degeneration in the process of wind erosion desertification of Hulunbeir steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shi-Hai; Lu, Xin-Shi; Gao, Ji-Xi

    2007-09-01

    To reveal the relationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors in the process of steppe desertification, field survey combined with laboratory analysis was made to study the community structure, population density and biodiversity of soil fauna, and their relationships with the changes of soil organic matter, hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus and moisture contents and soil pH at different stages of desertification of Hulunbeir steppe. The soil faunal specimens collected belonged to 4 phyla, 6 classes and 12 orders. Nematoda was the only dominant group of medium- and small-sized soil fauna, occupying 94.3% of the total, while Coleoptera and Hemiptera were the dominant groups of large-sized soil fauna, with the amount of 79.7%. The group amount, population density, diversity, and evenness of soil fauna had an obvious decreasing trend with the aggravation of steppe desertification. At serious stage of desertification, soil fauna vanished completely. The population density of soil fauna in 0-20 cm soil layer had significant linear correlations with soil nutrients and moisture contents, soil pH, and litter mass, indicating that soil fauna had stronger sensibility to the changes of soil environmental factors in the process of wind erosion desertification of Hulunbeir steppe.

  10. Alkalization of irrigated soils suitable for orchard growing in steppe Crimea and prospects for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    Data of large-scale soil surveys performed by the Ukrgiprosad Institute (Ukrainian Institute for Orchard Growing) in 1997-2013 on irrigated soils of steppe Crimea reserved for orchards on the area of about 3000 ha are discussed. It is shown that all the studied soils are subjected to alkalization with the presence of soda and with an increase in concentrations of sodium and magnesium bicarbonates up to the values toxic for fruit crops. The concentrations and occurrence frequencies of alkaline salts depend on the soil type, the presence of solonetzic features, the amount of carbonates, the particular depth in the soil profile, the subsoiling, and other factors. Within the studied area, some soils are unsuitable or partly suitable for orchard growing. To improve the soil conditions for orchard growing in the areas subjected to alkalization, alkaline salts should be neutralized to nontoxic level, and the soil alkalinity should be reduced using chemical reclamation methods.

  11. Effect of salinity on diazotrophic activity and microbial composition of phototrophic communities from Bitter-1 soda lake (Kulunda Steppe, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto; Samylina, Olga; Sukhacheva, Marina; Borisenko, Gennadii; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Tourova, Tatiana

    2018-04-16

    Bitter-1 is a shallow hypersaline soda lake in Kulunda Steppe (Altai region, Russia). During a study period between 2005 and 2016, the salinity in the littoral area of the lake fluctuated within the range from 85 to 400 g/L (in July of each year). Light-dependent nitrogen fixation occurred in this lake up to the salt-saturating conditions. The rates increased with a decrease in salinity, both under environmental conditions and in laboratory simulations. The salinities below 100 g/L were favorable for light-dependent nitrogen fixation, while the process was dramatically inhibited above 200 g/L salts. The analysis of nifH genes in environmental samples and in enrichment cultures of diazotrophic phototrophs suggested that anaerobic fermenting and sulfate-reducing bacteria could participate in the dark nitrogen fixation process up to soda-saturating conditions. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that haloalkaliphilic nonheterocystous cyanobacteria (Euhalothece sp. and Geitlerinema sp.) and anoxygenic purple sulfur bacteria (Ectothiorhodospira sp.) might also play a role in the process at light conditions. The heterocystous cyanobacterium Nodularia sp. develops at low salinity (below 80 g/L) that is not characteristic for Bitter-1 Lake and thus does not make a significant contribution to the nitrogen fixation in this lake.

  12. Effects of Applied Land Use Strategies on Farmland Soils in the Southwestern Siberian Kulunda-Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Lars-Christian; Illiger, Patrick; Stephan, Eckart; Frühauf, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    The Kulunda steppe in southwestern Siberia is one of the most intensely used agricultural regions in the world. The study area of the KULUNDA project is the Kulunda steppe, which is a part of the conversion region created during the so called "virgin land campaign" in the soviet era. Nowadays it is characterized by widespread soil degradation. Despite the fact that agriculture is the basis of existence, land use practice is maladjusted to the local conditions. The widespread soil degradation and accordingly the decreased soil humus content have negative effects on crop yields in this region. With respect to climate change, the current study analyses the cause effect relationship between land use practice and soil properties. In particular, different methods of soil cultivation will be tested and for each of the cases the soil humus content, soil water, soil solute balance will be measured and compared. In addition, the possibilities of soil carbon sequestration capacity will be analyzed. Furthermore, the study aims to achieve properly adapted sustainable cropping systems to stabilize the yields and to increase the productivity of plant production per spatial unit in this high vulnerable dry farming region. In 2012 the long term field trials started at three test farms in different steppe biomes, containing different soil types from chernozems to kastanozems. Each of them is characterized by a negative water balance. Successfully running cropping models, such as crop rotation, tilling intensity, plant protection and nutrition strategies from south Canadian steppe regions were adapted to regional agronomic needs. The traditional Russian cultivation system will be compared with two modern systems, including no-tillage methods on specially randomized test plots. Additionally, these plots are equipped with soil moisture monitoring systems to analyze the soil water content in different depths under the different cropping methods. The expected results will not only deepen

  13. Reclamation of soils influenced by coal mining in Southern European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Vladimir; Bech, Jaume; Alekseenko, Alexey; Shvydkaya, Natalya; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    In the recent decades, the concentrations of metals have increased in such media of biosphere as atmosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere. The greatest geochemical changes have occurred in soils, which are the deposing medium where the high concentrations of metals are saved for years after their direct human use. Mining sites and beneficiation zones are the areas of the highest concentrations of metals in soils. Coal mining areas in the European part of Russia (Rostov region) were selected for a detailed consideration. Soil samples were taken from the uppermost soil horizons: layer of 0-30 cm. The soil samples were analysed for gross concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Sn, Mo, Ba, Co, Ni, Mn, Ti, V, Cr, Ga, P, Li, Sr, Y, Yb, Nb, Sc, and Zr, using emission spectral analysis. All ordinary analyses were carried out in the certified and accredited laboratory. The external control was conducted by the X-ray fluorescence, gravimetric, and neutron activation analyses. Calculation of random and systematic errors showed high analyses repeatability and correctness. Several cases of self-purification of soils and restoration of landscapes were discussed. The way of remediation through the flooding of mining sites with water was investigated as well as filling of natural relief depressions with soils and dumps. The process of Technosols remediation at the sites occupied by tailings of waste heaps was considered separately. In conclusion: 1. The dominant contemporary way of remediation in Southern European Russia does not prevent the spread of metals through the decades. The modern underground coal mining leads to the destruction of soils in the area directly occupied by wastes and by rock dumps located nearby. 2. Soils have not formed yet as a result of self-restoration at the waste heaps at the age of 50 years, spontaneously combusted decades ago. The vegetation formed during this time virtually eliminates the occurrence of any significant soil-forming process. The ponds formed by

  14. Laboratory Assessment of Forest Soil Respiration Affected by Wildfires under Various Environments of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Abakumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon emission rates were estimated in the soils of three natural zones in Russia: forest-tundra, south-taiga, and forest-steppe. Postfire soils were found to be characterized by essential losses of soil C due to the combustion fire effect. Soils lost 3 or 5 parts of initial carbon content and showed an essential decrease in the C/N ratio during the fire effect. The pH values increased due to soil enrichment by ash during the fire events. CO2 emission rates were highest in natural soil samples, because the amount of organic matter affected by mineralization in those soils was higher than in natural ones. Simultaneously, the total values of mineralized carbon were higher in postfire soils because the SOM quality and composition were altered due to the fire effect. The only exception was in forest-tundra soils, where a high portion of dissolved organic compounds was released during the surface fire. The quality of initial SOM and intensity of the wildfire play the most important roles in the fate of SOM in postfire environments. Further study of CO2 emissions is needed to better characterize postfire SOM dynamics and develop an approach to model this process.

  15. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  16. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with glomalin-related soil protein and soil enzymes in different managed semiarid steppes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Bao, Yuying; Liu, Xiaowei; Du, Guoxin

    2014-10-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and glomalin and soil enzyme activities were investigated in different managed semiarid steppes located in Inner Mongolia, North China. Soils were sampled in a depth up to 30 cm from non-grazed, overgrazed, and naturally restored steppes from June to September. Roots of Leymus chinense (Trin.) Tzvel. and Stipagrandis P. Smirn. were also collected over the same period. Results showed that overgrazing significantly decreased the total mycorrhizal colonization of S. grandis; total colonization of L. chinensis roots was not significantly different in the three managed steppes. Nineteen AMF species belonging to six genera were isolated. Funneliformis and Glomus were dominant genera in all three steppes. Spore density and species richness were mainly influenced by an interaction between plant growth stage and management system (P soil depth. AMF species richness was significantly positively correlated with soil acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and two Bradford-reactive soil protein (BRSP) fractions (P soil glomalin and phosphatase activity in different managed semiarid steppes. Based on these observations, AMF communities could be useful indicators for evaluating soil quality and function of semiarid grassland ecosystems.

  18. Do soil organisms affect aboveground litter decomposition in the semiarid Patagonian steppe, Argentina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Patricia I; Yahdjian, Laura; Austin, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Surface litter decomposition in arid and semiarid ecosystems is often faster than predicted by climatic parameters such as annual precipitation or evapotranspiration, or based on standard indices of litter quality such as lignin or nitrogen concentrations. Abiotic photodegradation has been demonstrated to be an important factor controlling aboveground litter decomposition in aridland ecosystems, but soil fauna, particularly macrofauna such as termites and ants, have also been identified as key players affecting litter mass loss in warm deserts. Our objective was to quantify the importance of soil organisms on surface litter decomposition in the Patagonian steppe in the absence of photodegradative effects, to establish the relative importance of soil organisms on rates of mass loss and nitrogen release. We estimated the relative contribution of soil fauna and microbes to litter decomposition of a dominant grass using litterboxes with variable mesh sizes that excluded groups of soil fauna based on size class (10, 2, and 0.01 mm), which were placed beneath shrub canopies. We also employed chemical repellents (naphthalene and fungicide). The exclusion of macro- and mesofauna had no effect on litter mass loss over 3 years (P = 0.36), as litter decomposition was similar in all soil fauna exclusions and naphthalene-treated litter. In contrast, reduction of fungal activity significantly inhibited litter decomposition (P soil fauna have been mentioned as a key control of litter decomposition in warm deserts, biogeographic legacies and temperature limitation may constrain the importance of these organisms in temperate aridlands, particularly in the southern hemisphere.

  19. [A comparative study on soil respiration between grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppe, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Fengyu; Wang, Yuhui

    2004-09-01

    With enclosed chamber Method, this paper studied the soil respiration in grazing and fenced typical Leymus chinensis steppes, Inner Mongolia, and its relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that the daily pattern of soil respiration could be expressed as a one-humped curve, and the highest values appeared at 13:00-15:00 in the fenced and grazing plots. The diurnal dynamics of soil respiration mainly depended on the surface temperature at the fenced plots and the soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the grazing plots. In June and July, the average soil respiration rate was 2.7 times greater at the fenced plots than that at the grazing plots, while the difference was not distinct in August and September, which was similar with the change of the belowground biomass. The reason was probably that the plant was influenced differently in different phenological phases by grazing and the change of environmental factors. It showed that human activity may not result in the increase of soil respiration rate. The seasonal dynamics of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil water content at the 0-10 cm depth at the fenced and grazing sites, and the maximum R2 was 0.853 and 0.741, respectively. The difference was that the correlation of soil respiration seasonal dynamics with soil water content was larger at the fenced plots than at the grazing plots. The correlations of soil respiration diurnal and seasonal dynamics with temperature and soil water content at lower profiles were larger than those at deeper profiles at the fenced and grazing sites.

  20. Grazing moderates increases in C3 grass abundance over seven decades across a soil texture gradient in shortgrass steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questions: How does long-term grazing exclusion influence plant community composition in a semiarid grassland? Can spatial variation in the effects of grazing exclusion be explained by variation in soil texture? Location: The shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado, USA, located in the North Amer...

  1. Biologically Active Organic Matter in Soils of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Kogut, B. M.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Masyutenko, N. P.; Malyukova, L. S.; Lebedeva, T. N.; Tulina, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental and literature data on the contents and stocks of active organic matter in 200 soil samples from the forest-tundra, southern-taiga, deciduous-forest, forest-steppe, dry-steppe, semidesert, and subtropical zones have been generalized. Natural lands, agrocenoses, treatments of long-term field experiments (bare fallow, unfertilized and fertilized crop rotations, perennial plantations), and different layers of soil profile are presented. Sphagnum peat and humus-peat soil in the tundra and forest-tundra zones are characterized by a very high content of active organic matter (300-600 mg C/100 g). Among the zonal soils, the content of active organic matter increases from the medium (75-150 mg C/100 g) to the high (150-300 mg C/100 g) level when going from soddy-podzolic soil to gray forest and dark-gray forest soils and then to leached chernozem. In the series from typical chernozem to ordinary and southern chernozem and chestnut and brown semidesert soils, a decrease in the content of active organic matter to the low (35-75 mg C/100 g) and very low (organic matter. Most arable soils are mainly characterized by low or very low contents of active organic matter. In the upper layers of soils, active organic matter makes up 1.2-11.1% of total Corg. The profile distribution of active organic matter in the studied soils coincides with that of Corg: their contents appreciably decrease with depth, except for brown semidesert soil. The stocks of active organic matter vary from 0.4 to 5.4 t/ha in the layer of 0-20 cm and from 1.0 to 12.4/ha in the layer of 0-50 cm of different soil types.

  2. [Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1).

  3. The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avksentev, Alexey; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana; Moiseeva, Evgenya

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity Alexey Avksentev, Elena Negrobova, Tatiana Kramareva, Evgenya Moiseeva 394000 Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, 1 Voronezh State University Nitrous oxide is emitted by soil as a result of microbiological processes, ranks third in the list of aggressive greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide is formed during nitrification and denitrification of ammonia that enters the soil during microbial decomposition of complex organic compounds. Denitrification can be direct and indirect. In the microbiological process of recovery of nitrates involved of the organic substance. In aerobic conditions microorganisms denitrificator behave like normal saprotrophs and oxidize organic matter in the act of breathing oxygen. Thus, they operate at different times two enzyme systems: the electron transport chain with an oxygen acceptor in aerobic and restoration of nitrates under anaerobic conditions. Investigation of the emission of nitrous oxide by ordinary Chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region showed that it depends on the type of cenosis and the content of available forms of nitrogen. Natural ecosystems emit nitrous oxide more than the soil of arable land. The dependence of the emission of nitrous oxide from the humus content shows positive trend, but the aggregation of data, significant differences are not detected. Research shows that nitrous oxide emissions are seasonal. So the autumn season is characterized by nitrous oxide emissions than spring. Enzymatic processes are an important link in the biological cycle of elements and, consequently, participate in the process of decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and other processes. Analysis of the data on enzyme activity of ordinary Chernozem and the intensity of emission of N20 shows a clear relationship between

  4. Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations ???100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Organic matter dynamics along a salinity gradient in Siberian steppe soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Norbert; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Dohrmann, Reiner; Herdtle, Daniel; Gerhard, Lukas; Fritzsche, Franziska; Puzanov, Alexander; Silanteva, Marina; Grebennikova, Anna; Guggenberger, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Salt-affected soils will become more frequent in the next decades as arid and semiarid ecosystems are predicted to expand as a result of climate change. Nevertheless, little is known about organic matter (OM) dynamics in these soils, though OM is crucial for soil fertility and represents an important carbon sink. We aimed at investigating OM dynamics along a salinity and sodicity gradient in the soils of the southwestern Siberian Kulunda steppe (Kastanozem, non-sodic Solonchak, Sodic Solonchak) by assessing the organic carbon (OC) stocks, the quantity and quality of particulate and mineral-associated OM in terms of non-cellulosic neutral sugar contents and carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C activity), and the microbial community composition based on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) patterns. Aboveground biomass was measured as a proxy for plant growth and soil OC inputs. Our hypotheses were that (i) soil OC stocks decrease along the salinity gradient, (ii) the proportion and stability of particulate OM is larger in salt-affected Solonchaks compared to non-salt-affected Kastanozems, (iii) sodicity reduces the proportion and stability of mineral-associated OM, and (iv) the fungi : bacteria ratio is negatively correlated with salinity. Against our first hypothesis, OC stocks increased along the salinity gradient with the most pronounced differences between topsoils. In contrast to our second hypothesis, the proportion of particulate OM was unaffected by salinity, thereby accounting for only soil types, while mineral-associated OM contributed > 90 %. Isotopic data (δ13C, 14C activity) and neutral sugars in the OM fractions indicated a comparable degree of OM transformation along the salinity gradient and that particulate OM was not more persistent under saline conditions. Our third hypothesis was also rejected, as Sodic Solonchaks contained more than twice as much mineral-bound OC than the Kastanozems, which we ascribe to the flocculation of OM and mineral components under

  6. Organic matter dynamics along a salinity gradient in Siberian steppe soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bischoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt-affected soils will become more frequent in the next decades as arid and semiarid ecosystems are predicted to expand as a result of climate change. Nevertheless, little is known about organic matter (OM dynamics in these soils, though OM is crucial for soil fertility and represents an important carbon sink. We aimed at investigating OM dynamics along a salinity and sodicity gradient in the soils of the southwestern Siberian Kulunda steppe (Kastanozem, non-sodic Solonchak, Sodic Solonchak by assessing the organic carbon (OC stocks, the quantity and quality of particulate and mineral-associated OM in terms of non-cellulosic neutral sugar contents and carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C activity, and the microbial community composition based on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA patterns. Aboveground biomass was measured as a proxy for plant growth and soil OC inputs. Our hypotheses were that (i soil OC stocks decrease along the salinity gradient, (ii the proportion and stability of particulate OM is larger in salt-affected Solonchaks compared to non-salt-affected Kastanozems, (iii sodicity reduces the proportion and stability of mineral-associated OM, and (iv the fungi : bacteria ratio is negatively correlated with salinity. Against our first hypothesis, OC stocks increased along the salinity gradient with the most pronounced differences between topsoils. In contrast to our second hypothesis, the proportion of particulate OM was unaffected by salinity, thereby accounting for only  <  10 % in all three soil types, while mineral-associated OM contributed  >  90 %. Isotopic data (δ13C, 14C activity and neutral sugars in the OM fractions indicated a comparable degree of OM transformation along the salinity gradient and that particulate OM was not more persistent under saline conditions. Our third hypothesis was also rejected, as Sodic Solonchaks contained more than twice as much mineral-bound OC than the Kastanozems, which we ascribe

  7. Impacts of day versus night warming on soil microclimate: results from a semiarid temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Chen, Shiping; Wan, Shiqiang

    2010-06-15

    One feature of climate warming is that increases in daily minimum temperature are greater than those in daily maximum temperature. Changes in soil microclimate in response to the asymmetrically diurnal warming scenarios can help to explain responses of ecosystem processes. In the present study, we examined the impacts of day, night, and continuous warming on soil microclimate in a temperate steppe in northern China. Our results showed that day, night, and continuous warming (approximately 13Wm(-2) with constant power mode) significantly increased daily mean soil temperature at 10cm depth by 0.71, 0.78, and 1.71 degrees C, respectively. Night warming caused greater increases in nighttime mean and daily minimum soil temperatures (0.74 and 0.99 degrees C) than day warming did (0.60 and 0.66 degrees C). However, there were no differences in the increases in daytime mean and daily maximum soil temperature between day (0.81 and 1.13 degrees C) and night (0.81 and 1.10 degrees C) warming. The differential effects of day and night warming on soil temperature varied with environmental factors, including photosynthetic active radiation, vapor-pressure deficit, and wind speed. When compared with the effect of continuous warming on soil temperature, the summed effects of day and night warming were lower during daytime, but greater at night, thus leading to equality at daily scale. Mean volumetric soil moisture at the depth of 0-40cm significantly decreased under continuous warming in both 2006 (1.44 V/V%) and 2007 (0.76 V/V%). Day warming significantly reduced volumetric soil moisture only in 2006, whereas night warming had no effect on volumetric soil moisture in both 2006 and 2007. Given the different diurnal warming patterns and variability of environmental factors among ecosystems, these results highlight the importance of incorporating the differential impacts of day and night warming on soil microclimate into the predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate

  8. Impacts of day versus night warming on soil microclimate: Results from a semiarid temperate steppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jianyang; Chen, Shiping; Wan, Shiqiang

    2010-01-01

    One feature of climate warming is that increases in daily minimum temperature are greater than those in daily maximum temperature. Changes in soil microclimate in response to the asymmetrically diurnal warming scenarios can help to explain responses of ecosystem processes. In the present study, we examined the impacts of day, night, and continuous warming on soil microclimate in a temperate steppe in northern China. Our results showed that day, night, and continuous warming (approximately 13 W m -2 with constant power mode) significantly increased daily mean soil temperature at 10 cm depth by 0.71, 0.78, and 1.71 o C, respectively. Night warming caused greater increases in nighttime mean and daily minimum soil temperatures (0.74 and 0.99 o C) than day warming did (0.60 and 0.66 o C). However, there were no differences in the increases in daytime mean and daily maximum soil temperature between day (0.81 and 1.13 o C) and night (0.81 and 1.10 o C) warming. The differential effects of day and night warming on soil temperature varied with environmental factors, including photosynthetic active radiation, vapor-pressure deficit, and wind speed. When compared with the effect of continuous warming on soil temperature, the summed effects of day and night warming were lower during daytime, but greater at night, thus leading to equality at daily scale. Mean volumetric soil moisture at the depth of 0-40 cm significantly decreased under continuous warming in both 2006 (1.44 V/V%) and 2007 (0.76 V/V%). Day warming significantly reduced volumetric soil moisture only in 2006, whereas night warming had no effect on volumetric soil moisture in both 2006 and 2007. Given the different diurnal warming patterns and variability of environmental factors among ecosystems, these results highlight the importance of incorporating the differential impacts of day and night warming on soil microclimate into the predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate warming.

  9. Managed grassland alters soil N dynamics and N2O emissions in temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Xu, Xingliang; Tang, Xuejuan; Xin, Xiaoping; Ye, Liming; Yang, Guixia; Tang, Huajun; Lv, Shijie; Xu, Dawei; Zhang, Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Reclamation of degraded grasslands as managed grasslands has been increasingly accelerated in recent years in China. Land use change affects soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. However, it remains unclear how large-scale grassland reclamation will impact the grassland ecosystem as a whole. Here, we investigated the effects of the conversion from native to managed grasslands on soil N dynamics and N2O emissions by field experiments in Hulunber in northern China. Soil (0-10cm), nitrate (NO 3 - ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), and microbial N were measured in plots in a temperate steppe (Leymus chinensis grassland) and two managed grasslands (Medicago sativa and Bromus inermis grasslands) in 2011 and 2012. The results showed conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa or B. inermis grasslands decreased concentrations of NO 3 - -N, but did not change NH 4 + -N. Soil microbial N was slightly decreased by the conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa, but increased by the conversion to B. inermis. The conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa (i.e., a legume grass) increased N 2 O emissions by 26.2%, while the conversion to the B. inermis (i.e., a non-legume grass) reduced N 2 O emissions by 33.1%. The conversion from native to managed grasslands caused large created variations in soil NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N concentrations. Net N mineralization rates did not change significantly in growing season or vegetation type, but to net nitrification rate. These results provide evidence on how reclamation may impact the grassland ecosystem in terms of N dynamics and N 2 O emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Responses of soil CO2 fluxes to short-term experimental warming in alpine steppe ecosystem, Northern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuyang; Fan, Jihui; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is one of the largest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. Therefore small changes in the size of this flux can have a large effect on atmospheric CO2 concentrations and potentially constitute a powerful positive feedback to the climate system. Soil CO2 fluxes in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and their responses to short-term experimental warming were investigated during the growing season in 2011. The results showed that the total soil CO2 emission fluxes during the entire growing season were 55.82 and 104.31 g C m(-2) for the control and warming plots, respectively. Thus, the soil CO2 emission fluxes increased 86.86% with the air temperature increasing 3.74°C. Moreover, the temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q 10) of the control and warming plots were 2.10 and 1.41, respectively. The soil temperature and soil moisture could partially explain the temporal variations of soil CO2 fluxes. The relationship between the temporal variation of soil CO2 fluxes and the soil temperature can be described by exponential equation. These results suggest that warming significantly promoted soil CO2 emission in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and indicate that this alpine ecosystem is very vulnerable to climate change. In addition, soil temperature and soil moisture are the key factors that controls soil organic matter decomposition and soil CO2 emission, but temperature sensitivity significantly decreases due to the rise in temperature.

  11. Aeolian nutrient fluxes following wildfire in sagebrush steppe: implications for soil carbon storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Hasselquist

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulses of aeolian transport following fire can profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. Our objective was to determine horizontal nutrient fluxes occurring in the saltation zone during an episodic pulse of aeolian transport that occurred following a wildfire in a semi-arid sagebrush steppe ecosystem in southern Idaho, USA. We also examined how temporal trends in nutrient fluxes were affected by changes in particle sizes of eroded mass as well as nutrient concentrations associated with different particle size classes. In the burned area, total carbon (C and nitrogen (N fluxes were as high as 235 g C m−1 d−1 and 19 g N m−1 d−1 during the first few months following fire, whereas C and N fluxes were negligible in an adjacent unburned area throughout the study. Temporal variation in C and N fluxes following fire was largely attributable to the redistribution of saltation-sized particles. Total N and organic C concentrations in the soil surface were significantly lower in the burned relative to the unburned area one year after fire. Our results show how an episodic pulse of aeolian transport following fire can affect the spatial distribution of soil C and N, which, in turn, can have important implications for soil C storage. These findings demonstrate how an ecological disturbance can exacerbate a geomorphic process and highlight the need for further research to better understand the role aeolian transport plays in the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in recently burned landscapes.

  12. Mechanical mastication of Utah juniper encroaching sagebrush steppe increases inorganic soil N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.) has encroached millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe. Juniper mechanical mastication increases cover of understory species, but could increase resource availability and subsequently invasive plant species. We quantified the effects of juniper mastication ...

  13. Water content differences have stronger effects than plant functional groups on soil bacteria in a steppe ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China. We found that the number and composition type of plant functional groups had no effect on bacterial diversity and community composition, or on the relative abundance of major taxa. In contrast, bacterial community patterns were significantly structured by soil water content differences among plots. Our results support researches that suggest that water availability is the key factor structuring soil bacterial communities in this semi-arid ecosystem.

  14. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  15. Ecological Catastrophes in the steppe? Landscape Archaeology at the mining and metallurgical complex of Kargaly (Region of Orenbourg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent García, Juan M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Kargaly is one of the most important centers of mining and metallurgy in the great Eurasian steppe. Dr. E.N. Chernykh and his team (Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow and various researchers at the CSIC and other Spanish institutions have developed a joint project to undertake a comprehensive study of the site's two main phases of occupation, the Bronze Age (2nd millenium BC and the first Russian industrialization (1745-1900 AD. The Russian members of the joint team are in charge of the archaeological investigations, while the Spanish members are studying metallurgical and mining technology and production, on the one hand, and the environmental context and impact of these activities, on the other. This article presents the research design and first results of the Palaeoenvironmental research at Kargaly. This work has two aspects. The first consisted of obtaining one of the most complete palaeoenvironmental data sets from the steppes through both the systematic sampling of archaeological sites to recover charcoal, seeds, fruits and pollen and the taking of palynological cores from natural deposits, on the other Both sampling programs were supported by radiocarbon dates. The second aspect, to which the greater part of this article is devoted, was dedicated to contextualizing the palaeobotanical evidence by studying the present-day landscape, with particular attention to understanding the processes which shape the variability of the pollen rain. Our purpose was to obtain explicit and measurable calibrative criteria which would enable us to answer the palaeoenvironmental questions raised by our archaeological and archaeometallurgical research. These questions include, most importantly, the following: what was the extent of forest (the energy base for the mining/metallurgical complex during the Bronze Age? and how do we evaluate subsistence practices? (an issue related to the origins of agriculture on the

  16. A higher-level classification of the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands (Central and Eastern Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Wolfgang; Kuzemko, Anna; Dengler, Jürgen; Chytrý, Milan; Bauer, Norbert; Becker, Thomas; Biţă-Nicolae, Claudia; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Čarni, Andraž; Csiky, János; Igić, Ruzica; Kącki, Zygmunt; Korotchenko, Iryna; Kropf, Matthias; Krstivojević-Ćuk, Mirjana; Krstonošić, Daniel; Rédei, Tamás; Ruprecht, Eszter; Schratt-Ehrendorfer, Luise; Semenishchenkov, Yuri; Stančić, Zvjezdana; Vashenyak, Yulia; Vynokurov, Denys; Janišová, Monika

    2017-01-01

    What are the main floristic patterns in the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands? What are the diagnostic species of the major subdivisions of the class Festuco-Brometea (temperate Euro-Siberian dry and semi-dry grasslands)? Carpathian Basin (E Austria, SE Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, N Croatia and N Serbia), Ukraine, S Poland and the Bryansk region of W Russia. We applied a geographically stratified resampling to a large set of relevés containing at least one indicator species of steppe grasslands. The resulting data set of 17 993 relevés was classified using the TWINSPAN algorithm. We identified groups of clusters that corresponded to the class Festuco-Brometea . After excluding relevés not belonging to our target class, we applied a consensus of three fidelity measures, also taking into account external knowledge, to establish the diagnostic species of the orders of the class. The original TWINSPAN divisions were revised on the basis of these diagnostic species. The TWINSPAN classification revealed soil moisture as the most important environmental factor. Eight out of 16 TWINSPAN groups corresponded to Festuco-Brometea . A total of 80, 32 and 58 species were accepted as diagnostic for the orders Brometalia erecti , Festucetalia valesiacae and Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis , respectively. In the further subdivision of the orders, soil conditions, geographic distribution and altitude could be identified as factors driving the major floristic patterns. We propose the following classification of the Festuco-Brometea in our study area: (1) Brometalia erecti (semi-dry grasslands) with Scabioso ochroleucae-Poion angustifoliae (steppe meadows of the forest zone of E Europe) and Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati (meadow steppes on deep soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central and E Europe); (2) Festucetalia valesiacae (grass steppes) with Festucion valesiacae (grass steppes on less developed soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central

  17. Response of gross ecosystem productivity, light use efficiency, and water use efficiency of Mongolian steppe to seasonal variations in soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Gong; Eugster, Werner; Asanuma, Jun; Kotani, Ayumi; Davaa, Gombo; Oyunbaatar, Dambaravjaa; Sugita, Michiaki

    2008-03-01

    The examination of vegetation productivity and use of light and water resources is important for understanding the carbon and water cycles in semiarid and arid environments. We made continuous measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes over an arid steppe ecosystem in Mongolia by using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. These measurements allow an examination of EC-estimated gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), light use efficiency (LUE), and water use efficiency (WUE) of the steppe. Daily variations of GEP, LUE, and WUE were associated with daily variations of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ambient temperature (Ta), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The magnitudes of these variations were also dependent on canopy development. On the daily basis, GEP linearly correlated with evapotranspiration rate and PAR. LUE correlated positively with leaf area index, Ta, and soil moisture availability but negatively with the surface reflectivity for short-wave solar radiation. Throughout the growing season, both GEP and LUE responded strongly to precipitation-fed soil moisture in the top 20 cm of the soil. An examination of the responses of LUE and WUE to PAR under different soil moisture conditions shows that when soil water availability exceeded VPD, the steppe was most efficient in light use, whereas it was less efficient in water use. The multivariate analysis of variance also suggests that soil moisture availability, especially water status in the upper 20-cm soil layer with dense distribution of grass roots, is the most significant factor that governs GEP, WUE, and LUE. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the use of available water and light by the Mongolian arid steppe ecosystems under seasonally varying soil moisture conditions. A better understanding of these functional responses is required to predict how climate change may affect arid steppe ecosystems.

  18. Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in agricultural soils in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Natasha; Galitskaya, Polina; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics are medicines widely used to treat and prevent bacterial infections not only in human medicine but also in veterinary. Besides, in animal husbandry antibiotics are often used in for stimulation of animal's growth. Many antibiotics used for veterinary purposes are weakly absorbed in the animal's gut. So up to 90% of the administered antibiotics are excreted with manure and urine. Therefore use of manure as an organic fertilizer leads to formation and spreading of antibiotic resistance among soil microbes. Another reason of such spreading is the horizontal transfer of genes encoding antibiotic resistance from manure to soil microflora. The level of antibiotic resistance genes pollution of soils has not been properly studied yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the contamination of agricultural soils by antibiotic resistant genes. 30 samples of agricultural soils were selected around of Kazan city (Tatarstan Republic) with 1.3 Mio citizens. Since tetracycline is reported to be the most wide spread veterinary antibiotic in Russia, we estimated the level of soil contamination by tet(X) gene encoding tetracycline decomposition in microbial cell. Real time PCR method with specific primers was used as a method of investigation. Particle size type distribution of 31% of soil samples was estimated to be sandy clay, and 69% of soil samples - to silty clay. Content of dissoluble organic carbon ranged from 0,02 mg g -1 (sample 20) to 0,46 mg g -1 (sample 16). Respiration activity and microbial biomass of soils were estimated to be 0,80-5,28 CO2 C mg g -1 h-1 and 263,51-935,77 µg kg - 1 respectively. The values presented are typical for soils of Tatarstan Republic. In terms of the antibiotic resistant gene content, 27 of 30 samples investigated contained tet(X) gene, while 52% of the samples were highly contaminated, 34% of samples were middle contaminated and 14% of samples - weakly contaminated.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with vegetation and soil parameters under rest grazing management in a desert steppe ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gegenbaoleer; Bao, Yuying; Du, Guoxin; Qi, Yunlong

    2013-05-01

    The impact of rest grazing on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the interactions of AMF with vegetation and soil parameters under rest grazing condition were investigated between spring and late summer in a desert steppe ecosystem with different grazing managements (rest grazing with different lengths of resting period, banned or continuous grazing) in Inner Mongolia, China. AMF diversity and colonization, vegetation biomass, soil properties and soil phosphatase activity were examined. In rest grazing areas of 60 days, AMF spore number and diversity index at a 0-10 cm soil depth as well as vesicular and hyphal colonization rates were higher compared with other grazing treatments. In addition, soil organic matter and total N contents were highest and soil alkaline phosphatase was most active under 60-day rest grazing. In August and September, these areas also had the highest amount of aboveground vegetation. The results indicated that resting grazing for an appropriate period of time in spring has a positive effect on AMF sporulation, colonization and diversity, and that under rest grazing conditions, AMF parameters are positively correlated with some soil characteristics.

  20. Soils of the Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. Occurrence and properties of soils on the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.

    1977-07-01

    The soils of the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, encompassing the IBP Grassland Biome intensive study site on the ERDA Hanford Reservation, are representative of a larger geographical region including much of the Columbia Plateau and Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. This results from a unique diversity in parent materials of mixed origin derived from the loess eolian, lacustrine and stream-laid material including glacial outwashes, river terraces, flood plains and alluvial fans and meteorological factors accompanying a marked change in altitude within the Reserve resulting in development of soils over a range in temperature, moisture and vegetative regimes. The Reserve and the IBP Grassland Biome intensive study site serve as valuable, representative areas for the study of soil genesis and morphology in the shrub-steppe. The role of soils can be determined in basic environmental processes involving the flow of energy, cyclization of nutrients or the fate and behavior of pollutants. These processes may be examined to provide baseline information for comparison to other, more disturbed areas. Or, for investigative purposes, processes may be systematically altered to determine the influence of soil-perturbing activities such as agriculture, mining and industry on the terrestrial ecosystem

  1. Plant litter effects on soil nutrient availability and vegetation dynamics: changes that occur when annual grasses invade shrub-steppe communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Roger L. Sheley; Bob Blank; Edward A. Vasquez

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and quality of plant litter occur in many ecosystems as they are invaded by exotic species, which impact soil nutrient cycling and plant community composition. Such changes in sagebrush-steppe communities are occurring with invasion of annual grasses (AG) into a perennial grass (PG) dominated system. We conducted a 5-year litter manipulation...

  2. Effects of Plant Functional Group Loss on Soil Microbial Community and Litter Decomposition in a Steppe Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chunwang; Zhou, Yong; Su, Jiaqi; Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Globally, many terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing a rapid loss of biodiversity. Continued improvements in our understanding of interrelationships between plant diversity and soil microbes are critical to address the concern over the consequences of the decline in biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and services. By removing forbs, or grasses, or, to an extreme scenario, both forbs and grasses in a steppe vegetation in Inner Mongolia, we studied how plant functional group (PFG) loss affects soil microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and litter decomposition using a litter-bag method. PFG loss significantly decreased above- and below-ground plant biomass, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN), but had no effect on the ratio of SMBC to SMBN. Although the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs remained unaffected, PFG loss significantly reduced the amount of bacterial, fungal, and total PLFAs. PFG loss decreased litter monthly mass loss and decay constant, and such decrease was significant when both forbs and grasses were removed. Our results provide robust evidence that PFG loss in grassland ecosystem can lead to a rapid response of soil microbial activity which may affect litter decomposition and soil nutrient cycling, suggesting that the assessment of plant-microbe interactions in soils is an integral component of ecosystem response to biodiversity loss.

  3. Identification sources of pollen spectra in dry and wet atmospheric deposition in the forest-steppe zone of Altai Krai (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Nenasheva, Galina; Malygina, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Pollen spectra circulating in the atmosphere contain the important information about primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), worldwide interest in which has significantly increased in recent decades [Despres, 2012]. It is related to the fact that many researchers suggest primary aerosols as a condensation nucleus significantly affected on the formation of clouds and precipitation and, consequently, on the hydrological cycle and climate, especially at the regional level [Andreae et al., 2008; Poschlet et al., 2010; Prenni et al., 2009]. We present the comparison of pollen spectra obtained during the dry and wet atmospheric deposition in Altai Krai (Russia) and identification of the sources/regions of their receipts. Altai Krai is located in the center of the Eurasian continent, at the border of several natural and climatic zones. A significant part of the region's territory is characterized as a forest-steppe zone with a lot of natural and anthropogenic landscapes, accompanied by continental climate. It provides a rich diversity of natural vegetation and cultural associations. During last 10 years pollen grains has been monitored in the airspace of Barnaul city (the capital of Altai Krai) located in the central part of the forest-steppe zone). During the monitoring, the attempts to determine the origin of pollen spectra (local or introduced) were made as well. In the long-term average dates of the first wave of dusting in the spring season 2014 Burkard pollen traps were used in order to monitor the airspace in Barnaul, namely dry deposition of pollen grains [Nenasheva, 2013]. To estimate the wet deposition PBAP (pollen), which can reach 80% in the middle latitudes, precipitation sampler were installed close to Burkard pollen traps in order to sample precipitation. The samples were filtered through a filter having a pore diameter of 1 µm, then prepared and examined for the presence of pollen grains. The comparison of the results of pollen analysis of 10 samples

  4. Precipitation Regime Shift Enhanced the Rain Pulse Effect on Soil Respiration in a Semi-Arid Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liming; Chen, Shiping; Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of resource pulses, such as rainfall events, on soil respiration plays an important role in controlling grassland carbon balance, but how shifts in long-term precipitation regime regulate rain pulse effect on soil respiration is still unclear. We first quantified the influence of rainfall event on soil respiration based on a two-year (2006 and 2009) continuously measured soil respiration data set in a temperate steppe in northern China. In 2006 and 2009, soil carbon release induced by rainfall events contributed about 44.5% (83.3 g C m−2) and 39.6% (61.7 g C m−2) to the growing-season total soil respiration, respectively. The pulse effect of rainfall event on soil respiration can be accurately predicted by a water status index (WSI), which is the product of rainfall event size and the ratio between antecedent soil temperature to moisture at the depth of 10 cm (r 2 = 0.92, Psoil temperature/moisture ratio which is usually associated with longer dry spells. We then analyzed a long-term (1953–2009) precipitation record in the experimental area. We found both the extreme heavy rainfall events (>40 mm per event) and the long dry-spells (>5 days) during the growing seasons increased from 1953–2009. It suggests the shift in precipitation regime has increased the contribution of rain pulse effect to growing-season total soil respiration in this region. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating precipitation regime shift and its impacts on the rain pulse effect into the future predictions of grassland carbon cycle under climate change. PMID:25093573

  5. A novel soil manganese mechanism drives plant species loss with increased nitrogen deposition in a temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiuying; Liu, Nana; Bai, Wenming; Li, Linghao; Chen, Jiquan; Reich, Peter B; Yu, Qiang; Guo, Dali; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K; Cheng, Weixin; Lu, Peng; Gao, Yan; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhengwen; Ma, Yibing; Han, Xingguo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity with increased anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition in grasslands has occurred globally. In most cases, competitive exclusion driven by preemption of light or space is invoked as a key mechanism. Here, we provide evidence from a 9-yr N-addition experiment for an alternative mechanism: differential sensitivity of forbs and grasses to increased soil manganese (Mn) levels. In Inner Mongolia steppes, increasing the N supply shifted plant community composition from grass-forb codominance (primarily Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida, respectively) to exclusive dominance by grass, with associated declines in overall species richness. Reduced abundance of forbs was linked to soil acidification that increased mobilization of soil Mn, with a 10-fold greater accumulation of Mn in forbs than in grasses. The enhanced accumulation of Mn in forbs was correlated with reduced photosynthetic rates and growth, and is consistent with the loss of forb species. Differential accumulation of Mn between forbs and grasses can be linked to fundamental differences between dicots and monocots in the biochemical pathways regulating metal transport. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for N-induced species loss in temperate grasslands by linking metal mobilization in soil to differential metal acquisition and impacts on key functional groups in these ecosystems.

  6. The infrared emissivities of soil and Artemisia tridentata and subsequent temperature corrections in a shrub-steppe ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipps, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of plant and soil temperatures using remote sensing technology is examined in a shrub-steppe ecosystem. The emissivities of Artemisia tridentata L. shrubs and the soil surface were examined in such an ecosystem. The emissivity of A. tridentata plants was calculated to be 0.97, which is in the range of reported values for other green plants. The soil emissivity was 0.93. Temperature readings from an infrared thermometer (IRT) must be corrected for the emissivity value of the target and the reflected sky radiation. Although these two factors produce errors which are opposite in sign, they will not offset one another. An analysis is presented which quantifies the temperature error resulting from ignoring the corrections. The error is negligible only for emissivity values greater than 0.98. The error is proportional to temperature, and increases rapidly with decreases in emissivity. The true emissivities must be determined, and the above corrections must be calculated in order to obtain accurate temperatures in an ecosystem from remote sensing methods. (author)

  7. The infrared emissivities of soil and Artemisia tridentata and subsequent temperature corrections in a shrub-steppe ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipps, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of plant and soil temperatures using remote sensing technology is examined in a shrub-steppe ecosystem. The emissivities of Artemisia tridentata L. shrubs and the soil surface were examined in such an ecosystem. The emissivity of A. tridentata plants was calculated to be 0.97, which is in the range of reported values for other green plants. The soil emissivity was 0.93. Temperature readings from an infrared thermometer (IRT) must be corrected for the emissivity value of the target and the reflected sky radiation. Although these two factors produce errors which are opposite in sign, they will not offset one another. An analysis is presented which quantifies the temperature error resulting from ignoring the corrections. The error is negligible only for emissivity values greater than 0.98. The error is proportional to temperature, and increases rapidly with decreases in emissivity. The true emissivities must be determined, and the above corrections must be calculated in order to obtain accurate temperatures in an ecosystem from remote sensing methods

  8. Current ecosystem processes in steppe near Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanteeva, Julia

    2015-04-01

    The steppes and forest steppes complexes of Priol'khonie at the Lake Baikal (southern Siberia, Russia) were studied in this research. Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol'khonie region. During soviet time this area was actively used for agriculture. Nowadays, this territory is the part of Pribaikalskyi National Park and special protection is needed. As the landscapes satisfy different human demands there are many land-management conflicts. The specific climate and soil conditions and human activity lead to erosion processes on study area. Sediment loads are transferred into the Lake Baikal and cause water pollution. Consequently, vegetation cover and phytomass play an important role for regulating hydrological processes in the ecosystems. The process of phytomass formation and its proactive role playing on sedimentation and mitigate silt detaching by rill and inter-rill erosion are considered in the research as important indicators of the ecosystem functions for steppe landscapes. These indicators were studied for the different land cover types identified on the area because the study area has a large variety of steppe and forest steppe complexes, differing in the form of relief, soil types, vegetation species composition and degree of land degradation. The fieldwork was conducted in the study area in the July and August of 2013. Thirty-two experimental sites (10 x 10 m) which characterized different types of ecosystem were established. The level of landscape degradation was estimated. The method of clipping was used for the valuation of above-ground herbaceous phytomass. The phytomass of tree stands was calculated using the volume-conversion rates for forest-steppe complexes. For the quantification of transferred silt by inter-rill erosion in different conditions (vegetation, slope, soil type, anthropogenic load) a portable rainfall simulator was created with taking into account the characteristics of the study area. The aboveground

  9. Soil Temperature Station Data from Permafrost Regions of Russia (Selection of Five Stations), 1880s - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes soil temperature data from boreholes located at five stations in Russia: Yakutsk, Verkhoyansk, Pokrovsk, Isit', and Churapcha. The data have...

  10. Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mining and ore-dressing are one of the most serious causes of environment pollution. Last century in days of active industrialization in Russia a considerable quantity of mineral deposits has been developed. It was not given sufficient attention for ecological safety at that time. After an economic crisis connected with disorder of the USSR and a planned economy, a number of the enterprises became bankrupts and have stopped the activity. As a result the broken landscapes have not been recultivated everywhere, there were numerous wastes. The negative consequences were especially strongly manifested in areas with severe climatic conditions where environmental self-renewal occurred is slowed rather down. The degree of a waste toxicity also acted as the important factor. One of such situations has arisen in Zakamensk - an administrative center of Zakamensky area of Buryat Republic (Russia). Environmental problems of the town have arisen in connection with activity of town-forming enterprise - Dzhidinsky tungsten-molybdenum industrial complex. The enterprise has been organized in 1934 and functioned within 63 years till 1997. During enterprise operating time 3 deposits have been exploited and is created 2 large (more than 40 million tons) tails depository of technogenic sands (TS), located in immediate proximity (less than 1-2 km) from a town residential zone.Sand of tails are rather toxic, the average maintenance of heavy metals in them is (mg/kg): Cd - 42, Pb - 7500, Zn - 3160, Cu - 620, Ni - 34, Co - 44, Mn - 121, Cr - 70, Hg - 0,01, As - 13, Mo - 90. Due to the lack of knowledges on the toxicity of TS in the past century, they were actively used in the road and house construction, during the erection of dams. After scientific studies they were recommended for using as fertilizers. Besides anthropogenic sands movement, there was intensive dispersion of sand by means of water and wind erosion. As a result of natural migration sands got to the subordinated elements of

  11. Caesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer for representative agricultural crops of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in post-Chernobyl steppe landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the

  12. Soil water regime and crop yields in relation to various technologies of cultivation in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Beliaev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of crop yield in areas with different technologies of cultivation based on the network of automatic stations that provide data on climatic and soil-hydrological monitoring in the dry steppe during the vegetation period of May–September 2013–2016 . These data  on regional ecological and climatic parameters are of great interest to the ecologists, plant physiologists, and farmers working in the Kulunda Plain (Altai Territory. We compared the following options for cropping technologies: the modern system, which is the "no-till", technology without autumn tillage;the intensive technology of deep autumn tillage by plough PG-3-5 at a depth of 22–24 cm. Cultivation of crops was carried out using the following scheme of crop rotation: the modern system: 1–2–3–4 (wheat – peas – wheat – rape; the intensive system: 5/6 – 7/8 – 9/10 (fallow – wheat – wheat. We believe that the use of modern technology in these conditions is better due to exchange between the different layers of soil. When  the ordinary Soviet system , the so-called "plow sole" , was used , at a depth of 24 cm , we observed that this creates a water conductivity barrier that seems to preclude the possibility of lifting water from the lower horizons. Results of the study of infiltration of soil moisture at the depth of 30 and 60 cm  have shown in some years the advantages of the modern technology over the ordinary Soviet system: in the version with the use of modern technology we can trace better exchange between the various horizons and , probably,  moisture replenishment from the lower horizons. Differences in individual observation periods are comparatively large due to the redistribution of soil moisture, depending on the weather conditions, the crops used in the crop rotations, and cultivation techniques. Moreover, the average moisture reserves within the one meter layer did not show any significant differences during the

  13. Effects of Fire on Soil Splash Erosion in Semi-steppe Rangelandof Karsanak Region,Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baharlooi

    2016-02-01

    . Detachment rate is strongly influenced by soil properties, including soil texture and thickness of the water layer at the soil surface (De Ploey and Savat, 1968; Moss and Green, 1983; Sharma et al., 1991; Kinnell, 1991, Jomaa et al., 2010, soil strength, bulk density, cohesion, soil organic matter content, moisture content, infiltration capacity (Nearing et al., 1988; Owoputi, 1994; Morgan et al., 1998, Planchon et al., 2000, Ghahramani et al., 2011, soil initial water content, surface compaction and roughness (Planchon et al., 2000, the nature of soil aggregates and crust, porosity, capacity of ionic interchange, and clay content (Poesen and Torri, 1988. Several studies have shown that splash detachment rate is mainly related to surface rock fragments in soils with sparse vegetation cover (Jomaa et al., 2012. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of fire on splash erosion and some erosion depended properties in semi-steppe rangeland of Karsanak region in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province which affected by man-made fire during 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were obtained on 2012 from the mentioned regions (8 samplesfrom the burned area and 8 samples as a control (unburned in the adjacent burned area from 0-7 cm depth. Splash erosion under simulated rainfall intensity of 2 mm per minute was measured using multivariate splash cup apparatus considering the slope of 5 and 25 degree. Soil pH, soil electrical conductivity, equivalent calcium carbonate, soil organic matter, sand size fraction particulate organic matter (SSF POM, mean weight diameter and, geometric mean diameter of aggregates, percent of macro and micro-aggregates, percent of clay, silt, sand, water dispersible clay and soil bulk density were measured. Statistical data analysis was performed by t-test at 5% level. Results Discussion: The results showed that soil splashing increased significantly in treatment 1 year after the fire in both slope 5 and 25 degree and

  14. Ecological stoichiometry of C, N and P on different time enclosed in desertification steppe soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. Z.; Jiao, Y.; Jia, Y. Q.

    2017-08-01

    It is the research object for the ecological stoichiometry of C, N and P on the different time of desertification grasslands enclosed and grazing grassland in Taibusi country of the Inner Mongolia, China. Through the measurement and analysis on ecological stoichiometric ratio of C, N and P in soil, the time of desertification grassland enclosed is determined. There are 13 soil of desertification grassland with different en-closure time, and 1 soil of grazing grassland. They are analyzed for the soil organic carbon, total nitro-gen, total phosphorus content and their density. The C/N of soil were increased with the extension of the time of desertification grassland enclosed. To 22 years enclosed, the C/N of grassland desertification soil enclosed is greater than the soil of grazing grassland that is 17. After the desertification grassland is en-closed, the C/N of soil is 13, and it is accumulated to maximum for C and N, and The grazing period is the best.

  15. Does grazing management matter for soil carbon sequestration in shortgrass steppe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable uncertainty remains regarding the potential of grazing management on semiarid rangelands to sequester soil carbon. Short-term (less than 1 decade) studies have determined that grazing management potentially influences fluxes of carbon, but such studies are strongly influenced by prevail...

  16. Effects of Conversion from Boreal Forest to Arctic Steppe on Soil Communities and Ecosystem Carbon Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P. D.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The end of the Pleistocene marked the extinction of a great variety of arctic megafauna, which, in part, led to the conversion of arctic grasslands to modern Siberian larch forest. This shift may have increased the vulnerability of permafrost to thawing because of changes driven by the vegetation shift; the higher albedo of grassland and low insulation of snow trampled by animals may have decreased soil temperatures and reduced ground thaw in the grassland ecosystem, resulting in protection of organic carbon in thawed soil and permafrost. To test these hypothesized impacts of arctic megafauna, we examined an experimental reintroduction of large mammals in northeast Siberia, initiated in 1988. Pleistocene Park now contains 23 horses, three musk ox, one bison, and several moose in addition to the native fauna. The park is 16 square km with a smaller enclosure (animals spend most of their time and our study was focused. We measured carbon-pools in forested sites (where scat surveys showed low animal use), and grassy sites (which showed higher use), within the park boundaries. We also measured thaw depth and documented the soil invertebrate communities in each ecosystem. There was a substantial difference in number of invertebrates per kg of organic soil between the forest (600 ± 250) and grassland (300 ± 250), though these differences were not statistically significant they suggest faster nutrient turnover in the forest or a greater proportion of decomposition by invertebrates than other decomposers. While thaw depth was deeper in the grassland (60 ± 4 cm) than in the forest (40 ± 6 cm), we did not detect differences in organic layer depth or percent organic matter between grassland and forest. However, soil in the grassland had higher bulk density, and higher carbon stocks in the organic and mineral soil layers. Although deeper thaw depth in the grassland suggests that more carbon is available to microbial decomposers, ongoing temperature monitoring will help

  17. Mid-latitude shrub steppe plant communities: climate change consequences for soil water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Kyle A; Schlaepfer, Daniel R; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

    2016-09-01

    In the coming century, climate change is projected to impact precipitation and temperature regimes worldwide, with especially large effects in drylands. We use big sagebrush ecosystems as a model dryland ecosystem to explore the impacts of altered climate on ecohydrology and the implications of those changes for big sagebrush plant communities using output from 10 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We ask: (1) What is the magnitude of variability in future temperature and precipitation regimes among GCMs and RCPs for big sagebrush ecosystems, and (2) How will altered climate and uncertainty in climate forecasts influence key aspects of big sagebrush water balance? We explored these questions across 1980-2010, 2030-2060, and 2070-2100 to determine how changes in water balance might develop through the 21st century. We assessed ecohydrological variables at 898 sagebrush sites across the western US using a process-based soil water model, SOILWAT, to model all components of daily water balance using site-specific vegetation parameters and site-specific soil properties for multiple soil layers. Our modeling approach allowed for changes in vegetation based on climate. Temperature increased across all GCMs and RCPs, whereas changes in precipitation were more variable across GCMs. Winter and spring precipitation was predicted to increase in the future (7% by 2030-2060, 12% by 2070-2100), resulting in slight increases in soil water potential (SWP) in winter. Despite wetter winter soil conditions, SWP decreased in late spring and summer due to increased evapotranspiration (6% by 2030-2060, 10% by 2070-2100) and groundwater recharge (26% and 30% increase by 2030-2060 and 2070-2100). Thus, despite increased precipitation in the cold season, soils may dry out earlier in the year, resulting in potentially longer, drier summer conditions. If winter precipitation cannot offset drier summer conditions in the future, we expect big

  18. Mid-latitude shrub steppe plant communities: Climate change consequences for soil water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Kyle A.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, Willliam K.

    2016-01-01

    In the coming century, climate change is projected to impact precipitation and temperature regimes worldwide, with especially large effects in drylands. We use big sagebrush ecosystems as a model dryland ecosystem to explore the impacts of altered climate on ecohydrology and the implications of those changes for big sagebrush plant communities using output from 10 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We ask: 1) What is the magnitude of variability in future temperature and precipitation regimes among GCMs and RCPs for big sagebrush ecosystems and 2) How will altered climate and uncertainty in climate forecasts influence key aspects of big sagebrush water balance? We explored these questions across 1980-2010, 2030-2060, and 2070-2100 to determine how changes in water balance might develop through the 21st century. We assessed ecohydrological variables at 898 sagebrush sites across the western US using a process-based soil water model, SOILWAT to model all components of daily water balance using site-specific vegetation parameters and site-specific soil properties for multiple soil layers. Our modeling approach allowed for changes in vegetation based on climate. Temperature increased across all GCMs and RCPs, while changes in precipitation were more variable across GCMs. Winter and spring precipitation was predicted to increase in the future (7% by 2030-2060, 12% by 2070-2100), resulting in slight increases in soil water potential (SWP) in winter. Despite wetter winter soil conditions, SWP decreased in late spring and summer due to increased evapotranspiration (6% by 2030-2060, 10% by 2070-2100) and groundwater recharge (26% and 30% increase by 2030-2060 and 2070-2100). Thus, despite increased precipitation in the cold season, soils may dry out earlier in the year, resulting in potentially longer drier summer conditions. If winter precipitation cannot offset drier summer conditions in the future, we expect big

  19. Effects of Nitrogen and Water on Soil Enzyme Activity and Soil Microbial Biomass in Stipa baicalensis Steppe,Inner Mongolia of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, eight nitrogen treatments were applied at 0 g·m -2(N0, 1.5 g·m -2(N15, 3.0 g·m -2(N30, 5.0 g·m -2(N50, 10.0 g·m -2(N100, 15.0 g·m -2(N150, 20.0 g·m -2(N200, 30.0 g·m -2(N300 as NH 4 NO 3 and adding water to simulate summer rainfall of 100 mm, the interactive experiment was set to explore the effects of nitrogen and water addition in Stipa baicalensis steppe on soil nutrients, enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass. The results showed that the nitrogen and water addition changed soil physico-chemical factors obviously, the content of soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen increased along with the increasing of application rate of nitrogen, on the contrary, the soil pH value had decreasing trend. Appropriate application of nitrogen could enhance the activity of urease and catalase but decreased the activity of polyphenol oxidase. Nitrogen and water addition had significant effect on soil microbial biomass C and N. Higher level of N fertilizer significantly reduced microbial biomass C, and the microbial biomass N was on the rise with the application rate of nitrogen. The addition of water could slow the inhibition of nitrogen to microorganism and increase the microbial biomass C and N. A closed relationship existed in soil nutrient, activities of soil enzyme and soil microbial biomass C and N. The significantly positive correlation existed between total N, organic C, nitrate N and catalase, significantly negative correlation between nitrate N, ammonium N, total N and polyphenol oxidase. Microbial biomass N was significantly positive correlated with total N, nitrate N, ammonium N, catalase, phosphatase, and was negative correlated with polyphenol oxidase. Microbial biomass C was significantly positive correlated with polyphenol oxidase, and was negative correlated with catalase.

  20. Long-term nitrogen addition leads to loss of species richness due to litter accumulation and soil acidification in a temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ying; Xun, Fen; Bai, Wenming; Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Linghao

    2012-01-01

    Although community structure and species richness are known to respond to nitrogen fertilization dramatically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying specific species replacement and richness loss. In an experiment in semiarid temperate steppe of China, manipulative N addition with five treatments was conducted to evaluate the effect of N addition on the community structure and species richness. Species richness and biomass of community in each plot were investigated in a randomly selected quadrat. Root element, available and total phosphorus (AP, TP) in rhizospheric soil, and soil moisture, pH, AP, TP and inorganic N in the soil were measured. The relationship between species richness and the measured factors was analyzed using bivariate correlations and stepwise multiple linear regressions. The two dominant species, a shrub Artemisia frigida and a grass Stipa krylovii, responded differently to N addition such that the former was gradually replaced by the latter. S. krylovii and A. frigida had highly-branched fibrous and un-branched tap root systems, respectively. S. krylovii had higher height than A. frigida in both control and N added plots. These differences may contribute to the observed species replacement. In addition, the analysis on root element and AP contents in rhizospheric soil suggests that different calcium acquisition strategies, and phosphorus and sodium responses of the two species may account for the replacement. Species richness was significantly reduced along the five N addition levels. Our results revealed a significant relationship between species richness and soil pH, litter amount, soil moisture, AP concentration and inorganic N concentration. Our results indicate that litter accumulation and soil acidification accounted for 52.3% and 43.3% of the variation in species richness, respectively. These findings would advance our knowledge on the changes in species richness in semiarid temperate steppe of northern China under N

  1. Role of soil moisture versus recent climate change for the 2010 heat wave in western Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-03-01

    The severe 2010 heat wave in western Russia was found to be influenced by anthropogenic climate change. Additionally, soil moisture-temperature feedbacks were deemed important for the buildup of the exceptionally high temperatures. We quantify the relative role of both factors by applying the probabilistic event attribution framework and analyze ensemble simulations to distinguish the effect of climate change and the 2010 soil moisture conditions for annual maximum temperatures. The dry 2010 soil moisture alone has increased the risk of a severe heat wave in western Russia sixfold, while climate change from 1960 to 2000 has approximately tripled it. The combined effect of climate change and 2010 soil moisture yields a 13 times higher heat wave risk. We conclude that internal climate variability causing the dry 2010 soil moisture conditions formed a necessary basis for the extreme heat wave.

  2. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: role in the global carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.S. Zimov; S.A. Zimov; A.E. Zimova; G.M. Zimova; V.I. Chuprynin; F.S. Chapin

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in preindustrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the...

  3. The effect of herbaceous species removal, fire and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on soil water availability in sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Whittaker; Bruce Roundy; Jeanne Chambers; Susan Meyer; Robert Blank; Stanley Kitchen; John Korfmacher

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has been continually expanding in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. There has been very little research that examines why cheatgrass is able to invade these communities. To determine the effects of herbaceous vegetation removal and fire on available water for cheatgrass invasion, as well as...

  4. The impact of clearcutting in boreal forests of Russia on soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymov, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Data on the impact of tree logging in boreal forests of Russia on soils are systematized. Patterns of soil disturbances and transformation of microclimatic parameters within clearcutting areas are discussed. Changes in the conditions of pedogenesis in secondary forests are analyzed. It is suggested that the changes in forest soils upon reforestation of clearcutting areas might be considered as specific post-logging soil successions. Data characterizing changes in the thickness of litter horizons and in the intensity of elementary pedogenic processes, acidity, and the content of exchangeable bases in soils of clearcutting areas in the course of their natural reforestation are considered. The examples of human-disturbed (turbated) soil horizons and newly formed anthropogenic soils on clearcutting areas are described. It is suggested that the soils on mechanically disturbed parts of clearcutting areas can be separated as a specific group of detritus turbozems.

  5. Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in agricultural soils in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, N. V.; Galitskaya, P. Yu; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics are medicines that are widely used in livestock production not only for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, but also for accelerating the growth of animals. The application of manure for fertilizing agricultural soils leads to the entry into the soil ecosystem not only of the antibiotics themselves, but also the resistance genes to them. In this study, 30 samples of arable soils were tested for the presence of the tet(X) gene, which encodes bacterial resistance to antibiotics of the tetracycline group. Using real-time PCR, it was found that 27 out of 30 soil samples contained tet(X). 52% of these samples were heavily contaminated, 34% had a medium level of contamination and 14% were slightly contaminated by the resistance gene tet(X).

  6. Soil pollution in Central district of Saint-Petersburg (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhina, Natalia; Ufimtseva, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of soil samples of upper horizon for the content of chemical elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, Ba, Sr) was carried out by atomic emission with inductively coupled plasma. A relative indicator of soil contamination degree is a concentration coefficient, representing the ratio of metal content in tested soil samples to the local background value of the corresponding element. Total pollution index is calculated by the concentration coefficients, which are greater than 1, taking into account the hazard class of metals (1 class - Zn, Pb ,Cd; 2 - class Cr, Ni, Cu ,Со; 3 class - Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba). Analysis of trace element of urban soils demonstrated mosaic patterns of pollution for Central district. The method of correlation sets constructing and factor analysis revealed three groups of chemical elements having a strong and significant association with each other: Pb-Cu-Cd-Zn-Ba, Ni-Cr-Co, Fe-Mn. Elements of the first group are characterized by high values of concentration coefficient and are the main pollutants - their average content is 3-11 times higher than background values. Strontium does not have strong correlation with the other elements, and its lowest concentration coefficient indicates that the element can not be regarded as a pollutant. The spatial distribution of the total pollution index identified several sources of pollution, the origin of which may be different. The main reason is probably the impact of vehicle emissions, although local pollution of soil is possible (the soils, contaminated during reconstruction of lawns, dumping of construction materials, etc.). Differentiated assessment of database shows that 48% of samples refer to dangerous pollution category, 37% - to moderately dangerous category, 15% - to allowable category. Thus, almost half of the district is characterized as dangerous in terms of soil contamination. Solution of the problem of soil contamination is recommended in three ways: reducing the intensity of

  7. Soil Temperature Station Data from Permafrost Regions of Russia (Selection of Five Stations), 1880s - 2000, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes soil temperature data from boreholes located at five stations in Russia: Yakutsk, Verkhoyansk, Pokrovsk, Isit', and Churapcha. The data have...

  8. Soil respiration and its role in Russia's terrestrial C flux balance for the Kyoto baseline year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolbovoi, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    This study introduces a transparent, operational model of estimating soil respiration (SR) to meet the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change within a framework of full carbon accounting (Nilsson et al.; 2000). By applying this model, we are able to define SR for the Kyoto 1990 baseline year for Russia (3200 Tg C), and establish soil emission thresholds for any spatial units, e.g. vegetation zones and land-use patterns. This model is built upon a fundamental biogeochemical cycle and provides a scientific basis for carbon management. SR comprised about 74% of the photosynthetically assimilated carbon in 1990, with the remainder accounted for in several areas. The carbon flux balance is, therefore, found to be closed for Russia. Our findings suggest that incomplete accounting is the reason for missing carbon globally

  9. Role of Soil Moisture vs. Recent Climate Change for the 2010 Heat Wave in Western Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Extreme event attribution statements are often conditional on increased greenhouse gas concentrations or a particular ocean state, but not on other physical factors of the climate system. Here we extend the classical framework and assess the influence of soil moisture on a heat wave to obtain a physical attribution statement. In particular, we test the role of soil-moisture-temperature feedbacks which have been shown to be generally relevant for the build-up of exceptionally high temperatures. As a case study we investigate the severe 2010 heat wave in western Russia, which was previously found to be influenced by anthropogenic climate change. We quantify the relative role of climate change and that of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks with the event attribution framework and analyze ensemble simulations to distinguish the effect of climate change and the 2010 soil moisture conditions for annual maximum temperatures. We find that climate change from 1960 to 2000 alone has approximately tripled the risk of a severe heat wave in western Russia. The combined effect of climate change and the dry 2010 soil moisture yields a 13 times higher heat wave risk. We conclude that internal climate variability causing the dry 2010 soil moisture conditions formed the basis for this extreme heatwave.

  10. Differential responses of short-term soil respiration dynamics to the experimental addition of nitrogen and water in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuchun; Liu, Xinchao; Dong, Yunshe; Peng, Qin; He, Yating; Sun, Liangjie; Jia, Junqiang; Cao, Congcong

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of simulated rainfall and increasing N supply of different levels on CO2 pulse emission from typical Inner Mongolian steppe soil using the static opaque chamber technique, respectively in a dry June and a rainy August. The treatments included NH4NO3 additions at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g N/(m(2)·year) with or without water. Immediately after the experimental simulated rainfall events, the CO2 effluxes in the watering plots without N addition (WCK) increased greatly and reached the maximum value at 2 hr. However, the efflux level reverted to the background level within 48 hr. The cumulative CO2 effluxes in the soil rang ed from 5.60 to 6.49 g C/m(2) over 48 hr after a single water application, thus showing an increase of approximately 148.64% and 48.36% in the effluxes during both observation periods. By contrast, the addition of different N levels without water addition did not result in a significant change in soil respiration in the short term. Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the interaction between water and N addition were insignificant in short-term soil CO2 effluxes in the soil. The cumulative soil CO2 fluxes of different treatments over 48 hr accounted for approximately 5.34% to 6.91% and 2.36% to 2.93% of annual C emission in both experimental periods. These results stress the need for improving the sampling frequency after rainfall in future studies to ensure more accurate evaluation of the grassland C emission contribution. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The First Record of Case of the Imperial Eagle and the Steppe Eagle Successful Breeding in the Mixed Pair in Western Kazakhstan and Records of Probable Hybrids of These Species in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Facts mentioned in paper give evidence of the possibility of forming the mixed pairs between Steppe and Imperial Eagles, breeding success and fertility of hybrids. All the observed mixed pairs were found in the contact zone of the two species on the periphery of the Steppe Eagle breeding range under conditions of either decrease in numbers of one species (Steppe Eagle and the growth of another (in Western Kazakhstan, or decline in numbers of both species and the lack of birds of their own species (in Dauria. Considering the fact that the number of Steppe Eagles continues to decline, the hybridization process may amplify and this phenomenon requires a more thorough examination.

  12. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per

    2005-09-01

    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources.

  13. Ecological restoration of peatlands in steppe and forest-steppe areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Sirin, Andrey; Dugarjav, Chultem

    2016-04-01

    steppe of Russia and steppe zone of Mongolia. Functional ecosystem characteristics, including hydrology, productivity and carbon accumulation rate studied in the intact and disturbed areas. Two pilot projects are set up, including monitoring program in forest steppe (Bashkiria) and steppe (Mongolia) areas.

  14. Carbon fluxes and the carbon budget in agroecosystems on agro-gray soils of the forest-steppe in the Baikal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomazkina, L. V.; Sokolova, L. G.; Zvyagintseva, E. N.

    2013-06-01

    Field studies devoted to the transformation of the carbon cycle in agroecosystems on agro-gray soils (including soils contaminated with fluorides from aluminum smelters) in dependence on the changes in the hydrothermic conditions were performed for the first time within the framework of the long-term (1996-2010) soil monitoring in the forest-steppe zone of the Baikal region. The major attention was paid to the impact of the environmental factors on the synthesis and microbial destruction of organic carbon compounds. Certain differences in the fluxes and budget of carbon were found for the plots with cereal and row crops and for the permanent and annual fallow plots. The adverse effect of fluorides manifested itself in the enhanced C-CO2 emission under unfavorable water and temperature conditions. The long-term average C-CO2 emission from the soils contaminated with fluorides in agroecosystems with wheat after fallow was higher than that from the uncontaminated soil (179 and 198 g of C/m2, respectively) and higher than that in the agroecosystems with a potato monoculture (129 and 141 g of C/m2, respectively). At the same time, no significant variations in the content of the carbon of the microbial biomass (Cmicr) in dependence on the environmental factors were found. The utilization of carbon for respiration and for growth of the soil microorganisms on the contaminated soil were unbalanced in particular years and for the entire period of the observations. The ratio between the fluxes of the net mineralized and re-immobilized carbon was used for the integral assessment of the functioning regime of the agroecosystems and the loads on them. Independently from the soil contamination with fluorides, the loads on the agroecosystems with wheat were close to the maximum permissible value, and the loads on the agroecosystems with potatoes were permissible. It was shown that the carbon deficit in the uncontaminated soils was similar under the wheat and potatoes (-30 and -28 g

  15. Solid-state 13C NMR experiments reveal effects of aggregate size on the chemical composition of particulate organic matter in grazed steppe soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, M.; Kölbl, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is one of the most important factors that may reduce soil organic matter (SOM) stocks and subsequently deteriorate aggregate stability in grassland topsoils. Land use management and grazing reduction are assumed to increase the input of OM, improve the soil aggregation and change species composition of vegetation (changes depth of OM input). Many studies have evaluated the impact of grazing cessation on SOM quantity. But until today little is known about the impact of grazing cessation on the chemical quality of SOM in density fractions, aggregate size classes and different horizons. The central aim of this study was to analyse the quality of SOM fractions in differently sized aggregates and horizons as affected by increased inputs of organic matter due to grazing exclusion. We applied a combined aggregate size, density and particle size fractionation procedure to sandy steppe topsoils with different organic matter inputs due to different grazing intensities (continuously grazed = Cg, winter grazing = Wg, ungrazed since 1999 = Ug99, ungrazed since 1979 = Ug79). Three different particulate organic matter (POM; free POM, in aggregate occluded POM and small in aggregate occluded POM) and seven mineral-associated organic matter fractions were separated for each of three aggregate size classes (coarse = 2000-6300 m, medium = 630-2000 m and fine =

  16. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  17. [Soil respiration dynamics and its controlling factors of typical vegetation communities on meadow steppes in the western Songnen Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Liu, Xing-Tu; Li, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Tao; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lu, Xin-Rui; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately explore the soil respiration dynamics and its controlling factors of typical vegetation types in the western Songnen Plain, soil respiration rates of Chloris virgata, Puccinellia distans, Phragmites australis and Leymus chinensis communities were measured. The results showed that the diurnal curves of soil respiration rates of the four vegetation communities had simple peak values, which appeared at 11:00-15:00, and the valley values occurred at 21:00-1:00 or 3:00-5:00. The seasonal dynamic patterns of their soil respiration rates were similar, with the maximum (3.21-4.84 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1)) occurring in July and August and the minimum (0.46-1.51 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1)) in October. The soil respiration rates of the four vegetation communities had significant exponential correlations with ambient air temperature and soil temperature. Soil moisture, however, only played an important role in affecting the soil respiration rate of C. virgata community while air humidity near the soil surface was significantly correlated with the soil respiration rates of P. australis and L. chinensis communities. The soil salt contents seriously constrained the CO2 dioxide emission, and the soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) could explain 87%-91% spatial variations of the soil respiration rate.

  18. Dynamics of the agrochemical fertility parameters of arable soils in the southwestern region of Central Chernozemic zone of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Data of the agrochemical survey of arable soils in Belgorod oblast during the period from 1964 to 2014 have been analyzed. The soil cover mainly consists of typical chernozems (Haplic Chernozems) and leached chernozems (Luvic Chernozems) in the forest-steppe zone and ordinary chernozems (Calcic Chernozems) in the steppe zone. Under long-term agricultural use (from 1964 to 2014), the content of mobile phosphorus in arable soils of the region under study has increased from 55 to 137 mg/kg, and the content of mobile potassium has increased from 105 to 147 mg/kg. During the period of 1976-2014, the share of acid soils has increased from 22.8 to 45.8%, including medium-acid soils from 1.5 to 12.6%. No significant changes in the weighted average content of soil organic matter are revealed for the period from 1985 to 2014. The value of this parameter is within the range of 4.8-5.0%. In the 2010-2014, 95.0% of arable soils belonged to the category of low supplied with mobile sulfur; 99.2, 96.9, 94.1, and 54.4% of soils were poorly supplied with zinc, copper, cobalt, and manganese, respectively. During the same period, the maximum average productivity of the crop area (3710 f. u./ha) was noted at the application of 4.8 t/ha organic fertilizers and 97.9 kg/ha organic fertilizers on the average. The maximum long-term yields of sugar beet (36.8 t/ha) and corn grain (4.97 t/ha) were obtained at the application of relatively low fertilizer rates.

  19. The history and assessment of effectiveness of soil erosion control measures deployed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Golosov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research activities aimed at design and application of soil conservation measures for reduction of soil losses from cultivated fields started in Russia in the last quarter of the 19th century. A network of "zonal agrofor-estry melioration experimental stations" was organized in the different landscape zones of Russia in the first half of the 20th century. The main task of the experiments was to develop effective soil conservation measures for Russian climatic,soil and land use conditions. The most widespread and large-scale introduction of coun-termeasures to cope with soil erosion by water and wind into agricultural practice supported by serious governmental investments took place during the Soviet Union period after the Second World War. After the Soviet Union collapse in 1991 ,general deterioration of the agricultural economy sector and the absence of investments resulted in cessation of organized soil conservation measures application at the nation-wide level. However, some of the long-term erosion control measures such as forest shelter belts, artificial slope terracing, water diversion dams above formerly active gully heads survived until the present. In the case study of sediment redistribution within the small cultivated catchment presented in this paper an attempt was made to evaluate average annual erosion rates on arable slopes with and without soil conservation measures for two time intervals. It has been found that application of conservation measures on cultivated slopes within the experimental part of the case study catchment has led to a decrease of average soil loss rates by at least 2. 5 2. 8 times. The figures obtained are in good agreement with previously published results of direct monitoring of snowmelt erosion rates, reporting approximately a 3 -fold decrease of average snowmelt erosion rates in the experimental sub-catchment compared to a traditionally cultivated control sub-catchment. A substantial decrease of soil

  20. Role of soil moisture vs. recent climate change for heat waves in western Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, Rene; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Using the framework of event attribution, anthropogenic climate change was found to have a discernible influence on the occurence-probability of heat waves, such as the one in Russia in 2010. Soil moisture, on the other hand, is an important physical driver for heat waves as its availability has a large influence on the partitioning of the available surface net radiation into latent and sensible heat flux. The presented study investigates the relative importance of both controls, soil moisture and increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, on heat waves in the region of the 2010 Russian heat wave. This is done with a large number of ensemble members from climate simulations with and without interactive soil moisture for both, the 2000s and the 1960s. The simualtions allow to determine the occurence-probability of heat waves with and without the soil moisture-temperature feedback and to compare it to the change caused by climate change. Thereby, we expect to see the largest effect on daytime maximum temperatures (TXx) and a smaller influence of soil moisture on the mean temperatures and cold extremes.

  1. Occurrence of Hydrocarbon Degrading Genes in the Soils of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktasheva, L. R.; Shalyamova, R. P.; Guseva, U. A.; Galitskaya, P. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Oil pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems nowadays. The ability of soils for self-restoration is important, when choosing the strategy of pollution control. This ability depends on the pull of microbes able to decompose hydrocarbons that were present in the nonpolluted soil prior to pollution. In this study, the occurrence of alkane degrading genes in the soils of the Republic of Tatarstan being one of the oil processing regions in Russia, was investigated. It was found that alkane degrading genes belonging to group I were present in 20 of the 25 soil samples, and their abundances ranged between 0.01 and 0.07%. Alkane degrading genes belonging to group II were not detected in the samples investigated, and those belonging to group III were present in all the samples, and their abundances ranged between 0.06 and 7.25%. No correlation between the alkane degrading gene copy numbers and pH and organic carbon content in soils was revealed.

  2. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  3. History of East European Chernozem Soil Degradation; Protection and Restoration by Tree Windbreaks in the Russian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury G. Chendev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiographic region of the Central Russian Upland, situated in the Central part of Eastern Europe, is characterized by very fertile grassland soils—Chernozems (Mollisols in the USDA taxonomy. However, over the last several centuries this region has experienced intense land-use conversion. The most widespread and significant land-use change is the extensive cultivation of these soils. As a result, Chernozems of the region that were some of the most naturally fertile soils in the world with thick A horizons had become, by the second half of the 19th century, weakly productive, with decreased stocks of organic matter. When not protected by plant cover, water and wind erosion degraded the open fields. The investigation of methods for rehabilitation and restoration of Chernozems resulted in the practice of afforestation of agricultural lands (mainly by windbreak planting. Preferences of agroforestry practices were initially connected with protection of cropland from wind and water erosion, improvement of microclimate for crop growth, and providing new refugia for wild animal and plant habitats. During the last several decades, tree windbreaks have begun to be viewed as ecosystems with great potential for atmospheric carbon sequestration, which plays a positive role in climate change mitigation. For the evaluation of windbreak influence on Chernozem soils, a study was developed with three field study areas across a climatic gradient from cool and wet in the north of the region to warm and dry in the south. Windbreak age ranged from 55–57 years. At each site, soil pits were prepared within the windbreak, the adjacent crop fields of 150 years of cultivation, and nearby undisturbed grassland. Profile descriptions were completed to a depth of 1.5 m. A linear relationship was detected between the difference in organic-rich surface layer (A + AB horizon thickness of soils beneath windbreaks and undisturbed grasslands and a climate index, the

  4. Emission of CO2 from the arable soils polluted by heavy metals of Baikal forest-steppe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Yu.V.; Pomazkina, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of arable soil contamination by heavy metals on C0 2 emission in Lake Baikal region had been studied during the period from 1992 till 2005. It was shown, that the way of agroecosystems response on technogenic impact vary from year to year following the changes in both the temperature and humidity. The contamination mostly resulted in soil organic matter mineralization increase and, consequently, increased carbon losses in the form of CO 2 .

  5. Effects of belowground litter addition, increased precipitation and clipping on soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a temperate steppe

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Xin, X.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling are sensitive to changes in environmental factors and play critical roles in the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. This study was conducted to quantify the effects of belowground particulate litter (BPL) addition, increased precipitation and their interactions on soil C and N mineralization in two adjacent sites where belowground photosynthate allocation was manipulated through vegetation ...

  6. The use of automatic weather stations to measure the soil temperature in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia) in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg G. Grishutkin

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the soil temperature data obtained using two automatic weather stations located in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia). Measurements were carried out at the soil surface and at depths of 20 cm, 40 cm and 60 cm. The meteorological stations are located 15 km apart, in general, in similar landscapes. This caused similar results of meteorological measurements. Differences in the average of the daily temperature at corresponding depths are less than 2°C. The average ann...

  7. History of east European chernozem soil degradation: Protection and restoration by tree windbreaks in the Russian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiographic region of the Central Russian Upland, situated in the Central part of Eastern Europe, is characterized by the most fertile grassland soils – Chernozems (Mollisols in the USDA taxonomy). However, over the last several centuries this region has experienced intense land-use conversion...

  8. Anthropogenic metal enrichment of snow and soil in north-eastern European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.R.; Young, S.D.; Crittenden, P.D.; Zhang, H.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition from industry in Russian tundra and taiga. - Trace metal composition of winter snowpack, snow-melt filter residues and top-soil samples were determined along three transects through industrial towns in the Usa basin, North-East Russia: Inta, Usinsk and Vorkuta. Snow was analysed for Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn using ICP-MS (Ca and K by F-AAS for Vorkuta only), pH and acidity/alkalinity. Filter residues were analysed for: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn using F-AAS and GF-AAS; top-soil samples were analysed for Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn using F-AAS. Results indicate elevated concentrations of elements associated with alkaline combustion ash around the coal mining towns of Vorkuta and Inta. There is little evidence of deposition around the gas and oil town of Usinsk. Atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Vorkuta, and to a lesser extent Inta, added significantly to the soil contaminant loading as a result of ash fallout. Acid deposition was associated with pristine areas whereas alkaline combustion ash near to emission sources more than compensated for the acidity caused by SO 2

  9. Agrogenic transformation of soil organic C in conditions of southern-taiga zone, European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Ivan; Vasenev, Ivan; Atenbekov, Ramiz

    2017-04-01

    The principal regional features of soil organic carbon (SOC) agrogenic transformation and water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) genesis and environmental functions have been investigated in the Podzols and Podzoluvisols of the representative natural and agro- ecosystems in the southern taiga subzone of the European part of Russia. Especial attention has been done to the role of SOC agrogenic degradation and WSOS with acidic and ligand properties in soil carbon dioxide emission. The long-term agroecological investigations run in the regional set of representative agrolandscape monitoring stations in the educational farm "Mikhailovskoye" (Podolsk district, Moscow region), Field experimental station and Forest experimental station (RTSAU campus, Moscow) and in the Central Forest biosphere reserve (Nelidovo district, Tver region). Field research methods include sorption lysimetry and radioactive tracers. The laboratory ones - chromatography and spectrophotometry. There were used activated charcoal brand "Carbolite", chemically purified quartz sand and barley plant residues (2-3 mm), totally labeled with 14C in the soil-horizontally distributed sorption columns. Obtained results became useful for quantitative assessment of the principal stages and processes in soil CO2 emission, including the water-soluble organic substances formation (3.0 g of SOC per 100 g of plant litter or 60-75 g of SOC per square meter of the organo-mineral horizon A0 per year) and CO2 emission. In the middle taiga ecosystem conditions (with relatively low soil biological activity) the highest emission of CO2 (83,0±4.1 % of the newly formed WSOS) was in case of arable Podzoluvisols, and lowest one (32,4±2,5%) - in their semihydromorphic versions.

  10. Modeling of the evolution of steppe chernozems and development of the method of pedogenetic chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisetskii, F.N.; Stolba, Vladimir; Goleusov, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    Geoarchaeological methods were used to study chronosequences of surface soils in the steppe zone and to trace soil evolution during the Late Holocene in northwestern Crimea. It was found that the morphological and functional “maturity” of the humus horizons in steppe chernozems of the Late Holocene...

  11. Land-use change and management effects on carbon sequestration in soils of Russia's South Taiga zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionova, A.A.; Rozanova, L.N.; Yevdokimov, I.V.; Yermolayev, A.M.; Kurganova, I.N.; Blagodatsky, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of land use change and management on soil C sequestration was investigated during the 1980s-1990s on gray forest soils in Pushchino, and on the soddy-podzolic soil in Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve, Moscow Region, Russia (54 deg 50 min N, 37 deg 35 min E). Mean annual rates of C sequestration after establishment of perennials (layer 0-60 cm) were 63-182 g C/m 2 and 22-43 g C/m 2 for gray forest and soddy-podzolic soils, respectively. Grassing resulted in higher soil C accumulation than afforestation. Cutting and application of NPK fertilisers increased soil C accumulation, but newly formed soil organic matter was less resistant to decomposition than in unfertilised soil. Preliminary calculations of C sequestration due to abandonment of arable land in Russia since the early 1990s suggest that total C accumulation in soil and the plant biomass could represent about one tenth of industrial CO 2 emissions

  12. Monitoring of Soil-Borne Pathogens in the Agricultural Soils of the Pestrechinsky District (Tatarstan, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhabarova, K. O.; Kuryntseva, P. A.; Galitskaya, P. Y.; Selivanovskaya, S. Y.

    2018-01-01

    A recent agricultural trend is aimed to develop organic farming technologies. Organic farming means no mineral fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics and other chemical substances not characteristic of natural conditions should be used in farm production. When choosing the regions, where this technology can be successfully realized, it is important to evaluate not only the physical and chemical qualities of soils, but also the degree of their infestation with phytopathogens. The Pestrechinsky District of the Republic of Tatarstan, where transfer to organic farming is being planned, was chosen as such a region. Agricultural lands were marked at the map of the administrative region, 100 sampling site were generated using GIS Technologies. It was found out that soil microbial community was characterized by a typical ratio and count of yeast fungi (3.4·105 - 1.6·106 CFU•g-1), mold fungi (1.0·101 - 1.7·105 CFU·g-1) and bacteria (1.6·106 - 3.1·107 CFU·g-1). In all the selected soil samples plant pathogenic fungi of the Fusarium genus were found (26 to 250 CFU·g-1), and as for another genus of plant pathogenic fungi, Alternaria, their count was rather low (0 to 9 CFU·g-1, herewith in 46 samples out of 100 they were absent.

  13. The use of automatic weather stations to measure the soil temperature in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Grishutkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the soil temperature data obtained using two automatic weather stations located in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia. Measurements were carried out at the soil surface and at depths of 20 cm, 40 cm and 60 cm. The meteorological stations are located 15 km apart, in general, in similar landscapes. This caused similar results of meteorological measurements. Differences in the average of the daily temperature at corresponding depths are less than 2°C. The average annual temperature differs less than 0.5°C, i.е. within a sensor's error. The annual temperature trend is typical for Central Russia. And it is characterised by well warming in summer and stagnation in winter. The diurnal amplitudes are small. This can be explained by the location of both weather stations under the forest canopy and a well-developed ground vegetation cover.

  14. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  15. Modelling the impact of mulching the soil with plant remains on water regime formation, crop yield and energy costs in agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Dzhogan, Larisa Y.; Nasonova, Olga N.

    2018-02-01

    The model MULCH, developed by authors previously for simulating the formation of water regime in an agricultural field covered by straw mulch layer, has been used for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of Russia and Ukraine. It simulates the dynamics of water budget components in a soil rooting zone at daily time step from the beginning of spring snowmelt to the beginning of the period with stable negative air temperatures. The model was designed for estimation of mulching efficiency in terms of increase in plant water supply and crop yield under climatic and soil conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones. It is used for studying the mulching effect on some characteristics of water regime and yield of winter wheat growing at specific sites located in semi-arid and arid regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the eastern and southern parts of the East-European (Russian) plain. In addition, a previously developed technique for estimating the energetic efficiency of various agricultural technologies with accounting for their impact on changes in soil energy is applied for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European Russia: (1) moldboard tillage of soil without irrigation, (2) moldboard tillage of soil with irrigation, (3) subsurface cultivation, and (4) subsurface cultivation with mulching the soil with plant remains.

  16. Ring Recoveries from Steppe Eagles and Eastern Imperial Eagles from the Russian and Kazakhstan Breeding Populations and a Review of Major Threats to Eagles in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis and 2 Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca from Iraq that were ringed in Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles and 3 Eastern Imperial Eagles from the border regions of Iraq (Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that were ringed in Russia. Threats for eagles in Iraq are discussed in this article.

  17. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios.

  18. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Koch, Friedrich J; Müller, Daniel; Faramarzi, Monireh

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51–2.10 t ha −1 , or 44–52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14–3.30 t ha −1 , or 62–63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha −1 ) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets. (letter)

  19. The mobility of 137Cs and 90Sr in agricultural soils in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Oughton, D.H.; Ratnikov, A.V.; Zhigareva, T.L.; Kruglov, S.V.; Petrov, K.V.; Grebenshakikova, N.V.; Firsakova, S.K.; Astasheva, N.P.; Loshchilov, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    Results are presented from studies concerning the behavior of the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soil-plant agricultural systems in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia during 1991. The sites, representing ploughed and natural pastures, were located at varying distances between 50 and 650 km and varying directions from the Chernobyl reactor site. The 137 Cs activity concentrations in the upper 0-5 cm soil layer ranged from 25-1,000 kBq m -2 and were higher in natural pastures as compared to ploughed pastures. For 90 Sr, activity levels ranged from 1.4-40 kBq m -2 , and the highest 90 Sr deposition was observed in the Gomel Region, Belarus. The highest 90 Sr: 137 Cs ratio was also observed in the Gomel soils, i.e., 15% as compared to between 0.72 and 7.4% in the other soils. The mobility of radionuclides was studied by means of sequential extraction. For all soils, between 60 and 95% of the 137 Cs was found to be strongly bound to soil components. In the Russian and Ukrainian soils, between 40 and 98% of the 90 Sr was found in the easily extractable fractions, and the distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr followed that of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of cesium and strontium. However, in the Gomel soils, between 20 and 50% of the 90 Sr was easily extractable and the distribution of 90 Sr within the extraction fractions did not follow that observed for stable strontium. These results are though to reflect the association of 90 Sr with fuel particles deposited in the Gomel Region. The mobility of 90 Sr is expected to increase with time (as the particles weather) in these soils. 24 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Steppe of Tbilisi environs (East Georgia, South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Lachashvili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Steppes of Tbilisi environs are studied. In the Tbilisi surroundings the steppe vegetation is either of primary or secondary origin. Steppe vegetation in the Tbilisi environs are represented by 4 formations: (1 Bothriochloeta ischaemum, (2 Festuceta valesiaci, (3 Stipeta pennatae and (4 Gramino-Mixtoherbeta. From them Bothriochloeta ischaemum and Festuceta valesiaci formations have more area covering and characterized by the comparatively rich typological composition. Typological composition of each formation is established. For each separated plant communities the basic structural characteristics (general projective coverage, sodding degree, dominant-edificatory plant, characteristic species, number of species, moss cover, litter, species richness, spectrum of life forms, distribution area in the Tbilisi environs and main physical-geographical conditions (altitude, exposure, inclination, soil type are given.

  1. Cultural and wild plant species as bio indicators and phyto-remedies of PHC contaminated soils in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breus, I.; Larionova, N.; Semenova, E.; Breus, V.

    2005-01-01

    The biological indicators are widely used along with the chemical and physical soil characteristics for the ecological risk assessment for soils during and after anthropogenic impacts. In many cases it often happens that only biological indicators are capable of establishing the physiological activity of contaminant complex in soil and of revealing the critical levels of soil contamination. Bio-testing is often used to determine the toxicity of various environmental objects - soils, waters, sediments and wastes. Firstly bio-testing demands the selection of testable biological organisms adequate to studying objects. The test objects must be representative for a given contaminated ecosystem community which is influenced by toxicants. So one can obtain data adequate to the real situation and also minimise the mistakes during the extrapolation of data obtained in bio-testing. Among bio-testing methods the methods of soil toxicity determination using high plants gained wide distribution. And moreover, if such plants are relatively tolerant to soil contamination and can accumulate sufficient plant biomass, it is possible to expect their phyto-remediation effect, which can be realized by different mechanisms. But the experimental investigations of the plant use for soil remediation in Russia are now still under development. The aims of this work were: i) the determination and selection of informative bio-indicative parameters could be used for evaluation of PHC (petroleum hydrocarbons) - soil contamination levels; ii) the choose of test plants based on these values; and iii) the revelation of the possible phyto-remediation effects in soil contaminated with PHC.In laboratory experiments the phyto-toxicity of soil contaminated with PHC was evaluated in relation to 35 plant species and sorts traditional and non-traditional for Russia and cultivated for fodder green biomass purposes, and also for some wild plant species. The following parameters were determined in the

  2. Cultural and wild plant species as bio indicators and phyto-remedies of PHC contaminated soils in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breus, I.; Larionova, N.; Semenova, E.; Breus, V. [Kazan State Univ., Dept. of Geography and Geoecology (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The biological indicators are widely used along with the chemical and physical soil characteristics for the ecological risk assessment for soils during and after anthropogenic impacts. In many cases it often happens that only biological indicators are capable of establishing the physiological activity of contaminant complex in soil and of revealing the critical levels of soil contamination. Bio-testing is often used to determine the toxicity of various environmental objects - soils, waters, sediments and wastes. Firstly bio-testing demands the selection of testable biological organisms adequate to studying objects. The test objects must be representative for a given contaminated ecosystem community which is influenced by toxicants. So one can obtain data adequate to the real situation and also minimise the mistakes during the extrapolation of data obtained in bio-testing. Among bio-testing methods the methods of soil toxicity determination using high plants gained wide distribution. And moreover, if such plants are relatively tolerant to soil contamination and can accumulate sufficient plant biomass, it is possible to expect their phyto-remediation effect, which can be realized by different mechanisms. But the experimental investigations of the plant use for soil remediation in Russia are now still under development. The aims of this work were: i) the determination and selection of informative bio-indicative parameters could be used for evaluation of PHC (petroleum hydrocarbons) - soil contamination levels; ii) the choose of test plants based on these values; and iii) the revelation of the possible phyto-remediation effects in soil contaminated with PHC.In laboratory experiments the phyto-toxicity of soil contaminated with PHC was evaluated in relation to 35 plant species and sorts traditional and non-traditional for Russia and cultivated for fodder green biomass purposes, and also for some wild plant species. The following parameters were determined in the

  3. Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

  4. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg{sup -1} at the current {sup 137}Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg{sup -1}). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of {sup 137}Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of {sup 137}Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers

  5. High-latitude steppe vegetation and the mineral nutrition of Pleistocene herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, S. P.; Davydova, A.; Makarevich, R.; Loranty, M. M.; Boeskorov, G.

    2014-12-01

    High-latitude steppes were widespread and zonal in the Late Pleistocene and formed a landscape basis for the Mammoth Biome. Now the patches of these steppes survived on steep slopes under southern aspects. These steppes serve as unique information sources about the Late Pleistocene "Mammoth" steppe. Numerous data obtained by palynological, carpological, and DNA analysis of plant remains from feces and stomach contents of Pleistocene herbivore mummies, as well as from buried soils and enclosing deposits show that they are similar to modern steppe plant assemblage in taxa composition. Plant's nutrient concentrations are of fundamental importance across Pleistocene grass-rich ecosystems because of their role in the support of large herbivores. The average weight of an adult mammoth skeleton (about 0.5 tons) and of a woolly rhinoceros (about 0.2 tons) clearly suggests this. Detailed studies on fossil bone remains showed mineral deficiency in large Pleistocene herbivores. A three-year study of ash and mineral contents of two types of relict steppe vegetation at the Kolyma Lowland, Arctic Siberia has been carried out. Nowadays refugia of similar vegetation are located not far (1 - 15km) from the Yedoma permafrost outcrops were abundant fossil remains are found. Dominant species of the steppe vegetation were sampled. Preliminary studies indicate that the ash-content varied 1.5-2 times in speceies of steppe herbs. The Ca, P, Mg, K element contents was higher for most steppe species than in the local herbaceous vegetation, especially in Ca and P. One of the most important elements of the mineral nutrition, the phosphorus, was always found in higher concentrations in the steppe vegetation than in plants of recently dominant landscapes of the study area. It should be noted that the mineral nutrient content of the modern steppe vegetation of Siberian Arctic is comparable to that of the recent zonal steppe of Transbaikal Region. This study supports the hypothesis that

  6. Geochemical composition of permafrost-affected soils around the town Tiksi, Northern Yakutia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcibor, Iuliia; Eschenbach, Annette; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2014-05-01

    Northeastern Siberia represents an area remote from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. However, a risk of airborne pollution by trace metals from anthropogenic sources connected to the settlements exists. The largest of these are the settlements Tiksi (71° 42' 55.6" N, 128° 48' 46.3" E) and Kyusyur (70° 45' 41.7" N, 127° 23' 04.7" E). The area of Tiksi is located between the Lena River and the Kharaulach River mouths. It covers parts of Primorsky Ridge and Kharaulach Mountains which are a part of the Verkhoyansk Range. The objective of this study was to investigate features of the spatial element distribution in representative landscape-geochemical units of the Tiksi area and to identify whether local pollution from the settlement takes place. The physical and chemical properties of soils were accessed at three sites located radially in the immediate vicinity to the town Tiksi and one control site remote 10 km south from the settlement. The elements measured were As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils. Differences in the element content were found for various relief forms (depressions, slopes, and elevations). The coefficient of soil buffer capacity (Bf) for the surface soil horizons in depressions was the highest (Bf > 40 %) for the majority of elements indicating their intensive accumulation there. In the surface soil horizons of elevated landscape forms the coefficient, by contrast showed low to very low soil buffer capacity to accumulate metals (0 % acid-base barriers. No significant difference in metal distribution among studied sites was revealed, except for the western site which was characterized by the highest median Ni concentration. The data suggest that ecological impacts at the studied sites were low except for one site north to Tiksi where signs of local pollution probably as a result of local emissions of fuel and mining operations were detected. Keywords: Trace metals; Russian Arctic; Northeastern Siberia; Permafrost

  7. Use of the Universal Soil-Loss Equation to determine water erosion with the semi-circular bund water-harvesting technique in the Syrian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Al Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted through the rain season 2009 -2010, in Mehasseh Research Center at (Al Qaryatein, The area is characterized by a hot and dry climate in summer and cold in winter with an annual average rainfall of 114 mm. Three slopes (8%, 6%, 4% were used in semicircular bunds water -harvesting techniques with bunds parallel to the contours lines at flow distance of 18, 12 and 6 m. The bunds were planted with Atriplex Halimus seedlings. Graded metal rulers were planted inside the bunds to determine soil loss and sedimentation associated with the surface runoff, and metallic tanks were placed at the end of the flow paths to determine agricultural soil loss from water runoff. A rain intensity gauge was placed near the experiment site to determine the rainfall intensity that produced runoff. The treatments were done in three replications. The amount of soil erosion (in tons per hectare per year increased with increasing of the slope, the highest recorded value was 38.66 at slope of 8% and the lowest 0.05 at 4% slope. The amount of soil erosion also increased with increasing of water run distance, which was 38.66 T.ha-1.yr-1 at 18 m and 0.05 T.ha-1.yr-1 at 6 m . Bunds with different diameter of water harvesting reduced soil erosion by about 65% at slope of 8%, 55% at 6%, and 46% at 4%. The input parameters of Universal soil-loss equation were found to be suitable for determining soil erosion in this arid and semi-arid region. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10499 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 1-11

  8. Rheological Properties of Automorphic and Semihydromorphic Cryometamorphic Northern Taiga Soils in Northeastern European Russia (Komi Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholopov, Yu. V.; Khaidapova, D. D.; Lapteva, E. M.

    2018-04-01

    Soil pastes at the water content corresponding to the maximum swelling of samples from different genetic horizons of cryometamorphic soils―surface-gleyic iron-illuvial svetlozem (Folic Albic Stagnosol) and peaty and peat humus-impregnated gleyic svetlozems (Histic Gleyic Stagnosols)―have been studied with an MCR-302 modular rheometer (Anton Paar, Austria). It has been found that the strongest interparticle bonds are formed in the horizons of cryometamorphic soils characterized by high contents of humic substances and organomineral Al-Fe-humus compounds. These are horizons of podzol microprofile (Eg and BHF) in iron-illuvial svetlozem and a humus-impregnated horizon (ELhi,g) in peaty and peat svetlozems. Organomineral Al-Fe-humus compounds, as well as the seasonal freezing of soils, determine the elastic-brittle character of interparticle interactions. The contents of clay fractions, exchangeable bases, and organic and organomineral substances impart viscoelastic properties to these contacts. An enhancement of elastic-brittle properties of soil is observed under the impact of gleying and freezing. The threefold decrease of the structural interaction parameter (∫ Z) when going from automorphic to semihydromorphic conditions indicates a decrease in the resistance of peaty and peat svetlozems to mechanical loads under increasing hydromorphism compared to iron-illuvial svetlozems.

  9. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    Based on analysis of the extensive source base, including complex landscape, component, paleogeographic and archeological published and scientific materials as well as the connected analysis of published paleogeographical, paleolandscape and historical and geographic maps of the territory of Russia landscape and zonal features of the transition from appropriating economy to producing economy were determined. All the specifics of historical changes in the landscape use of the vast areas of Russia is caused by the variety of its landscape zones and the specifics of their constituent landscapes. Human economic activities as a factor of differentiation and development of landscapes became apparent almost in all landscape zones together with the emergence of the producing type of economy from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age (Atlantic period) in the southern steppe regions (in the northern areas of the main centers of the producing economy) and from the Bronze Age in the forest areas. The emergence of the producing economy in the forest-steppe and steppe landscape zones on the territory of Russia is dated IV (Aeneolithic) - III (Early Bronze Age) millennium BC. It is from this period that on the European part of Russia and in Siberia the so-called Neolithic revolution begins. The use of copper and bronze axes helped to develop new areas for planting crops in the forest-steppe zone. In the forest-steppe zone swidden and lea tillage cultivation develops. In the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia depending on the local landscape conditions two ways of producing economy with a predominance of cattle-breeding developed: nomadic cattle breeding and house cattle breeding with a significant influence of agriculture in the economy and long-term settlements. The steppe areas were completely dominated by the mobile nomadic herding, breeding cattle and small cattle. Along with the valley landscapes the interfluvial landscapes were also actively explored. Almost in all the steppe areas

  10. Influence of moisture conditions and mineralization of soil solution on structure of litter macrofauna of the deciduous forests of Ukraine steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of litter mesofauna was carried out in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Nikolaev,Donetsk regions of Ukrainein the natural forest ecosystems in 2001–2014. 339 forest ecosystems were surveyed; xeromesophilic conditions of moistening were characteristic for 47 trial sites, mesophilic conditions – for 99 sites, hygro-mesophilic conditions – for 50 sites, meso-hygrophilic conditions – for 89 sites, hygrophilic conditions – for 54 sites; trophotope C was represented by 35 trial sites, Dc – by 44, Dac – by 76, Dn – by 128, De – by 37, E – by 19 forest ecosystems, accordingly. The relative number of saprophages reaches maximum values in hygro-mesophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions, and minimum values – in mesophilic conditions of moistening. The share of rare species is maximum in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening. The minimum quantity of mass species is also observed in conditions of hygro-mesophilic and meso-hygrophilic deciduous forests. With the growth of moistening of the soil, quantity of species of Carabidae, Formicidae and other dominant families remains without significant changes. The relative number of Formicidae is maximum in xeromesophilic and mesophilic conditions of soil moistening. In these hygrotopes, as well as in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening the Julidae numbers are maximum. The Isopoda percent in mesofauna significantly grows in meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions of moistening. The share of other dominant taxonomical groups in the structure of litter mesofauna remains without significant changes in numbers. In the majority of the analysed hygrotopes 7–8 families are withing the structure of dominants. In the conditions of salinization (trophotopes De and E, and also on light sandy loam soils, the numbers of litter mesofauna decrease. Share of saprophages is minimum in trophotopes Dc and E, while it increases in trophotopes C, Dac, Dn

  11. Current stage of the restoration of Chernozems in rangeland ecosystems of the steppe zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    The results of two rounds of soil and geobotanic surveys of rangeland ecosystems in the steppe zone are presented. The same sites with southern chernozems (Calcic Chernozems) under steppe plant communities at different stages of pasture degradation were investigated at the end of the 1980s, when they suffered maximum anthropogenic loads, and in 2011-2013, after a long period of relative rest. In the 1980s, degradation of soil physical properties in rangeland ecosystems under the impact of long-term unsustainable management was noted. At the same time, it was found that the major qualitative and quantitative properties of humus in the chernozems were preserved independently from the level of pasture degradation. The following period of moderate grazing pressure had a favorable effect on the soil properties. Owing to the good characteristics of the soil humus, the restoration of the physical properties of chernozems-including their structural state, water permeability, and bulk density-took place in a relatively short period. It is argued that the soil bulk density is a natural regulator of the species composition of steppe vegetation, because true grasses (Poaceae)-typical representatives of the steppe flora-have a fibrous root system requiring the soils with low density values. The improvement of the properties of chernozems is related to the development of secondary ecosystems with a higher portion of grasses in place of damaged rangelands and to the increase in the area of nominal virgin phytocenoses.

  12. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  13. Soil and dasometric characterization of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantation and management proposal in the lower montane thorny steppe zone, Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guallpa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the growth and yield of the Tasmanian blue gum plantation in Tunshi-ESPOCH homestead in varying physiographic conditions, soil properties and management; for this reason it was decided to assess its forest mass. Circular plots were installed with 12.62 m radius at an intensity of 5-6% ha-1. Through systematic unaligned sampling for lifting dasometric information and digging three pits stand-1, using stratified sampling for variables of the place. The application of statistical estimators, determined at an altitude of 2755 amsl, a total average tree volume estimated-1 of 2.32 m3 compared with 0.25 m3 at an altitude of 2929 amsl. Two areas of conservation and other forest use were defined. There are significant associations between total unit volume of T. blue against altitude, organic matter content, cationic exchange capacity at surface level and level of boron underlying level, generating a management strategy for each defined area.

  14. Ecology and Conservation of Steppes and Semi-Natural Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkó Orsolya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaearctic grasslands encompass a diverse variety of habitats, many of high nature value and vulnerability. The main challenges are climate-change, land-use change, agricultural intensification and abandonment. Many measures are in place to address these challenges, through restoration and appropriate management, though more work is necessary. We present eight studies from China/Germany, Greece, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine. The papers cover a wide range of grassland and steppe habitats and cover vegetation ecology, syntaxonomy and zoology. We also conducted a systematic search on steppe and grassland diversity. The greatest number of studies was from China, followed by Germany and England. We conclude that the amount of research being carried out on Eurasian grasslands is inadequate considering their high levels of biodiversity and vulnerability. We hope to encourage readers to address current major challenges, such as how to manage grasslands for the benefit of diverse taxa, to ensure that conservation initiatives concentrate on sites where there is good potential for success and for the generation of realistic and viable conservation strategies.

  15. Effect of desertification on productivity in a desert steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhuangsheng; An, Hui; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yingying; Zhu, Guangyu; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-06-14

    Desertification, one of the most severe types of land degradation in the world, is of great importance because it is occurring, to some degree, on approximately 40% of the global land area and is affecting more than 1 billion people. In this study, we used a space-for-time method to quantify the impact of five different desertification regimes (potential (PD), light (LD), moderate (MD), severe (SD), and very severe (VSD)) on a desert steppe ecosystem in northern China to examine the relationship between the productivity of the vegetation and soil properties and to determine the mechanism underlying the effects of desertification on productivity. Our results showed that the effects of desertification on TP (total phosphorus) and AP (available phosphorus) were not significant, and desertification decreased productivity in the desert steppe as a result of direct changes to soil physical properties, which can directly affect soil chemical properties. Therefore, intensive grassland management to improve soil quality may result in the long-term preservation of ecosystem functions and services.

  16. Detection of damaged areas caused by the oil extraction in a steppe region using winter landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjachina, Ksenya; Hu, Zhiyong; Chibilyev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Oil production in a steppe region disturbs the landscape and damages the steppe ecosystem. The objective of this research was to detect areas damaged by oil production in an oil field within the Russian Volga-Ural steppe region using winter Landsat imagery. We developed a practicable and effective approach using winter snow season multispectral Landsat satellite imagery. To this end, we applied seven algorithms of spectral or texture-based transformation: K-means, maximum likelihood estimation, topsoil grain size index, soil brightness, normalized differential snow index, tasselled cap, and co-occurrence measures. The co-occurrence texture measure variance shows the optimal result of identifying damaged areas. The unique feature of our method is that it can differentiate damaged areas from the bare soil of cropland within a cold steppe region where the area damaged by oil production is mixed with bare (fallow) croplands that have a polygonal shape similar to well pads. Such similarities can lead to confusion in object-based classification. Using the co-occurrence measures, we found that from 1988 to 2015, damaged area is nearly three times as big in the peak period of the oil field development (2001 and 2009) as in 1988. Landscape fragmentation also peaked in 2001 and 2009. Our approach for this project is useful and cost effective regular monitoring of damages from oil production for both the Volga-Ural steppe region and other cold steppe regions.

  17. Efectos del pastoreo sobre el suelo y la vegetación en la Estepa Patagónica Grazing effects on soil and vegetation in the Patagonian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Gaitán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La ganadería ovina durante más de 100 años produjo grandes cambios en los ecosistemas y es una de las principales causas de la desertificación en la estepa patagónica. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo evaluar los efectos del pastoreo sobre el suelo y la vegetación mediante la aplicación de una versión modificada de la metodología «Landscape Function Analysis» desarrollada en Australia. El estudio se realizó en siete sitios con distintos niveles de degradación por pastoreo en Pilcaniyeu (noroeste de Río Negro: tres clausurados al pastoreo (CLA, tres bajo pastoreo moderado (PM y uno bajo pastoreo intenso (PI. Se evaluaron indicadores de la composición florística y estructura espacial de la vegetación, del estado de la superficie del suelo en los interparches, los cuales fueron integrados en tres Índices de Función (Estabilidad -EST-, Infiltración -INFy Reciclaje de nutrientes -NUT- y el stock de carbono orgánico (CO. Al incrementarse la intensidad de pastoreo se observó una disminución en la cobertura basal de la vegetación (47,4; 23,2 y 17,4% en CLA, PM y PI, respectivamente, parches vegetados más distanciados entre sí (61,9; 117,9 y 181,7 cm, menor cobertura de gramíneas palatables (26,3; 3,4 y 2,1% y mayor de no palatables (4,4; 15,8 y 17,6%. También se observó una tendencia a disminuir en los Índices de Función del suelo (EST: 43,0; 42,3 y 36,2; INF: 48,3; 41,7 y 36,2; NUT: 33,1; 23,5 y 18,1 y del CO (33,8; 26,5 y 7,9 t/ha al incrementarse la intensidad de pastoreo. Se requieren más estudios para adaptar esta metodología a las condiciones de Patagonia y testear con datos experimentales de que manera los índices reflejan adecuadamente los procesos y funciones de estos ecosistemas.More than 100 years of sheep breeding has caused profound changes to ecosystems and is one of the main causes of desertification in the Patagonian steppe. The aim of this study was to evaluate sheep grazing effects on soils and

  18. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  19. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizhong Yang

    Full Text Available The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  20. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  1. Vertical and horizontal variation of carbon pools and fluxes in soil profile of wet southern taiga in European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santruckova, H.; Kastovska, E.; Liveckova, M. (Univ. of South Bohemia, Faculty of science, Branisovska (CZ)); Kozlov, D. (Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Geographical Dept., Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F. (A.N. Severtson Inst. of ecology and evolution RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Shibistova, O. (V.N.Sukachev Forest Inst., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)); Lloyd, J. (Earth and Biosphere Inst., Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom))

    2010-10-22

    Vertical and horizontal distributions of soil organic carbon, potential microbial activity and basic soil properties were studied in a boreal mixed forest (Central Forest Reserve, TVER region) to elucidate whether the soil CO{sub 2}-efflux is related to basic soil properties that affect the C pool and activity. Soil cores (0-100 cm depth) were taken from two transects every 50 meters (44 points) immediately after completion of soil CO{sub 2}-efflux measurements. Soil was separated into layers and moisture, bulk density, root density and bacterial counts were determined within one day after soil was taken. Microbial respiration, biomass, CN contents and pH were measured within few months. The variability in the soil CO{sub 2}-efflux and microbial activity was mainly explained by soil bulk density. Results further indicate that laboratory measurements of microbial respiration can represent heterotrophic soil respiration of a distinctive ecosystem in natural conditions, if microbial respiration is measured after the effect of soil handling disappears. (orig.)

  2. Chernozems microbial community under anthropogenic impact (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Sushko, Sofia; Vasenev, Viacheslav

    2017-04-01

    Chernozems is important natural resource, which in the last decade under intense influence as a result of plowing and urbanization. The parameters of soil microbial community functioning might be identify some soil deterioration under the impacts. Our research was focused on assessment of microbial community status in different soil layers of virgin steppe, bare fallow and urban ecosystems (Kursk region). In each ecosystem, we chose randomly 3-5 spatially distributed sites, where soil samples were collected by auguring up to 0.5 m depth (each layer 10 cm thickness) and up to 1.5 m depth (0-10, 10-50, 50-100, 100-150 cm layers), totally 127 samples. The bulk density was measured for these soil layers. In all soil samples the microbial biomass carbon content (Cmic) was analyzed by substrate-induced respiration (SIR) method and basal respiration (BR) was assessed by CO2 rate production. The fungi-to-bacteria ratio (selective inhibition technique with antibiotics) was determined and portion of Cmic in soil organic carbon (Corg) content was calculated in topsoil (0-10 cm). The Corg (dichromate oxidation) and pHw (potentiometry) values were measured. The Cmic and BR profile pools were calculated using bulk density and thickness of studied layers. The Cmic (0-10 cm) was varied from 84 to 1954 µg C g-1 soil, in steppe it was on average 3-4 times higher than those in bare fallow and urban. The BR rate was amounted from 0.20 to 1.57 µg CO2-C g-1 soil h-1, however no significant difference between studied ecosystems was found. It was shown the relationship between Cmic, BR and Corg (the linear regression, R2=0.92 and 0.75, respectively, pecosystems row: virgin steppe>bare fallow>urban, and it was on average 6.0, 5.2 and 1.8, respectively. The Cmic profile pool (0.5 m) of steppe was reached up on average 206 g C m-2, and it was 2.0 and 2.5 times higher those bare fallow and urban, respectively. The BR profile pool (0.5 m) in steppe and bare fallow was reached up 5.9 and 5

  3. Grazing effects on ecosystem CO2 fluxes differ among temperate steppe types in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Longyu; Liu, Yan; Du, Jiancai; Wang, Mingya; Wang, Hui; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-07-01

    Grassland ecosystems play a critical role in regulating CO2 fluxes into and out of the Earth's surface. Whereas previous studies have often addressed single fluxes of CO2 separately, few have addressed the relation among and controls of multiple CO2 sub-fluxes simultaneously. In this study, we examined the relation among and controls of individual CO2 fluxes (i.e., GEP, NEP, SR, ER, CR) in three contrasting temperate steppes of north China, as affected by livestock grazing. Our findings show that climatic controls of the seasonal patterns in CO2 fluxes were both individual flux- and steppe type-specific, with significant grazing impacts observed for canopy respiration only. In contrast, climatic controls of the annual patterns were only individual flux-specific, with minor grazing impacts on the individual fluxes. Grazing significantly reduced the mean annual soil respiration rate in the typical and desert steppes, but significantly enhanced both soil and canopy respiration in the meadow steppe. Our study suggests that a reassessment of the role of livestock grazing in regulating GHG exchanges is imperative in future studies.

  4. DYNAMICS OF ALGAE NUMBER AND BIOMASS OF STEPPE BIOGEOCOENOSES AND AGROCOENOSES IN KHERSON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina V.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of daily dynamics of seaweeds abundance and biomass were determined for steppe biogeocoenosis and agrocoenosis of Biosphere reserve “Askaniya-Nova” in spring of 2011. Fluctuation ranges in seaweeds abundance and biomass have been registered.Analyzing the indices of total number and algae biomass in studied biogeocoenoses it should be noted that the maximal values of alga number in virgin soil steppe exceeded minimal in 3,3 times; biomasses - in 2,1. For virgin soil steppe of post-fire-induced development the relation between maximum and minimal value of total number of algae was up to 2,1; biomass - 2,4. For agrocoenosis we noted the largest ranges in variation of number and biomass. In conditions of dry-land arable land the maximum values of total number of alga exceeded minimal in 21,9 times; biomasses - in 8,7; for irrigated arable land - in 12,5 and 5,6 respectively.In soil samples, selected within the limits of virgin soil biogeocoenoses of biosphere reserve “Askania-Nova” and agrocoenosis of dry-land and irrigated arable land in biosphere reserve by direct count, the algae species of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta have been found. The largest contribution to number and biomass of algae belonged to Bacillariophyta. The number and biomass of agrocoenosis algae is more dynamic feature, than for algae of virgin soil biogeocoenoses.

  5. Rethinking Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulauskas, Kęstutis

    2005-01-01

    The article argues that the period of “high” politics in the ever-problematic relations between Lithuania and Russia is over. At the same time, it is agued that tensions remain at the level of “low” politics, when the agenda of bilateral relations is dominated by the security interests related to Kaliningrad Oblast and Russia’s energy policy. The author claims that Lithuania should take a more pragmatic approach in her day-to-day relations with Russia and follow a more flexible policy towards...

  6. Russia report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with cementing the joint Shuttle-Mir Program in late June with a $400 million contract, the U.S. and Russia signed a deal to team up on global environmental issues. Under the agreement, U.S. and Russian scientists will establish modern facilities for petroleum research, including advanced geographic systems technology, petroleum geochemistry, and seismic processing to help Russia transition to a “market” economy, Interior Secreary Bruce Babbitt reports. The program, to be funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, will produce maps, technical reports, and other data for investment decisions.

  7. Monitoring Soil Bacteria with Community-Level Physiological Profiles Using Biolog™ ECO-Plates in the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieva, G. Sh; Gilmutdinova, I. M.; Fomin, V. P.; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu; Galitskaya, P. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Conservation of soil fertility is one of the most important tasks of the present time. As microorganisms are among the key factors in forming soil fertility, monitoring their state in natural and anthropogenically changed soils is an important component of compulsory environmental monitoring. Modern methods make it possible to evaluate the diversity and the functions of soil microorganisms, however, unfortunately, not all the soils are analyzed with their help up to the present moment. The present investigation is aimed to evaluate the functional diversity of five natural soil samples in the Republic of Tatarstan (belonging to sod-podzol, sod-carbonate, alluvial, and gray types) using the method of Biolog EcoPlate according to the index of average well color development, alpha-biodiversiry Shannon index (H), amount of substrates consumed ®, and strategy of consumption of various carbon substrate groups. It was shown that the highest AWCD index was found in sample No 3 - alluvial soil type (3.159±0.460), the lowest one - in sample No 5 - gray soil type (0.572±0.230). Correlation of biological activity of microorganisms with organic matter content in soil was shown.

  8. An observation-based assessment of the influences of air temperature and snow depth on soil temperature in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hotaek; Sherstiukov, Artem B; Fedorov, Alexander N; Polyakov, Igor V; Walsh, John E

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed trends in the variability of soil temperature (T SOIL ) using spatially averaged observation records from Russian meteorological land stations. The contributions of surface air temperature (SAT) and snow depth (SND) to T SOIL variation were quantitatively evaluated. Composite time series of these data revealed positive trends during the period of 1921–2011, with accelerated increases since the 1970s. The T SOIL warming rate over the entire period was faster than the SAT warming rate in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions, suggesting that SND contributes to T SOIL warming. Statistical analysis revealed that the highest correlation between SND and T SOIL was in eastern Siberia, which is underlain by permafrost. SND in this region accounted for 50% or more of the observed variation in T SOIL . T SOIL in the non-permafrost region of western Siberia was significantly correlated with changes in SAT. Thus, the main factors associated with T SOIL variation differed between permafrost and non-permafrost regions. This finding underscores the importance of including SND data when assessing historical and future variations and trends of permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere. (letter)

  9. Steppe Eagle in the Karaganda Region, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Between June 22 and July 18, 2017, fieldworks were carried out to study the population structure and demographic characteristics of the Steppe Eagle breeding groups (Aquila nipalensis in the central part of the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. In the course of the work 808 birds we found, 280 Steppe Eagle breeding territories were localized. Within 10 registration areas 277 Steppe Eagle breeding territories (96.18 % were examined, including 70 successful nests with 102 nestlings. The occupation of breeding territories was 87.73 %, while the percentage of active nests in the occupied breeding territories was 69.14 %. Successful were 42.26 % of nests from the number of active nests and 25.63 % from the number of identified breeding territories. The number of nestlings in broods ranged from 1 to 3, averaging (n=71 1.45±0.56 nestlings per successful nest and (n=168 0.61±0.80 nestlings per occupied nest. With a very high percentage of nests with unsuccessful breeding (54.46 % of the number of active ones, high percentage of nests with dead clutch was recorded – 34.55 % of the number of nests with unsuccessful breeding. Distribution density of Steppe Eagle active nests averaged 7.67/100 km2, varying in different areas from 4.11 to 12.90/100 km2. The distribution density of Steppe Eagle successful nests on the areas varied from 0 to 4.81/100 km2 averaged 3.24/100 km2. For the area of habitats suitable for breeding across the Karaganda region (142,549.9 km2, the abundance of the Steppe Eagle in nesting was 4,794–5,814, at average 5,275 pairs and 2,183–2,647, at average 2,402 successful pairs.

  10. Agricultural crops and soil treatment impacts on the daily and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes in the field agroecosystems at the Central region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Berezovskiy, Egor; Djancharov, Turmusbek

    2015-04-01

    The problem of greenhouse gases' concentrations increasing becomes more and more important due to global changes issues. The main component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. The researches focused on its fluxes in natural and anthropogenic modified landscapes can help in this problem solution. Our research has been done with support of the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # 14.120.14.4266 and of FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C in the representative for Central Region of Russia field agroecosystems at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University with cultivated sod podzoluvisols, barley and oats - vetch grass mix (Moscow station of the RusFluxNet). The daily and seasonal dynamics of the carbon dioxide have been studied at the ecosystem level by the Eddy covariance method (2 stations) and at the soil level by the exposition chamber method (40 chambers) with mobile infra red gas analyzer (Li-Cor 820). The primary Eddy covariance monitoring data on CO2 fluxes and water vapor have been processed by EddyPro software developed by LI-COR Biosciences. According to the two-year monitoring data the daily CO2 sink during the vegetation season is usually approximately two times higher than its emission at night. Seasonal CO2 fluxes comparative stabilization has been fixed in case the plants height around 10-12 cm and it usually persist until the wax ripeness phase. There is strong dependence between the soil CO2 emission and the air temperature with the correlation coefficient 0.86 in average (due to strong input of the soil thin top functional subhorizon), but it drops essentially at the end of the season - till 0.38. The soil moisture impact on CO2 fluxes dynamics was less, with negative correlation at the end of the season. High daily dynamics of CO2 fluxes determines the protocol requirements for seasonal soil monitoring investigation with less limitation at the end of the season. The accumulated monitoring data will be

  11. Environmental assessment of water-salt regime of irrigated soils in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Rumyantseva, Irina

    2016-04-01

    A large part of Central Chernozem Region is located in the zone of risky agriculture. This led to intensive use of soil in the irrigation system. Therefore, a detailed analysis of water-salt regime of irrigated soils required for ecological state assessment of soils for irrigation. In the investigated area the fone component of the soil cover on the levelled plateau are chernozems. On the slopes formed a meadow-chernozem soils. Parent material is a cover loess-like calcareous non-saline clay. In these soils, our studies found component-quantitative composition of the aqueous extract, the chemism of salinity, which allowed us to make conclusions about the direction of the salinisation process in soils when used in the system of irrigated agriculture. By quantity water extract chernozems are non-saline, the ratio of anions and cations are chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. In the composition of easily soluble salts dominated by Ca(HCO3)2. On sum of toxic salts in the soils are non-saline. This type and chemism of salinity deep brackish groundwater (more than 5 m) can be actively used in the system of rational irrigation. The meadow-chernozem soils formed under conditions of increased surface and soil moisture in the shallow brackish water at a depth of 3-5 m. These soils by quantity water extract are non-saline, anionic-cationic ratio - chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. Permanent components of salt associations are Ca(HCO3)2, MgCl2, Na2SO4. On sum of toxic salts in the soil is not saline throughout the profile. The chemism of salinity and the proximity of groundwater at irregular watering can lead to the rise of groundwater level, the development of gleyed and sodium alkalinization. Thus, the introduction of intensive irrigated agriculture on chernozems and hydromorphic analogues may lead to the development in them of negative consequences. The most dynamic indicator is the water-salt regime, the systematic monitoring and control which

  12. Windthrow and fallow-forest successions impacts in soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics in the Central Russia' reserve spruce ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Ivanov, Alexey; Komarova, Tatyana; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    High spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most forest soils that is especially obvious in case of their carbon stocks and GHG fluxes. This phenomenon is generally well-known but not so often becomes the object of special precision investigation in detail and small scales so there are still serious gaps in its principal factors understanding due to their high bioclimatic, regional, landscape, tree species and temporal variability. Southern taiga is one of the most environmentally important world zonal forest ecosystems due to its still comparatively intensive carbon biogeochemical cycle and huge area in the northern Eurasia with strong anthropogenic impacts by Western & Central European and Southern & Eastern Asian regions. Central Forest Biospheric Reserve (Tver region, 360 km to North-West from Moscow) is the principal southern-taiga reserve in the European territory of Russia. Since start of its research activity in 1939 the reserve became the regional center of mature spruce ecosystem structure and dynamics investigation. In 1970-1980-s there have been done complex investigations of windthrow soil patterns and fallow-forest successions. Since middle of 1990-s the ecosystem-level GHG fluxes have been observed by eddy covariance method. Since 2012 the detailed year-round monitoring is running in the southern-taiga zonal station of the regional system RusFluxNet with especial attention on the soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics due to windthrow and fallow-forest successions (in frame of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266). Soil carbon dynamics is investigated in decades-hundred-year chronosequences of dominated parcels and different-size windthrow soil cover patterns, including direct investigation during last 33 years with detailed mapping, soil profile morphometrics and bulk density, morphogenetic and statistical analysis of mass data. Morphogenetic analysis of microrelief, soil profile

  13. Soils of the Eastern mountainsides of the southern Sikhote-Alin (on the example of Lazovsky nature reserve, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Victoria; Nesterova, Olga; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    The most common soils of the southern Far East are Brownzems under Russian classification (Cambisols), which are the zonal ones, emerging on the steep slopes and tops of hills, on high river terraces under broad-leaved and cedar-broad-leaved forests. Those soils formed due to two processes: organic matter metamorphism and clayization by siallite, leading to the formation of clay-metamorphic horizon Bw. The main morphological features of Cambisols are not deep soil profile (50 - 70 cm), weak horizons differentiation, with lots of cobble. Chemically those soils are low saturated, even in the humus horizon. Distribution of total absorbed bases is mostly accumulative, which is related to the distribution of humus in these soils, and the predominant type of clay fraction distribution of. The only exception are Humic Cambisols and Humic Cambisols Calcic which were formed on redeposited products of limestone rock weathering. Fine-grained deposits are mainly loams with a low content of silt. Silt distribution has an accumulative character with a gradual decrease in the content of silt down from the top of the profile. Layer of fresh leaf fall is very common for the Humic Cambisols surfaces, and under it there is the litter of plant residues with different degrees of decomposition. Accumulative humus horizon is dark gray with brownish tint, thin, from 10 to 15 cm in depth, loose, crumbly, highly penetrated by roots, with a strong granular structure, with aggregates tightly attached to the root hairs, sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The middle horizon is brown, yellowish-brown, divided into sub-horizons, with different color intensity, density, soil texture and amount of cobble. Dystric Cambisols are acidic or strongly acidic with low saturation of soil absorbing complex. Due to amount and distribution of organic matter these soils can be divided into two groups. The first group is soils with accumulative humus distribution: with a low depth humus-accumulative horizon (11

  14. Identification, Classification, Mapping of Model and Secondary Steppe Ecosystems Within the Orenburg-Kazakhstan Cross-Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovlev Ilya Gennadyevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the current issues of modern steppe management in the Orenburg-Kazakhstan cross-border region. The authors use the data of their own field research over the period of 2009-2014 aimed at detection and classification of model and secondary steppe ecosystems in the region. For the last 6 years it has been revealed that some steppe and fallow lands have different squares. The detected lands are multiple-aged and differ according to their qualitative composition depending on aged-specific (time for completion of agricultural activity, soil-lithogenous and floristic features.The authors detected sites of anthropogenic influence on steppe ecosystems as well as the factors that have favorable affect on restoration of natural ecosystems. The article also reveals the centers of restoration of traditional steppe fauna within the Orenburg-Kazakhstan region and the distribution area of marmot, little bustard, bustard, saiga antelope. The authors carried out the comparative analysis of agro-ecological situation in the region for a few last years as well as over long period of time according to archival and polling data.

  15. Evidence that acidification-induced declines in plant diversity and productivity are mediated by changes in below-ground communities and soil properties in a semi-arid steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dima; Lan, Zhichun; Bai, Xue; Grace, James B.; Bai, Yongfei

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic acid deposition–induced soil acidification is one of the major threats to biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and services. Few studies, however, have explored in detail how above-ground changes in plant species richness and productivity resulting from soil acidification are mediated by effects on below-ground biota and soil properties.

  16. Multiscale structure of Cs-137 soil contamination on the Bryansk Region (Russia) due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Cs-137 contamination of the Bryansk Region occurred in the period from April 27 to May 10 into several stages. The complicated character of the soil radionuclide contamination on the Bryansk Region is caused by different nature of the radioactive fallout: dry and wet. Thus, in a number of cases Cs-137 soil pollution is directly connected with the rain intensity, which is well known, have multifractal nature. In some parts of contaminated territory the overlay of different types of fallout was observed. The radioactive contamination of the landscape is a result from nonlinear interplay of geophysical factors which intervene over a large range of scale. As a result of the fallout Cs-137 pattern can be described as a multifractal. Consequently, fields of contamination observed have an extreme spatial variability, frequently cited "hot spots" or "leopard's skin. As an estimate of background radiation levels, we relied on a dataset of air-gamma-survey of the Bryansk Region, carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA in the summer of 1993. This dataset includes geo-positioned data of Cs-137 deposition in a grid of 100x100 m with values range from 3 to 11*104 kBq/m2. Airborne gamma survey gave the smoothed values of the Cs-137 density of contamination in comparison with the data, obtained directly as a result of soil sampling. However, even in this case in the east part of the Bryansk test site we can observed the"hot spots" (by size several hundred meters) as natural phenomenon. The article presents the results of the geostatistical and multifractal analysis of the Cs-137 contamination. Scaling analysis was conducted to investigate the linkages between the spatial variability of soil Cs-137 contamination and some landscape characteristics.

  17. Simulating the effects of soil organic nitrogen and grazing on arctic tundra vegetation dynamics on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Qin; Epstein, Howard [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walker, Donald [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Sustainability of tundra vegetation under changing climate on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, home to the world's largest area of reindeer husbandry, is of crucial importance to the local native community. An integrated investigation is needed for better understanding of the effects of soils, climate change and grazing on tundra vegetation in the Yamal region. In this study we applied a nutrient-based plant community model-ArcVeg-to evaluate how two factors (soil organic nitrogen (SON) levels and grazing) interact to affect tundra responses to climate warming across a latitudinal climatic gradient on the Yamal Peninsula. Model simulations were driven by field-collected soil data and expected grazing patterns along the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT), within bioclimate subzones C (high arctic), D (northern low arctic) and E (southern low arctic). Plant biomass and NPP (net primary productivity) were significantly increased with warmer bioclimate subzones, greater soil nutrient levels and temporal climate warming, while they declined with higher grazing frequency. Temporal climate warming of 2 deg. C caused an increase of 665 g m{sup -2} in total biomass at the high SON site in subzone E, but only 298 g m{sup -2} at the low SON site. When grazing frequency was also increased, total biomass increased by only 369 g m{sup -2} at the high SON site in contrast to 184 g m{sup -2} at the low SON site in subzone E. Our results suggest that high SON can support greater plant biomass and plant responses to climate warming, while low SON and grazing may limit plant response to climate change. In addition to the first order factors (SON, bioclimate subzones, grazing and temporal climate warming), interactions among these significantly affect plant biomass and productivity in the arctic tundra and should not be ignored in regional scale studies.

  18. Simulating the effects of soil organic nitrogen and grazing on arctic tundra vegetation dynamics on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qin; Epstein, Howard; Walker, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability of tundra vegetation under changing climate on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, home to the world's largest area of reindeer husbandry, is of crucial importance to the local native community. An integrated investigation is needed for better understanding of the effects of soils, climate change and grazing on tundra vegetation in the Yamal region. In this study we applied a nutrient-based plant community model-ArcVeg-to evaluate how two factors (soil organic nitrogen (SON) levels and grazing) interact to affect tundra responses to climate warming across a latitudinal climatic gradient on the Yamal Peninsula. Model simulations were driven by field-collected soil data and expected grazing patterns along the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT), within bioclimate subzones C (high arctic), D (northern low arctic) and E (southern low arctic). Plant biomass and NPP (net primary productivity) were significantly increased with warmer bioclimate subzones, greater soil nutrient levels and temporal climate warming, while they declined with higher grazing frequency. Temporal climate warming of 2 deg. C caused an increase of 665 g m -2 in total biomass at the high SON site in subzone E, but only 298 g m -2 at the low SON site. When grazing frequency was also increased, total biomass increased by only 369 g m -2 at the high SON site in contrast to 184 g m -2 at the low SON site in subzone E. Our results suggest that high SON can support greater plant biomass and plant responses to climate warming, while low SON and grazing may limit plant response to climate change. In addition to the first order factors (SON, bioclimate subzones, grazing and temporal climate warming), interactions among these significantly affect plant biomass and productivity in the arctic tundra and should not be ignored in regional scale studies.

  19. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation

  20. Carbon implications of Virgin Lands Campaign cropland expansion and post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, A. V.; Kurganova, I.; Schierhorn, F.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V.; Müller, D.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Political economy and institutional changes regarding land use play crucial role in shaping land cover worldwide. Among such events was the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, when 45.2 million ha of virgin steppes were ploughed up from 1954 to 1963 in northern Eurasia. We took opportunity to evaluate carbon (C) costs of this Campaign, particularly with the account of massive cropland abandonment in the former Campaign area after demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Within cropland mask produced with remotely sensed data, we spatially disaggregated historical annual sown area statistics at the provincial level for Russia and Kazakhstan based on cropland suitability assessment. We also adjusted our cropland allocation model with the use of 1:3,000,000 map depicting cropland expansion in Northern Kazakhstan. We used C bookkeeping approach to assess C dynamics based on soil stratification and C field measurements. The Campaign resulted in huge C losses from soils, which accounted for 611±47 Mt C in Russia and 241±11 Mt C in Kazakhstan for upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation. Such C losses could be compared with C losses due to plowing up the prairies in the mid-1930s in USA. Despite the huge C losses from soils during the Campaign, the total C budget in soils of both countries at national level was positive after 1991 due to sequestered C on abandoned lands, albeit the patterns of C loss during the Campaign and C sink in post-Soviet period differed. The C sink from 1991 to 2010 on abandoned croplands in Russia (45.5Mha) comprised 976±108Mt C and Kazakhstan (12.9Mha) comprised 240±34Mt C. However, already ongoing recultivation of abandoned cropland in Kazakhstan and already planned such activities in Russia, can release stored C on abandoned lands. Our study highlights the importance of environmental evaluation of such governmental programs and their alternatives, particularly, since such programs are not rare events in modern land

  1. How did climate drying reduce ecosystem carbon storage in the forest-steppe ecotone? A case study in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuke; Liu, Hongyan

    2010-07-01

    The projected recession of forests in the forest-steppe ecotone under projected climate drying would restrict the carbon sink function of terrestrial ecosystems. Previous studies have shown that the forest-steppe ecotone in the southeastern Inner Mongolia Plateau originally resulted from climate drying and vegetation shifts during the mid- to late-Holocene, but the interrelated processes of changing soil carbon storage and vegetation and soil shifts remain unclear. A total of 44 forest soil profiles and 40 steppe soil profiles were excavated to determine soil carbon storage in deciduous broadleaf forests (DBF), coniferous forests (CF) and steppe (ST) in this area. Carbon density was estimated to be 106.51 t/hm(2) (DBF), 73.20 t/hm(2) (CF), and 28.14 t/hm(2) (ST) for these ecosystems. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content was negatively correlated with sand content (R = -0.879, P ecotone. Changes in carbon storage caused by climate drying can be divided into two stages: (1) carbon storage of the ecosystem was reduced to 68.7%, mostly by soil coarsening when DBF were replaced by CF at approximately 5,900 (14)C years before present (BP); and (2) carbon storage was reduced to 26.4%, mostly by vegetation shifts when CF were replaced by ST at approximately 2,900 (14)C years BP.

  2. Russia and the BRICS:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    Russia's role as driver behind the BRICS is critically examined via the original RIC concept of Primakov. Today, there are mixed feelings about the BRICS in Russia.......Russia's role as driver behind the BRICS is critically examined via the original RIC concept of Primakov. Today, there are mixed feelings about the BRICS in Russia....

  3. Using of the geoinformation technologies for estimation of heavy metals distribution in the soils of urban ecosystems (on example of the city of Kaliningrad, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupakhina, Nataliia; Skrypnik, Lubov; Maslennikov, Pavel; Belov, Nicolai; Feduraev, Pavel; Chupakhina, Galina

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization can be described as a global socio-economic process, accompanied by a profound change of the anthropogenic environment and as a replacement of the natural ecosystems by the urban ones. Heavy metals occupy an important place among the different types of urban environmental pollutants. Since they do not undergo physico-chemical and biological degradation, they can accumulate in the surface soil layer for a long time, being available for the roots of plants and actively involved in the migration processes via trophic pathways. Study of accumulation of heavy metals in the most important component of urban ecosystems, which is soils, allows us to get a reliable estimate of the intensity of technogenic processes and to trace the major migration flows of these toxicants in the urbanized area. The geographic information systems (GIS) are a useful tool for collection, analysis, processing, synthesis and management of the spatially-distributed and other types of data. They provide the two-way communication between cartographic objects and databases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using of GIS technologies for estimating of distribution of heavy metals in the soil of the city of Kaliningrad. A Kaliningrad land region of 18.4 sq.km was investigated. Locations for the collection of samples were determined based on the analysis of anthropogenic loading of the streets of Kaliningrad. The total number of the locations was 57. The selected locations were marked with squares of 1.5 km per 1.5 km. Within each square 7-9 soil samples were collected using the "envelope" method, each sample was collected three times. The abundances of heavy metals (strontium, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, arsenic) in the soil was determined using the X-ray fluorescence method (Spectroscan Max, NPO Spektron, Saint-Petersburg, Russia). Each sample was purified, in order to remove roots, large rocks, glass, etc., before placing to the cell of the

  4. PCBs, HCHs and DDTs in cow's milk and soil of pasture from the Irkutsk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamontova, E.A.; Tarasova, E.N.; Mamontov, A.A.; Kuzmin, M.I. [A.P. Vinogradov Inst. of Geochemistry, SB of RAS, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Chuvashev, I.A. [Inst. of Chemistry, SB of RAS, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); McLachlan, M.S. [Inst. of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The main pathway of human exposure to organochlorine compounds is food, especially dairy products. Our previous investigations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in food produced in the Irkutsk region showed that the average daily intake amounts to 88 pg PCDD/F TEQ per day and 95 pg PCB TEQ per day1. Thus the contribution of PCBs and PCDD/Fs to the total daily intake is 51.7 and 48.3 % respectively. Cow's milk contributes up to 24 % of the daily intake of PCBs, and is exceeded only by fish (64 %). It was shown also that PCDD/F and PCB levels in milk and the daily intake of these compounds depends on the distance of the farms from the largest PCB source in the Irkutsk Region located in the Usol'e-Sibirskoe area. In the previous study milk samples were taken from dairies which collect milk from a lot of farms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the organochlorine contamination in milk from single farms and to see if this is related to the contaminant levels in soil from the farms' pastures.

  5. Utility of surface pollen assemblages to delimit Eastern Eurasian steppe types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin

    Full Text Available Modern pollen records have been used to successfully distinguish between specific prairie types in North America. Whether the pollen records can be used to detect the occurrence of Eurasian steppe, or even to further delimit various steppe types was until now unclear. Here we characterized modern pollen assemblages of meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe from eastern Eurasia along an ecological humidity gradient. The multivariate ordination of the pollen data indicated that Eurasian steppe types could be clearly differentiated. The different steppe types could be distinguished primarily by xerophilous elements in the pollen assemblages. Redundancy analysis indicated that the relative abundances of Ephedra, Tamarix, Nitraria and Zygophyllaceae were positively correlated with aridity. The relative abundances of Ephedra increased from meadow steppe to typical steppe and desert steppe. Tamarix and Zygophyllaceae were found in both typical steppe and desert steppe, but not in meadow steppe. Nitraria was only found in desert steppe. The relative abundances of xerophilous elements were greater in desert steppe than in typical steppe. These findings indicate that Eurasian steppe types can be differentiated based on recent pollen rain.

  6. Restless Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wilson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate how and why after a twelve-years period of stability Putinist social contract seemingly broke down and Russia stepped into a new period of uncertainty and crisis. The author underlines that, unwillingly, Medvedev’s presidency paved the way for the protests from the winter of 2011-2012 and fostered the regime’s crisis of legitimacy. Specifically, Medvedev’s relatively liberal rhetoric led to rising expectations among the ‘winners’ of first Putin-Medvedev era and to a growing gap between rhetoric and delivery. Moreover, the ‘Putin consensus’ was also fraying from below during the 2000s, given the population’s fading memory about the 1990s, flourishing of corruption, and migration becoming a hot issue in a booming economy and collapsing native demographics of Russian society. Finally, Putin made several crucial tactical mistakes in the run-up to the Duma elections of the 2011, failing to provide a coherent narrative for the elections, loosing some leading manipulators of the political system, and ousting some powerful regional bosses that ran powerful local machines which traditionally delivered the vote.

  7. The trajectories and determinants of agricultural land-use change over the last two decades in post-Soviet European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, A. V.; Müller, D.; Sieber, A.; Kuemmerle, T.; Radeloff, V. C.; Hostert, P.

    2012-04-01

    The transition from state-command to market-driven economies in Russia in 1991 triggered fundamental political, economic and institutional changes, which in turn drastically affected agricultural land use. Large tracks of agricultural lands became abandoned, particularly during the first decade of the transition. However, it is not clear how the changing socio-economic and political conditions in post-Soviet Russia changed abandonment trajectories over the last two decades. We analyzed agricultural land-use change, both agricultural land abandonment and recultivation of once abandoned agricultural lands, with multitemporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images for 1990-2000-2009 to study Ryazan province in the forest-steppe transition zone and Rostov province in the steppe zone of European Russia. We classified agricultural land use change over 1990-2000-2009 with Support Vector Machines and assessed classification accuracies with independently of training datasets collected validation data. Overall accuracies were over 80%. We summarized the rates of agricultural land use change, and quantified the spatial determinants of these land use change processes using logistic regressions. Results indicated that 28% of agricultural land managed in 1990 were abandoned by the year 2000 in Ryazan province. From 2000 to 2009, agricultural land abandonment increased by another half what was abandoned from 1990 to 2000 and comprised 42% of abandoned agricultural that was managed in 1990 while only 1.4% of previously abandoned agricultural land was recultivated. In other words, agricultural abandonment was a continuous and permanent land use change in Ryazan province. In Rostov province, abandonment rates were substantially lower at nearly 10% of the agricultural land managed in 1990 and only minor additional abandonment from 2000 to 2009. The pattern of agricultural land abandonment in Ryazan province was largely determined by a mix of socio-economic and environmental factors (e.g. increased

  8. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belelli Marchesini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 g C m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 g C m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its

  9. Energy and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbeau, A.S.; Noel, P.; Finon, D.; Baudrand, D.; Zaki, M.; Chevallier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Five issues are addressed concerning energy and Russia: energy perspectives in Russia (according to world energy outlook for 2011 and to Russia energy outlook), notably in terms of energy mix by 2035; the relationship between geopolitics and the gas market in Russia and for the European Union; the possibility of a European common foreign policy in front of a supposed Russian risk (involved actors, the issue of corridors); the refining industry in Russia (key figures, obstacles to its competitiveness improvement); and Total as a major company operating in Russia (context, projects). Questions concerning these issues are briefly answered

  10. Ecosystem functional response across precipitation extremes in a sagebrush steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredennick, Andrew T; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Taylor, J Bret; Adler, Peter B

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is predicted to become more variable in the western United States, meaning years of above and below average precipitation will become more common. Periods of extreme precipitation are major drivers of interannual variability in ecosystem functioning in water limited communities, but how ecosystems respond to these extremes over the long-term may shift with precipitation means and variances. Long-term changes in ecosystem functional response could reflect compensatory changes in species composition or species reaching physiological thresholds at extreme precipitation levels. We conducted a five year precipitation manipulation experiment in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem in Idaho, United States. We used drought and irrigation treatments (approximately 50% decrease/increase) to investigate whether ecosystem functional response remains consistent under sustained high or low precipitation. We recorded data on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), species abundance, and soil moisture. We fit a generalized linear mixed effects model to determine if the relationship between ANPP and soil moisture differed among treatments. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling to quantify community composition over the five years. Ecosystem functional response, defined as the relationship between soil moisture and ANPP, was similar among irrigation and control treatments, but the drought treatment had a greater slope than the control treatment. However, all estimates for the effect of soil moisture on ANPP overlapped zero, indicating the relationship is weak and uncertain regardless of treatment. There was also large spatial variation in ANPP within-years, which contributes to the uncertainty of the soil moisture effect. Plant community composition was remarkably stable over the course of the experiment and did not differ among treatments. Despite some evidence that ecosystem functional response became more sensitive under sustained drought conditions, the response

  11. Focus on Russia. Russia versus Gazprom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdiyeva, N.

    2008-01-01

    Rising domestic demand and the depletion of traditional natural gas fields mean that Russia will have to make choices as to where to send its gas. But the priorities of Gazprom and the Russian government often conflict, a trend likely exacerbated by the deteriorating relationship between Russia and the West

  12. RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL IODINE-131 FALLOUT FOR THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF IODINE-129 CONTENT IN THE SOIL DETERMINATION IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gavrilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  13. DEER BELIEF AND DEER SACRIFICE AROUND STEPPE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı KAHRAMAN ÇINAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turkish people have spreaded on a large area historically. They have left a mark on all the places they reach. The history of Turks begun in Central Asian Steppes. In reaction to the steppe culture, the human communities of Turks are hunter-nomad communities. The hunter-nomad comminuties make a living from stockfarming and apiculture. The deer is one of the essential animals for t he hunter-nomad communities in the daily life. In the steppe, the deer is seen in all area of social life. Further, the deer motives are commonly used in political, military, financial, the most religious areas. The hunter-nomad comminuties benefit by the meat, milk, leather, horns, nails, etc of the deer. In this study, we dwell on the deer with regard to its intended purposes and usage areas according to steppe culture. The references of this study are references are inscriptions, mythologic stories and archeological datas.

  14. Carbon storage in forests and peatlands of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.A. Alexeyev; R.A. Birdsey; [Editors

    1998-01-01

    Contains information about carbon storage in the vegetation, soils, and peatlands of Russia. Estimates of carbon storage in forests are derived from statistical data from the 1988 national forest inventory of Russia and from other sources. Methods are presented for converting data on timber stock into phytomass of tree stands, and for estimating carbon storage in...

  15. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-10-26

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrushobligate animals. This restoration handbook is the first in a three-part series on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. In Part 1, we discuss concepts surrounding landscape and restoration ecology of sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse that habitat managers and restoration practitioners need to know to make informed decisions regarding where and how to restore specific areas. We will describe the plant dynamics of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and their responses to major disturbances, fire, and defoliation. We will introduce the concepts of ecosystem resilience to disturbances and resistance to invasions of annual grasses within sagebrush steppe. An introduction to soils and ecological site information will provide insights into the specific plants that can be restored in a location. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are described as a tool for determining resilience and resistance and the potential for various restoration actions. Greater sage-grouse are considered landscape birds that require large areas of intact sagebrush steppe; therefore, we describe concepts of landscape ecology that aid our decisions regarding habitat restoration. We provide a brief overview of

  16. Dendrochemical evidence for soil recovery from acidic deposition in forests of the northeastern U.S. with comparisons to the southeastern U.S. and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith; Andrei G. Lapenis

    2017-01-01

    A soil resampling approach has detected an early stage of recovery in the cation chemistry of spruce forest soil due to reductions in acid deposition. That approach is limited by the lack of soil data and archived soil samples prior to major increases in acid deposition during the latter half of the 20th century. An alternative approach is the dendrochemical analysis...

  17. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF DRY STEPPES OF EASTERN MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ogureeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial-temporal structure and coenotic diversity of dry steppes of Eastern Mongolia was identified by analyzing characteristics of naturally occurring vegetation connection to the regional landscape structure. Different types of combinations of plant communities (phytocoenochores were determined in the vegetation structure of the Eastern Steppe Station Tumén-Tsogt (in Sukhebator district. Temporal dynamics of steppe ecosystems was defined from the studies of steppe cover fluctuations in 2008. The coenotic role of eight annual plant species that form synusiae in the steppe communities was shown through analysis of species constancy, projective cover, and activity. Knowledge about the trend of successions and the manifestation of fluctuations in vegetation cover is necessary for the development of science-based system of management options to maintain the number and abundance of different plant groups in plant communities. Monitoring the state of natural ecosystems has a major scientific and practical importance, since steppe ecosystems are the basic component of the pasture’s resources of the country.

  18. Paleoecological crisis in the steppes of the Lower Volga region in the Middle of the Bronze Age (III-II centuries BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkina, T. S.; Borisov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kuznetsova, T. V.; El'tsov, M. V.; Udal'tsov, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Diagnostic features of a catastrophic aridization of climate, desertification, and paleoecological crisis in steppes of the Lower Volga region have been identified on the basis of data on the morphological, chemical, and microbiological properties of paleosols under archeological monuments (burial mounds) of the Middle Bronze Age. These processes resulted in a certain convergence of the soil cover with transformation of zonal chestnut (Kastanozems) paleosols and paleosolonetzes (Solonetz Humic) into specific chestnut-like eroded saline calcareous paleosols analogous to the modern brown desert-steppe soils (Calcisols Haplic) that predominated in this region 4300-3800 years ago.1 In the second millennium BC, humidization of the climate led to the divergence of the soil cover with secondary formation of the complexes of chestnut soils and solonetzes. This paleoecological crisis had a significant effect on the economy of the tribes in the Late Catacomb and Post-Catacomb time stipulating their higher mobility and transition to the nomadic cattle breeding.

  19. Soil modern evolution impact on the C fluxes in Chernozems at the Middle Volga Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanov, Sabir; Yashin, Ivan; Atenbekov, Ramiz; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    There are results of long-term stationary field research on the aridization impact on the carbon fluxes in the topsoil of Chernozemic soils in the representative agricultural and native forest-steppe landscapes in conditions of the Middle Volga region of Russia (educational-experimental farm "Mummovskoe", Saratov region). Especial attention is dedicated to the water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) which are better available for soil microorganisms that utilize them, enhancing CO2 emission. Dominated in the Middle-Volga natural and agro-landscapes soil conditions are unfavorable for mobile humic acid production and accumulation: organic acids and polyphenols gradually mobilized into solution from root excretions and crop residues or woody plant litter are quickly neutralized by calcium, magnesium or sodium ions in topsoil. Most arable Chernozems of the Middle-Volga region are actively degraded due to both topsoil CO2 emission and water-soluble organic substances fluxes in form of sodium and calcium humates and fulvates, as evidenced by sorption lysimetry data on the WSOS fluxes in 15-21 g/m2 over the vegetation period. Additional researches are necessary to evaluate the ratio between soil organic carbon losses through soil erosion processes, topsoil CO2 emission and WSOS profile and lateral fluxes in conditions of different land-use practice and climate conditions to develop the modern climate-smart farming systems in the Middle-Volga region agrolandscapes with potentially very prolific Chernozemic soils.

  20. Mercury distribution in two Sierran forest and one desert sagebrush steppe ecosystems and the effects of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, Mark A.; Sexauer Gustin, Mae; Johnson, Dale W.; Murphy, James F.; Miller, Wally W.; Walker, Roger F.; Wright, Joan; Markee, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentration, reservoir mass, and Hg reservoir size were determined for vegetation components, litter, and mineral soil for two Sierran forest sites and one desert sagebrush steppe site. Mercury was found to be held primarily in the mineral soil (maximum depth of 60 to 100 cm), which contained more than 90% of the total ecosystem reservoir. However, Hg in foliage, bark, and litter plays a more dominant role in Hg cycling than the mineral soil. Mercury partitioning into ecosystem components at the Sierran forest sites was similar to that observed for other US forest sites. Vegetation and litter Hg reservoirs were significantly smaller in the sagebrush steppe system because of lower biomass. Data collected from these ecosystems after wildfire and prescribed burns showed a significant decrease in the Hg pool from certain reservoirs. No loss from mineral soil was observed for the study areas but data from fire severity points suggested that Hg in the upper few millimeters of surface soil may be volatilized due to exposure to elevated temperatures. Comparison of data from burned and unburned plots suggested that the only significant source of atmospheric Hg from the prescribed burn was combustion of litter. Differences in unburned versus burned Hg reservoirs at the forest wildfire site demonstrated that drastic reduction in the litter and above ground live biomass Hg reservoirs after burning had occurred. Sagebrush and litter were absent in the burned plots after a wildfire suggesting that both reservoirs were released during the fire. Mercury emissions due to fire from the forest prescribed burn, forest wildfire, and sagebrush steppe wildfire sites were roughly estimated at 2.0 to 5.1, 2.2 to 4.9, and 0.36 ± 0.13 g ha -1 , respectively, with litter and vegetation being the most important sources

  1. Mapping of Soil-Ecological Conditions of a Medium-Size Industrial City (Birobidzhan City, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, FarEast of Russia as an Example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanova, V. B.; Matiushkina, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    The authors analyze soil relations with other elements of the city ecosystem (the position in the landscape, soil-forming rocks and lithology, vegetation and its state) to develop the legend and map of soils in the City of Birobidzhan (scale 1:25 000). The focus of study is the morphological structure of urban soils with different degree of disturbance of these relations under the impact of technical effects, economic and recreational activities of the city population. The soil cover structure is composed of four large ecological groups of soils: natural untransformed, natural with a disturbed surface, anthropogenic soils and technogenic surface formations. Using cartometry of the mapped soil contours the authors created the scheme of soil-ecological city zoning, which in a general way depicts the state of soil ecological functions in the city as well as identified zones of soils with preserved, partially and fully distured ecological functions and zones of local geochemical anomalies at the initial formation stage (environmental risk zones).

  2. 137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Peter de Barros; Marchi, Nina; Rasmussen, Simon; Peyrot, Michaël; Renaud, Gabriel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Goldberg, Amy; Usmanova, Emma; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Loman, Valeriy; Hedeager, Lotte; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Kasper; Afanasiev, Gennady; Akmatov, Kunbolot; Aldashev, Almaz; Alpaslan, Ashyk; Baimbetov, Gabit; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I; Beisenov, Arman; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Ellingvag, Sturla; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Dajani, Rana; Dmitriev, Evgeniy; Evdokimov, Valeriy; Frei, Karin M; Gromov, Andrey; Goryachev, Alexander; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hegay, Tatyana; Khachatryan, Zaruhi; Khaskhanov, Ruslan; Kitov, Egor; Kolbina, Alina; Kubatbek, Tabaldiev; Kukushkin, Alexey; Kukushkin, Igor; Lau, Nina; Margaryan, Ashot; Merkyte, Inga; Mertz, Ilya V; Mertz, Viktor K; Mijiddorj, Enkhbayar; Moiyesev, Vyacheslav; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Nurmukhanbetov, Bekmukhanbet; Orozbekova, Z; Panyushkina, Irina; Pieta, Karol; Smrčka, Václav; Shevnina, Irina; Logvin, Andrey; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Štolcová, Tereza; Tashbaeva, Kadicha; Tkachev, Alexander; Tulegenov, Turaly; Voyakin, Dmitriy; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Varfolomeev, Victor; Weber, Andrzej; Kradin, Nikolay; Allentoft, Morten E; Orlando, Ludovic; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sikora, Martin; Heyer, Evelyne; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2018-05-09

    For thousands of years the Eurasian steppes have been a centre of human migrations and cultural change. Here we sequence the genomes of 137 ancient humans (about 1× average coverage), covering a period of 4,000 years, to understand the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age migrations. We find that the genetics of the Scythian groups that dominated the Eurasian steppes throughout the Iron Age were highly structured, with diverse origins comprising Late Bronze Age herders, European farmers and southern Siberian hunter-gatherers. Later, Scythians admixed with the eastern steppe nomads who formed the Xiongnu confederations, and moved westward in about the second or third century BC, forming the Hun traditions in the fourth-fifth century AD, and carrying with them plague that was basal to the Justinian plague. These nomads were further admixed with East Asian groups during several short-term khanates in the Medieval period. These historical events transformed the Eurasian steppes from being inhabited by Indo-European speakers of largely West Eurasian ancestry to the mostly Turkic-speaking groups of the present day, who are primarily of East Asian ancestry.

  3. Retaining of botanical diversity of steppe ecosystems at the Semipalatinsk test site area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanova, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear tests conducted on the STS area have an effect on steppe biome. Regime of military secrecy allowed retaining extensive diversity of steppe vegetation at the area of the former Semipalatinsk test site, although the vegetation was liquidated in the most part of Kazakhstan. Unique biologic diversity of the steppe vegetation requires status of particularly secured vegetation of the STS area. (author)

  4. Digital soil mapping as a basis for climatically oriented agriculture a thematic on the territory of the national crop testing fields of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahabiev, I. A.; Giniyatullin, K. G.; Ryazanov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The concept of climate-optimized agriculture (COA) of the UN FAO implies the transformation of agriculture techniques in conditions of changing climate. It is important to implement a timely transition to the concept of COA and sustainable development of soil resources, accurate digital maps of spatial distribution of soils and soil properties are needed. Digital mapping of soil humus content was carried out on the territory of the national crop testing fields (NCTF) of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation) and the accuracy of the maps obtained was estimated.

  5. Mathematical models application for mapping soils spatial distribution on the example of the farm from the North of Udmurt Republic of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, P. M.; Meshalkina, J. L.; Yaroslavtsev, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Comparative analysis of soils geospatial modeling using multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, random forest, regression trees and support vector machines algorithms was conducted. The visual interpretation of the digital maps obtained and their comparison with the existing map, as well as the quantitative assessment of the individual soil groups detection overall accuracy and of the models kappa showed that multiple logistic regression, support vector method, and random forest models application with spatial prediction of the conditional soil groups distribution can be reliably used for mapping of the study area. It has shown the most accurate detection for sod-podzolics soils (Phaeozems Albic) lightly eroded and moderately eroded soils. In second place, according to the mean overall accuracy of the prediction, there are sod-podzolics soils - non-eroded and warp one, as well as sod-gley soils (Umbrisols Gleyic) and alluvial soils (Fluvisols Dystric, Umbric). Heavy eroded sod-podzolics and gray forest soils (Phaeozems Albic) were detected by methods of automatic classification worst of all.

  6. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  7. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    into account conditions of the particular type of agricultural landscape, possible changes in the characteristics and structure of land use, direct and indirect effects on the ecosystem components and biodiversity. North-Western, Central and Southern regions of the European part of Russia have great potential to produce biofuels. While there is a clearly expressed zonal agroclimatic potential of growing bio-energy crops (1.5 times increase of PAR in the forest-steppe zone in comparison with the area of the southern taiga) and there is a steady trend of further growth with a parallel increase in the amount of rainfall and the amount of active temperatures for the XXI century forecast. Particular attention should be payed to areas with high population density and industrial production with the possibility of combining the cultivation of oilseed rape for the bio-energy purpose with phytoremediation and soil improving effect of the contaminated and unproductive soils. The increasing potential of atmospheric carbon's temporary binding in the biomass of the bio-energy crops and consequently in the biofuels produced from them can significantly reduce total emissions of greenhouse gases in the conditions of the European part of Russia, but there is the need for more detailed balance calculation for specific soil and climatic conditions and land-use systems.

  8. Changes in Biomass and Quality of Alpine Steppe in Response to N & P Fertilization in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junfu; Cui, Xiaoyong; Wang, Shuping; Wang, Fang; Pang, Zhe; Xu, Ning; Zhao, Guoqiang; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    In the alpine steppe zone on the Central Tibetan Plateau, a large amount of area has been degraded due to natural and artificial factors. N & P fertilization is widely accepted to recover degraded pastures in other regions all over the world. However, it is not clear how alpine steppe communities respond to N & P fertilization, and what is the optimal application rate, in the perspective of forage production. To attempt to explore these questions, in July 2013, two fencing sites were designed in Baingoin County with 12 treatments of different levels of nitrogen (N0: 0; N1: 7.5 g m-2 yr-1; N2: 15 g m-2 yr-1) & phosphate (P0: 0; P1: 7.5 gP2O5 m-2 yr-1; P2: 15 gP2O5 m-2 yr-1; P3: 30 gP2O5 m-2 yr-1). The results indicated N&P addition was capable to ameliorate the quality of the two sites in the Tibetan Plateau steppe. Increasing N application level resulted in significant increment in Gramineae and total biomass in the two sites. P addition significantly improved the quantity of Compositae, total biomass and the biomasss of other species in site II, while it only significantly improved the total biomass in site I. Gramineae was much more sensitive to N-induced changes than P-induced changes, and this indicated N addition was better to ameliorate the quality of plateau steppe than P-induced changes. No strong evidence was found for critical threshold within 15 g N m-2 yr-1, and there was decreasing tendency when P addition rate was above 15 g m-2 yr-1. N&P has the potential to accelerate soil acidification, which improved the content of available K, likely as a result of nonsignificant correlation between biomass and soil moisture. This work highlights the the tradeoffs that exist in N and P addition in recovering degraded steppe. PMID:27223104

  9. Vegetation Responses to Prescribed Burning of Grazed Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past century, fire has been widely suppressed in the western Great Plains, in part due to potential negative effects on forage production for livestock. More recently, interest in the use of prescribed fire in shortgrass steppe has increased due to potential applications for wildlife manage...

  10. Effects of Prescribed Burning on Grazed Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past century, fire has been widely suppressed in the western Great Plains, in part due to potential negative effects on forage production for livestock. Interest in the use of prescribed fire in shortgrass steppe has increased recently due to applications for wildlife management, control of...

  11. Russia - Nato. The military balance

    OpenAIRE

    Daugaard, Søren Bech; Jacobsen, Karen Vestergård; Aigro, Signe; Skarequist, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neoclassical realist framework. The project consists in three analytical parts of respectively, 1: The military capabilities balance between NATO and Russia; 2: How the international system puts pressure on Russia; and 3: How the strategic culture of Russia can explain its balancing. This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neo...

  12. Radcure developments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rot, A.; Zaks-rot, I.

    1995-01-01

    The survey dwells on three main parts: 1. Insight into the state of radiation curing technology in Russia. 2. Scope of the scientific potential. 3. Certain regard on forecasts, opportunities and prospects for Russian RadTech market

  13. Where is Russia heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  14. The relationship between soil physical properties and alpine plant diversity on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through a large-scale research, we examined the heterogeneity of soil properties and plant diversity, as well as their relationships across alpine grassland types on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The soil pH and EC value increased with the constant deepening of the soil in all the three alpine grassland types which in order of absolute value in every soil layer were alpine desert steppe, alpine steppe and alpine meadow. Among the three grassland types, the alpine meadow possessed the highest SM but the lowest SBD. For plant diversity, alpine meadow was the highest, alpine desert steppe ranked the second and alpine steppe was the last. SM and SBD were the highest influential soil physical properties to species richness, but with opposite effects.

  15. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, Y.

    2005-01-01

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  16. Capital Flight from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  17. Master function for the solid:solution equilibrium of DOC in taiga and tundra soils of N. Russia: experimental and modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwoud, M. R.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Meeussen, J. C. L.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The formation and degradation of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in arctic environments is intensively investigated, in the context of DOC loading of arctic rivers and seas as well as climate change. However, chemical interaction studies are more scarce, in particular those involving modeling. We investigated DOC interactions in N. Russian taiga and tundra soils, and found that water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) comprises only a small fraction of total organic carbon, whereas DOC is again a small fraction of WEOC. The chemical composition of DOC in terms of humic, fulvic, and hydrophilic acids, the concentrations of dominant cations such as Ca and Al, and the solid iron oxide contents appear to differ profoundly for different soil horizons, as well as between taiga and tundra soils. To reconcile these differences, we processed the data with a simple Freundlich model and with advanced LCD (Ligand and Charge Distribution) modeling of DOC interactions. In the LCD modeling, a combination is made of advances such as CD-MUSIC, and Nica-Donnan approaches, that are implemented in the software ORCHESTRA (though adjusted for computational stability by us). To avoid fitting without good foundation, use is made of the generic parameterization of LCD in combination with measured, site-specific chemical data such as concentrations. We observe that the soil samples from both regions, soil types and horizons can be described with a single DOC sorption Freundlich isotherm. More interestingly, for the same set of samples, the LCD modeling enables us to cast DOC sorption into a single Master Function, that takes iron oxide content and Al and Ca concentrations of soil samples into account in a purely predictive way. Based on this Master Function, it is feasible to assess how DOC is sorbed onto the solid surface. In combination with DOC production and degradation models, our results provide a more balanced instrument to address changes in DOC loading to surface waters due to

  18. [Assemblage effect of ground arthropod community in desert steppe shrubs with different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Zhu, Fan; Chai, Yong-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Taking the 6-, 15-, 24- and 36-year-old Caragana intermedia shrubs in desert steppe as a subject, an investigation on soil properties and ground arthropod community was carried out under the shrub and in the open to probe into the assemblage effect of ground arthropod community in desert steppe shrubs with different ages. The results were as follows: 1) In the 6-year-old shrubland, significant differences were only found in soil physical properties (soil texture, soil moisture and electrical conductivity) between the microhabitats under shrub and in the open. Beginning from the 15-year-old shrubland, however, soil organic matter and nutrition (N, P) increased significantly. 2) A total of 27 groups were captured in the studied sites which dominated by Carabidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae. From 6- to 15-year-old shrubland, the number of dominant groups decreased while that of common groups increased for the ground arthropod community under the shrub. From 15- to 24- and 36-year-old shrubland, the difference between the microhabitats under the shrub and in the open decreased firstly, and then increased. Some special groups appeared under the shrub in the 36-year-old shrubland, and dung beetles became dominant. 3) In the 6- and 24-year-old shrublands, there were no significant differences in group richness, abundance, and diversity index between the microhabitats under the shrub and in the open. As for the 15- and 36-year-old shrublands, however, significant differences were observed. 4) The shrub age had a stronger effect on the distribution of ground arthropods living under the shrubs compared to that in the open. The changes in soil texture, pH and electrical conductivity could significantly influence on the distribution of ground arthropods under the shrub, also in the open to some degree. It was suggested that the development of shrubland had strong impact on assemblage effect of ground arthropods, which was closely correlated with the stand age and would

  19. The availability of mineral nitrogen in Mediterranean open steppe dominated by Stipa tenacissima L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Novosádová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of interest is located in the Sierra de los Filabres in semi-arid steppe of the province of Almeria in Spain. The amount of water in the soil is a limiting factor and its availability affects the structure and species composition of ecosystem. On the other hand, the type of vegetation affects the water loss via evapotranspiration and thus the soil microclimate. It has a great influence on the growth and activity of soil microbial communities and hence the dynamics of decomposition of organic matter and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of microbial transformations of soil organic nitrogen and describe changes in the content of nitrogen mineral forms at different depths in the semi-arid climate soil in the Mediterranean region. Availability and movement of nitrogen was monitored by capturing the mineral nitrogen into the structures of ion exchange resin applied to the soil in three different variants (control variant, a variant with the addition of cellulose, and the variant with the addition of raw silk. Ion exchange resins have been installed into soil profile in 2008, 2009, and 2010. After the in situ exposure the ion exchange resins were removed from the soil profile and the quantity of captured mineral N was determined by distillation titration method. The availability of ammonia-nitrogen was significantly affected by the addition of different substrates mainly by the additions of the raw silk, where the availability was regularly the highest. However, the availability of ammonia-nitrogen form was generally higher than the availability of nitrate form.

  20. Divergent evapotranspiration partition dynamics between shrubs and grasses in a shrub-encroached steppe ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Lixin; Wu, Xiuchen; Hu, Xia; Fan, Ying; Tong, Yaqin

    2018-06-04

    Previous evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning studies have usually neglected competitions and interactions between antagonistic plant functional types. This study investigated whether shrubs and grasses have divergent ET partition dynamics impacted by different water-use patterns, canopy structures, and physiological properties in a shrub-encroached steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China. The soil water-use patterns of shrubs and grasses have been quantified by an isotopic tracing approach and coupled into an improved multisource energy balance model to partition ET fluxes into soil evaporation, grass transpiration, and shrub transpiration. The mean fractional contributions to total ET were 24 ± 13%, 20 ± 4%, and 56 ± 16% for shrub transpiration, grass transpiration, and soil evaporation respectively during the growing season. Difference in ecohydrological connectivity and leaf development both contributed to divergent transpiration partitioning between shrubs and grasses. Shrub-encroachment processes result in larger changes in the ET components than in total ET flux, which could be well explained by changes in canopy resistance, an ecosystem function dominated by the interaction of soil water-use patterns and ecosystem structure. The analyses presented here highlight the crucial effects of vegetation structural changes on the processes of land-atmosphere interaction and climate feedback. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  2. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms; Nechaeva, I.; Akhmetov, L.; Gafarov, A.; Puntus, I. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms; Nechaeva, I.; Akhmetov, L.; Gafarov, A.; Puntus, I. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  4. Soil cover patterns and dynamics impact on GHG fluxes in RF native and man-changed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Nesterova, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The increased soil spatial-temporal variability is mutual feature for most mature natural and particularly man-changed terrestrial ecosystems in Central and Far-East regions of Russia with soil cover strongly pronounced bioclimatic zoning and landscape-geomorphologic differentiation. Soil cover patterns (SCP) detailed morphogenetic analysis and typification is useful tool for soil forming and degradation processes quantitative evaluation, land ecological state and functional quality quantitative assessment. Quantitative analysis and functional-ecological interpretation of representative SCP spatial variability is especially important for environmentally friendly and demand-driven land-use planning and decision making. The carried out 33-years region- and local-scale researches of the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and SCP with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe, agricultural and recreational ones) give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. Succession process-based analysis of modern evolution of man-changed and natural soils and ESCP essentially increases accuracy of quantitative assessments of dominant soil forming and degradation processes rate and potential, their influence on land and soil cover quality and ecosystem services. Their results allow developing the regional and landscape adapted versions of automated land evaluation systems and land-use DSS. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and develop¬ment, ecosystem principal services (with especial attention on greenhouse gases emissions, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, biodiversity and productivity, hydrological regimes and geomorphologic stabilization), land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and

  5. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V

    2008-12-15

    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  6. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  7. Russia air management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, T.G.; Markin, S.; Kosenkova, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  8. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T G [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S V [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  9. Changing climate and overgrazing are decimating Mongolian steppes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Y Liu

    Full Text Available Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008 record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass, to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation.

  10. Changing Climate and Overgrazing Are Decimating Mongolian Steppes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yi Y.

    2013-02-25

    Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation. © 2013 Liu et al.

  11. Changing Climate and Overgrazing Are Decimating Mongolian Steppes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yi Y.; Evans, Jason P.; McCabe, Matthew; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Dolman, Albertus J.; Saizen, Izuru

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation. © 2013 Liu et al.

  12. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhu Xu; Yanhui Hou; Lihua Zhang; Tao Liu; Guangsheng Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two ...

  13. Evolution of soil and vegetation cover on the bottom of drained thermokarst lake (a case study in the European Northeast of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaverin, Dmitry; Pastukhov, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of soils and landscapes has been studied in a lake bed of former thermokarst lake, which was totally drained in 1979. Melioration of thermokarst lakes was conducted experimentally and locally under Soviet economics program during 1970-s. The aim of the program was to increase in biomass productivity of virgin tundra permafrost-thermokarst sites under agricultural activities. The former thermokarst lake "Opytnoe" located in the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra, Russian European Northeast. The lake bed is covered by peat-mineral sediments, which serves as soil-forming sediments favoring subsequent permafrost aggradation and cryogenic processes as well. Initially, after drainage, swampy meadows had been developed almost all over the lake bed. Further on, succession of landscape went diversely, typical and uncommon tundra landscapes formed. When activated, cryogenic processes favored the formation of peat mounds under dwarf shrub - lichen vegetation (7% of the area). Frost cracks and peat circles affected flat mounds all over the former lake bottom. On drained peat sites, with no active cryogenic processes, specific grass meadows on Cryic Sapric Histosols were developed. Totally, permafrost-affected soils occupy 77% of the area (2011). In some part of the lake bed further development of waterlogging leads to the formation of marshy meadows and willow communities where Gleysols prevail. During last twenty years, permafrost degradation has occurred under tall shrub communities, and it will progress in future. Water erosion processes in the drained lake bottom promoted the formation of local hydrographic network. In the stream floodplain grassy willow-stands formed on Fluvisols (3% of the area). The study has been conducted under Clima-East & RFBR 14-05-31111 projects.

  14. Microbiomes structure and diversity in different horizons of full soil profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Timofey; Tkhakakhova, Azida; Zhelezova, Alena; Semenov, Mikhail; Kutovaya, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Topsoil is a most common object for soil metagenomic studies; sometimes soil profile is being formally split in layers by depth. However, Russian Soil Science School formulated the idea of soil profile as a complex of soil horizons, which can differ in their properties and genesis. In this research we analyzed 57 genetic soil horizons of 8 different soils from European part of Russia: Albeluvisol, Greyzemic Phaeozem, three Chermozems (different land use - till, fallow, wind-protecting tree line), Rhodic Cambisol, Haplic Kastanozem and Salic Solonetz (WRB classification). Sampling was performed from all genetic horizons in each soil profile starting from topsoil until subsoil. Total DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA sequencing was provided together with chemical analysis of soil (pH measurement, C and N contents, etc.). Structure and diversity of prokaryotic community are significantly different in those soil horizons, which chemical properties and processes of origin are contrasting with nearest horizons: Na-enriched horizon of Solonetz, eluvial horizon of Albeluvisol, plough pan of Agrochernozem. Actinobacteria were abundant in top horizons of soils in warm and dry climate, while Acidobacteria had the highest frequency in soils of moist and cold regions. Concerning Archaea, Thaumarchaeota prevailed in all studied soils. Their rate was higher in microbiomes of upper horizons of steppe soils and it was reducing with depth down the profile. Prokaryotic communities in Chernozems were clustered by soil horizons types: microbiomes of A (organic topsoil) and B (mineral) horizons formed non-overlapping clusters by principal component analysis, cluster formed by prokaryotic communities of transitional soil horizons (AB) take place between clusters of A and B horizons. Moreover, prokaryotic communities of A horizons differ from each other strongly, while microbiomes of B horizons formed a narrow small cluster. It must be explaned by more diverse conditions in upper A horizons

  15. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  16. Grazing Effects on Water Use Efficiency on a Mongolian Desert Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C.; Chen, J.; Li, L.; John, R.; Ouyang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystem-level water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary production (GPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), was assessed by continuous and simultaneous direct eddy-covariance (EC) measurements of carbon and water fluxes on adjacent pastures of grazed (DS) and ungrazed steppes (FS) in the Mongolia Plateau for a two-year period from 2010 to 2012. We found that the WUE was well positively linear correlated (r2=0.90) with the GEP both in the DS and FS. Due to our desert steppe was very sensitive to the precipitation, WUE was co-varied with the precipitation. WUE increased with the GEP increase under good water conditions, when the GEP reached its maximal value (DS: 3 g C m-2, FS: 2 g C m-2), the WUE was suppressed and kept a stable value during the peak growing season. Both GEP and WUE was near zero when the soil moisture was lower. We also found that the WUE was negatively correlated with ET. The WUE was higher in GS than that in FS. The mean seasonal WUE was 0.93 in GS and 0.54 g C kg-1 H2O in FS, with a peak monthly WUE of 1.32 in GS and 0.73 g C kg-1 H2O in FS, respectively. The difference between GS and FS mainly caused by that the ET was changed with the GEP during the entire growing season. This suggests the importance of both plant population dynamics and water statues should be considered in WUE studies.

  17. Modeling responses of the meadow steppe dominated by Leymus chinensis to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yonghe

    2007-01-01

    Grassland is one of the most widespread vegetation types worldwide and plays a significant role in regional climate and global carbon cycling. Understanding the sensitivity of Chinese grassland ecosystems to climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 and the effect of these changes on the grassland ecosystems is a key issue in global carbon cycling. China encompasses vast grassland areas of 354 million ha of 17 major grassland types, according to a national grassland survey. In this study, a process-based terrestrial model the CENTURY model was used to simulate potential changes in net primary productivity (NPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC) of the Leymus chinensis meadow steppe (LCMS) under different scenarios of climatic change and elevated atmospheric CO2. The LCMS sensitivities, its potential responses to climate change, and the change in capacity of carbon stock and sequestration in the future are evaluated. The results showed that the LCMS NPP and SOC are sensitive to climatic change and elevated CO2. In the next 100 years, with doubled CO2 concentration, if temperature increases from 2.7-3.9C and precipitation increases by 10% NPP and SOC will increase by 7-21% and 5-6% respectively. However, if temperature increases by 7.5-7.8C and precipitation increases by only 10% NPP and SOC would decrease by 24% and 8% respectively. Therefore, changes in the NPP and SOC of the meadow steppe are attributed mainly to the amount of temperature and precipitation change and the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the future

  18. Carbon balance assessment by eddy covariance method for agroecosystems with potato plants and oats & vetch mixture on sod-podzolic soils of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, J. L.; Yaroslavtsev, A. M.; Vasenev, I. I.; Andreeva, I. V.; Tihonova, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    The carbon balance for the agroecosystems with potato plants and oats & vetch mixture on sod-podzolics soils was evaluated using the eddy covariance approach. Absorption of carbon was recorded only during the growing season; maximum values were detected for all crops in July. The number of days during the vegetation period, when the carbon stocked in the fields with potatoes and oats & vetch mixture was about the same and accounted for 53-55 days. During this period, the increase in gross primary production (GPP) is well correlated with the crop yields. The curve of the gross primary productivity is closely linked to the phases of development of plants; for potatoes, this graph differs significantly for all phases. Form of oats & vetch mixture biomass curve shown linear increases. Carbon losses were observed for all the studied agroecosystems: for fields with an oats & vetch mixture they were 254 g C m-2 y-1, while for fields with potato plants they were 307 g C m-2 y-1. Values about 250-300 g C m-2 per year may be considered as estimated values for the total carbon uptake for agroecosystems with potato plants and oats & vetch mixture on sod-podzolic soils.

  19. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  20. Geopolitical warm spots : Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    Oil production in Russia has increased by 50 per cent since 1999 and future growth appears to be promising. Major companies are being encouraged to re-invest in Russia's upstream sector due to high oil prices and a stable domestic business environment. The Centre for Global Energy Studies has conducted a study which reveals that in the next 10 years, Russian oil production could exceed the levels reached in the last years of the Soviet era. Oil production could reach 10 million barrels per day (mbpd) within 3 years, and 13 mbpd by 2015. All excess oil produced will be exported. The factors that may limit the expansion of the oil industry in Russia include political interference from Moscow, insufficient pipeline capacity to transport the oil to export terminals, and lower international oil prices. The greatest potential for increased oil production lies in West Siberia. Although West Siberia will continue to dominate Russia's oil production, companies will also need to focus on less mature regions such as East Siberia, the North Caspian and the Far East. tabs., figs

  1. Gazprom, Russia's weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniouchkine, V.; Zigar, M.

    2008-01-01

    World number one producer of natural gas, Russia owns a third of the proven reserves. Gazprom company, under the control of the government and with a capital close to Microsoft's or Exxon Mobil's one, exploits this fabulous richness. Some highlights of its recent history show the dimension of the stakes: on January 1, 2006, Russia interrupts its gas supplies towards Ukraine. The immediate consequence is a voltage drop in Italy and France: the European Union is dependent at 26% of the Russian gas, Finland at 100%, France at 25%.. In May 2008, Dmitri Medvedev, president of Gazprom's supervisory board becomes the President of the Russian Federations and in August 2008, Russia seizes the opportunity of the Georgian conflict to solve the problem of the gas paths in the Caspian area. Several anecdotes are presented in this book which aim at demonstrating the tight links between the history of Gazprom, who aspires to become one of the very first World companies, and the foreign policy of Russia. (J.S.)

  2. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  3. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  4. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  5. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  6. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  7. American Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Antsyferova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  8. Aging in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhitskaya, Olga

    2016-10-01

    Russia has always been at an intersection of Western and Eastern cultures, with its dozens of ethnic groups and different religions. The federal structure of the country also encompasses a variety of differences in socioeconomic status across its regions. This diversity yields complexity in aging research; aging people in Russia differ in terms of nationality, religion, political beliefs, social and economic status, access to health care, income, living conditions, etc. Thus, it is difficult to control for all these factors or to draw a picture of an "average" Russian older adult. Nevertheless, there is a great deal of research on aging in Russia, mainly focusing on biomedical and social aspects of aging. Most such research is based in the Central and Western regions, whereas the Siberian and Far East regions are underrepresented. There is also a lack of secondary databases and representative nationwide studies. Social policy and legislation address the needs of older adults by providing social services, support, and protection. The retirement system in Russia enables adults to retire at relatively young ages-55 and 60 years for women and men, respectively-but also to maintain the option of continuing their professional career or re-establishing a career after a "vocation" period. Though in recent years the government has faced a range of political issues, affecting the country's economy in general, budget funds for support of aging people have been maintained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Soil carbon sequestration due to post-Soviet cropland abandonment: estimates from a large-scale soil organic carbon field inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertebach, Tim-Martin; Hölzel, Norbert; Kämpf, Immo; Yurtaev, Andrey; Tupitsin, Sergey; Kiehl, Kathrin; Kamp, Johannes; Kleinebecker, Till

    2017-09-01

    The break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered cropland abandonment on a continental scale, which in turn led to carbon accumulation on abandoned land across Eurasia. Previous studies have estimated carbon accumulation rates across Russia based on large-scale modelling. Studies that assess carbon sequestration on abandoned land based on robust field sampling are rare. We investigated soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks using a randomized sampling design along a climatic gradient from forest steppe to Sub-Taiga in Western Siberia (Tyumen Province). In total, SOC contents were sampled on 470 plots across different soil and land-use types. The effect of land use on changes in SOC stock was evaluated, and carbon sequestration rates were calculated for different age stages of abandoned cropland. While land-use type had an effect on carbon accumulation in the topsoil (0-5 cm), no independent land-use effects were found for deeper SOC stocks. Topsoil carbon stocks of grasslands and forests were significantly higher than those of soils managed for crops and under abandoned cropland. SOC increased significantly with time since abandonment. The average carbon sequestration rate for soils of abandoned cropland was 0.66 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 (1-20 years old, 0-5 cm soil depth), which is at the lower end of published estimates for Russia and Siberia. There was a tendency towards SOC saturation on abandoned land as sequestration rates were much higher for recently abandoned (1-10 years old, 1.04 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ) compared to earlier abandoned crop fields (11-20 years old, 0.26 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ). Our study confirms the global significance of abandoned cropland in Russia for carbon sequestration. Our findings also suggest that robust regional surveys based on a large number of samples advance model-based continent-wide SOC prediction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Patterns and dynamics of Cs-137 soil contamination on the plot scale of the Bryansk Region (Russia): the role of processes, connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander; Saveliev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    parameters, general additive models were used. According to results of modeling using a detailed and a generalized grid it has been found (Linnik, Saveliev et.al., 2007), that in accumulation zones (depressions) 137Cs deposit was lower when Laplace operator was positive (Laplace1>0=915 kBq/m2; Laplace2>0=921 kBq/m2) than in wash-out zones, singled out by negative values of Laplace operator (Laplace1Saveliev A.A., Govorun A.P., Ivanitsky O.M., Sokolov A.V. Spatial Variability and Topographic Factors of 137Cs Soil Contamination at a Field Scale// International Journal of Ecology & Development, 2007, Vol. 8, No.7, p.8-25.

  11. Simulating the Dependence of Sagebrush Steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Semi-Arid Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Strand, E. K.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In mountainous regions across the western USA, the composition of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sagebrush steppe plant communities is often closely related to heterogeneous soil moisture subsidies resulting from redistributed snow. With decades of climate and precipitation data across elevational and precipitation gradients, the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) and critical zone observatory (CZO) in southwest Idaho provides a unique opportunity to study the relationship between vegetation types and redistributed snow. Within the RCEW, the total amount of precipitation has remained unchanged over the past 50 years, however the percentage of the precipitation falling as snow has declined by approximately 4% per decade at mid-elevation sites. As shifts in precipitation phase continue, future trends in vegetation composition and net primary productivity (NPP) of different plant functional types remains a critical question. We hypothesize that redistribution of snow may supplement drought sensitive species like aspen more so than drought tolerant species like mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana). To assess the importance of snowdrift subsidies on sagebrush steppe vegetation, NPP of aspen, shrub, and grass species was simulated at three sites using the biogeochemical process model BIOME-BGC. Each site is located directly downslope from snowdrifts providing soil moisture inputs to aspen stands and neighboring vegetation. Drifts vary in size with the largest containing up to four times the snow water equivalent (SWE) of a uniform precipitation layer. Precipitation inputs used by BIOME-BGC were modified to represent the redistribution of snow and simulations were run using daily climate data from 1985-2013. Simulated NPP of annual grasses at each site was not responsive to subsidies from drifting snow. However, at the driest site, aspen and shrub annual NPP was increased by as much as 44 and 30%, respectively, with the redistribution of

  12. Refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ant nests reduce the intensity of above-ground competition among neighboring plants in a Patagonian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Lescano, María Natalia

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments, the high availability of sunlight due to the scarcity of trees suggests that plant competition take place mainly belowground for water and nutrients. However, the occurrence of soil disturbances that increase nutrient availability and thereby promote plant growth may enhance shoot competition between neighboring plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the influence of the enriched soil patches generated by the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, on the performance of the alien forb Carduus thoermeri (Asteraceae) under different intraspecific competition scenarios. Our results showed that substrate type and competition scenario affected mainly aboveground plant growth. As expected, plants growing without neighbors and in nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed more aboveground biomass than plants growing with neighbors and in nutrient-poor steppe soils. However, aboveground competition was more intense in nutrient-poor substrates: plants under shoot and full competition growing in the nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed higher biomass than those growing on steppe soils. Belowground biomass was similar among focal plants growing under different substrate type. Our results support the traditional view that increments in resource availability reduce competition intensity. Moreover, the fact that seedlings in this sunny habitat mainly compete aboveground illustrates how limiting factors may be scale-dependent and change in importance as plants grow.

  13. Russia and Global Climate Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynkkynen, Nina

    2014-09-01

    Russia, as the fourth largest greenhouse-gas emitter in the world, and a major supplier of fossil fuels causing these emissions, played a decisive role in the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol, the main instrument of global climate policy so far. Domestically, serious political measures to combat climate change have yet to be taken. Thus, Russia's performance in global climate politics indicates that goals other than genuinely environmental ones, such as political or economic benefits, are the main motivation of Russia's participation. Also, Russia's national pride and its status as a great power are at stake here. This paper scrutinizes Russia's stance in global climate politics, offering an overview of Russia's engagement in international climate politics and its domestic climate policy. In the second part of the paper, Russia's engagement in global environmental politics is discussed in the context of Russia's world status and the great-power concept. Accordingly, the paper aims to shed light on how and why Russia behaves in global climate politics in the way it does. This may be of interest to actors in international environmental politics in general, and relevant to future climate negotiations in particular. (author)

  14. Community Structure and Productivity in Western Mongolian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyokazu Kawada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Mongolian steppe have maintained a sustainable, nomadic lifestyle. However, several ecological processes are threatening their way of life. Ecological changan be detected through the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. It is therefore, imperative to develop a sustainable rangeland management system aimed at combating desertifi cation. In this study we quantitatively and qualitatively describe several western Mongolian steppe plant communities by examining species composition, plant volume and community structure. Study sites were located in the Uvs and Khovd provinces and had all been affected by livestock grazing. A total of 48 species were found. Stipa krylovii , S . gobica , Cleistogenes songorica , Koeleria cristata and Ajania achilleoides were dominant. There was a signifi cant relationship between biomass and plant volume at all sites. Study sites were classifi ed into four groups using cluster analysis, based on the presence or absence of several species. More than 90% of plant volumes at all groups were perennial grasses and perennial forbs. The ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants at site 3 was reversed in comparison to the other sites. Species highly palatable to livestock were dominant at all sites. To ensure the sustainable use of biological resources in these arid areas, these fi ndings should be taken into account in designing land-use plans.

  15. Irrigated cotton grown on sierozem soils in South Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gloldnaya steppe has large areas of fertile sierozem soils that are important for crop production and its accompanying economic development. The soils are fertile loams but because of the steppe’s dry environment, they need to be irrigated. Our objective was to study irrigation management of cot...

  16. Life sciences research at JINR, Dubna, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Within the broad spectrum of activities in the Life Sciences at JINR such as nuclear medicine and pharmacy, radiation biology, radioecology, radioisotope production radioanalytical investigations play a special role due to the long-term experience in multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the reactor IBR-2 of FLNP, JINR. INAA is presently being used in several projects on air pollution studies using bio monitors (moss, lichens, tree bark). The results for some selected areas of Central Russia, South Urals, and countries of Europe (Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Slovakia, Western Ukraine) are reported to the European Atlas of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition edited under the auspices of the Environmental Commission of the United Nations. Battering-ram studies using NAA were initiated also in Turkey, China and South Korea. Applied to the analysis of air filters, INAA is successfully used in assessing quality of London underground air, Sahara desert impact on the Greater Cairo Area. Epithermal activation analysis in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry and energy-disperse X-ray fluorescence allowed source evaluation of metals in soil from some industrial and metropolitan areas of Russia (South Urals, Cola Peninsula) and the USA (Minneapolis). The analytical possibilities of NAA are favorably used in biotechnology, (i) for investigation of bacterial leaching of metals, including uranium and thorium from low-grade ores, rocks and industrial wastes; (i i) in the development of new pharmaceuticals based on the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Occupational health studies are carried out at several fertilizer plants in Russia, Uzbekistan, Poland, Romania, Denmark and the Netherlands in the framework of the 5th Programme Copernicus. The quality of foodstuffs grown in some contaminated areas of Russia is investigated in the framework of IAEA Coordinated Research Programme. In

  17. Russia at GHG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  18. Russia's population sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    Russia's public health problems, which are a result in part of uncontrolled development, are a lesson for developing countries. Trends in births and deaths in Russia indicate that as socioeconomic conditions declined in recent years, the death rate increased. During 1992-93 the death rate increased from 12.1 per 1000 population to 14.5, with 75% of the increase due to cardiovascular disease, accidents, murder, suicide, and alcohol poisoning. Quality of health care was given as one reason for the high cardiovascular disease rate that included deaths due to even mild heart attacks. 20-30% of deaths are attributed to pollution. 75% of rivers and lakes in the former Soviet Union are considered unfit for drinking, and 50% of tap water is unsanitary. An estimated 15% of Russia's land area is considered to be an ecological disaster zone. Births declined from a peak of 2.5 million in 1987 to 1.4 million in 1994. During this same period deaths increased from 1.5 million to 2.3 million. In 1994 deaths exceeded births by 880,000. Life expectancy declined from 65 to 57 years for men and from 75 years to 71 years for women. Infant mortality is rising. 11% of newborns had birth defects, and 60% showed evidence of allergies or vitamin D deficiencies. The death rate during pregnancy was 50 per 1000 births, and 75% of Russian women experienced complications during pregnancy. Women's health in the reproductive years was compromised by gynecological infections. A survey in 1992 revealed that 75% of Russian women gave insufficient income as a reason for reduced childbearing. The social conditions in Russia and the former Soviet republics reflect a lack of confidence in the future. Demographic trends are affected by a complex set of factors including economic collapse, economic change and uncertainty, inadequate health care, and poor environmental conditions. These changes occurred during the mid-1980s and before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

  19. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  20. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we......This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  1. Projecting the Dependence of Sage-steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Strand, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, the redistribution of snow by wind can increase the effective precipitation available to vegetation. Moisture subsidies caused by drifting snow may be critical to plant productivity in semi-arid ecosystems. However, with increasing temperatures, the distribution of precipitation is becoming more uniform as rain replaces drifting snow. Understanding the ecohydrological interactions between sagebrush steppe vegetation communities and the heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture is essential for predicting and mitigating future losses in ecosystem diversity and productivity in regions characterized by snow dominated precipitation regimes. To address the dependence of vegetation productivity on redistributed snow, we simulated the net primary production (NPP) of aspen, sagebrush, and C3 grass plant functional types spanning a precipitation phase (rain:snow) gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory (RCEW-CZO). The biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC was used to simulate NPP at three sites located directly below snowdrifts that provide melt water late into the spring. To assess climate change impacts on future plant productivity, mid-century (2046-2065) NPP was simulated using the average temperature increase from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) data set under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. At the driest site, mid-century projections of decreased snow cover and increased growing season evaporative demand resulted in limiting soil moisture up to 30 and 40 days earlier for aspen and sage respectively. While spring green up for aspen occurred an average of 13 days earlier under climate change scenarios, NPP remained negative up to 40 days longer during the growing season. These results indicate that the loss of the soil moisture subsidy stemming from prolonged redistributed snow water resources can directly influence ecosystem productivity in the rain:snow transition zone.

  2. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  3. The FSU/Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2006-01-01

    The London-based Centre for Global Energy Studies claims that geopolitics has played a significant role in determining the current level of global oil production. It estimates that geopolitical events in a small group of countries have deprived the world of about 2 mbpd and nearly 8 mbpd of potential oil production since 2000. In particular, growth in oil production in 2005 in the Former Soviet Union (FSU)/Russia was at a standstill following 3 years of a steady growth rate of almost 10 per cent per year. Although a slowdown in the rate of output was anticipated, the near suspension of Russian output was mostly due to administrative intervention which discouraged the Russian oil industry from investing in new upstream capacity. The administrative conflicts included large tax hikes to the oil industry, resulting in fears of losing licences, ownership changes, and rising costs of new developments and transportation. It was concluded that while Russia has the resources to improve oil production, the incentive for the oil industry to grow will depend greatly on the actions of the federal government and the policies it puts forward to regulate its oil industry. tabs., figs

  4. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.M.; Zeisler, N.

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  5. Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fulin; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO₂ flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm) was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm), while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm) and 2010 (141.3 mm) was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO₂ throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat)) and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco)) exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat) were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP) and R(eco), and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco). The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution.

  6. Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulin Yang

    Full Text Available Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO₂ flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm, while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm and 2010 (141.3 mm was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO₂ throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP and R(eco, and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco. The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution.

  7. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  8. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Veselý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring

  9. Management Approaches to Accomplish Contemporary Livestock Production-Conservation Objectives in Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional rangeland management in the shortgrass steppe has emphasized livestock production with moderate stocking rates, but alternative approaches will be needed to meet production objectives under increasing demands for conservation-oriented management. We investigated the utility of very inten...

  10. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  11. Indicators of ecosystem function identify alternate states in the sagebrush steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, Emily; Rocca, Monique E; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    Models of ecosystem change that incorporate nonlinear dynamics and thresholds, such as state-and-transition models (STMs), are increasingly popular tools for land management decision-making. However, few models are based on systematic collection and documentation of ecological data, and of these, most rely solely on structural indicators (species composition) to identify states and transitions. As STMs are adopted as an assessment framework throughout the United States, finding effective and efficient ways to create data-driven models that integrate ecosystem function and structure is vital. This study aims to (1) evaluate the utility of functional indicators (indicators of rangeland health, IRH) as proxies for more difficult ecosystem function measurements and (2) create a data-driven STM for the sagebrush steppe of Colorado, USA, that incorporates both ecosystem structure and function. We sampled soils, plant communities, and IRH at 41 plots with similar clayey soils but different site histories to identify potential states and infer the effects of management practices and disturbances on transitions. We found that many IRH were correlated with quantitative measures of functional indicators, suggesting that the IRH can be used to approximate ecosystem function. In addition to a reference state that functions as expected for this soil type, we identified four biotically and functionally distinct potential states, consistent with the theoretical concept of alternate states. Three potential states were related to management practices (chemical and mechanical shrub treatments and seeding history) while one was related only to ecosystem processes (erosion). IRH and potential states were also related to environmental variation (slope, soil texture), suggesting that there are environmental factors within areas with similar soils that affect ecosystem dynamics and should be noted within STMs. Our approach generated an objective, data-driven model of ecosystem dynamics

  12. Artemisia pollen-indicated steppe distribution in southern China during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM was the coldest period during the previous 20,000 years. There have been different points of views on steppe distribution during the LGM period in southern China, partly due to the different interpretations of Artemisia occurrences. To make a reliable interpretation of the pollen fossil Artemisia, the modern distribution of Artemisia species and the relationship of pollen with climate and vegetation over a large spatial scale in China was thoroughly analyzed. Information about Artemisia species and pollen distributions used in this paper were collected from published works completed by other researchers as well as ourselves. The southern limit of steppe vegetation during the LGM period was interpreted from the published contour map of Artemisia pollen percentages during the LGM. Artemisia species in China are mostly distributed either in the horizontally distributed steppe regions or in the vertically distributed desert-steppe in the desert region, which indicates a cold and dry climate. The steppe is a distribution center of Artemisia pollen. Fractions of Artemisia in surface pollen assemblages are lower in both the desert and the temperate forest. Neither high Artemisia species cover nor high percentages of Artemisia pollen were found in the coast areas of China. Twenty-five percent of Artemisia pollen in sediments might indicate a local occurrence of steppe vegetation. Percentages of Artemisia pollen in the subtropical and tropical forest are less than 10%. A close relationship between Artemisia pollen and temperate steppe in China is demonstrated. The southern edge of the steppe vegetation during the LGM might be along the middle reach of the Yangtze River. Our results support the hypothesis that the isolated high fraction of Artemisia pollen along the northern edge of the South China Sea was transported from a large source area.

  13. Effects of nitrogen addition and fire on plant nitrogen use in a temperate steppe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Wei Wei

    Full Text Available Plant nitrogen (N use strategies have great implications for primary production and ecosystem nutrient cycling. Given the increasing atmospheric N deposition received by most of the terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the responses of plant N use would facilitate the projection of plant-mediated N cycling under global change scenarios. The effects of N deposition on plant N use would be affected by both natural and anthropogenic disturbances, such as prescribed fire in the grassland. We examined the effects of N addition (5.25 g N m(-2 yr(-1 and prescribed fire (annual burning on plant N concentrations and N use characters at both species and community levels in a temperate steppe of northern China. We found that N addition and fire independently affected soil N availability and plant N use traits. Nitrogen addition increased aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP, inorganic N, and N uptake, decreased N response efficiency (NRE, but did not affect biomass-weighed N concentrations at community level. Prescribed fire did not change the community level N concentrations, but largely decreased N uptake efficiency and NRE. At the species level, the effects of N addition and fire on plant N use were species-specific. The divergent responses of plant N use at community and species levels to N addition and fire highlight the importance of the hierarchical responses of plant N use at diverse biological organization levels to the alteration of soil N availability. This study will improve our understanding of the responses of plant-mediated N cycling to global change factors and ecosystem management strategies in the semiarid grasslands.

  14. Ukraine and Russia in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklosa, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    In order to comprehend Poland’s support for its Ukrainian neighbour in the Ukraine-Russia conflict, it is important to go back to the difficult Polish-Ukrainian neighbouring relations following the Second World War....

  15. Medical exposure in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnisky, S.A.; Bazukin, A.B.; Ivanov, E.V.; Jakubovskiy-Lipsky, Y.O.; Vlasova, M.M.; Gontsov, A.A.; Ivanov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there have been considerable changes in radiology, which is because of coming to a new form of property, reforms of health services and crisis in the society. Big area, bad means of communication and low density of population in most regions of the country should be also mentioned among the factors influencing the level of both health protection and radiology services. All these factors don't allow to create an effective radiology system in a short time. Meanwhile the main nearest task of radiology is the integration and optimization of all means of visualization on the basis of solving fundamental problems of health protection according to the Federal program, normative acts and decrees of the government. In this connection it seemed to be an urgent task to estimate various aspects of radiology activity of Russian health in the dynamics for the recent period of time. The data of the state statistics are to be used to cope with this task. These data on the basis of the computer program 'Region', the quantity indices of various visualization methods used in Russia and the doses of exposure of the population have been estimated and the reference book 'Medical irradiation of the population in Russia. 1980-1997 years' has been published. It turned out that the average annual number of X-ray examinations per thousand population in Russia before 1988 year was constantly up to 1600. And only then because of Chernobyl accident its increase stopped and its gradual decline began (table 1). Such high frequency of the examinations was caused mainly by the large scales of mass preventive photofluorography (more than 40%), held for early tuberculosis exposure. It was as a result of reorganization of fluorographic examination system started in the late 80s and early 90s that this pernicious tendency was overcome and the number of fluorography was reduced almost twice from 90 to 56 millions a year, which considerably contributed to reducing the exposure. Unfortunately as

  16. Soil carbon fractions and enzyme activities under different vegetation types on the Loess Plateau of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haixin; Zeng, Quanchao; An, Shaoshan; Dong, Yanghong; Darboux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation restoration was effective way of protecting soil erosion and water conservation on the Loess Plateau. Carbon fractions and enzyme activities were sensitive parameters for assessment of soil remediation through revegetation. Forest, forest steppe and grassland soils were collected at 0–5 cm and 5–20 cm soil layers in Yanhe watershed, Shaanxi Province. Urease, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), easily ox...

  17. Structural-functional concept of thermophysical condition of the soils of Altai Region

    OpenAIRE

    Makarychev, Sergey; Bolotov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to reveal the quantitative interrelations between the thermophysical indices (thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) and physical soil properties such as; moisture content, density and detachability. According to the research targets, the soil samples including different genesis and soil particle size distribution were taken in different soil and climatic zones of the Altai Region. These were the sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of the dry steppes, chernozems an...

  18. Bioavailability of caesium-137 from chernozem soils with high and low levels of radioactive contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Machaeva, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Bioavailability of Cs-137 in "soil-plant" system of radioactively contaminated terrestrial ecosystems is the most important factor in the understanding of ecological situation. There are many factors affecting the features of Cs-137 biogeochemical cycle: period since an accident, type and intensity of radioactive fallout, general properties of landscape and the specifics of soil and plant covers, etc. In order to evaluate the importance of soil contamination level for the process of Cs-137 translocation from soil to plant the research in forest-steppe areas of Russia with similar natural properties, but contrasting high (Tula region) and low (Kursk region) levels of radioactive Chernobyl fallout (about 25 years after accident) was conducted. Soil cover of both sites is presented by chernozems with bulk density 1.1-1.2 g/cm3, 6-7% humus and neutral pH 6.5-7.2; plant cover under investigation consist of dry and wet meadows with bioproductivity 1.6-2.5 kg/m2 and 85-90% of biomass concentrated underground, that is typical for Russian forest-steppe landscapes. At the same time levels of soil regional contamination with Cs-137 differ by an order - 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m2) in Tula region and 30-55 Bq/kg (10-20 kBq/m2) in Kursk region. At a higher level of soil radioactive contamination specific activity of Cs-137 in vegetation of meadows is noticeably increased (103-160 Bq/kg in Tula region versus 12-14 Bq/kg in Kursk region) with correlation coefficient r 0.87. Increasing of Cs-137 in the underground parts of plants plays a decisive role in this process, while the specific radionuclide's activity in the aboveground parts of different sites is almost invariant (and ubiquitously roots contain 2-5 times more Cs-137 than shoots). The values of transfer factors for Cs-137 (the ratio of the specific Cs-137 activities in the plant tissue and in the soil) at various levels of soil radioactive contamination vary within a relatively narrow range 0.1-0.4, that confirms the

  19. Geographic Information System and Geoportal «River basins of the European Russia»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.; Maltsev, K. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ermolaeva, P. O.; Gayazov, A. I.; Mozzherin, V. V.; Kharchenko, S. V.; Marinina, O. A.; Lisetskii, F. N.

    2018-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geoportal with open access «River basins of the European Russia» were implemented. GIS and Geoportal are based on the map of basins of small rivers of the European Russia with information about natural and anthropogenic characteristics, namely geomorphometry of basins relief; climatic parameters, representing averages, variation, seasonal variation, extreme values of temperature and precipitation; land cover types; soil characteristics; type and subtype of landscape; population density. The GIS includes results of spatial analysis and modelling, in particular, assessment of anthropogenic impact on river basins; evaluation of water runoff and sediment runoff; climatic, geomorphological and landscape zoning for the European part of Russia.

  20. Russia skyshine experiment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubosaka, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawabe, Toshiaki [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueki, Kohtaro [National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies of neutron and gamma-radiation skyshine at nuclear reactor are proceeding in cooperation with Russia, Kazakhstan and Japan as a project of international science technology center (ISTC). Fast neutron streaming from the vertical experimental hole of IVG.1M reactor which has a cylindrical core are analyzed by a monte carlo n-particle transport code (MCNP) with variance reduction methods, in which a weight window method and a cell importance method can be selected. Calculation results on radial distribution of fast neutron flux at 100 cm above the reactor is compared with the experimental values. The calculated values of neutron flux by using the cell importance method, however, is very different from the experimental values at close distance of 10 cm from the center. Skyshine analysis of neutron radiation streaming from the reactor are also carried out by the equivalent source model in which a point source and the detectors are located at 10 cm and 1 m above the ground, respectively. The calculated values of total neutron flux distribution are very close to the experimental values. The effects of the air composition on neutron flux calculation are also investigated. (M. Suetake)

  1. Russia: the energy weapon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensebaa, F.; Du Castel, V.

    2008-01-01

    A few weeks ahead of the Russian presidential elections and in the current context of hydrocarbon prices rises, Futuribles is publishing an article this month on the return of the state to the heart of the Russian energy sector. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian government has carried out an important restructuring of the national energy sector around major public and private companies. The main objectives of this reorganization were to sustain the economic growth of Russia and also - increasingly, in the view of Faouzi Bensebaa and Viviane du Castel - gain the country greater influence on the international scene. In this article, the authors present an assessment of the Russian energy sector and turn the spotlight on a number of projects (Sakhalin 1 and 2, Khariaga) which particularly illustrate the Russian strategy of controlling hydrocarbon resources for economic and geopolitical ends. They show, in this way, how the state is gradually taking over control of national energy resources (including by going back on agreements struck with foreign partner companies) and using that control for political ends (particularly towards 'nearby foreign countries'). At the end of their article, they nevertheless stress the factors militating against this renewed control of the energy sector: contradictions internal to the Russian regime, technological backwardness, international financial inter-linkages... (authors)

  2. SCWR Concept in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    An increase in the efficiency of NPPs with light-water reactors through ‘nuclear’ steam superheating was one of the problems solved in the field of nuclear power industry. The commissioning of the Beloyarsk NPP, Units 1&2 with the channel-type reactor in the sixties of the 20th century showed the potential of realization of this idea and the necessity to solve a series of problems in technology and materials science. The NPP operation experience, elaboration and operational experience of steam superheating channels are extremely important in choosing the ways of design development of Generation IV reactors with supercritical pressure coolant water. The first technical proposal on a supercritical water cooled reactor of vessel type made in Russia in 1986 was the design of a two-circuit reactor plant (RP). The concept of the two-circuit RP of integrated type VVER-SCP-I with electric power of 500 MW was proposed in 1990. The design activities on these projects were performed at OKB GIDROPRESS and the analyses were carried out at the RRC Kurchatov Institute. The State Science Center of the Russian Federation Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF IPPE) has been performing the computational studies of a single-circuit RP VVER-SCP since 2001. In 2006 OKB GIDROPRESS launched the design effort and computational analyses to corroborate the design of a single loop RP.

  3. The Bering Land Bridge: a moisture barrier to the dispersal of steppe-tundra biota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Scott A.; Crocker, Barnaby

    2008-12-01

    The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) connected the two principal arctic biological refugia, Western and Eastern Beringia, during intervals of lowered sea level in the Pleistocene. Fossil evidence from lowland BLB organic deposits dating to the Last Glaciation indicates that this broad region was dominated by shrub tundra vegetation, and had a mesic climate. The dominant ecosystem in Western Beringia and the interior regions of Eastern Beringia was steppe-tundra, with herbaceous plant communities and arid climate. Although Western and Eastern Beringia shared many species in common during the Late Pleistocene, there were a number of species that were restricted to only one side of the BLB. Among the vertebrate fauna, the woolly rhinoceros was found only to the west of the BLB, North American camels, bonnet-horned musk-oxen and some horse species were found only to the east of the land bridge. These were all steppe-tundra inhabitants, adapted to grazing. The same phenomenon can be seen in the insect faunas of the Western and Eastern Beringia. The steppe-tundra beetle fauna of Western Beringia was dominated by weevils of the genus Stephanocleonus, a group that was virtually absent from Eastern Beringia. The dry-adapted weevils, Lepidophorus lineaticollis and Vitavitus thulius were important members of steppe-tundra communities in Eastern Beringia, but were either absent or rare in Western Beringia. The leaf beetles Chrysolina arctica, C. brunnicornis bermani, and Galeruca interrupta circumdata were typical members of the Pleistocene steppe-tundra communities of Western Beringia, but absent from Eastern Beringia. On the other hand, some steppe tundra-adapted leaf beetles managed to occupy both sides of the BLB, such as Phaedon armoraciae. Much of the BLB remains unstudied, but on biogeographic grounds, it appears that there was some kind of biological filter that blocked the movements of some steppe-tundra plants and animals across the BLB.

  4. Thermal conditions of the grape growing season within the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine (on the example of Kharkiv region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Борис Шуліка

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the results of the thermal conditions observations within the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine as one of the most important factors for successful cultivation of grapes, thus providing crop productivity. Considering the effect of thermal factors, it can be noted that the intensity and speed of life processes of plants are well- defined under temperature conditions only in the circumstances where other environmental factors are not limited. The thermal regime was initially taken into account in practice in XVII century. In XIX century the agro-climatic areas to grow grapes were determined in North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine. Detailed studies of agro-climatic conditions of specific areas can more thoroughly to make conclusions and recommendations for the cultivation of grapes as a whole in the territory, and specifically in those areas were given. In studying the thermal balance of the territory the average and extreme temperature should be paid attention to. Characteristic features of the thermal regime are given in this paper based on the study of atmospheric phenomena, geomorphology and territories with radiation influence and water flow regime. Thermal treatment is subjected to anthropogenic influence, and in cultivating tenants can use appropriate agricultural practices (conceal bushes, warm soil and air, and even crops in protective ground, in greenhouses. Characteristically, technology of greenhouses growers is even used in Kherson region. These data can be used in neighborhood and the adjacent areas, especially they are useful for the practice of growing grapes. The possibility of successful cultivation of dozens of grape varieties in the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine has been well-grounded.

  5. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  6. Soil water availability and rooting depth as determinants of hydraulic architecture of Patagonian woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Bucci; Fabian G. Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; Frederick C. Meinzer; Maria E. Arce

    2009-01-01

    We studied the water economy of nine woody species differing in rooting depth in a Patagonian shrub steppe from southern Argentina to understand how soil water availability and rooting depth determine their hydraulic architecture. Soil water content and potentials, leaf water potentials (Leaf) hydraulic conductivity, wood density (Pw), rooting depth, and specific leaf...

  7. Assessment and prediction of the invasiveness of some alien plants in conditions of climate change in the steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Lykholat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the steppe Dnieper region is characterized by an abundance of naturalized alien species, some of which colonised over the last decade. Climate change, associated primarily with increasing temperature, became clearly manifested in this period. We tested the hypothesis that there is an association between climate change and the initiation of invasiveness of some alien plant species in the steppe Dnieper region. For this purpose, comparative studies of the distribution boundaries of naturalized alien trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants were conducted. Along the research route numerous 5–10-year-old broadleaf linden trees (Tilia platyphyllos Scop. were found in the man-made plantation communities of Dnipro city in areas with moist soil; seeded undergrowth was located at a significant distance from the adult linden plants. Numerous groups of young 7–10-year-old plants of the smoke trees (Cotinus coggygria Scop., which had a seed origin, were found in the shelterbelt and urban recreational plantations. Young 10–12-year-old virginal and generative plants of the black cherry (Padus serotina Ehrh. were found in large numbers in both the semi-natural and artificial plant communities at great distances from the adult trees. The alien plant species common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. showed the ability to form fairly sparse seminal seedlings, which was presented by the plants at the age of 4–7 years in both the natural and urban plant communities. The perennial herbaceous plant common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L. was found in the course of the research in ruderal habitats, urban plant communities, and also in the agrocoenoses. The common milkweed reached its greatest abundance in fields of winter crops, where the spread of this species was accompanied by a sharp decrease in the number of other species of segetal plants. Our study results confirm that the extension of the distribution boundaries of alien species over the last

  8. Soil salinization in different natural zones of intermontane depressions in Tuva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernousenko, G. I.; Kurbatskaya, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    Soil salinization features in semidesert, dry steppe, and chernozemic steppe zones within intermontane depressions in the central part of the Tuva Republic are discussed. Chernozems, chestnut soils, and brown desert-steppe soils of these zones are usually nonsaline. However, salinization of these zonal soils is possible in the case of the presence of salt-bearing parent materials (usually, the derivatives of Devonian deposits). In different natural zones of the intermontane depressions, salt-affected soils are mainly allocated to endorheic lake basins, where they are formed in places of discharge of mineral groundwater, and to river valleys. The composition and content of salts in the natural waters are dictated by the local hydrogeological conditions. The total content of dissolved solids in lake water varies from 1 to 370 g/L; the water is usually of the sulfate-chloride or chloride-sulfate salinity type; in some cases, soda-sulfate water is present. Soil salinity around the lakes is usually of the chloride-sulfate-sodium type; gypsum is often present in the profiles. Chloride salinization rarely predominates in this part of Tuva, because chlorides are easily leached off from the mainly coarse-textured soils. In some cases, the predominance of magnesium over sodium is observed in the composition of dissolved salts, which may be indicative of the cryogenic transformation of soil salts. Soda-saline soils are present in all the considered natural zones on minor areas. It is hardly possible to make unambiguous statements about the dominance of the particular type of salinity in the given natural zones. Zonal salinity patterns are weakly expressed in salinization of hydromorphic soils. However, a tendency for more frequent occurrence of soda-saline soils in steppe landscapes and chloride-sulfate salinization (often, with participation of gypsum) in the dry steppe and semidesert landscapes is observed.

  9. Annual methane budgets of sheep grazing systems were regulated by grazing intensities in the temperate continental steppe: A two-year case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhong, Mengying; Zhu, Yuhao; Yang, Helong; Johnson, Douglas A.; Rong, Yuping

    2018-02-01

    Methane (CH4) emission from animal husbandry accounts for a large percentage of anthropogenic contributions to CH4 emissions. Fully understanding of grazing management effects on the CH4 budget is essential for mitigating CH4 emissions in the temperate grazing steppe systems. Annual CH4 budgets for the sheep grazed steppes at various grazing intensities, un-grazing (UG, 0 sheep ha-1year-1), defer grazing (DG, 1.0 sheep ha-1 year-1), moderate grazing (MG, 1.43 sheep ha-1year-1), and heavy grazing (HG, 2.43 sheep ha-1year-1) were assessed across 2012-2014 in the agro-pastoral region of northern China. Annual soil CH4 uptake averaged across 2012-2014 were 1.1 ± 0.1, 2.4 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 for UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG sites. Non-growing season CH4 uptake comprised 50.0 ± 4.3% of annual CH4 uptake in 2012-2013 and 37.7 ± 2.0% in 2013-2014. DG and MG significantly promoted annual soil CH4 uptake (P 0.05). Bell-shaped relationship was presented between stocking rates and soil CH4 uptake (r2 = 0.59, P budgets for the grazed grasslands were -1.1 ± 0.1, 5.7 ± 0.6, 11.5 ± 1.5 and 15.5 ± 1.3 kg CH4-C ha-1 year-1 in UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG across 2012-2014. Soil CH4 uptake could offset 29.7 ± 5.6, 15.9 ± 4.3 and 6.8 ± 1.0% of total annual CH4 emissions from sheep, sheepfold and faeces in DG, MG, and HG. All grazed steppes are sources for atmospheric CH4 and the magnitude is regulated by grazing intensities. Sheep CH4 emissions for 1-g liveweight gain were 0.21, 0.32 and 0.37 g CH4-C in DG, MG and HG, respectively. DG is the recommended grazing management in this region to achieve greater herbage mass, higher sheep performance and lower CH4 emissions simultaneously.

  10. Problems of Recreational Industry in European Russia: Changes in Infrastructure, Environment, and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, M.; Lyaskovskiy, S. I.

    2011-12-01

    Forest and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have a great potential for recreation, including its active form, tourism. Soft peaceful landscapes and moderate summer climate provide pleasant conditions for family vacations. Numerous lakes and rivers provide places for swimming, boating, and fishing. These pleasant environmental conditions are complemented with abundant recreational choices such as historical places, old cities, towns, and monasteries filled with museums that deliver detailed information about the millennium-long Russian history. There are the vibrant cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg; cities along the Volga River; and the oldest cities in northwestern Russia, Novgorod and Pskov provide numerous options for cultural and entertaining programs for the most demanding travelers. The country has a broad range of private tour operators that cater to national and international travelers. Still there are problems which should be taken into account by travelers who chose to spend their precious vacation time in Russia. Infrastructure problems include a deficit of three-star hotels that are the mainstream of contemporary tourist business. Their number is growing exponentially in the past decade and at present remains insufficient, but the capacity building is progressing favorably. Climatic and environmental changes became a new and unexpected factor affecting the tourist industry in European Russia. Stable and strongly sustainable climate has been interrupted by extreme events that may cause additional discomfort for some people. Tour operators and hotel hosts both need to invest more to confront incremental weather (first of all investments in air conditioning are needed) and/or have substitute travel variants that are of equivalent quality. One of the unresolved issues remains the air quality problem in Moscow due to intense traffic and the possibility of peat fires in the neighboring Shatura region southeast of the city. This increases risks that must

  11. Russia-Scandinavia: dangerous liaisons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godzimirski, Jakub M.

    2011-01-01

    After a description of the geopolitical and strategic background of the relationships between Russia and Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) as some of these Scandinavian countries belong either to the EU or to NATO, the author more particularly addresses the energetic dimension of this geopolitical relationship. He discusses the level of energy dependence of the different Scandinavian countries, their energy consumptions regarding the different energy types, their imports and exports from and to Russia, and the historical dimension of relationships with Russia as well as their present technological exchanges in the field of energy infrastructures (mainly oil and gas pipelines, but also in the field of renewable energies). In conclusion, the author outlines the Nordic dimension of the Russian Grand Energy Strategy

  12. Effects of Spring Drought on Carbon Sequestration, Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in the Songnen Meadow Steppe in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang Dong; Jixun Guo; Jiquan Chen; Ge Sun; Song Gao; et al

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change projections suggest an increasing frequency of droughts and extreme rain events in the steppes of the Eurasian region. Using the eddy covariance method, we measured carbon and water balances of a meadow steppe ecosystem in Northeast China during 2 years which had contrasting precipitation patterns in spring seasons in 2007 and 2008. The meadow...

  13. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 3: Site level restoration decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Bruce A. Roundy; Eugene W. Schupp; Steven T. Knick; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2017-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  14. The role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in nitrogen availability, competition and plant invasion into the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin M. Goergen

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-arid sagebrush steppe of the Northeastern Sierra Nevada, resources are both spatially and temporally variable, arguably making resource availability a primary factor determining invasion success. N fixing plant species, primarily native legumes, are often relatively abundant in sagebrush steppe and can contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets. ...

  15. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE TETHYS DESERT-STEPPE REGION OF PALEARARTICS, BIOGEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES OF THE CAUCASUS. MESSAGE 1. TERRESTRIAL FAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to conduct a comparative analysis of the composition of the terrestrial fauna of the Tethys desert-steppe region of the Palearctic.Materials and methods. The work was based on the materials collected in different republics and regions of the Caucasus and the south of the European part of Russia during 50 years (from 1961 to 2016 which are kept in various domestic and foreign institutions. Catalogs on the studied model groups were also used to conduct the research. In making the dendrograms, a cluster analysis based on the Jaccard coefficient was used.Results. A detailed analysis was carried out by model groups of the animals of the Eastern and Western Thethys complexes of the desert-steppe region of the Palearctic. Comparative analysis has shown that a significant number of species and genera of the discussed territories is characterized by an exceptionally high ratio of endemic species and superspecies taxa. Indicators of endemism in model groups fluctuate depending on the population's ability to resettle. High endemism of faunas of darkling beetles, ground beetles, click beetles and land snails in the Eastern Tethys complex was noted.Conclusion. The Caucasus (in a new interpretation is characterized by a high percentage of endemism for the studied model groups. A large number of the common Tethys genera and species in all model groups attests to their fundamental role in the overall composition of the biota against the background of powerful autochthonous centers of species-formation and, most importantly, the formation and functioning of the Palaearctic desert-steppe belt as the Tethys ocean reduced. 

  17. The “People from Cherkasy”: The “Horde’s Cossacks” and “Serving Tatars” of the Forest-Steppe Borderlands (late 14th–15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vorotyntsev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives: To consider the problem of localization and the time of the appearance of the military community called the “people from Cherkasy” and other ethnic consortiums of the “Horde’s Cossacks” and “serving Tatars” in Lithuania and the Grand Duchy of Moscow’s border areas. Research materials: Medieval Russian chronicles – Nikonovskaya, Sofiyskaya Second, Ermolinskaya, Simeonovskaya, Ustyuzhskaya, the abbreviated svod of the late 15th century, as well as the list of noble families of 1475–1605, the Rodoslovets of Glinsky princes from the Rumyantsev collection, and the Story of the Kazan Tsardom (or the Kazan Chronicle. The author also used the archaeological research results of Ukrainian archaeo­logists О.B. Suprunenko, V.V. Priymak and K.M. Mironenko in the territories of the forest-steppe zone on the Dnieper’s left bank. Results and novelty of the research: The author offers the conclusion that the “people from Cherkasy” were a Cossack military community, the so-called “Horde’s Cossacks”, that emerged in the 1430s on the lands of the middle Dnieper, with their center in Cherkasy and Kanev. Already by the late 14th – early 15th century, these lands were the official fiefs of Horde rulers (Toqtamish, Ulug-Muhammad who were forced to withdraw from the steppe to the neighboring territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania for military-political reasons. In the final part of the work, the author characterizes the feudal possessions of the “serving Tatars” and Cossack communities as polyethnic formations emerged in the zone of intensive ethno-cultural contacts in the forest-steppe borderlands of Russia and the Horde.

  18. Ecological estimation of the irrigated soils in Qarabagh plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Q.S.; Nuriyeva, K.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary agricultural science improved the known adaptive approaches in the past, for it accounting natural peccularities of the concrete region is offered with the assistance of agroecological estimation of soil. Using of collecting materials of the soil esological parameters of soil cover of the studying territory and applying the system of the private scales of the soil estimation on degree of display of their separate signs, the ecological estimation of the irrigated soils of Qarabagh steppe where the highest ecological marks have been got such as grey-brown dark (94 marks) and ordinary soils (93 marks) has been carried out

  19. Safety Regulation Implemented by Gosatomnadzor of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsalov, A.T.; Bukrinsky, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The principles and approaches used by Gosatomnadzor of Russia in establishing safety goals are described. The link between safety goals and safety culture is demonstrated. Information on nuclear regulatory activities in Russia is also presented

  20. The petroleum dilemma of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubinski, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Russia is confronted with major choices in the research of an optimum petroleum strategy. Now the first world exporter, Russia takes advantage of the Usa policy, first importer, which aim to diversify their supply sources since the 11 september 2001, to decrease their dependence from the Saudi Arabia and more generally from the instable Middle East. In another hand, Moscow wants to minimize the dependence of the petroleum benefit and the oils prices fluctuations, by a diversification of its economy structure. These choices define a part of the russian policy in the context of the presidential elections of march 2004. (A.L.B.)

  1. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, Anna

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  2. On the issue of taxonomical status of steppe viper (Vipera renardi in Right-bank Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Baybuz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on morphologic variability of the steppe viper in the Kirovograd region (Right-bank Ukraine are given firstly. Tentative estimation of the similaritylevel of the local population and the populations from the Left-bank Ukraine and the Crimea was carried out using methods of the multivariate statistics. Morphological data in line with the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis show that the population in the Kirovograd region belongs to widespread Eurasian species Vipera renardiand morphologically most close to the original populations of the lowland Crimea, Sivash and Forest-Steppe of the Left-bank Ukraine. This could indicate the complicated history of the Right-bank Ukraine colonization by the steppe viper and possible influence of environmental conditions on the vipers’ morphology

  3. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  4. Possibility of Morphometrical Determining of Sex of Steppe Eagle Nestlings from Western and Eastern Populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism among nestlings of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis is poorly manifested. Thus, determining of sex by morphometric methods encountered many difficulties and could be completed only by the most experienced ornithologists who knows the species very well. This article presents a morphometric method for determining sex of nestlings of the Steppe Eagles from different breeding populations that belongs to different size classes. The method is based on classification formula obtained via linear discriminant analysis conducted for the data set of measurements of Steppe Eagle’s nestlings from Central Kazakhstan and Altai Republic in 2017. To control the sex determination of nestlings a molecular-genetics method was used.

  5. Biological recovery the steppe of Hammada scoparia after enclosure in the region of Naama (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucherit Hafidha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was being carried out in the steppe of remth (Hammada scoparia in Oranian part of the Saharan Atlas (Tiout - south of Naama. The H. scoparia of Saharan group occupies the foothills south of the Saharan Atlas and glazes and hamadas of the northern part of the Sahara where it seems to find its optimum development. The objective of the study is the floristic and ecological characterisation of the steppe vegetation groups of H. scoparia after 4 years of enclosure grazing (Eg. For the past three decades, steppe of H. scoparia were completely overwhelmed, both in their structure and their operation by increasing the herd and the continued use of natural pastures using animal load significantly higher than the production potential of course, which is reflected by the reduction of their capacity for natural regeneration.

  6. The microbially mediated soil organic carbon loss under degenerative succession in an alpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Liu, Xiao; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Sheng, Yuyu; Wang, Xiulei; Li, Diqiang; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun; Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye

    2017-07-01

    Land-cover change has long been recognized as having marked effect on the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the microbially mediated processes and mechanisms on SOC are still unclear. In this study, the soil samples in a degenerative succession from alpine meadow to alpine steppe meadow in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were analysed using high-throughput technologies, including Illumina sequencing and geochip functional gene arrays. The soil microbial community structure and diversity were significantly (p carbon degradation genes (e.g., pectin and hemicellulose) was significantly higher in alpine steppe meadow than in alpine meadow, but the relative abundance of soil recalcitrant carbon degradation genes (e.g., chitin and lignin) showed the opposite tendency. The Biolog Ecoplate experiment showed that microbially mediated soil carbon utilization was more active in alpine steppe meadow than in alpine meadow. Consequently, more soil labile carbon might be decomposed in alpine steppe meadow than in alpine meadow. Therefore, the degenerative succession of alpine meadow because of climate change or anthropogenic activities would most likely decrease SOC and nutrients medicated by changing soil microbial community structure and their functional potentials for carbon decomposition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Light use efficiency over two temperate steppes in inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Vegetation light use efficiency (LUE is a key parameter of Production Efficiency Models (PEMs for simulating gross primary production (GPP of vegetation, from regional to global scales. Previous studies suggest that grasslands have the largest inter-site variation of LUE and controlling factors of grassland LUE differ from those of other biomes, since grasslands are usually water-limited ecosystems. Combining eddy covariance flux data with the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy from MODIS, we report LUE on a typical steppe and a desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Results show that both annual average LUE and maximum LUE were higher on the desert steppe (0.51 and 1.13 g C MJ(-1 than on the typical steppe (0.34 and 0.88 g C MJ(-1, despite the higher GPP of the latter. Water availability was the primary limiting factor of LUE at both sites. Evaporative fraction (EF or the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration (AET/PET can explain 50-70% of seasonal LUE variations at both sites. However, the slope of linear regression between LUE and EF (or AET/PET differed significantly between the two sites. LUE increased with the diffuse radiation ratio on the typical steppe; however, such a trend was not found for the desert steppe. Our results suggest that a biome-dependent LUE(max is inappropriate, because of the large inter-site difference of LUE(max within the biome. EF could be a promising down-regulator on grassland LUE for PEMs, but there may be a site-specific relationship between LUE and EF.

  8. Eurasian perspectives on the role of kurgans in the conservation and restoration of steppe vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Balázs; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Péter; Sudnik-Wójcikowska, Barbara; Moysiyenko, Ivan; Bragina, Tatyana; Apostolova, Iva; Dembicz, Iwona; Bykov, Nikolai; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2017-04-01

    Steppe is among the most endangered biomes of the world, especially in Europe, where more than 90% of original steppes have been destroyed due to conversion into croplands, afforestation and other human activities. Because of the socio-economic changes of the past centuries, steppe vegetation is now often restricted to places inadequate for ploughing, such as ancient burial mounds called kurgans. Thus, beside that kurgans are millennia-old iconic historical monuments of the steppic landscape, they are vital in preserving both our cultural and natural heritage. We collected and synthesised existing knowledge on kurgans by a review of research papers and grey literature and provided recommendations for elaborating the involvement of kurgans into agri-environmental schemes. We found that the proportions of kurgans covered by steppe vegetation increase from west to east and from lowlands to uplands. Despite their small size, kurgans act as biodiversity hotspots and harbour many red-listed plant species. High biodiversity is maintained by a pronounced fine-scale environmental heterogeneity provided by the special micro-topography of the kurgans. We found that landscape-level land use changes such as intensified agriculture and construction works are the major threatening factors for biodiversity of kurgans. Despite the vital role of kurgans in sustaining steppe vegetation, we identified serious knowledge gaps on their distribution, vegetation, flora and fauna and their potential role in steppe restoration. We conclude that these sacral places play a crucial role in preserving steppe vegetation, especially in intensively used agricultural landscapes in the western part of the steppe zone. They maintain ecosystem functions at the landscape-level by providing refugia for rare grassland specialist species and ensuring habitat connectivity in anthropogenic landscapes. Based on our results we suggest improving existing agri-environmental schemes which only focus on the

  9. Carbon pool densities and a first estimate of the total carbon pool in the Mongolian forest-steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Degener, Jan; Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Yeruult, Yolk; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The boreal forest biome represents one of the most important terrestrial carbon stores, which gave reason to intensive research on carbon stock densities. However, such an analysis does not yet exist for the southernmost Eurosiberian boreal forests in Inner Asia. Most of these forests are located in the Mongolian forest-steppe, which is largely dominated by Larix sibirica. We quantified the carbon stock density and total carbon pool of Mongolia's boreal forests and adjacent grasslands and draw conclusions on possible future change. Mean aboveground carbon stock density in the interior of L. sibirica forests was 66 Mg C ha(-1) , which is in the upper range of values reported from boreal forests and probably due to the comparably long growing season. The density of soil organic carbon (SOC, 108 Mg C ha(-1) ) and total belowground carbon density (149 Mg C ha(-1) ) are at the lower end of the range known from boreal forests, which might be the result of higher soil temperatures and a thinner permafrost layer than in the central and northern boreal forest belt. Land use effects are especially relevant at forest edges, where mean carbon stock density was 188 Mg C ha(-1) , compared with 215 Mg C ha(-1) in the forest interior. Carbon stock density in grasslands was 144 Mg C ha(-1) . Analysis of satellite imagery of the highly fragmented forest area in the forest-steppe zone showed that Mongolia's total boreal forest area is currently 73 818 km(2) , and 22% of this area refers to forest edges (defined as the first 30 m from the edge). The total forest carbon pool of Mongolia was estimated at ~ 1.5-1.7 Pg C, a value which is likely to decrease in future with increasing deforestation and fire frequency, and global warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Towards a New Russia Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Johnson’s Russia List, February 27, 2006, available at www.cdi.org. On Korea, see C. Kenneth Quinones, “ Dualism in the Bush Administration’s North... Foster -Carter, “Pyongyang Watch: Six-Party Glacier: Did the US Melt?” Asia Times Online, June 28, 2004, www.atimes.com. The author can attest to

  11. PARALLEL IMPORT: REALITY FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  12. Russia and Egypt: Reproachment Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mohamed Abdou Hassan Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of Egypt’s foreign policy after Muhammed Morsi’s dismissal as a result of the political crisis in July 2013. The author considers the shift in the regional balance of power and draws a special attention to political, military and economic aspects of the collaboration between Egypt and Russia.

  13. A network of the steppe and forest steppe along the Prut and Lower Danube rivers during the 6th millennium BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Reingruber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a (predominantly mobile way of life relying on hunting, fishing and gathering to a (predominantly sedentary life-style based on farming and animal husbandry is considered in the western Pontic archaeological tradition almost exclusively from a southern, AegeanAnatolian perspective. Contacts between the steppe and forest steppe of the north-eastern Balkans and the north-western Pontic were seen as linear and unidirectional; ‘cultures’ were defined almost exclusively on the basis of pottery styles. Not only such traditional viewpoints, but also the political conditions of the 20th century further biased prehistoric research. However, the outer Carpathian region should not be treated as a periphery of the inner Carpathian Cris culture, but as a region of multidirectional exchange networks. Moreover, certain traditions are obviously rooted in the Mesolithic of that area.

  14. Natural self-reclamation of soils and landscapes affected by agriculture and mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Vladimir; Bech, Jaume; Alekseenko, Alexey; Shvydkaya, Natalya; Puzanov, Alexander; Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    Processes of possible self-restoration of technogenically disturbed soils are studied in Central and Southern European Russia. Reclamation procedures are mainly not implemented in this vast region, and the natural soil restoration is supposed. Heaps overlaying the former steppe and cropland landscapes are created in the course of rock waste stacking after preparative and cleaning mining works during the underground coal extraction. Approximately 1 500 heaps occupying over 8 000 ha were formed in the area of the Donets Coal Basin. Soils are destroyed under heaps, land subsidence occurs in coal mining areas and acid lakes are usually formed in these ground depressions. Spontaneous combustions happen often and can continue for decades. In order to prevent them, heap surfaces are in some cases levelled and filled with water, forming peculiar ponds. After 70 years of heaps existence and ca. 50 years after their ignition, soil formation is just in the early stages. Heap surface differs a lot in geochemical and mineralogical characteristics from those of surrounding steppe soils that suffered substantial changes at distances up to 1 km. Development of plant communities in areas near coal dumps and heaps is one of the indicators of landscape-geochemical changes. Formation of ruderal phytocenoses with 10-15 % of local flora, as well as invasive and introduced plants occurred under the complex impact of ecological conditions. Communities formed by them are distinguished by the structure simplicity, low species diversity, and plant growth anomalies. Quarries and dumps are formed during underground and open-cast mining of ore deposits. During the last 50 years after abandoning mines in forest areas, the 30 m deep quarries have filled with the creep material less for 0.5 m, and sediments from water streams have added 1-3 cm. Thickness of argillaceous layers does not exceed 1-2 cm at small rock chips of the dumps that measures up to 70 km in length. The dumps are partially

  15. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  16. Steppe development on the Northern Tibetan Plateau inferred from Paleogene ephedroid pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Fang; Rydin, Catarina; Bolinder, Kristina; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Abels, Hemmo A.; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Zhang, Kexin; Hoorn, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Steppe vegetation represents a key marker of past Asian aridification and is associated with monsoonal intensification. Little is, however, known about the origin of this pre-Oligocene vegetation, its specific composition and how it changed over time and responded to climatic variations. Here, we

  17. Dynamics of sugar content in vegetative organs of Syringa Genus representatives introduced into Steppe Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Dolgova

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative contents of sugars in phases of growth and development in overground organs of species of Syringa L. genus were determined. It is shown a cryoprotective role of sugars in plants. Conclusions on resistance of plants under conditions of a steppe zone are made.

  18. Lethal Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III infection in Steppe lemmings (Lagurus lagurus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmannová, L.; Sak, Bohumil; Jekl, V.; Mináriková, A.; Škorič, M.; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 205, 1-2 (2014), s. 357-360 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III * Steppe lemmings * Lethal infection * PCR * Histology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.460, year: 2014

  19. The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Peter de Barros; Martiniano, Rui; Kamm, Jack

    2018-01-01

    The Eurasian steppes reach from the Ukraine in Europe to Mongolia and China. Over the past 5000 years, these flat grasslands were thought to be the route for the ebb and flow of migrant humans, their horses, and their languages. de Barros Damgaard et al. probed whole-genome sequences from the rem...

  20. ISOTOPES, PLANTS, AND RESERVOIR EFFECTS : CASE STUDY FROM THE CASPIAN STEPPE BRONZE AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, N.; Zazovskaya, E.; van der Plicht, J.; Sevastyanov, V.; Boaretto, E.; Rebollo Franco, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen from several steppe Bronze Age cultures (i.e. Early Catacomb, East and West Manych Catacomb, and Lola cultures) shows large variations in delta C-13 and delta N-15 values. In general, we observed that the older the sample, the lower the delta C-13 and delta

  1. Linear objects impact on grassland degradation in the typical steppe region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suying; Verburg, Peter H.; Lv, Shihai; Gao, Shangyu; Wu, Jingle

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the issue of grassland degradation, few regional estimates of linear object impacts on grassland degradation [1]. We presented a methodology for evaluating regional impacts on steppe degradation from linear objects which were two uppermost types, rivers and roads, in

  2. Community structure affects annual grass weed invasion during restoration of a shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil S. Allen; Susan E. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration of shrub-steppe communities in the western United States is often hampered by invasion of exotic annual grasses during the process. An important question is how to create restored communities that can better resist reinvasion by these weeds. One hypothesis is that communities comprised of species that are functionally similar to the invader will...

  3. Satellite tracking of a young Steppe Eagle from the United Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following recovery and successful rehabilitation, a young Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis was tagged with a 45 g GPS satellite transmitter to track its migration and identify potential wintering and summering areas of the species passing through the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study is part of a larger study on ...

  4. Population status, habitat associations, and distribution of the steppe polecat Mustela eversmanii in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Spassov, N.; Anděra, M.; Enzinger, K.; Ottlecz, B.; Hegyeli, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 233-244 ISSN 0001-7051 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Steppe polecat * Mustela eversmanii * Distribution * Habitat associations * Population status * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.161, year: 2013

  5. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  6. Water relations and photosynthetic performance in Larix sibirica growing in the forest-steppe ecotone of northern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Bader, Martin; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Oyungerel, Shagjjav; Nyambayar, Suran; Runge, Michael; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Shoot water relations were studied in Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) trees growing at the borderline between taiga and steppe in northern Mongolia. Larix sibirica is the main tree species in these forests covering 80% of Mongolia's forested area. Minimum shoot water potentials (Psi(m)) close to the point of zero turgor (Psi(0)) repeatedly recorded throughout the growing season suggest that the water relations in L. sibirica were often critical. The Psi(m) varied in close relation to the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit, whereas Psi(0) was correlated with monthly precipitation. Young larch trees growing at the forest line to the steppe were more susceptible to drought than mature trees at the same sites. Furthermore, isolated trees growing on the steppe exhibited lower Psi(m) and recovered to a lower degree from drought overnight than the trees at the forest line. Indications of drought stress in L. sibirica were obtained in two study areas in Mongolia's forest-steppe ecotone: one in the mountain taiga of the western Khentey in northernmost Mongolia, the other in the forest-steppe at the southern distribution limit of L. sibirica on Mt. Bogd Uul, southern Khentey. Larix sibirica growing in riverine taiga with contact to the groundwater table was better water-supplied than the larch trees growing at the forest line to the steppe. Larch trees from the interior of light taiga forests on north-facing slopes, however, exhibited more critical water relations than the trees at the forest line. Frequent drought stress in mature trees and even more in young larch trees at the forest-steppe borderline suggests that L. sibirica does not have the potential to encroach on the steppe under the present climate, except in a sequence of exceptionally moist and cool years. A regression of the present borderline between forest and steppe is likely to occur, as average temperatures are increasing everywhere and precipitation is decreasing regionally in Mongolia's taiga forest

  7. KIRGHIZ STEPPE IN THE TRAVEL NOTES AND ESSAYS OF M. M. PRISHVIN: IMAGOLOGY AND POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Khudenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the cross-cutting images and themes related to topography of the Kirghiz steppe (now North-Eastern Kazakhstan in the works of M. M. Prishvin. Three early Prishvin’s texts — a Siberian diary “A Journey from Pavlodar to Karkaralinsk”, essays “Adam and Eve” and “A Black Arab” became an empirical base for it. The marginality of Prishvin’s texts in which the itinerant writer crosses the border between Europe and Asia as well as the border of consciousness, dwelling simultaneously in the space of its own and in the others’ space, permitted to reconstruct the landscape consciousness of the Kirghiz and Russian emigrees. The methodological feature of the study of these works along with the study of the poetics of the steppe images, the Kazakh, local legends and nomadic subjects, was a description of their imagological component induced by socio-historical, political and ethnic processes of the early twentieth century, the writer talks about in his books. So, the overall strategy of the narrative, moving from a documentary and essay principle to the poetic saturation by images is formed in his diaries. The essay “Adam and Eve” considers the issue of Russian immigrants, demonstrates the incompatibility between sedentary and nomadic life as two types of national behavior. A twofold image of the steppe — a foodless and saline steppe, and a rich and populated one — sets the parameters of social behavior of the rich and the poor in his essay “A Black Arab”. Basing on its materials the distinctive marks of the steppe as the Paradise are explored. Thus, the Asiatic world is seen by Prishvin through the principle of the landscape consciousness, which allowed reconstructing the features of the national image on the whole.

  8. Pleistocene Park: the restoration of steppes as a tool to mitigate climate change through albedo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, N.; Loranty, M. M.; Edgar, C.; Kropp, H.; Zimov, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene, the world largest ecosystem was the mammoth steppe. It stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to Canada and from the New Siberian Islands to China. It was a highly productive steppe ecosystem with numerous predators and herbivores that maintained the dominance of grasslands. With the end of the Pleistocene, the climate warmed and humans entered Siberia and the Americas. The introduction of humans as predators in these regions led to the extinction of most large animals, and the further degradation of the steppes. Mosses, shrubs and larch forest soon replaced grasses and herbs. Pleistocene Park is an experiment conducted in the far north of Siberia; its main goal is to revive the extinct steppe ecosystem in the Arctic. This would increase the richness of the northern ecosystems and, bioproductivity, and through a series of ecological mechanisms help to mitigate climate change. To conduct the experiment, was fenced 2000 hectares of land, and continue the ongoing process of introducing animals that either lived on this territory in the past or that can adapt to the modern northern environment. Through grazing, animals slowly transform the vegetation, replacing mosses, shrubs, and trees with grasses and herbs. Here we present the effects grazing animals have on the albedo of the landscape. Several years of year-round measurement of albedo and incoming and reflected radiation conducted in the grasslands in the park indicate substantially higher albedo compared with most modern ecosystems like larch forest and shrublands. Since grasses are lighter than forest, they reflect a higher portion of energy back to space. Results indicate the most dramatic difference in reflected solar radiation is in April and early May. Grasslands covered with snow reflect most of the sun's energy, while dark stems of forests and shrubs absorb that energy and promote warming. We argue that large-scale promotion of highly productive steppes in the Arctic will

  9. On the Succession of Sarmatian Population in the East-European Steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanova Mariya A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As V.P. Alekseev wrote, the succession of population has been peculiar for individual territories for centuries. Despite the fact that the Eastern European steppe in ancient times and the Middle Ages was characterized by frequent changes of the population due to its high dependence on the environmental conditions, the Sarmatian culture preservation was observed over a period of ceremonial standards and elements of material culture. In this paper an attempt is made to show the presence of a partial succession of the three chronological periods of Sarmatian population. To do this, the author conducted a comparative characteristic of physical types of nomads of Sarmatian steppes of the Eastern Europe. The results of the study of mass craniological material combined in the cultural and chronological groups, showed that on the whole range of time and space over the steppe habitat Sarmatian cultures fixed partial similarity in physical type. In this connection, it is assumed that the partial continuity of anthropological types of different cultural, historical and local groups is linked to: 1 partial preservation of substrate Early Sarmatian population over the 4th- 3rd centuries BC – first half of 2nd-4th centuries AD; 2 the direction and character of penetration of nomadic groups who migrated from the East into steppe space; 3 design of a single system of seasonal migrations which involves the presence of winter and summer camps, and the presence of burial mounds; 4 the inclusion of a horde of nomadic pastoral population groups moved all over the steppes, from between Volga and Ural to the Lower Don; 5 the fact that male migrants married local women.

  10. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2017-01-01

    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘winning’ or ‘conquering’ the Arctic and putting power, including military power, behind Russia's national interests in the area. Opposed to this is an IR-liberalism, international law-inspired and modernisation-focused discourse, which puts cooperation first and emphasises ‘respect for international law......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  11. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  12. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of dominant steppe plants shift in response to a gradient of simulated nitrogen deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated effects of 9-year simulation of simulated nitrogen (N deposition on microbial composition and diversity in the rhizosphere of two dominant temperate grassland species: grass Stipa krylovii and forb Artemisia frigida. Microbiomes in S. krylovii and A.frigida rhizosphere differed, but changed consistently along the N gradient. These changes were correlated to N-induced shifts to plant community. Hence, as plant biomass changed, so did bacterial rhizosphere communities, a result consistent with the role that N fertilizer has been shown to play in altering plant-microbial mutualisms. A total of 23 bacterial phyla were detected in the two rhizospheric soils by pyrosequencing, with Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominating the sequences of all samples. Bacterioidetes and Proteobacteria tended to increase, while Acidobacteria declined with increase in N addition rates. TM7 increased >5-fold in the high N addition rates, especially in S. krylovii rhizosphere. Nitrogen addition also decreased diversity of OTUs (operational taxonomic units, Shannon and Chao1 indices of rhizospheric microbes regardless of plant species. These results suggest that there were both similar but also specific changes in microbial communities of temperate steppes due to N deposition.

  13. Water and CO2 fluxes over semiarid alpine steppe and humid alpine meadow ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Huizhi; Shao, Yaping; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Based on eddy covariance flux data from July 15, 2014, to December 31, 2015, the water and CO2 fluxes were compared over a semiarid alpine steppe (Bange, Tibetan Plateau) and a humid alpine meadow (Lijiang, Yunnan) on the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding region. During the wet season, the evaporative fraction (EF) was strongly and linearly correlated with the soil water content (SWC) at Bange because of its sparse green grass cover. In contrast, the correlation between the EF at Lijiang and the SWC and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was very low because the atmosphere was close to saturation and the EF was relatively constant. In the dry season, the EF at both sites decreased with the SWC. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at Bange was largely depressed at noon, while this phenomenon did not occur at Lijiang. The saturated NEE at Bange was 24% of that at Lijiang. The temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration at Bange (1.7) was also much lower than that at Lijiang (3.4). The annual total NEE in 2015 was 21.8 and -230.0 g C m-2 yr-1 at Bange and Lijiang, respectively, and the NEE was tightly controlled by the NDVI at the two sites. The distinct differences in the water and CO2 fluxes at Bange and Lijiang are attributed to the large SWC difference and its effect on vegetation growth.

  14. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Parubochaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  15. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Shalenna

    2014-01-01

    Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10%) that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many gover...

  16. Strengthening Strategic Stability with Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    political stabil - ity. From the current Russian perspective, both of these compo- nents were thrown out of balance in the 1990s, creating instability ...part of the United States in the early 2000s, stra- tegic stability was replaced with instability and military- political defeats for Russia.27...overall strategic balance of the world political system.8 (As discussed later, the official Russian definition of strategic stability is broadening in

  17. Data set on the effects of conifer control and slash burning on soil carbon, total N, organic matter and extractable micro-nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Bates

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer control in sagebrush steppe of the western United States causes various levels of site disturbance influencing vegetation recovery and resource availability. The data set presented in this article include growing season availability of soil micronutrients and levels of total soil carbon, organic matter, and N spanning a six year period following western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis reduction by mechanical cutting and prescribed fire of western juniper woodlands in southeast Oregon. These data can be useful to further evaluate the impacts of conifer woodland reduction to soil resources in sagebrush steppe plant communities.

  18. Medieval Nomads – Sixth International Conference on the Medieval History of the Eurasian Steppe (Szeged, Hungary, November 23–26, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Uzelac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixth international conference dedicated to the Medieval History of the Eurasian Steppe took place in the Hungarian city of Szeged on November 23-26, 2016. The organizer of the event was MTA-SZTE (“Hungarian Academy of Sciences – University of Szeged” Turkological Research group of the departments of Altaic and Medieval Studies at the Faculty of Arts, University of Szeged. More than thirty scholars from Hungary, Russia, Turkey, China, Spain, Bulgaria and Serbia took part in this event. The working languages of the conference were English and Russian. Presented papers dealt with various aspects of the history of Eurasian nomads, from the Early Middle Ages up to the seventeenth century. Among them, several have been related to the history of the Golden Horde. The proceedings of the conference are planned to be published in 2017, as a separate volume of the journal Chronica – Annual of The Institute of History, University of Szeged. Considering the quality and variety of the papers, presented at this occasion, there is no doubt it will attract the attention of the growing community of researchers and scholars interested in the medieval history of Eurasia.

  19. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  20. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Shalenna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10% that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many government representatives and by the leaders of social and religious organizations and movements. Russian Muslim Ummah nowadays is far from being homogeneous and integrated, that predisposes some groups to radicalization of sentiments, ideas and activities and inevitably causes significant destabilization in the religious, social and political spheres within certain subjects of the Russian Federation and at the national level. The article focuses on the complex investigation of the influence of Islam on the social and political processes in contemporary Russia. It reveals the main principles of the Russian administration policy in the field of religion in general and towards Muslims in particular. Specific features of Muslim communities’ formation and factors of their institutionalization are determined. This research covers the reasons of major contradictions existing within the Russian Ummah. The article stresses on the importance of this study in the context of Ukrainian-Russian conflict in Crimea and in eastern regions of Ukraine. Current policy of Russia towards the Crimean Tatar population is analyzed.

  1. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  2. Dynamic-stochastic modeling of snow cover formation on the European territory of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gelfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic-stochastic model, which combines a deterministic model of snow cover formation with a stochastic weather generator, has been developed. The deterministic snow model describes temporal change of the snow depth, content of ice and liquid water, snow density, snowmelt, sublimation, re-freezing of melt water, and snow metamorphism. The model has been calibrated and validated against the long-term data of snow measurements over the territory of the European Russia. The model showed good performance in simulating time series of the snow water equivalent and snow depth. The developed weather generator (NEsted Weather Generator, NewGen includes nested generators of annual, monthly and daily time series of weather variables (namely, precipitation, air temperature, and air humidity. The parameters of the NewGen have been adjusted through calibration against the long-term meteorological data in the European Russia. A disaggregation procedure has been proposed for transforming parameters of the annual weather generator into the parameters of the monthly one and, subsequently, into the parameters of the daily generator. Multi-year time series of the simulated daily weather variables have been used as an input to the snow model. Probability properties of the snow cover, such as snow water equivalent and snow depth for return periods of 25 and 100 years, have been estimated against the observed data, showing good correlation coefficients. The described model has been applied to different landscapes of European Russia, from steppe to taiga regions, to show the robustness of the proposed technique.

  3. Thresholds and interactive effects of soil moisture on the temperature response of soil respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Kovács-Láng, Edit; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    efflux is soil temperature, while soil moisture has less, although significant effect on soil respiration. Clear thresholds for moisture effects on temperature sensitivity were identified at 0.6, 4.0 and 7.0vol% by almost each model, which relate well to other known limits for biological activity......Ecosystem carbon exchange is poorly understood in low-productivity, semiarid habitats. Here we studied the controls of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in climate change field experiment in a sandy forest-steppe. Soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly from April to November in 2003......–2008 on plots receiving either rain exclusion or nocturnal warming, or serving as ambient control. Based on this dataset, we developed and compared empirical models of temperature and moisture effects on soil respiration. Results suggest that in this semiarid ecosystem the main controlling factor for soil CO2...

  4. Mid-Holocene bottleneck for central European dry grasslands: Did steppe survive the forest optimum in northern Bohemia, Czech Republic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Chytrý, M.; Juřičková, L.; Sádlo, Jiří; Novák, J.; Ložek, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 716-726 ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : MId-Holocene * forest-steppe * pollen analysis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2015

  5. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imblum, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes...

  6. Russia-Ukraine balance of military power

    OpenAIRE

    Jokull Johannesson

    2017-01-01

    The Russia-Ukraine conflict is the most serious test of European security in the 21st century and the forgone conclusion is that Russia can easily prevail in the conflict, but this has not been the case. This article uses balance of military power analysis to report findings on the plausible outcome of a war between Ukraine and Russia. I report findings based on realist theoretical perspectives that indicate Russian victory is unlikely because of relative balance of power where Russia has to ...

  7. [Recent fauna of ground-nesting birds in Transvolga steppes and its dynamics in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, M L

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the ground-nesting bird fauna in Transvolga steppes has changed during the 20th century. The complex of lark species characteristic of true and dry steppe has disappeared because of climate change and impact of economic activity (the establishment of windbreak and roadside forest strips), which has provided for a sharp increase in the abundance of corvid birds.

  8. Linkages of plant stoichiometry to ecosystem production and carbon fluxes with increasing nitrogen inputs in an alpine steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yunfeng; Li, Fei; Zhou, Guoying; Fang, Kai; Zhang, Dianye; Li, Changbin; Yang, Guibiao; Wang, Guanqin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuanhe

    2017-12-01

    Unprecedented levels of nitrogen (N) have entered terrestrial ecosystems over the past century, which substantially influences the carbon (C) exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere. Temperature and moisture are generally regarded as the major controllers over the N effects on ecosystem C uptake and release. N-phosphorous (P) stoichiometry regulates the growth and metabolisms of plants and soil organisms, thereby affecting many ecosystem C processes. However, it remains unclear how the N-induced shift in the plant N:P ratio affects ecosystem production and C fluxes and its relative importance. We conducted a field manipulative experiment with eight N addition levels in a Tibetan alpine steppe and assessed the influences of N on aboveground net primary production (ANPP), gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE); we used linear mixed-effects models to further determine the relative contributions of various factors to the N-induced changes in these parameters. Our results showed that the ANPP, GEP, ER, and NEE all exhibited nonlinear responses to increasing N additions. Further analysis demonstrated that the plant N:P ratio played a dominate role in shaping these C exchange processes. There was a positive relationship between the N-induced changes in ANPP (ΔANPP) and the plant N:P ratio (ΔN:P), whereas the ΔGEP, ΔER, and ΔNEE exhibited quadratic correlations with the ΔN:P. In contrast, soil temperature and moisture were only secondary predictors for the changes in ecosystem production and C fluxes along the N addition gradient. These findings highlight the importance of plant N:P ratio in regulating ecosystem C exchange, which is crucial for improving our understanding of C cycles under the scenarios of global N enrichment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. FEATURES OF MICROFINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina B. Makarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the modern economy of Russia. In modern conditions, small enterprises can be credited in various credit institutions, the most significant and popular among which are banks and microfinance organizations. The volume of the microfinance market is many times smaller than the banking one, although the number of registered microfinance organizations exceeds the number of banking credit institutions by more than 3 times. Microfinance institutions are actively developing, although in recent years, due to the economic and political situation, there has been a slowdown in their growth rates. To date, microfinance organizations are becoming a more significant element of the financial infrastructure that supports and stimulates the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises, which in turn serves as an effective tool for combating poverty and improving the living standards of the country’s population. Microfinance in the narrow interpretation is understood only as the provision of small monetary loans (loans, and in a broader context, “microfinance” includes, in addition to direct lending, operations to attract savings, payments, insurance, leasing and a number of other financial services. This article is devoted to the specifics of microfinance in Russia. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the domestic microfinance system with the systems of a developed and a developing country, namely, the USA and India, the features of providing microfinance services for small and medium businesses, as well as for nonprotected sections of the population, are revealed. The analysis of foreign experience is very important for Russia since the mechanisms of microfinance in this country are only being formed.

  10. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential in steppe soils and their current saturation status remains unknown. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe fragments in northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of silt and clay particles soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the estimated OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 78-85% despite massive SOC losses due to unsustainable land use. As a result, the potential of degraded grassland soils to sequester additional OC was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and consequently results in a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and therefore cannot be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [The demographic potential of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A

    1998-05-01

    This is a general review of current demographic trends in Russia. The author analyzes the decline in population size that is taking place at the end of the twentieth century, and traces its origins as far back as the disturbances associated with World War I, the Communist revolution, and the civil war that followed it. Political repression during the Stalinist period and the tribulations experienced during World War II also contributed to the current demographic crisis. The author discusses the changes in migration patterns and the declining fertility and increasing mortality rates. The decline in life expectancy is also addressed. Some comparisons are made with the demographic situation in other European countries.

  12. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  13. Phenotypic variability of plant leaves of Acer genus, introduced into steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitseva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying of the patterns of ecological adaptation of wood species of Acer L. genus during their introduction into steppe zone of Ukraine. Hydrothermal conditions of the growing season in steppe zone of Ukraine are particularly unfavorable for tree and shrubbery plantings, comprising both native and introduced species. In the course of plants’ introduction, adaptive changes occur; such changes represent the spectrum of phenotypic implementation of the definite genotype under the influence of new environmental conditions. Stress environment of the region of introduction leads to occurrence of a great variety of phenotypic forms, as the different variants of genotype implementation. Studying of phenotypic variability gives an opportunity to determine the capacity to adaptation of introduced species and ways of adaptive reactions in new conditions of living. Therefore, objective of the work consists in studying of the processes of differentiation of morphological characters in species of Acer genus introduced in the regions of steppe zone with varying intensity of hydrothermal factors. Studies were carried out in the central and south-eastern steppe regions, as well as in the south of steppe zone in the coastal and continental areas. Subjects of research were 9 species of maples, differing by their botanic and geographic origin and by the degree of drought resistance in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Patterns of variability of morphostructural characters of leaves were determined by the indicator of specific weight of leaves which was calculated as a ratio of weight of dry laminas to their area (mg/cm2. Following the results of study, it was found that adaptation of maples to xerothermic factors of the environment is connected with changing of the ratio of groups of character variation and their contribution into total sample. Direct relationship is established between the probability density of expression (phenotypic

  14. A leadership challenge: staff nurse perceptions after an organizational TeamSTEPPS initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Jessica; Foltz-Ramos, Kelly; Schwartz, Diane G; Ceravolo, Diane J

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure RNs' perceptions of teamwork skills and behaviors in their work environment during a multiphase multisite nursing organizational teamwork development initiative. Teamwork is essential for patient safety in healthcare organizations and nursing teams. Organizational development supporting effective teamwork should include a just culture, engaged leadership, and teamwork training. A cross-sectional survey study of bedside RNs was conducted in one 5-hospital healthcare system after a TeamSTEPPS teamwork training initiative. TeamSTEPPS teamwork training related to improved RN perceptions of leadership. Initiatives to align the perspectives and teamwork efforts of leaders and bedside nurses are indicated and should involve charge nurses in the design.

  15. Improving Interdisciplinary Relationships in Primary Care with the Implementation of TeamSTEPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Siddons

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in healthcare is lack of interdisciplinary collaboration (O’Daniel & Rosenstein, 2008. The Institute of Medicine report, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System (1999, shows that errors often occur due to lapses in partnership and communication. This article describes the implementation of TeamSTEPPS, an evidence-based tool for optimizing staff relationships and partnership, in a clinic in which a change in the care model had affected interprofessional collaboration and teamwork, threatening healthcare outcomes and staff engagement. The implementation of TeamSTEPPS, customized using elements of IDEO’s (2015 Human-Centered Design, shifted the culture of the clinic towards partnership, resulting in improved staff perceptions of teamwork and statistically significant improvements in the quality of patient care.

  16. [Allelopathic effects of Artemisia sacrorum population in typical steppe based on niche theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Cheng, Ji-Min; She, Xiao-Yan

    2012-03-01

    By using modified Levins niche width index and Pianka niche overlap index, this paper analyzed the ecological competition between constructive and dominant species in a typical steppe. The stem- and leaf extracts from the constructive species (Artemisia sacrorum) were utilized to study their allelopathic potential on the seed germination and plant growth of the dominant species (Stipa bungeana, Thymus mongolicus, S. grandis, and Leymus secalinus), and the ecological position of A. sacrorum in the steppe succession. In the steppe, S. bungeana had the widest niche width (0.99), followed by T. mongolicus (0.94), A. sacrorum (0.82), S. grandis (0.76), and L. secalinus (0.73). The niche overlap value between A. sacrorum and S. bungeana, S. bungeana and T. mongolicus, T. mongolicus and S. grandis, and A. sacrorum and T. mongolicus was 0.90, 0.95, 0.94, and 0.86, respectively. The allelopathic effects of A. sacrorum extracts varied with their concentration. For the seed germination, root growth, and shoot growth of the dominant species, A. sacrorum extracts showed a trend of promoting at low concentrations and inhibiting at high concentrations. The extracts of A. sacrorum had a stronger promotion effect on the root growth of S. bungeana than on that of T. mongolicus, but a stronger inhibition effect on the shoot growth of T. mongolicus than on that of S. bungeana. Methanol extracts had stronger allelopathic effects than aqueous extracts. The high niche overlap between A. sacrorum and S. bungeana, and T. mongolicus and S. grandis indicated that the steppe community would continue succession to S. bungeana, while A. sacrorum population was only an important transitional stage during the succession. The allelopathic effect of A. sacrorum played a driving role in the succession process.

  17. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2...

  18. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third Review)] Uranium From Russia... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that termination of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be... within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the Commission's...

  19. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  20. National RAM transport regulations implementation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief review is given of the main provisions of the state regulation and safety assurance of RAM transport in Russia. This appears to be useful to various persons and organisations abroad, concerned with such transport in Russia. Two aspects of the system are presented - regulatory documents (normative-technical documentation) and regulatory and control activities of state organisations. (Author)

  1. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  2. Institutional Determinants of International Production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses institutional determinants of foreign direct investment that substantially influences international production in Russia. Author pays special attention on the following determinants as legal infrastructure, protection property rights, including intellectual property, effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms, and corruption. Author comes to a conclusion that without development of proper institutions Russia would hardly expect dynamic development of international production.

  3. Meta-STEPP: subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot for individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Victoria; Cole, Bernard; Bonetti, Marco; Gelber, Richard D

    2016-09-20

    We have developed a method, called Meta-STEPP (subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot for meta-analysis), to explore treatment effect heterogeneity across covariate values in the meta-analysis setting for time-to-event data when the covariate of interest is continuous. Meta-STEPP forms overlapping subpopulations from individual patient data containing similar numbers of events with increasing covariate values, estimates subpopulation treatment effects using standard fixed-effects meta-analysis methodology, displays the estimated subpopulation treatment effect as a function of the covariate values, and provides a statistical test to detect possibly complex treatment-covariate interactions. Simulation studies show that this test has adequate type-I error rate recovery as well as power when reasonable window sizes are chosen. When applied to eight breast cancer trials, Meta-STEPP suggests that chemotherapy is less effective for tumors with high estrogen receptor expression compared with those with low expression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  5. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  6. Russia-Ukraine balance of military power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokull Johannesson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russia-Ukraine conflict is the most serious test of European security in the 21st century and the forgone conclusion is that Russia can easily prevail in the conflict, but this has not been the case. This article uses balance of military power analysis to report findings on the plausible outcome of a war between Ukraine and Russia. I report findings based on realist theoretical perspectives that indicate Russian victory is unlikely because of relative balance of power where Russia has to face multiple threats diverting its military power while Ukraine can concentrate its military power for a single purpose. The findings suggest implication for policy in Russia, Ukraine, EU and the United States of America.

  7. Competition for soil nitrate and invasive weed resistance of three shrub-steppe growth forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamonn D. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Determining mechanisms responsible for weed resistance and invasion success are two issues that have potential in aiding successful land management decisions. The first experiment evaluates the competitive effects of an invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive biennial forb dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria...

  8. Soil microbial respiration beneath Stipa tenacissima L. and in surrounding bare soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Novosádová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula, North of Africa. Ecosystem functioning of these steppes is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. grass show different fertility and different microclimatic conditions than in surrounding bare soil. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Stipa tenacissima L. on the key soil microbial activities under controlled incubation conditions (basal and potential respiration. Basal and potential microbial respirations in the soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. were, in general, not significantly different from the bare soils. The differences were less than 10%. Significantly less ethylene produced by microbial activity in soils beneath Stipa tenacissima L. after the addition of glucose could indicate the dependence of rhizospheric microbial communities on available carbon compounds. It can be concluded, that the soil respiration in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems is not necessarily associated with the patchy plant distribution and that some microbial activities characteristics can be unexpectedly homogenous.

  9. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  10. Azerbaijan-Russia Borderline Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Arkhipova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Azerbaijan-Russia borderline mainly goes by the Caucasian mountain range and close to the Samur riverbed. Main border posts are situated close to the Caspian seashore while the locals living in the Upper Dagestan area have difficulties with crossing borderline. The locals are represented by the so called “divided peoples” whose living area was divided with the state border after 1991. The former inner borders ignored ethnic areas but now they became the lines crossing the ethnic groups of Legins, Avars, Tzakhurs and Rutuls. Certainly, those peoples are interested in specific rules for crossing the border. At the same time, their areas have not got the equipped border offices and they have to spend a lot of time and money for travelling to the neighboring districts via Baku or Vladikavkaz. Such problems arouse the radical demands among locals. The Lezgin movement for an independent Lezgistan is the most famous among them. Its supporters were involved in a terrorist attack in Baku in 1990-s and now they collect files about any problems connected with border issues, including the results of a demarcation process. They attract attention to the facts of all assignments made by Russian representatives. The activity of other ethnic groups was comparatively lower and they could make an agreement with local authorities about division of powers. Obviously, any solution about development of the border infrastructure may stabilize the separatism activity in the area. The author determines the key challenges and threats to cross-border security at Azerbaijan-Russia borderline on the basis of analysis of Federal and regional media, declarations made by representatives of the local and borderline authorities, as well as online activities of national movements. The author reveals the infrastructure factors of ensuring cross-border activity, social and economic conditions of borderline districts development. The suggestion is made on the need to develop

  11. Radioactive waste problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)

  12. Russia's atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia's nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia's vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia's nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia's nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia's decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia's nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia

  13. Seasonal Distribution and Diversity of Ground Arthropods in Microhabitats Following a Shrub Plantation Age Sequence in Desertified Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rentao; Zhu, Fan; Song, Naiping; Yang, Xinguo; Chai, Yongqing

    2013-01-01

    In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii) in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation) was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was markedly affected by

  14. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  15. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huhe

    Full Text Available In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively. The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  16. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  17. Isotope paleohydrology at the northern Boreal treeline, Canada and Russia (paleohydrology climate change)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, B.B.

    1997-12-31

    A Canada-Russia international research project was established to better understand the relationship between the northern treeline region and climate change. The study involved the oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of lake sediment cores using several different sedimentological, biological and geochemical techniques. The study has provided an insight into Holocene paleohydrology and watershed carbon cycling in arctic Canada and Russia. Results showed that periods of treeline advance and climate warming in central Canada and central and eastern Russia were characterized by distinct changes in moisture conditions. During these intervals, summer relative humidity increased by 10 to 15 per cent in central Canada. Central Russia was also wetter, but a drier climate was associated with treeline advance in eastern Russia. Carbon isotope records have suggested that lake carbon reservoirs at boreal treeline were greatly influenced by catchment hydrology as well as soil and vegetation development. Nitrogen isotope composition of lacustrine bulk organic matter was also useful for determining nutrient dynamics in these watersheds. It was concluded that lake sediment organic isotope tracers are an effective approach for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

  18. Indian Defense Procurements: Advantage Russia or USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    premiers of both the countries. The recent visit of President Obama saw Mr. Modi breaking the protocol to greet him with a bear hug on his arrival at New...between Russia and US. 56 Ritesh Srivastava, India caught between Russia and US. 57 Ankit Panda , “Pakistan Courts Both US and Russia on Defense...www.indiatvnews.com/business/india/-india-invites-japan-to-join-rs-50000-crore- submarine-project-17058.html (accessed 3 February 2015). Panda , Ankit. “Pakistan

  19. Overview of internet development in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronskaya-Palesh, O

    1999-01-01

    Internet use in Russia has been growing steadily. In the last four years the number of Russian Internet users grew from a few hundred thousand to over one million. Russian websites are diverse, and range from educational-informative to purely entertaining. This paper discusses several interesting and controversial Russian websites and possible implications associated with their use. It aims to understand and analyze a typical Internet user in Russia, by answering questions about their interests and demographics. The paper also discusses several other studies that were conducted in Russia on Internet use and looks at the currently available psychological resources on the Russian Internet.

  20. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia

  1. Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities in the Dynamics of Land Cover in Mediterranean Steppe West Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Tayeb, Tayeb

    2016-08-01

    The last thirty years, there is a real dynamic change of land cover with intensive degradation of the natural vegetation especially in arid zone. Indeed, the adverse effects of drought periods from the year 1970 combined with population growth and economic conditions experienced by the country in the 1980s have greatly upset the delicate balance of the natural environment. These adverse effects may result in partial or total disappearance of some natural ecosystems.The objective of this work is to study the distribution of plant formations that constitute the ecosystem typical of west Algeria and their dynamics in time and space, as well as to develop a method to monitor the degradation process and a system capable of effectively protecting areas classified for their plant and animal species.The Landsat satellite images were used to map the vegetation of the study area at a scale of 1:200,000. A comparison was then made between the map obtained from satellite images (Landsat 8) of 2014 and (Landsat 5) of 1987.The results show the following main trends in the distribution patterns of steppe species, a strong decrease of land occupied by steppe of Stipatenacissima and steppe of Artimesiaherba-alba, witch replaced by three taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Peganumharmala. Steppe of Artemisia herbaalba has been transformed by steppe of. taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Lygeumspartum. Woody species such as Quercus ilex and Juniperusphoenicea are characterized by a large regression.

  2. [Team Care for Patient Safety, TeamSTEPPS to Improve Nontechnical Skills and Teamwork--Actions to Become an HRO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, Ken

    2015-07-01

    It is important to develop safer medical systems and follow manuals of medical procedures for patient safety. However, these approaches do not always result in satisfactory results because of many human factors. It is known that defects of nontechnical skills are more important than those of technical skills regarding medical accidents and incidents. So, it is necessary to improve personal nontechnical skills and compensate for each other's defects based on a team approach. For such purposes, we have implemented TeamSTEPPS to enhance performance and patient safety in our hospital. TeamSTEPPS (team strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety) is a useful method to improve the nontechnical skills of each member and the team. In TeamSTEPPS, leadership to share mental models among the team, continuous monitoring and awareness for team activities, mutual support for workload and knowledge, and approaches to complete communication are summarized to enhance teamwork and patient safety. Other than improving nontechnical skills and teamwork, TeamSTEPPS is also very important as a High Reliability Organization (HRO). TeamSTEPPS is worth implementing in every hospital to decrease medical errors and improve patient outcomes and satisfaction.

  3. The magnetic properties of the Lake Bolshoe Yarovoe (Altai Region, Russia) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosareva, Lina; Nourgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriia; Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Kuzina, Diliara; Antonenko, Vadim; Akhmerov, Rinaz; Evtugyn, Vladimir; Vorob'ev, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic minerals of modern lake sediments provide unique source of information for climate changes, regionally and globally as environmental variations are recorded by them with high resolution. Here we report results of magnetic analysis of the endorheic bitter-salty lake Bolshoe Yarovoe located in the Altai Region, Russia. The lake is the deepest one in the Kulunda Steppe with the average depth 4 m and with the catchment area about 560 km2. Five cores were drileld during field research conducted by the Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies (Kazan Federal University, Russia) in 2008. Average length of cores is 4 m. The samples were studied using radiocarbon dating, magnetic susceptibility, NRM measurements, coercivity spectrometry, thermomagnetic analysis, TEM and SEM microscopy. The main components of the sediments magnetization, their variability, defined features of sedimentation processes, also the contribution of the paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic components are identified. Data variability of the paramagnetic component revealed that the lower part of the section is characterized by a gradual increase in revenues of the clay material. The presence of erosion was detected around of 7500 years ago marking occurrence of a fall of the lake level during this period. After this the flow of clay particles was steady with small fluctuations only, indicating the stabilization of sedimentation processes. Ferromagnetic fraction is mainly represented by magnitofossils of different forms, sizes and grain preservation. Such changes may be related to many factors, such as climate, nutrient availability, and environmental variability. Possible relationships between magnitofossil morphology, their magnetic signal and the depositional environment changes are proposed. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

  4. RUSSIAN SOURCES OF THE XVIII–XIX CENTURIES ABOUT THE CONFLICTS IN THE KAZAKH STEPPE AND THE INVOLVEMENT AND PARTICIPATION OF THE URAL COSSACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maratovich Dubovikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is to show the complexity and ambiguity of relations between Kazakhs and Russian military (primarily Cossacks during the advance of Russia in the Kazakh steppe and Central Asia, as well as a reflection of this problem in different sources. Methodology. In the course of the work, we have used diverse sources that shed light on this issue. Among them, documents of XVIII–XIX centuries, mainly from the State archive of Orenburg region (GAOO, as well as from the military historical archive (RGVIA. Used the documents collected by the Lieutenant of the General staff, A.D. Ryabinin, the importance of which is associated with the fact that the archive of the Ural Cossack troops lost during the civil war. Not less important are two major works of officers, military historians and theorists M.I. Iva­nin and M.A. Terentyev directly involved in the campaigns through the Kazakh steppe and the annexation of Central Asia. To a lesser extent the materials used other “sources” of the XIX century the Ural Cossack officers I.I. Zheleznov, N.G. Makushin, and also serving at the Orenburg military Governor V. I. Dahl. An important source is and “Uralskiye voiskoviye vedomostie” – the only newspaper published in the Ural Cossack army in the last third of the XIX century. Results. All these sources allow us to draw some important conclusions. They clearly indicate that the South-Eastern outskirts of Russia was long subjected to raids “nomads”, and it has developed most of the border of the Cossack population sustained hostility to the nomadic neighbors. The hostility persisted for a long time, but during the nineteenth century it was gradually decreasing due to the socio-political and economic changes in parallel decreased and the number of conflicts. The Russian military sometimes showed excessive cruelty, and their commanders, carrying out orders from above, was not always true in the Kazakh population. But it was

  5. Construction of a GeogDetector-based model system to indicate the potential occurrence of grasshoppers in Inner Mongolia steppe habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J; Zhang, N; Gexigeduren; He, B; Liu, C-Y; Li, Y; Zhang, H-Y; Chen, X-Y; Lin, H

    2015-06-01

    Grasshopper plagues have seriously disturbed grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, China. The accurate prediction of grasshopper infestations and control of grasshopper plagues have become urgent needs. We sampled 234, 342, 335, and 369 plots in Xianghuangqi County of Xilingol League in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively, and measured the density of the most dominant grasshopper species, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus, and the latitude, longitude, and associated relatively stable habitat factors at each plot. We used Excel-GeogDetector software to explore the effects of individual habitat factors and the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density. We estimated the membership of each grasshopper density rank and determined the weights of each habitat category. These results were used to construct a model system evaluating grasshopper habitat suitability. The results showed that our evaluation system was reliable and the fuzzy evaluation scores of grasshopper habitat suitability were good indicators of potential occurrence of grasshoppers. The effects of the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density were greater than the effects of any individual factors. O. d. asiaticus was most likely to be found at elevations of 1300-1400 m, flat terrain or slopes of 4-6°, typical chestnut soil with 70-80% sand content in the top 5 cm of soil, and medium-coverage grassland. The species preferred temperate bunchgrass steppe dominated by Stipa krylovii and Cleistogenes squarrosa. These findings may be used to improve models to predict grasshopper occurrence and to develop management guidelines to control grasshopper plagues by changing habitats.

  6. Primorskii Borderland on the "Map of Russia" Aguk-yeojido

    OpenAIRE

    Vradiy, Sergey Yu.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes a rare manuscript that is of considerable interest to those who study the nineteenth century history of border interactions between Russia, Korea and China, or the history of the Korean community in the Primorskii region of Russia. Aguk-yeojido (or "Map of Russia") is the first attempt to represent nineteenth century Russia by Koreans, and it could be evidence of a strengthening relationship between Russia and a Korean royal court striving to break out of Chinese guardians...

  7. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  8. Financial Crisis in Russia: Cuases and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungweon Suh

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Although we cannot exclude the reason for financial crisis in Russia's foreign exchange is the depreciation of Rupees and a loss for foreign investment caused the currency crisis in Asia, but most people predicted that by the support of the Russian government and the deflation efforts it will soon go back to stable. And other people said that there is no possibility of causing the world economic chaos but also no possibility for this situation to evolve into a situation where old policy replaced by new one and where there is Country moratorium. At the time when the prediction was made, since the Korea-Russia relationship is still weak, this Russian Crisis caused small influence on Korean Economy. But some section like exporting electronic products and food which rely Russia quite a lot, should analyze the situation carefully in order to face the shrinkage of market demand of Russia.

  9. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  10. Legacy of Cold War still plagues Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, L. [Socio-Ecological Union`s Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    Seventy years of communist rule and a half-century of nuclear-arms development have left Russia the world`s most polluted country, reports Lydia Popova, director of the Center for Nuclear Ecology and Energy Policy in Moscow. {open_quotes}Russia`s communist government invested enormous sums of money in the military but paid scant attention to environmental protection,{close_quotes} Popova writes. Most of Russia`s radioactive pollution has resulted from poor reprocessing technology, inadequate waste management, nuclear testing, and accidents in the nuclear-power sector. Though the end of the Cold War has been accompanied by disarmament programs, Popova insists that these initiatives will create an additional burden on the environment of the former Soviet Union in the form of nuclear waste products.

  11. Russia ends pact to curb uranium use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The Russian government has terminated an agreement between the country's nuclear body, Rosatom, and the US Department of Energy (DOE) into the feasibility of converting research reactors in Russia to low-enriched uranium (LEU).

  12. Features of formation of philosophy of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-01-01

    in article the main content of problems and achievements of philosophy of Russia on initial stage of its history is researched; urgent achievements of the Russian philosophy in their value for modern humanitarian culture are characterized.

  13. Emissions trading and green investments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, A.; Tangen, K.; Berdin, V.; Pluzhnikov, O.

    2003-01-01

    In simple terms a Green Investment Scheme entails connecting revenues from emissions trading to investments in environmental activities in Russia. This article presents insights derived from an international project on the GIS, focusing on issues that must be addressed if the concept is to become operational, on the background of the domestic, as well as international interests connected to a GIS. GIS is a worthwhile concept with the potential to bring real environmental benefits and meet profound concerns from several of the key actors in the Kyoto regime. However, establishing a well-functioning GIS means removing many of the current barriers that hold back investments in Russia. At the time of writing, Russia has still not decided whether it will ratify Kyoto Protocol. GIS illustrates that there will be substantial benefits for Russia from ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, which is a prerequisite for its entering into force. (Author)

  14. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  15. A Proposal on the Restoration of Nostoc flagelliforme for Sustainable Improvement in the Ecology of Arid Steppes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nostoc flagelliforme, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, is widely distributed in arid steppes of the west and northwestern parts of China. However, as a food delicacy this species has been overexploited from 1970 to 2000. Moreover, overgrazing, land reclamation and the removal of medicinal herbs have caused severely reduced vegetation coverage there. In this communication, a badly damaged but slowly rehabilitating N. flagelliforme-inhibiting steppe is described, and the rehabilitation of desertified steppes by the renewed growth of N. flagelliforme is proposed. The restoration of this dominant nitrogen supplier would be an ecologically sustainable solution for supplementing current measures already taken in the desertified regions. In addition, a goal of 50%–60% vegetation coverage is proposed by the N. flagelliforme restoration.

  16. Outreach and educational activities in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Kartashova, A.

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the major internal as well as international meetings and events held in Russia and dedicated to the integration, development and expanding of knowledge in Planetary Research. The report is complemented by the Europlanet activities in Russia over the last year, achieved goals and lessons learned. Additionally, we highlight current problems and possible future improvements to the present educational and outreach techniques.

  17. Recent Vegetation Fire Incidence in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    MODIS hotspot data from NASA have now become a standard means of evaluating vegetation fires worldwide. Remote sensing is the most effective tool for large countries like Russia because it is hard to obtain exact, detailed forest fire data. Accumulated MODIS hotspot data of the nine years from 2002 to 2010 may allow us to assess recent changes in the vegetation fire incidence in Russia. This kind of analysis using various satellites is useful in estimating fire intensity and sever...

  18. Russia power engineering and power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Results of work of the International consultative meeting: Russian-Europe: strategy of energy safety is described. The purpose of the meeting consisted in discussion of energy situation in Russia and Europe, prospects for provision of reliability, efficiency and safety of fuel and power supply in Russia and the role of the Russian fuel and power resonances in energy supply of Europe. The reporters at the meeting dealt with various aspects related to energy safety

  19. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  20. There is Still a Chance For Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the sociological grounds of Georgia's foreign policy based on the long-term researches conducted by American and Georgian NGOs, yet applying a critical approach to the provided data and figures. Despite the aggressive rhetoric of Georgian politicians towards Russia and apparent social consensus as regards EU and NATO integration, the article concludes that Russia has not completely "lost" Georgia. The results of the sociological surveys show that up to one third of the population of Georgia are ready to consider Russia as main partner of their country, and this figure depends to a certain extent on the Georgian authorities' policy. In addition, the potential of the Eurasian integration of Georgia is not equal to zero, and it is supported by around one fifth of the population. In the authors' view, Georgia may appreciate help with solving its domestic economic problems far more than being called "a beacon of democracy" or "a truly European state". Although according to the results of the most surveys Russia takes the first place in the list of the threats to Georgia, exceeding even the figures for the banned "Islamic State", around one third of the population of Georgia consistently consider Russian threat exaggerated. Together with those who do not regard Russia as a threat at all, these citizens of Georgia almost equal the number of people who believe that "Russia poses a threat to Georgia". Even if Russia does not change its position on the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and the West remains the goalpost of Georgia's foreign policy, the ties between the people, cultures, and economies of the two countries will not be severed. However, negligence towards the potential of developing the bilateral relations with no efforts taken on a mutual basis may significantly weaken the ties between Russia and Georgia by undermining the chances of strengthening them.

  1. The Media and Democracy in Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deppe, Kendra M

    2005-01-01

    ... freedoms. These include laws that restrict coverage of elections, terror events and the Chechen region. The lack of freedom has resulted in the inability for the media to serve their purpose in civil society. This has contributed to civil society's lack of ability to ensure that Russia's government remains democratic. If present trends continue the future does not look good for Russian democracy or the freedom of Russia's media.

  2. Politics and Economics in Putins Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    from 28.9 to 42.2 between 1992 and 2009. Social stresses have been similarly magnified. Given that federal spending on social services in 2007-2008...demonstration that supreme power in Russia will be undivided and unaccount- able. With Medvedev humiliated, previously heated speculation over who...that Russia has come to look like a modern society. It is true that the townscapes of major cities like Mos- cow and St. Petersburg are presently

  3. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  4. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  5. The radiation legacy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  6. CERN: From Russia with krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Arecent arrival at CERN is a cryostat built under the auspices of thelnternational Science and Technology Center (ISTC), a programme funded by the European Union, Japan, Russia, and the US which aims to promote the integration of former Soviet Union scientists and industry into global research and development activities. The new cryostat, built by Moscowbased Krunichev Enterprises, better known for its involvement in the ''Proton'' space rocket and the ''Mir'' space station, will form a vital part of the NA48 experiment at the SPS synchrotron. NA48, a Cagliari/Cambridge/CERN/ Dubna/Edinburgh/Ferrara/Mainz/Orsay/Perugia/Pisa/Saclay/Siegen/ Turin/Vienna collaboration, aims to study the small asymmetry in the properties of matter and antimatter known as CP violation, and should be fully ready to collect data next year. Through its links with Dubna's Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR), near Moscow, NA48 has launched a number of initiatives designed to involve Russian physicists and industry in the experiment. The bargain 22 tonnes of krypton for NA48's energy-measuring calorimeter were manufactured at a specially- built factory in Russia. INTAS, the European Union-backed scheme for the promotion of cooperation with former Soviet Union scientists, provides funds for Dubna physicists to visit Western Europe. INTAS will also provide computing and networking infrastructure allowing the Russian physicists to participate fully in NA48's programme. As well as the cryostat, NA48's collaborating institutes have placed other orders with Russian suppliers. INFN Pisa has ordered 14,000 electrical feed-though contacts from the Budker Institute in Novosibirsk, whilst Saclay has placed contracts elsewhere for vacuum and other equipment. The new cryostat forms part of a joint project of INFN Pisa and CERN, involving scientists from Dubna, Edinburgh, and Saclay. The Russian part was built by Krunichev

  7. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  8. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them

  9. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoykhet, Yakov N; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Odnokurtsev, Valeriy A; Loskutova, Kyunnyay S; Lukmanova, Gulnur I; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Spiridonov, Sergey; Alshinecky, Mikhail V; Sivkova, Tatyana N; Andreyanov, Oleg N; Abramov, Sergey A; Krivopalov, Anton V; Karpenko, Sergey V; Lopatina, Natalia V; Dupal, Tamara A; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus.

  10. Climate Compatible Development in the Mongolia Steppe: analysis of vulnerability and adaptation response to global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtokh, C.; Galvin, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Climate change and variability, market and policy changes are shaping pastoral communities' decisions on what pathways their future livelihoods will take and how the steppe landscapes and river basins, are managed. Recent droughts and damaging winter storms (zuds) of the past two decades have exacerbated the situation and undermined the natural capital on which the pastoral livelihoods depend upon. River basins are critical natural resources well-being of social-ecological systems in Mongolia. River basins provide the ecosystem services which support pastoral communities and industrial and urban development. Green development strategies are strongly dependent on water resources. Consequently, integrated planning of river basin management is needed to maintain these critical ecosystem services to meet the multiple needs of livelihoods of communities in these basins and to support sustainable development activities within the basins. For this study our team worked in nine sums (i.e., county level administrative areas) in three river basins in two provinces (aimags) to collect household data from 144 households. We also collected census data from the aimags and national level to understand trends at the level of ecosystems and river basins. We have selected 3 sums in each river basis, representing forest steppe, steppe and desert steppe regions for comparison across river basins and ecological zones. FINDINGS: Integrated planning efforts would be enhanced through, one, use of a social-ecological framework and, two, the development of a cross-ministerial working group to address natural resource considerations. Across the three basins agriculture, pastoral, industrial, and urban needs vie for similar ecosystem services. The natural capital and ecosystem services of these basins need to be assessed to understand the vulnerability and capacity of the resources. The most frequently listed "best coping strategy" across all ecosystem types was for herders to

  11. The Kazakh Steppe at the Turn of the 18th-19th Centuries: Reforms and Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Dmitriy Valentinovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article is written on the basis of published and archival sources. O. Igelstrom’s reforms, and also the projects for government of the Kazakh Steppe prepared by some Russian officials, officers and ecclesiastics are considered by the author. Their singularities and differences are shown; the conclusion on their influence on the Russian policy in the region is drawn. The main attention is paid to reforms of O. Igelstrom who created the administrative institutions founded on local political tradition in the Small Horde. He intended to use them as instruments for the Russian influence in the Kazakh steppe. Local patrimonial leaders turned into government officials. But this experience was unsuccessful. Traditional Kazakh institutions didn’t conform to requirements of the Russian administration. The failure of those reforms provoked search of new models for the organization of Kazakh steppe’s administration. The Orenburg official D. Grankin suggested to refuse patrimonial division of the Small horde and to divide it according to the territorial principle. He suggested to include Russian officials and mullahs in all administrative bodies and to strengthen them by military detachments. The chief of the Siberian Lines Ya. Bouver suggested introducing the territorial division in the Middle Horde close to the imperial one. Expansion of the Russian sociocultural codes to the region was the main idea of his project. In the article considerable attention is paid to proposals of the Orenburg mufti M. Khusainov. He suggested to divide the Small Horde into two parts taking into account the patrimonial principle. The khan with sultans and advisers had to be at the head of each part. The deputies elected by notable Kazakhs had to become a sort of representative body in the part. The group of the armed Russian Muslims had to support safety in the Steppe. The Russian participation in internal administration of the Steppe was offered to minimize

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by nomadic peoples in the Algerian steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Mohamed Djamel; Bendif, Hamdi; Ait Hammou, Mohammed; Teixidor-Toneu, Irene

    2018-06-12

    This study is the first ethnobotanical survey focusing on the herbal medicines traditionally used by the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, identifying new medicinal plants and uses from one of the most characteristic indigenous populations in Algeria. Moreover, the study contributes to the understanding of transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in the Mediterranean basin. This work aims to document the phytotherapeutical knowledge and practice of the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, and compare it with neighbouring sedentary populations and Mediterranean historical texts. Through this, the study strives to evaluate processes of transmission of knowledge among this population, for whom written sources have been largely unavailable. Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out during two years (2015-2017). In total, 73 informants from nomadic populations were interviewed in several steppe regions including areas in the administrative departments of Tiaret, Saida, Naama, Djelfa and M'sila. Structured interviews about medicinal plant knowledge were combined with guided tours with the informants. Prior informed consent was always obtained. The surveys allowed for the collection of sociodemographic data and traditional knowledge about medicinal plants and their uses. Informant Consensus Factor (F IC ) was calculated to evaluate agreement among informants. Results were compared to existing literature to evaluate similarities between this nomadic medicinal flora, that of neighbouring communities and historical texts and identify new plant citations and uses. Among Algerian nomadic communities, herbal remedies are used mostly by women and elders, who are often illiterate. We identified 97 taxa of medicinal plants belonging to 42 botanical families, importantly Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae, like in neighbouring communities. The most common plant parts and method of preparation are also shared with neighbouring populations. New uses are described for 25

  13. The control of Russia's oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. As this drama privatization process was poorly masterminded, evidently misguided, hardly transparent and highly controversial, its early fruits are difficult to digest. Indeed, the rapid and controversial privatization of Russian oil is far from completion and its current ownership and management patterns leave too much room for questioning and speculation. Not surprisingly, few Western analysts are able to properly determine a scope and degree of the remaining state control over the industry. Russian observers too are badly informed. Consequently, assessments of currents state stake in, say, the country's largest oil company LUKoil typically oscillate from zero to 51% whereas, in fact, excluding 24.5% of its shares put aside for new holders, at present the State definitely owns just under 11.6% of the company equity. (author)

  14. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  15. HYGROTOPE AND TROPHOTOPE OF THE STEPPE PRIDNIPROVIE BIOGEOCEONOSIS AS DETERMINANTS OF THE EARTHWORMS (LUMBRICIDAE COMMUNITIES β-DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the hygrotope and trophotope of the steppe Pridniprovie biogeoceonosis has been discussed in present article as being determinants of the β-diversity of earthworms (Lumbricidae communities. Material has been colected to the period 1997-2015. 180 sample polygons have been studied which located in various types of biogeoceonosis. Biogeoceonotic characteristic of the sample polygons have been made on the basis of professor A.L. Belgard forest typology of a steppe zone of Ukraine. Earthworm communities of the steppe Pridniprovie have been established to be presented by 16 species. Hygrotopes, trophotopes and bitope ceonosis features have been shown to be able to explain 72.4 % of a communities’ abundance variation and 73.7 of their % α-diversity by means of second order model. Earthworm communities’ abundance reache their maximum values at a combination of conditions of humidity from hygromesophilous to hygrophilous and conditions of edaphotope trophicity from Dc (linden oakwood to Dn (elm-ashen oakwood and alder forests. The maximum diversity of earthworm communities has been stated to be characteristic for a combination of mesohygrophilous conditions and a trophicity mode Dc, that there corresponds to forest type a linden oakwood with aegopodium. The coenomorphic structure of the biogeocoenosis is statistically significant predictors of both abundance and α-diversity of earthworm communities. Earthworm communities of marsh monocoenosis, meadow-steppe amphicoenosis and steppe monocoenosis have been found as being characterised by minimum abundance and diversity. Moderate level abundance and diversity are characteristic for meadow-forest amphicoenosis, forest pseudomonocoenosis with elements of transformation to steppe and forest-steppe amphicoenosis. High levels of these indexes are typical for forest monocoenosis. Given other conditions of humidity and edaphotope trophicity being equal in forest monocoenosis abundance and

  16. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  17. Soil bacterial and fungal diversity differently correlated with soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems in response to environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Dong, Shikui; Gao, Qingzhu; Liu, Shiliang; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wang, Xuexia; Su, Xukun; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-01

    To understand effects of soil microbes on soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems under environmental changes, we explored relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, available nitrogen and phosphorus, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in alpine meadow, alpine steppe and cultivated grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau under three-year warming, enhanced precipitation and yak overgrazing. Soil total nitrogen, organic carbon and NH4-N were little affected by overgrazing, warming or enhanced precipitation in three types of alpine grasslands. Soil microbial biomass carbon and phosphorus along with the sucrase and phosphatase activities were generally stable under different treatments. Soil NO3-N, available phosphorus, urease activity and microbial biomass nitrogen were increased by overgrazing in the cultivated grassland. Soil bacterial diversity was positively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity negatively with soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities. Soil bacterial diversity was negatively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity positively with soil available nutrients. Our findings indicated soil bacteria and fungi played different roles in affecting soil nutrients and microbiological activities that might provide an important implication to understand why soil biochemistry was generally stable under environmental changes in alpine grassland ecosystems.

  18. Effects of soil depth and plant-soil interaction on microbial community in temperate grasslands of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Naili; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Wei

    2018-07-15

    Although the patterns and drivers of soil microbial community composition are well studied, little is known about the effects of plant-soil interactions and soil depth on soil microbial distribution at a regional scale. We examined 195 soil samples from 13 sites along a climatic transect in the temperate grasslands of northern China to measure the composition of and factors influencing soil microbial communities within a 1-m soil profile. Soil microbial community composition was measured using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Fungi predominated in topsoil (0-10 cm) and bacteria and actinomycetes in deep soils (40-100 cm), independent of steppe types. This variation was explained by contemporary environmental factors (including above- and below-ground plant biomass, soil physicochemical and climatic factors) >58% in the 0-40 cm of soil depth, but soils. Interestingly, when we considered the interactive effects between plant traits (above ground biomass and root biomass) and soil factors (pH, clay content, and soil total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous), we observed a significant interaction effect occurring at depths of 10-20 cm soil layer, due to different internal and external factors of the plant-soil system along the soil profile. These results improve understanding of the drivers of soil microbial community composition at regional scales. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the environmental pollution and radioactivity within the territory of Russia in October, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovanesyants, A.M.; Belova, N.A.; Ivanov, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    Points of Russia were indicated where the maximum permissible concentration limits of pollutants were found to be exceeded. Causes of the observed incidents were described. Pollution of the atmospheric air, soils and surface waters was presented for the october, 1992. Daily concentrations of the radioactive aerosols in the atmospheric air were equal to the background values as well as their fallout. High radioactivity in Chita and Rostov cities were explaned by natural origin factors (meteorological conditions)

  20. Thermokarst dynamics and soil organic matter characteristics controlling initial carbon release from permafrost soils in the Siberian Yedoma region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Niels; Blok, Daan; Elberling, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study relates soil organic matter (SOM) characteristics to initial soil incubation carbon release from upper permafrost samples in Yedoma region soils of northeastern Siberia, Russia. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N), δ13C and δ15N values show clear trends...

  1. Why Russia is not a state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  2. Contemporary Russia Policy for the Southern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Marabyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral relations between Russia on the one hand, and the countries of the Southern Caucasus region on the other hand are examined in the article. The main directions of Russian policy in the Southern Caucasus region are examined there. The article focusses attention to the value of the Southern Caucasus region for Russia and also to the key role of Russia in the Southern Caucasus region. The overview of Russian-Azerbaijani, Russian-Armenian and Russian- Georgian relations is given in the article. Russian relations with unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and with partially recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia are examined in the context of above-mentioned bilateral relations. The Caucasian direction of Russian foreign policy is of great importance in questions of ensuring Russian national security. The Caucasian crisis of2008 showed potential conflictness of the region and safety hazard of Russia. Now other processes proceed already in the region. Armenian intention to join the Customs union, the change of Georgian leadership and signing of the agreement on association with EU by Georgia start new mechanisms of interaction between the region countries on the one hand and Russia on the other hand. The relation format between region republics can be changed. The main purpose of the article is to show Russian role in questions of the South Caucasus regional security. The region has the conflict territories, from which the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the Abkhazian Republic and the South Ossetia Republic are distinguished especially. And Russia won't be able to keep aloof in case of escalation of the conflicts around above-mentioned subjects. The vital questions for the region are peace and stability. And Russia plays a key role in these questions.

  3. Energetic dialog EU and Russia slows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European Union maintains an individual dialog with Russia about cooperation in energy sphere since joint summit in Paris in October 2000. Both sides agreed there to create four export groups: for energy strategy, investments, infrastructure and technologies, efficiency and ecology. European Union expects that Russia will unequivocally take over the obligations by creation of suitable climate for investors. European Union considers as key preconditions the restructuring of the largest national monopoles. These conditions are also the important component of asking strategy of EU by the discussions about integration of Russia to WTO. One of the most important requests of Brussels is the restructuring of Gazprom concern, what means its division to mining and transport part. Russian part refuses all steps in this sphere. Author analyses the strategic interests of Russian government and of president Putin by planning and mining of oil and gas as like as by investments to the pipelines and gas lines. International Energetic Agency (IEA) assumes that the investments to oil and gas mining in Russia will be around 330 million USD till 2030. The similar situation is also in oil sector. More than half of huge oil deposits with the highest output are already mined. The oil mining in Russia reached 421 million tons in 2003. According to pessimistic estimations the gas mining will reach from 550 to 560 billion m 3 in the following decades, according to optimistic scenario it can reach up to 730 billion m 3 per year. In this case the netto export of oil from Russia could rise from present around 175 billion m 3 to 280 billion m 3 in 2030. IEA warns that these plans should be fulfilled only if massive foreign investments enter this sector. IEA also warns before concerns of investors about Russian legislation, property protection, cooperative regulation and transparentness of undertaking. Proposed pipelines among Russia, Near East, Africa and European Union are shown

  4. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  5. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  6. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  7. Steppe bison paleobiology through the scope of stable isotopes and zooarchaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Marie-Anne; Dorothée, Drucker; Hervé, Bocherens; Ariane, Burke; Marylène, Patou-Mathis; Alexandra, Krotova

    2010-05-01

    Bison are one of the most abundant and widely distributed species of large mammal during the Late Pleistocene. In the southern steppes of Eastern Europe, steppe bison (Bison priscus) is ubiquitous in zooarchaeological assemblages, particularly during the Upper Palaeolithic when a model of economic "specialization" is proposed. Specialization, in this context, implies the deliberate selection of a preferred species, which becomes the key food resource. The applicability of a specialised hunting model for the Upper Palaeolithic of Europe has recently been challenged, however (Grayson & Delpech 2002). In this research, therefore we re-examine bison acquisition strategies during the Upper Palaeolithic in the Ukrainian steppes in the light of biogeochemical and zooarchaeological data. The acquisition strategies used to procure a prey species are directly related to its social and spatial behaviour. A synthesis of ethological information for contemporary bison (Julien 2009) demonstrates the behavioural diversity of this taxa, linked mainly to local environmental variability, climatic conditions and population density. It is therefore necessary to propose a paleoethological model for the steppe bison before attempting to identify the acquisition strategies used by prehistoric hunters. In this research, we reconstruct the behaviour of the steppe bison using a combination of zooarchaeological tools, stable isotope analysis (intra-tooth isotope variation of carbon, oxygen and strontium ratios) and traditional paleobiological approaches. The advantages of using a combined approach are demonstrated through the examination of a case study: the site of Amvrosievka (Ukraine). Amvrosievka is a complex of Epigravettian sites composed of a camp and kill site, where more than 500 bison are represented (Krotova & Belan 1993). Twenty-five permanent lower teeth (M3) representing twenty-five individual bison were selected from the kill and camp site for isotopic analysis. Intra- and

  8. Virtual TeamSTEPPS(®) Simulations Produce Teamwork Attitude Changes Among Health Professions Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Linda I; Umoren, Rachel A; Scott, Patrician J; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Jones, James A; Truman, Barbara; Gossett, Evalyn J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the estimated 400,000 or more patient deaths per year in the United States are from preventable medical errors due to poor communication. Team training programs have been established to teach teamwork skills to health professions students. However, it is often challenging to provide this training at a physical site. A brief intervention using a virtual learning environment with TeamSTEPPS(®)-based scenarios is described. Using a pretest-posttest design, the effects on teamwork attitudes in 109 health professional students from two institutions and multiple disciplines were measured using the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes questionnaire. Participants showed significant attitude changes in the categories of leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication (p ⩽ .05), with significance in four of the six indicator attitudes in the communication section at the p ⩽ .001 level. These findings indicate the potential impact that virtual learning experiences may have on teamwork attitudes in learners across professions on multiple campuses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  10. Struggling to survive in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadasina, A

    1997-01-01

    Abortion has long been the traditional method of family planning (FP) in Russia. Today, abortions are free, but contraception is not. The birth rate has decreased between 1989 and 1995, and the death rate has increased. The present economic situation has had a marked adverse effect on women who are expected to juggle jobs, household duties, and child care responsibilities. In order to survive, women sometimes must engage in work that compromises their health. Many women have resorted in prostitution, and this has caused an unprecedented explosion in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis. The number of people newly registered as HIV-positive in the first half of 1997 exceeded the total for 1996. While sex education is still restricted, erotica and pornography is widely available. Cases of syphilis are increasing among the young, and, in 1996, about 2500 girls under age 15 gave birth and an equal number had abortions. Only 12% of all pregnant women and 25% of newborn infants can be considered healthy. In 1994, the government launched a FP program that is being carried out by a few public and private organizations. One of these, the Russian FP Association, has created more than 50 branches in different regions, opened youth centers, and provided sex education and reproductive health counseling. The overall effort has led to a 27% reduction in abortions, and a 25% reduction in abortion mortality. These efforts, however, have been opposed by "pro-life" forces and by the Communist wing of the government that reduced the budget. The FP Association is fighting back by lobbying and explaining the need for its work.

  11. Exogenic geomorphic processes dynamics at the Black Sea coast, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia; Tsvetkova, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays there is an obvious grow of anthropogenic load going on in many areas worldwide. Under such conditions, intensive activation of a number of exogenic geomorphic processes may be observed. Moreover, if natural environment is aggressive itself their dynamics and rates may reach enormous values. Our work is conducted at the Black Sea coast, known for its mountainous topography, wet subtropical climate and intensive anthropogenic development (especially during the last decade due to the recent Olympic games). We chose two key basins near Sochi, Russia to study a number of presented exogenic processes, including rill, gully and channel erosion, weathering, suffusion and piping, soil creep. A set of field study methods is used to monitor the processes dynamics since 2005 (and late 1970s for soil creep). In addition, soil erosion rates and landslide susceptibility were modelled to get information of the watersheds dynamics. This is ongoing work, but the results of the passed period of observations will be resented. Special attention is paid to the processes connectivity and their input into sediment redistribution over the river basins.

  12. Nitrous oxide emission from agricultural lands in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanovskaya, A.A.; Gytarsky, M.L.; Karaban, R.T.; Nazarov, I.M. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, 20B, Glebovskaya Str., Moscow 107258 (Russian Federation); Konushkov, D.E. [Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, 7, Pyzhevsky per., Moscow 109017 (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) atmospheric emission from different agricultural soil types in Russia was evaluated based on published data on single input of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. For most of experiments the rates of fertilization varied from 40 to 75 and from 160 to 264 kg/ha in active matter and they were considered separately. The higher rates of synthetic fertilizers (160 to 264 kg/ha) reduced relative gaseous loss of N as N2O (N2O-N). Evidently, if nitrate (NO3) concentrations were high, the low content of organic carbon (C) and oxygen (O) restricted soil microbiological activity and consequently formation of N2O. The majority of gaseous loss of N2O-N occurred within 140 days after the input of fertilizers. The N2O emission factors derived for chernozem and soddy podzolic soil are 0.0126 and 0.0238 kg N2O-N/kg N respectively. In 1990, the use of N fertilizers in national agriculture caused the release of 53 Gg N2O-N that constituted 6% of global N2O emission. Later on, the emission dropped because of decreased use of N fertilizers, and in 1998 it was almost 21% of the 1990 level.

  13. Nitrous oxide emission from agricultural lands in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskaya, A.A.; Gytarsky, M.L.; Karaban, R.T.; Nazarov, I.M.; Konushkov, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) atmospheric emission from different agricultural soil types in Russia was evaluated based on published data on single input of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. For most of experiments the rates of fertilization varied from 40 to 75 and from 160 to 264 kg/ha in active matter and they were considered separately. The higher rates of synthetic fertilizers (160 to 264 kg/ha) reduced relative gaseous loss of N as N2O (N2O-N). Evidently, if nitrate (NO3) concentrations were high, the low content of organic carbon (C) and oxygen (O) restricted soil microbiological activity and consequently formation of N2O. The majority of gaseous loss of N2O-N occurred within 140 days after the input of fertilizers. The N2O emission factors derived for chernozem and soddy podzolic soil are 0.0126 and 0.0238 kg N2O-N/kg N respectively. In 1990, the use of N fertilizers in national agriculture caused the release of 53 Gg N2O-N that constituted 6% of global N2O emission. Later on, the emission dropped because of decreased use of N fertilizers, and in 1998 it was almost 21% of the 1990 level

  14. Vegetation monitoring to detect and predict vegetation change: Connecting historical and future shrub/steppe data in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Chong; David Barnett; Benjamin Chemel; Roy Renkin; Pamela Sikkink

    2011-01-01

    A 2002 National Research Council (NRC) evaluation of ungulate management practices in Yellowstone specifically concluded that previous (1957 to present) vegetation monitoring efforts were insufficient to determine whether climate or ungulates were more influential on shrub/steppe dynamics on the northern ungulate winter range. The NRC further recommended that the...

  15. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Alsamadi, Silvana C.

    2012-01-01

    Score reliability and validity of parent responses concerning their 10- to 17-year-old students were analyzed using the Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P), which assesses a variety of emotional problems classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. Score reliability, convergent, and…

  16. Do people with borderline personality disorder complicated by antisocial personality disorder benefit from the STEPPS treatment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Impact of the invasive species Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. on vegetation in Pontic desert steppe zone (Southern Ukraine)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudnik-Wojcikowska, B.; Moysiyenko, I.; Slim, P.A.; Moraczewski, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Irano-Turanian species – Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) – is one of most commonly planted tree in the shelterbelts in southern Ukraine. The consequences of introduction of the species from windbreaks, into areas of different land use in west and central Pontic desert steppe zone are

  18. Breeding ecology of the endemic Black Lark Melanocorypha yeltoniensis on natural steppe and abandoned croplands in post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameris, T.K.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.; Urazaliev, Ruslan; Pulikova, Genrietta; Donald, Paul F.; Kamp, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the abundance and distribution of many central Asian steppe birds have been affected by changes in agricultural land management, such as the abandonment of large areas of cropland and changing grazing patterns. However, the underlying population

  19. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP): a test of state-and-transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve C. Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Nora Devoe; Paul Doescher; James Grace; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; David Turner

    2010-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding areas. SageSTEP has several features that make it ideal for testing...

  20. Retreating or standing: Responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid eastern central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Xiang Zhang; Ming-Li Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2013-01-01

    The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively...

  1. A method to determine warm and cool steppe biomes from pollen data; application to the Mediterranean and Kazakhstan regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarasov, PE; Cheddadi, R; Guiot, J; Bottema, S; Peyron, O; Belmonte, J; Ruiz-Sanchez, [No Value; Saadi, F; Brewer, S

    1998-01-01

    An objective method for the assignment of pollen spectra to appropriate biomes has been published recently. The aim of this paper is to improve the distinction between warm and cool steppes, thus refining vegetation and climate reconstruction, particularly during the Last Glacial Maximum. A set of

  2. Why Russia still wants nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    1993-01-01

    Despite a recent explosion at the Tomsk uranium reprocessing plant in Siberia, and the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, support for nuclear power is still firm in Russia. The Russian nuclear industry employs around two million people and their employment security is one of the chief factors in support of the nuclear power industry despite its safety record. The other major reason is energy shortages. Despite huge natural deposits of petroleum and gas, electric power shortages are widespread. Eighty per cent of Russia's electric power comes from oil-fired power stations, but oil supplies are unreliable. Production is dropping and, at the same time, an increasing proportion of the oil produced is exported to earn foreign currency. The concerns of environmental groups may have to be shelved, until Russia's infrastructure is efficient enough to maintain power supplies reliably. (UK)

  3. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  4. Security of fissile materials in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of security of huge stocks of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia against theft or diversion remains a serious nonproliferation concern. During the Cold War, the security of Soviet nuclear materials was based on centralization and discipline, protection by the military, and intrusive political oversight of the people. The recent fundamental societal changes have rendered these arrangements inadequate, and the security of nuclear materials has decreased. Safeguarding nuclear materials in Russia is particularly difficult because of their very large inventories and the size and complexity of the nation's nuclear infrastructure. Russia needs a reliable and more objective technology-based system of nuclear safeguards designed to control nuclear materials. The Russian government and the international community are working towards this goal

  5. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  6. Recovery of biological soil crust richness and cover 12–16 years after wildfires in Idaho, USA

    OpenAIRE

    H. T. Root; J. C. Brinda; E. K. Dodson

    2017-01-01

    Changing fire regimes in western North America may impact biological soil crust (BSC) communities that influence many ecosystem functions, such as soil stability and C and N cycling. However, longer-term effects of wildfire on BSC abundance, species richness, functional groups, and ecosystem functions after wildfire (i.e., BSC resilience) are still poorly understood. We sampled BSC lichen and bryophyte communities at four sites in Idaho, USA, within foothill steppe commu...

  7. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  8. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  9. Encyclopedic approach to Marine History of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Ishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine direction of foreign policy is for Russia one of key. It is determined geographical position of the Russian state banks of which is washed plenty of Maureies. Also it is related to that considerable part of population lives on the coast of Russian Maureies, and industry, located in an off-shore bar brings, in a large contribution to the economy.Many Russian marine travelers were the discoverers of «new» earths. The contribution of the Russian scientists to the hydrophysical, geological and biological study of Maureies and Oceans is great. Russia possesses a navy, to the constituents approximately one-third of total tonnage of world VMF and one of large in the world a rybopromyslovym fleet. Transport ships under the flag of Russian Federation it is possible to meet planets in the remotest corners. In a number of areas of military shipbuilding and civil shipbuilding Russia had and continues to save priority.Enhanceable interest to the Seas and Oceans found the reflection in the fundamental Russian documents, including, in the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation, ratified Russia President in 2015. In it the value of marine spaces for the Russian state is marked. In the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation is writtenin: «The skilled providing, marine teaching and education play an important role in the increase of efficiency of marine activity. They are directed on preparation, bringing in and maintainance of skilled shots of all levels, maintenance of professionalism, marine traditions and not indifferent relation of citizens to marine history of country, serve positive presentation, propaganda and support of national marine policy, to marine activity and marine service in society».Marine direction, marine science about regions found a reflection in the publications of row of the Russian authors, devoted research of policy of Russia in such regions, as: Black Sea region, Caspian region, Arctic, and also in the series of Encyclopaedias

  10. Russia is on brink of AIDS epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M

    1996-08-03

    Russia, and in particular Moscow, is on the brink of an AIDS epidemic, the president of the Russian Medical Academy told doctors gathered in Moscow for a national AIDS seminar. Although Russia has officially registered only 1269 cases of HIV infection, a quarter of them in Moscow, and 193 deaths since the first case appeared in Russia in 1987, health officials are alarmed by the recent rise in the rate of infection. In 1995, 200 new cases were registered, but 205 cases had already been registered in the first 6 months of 1996. The rapid spread of intravenous drug use is the main factor contributing to the rise in HIV infection. According to the head of the Russian AIDS Center, the real number of people infected with HIV in Russia is 3-4 times higher than official numbers, while AIDS activists believe that the real figure is 10-20 times higher. Russia has traditionally blamed its AIDS problem on foreigners and introduced an obligatory HIV test as a visa requirement for long-term visitors. Now neighboring Ukraine and Belarus are being blamed for the latest crisis. Of 1000 known intravenous drug users tested in Svetlogorsk, Belarus, 158 are HIV positive, with 20 results still outstanding. Previously, only 130 people in Belarus were known to be infected with HIV. In the Ukraine, where HIV testing has shown that over 5000 people are HIV positive and where a further 20,000 are estimated to be infected, a special subtype of HIV-1 has been discovered. In 1995 there were 1021 new cases of HIV infection, but in the first 4 months of this year there were 1805 new cases. Although the chief AIDS specialist at Russia's health ministry agrees that health education is more important than scare tactics against foreigners, in 1995 the health ministry received only 49% of the funds allocated for national AIDS education.

  11. Reinsurance Market in Russia Requires a Restart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Voronin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: main objective of this article is to analyze dynamics and structure of the reinsurance market in Russia. Market research is conducted to understand the main trends in Russian reinsurance during period of economic sanctions. As these sanctions, affect incoming and outgoing reinsurance, as well as the development of the industry in the whole country. To achieve this goal, the article needs to address the following objectives: conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the reinsurance market; to identify the current structure of the reinsurance market in Russia; to evaluate the influence of the Russian national reinsurance company in the insurance market of the Russian Federation. Methods: this article is based on the Central Bank of Russia consolidated data on the insurance market. Results: in the period imposed against our country economic sanctions by Western countries, the topic of import substitution is relevant not only in the productive sectors of the economy and the financial markets. In particular, in the present period it is necessary to obtain additional capacity with the market of international capital loans and improve the domestic investment climate in the country. Current international practice shows that the development of any financial industry would be impossible without effective sharing of different kinds of risks and their maximum leveling. Conclusions and Relevance: analysis conducted in the article allows to identify current trends in the insurance market in Russia from both internal and external players perspectives. The data demonstrates the main problem areas of the reinsurance community in Russia and ways of solving them. In addition, the article makes predictions about the development of the reinsurance market in Russia with the imposition of a new player – the national reinsurance company. 

  12. Environmental security: The problems of Northwestern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The review of main existing environmental problems of North-West Russia covers the radioactive pollution, atmospheric pollution, destroying of the tundra and forest ecosystems, inland and water pollution, consequences of space activities. This region includes: Karelia and Komi republics; Yamalo-Nenetzk autonomous region; Murmansk; Leningrad and Vologda regions; White Sea; Southern and eastern parts of Barents Sea; eastern part of Kara Sea; and eastern part of the Baltic (Finnish Bay). The environmental situation in northwestern Russia is extremely unsafe. The fundamental reason for this situation is Soviet over-militarization in the past. There is an urgent need now to tackle the international environmental security in the Arctic and Scandinavian regions at least in two fields: 1. The existing radioactive pollution (mostly connected with military activities), and even more dangerous - the potential radioactive pollution of the Arctic and Scandinavia. 2. Atmospheric pollution (long distance transportation of pollutant, mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, from melting factories on Kola Peninsula). Several other problems relating to the environmental security of the region (among them deforestation, oil/gas pollution of the ocean, development of the diamond industry) need international attention in the nearest future. It is unrealistic to think that Russia alone can overcome these long-standing problems in the foreseeable future: we need international support for this. But foreign money for solving our environmental problems is not the solution, firstly, because for environmental restoration and recovery Russia needs much more than the international community can allocate; secondly, because there is much money inside Russia (every month, during 1993-1996, up to two billions US dollars were flowing out from Russia to western banks). To utilize this money in a proper way, we drastically need international help to awaken the Russian public environmental awareness

  13. The value of small habitat islands for the conservation of genetic variability in a steppe grass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wódkiewicz, Maciej; Dembicz, Iwona; Moysiyenko, Ivan I.

    2016-10-01

    The habitat loss and fragmentation due to agricultural land-conversion affected the steppe throughout its range. In Ukraine, 95% of steppe was destroyed in the last two centuries. Remaining populations are confined to few refuges, like nature reserves, loess ravines, and kurgans (small burial mounds), the latter being often subject to destruction by archeological excavations. Stipa capillata L. is a typical grass species of Eurasian steppes and extrazonal dry grasslands, that was previously used as a model species in studies on steppe ecology. The aim of our research was to assess genetic diversity of S. capillata populations within different types of steppe refuges (loess ravines, biosphere reserve, kurgan) and to evaluate the value of the latter group for the preservation of genetic diversity in the study species. We assessed genetic diversity of 266 individuals from 15 populations (nine from kurgans, three from loess ravines and three from Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve) with eight Universal Rice Primers (URPs). Studied populations showed high intra-population variability (I: 0.262-0.419, PPB: 52.08-82.64%). Populations from kurgans showed higher genetic differentiation (ΦST = 0.247) than those from loess ravines (ΦST = 0.120) and the biosphere reserve (ΦST = 0.142). Although the diversity metrics were to a small extent lower for populations from kurgans than from larger refugia we conclude that all studied populations of the species still preserve high genetic variability and are valuable for protection. To what extent this pattern holds true under continuous fragmentation in the future must be carefully monitored.

  14. Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework applied to TeamSTEPPS implementation in small rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marcia M; Baloh, Jure; Zhu, Xi; Stewart, Greg L

    A particularly useful model for examining implementation of quality improvement interventions in health care settings is the PARIHS (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) framework developed by Kitson and colleagues. The PARIHS framework proposes three elements (evidence, context, and facilitation) that are related to successful implementation. An evidence-based program focused on quality enhancement in health care, termed TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety), has been widely promoted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, but research is needed to better understand its implementation. We apply the PARIHS framework in studying TeamSTEPPS implementation to identify elements that are most closely related to successful implementation. Quarterly interviews were conducted over a 9-month period in 13 small rural hospitals that implemented TeamSTEPPS. Interview quotes that were related to each of the PARIHS elements were identified using directed content analysis. Transcripts were also scored quantitatively, and bivariate regression analysis was employed to explore relationships between PARIHS elements and successful implementation related to planning activities. The current findings provide support for the PARIHS framework and identified two of the three PARIHS elements (context and facilitation) as important contributors to successful implementation. This study applies the PARIHS framework to TeamSTEPPS, a widely used quality initiative focused on improving health care quality and patient safety. By focusing on small rural hospitals that undertook this quality improvement activity of their own accord, our findings represent effectiveness research in an understudied segment of the health care delivery system. By identifying context and facilitation as the most important contributors to successful implementation, these analyses provide a focus for efficient and effective sustainment of TeamSTEPPS

  15. HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE MUD SEDIMENT IN EKATERINBURG (RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Seleznev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Now the most part of the world’s population lives in cities, thus, it is relevant the search for universal, low-cost and express methods for environmental geochemical investigations of an urban environment. The objective of the study is the assessment of content and properties of surface mud sediment at the urban territory (on the example of Ekaterinburg, Russia. Methods of the study. The 30 samples of surface mud sediment, soils and ground were collected in the residential area of the city. Particle size composition, measurements of heavy metals content, correlation analysis was conducted for the samples. Results. Surface mud sediment at the residential territories can be classified as surface facie of the recent anthropogenic sediment. Samples of the environmental compartments were collected at the territories of six blocks of houses of various years of construction, located in various parts of the city and at the various geological units. Five samples were collected in each block: 3 samples within the block and 2 samples – outside. The content of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, and Mn was measured in particle size fractions of the samples. Particle size composition of the surface mud sediment in Ekaterinburg is similar to the particle size composition of the grounds formed on the sediments of Holocene age in Urals region. The positive statistically significant correlation was found between the couples of metals: Zn and Pb, Zn and Cu, Co and Ni. The distribution of concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu over particle size fractions of surface mud sediment is heterogeneous. Pollution of the ground and soil in urban areas is due to the transition of heavy metals with particles of dust and fine sand. Typical geochemical association of metals for particle size fraction of surface mud sediment 0.002–0.01 mm – Mn-Zn-Ni-Cu-Pb-Co, that is similar to the association for sediments of surface puddles in local zones of relief, soils and bottom

  16. Russia After Yeltsin: Implications for U.S. National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Charles

    1997-01-01

    With the recent health problems of Russia's President Yeltsin it becomes prudent to ask who would assume control of Russia if Yeltsin were suddenly to die, or become incapacitated for a lengthy period of time...

  17. Seismicity Characterization and Velocity Structure of Northeast Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mackey, Kevin G; Fujita, Kazuya

    2005-01-01

    A seismicity catalog and associated list of phases for many events has been compiled for northeast Russia using published and unpublished data from the regional networks operating in eastern Russia...

  18. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear weapons have traditionally occupied an important place in Russia's national security strategy. This tradition goes back to the Soviet times, when the country invested considerable efforts into building its nuclear arsenal and achieving strategic parity with the United States. As Russia and the United States have been reducing their nuclear arsenals since the end of the Cold War, their relationship has undergone a complex transformation toward cooperation and partnership mixed with suspicion and rivalry. The focus of Russia's nuclear policy, however, has remained essentially unchanged - it still considers strategic balance with the United States to be an important element of national security and pays considerable attention to maintaining the deterrent potential of its strategic forces. Russia does recognize the emergence of new threats - it cannot ignore the threats related to regional instabilities and conflicts on its own territory and in bordering states, such as the tensions in the Caucasus or the war in Afghanistan, the terrorist activity that is associated with these conflicts, as well as the problems that stem from nuclear and missile proliferation. These, however, are not given a high priority in Russia's security policy. For example, the new military doctrine adopted in February 2010, opens the list of military threats with the expansion of geographical and political reach of NATO, which is followed by the threat to strategic stability and then by deployment of missile defense. Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and destabilizing local conflicts are placed much further down the list. Even when it comes to confronting the issues of local instabilities and terrorism, Russia's leadership tends to see these issues through the prism of its strategic strength, alleging that terrorist attacks are a reaction to Russia's perceived weakness. This way of looking at the issues effectively redefines national security problems to conform to the traditional view

  19. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  20. Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis for continuous, binary, and count outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wai-Ki; Bonetti, Marco; Cole, Bernard F; Barcella, William; Wang, Xin Victoria; Lazar, Ann; Gelber, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    For the past few decades, randomized clinical trials have provided evidence for effective treatments by comparing several competing therapies. Their successes have led to numerous new therapies to combat many diseases. However, since their conclusions are based on the entire cohort in the trial, the treatment recommendation is for everyone, and may not be the best option for an individual. Medical research is now focusing more on providing personalized care for patients, which requires investigating how patient characteristics, including novel biomarkers, modify the effect of current treatment modalities. This is known as heterogeneity of treatment effects. A better understanding of the interaction between treatment and patient-specific prognostic factors will enable practitioners to expand the availability of tailored therapies, with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) approach was developed to allow researchers to investigate the heterogeneity of treatment effects on survival outcomes across values of a (continuously measured) covariate, such as a biomarker measurement. Here, we extend the Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot approach to continuous, binary, and count outcomes, which can be easily modeled using generalized linear models. With this extension of Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot, these additional types of treatment effects within subpopulations defined with respect to a covariate of interest can be estimated, and the statistical significance of any observed heterogeneity of treatment effect can be assessed using permutation tests. The desirable feature that commonly used models are applied to well-defined patient subgroups to estimate treatment effects is retained in this extension. We describe a simulation study to confirm that the proper Type I error rate is maintained when there is no treatment heterogeneity, and a power study to show that the statistics have

  1. SOILS AS INDICATORS OF CLIMATIC CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Chendev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of examples for the reaction of chernozems in the center of the East European Plain and their relation to different periodical climatic changes are examined. According to unequal-age chernozems properties, the transition from the Middle Holocene arid conditions to the Late Holocene wet conditions occurred at 4000 yr BP. Using data on changes of soil properties, the position of boundary between steppe and forest-steppe and the annual amount of precipitation at approximately 4000 yr BP were reconstructed. The change from warm-dry to cool-moist climatic phases, which occurred at the end of the XX century as a reflection of intra-age-long climatic cyclic recurrence, led to the strengthening of dehumification over the profile of automorphic chernozems and to the reduction of its content in the upper meter of the soils. The leaching of carbonates and of readily soluble salts contributed to the decrease in soil areas occupied by typical and solonetzic chernozems, and to the increase in areas occupied by leached chernozems.

  2. Macroeconomic determinants of remittance flows from russia to tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzosaid Sultonov

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the macroeconomic determinants of remittance flows from Russia to Tajikistan. Applying quarterly time series and an econometric model with regression analyses, we find that Russia's economic growth and Tajikistan's inflation have positive and statistically significant effects on remittances, and Russia's unemployment has negative and statistically significant effects.

  3. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  4. Russia wants to supply gas to both East and West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Russia's plans of distributing gas to both Europe and Asia are analysed. In Russia the main oil and gas assets have been put back under state control, and there is a fear that Russia will use its massive oil and gas reserves as a political tool to strengthen its national security interests

  5. 75 FR 48360 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of full five-year... from Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of full reviews pursuant to... Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably...

  6. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission... and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be likely to lead to...

  7. Identifying treatment effect heterogeneity in clinical trials using subpopulations of events: STEPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ann A; Bonetti, Marco; Cole, Bernard F; Yip, Wai-Ki; Gelber, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    Investigators conducting randomized clinical trials often explore treatment effect heterogeneity to assess whether treatment efficacy varies according to patient characteristics. Identifying heterogeneity is central to making informed personalized healthcare decisions. Treatment effect heterogeneity can be investigated using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP), a non-parametric graphical approach that constructs overlapping patient subpopulations with varying values of a characteristic. Procedures for statistical testing using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot when the endpoint of interest is survival remain an area of active investigation. A STEPP analysis was used to explore patterns of absolute and relative treatment effects for varying levels of a breast cancer biomarker, Ki-67, in the phase III Breast International Group 1-98 randomized clinical trial, comparing letrozole to tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Absolute treatment effects were measured by differences in 4-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer recurrence, while relative effects were measured by the subdistribution hazard ratio in the presence of competing risks using O-E (observed-minus-expected) methodology, an intuitive non-parametric method. While estimation of hazard ratio values based on O-E methodology has been shown, a similar development for the subdistribution hazard ratio has not. Furthermore, we observed that the subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot analysis may not produce results, even with 100 patients within each subpopulation. After further investigation through simulation studies, we observed inflation of the type I error rate of the traditional test statistic and sometimes singular variance-covariance matrix estimates that may lead to results not being produced. This is due to the lack of sufficient number of events within the subpopulations, which we refer to as instability of

  8. Chemical composition and trophic state of shallow saline steppe lakes in central Asia (North Kazakhstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Emil; Jurecska, Laura; Tatár, Enikő; Vörös, Lajos; Kolpakova, Marina

    2017-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevailing chemical composition and trophic state of the shallow saline steppe lakes of North Kazakhstan along a wide size range (SO 4 and Na-Cl (n = 16; 64%); the Ca, Mg, HCO 3 , and SO 4 ions precipitate with increasing salinity (2-322 g L -1 ); and ion composition shifts from Na>Mg-Cl>SO 4 to Na-Cl. The most of the chemical variables positively, but chlorophyll a negatively, correlated with total dissolved solids, and the total phosphorus had no significant correlation with any variables. The trophic state of these lakes in most cases exceeded the hypertrophic level. The increase in salinity causes change in chemical composition and effects on the phytoplankton development independently from the size of water surface, and the human disturbances had negligible effect on the trophic state of shallow saline lakes in this region of Kazakhstan.

  9. CHRONOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF ANCIENT POTTERY TRADITIONS' DISSEMINATION IN STEPPES OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vybornov, Aleksandr A.; Vasilyeva, Irina N.; Kulkova, Marianna A.

    2018-01-01

    The territory of the Lower Volga plays an important role in the study of the Neolithic of Eastern Europe. The leading indicator of this epoch is pottery. Determining the chronology of pottery making is one of the most complex issues. Over the past ten years, a large number of radiocarbon dates (43......) have been obtained on various materials: coal, bones, organic materials in pottery, crusts, humus. They allowed accurate determining of the initial time of appearance of the most ancient crockery in the Lower Volga region - the middle of the 7th millennium BC. The authors determine the chronological...... analysis made it possible to clarify the genesis, the features of the dynamics and the further destiny of pottery in the region. The combination of the latest data allows referring the Neolithic monuments of steppe territory of the Lower Volga to the area of the ancient pottery in Eastern Europe. A...

  10. THE ROLE OF POLYPLOIDY IN ADAPTATION AND SETTLING OF STEPPE SHRUBS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Ekimova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers for some species of Central Asia steppe shrubs are given: Rhamnus erythroxylon Pall. (Rhamnaceae, Caragana buriatica Peschk. (Fabaceae, Amygdalus pedunculata Pall., Armeniaca sibirica (L. Lam. (Rosaceae, Atraphaxis pungens (Bieb. Jaub. et Spach. and A. frutescens (L. C. Koch (Polygonaceae. Chromosome numbers of some species were determined for the first time. Comparative analysis of adaptive properties of polyploid and diploid species has been conducted. It was established that natural polyploids are more adaptive to existence in extreme conditions. They possess by high potential for survival and characterized by more high level of intraspecific polymorphism, abundant flowering and fruitification, ability of propagate both generative and vegetative means, high seed germination.

  11. Fast reactor development program in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachkov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    The large-scale NP can be developed on the basis of new generation of CNFC and FR technologies being in compliance with “natural safety” criteria. Within the FTP we are planning to develop alternative technologies with the goal to select by 2020 the best technological option for the large-scale nuclear power development in Russia in 21 century

  12. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  13. PREVENTION FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Skitnevskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the influence of alcohol problems in women of childbearing age during pregnancy on the unborn child. The concept of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. We describe the stages of the research project "Prevention of fetal FAS in Russia."

  14. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  15. National aspects of food security of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanina Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instability of a foreign policy situation and deepening of financial crisis actualize need of monitoring of food security’s condition as objective condition of economic sovereignty of Russia. Modern approaches to definition of food security of the state are considered in article. Critical evaluation of separate provisions of the Doctrine of food security of the Russian Federation is given. The analysis of a condition of food security of Russia in the directions of independence, economic and physical availability of the food is carried out on the basis of statistical data. Food security in Russia was reflected in the political decisions that defined the new economic policy of the state in the foreign market. modern import substitution program has shown its effectiveness, which is based on the absence of alternative paths of development. An important condition is the slow pace of development of the internal economy of Russia in conditions when domestic markets competition is virtually nonexistent. Food is a priority in the development of society, ensuring political and social balance, therefore, organizational solutions discussed in this material has a transdisciplinary character. The author’s conclusions can be useful to researchers who are trying to decide how macroeconomic objectives, and conducting research for innovative solutions in many sectors of the economy.

  16. Economic sovereignty. An agenda for Militant Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Malle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia has embarked on a difficult path to economic sovereignty and heightened security to withstand rising antagonism from the West that culminated with the application of punitive sanctions against Russia's positioning on Ukraine. With the aim of lessening economic dependence on trade with the EU, its major trade partner for decades, Russia tries to work out a patriotic model of growth based on two vectors: import and trade partner substitution. The pursuit of self-sufficiency in foodstuffs adds an important pillar to security concerns as reflected earlier in the 2010 Doctrine on Food Security. But import substitution will be costly and difficult to manage. Fiscal balances and exchange rates will need to adjust to the new challenges. Finding new partners eastwards is also complicated. Trade with China, in hydrocarbons or other commodities, requires massive infrastructural work that neither the government nor private investors can afford in a situation of financial stringency. Investment from China is slow to materialize as the economic slowdown also impinges on China's projects. Nonetheless important deals on gas and infrastructure have been agreed and are pursued despite difficulties. A favourable institutional framework aimed at attracting investors to the Far East is in place. It will be up to the local administrations to make the best of it and venture capital to run the risk. The outlook is long-term, but both Russia and China have learnt from history to be patient.

  17. Who pays for the sanctions on Russia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s sanctions on Russia mark the low point in relations between Brussels and Moscow since the end of the Cold War. Though there is a fierce debate over the impact of these sanctions on the Russian economy, much less attention is paid to their cost to EU Europe.

  18. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  19. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  20. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  1. STS-71 astronauts training in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Norman E. Thagard and Bonnie J. Dunbar in cosmonaut space suits in the Training Simulator Facility at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (Star City), near Moscow, Russia. In March 1995, astronaut Thagard is scheduled to be launched in a Russ

  2. Development of NPP safety regulation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevsky, Y.G.; Gutsalov, A.T.; Bukrinsky, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    The presentation describes the organisation scheme of Russian safety regulatory bodies, their tasks and responsibilities. Legislative and regulatory basis of NPP safety regulations rely on the federal laws: Law on the Use of Nuclear Energy and Law on Radiation Safety of the Population. Role of international cooperation and Improvement of regulatory activities in Russia are emphasised

  3. Nomadic Life on the Steppes: An Ecocinematic Exploration of Tulpan and Cave of the Yellow Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Adelman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecocinema: (1 analyzes the role of visual media in responding to the environmental crisis; (2 has explicit interest in environmental justice; (3 includes a variety of genres and modes of production; (4 informs viewers of issues of ecological importance; (5 promotes ecocentric ways of framing the world; and (6 has an activist agenda. Ecocinema examines films produced by/with historically marginalized communities underrepresented in film. Using Ecocinema and Fourth Cinema (Barclay, I examined two fictional films featuring nomadic peoples of the Central Asian Steppes whose culture and ecologically low impact lifestyle are threatened and fragile in the global order. Tulpan, a 2008 Kazakh/Russian production by Kazakh-born Sergei Dvortsevoy, tells the story of Asa, a young Kazakh man, returning to his home in the Steppes to establish himself as a shepherd with his own flock. Tulpan features the long takes and slow pacing needed to “retrain the perception” of viewers. Tulpan’s biocentric focus on landscape and animals is equivalent to the focus on the human, reconsidering the human/non-human relationship. Tulpan shows one young man dreaming of a meaningful life rooted in his cultural traditions, struggling to locate himself within contemporary economic, political and cultural realities in a region underrepresented in world film. The Cave of the Yellow Dog, 2005, by Mongolian filmmaker Byambasuren Davaa, tells the story of a Mongolian nomadic family. Davaa, similar to Dvortsevoy, works in documentary and fictional films, uses professional and non-professional actors, and relies on Western funding to make her films. These two films suggest that non-commercial fictional films are an important vehicle for addressing global environmental concerns as they present stories of marginalized people and help us imagine solutions to global problems.

  4. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  5. Persistent and novel threats to the biodiversity of Kazakhstan’s steppes and semi-deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Johannes; Koshkin, Maxim A; Bragina, Tatyana M; Katzner, Todd E.; Milner-Gulland, E J; Schreiber, Dagmar; Sheldon, Robert; Shmalenko, Alyona; Smelansky, Ilya; Terraube, Julien; Urazaliev, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    Temperate grasslands have suffered disproportionally from conversion to cropland, degradation and fragmentation. A large proportion of the world’s remaining near-natural grassland is situated in Kazakhstan. We aimed to assess current and emerging threats to steppe and semi-desert biodiversity in Kazakhstan and evaluate conservation research priorities. We conducted a horizon-scanning exercise among conservationists from academia and practice. We first compiled a list of 45 potential threats. These were then ranked by the survey participants according to their perceived severity, the need for research on them, and their novelty. The highest-ranked threats were related to changes in land use (leading to habitat loss and deterioration), direct persecution of wildlife, and rapid infrastructure development due to economic and population growth. Research needs were identified largely in the same areas, and the mean scores of threat severity and research need were highly correlated. Novel threats comprised habitat loss by photovoltaic and wind power stations, climate change and changes in agriculture such as the introduction of biofuels. However, novelty was not correlated with threat severity or research priority, suggesting that the most severe threats are the established ones. Important goals towards more effective steppe and semi-desert conservation in Kazakhstan include more cross-sector collaboration (e.g. by involving stakeholders in conservation and agriculture), greater allocation of funds to under-staffed areas (e.g. protected area management), better representativeness and complementarity in the protected area system and enhanced data collection for wildlife monitoring and threat assessments (including the use of citizen-science databases).

  6. Impact of a TeamSTEPPS Trauma Nurse Academy at a Level 1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, V Kristen; Harvey, Ellen M; Wright, Andi; Bath, Jennifer; Freeman, Dan; Collier, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    Nurses are crucial members of the team caring for the acutely injured trauma patient. Until recently, nurses and physicians gained an understanding of leadership and supportive roles separately. With the advent of a multidisciplinary team approach to trauma care, formal team training and simulation has transpired. Since 2007, our Level I trauma system has integrated TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies & Tools to Enhance Performance & Patient Safety; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD) into our clinical care, joint training of nurses and physicians, using simulations with participation of all health care providers. With the increased expectations of a well-orchestrated team and larger number of emergency nurses, our program created the Trauma Nurse Academy. This academy provides a core of experienced nurses with an advanced level of training while decreasing the variability of personnel in the trauma bay. Components of the academy include multidisciplinary didactic education, the Essentials of TeamSTEPPS, and interactive trauma bay learning, to include both equipment and drug use. Once completed, academy graduates participate in the orientation and training of General Surgery and Emergency Medicine residents' trauma bay experience and injury prevention activities. Internal and published data have demonstrated growing evidence linking trauma teamwork training to knowledge and self-confidence in clinical judgment to team performance, patient outcomes, and quality of care. Although trauma resuscitations are stressful, high risk, dynamic, and a prime environment for error, new methods of teamwork training and collaboration among trauma team members have become essential. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  8. Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program Based Upon the National Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP) Initiative (WERF Report INFR2R14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:The National STEPP Program seeks to improve water quality by accelerating the effective implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. Itwill attempt to accomplish this by establishing practices through highly reliable, and cost-effective S...

  9. Carbon dioxide effluxes and their environmental controls in sagebrush steppe ecosystems along an elevation gradient in the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of carbon dioxide effluxes and their environmental controls are poorly constrained in cold shrub steppe ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to 1) analyze environmental parameters in determining soil CO2 efflux, 2) assess the level of agreement between manual chambers and force diffusion (FD) soil CO2 efflux chambers, when both measurements are extrapolated across the growing season, and lastly to compare respiration fluxes to modeled ecosystem respiration fluxes. We installed FD chambers at four sites co-located with eddy covariance (EC) towers and soil moisture and temperature sensors along an elevation gradient in the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory in SW Idaho. FD chamber fluxes were collected continuously at 15-minute intervals. We sampled soil CO2 efflux with manual chambers at plant and interplant spaces in five plots at each site biweekly to monthly during the growing season. The sites included a Wyoming big sagebrush site, a low sagebrush site, a post-fire mountain big sagebrush site, and a mountain big sagebrush site located at elevations of 1425, 1680, 1808 and 2111 m. Climate variation followed the montane elevation gradient; mean annual precipitation (MAP) at the sites is 290, 337, 425, and 795 mm, respectively, and mean annual temperature is 8.9, 8.4, 6.1, 5.4°C. Automated force diffusion chambers detected large differences in carbon dioxide pulse dynamics along the elevation gradient. Growing season carbon dioxide fluxes were 3 times higher at the 425 mm MAP site compared than the lowest elevation sites at 290 and 337 MAP sites and >1.5 higher than the 795 mm MAP site over the same period. Manual fluxes showed similar seasonal patterns as FD chamber fluxes but often higher and greater spatial variability in fluxes than FD chamber fluxes. Plant and interplant flux differences were surprisingly similar, especially at higher elevations. Soil respiration ranged from 0.2-0.48 of ecosystem respiration

  10. Evaluating Structural and Functional Characteristics of Various Ecological Patches in Different Range Conditions (Case Study: Semi -Steppe Rangeland of Aghche-Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland condition assessment plays an important role in determining range health and applying appropriate management programs. This study aimed to evaluate the structure and function of a semi-steppe rangeland using Landscape Function Analysis technique (LFA in different land conditions in western Isfahan province, Iran. For this purpose, 4, 3 and 7 sites in different rangeland condition classes including very poor, poor, and moderate were selected respectively. In each site, a 30-meter transect was established and all kinds of patches and inter patches were identified and their lengths and widths were recorded. Also, in each ecological patch, 11 indicators of soil surface characteristics with three replications were measured, and their status was scored according to LFA method. The functionality indices of all the sites including soil stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling were measured. According to the statistical analysis results, most of the structural characteristics (number of patches, patch length, patch area index, landscape organization index and functional indices (infiltration, stability and nutrient cycling status varied significantly (α= 5% between rangeland sites with moderate and very poor condition. The changes of these structural and functional characteristics were not significant between range sites with moderate and poor, and also poor and very poor range conditions. According to the findings of this study, patch types' functionalities did not vary significantly in both rangeland sites with moderate and very poor conditions. The nutrient cycling index in patches formed by ‘forb, shrub and grass’ with poor range condition was significantly more than ‘forb’ and ‘grass’ patches. The study of range site functionality can assist managers in identifying possible ecological thresholds and prioritizing the sub-catchments and vegetation types for implementing range improvement practices.

  11. Short-Term Effects of Changing Precipitation Patterns on Shrub-Steppe Grasslands: Seasonal Watering Is More Important than Frequency of Watering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore-McCulloch, Justine A; Thompson, Donald L; Fraser, Lauchlan H

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns. Droughts may become longer and more frequent, and the timing and intensity of precipitation may change. We tested how shifting precipitation patterns, both seasonally and by frequency of events, affects soil nitrogen availability, plant biomass and diversity in a shrub-steppe temperate grassland along a natural productivity gradient in Lac du Bois Grasslands Protected Area near Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada. We manipulated seasonal watering patterns by either exclusively watering in the spring or the fall. To simulate spring precipitation we restricted precipitation inputs in the fall, then added 50% more water than the long term average in the spring, and vice-versa for the fall precipitation treatment. Overall, the amount of precipitation remained roughly the same. We manipulated the frequency of rainfall events by either applying water weekly (frequent) or monthly (intensive). After 2 years, changes in the seasonality of watering had greater effects on plant biomass and diversity than changes in the frequency of watering. Fall watering reduced biomass and increased species diversity, while spring watering had little effect. The reduction in biomass in fall watered treatments was due to a decline in grasses, but not forbs. Plant available N, measured by Plant Root Simulator (PRS)-probes, increased from spring to summer to fall, and was higher in fall watered treatments compared to spring watered treatments when measured in the fall. The only effect observed due to frequency of watering events was greater extractable soil N in monthly applied treatments compared to weekly watering treatments. Understanding the effects of changing precipitation patterns on grasslands will allow improved grassland conservation and management in the face of global climatic change, and here we show that if precipitation is more abundant in the fall, compared to the spring, grassland primary productivity will likely be

  12. Future equivalent of 2010 Russian heatwave intensified by weakening soil moisture constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmijn, L.M.; Schrier, van der G.; Bintanja, R.; Barkmeijer, J.; Sterl, A.; Hazeleger, W.

    2018-01-01

    The 2010 heatwave in eastern Europe and Russia ranks among the hottest events ever recorded in the region1,2. The excessive summer warmth was related to an anomalously widespread and intense quasi-stationary anticyclonic circulation anomaly over western Russia, reinforced by depletion of spring soil

  13. Dynamics of Soil Properties and Plant Composition during Postagrogenic Evolution in Different Bioclimatic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesnina, V. M.; Kurganova, I. N.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V. O.; Ovsepyan, L. A.; Lichko, V. I.; Ermolaev, A. M.; Mirin, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The postagrogenic dynamics of acidity and some parameters of humus status have been studied in relation to the restoration of zonal vegetation in southern taiga (podzolic and soddy-podzolic soils ( Retisols)), coniferous-broadleaved (subtaiga) forest (gray forest soil ( Luvic Phaeozem)), and forest-steppe (gray forest soil ( Haplic Phaeozem)) subzones. The most significant transformation of the studied properties of soils under changing vegetation has been revealed for poor sandy soils of southern taiga. The degree of changes in the content and stocks of organic carbon, the enrichment of humus in nitrogen, and acidity in the 0- to 20-cm soil layer during the postagrogenic evolution decreases from north to south. The adequate reflection of soil physicochemical properties in changes of plant cover is determined by the climatic zone and the land use pattern. A correlation between the changes in the soil acidity and the portion of acidophilic species in the plant cover is revealed for the southern taiga subzone. A positive relationship is found between the content of organic carbon and the share of species preferring humus-rich soils in the forest-steppe zone.

  14. Russia And East Asia: New Opportunities And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kireeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  15. RUSSIA AND EAST ASIA: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kireeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  16. Zoning of the Territory of Russia According to the Efficiency of the Use of Low-Grade Ground Heat for Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of study on the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems under the climatic conditions of Russia. The study was performed using the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, which simulates the non-stationary thermal conditions of ground source heat pumps (GSHPs over several years of operation. The paper presents the results of the zoning of the territory of Russia according to the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems. The zoning was performed with consideration of the decrease of the soil temperatures over several years of heat collection system operation. The soil temperatures expected on the fifth year of operation were considered to be the design temperatures. The described study was performed with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia. Contract ID RFMEFI57914X0026.

  17. [Life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe in the Eastern Sayan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobrakova, L Ts; Sharova, I Kh

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and demographic structure was studied in 15 dominant ground beetle species in the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe belts of the Eastern Sayan (Okinskoe Plateau). Life cycles of the dominant ground beetle species were classified by developmental time, seasonal dynamics, and intrapopulation groups with different reproduction timing. The strategies of carabid life cycles adapted to severe mountain conditions of the Eastern Sayan were revealed.

  18. Legacy effects of no-analogue disturbances alter plant community diversity and composition in semi-arid sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripplinger, Julie; Franklin, Janet; Edwards, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Questions(i) What role does the type of managed disturbance play in structuring sagebrush steppe plant communities? (ii) How does the composition of post-disturbance plant communities change with time since disturbance? (iii) Does plant community diversity change over time following managed disturbance?LocationField study within the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Rich County, Utah, USA.MethodsWe developed a chronosequence spanning up to 50 yrs post-treatment to study sagebrush steppe vegetation dynamics. Direct ordination was used to examine plant community composition by managed disturbance type and time since disturbance, and factorial analysis of covariance was used to examine diversity dynamics following disturbance. Indicator species values were calculated in order to identify characteristic species for each disturbance type.ResultsPlant communities experienced a shift toward distinct community composition for each of the three managed disturbance types, and gave no indication of returning to untreated community composition or diversity. Small post-disturbance increases in the number of non-native grass species were observed in the treatments relative to reference, with native forb species making the largest contribution to altered composition. On fire- and chemically-treated sites the proportional native forb species richness increased over time since disturbance, while the proportional contribution of non-native forbs to total species richness decreased. For all three treatment types, native grasses contributed less on average to total richness than on reference sites, while non-native grasses made up a higher proportion of total richness.ConclusionsCommon shrubland management techniques have legacy effects on the composition and diversity of sagebrush steppe plant communities, and no-analogue disturbances, such as chemical or mechanical treatments, have more pronounced legacy effects than treatments similar to natural disturbance regimes (fire). This study

  19. Integration of species and ecosystem monitoring for selecting priority areas for biodiversity conservation: Case studies from the Palearctic of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Romanov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At the start of the third millennium, new opportunities have arisen in biogeographical research, namely in the generalisation, visualisation and cross-spectrum analysis of biological and geographical information and in the compilation of biogeographical maps and innovative models for regions that differ in the availability of distribution data. These tasks include long-term monitoring of plants and animals which are in danger of extinction, geographical analysis of biodiversity distribution and development of effective wildlife conservation strategies for specific regions. The studies of the Department of Biogeography of Moscow University on geography and biodiversity conservation are based on long-term field expeditions. The examples of the Asian Subarctic Mountains, the steppes of Central Kazakhstan and the urbanised north-west of Russia are used to illustrate Russian approaches to the use of biogeographical monitoring for the identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation. The species populations of the higher plants and vertebrates listed in the Red Books have been considered as the basic units of biodiversity.

  20. Rosneftegazstroy - Russia's premier oil and gas contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This special Petroleum Economist Sponsored Supplement looks at the present condition and future prospects of the Russian oil and gas industry. Russia's chief oil and gas contractor, Rosneftegazstroy, a joint stock company formed in 1991, took over from the former Soviet Union's Ministry of Oil and Gas Construction and from Neftegazstroy, the State concern. Responsible for the exploration and exploitation of the country's huge oil and gas reserves, Rosneftegazstroy has a mammoth task ahead to modernize and create an adequate infrastructure for its new commercial basis. Its foreign investment projects are described and plans for rebuilding and new developments are discussed. Russia's fuel and energy industries now show clear signs of increasing activity, amid a backdrop of falling production overall. (UK)

  1. THE CULTURAL UNCONSCIOUS AND RESURRECTION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esaulov I. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author polemicizes with the ideas of formalists, which claim the existence of a law of destruction of meaning through form in the works of art. These views of the necessary deformation of the meaning are put in the historical context of destruction of the Russian tradition in the USSR. The author emphasizes two periods of the deformation of the Russian tradition in the Soviet culture and sets against this deformation the works of Russian authors in exile: Bunin, Shmelev, B. Zaytsev. The latter have depicted the conciliar (sobornaya Russia in their creative works. In the article the Bakhtin’s concept of outsidedness ('vnenakhodimost' of the author is corrected from the Christian standpoint and the receptive mechanism of the resurrection of historical Russia is shown based on the material of Bunin’s texts.

  2. Nordic Seminar on Waste Problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes a Nordic seminar held in 1998 that focused on radioactive waste disposal in Northwest Russia and that gave special attention to a repository which planned on Novaya Zemlya. The existing plans originated in a programme formulated by the Russian Federation for the period 1996-2005 and titled The Federal Programme: The Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel - Treatment and Final Disposal. The sea around Novaya Zemlya is important to the fishery industry in both Norway and Russia. And there is great Norwegian concern about the vulnerable Arctic environment. Geological conditions are of course crucial to waste disposal, and according to Russian experts, the permafrost bedrock on Novaya Zemlya will provide added safety. Permafrost is a source of a major complex of uncertainties, but there is Western expertise available that might provide international assessment of the construction plans

  3. Development of radiobiological dentistry in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidenbraten, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    History of the radiological dentistry progress in Russia from the first report on the application of biomedical radiography techniques to dental practice in Russia in 1901 is briefly described. The first special X-ray room was open in 1921 in Petrograd. First scientific papers and guides on the radiological dentistry made their appearance. The second period in the development of Russian radiological dentistry was connected with the World War 2 and wounds of maxillo-facial wounds. Postwar time is characterized by application of the novel techniques, wide range of scientific researches in the radiological dentistry. The modern history of radiological dentistry began from 1983 due to computerized tomography used in case of malignant tumors of maxilla and nose cavity

  4. More natural gas from Russia, but when?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The fourth article in a series about changes in the European natural gas market focuses on Russia, a country with gigantic potential reserves (216,000 billion m 3 ) and a production unequalled in the world (780.4 billion m 3 in 1992 in the Russian Federation), but also with enormous economic and technical problems. The question is what role Russia is able to play in the European natural gas supply. Attention is paid to the organizational structure in former Soviet Union regarding the natural gas industry, the environmental effects of exploration and exploitation, the need for foreign capital, and the disappointing progress of the 1991 Energy Charter. On a short term the infrastructure must be improved. Also the conflicts on the price of natural gas transport between the transfer countries Ukraine, Slovenia and Czechoslovakia and the West-European clients must be solved. 1 fig., 7 ills., 2 tabs

  5. Developments of nuclear power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konowalow, V.; Tytschkow, J.; Terentjew, W.

    1994-01-01

    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union the economy, and thus also the nuclear industry in Russia, which is supervised by the Ministry for Atomic Energy, is in a process of structural change. The process is to result in a diversification of the products manufactured for use in the power industry and the nuclear fuel cycle, and also in enhanced productivity. Science and research, which enjoy a high reputation worldwide, must be preserved and expanded. Nuclear technology in Russia is to be developed further in three stages. In the renewal phase up until 2000, older nuclear power stations will be phased out and a new generation of reactors will be developed, which will be built and connected to the power grid in the second stage, which will extend until 2010. In the third phase, after 2010, the installed capacity of the nuclear generating units equipped with new reactors is to rise to 30 or 40 million kW. (orig.) [de

  6. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  7. Russia pushes ahead with new pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-05-15

    The start of the construction of an oil export pipeline from Eastern Siberia to the Pacific Ocean marks an important new phase in Russia's policy of diversifying its exports away from Europe. Sales to the former Comecon nations of Eastern Europe have been eroded over the last decade-and-a-half since the countries there have tried to import crude oil from the North Sea and elsewhere, following the collapse of the Soviet economic bloc with its barter system of trade in oil and major commodities. Recently, Western Europeans have expressed concerns about the share of Russian supplies in their energy balances, particularly since the argument between Russia and Ukraine over gas supplies at the beginning of 2006 (see 'Gas and Power', February 2006). Since then, the European Commission has been warning of the danger of the European Union's becoming over-reliant on Russian energy. (author)

  8. LGBT Rights Activism and Homophobia in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantueva, Radzhana

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT) people's perception of increasing conservative trends and negative public attitudes affected the development of LGBT rights activism in Russia. It includes following sections: (1) the analysis of the development of LGBT community and activism in Russia; (2) the investigation of public perception of same-sex relations and how LGBT people's views of it affected their readiness to join activism; and (3) the examination of the state's policy toward LGBT people in a wake of conservative discourse and its impact on LGBT activism and LGBT people's willingness to get involved in it. The article concludes by considering implications that LGBT rights activism face nowadays in order to survive and continue its existence.

  9. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  10. Pine Plantations and Invasion Alter Fuel Structure and Potential Fire Behavior in a Patagonian Forest-Steppe Ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Paritsis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Planted and invading non-native plant species can alter fire regimes through changes in fuel loads and in the structure and continuity of fuels, potentially modifying the flammability of native plant communities. Such changes are not easily predicted and deserve system-specific studies. In several regions of the southern hemisphere, exotic pines have been extensively planted in native treeless areas for forestry purposes and have subsequently invaded the native environments. However, studies evaluating alterations in flammability caused by pines in Patagonia are scarce. In the forest-steppe ecotone of northwestern Patagonia, we evaluated fine fuels structure and simulated fire behavior in the native shrubby steppe, pine plantations, pine invasions, and mechanically removed invasions to establish the relative ecological vulnerability of these forestry and invasion scenarios to fire. We found that pine plantations and their subsequent invasion in the Patagonian shrubby steppe produced sharp changes in fine fuel amount and its vertical and horizontal continuity. These changes in fuel properties have the potential to affect fire behavior, increasing fire intensity by almost 30 times. Pruning of basal branches in plantations may substantially reduce fire hazard by lowering the probability of fire crowning, and mechanical removal of invasion seems effective in restoring original fuel structure in the native community. The current expansion of pine plantations and subsequent invasions acting synergistically with climate warming and increased human ignitions warrant a highly vulnerable landscape in the near future for northwestern Patagonia if no management actions are undertaken.

  11. The phylogeographical history of the Iberian steppe plant Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae): a test of the abundant-centre hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Collazos, E; Sanchez-Gómez, P; Jiménez, F; Catalán, P

    2009-03-01

    The geology and climate of the western Mediterranean area were strongly modified during the Late Tertiary and the Quaternary. These geological and climatic events are thought to have induced changes in the population histories of plants in the Iberian Peninsula. However, fine-scale genetic spatial architecture across western Mediterranean steppe plant refugia has rarely been investigated. A population genetic analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism variation was conducted on present-day, relict populations of Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae). This species exhibits high individual/population numbers in the middle Ebro river valley and, according to the hypothesis of an abundant-centre distribution, these northern populations might represent a long-standing/ancestral distribution centre. However, our results suggest that the decimated southern and central Iberian populations are more variable and structured than the northeastern ones, representing the likely vestiges of an ancestral distribution centre of the species. Phylogeographical analysis suggests that F. loscosii likely originated in southern Spain and then migrated towards the central and northeastern ranges, further supporting a Late Miocene southern-bound Mediterranean migratory way for its oriental steppe ancestors. In addition, different glacial-induced conditions affected the southern and northern steppe Iberian refugia during the Quaternary. The contrasting genetic homogeneity of the Ebro valley range populations compared to the southern Iberian ones possibly reflects more severe bottlenecks and subsequent genetic drift experienced by populations of the northern Iberia refugium during the Pleistocene, followed by successful postglacial expansion from only a few founder plants.

  12. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, Y.E.

    2005-01-01

    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)

  13. RUSSIA IN MYTHS AND IN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Solovey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.

  14. Corruption and extortions : extortion groups in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Brousser, Pavel Alexandrovich

    2002-01-01

    This research is devoted to the Extortion Groups (EG) activities as the appeared substances and substitutes to the law system in Soviet Union and Russia further. Such establishments are considering as the transition process product. The appearance of these groups is due to the perishing of the old-type Soviet economy and transition shocks in connection with the job losing and unrequired men s work force especially under the situation which was between two points of time after Afganistania...

  15. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin,