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Sample records for russell recognising aboriginal

  1. Starting Points and Pathways in Aboriginal Students' Learning of Number: Recognising Different World Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a "counting" task that involved fetching "maku" (witchetty…

  2. Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

  3. Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... One in 10 children with this syndrome has a problem involving chromosome 7. In other people with the syndrome, it may affect chromosome 11. Most of the time, it ...

  4. Why it's time to recognise Indigenous peoples in the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George

    2015-06-01

    This article provides an overview of why it is proposed that the Australian Constitution be changed to recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It then establishes what changes are needed to the Constitution. The Australian Constitution fails to recognise Indigenous peoples, and still enables discrimination against them. This provides a sound case for changing the document. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. CERN recognises LHC suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN has just presented the first awards recognising LHC suppliers. The Russian institute BINP, the Belgian firm Cockerill-Sambre and the US company Wah-Chang are the recipients of the first 'Golden Hadrons'.

  6. Russell and Humean Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Monteiro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Russell's The Problems of Philosophy tries to establish a new theory of induction, at the same time that Hume is there accused of an irrational/ scepticism about induction". But a careful analysis of the theory of knowledge explicitly acknowledged by Hume reveals that, contrary to the standard interpretation in the XXth century, possibly influenced by Russell, Hume deals exclusively with causal inference (which he never classifies as "causal induction", although now we are entitled to do so, never with inductive inference in general, mainly generalizations about sensible qualities of objects ( whether, e.g., "all crows are black" or not is not among Hume's concerns. Russell's theories are thus only false alternatives to Hume's, in (1912 or in his (1948.

  7. Silver-Russell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohela Akhter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Silver-Russell syndrome is clinically and genetically a heterogeneous disorder. In most of the cases, etiology is unknown, only in 10% cases defect in chromosome 7 is identified. It bas distinctive facial features and asymmetric limbs. Most predominant symptom is growth failure. A case of Silver-Russell syndrome reported here who presented with growth failure, hemihypertrophy ofleft side oftbe body, dysmorphic facial profile and difficulty in speech. Counseling was done with the parents regarding the etiology, progression and outcome of the disease.

  8. Swallowed Words: bringing up an Aboriginal past in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L. Everett

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Many Aboriginal stories have not been allowed to be told historically due to the over-whelming dominance of non-Aboriginal stories. Many Aboriginal stories were once outlawed and so were forgotten, some only partially remembered, many now only told in the language of the invaders. There are other Aboriginal stories, however, especially those of particular urban Aboriginal peoples, which have lain ‘dormant’, protected by subversive family histories and embedded in objects claimed as the possessions of the Aboriginal people concerned. Some of these once ‘swallowed’ stories are now being regurgitated, re-emerging into a world that does not always recognise them as true. I am a non-Indigenous woman anthropologist and in this paper I recount some different versions of a story ‘told’ in different ways; through the signs and symbols of the Australian nation state, the movements of my Aboriginal research collaborators through what is

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Names for This Condition RSS Silver-Russell dwarfism Silver-Russell syndrome SRS Related Information How are ... M, Begemann M, Elbracht M. Epigenetic and genetic diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. ...

  10. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  11. Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2012-06-01

    Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. 'Stereotypes are reality': addressing stereotyping in Canadian Aboriginal medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2015-06-01

    Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance was attributed on 2nd September 2002 during a ceremony in Hall 180 to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months before at their headquarters in Japan. The ATLAS experiment will become a reality thanks to a large international collaboration partnership. The industrial suppliers for the components all over the world play a major role in the construction of this gigantic jigsaw for the LHC. And sometimes they perform so well, that their work deserves specially to be recognised. This is the case for Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Toshiba Corporation, producers of the Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat and of the Superconducting Central Solenoid, respectively. With these awards, the ATLAS Collaboration wants to congratulate Kawasaki and Toshiba for fulfilling the hi...

  14. Aboriginal Review 2003/2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents information on Syncrude's efforts and achievements in working with Aboriginal communities and leaders in Alberta since 2002 through its Aboriginal Development Program. The report discusses the six key commitment areas of the Program. First, the report provides an overview of Syncrude's achievements in the area of corporate leadership including participation in the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Industry Advisory Committee; recognition by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business as a leader in Aboriginal relations through the Aboriginal Relations program; supporting the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation; championing the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Council of Canada; membership of the Alberta Chamber of Resources Aboriginal Programs Project; Conference Board of Canada's Council on Corporate Aboriginal Relations; and, chairing the Mining Association of Canada. The report discusses business development of Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business owners including Syncrude's employment targets for Aboriginal employment in the Syncrude workforce. It discusses community development in Aboriginal communities such as long distance learning; the Fort Chipewyan day care centre; the Chipewyan Prairie Dene First Nation Multi-Purpose Community Centre in Janvier; and, an elder care facility in Fort McKay First Nation community. It discusses education and training including the Alberta Aboriginal Apprenticeship Project; Syncrude Aboriginal/Women Education Awards Program; University of Alberta Aboriginal Careers Initiative; and, the Aboriginal Financial Management Internship. The report also discusses Syncrude's consultations with Aboriginal communities on environmental issues such as end-land use, air quality and how further expansion can occur without long-term impacts on traditional land uses. The report also contains questions and answers with Aboriginal leaders to discuss the impact of oil sands

  15. Aboriginal Review 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents information on Syncrude's efforts and achievements in working with Aboriginal communities and leaders in Alberta since 2002 through its Aboriginal Development Program. The report discusses the six key commitment areas of the Program. First, the report provides an overview of Syncrude's achievements in the area of corporate leadership including participation in the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Industry Advisory Committee; recognition by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business as a leader in Aboriginal relations through the Aboriginal Relations program; supporting the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation; championing the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Council of Canada; membership of the Alberta Chamber of Resources Aboriginal Programs Project; Conference Board of Canada's Council on Corporate Aboriginal Relations; and, chairing the Mining Association of Canada. The report discusses business development of Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business owners including Syncrude's employment targets for Aboriginal employment in the Syncrude workforce. It discusses community development in Aboriginal communities such as long distance learning; the Fort Chipewyan day care centre; the Chipewyan Prairie Dene First Nation Multi-Purpose Community Centre in Janvier; and, an elder care facility in Fort McKay First Nation community. It discusses education and training including the Alberta Aboriginal Apprenticeship Project; Syncrude Aboriginal/Women Education Awards Program; University of Alberta Aboriginal Careers Initiative; and, the Aboriginal Financial Management Internship. The report also discusses Syncrude's consultations with Aboriginal communities on environmental issues such as end-land use, air quality and how further expansion can occur without long-term impacts on traditional land uses. The report also contains questions and answers with Aboriginal leaders to discuss the impact of oil sands development. figs

  16. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  17. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected pheno...

  18. Aboriginal review 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between Syncrude Canada Ltd., and the aboriginal people of Northeast Alberta was discussed. In 1970, Syncrude began development of its oil sands mega-project in the Fort McMurray region. Since then, the company has worked in partnership with the aboriginal communities to maximize their productive participation in the oil sands. Syncrude has provided opportunities in employment, education, and business and community development. Their goals for aboriginal employment are: (1) to attain 10 per cent aboriginal employees in the Company's direct workforce, and (2) to attain 13 per cent aboriginal employees in the overall workforce, including contractors. Currently, Syncrude Canada employs 315 aboriginal people in various career positions. The Company is also committed to the protection of the environment. As proof of this commitment, when a mine site is reclaimed, the Company does all that is required to ensure that the land can support both industry and traditional land uses such as hunting, fishing and trapping. Syncrude also works on air quality issues dealing with odors and sulfur dioxide emissions as shown by a two million dollar company-sponsored program to examine local air quality and its effect on people and their health. figs

  19. Clinical spectrum of silver - Russell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna N.K. Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver - Russell syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogenous condition characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, craniofacial disproportion and normal intelligence downward curvature of the corner of the mouth, syndactyly and webbed fingers. Diagnosis of Silver - Russell syndrome remains clinical; no definite etiology or specific tests have been established. In the recent years, it has been shown that more than 38% of patients have hypomethylation in the imprinting control region 1 of 11p15 and one-tenth of patients carry a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome seven. The pathophysiological mechanisms resulting in the Silver - Russell phenotype remain unknown despite the recent progress in deciphering the molecular defects associated with this condition. This case report describes the clinical features of Silver - Russell syndrome in a father and daughter.

  20. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  1. "People like numbers": a descriptive study of cognitive assessment methods in clinical practice for Aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Pinkerton, Jennifer; Lindeman, Melissa A

    2013-01-31

    Achieving culturally fair assessments of cognitive functioning for Aboriginal people is difficult due to a scarcity of appropriately validated tools for use with this group. As a result, some Aboriginal people with cognitive impairments may lack fair and equitable access to services. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical practice in the Northern Territory regarding cognitive assessment for Aboriginal people thereby providing some guidance for clinicians new to this practice setting. Qualitative enquiry was used to describe practice context, reasons for assessment, and current practices in assessing cognition for Aboriginal Australians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians working with Aboriginal clients in central and northern Australia. Results pertaining to assessment methods are reported. A range of standardised tests were utilised with little consistency across clinical practice. Nevertheless, it was recognised that such tests bear severe limitations, requiring some modification and significant caution in their interpretation. Clinicians relied heavily on informal assessment or observations, contextual information and clinical judgement. Cognitive tests developed specifically for Aboriginal people are urgently needed. In the absence of appropriate, validated tests, clinicians have relied on and modified a range of standardised and informal assessments, whilst recognising the severe limitations of these. Past clinical training has not prepared clinicians adequately for assessing Aboriginal clients, and experience and clinical judgment were considered crucial for fair interpretation of test scores. Interpretation guidelines may assist inexperienced clinicians to consider whether they are achieving fair assessments of cognition for Aboriginal clients.

  2. Measuring organisational-level Aboriginal cultural climate to tailor cultural safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Justin; Ryder, Courtney; Walters, Lucie K

    2015-01-01

    Australian medical schools have taken on a social accountability mandate to provide culturally safe contexts in order to encourage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to engage in medical education and to ensure that present and future clinicians provide health services that contribute to improving the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Many programs have sought to improve cultural safety through training at an individual level; however, it is well recognised that learners tend to internalise the patterns of behaviour to which they are commonly exposed. This project aimed to measure and reflect on the cultural climate of an Australian rural clinical school (RCS) as a whole and the collective attitudes of three different professional groups: clinicians, clinical academics and professional staff. The project then drew on Mezirow's Transformative Learning theory to design strategies to build on the cultural safety of the organisation. Clinicians, academic and professional staff at an Australian RCS were invited to participate in an online survey expressing their views on Aboriginal health using part of a previously validated tool. Survey response rate was 63%. All three groups saw Aboriginal health as a social priority. All groups recognised the fundamental role of community control in Aboriginal health; however, clinical academics were considerably more likely to disagree that the Western medical model suited the health needs of Aboriginal people. Clinicians were more likely to perceive that they treated Aboriginal patients the same as other patients. There was only weak evidence of future commitments to Aboriginal health. Importantly, clinicians, academics and professional staff demonstrated differences in their cultural safety profile which indicated the need for a tailored approach to cultural safety learning in the future. Through tailored approaches to cross-cultural training opportunities we are likely to ensure

  3. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  4. An Interview with Arlie Russell Hochschild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This is the second of two interviews with Arlie Russell Hochschild, Professor Emerita of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. In her work, Hochschild explores the many ways we manage our emotions in personal life and perform emotional labor in the workplace.......This is the second of two interviews with Arlie Russell Hochschild, Professor Emerita of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. In her work, Hochschild explores the many ways we manage our emotions in personal life and perform emotional labor in the workplace....

  5. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2011-12-09

    Aboriginal identity and culture as a source of empowerment; and to recognise the role of persistent marginalization in contributing to the high prevalence and initiation of smoking.

  6. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2011-12-01

    among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge Aboriginal identity and culture as a source of empowerment; and to recognise the role of persistent marginalization in contributing to the high prevalence and initiation of smoking.

  7. Exploring undergraduate midwifery students' readiness to deliver culturally secure care for pregnant and birthing Aboriginal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C; Durey, Angela

    2015-04-16

    Culturally secure health care settings enhance accessibility by Aboriginal Australians and improve their satisfaction with service delivery. A culturally secure health service recognises and responds to the legitimate cultural rights of the recipients of care. Focus is upon the health care system as well as the practice and behaviours of the individuals within it. In an attempt to produce culturally secure practitioners, the inclusion of Aboriginal content in health professional programs at Australian universities is now widespread. Studies of medical students have identified the positive impact of this content on knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people but relatively little is known about the responses of students in other health professional education programs. This study explored undergraduate midwifery students' knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people, and the impact of Aboriginal content in their program. The study surveyed 44 students who were in their first, second and third years of a direct entry, undergraduate midwifery program at a Western Australian (WA) university. The first year students were surveyed before and after completion of a compulsory Aboriginal health unit. Second and third year students who had already completed the unit were surveyed at the end of their academic year. Pre- and post-unit responses revealed a positive shift in first year students' knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people and evidence that teaching in the unit was largely responsible for this shift. A comparison of post-unit responses with those from students in subsequent years of their program revealed a significant decline in knowledge about Aboriginal issues, attitudes towards Aboriginal people and the influence of the unit on their views. Despite this, all students indicated a strong interest in more clinical exposure to Aboriginal settings. The inclusion of a unit on Aboriginal health in an undergraduate midwifery program has been shown to

  8. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

    2012-06-01

    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior.

  9. Forms of aboriginal self-government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boisvert, David

    1985-01-01

    .... This paper examines how to establish aboriginal authorities within Canadian federalism, and proposed that the devolution of authority onto aboriginal governments might be the best way to establish...

  10. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  11. Russel Nye: The Professor in Public Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungiville, Maurice

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of the influence of Russel Nye, a college English professor at Michigan State University and journalist, focuses on the values that shaped his teaching, scholarship, and writing and his defense of democratic values, especially in education. It is concluded that Nye's experience suggests that public service can be a source of personal…

  12. Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; de Boon, J; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discursive review of the dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance that Mehrabian and Russell developed in 1974 to assess environmental perception, experience, and psychological responses. Since then numerous researchers applied these dimensions to assess the experience of the

  13. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  14. James Bernard Russell: Scholar, collaborator, mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the time of his untimely death in 2009, ARS scientist Dr. James B. Russell had established himself as the premier rumen microbiologist of his generation. Dr. Russell’s many contributions to the field, including much of the early work on the Cornell Net Carbohydrate System model, were the product ...

  15. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  16. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...

  17. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  18. Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; de Boon, J; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discursive review of the dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance that Mehrabian and Russell developed in 1974 to assess environmental perception, experience, and psychological responses. Since then numerous researchers applied these dimensions to assess the experience of the physical environment and its perceived qualities. Although the dimensions appeared to be useful, there is a long-lasting debate going on among environmental psychologists about the interpretation ...

  19. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  20. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Thompson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. Methods: The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Results: Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Conclusion: Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their

  1. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sandra C; Haynes, Emma; Woods, John A; Bessarab, Dawn C; Dimer, Lynette A; Wood, Marianne M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hamilton, Sandra J; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their Aboriginal patients and work at multiple levels both outside and

  2. A 'cold-case' review of historic aboriginal and European-Australian encounters with toxic blooms of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John

    2012-09-01

    Interest in preserving the cultural knowledge of Aboriginal Australians continues to rise. Various studies have erupted which aim to redefine knowledge that was once lost or obscured in writing and hitherto ignored. Recognising and acknowledging the traditional Aboriginal knowledge of the Australian environment helps to strengthen Aboriginal identity and gives credibility to the rising paradigm of ecotechnology in historic pre-European Australia. This review aims to establish knowledge of a traditional awareness of factors leading towards eutrophication in water resource management. Journals from pioneering explorers were examined for evidence of cyanobacterial blooms and examples of Aboriginal water resource management practices that aimed at avoiding health threats from poor water quality. Some cultural practices, focused on water resource management, are discussed with brief mentioned of the Waugal. It is concluded that in some cases the incorporation of scientific laws into mythology is a form of conceptual modelling compatible with science if examined carefully.

  3. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Robitaille

    2010-12-01

    Aboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevails over the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive” identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations of exogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada would be significantly smaller.

  4. Surface rights on Aboriginal lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhanney, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several issues regarding access and activity by petroleum industry on Aboriginal and Metis lands are discussed. Some alternative means by which both industry and Aboriginal groups can approach the matter of surface rights are presented. A historical account of how surface rights have been interpreted in the past was given. It was emphasized that the approach to surface rights compensation and negotiation for both aboriginal and industry parties must begin with adequate consultation. Rigid adherence to the usual past practice of geologically identifying locations, surveying and requesting a lease will no longer suffice. The aboriginal community must be consulted with as much lead time as possible, even assisted financially to identify traditional use areas that require protection, or cannot be disturbed, or require particular mitigation measures. Once this has been done, the operator can proceed to outline the scope of his project, detailing the timing, location, business and employment opportunities and other economic opportunities to the community. 21 refs

  5. Environmental agreements, EIA follow-up and aboriginal participation in environmental management: The Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade a number of environmental agreements (EAs) have been negotiated in Canada involving industry, government and Aboriginal peoples. This article draws on the Canadian experience to consider the potential of such negotiated agreements to address two issues widely recognised in academic and policy debates on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management. The first relates to the need to secure indigenous participation in environmental management of major projects that affect indigenous peoples. The second and broader issue involves the necessity for specific initiatives to ensure effective follow-up of EIA. The Canadian experience indicates that negotiated environmental agreements have considerable potential to address both issues. However, if this potential is to be realized, greater effort must be made to develop structures and processes specifically designed to encourage Aboriginal participation; and EAs must themselves provide the financial and other resource required to support EIA follow-up and Aboriginal participation

  6. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loader, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes how the Syncrude relationship with Aboriginal communities in the region came about, and how Syncrude maintains that relationship and share in the community at its oil sands operation in Alberta, Canada. Syncrude is a world leader in oil sands development and in promoting the quality of the working life and employment of native peoples. The remainder of the presentation is devoted to that particular achievement. The partnerships Syncrude has built are based on mutual respect, a sustainable capability, a professional relationship, support of community, and self-reliance. Syncrude recognized very early on that Aboriginal people would have a major interest in the company's future and sought to integrate the company's program into operations as a normal way of doing business. Today, Aboriginal people play a vital role in the oil sands industry, working at a variety of skilled occupations. The education component of Syncrude's program is designed to equip Aboriginal people with the training they need to claim their fair share of the employment pie at Syncrude. Contractors servicing Syncrude are about one-fifth Aboriginal-owned and run operations and they are in turn encouraged to hire Aboriginal employees. There are three direct elements of the program: employment, education and business development, but partnerships go beyond just that: they extend to the community such that Syncrude is dedicated to working with local people, when requested, to help them define and meet their needs and to achieve self-reliance

  7. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    1989-01-01

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills

  8. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A [Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region, Sydney (Australia)

    1989-05-01

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills.

  9. The Russell Case: Academic Freedom vs. Public Hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joseph M.

    This paper examines issues of academic freedom and the community's role in a review of public and legal events leading to the court's striking down of the 1940 appointment of Bertrand Russell to teach at the City College of New York. Russell was to teach three philosophy courses relating logic, mathematics, and science to philosophy. Episcopal…

  10. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom...

  11. Getting African climate change research recognised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Fatima; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica

    2011-11-15

    Across Africa, programmes such as the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa initiative are investigating what it means for countries and communities to effectively adapt to climate change, and how this can be achieved in practice. But research results are not always recognised by policymakers or the global research community — in part because they are not visible within the traditional hallmark of scientific scholarship and credibility, peer-reviewed literature. Greater efforts are required to encourage African scientists to engage in the peer-review process and give their research the credibility it needs to convince decision makers that robust scientific findings support the solutions offered. At the same time, decision makers themselves must find ways of assessing and making use of robust research outside the peer-review arena.

  12. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  13. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors...

  14. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  15. Assisting an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Dart, Katrina M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2017-08-02

    Gambling problems appear to be more prevalent in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population than in the non-Indigenous population. Although gambling harms can be significant, treatment-seeking rates are low. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop a set of guidelines on how a family or community member can assist an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. Building on a previous systematic review of websites, books and journal articles a questionnaire was developed that contained items about the knowledge, skills and actions needed for supporting an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. These items were rated over three rounds by an expert panel comprising professionals who provide treatment to or conduct research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with gambling problems. A total of 22 experts rated 407 helping statements according to whether they thought the statements should be included in these guidelines. There were 225 helping statements that were endorsed by at least 90% of participants. These endorsed statements were used to develop the guidelines. Experts were able to reach substantial consensus on how someone can recognise the signs of gambling problems and support an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person to change.

  16. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loader, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Syncrude's program designed to maintain good relations with Aboriginal communities in all areas where Syncrude operation impact upon Aboriginal peoples and their traditional ways of life are described. The program extends from employment through education to business and community development, the preservation of traditional lifestyles, and the protection of the environment. As examples, some 13 per cent of Syncrude's workforce is made up of Aboriginal people, at an average annual salary of $58,000. The company offers $ 2,000 each, specifically to Aboriginal persons, wanting to further their education particularly in disciplines related to oil sands. A five-year $ 500,000 program has been established by Syncrude at the University of Alberta specifically for Aboriginal people to pursue careers in engineering, medicine , education and business. Other career programs are also offered through Keyano College, Athabasca University and the Northern Alberta Development Council, and there is a strong commitment by the company to encouraging adults to go back to school and for kids to stay in school. Last year the company spent $ 54 million with Aboriginal-owned and operated businesses; the company also support several programs to foster the appreciation of Aboriginal culture not only in Alberta but throughout the country. Environment is the fifth and final element of the Aboriginal Development Program. It involves consultation and working with local communities on environmental matters involving issues ranging from land reclamation to emission reduction. Some six million dollars are spent annually on reclaiming land and reintroducing native animal and plant species wherever possible. An outstanding example of this is the Wood Bison Trail on 210 hectares of reclaimed land managed by the Fort McKay First Nations. It is readily acknowledged that dealing with Aboriginal concerns has not been an easy road to travel and that there are still many things to do. Nevertheless, there

  17. Wind power projects and Aboriginal consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, T. [McCarthy Tetrault LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined some of the legal aspects related to Aboriginal involvement in wind power development consultation processes and disputes. Aboriginal rights are rights held by Aboriginal people that are an element of a practice, custom, or tradition integral to the culture of groups claiming such rights. Wind power developers should understand that Aboriginal rights claims may include fishing; whaling; transportation; and cultural and spiritual activities. Aboriginal title is a subcategory of Aboriginal rights, and is a right to land itself, and an encumbrance on the Crown's underlying title to land. Weak Aboriginal claims where potential infringement by energy developers is minor may only require notice and information. Strong prima facie cases for Aboriginal rights and title where the potential for infringement is of high significance may result in more extensive consultation involving interim solutions; formal Aboriginal participation in decision-making processes; and written responses demonstrating how Aboriginal concerns have been considered. There are a number of circumstances requiring a case-by-case approach, and the Crown may make decisions in the face of Aboriginal disagreement. However, energy developers should ensure that consultation processes are fair and reasonable. Conflicting interests can often be successfully resolved through consultation, and accommodation to Aboriginal rights may include mitigation, avoiding interference, and agreeing to as little infringement as possible. Aboriginal title may attach to private land but only to the Crown's underlying title. The Crown has no duty to consult respecting Aboriginal title on private land because title has already been infringed. In these cases, duty to consult and accommodate may be discharged through other regulatory processes such as environmental impact assessments. It was concluded that wind power project proponents should build a relationship with the Crown, as avoiding

  18. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  19. The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.

  20. [Silver-Russell syndrome with panhypopituitarism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stögmann, W; Borkenstein, M; Grubbauer, H M

    1978-11-01

    This is a report on a 14 years old boy suffering from the unusual combination of Silver-Russell syndrome with panhypopituitarism. The Silver-Russell syndrome is a special form of primordial dwarfism characterised by congenital asymmetry, craniofacial dysmorphy and other anomalies. Its cause is unknown, intrauterine noxes and genetical factors are discussed. In the most cases results of hormone determinations are normal, but also cases with elevated or very low hormone levels were published. This is the first report about a Silver-Russell syndrome combined with panhypopituitarism.

  1. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  2. Aboriginal Art: Who was interested?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the common assumption that Aboriginal art has been absent from Australian art histories and demonstrates how this is not so. It criticises the notion that art history should be represented by specialised art-history books and argues for the important of art museum displays as texts. It also examines the ways in which Aboriginal art has been examined in literature devoted to Australian history and anthropology. It foregrounds the idea that arts history is not necessarily best represented by official art historical texts.

  3. The UK system of recognising qualified experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.

    2002-01-01

    EURATOM Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directives have long included requirements for the involvement of qualified experts, the definition of which has scarcely changed since at least 1976. The Directive requirement, in the definition of qualified expert,, for competent authorities to recognise the capacity to act as a qualified expert has been interpreted by Member States in widely differing ways, ranging from the minimalist or case by case to the highly detailed and prescriptive. In the United Kingdom (UK), the qualified expert for occupational radiation protection is the radiation protection adviser and the competent authority is the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985, which largely implemented the 1980 BSS Directive, required an employer to appoint one or more radiation protection advisers for the purpose of advising him as to the observance of these Regulations and other health and safety matters in connection with ionising radiation. The Regulations addressed the question of recognition by forbidding an employer to appoint a person as a radiation protection adviser unless: that person was suitably qualified and experienced; the employer had notified the Health and Safety Executive in writing of the intended appointment at least 28 days in advance, giving the name of the person and particulars of his qualifications and experience and the scope of the advice he would be required to give; and the employer had received from HSE an acknowledgement in writing of the notification. This system allowed HSE to follow up and query any apparently unsuitable potential appointments while applying a light overall administrative touch. The Approved Code of Practice supporting the Regulations included advice on the qualifications, experience and qualities that the employer should look for in a suitable radiation protection adviser

  4. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  5. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  6. Tom Russell: "Õpetajakoolitust tuleks alustada praktikast" / Liisa Lumiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiste, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Eduko programmi raames Tallinna Ülikoolis toimunud avalikul loengul rääkis Kanada kasvatusteadlane Tom Russell praktika tähtsusest õpetajakoolituses ja viis läbi meistriklassi õpetajakoolituse õppejõududele

  7. Epigenoty-pephenotype correlations in Silver-Russell syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeling, E. L.; Abu Amero, S.; Alders, M.; Bliek, J.; Forsythe, E.; Kumar, S.; Lim, D. H.; MacDonald, F.; Mackay, D. J.; Maher, E. R.; Moore, G. E.; Poole, R. L.; Price, S. M.; Tangeraas, T.; Turner, C. L. S.; Van Haelst, M. M.; Willoughby, C.; Temple, I. K.; Cobben, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Silver Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterised by intrauterine growth restriction, poor postnatal growth, relative macrocephaly, triangular face and asymmetry. Maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD) of chromosome 7 and hypomethylation of the imprinting control region (ICR) 1 on chromosome

  8. Diagnosis and management of Silver-Russell syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeling, Emma L; Brioude, Frédéric; Lokulo-Sodipe, Oluwakemi

    2017-01-01

    This Consensus Statement summarizes recommendations for clinical diagnosis, investigation and management of patients with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), an imprinting disorder that causes prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. Considerable overlap exists between the care of individuals born s...

  9. Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi; Kanters, Steve; Druyts, Eric; Toor, Kabirraaj; Muldoon, Katherine A; Farquhar, John W; Mills, Edward J

    2014-06-11

    Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated "years of life lost to incarceration" for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8-1443.4). The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians.

  10. Disparities in acute in-hospital cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavella, Rosanna; McBride, Katharine; Keech, Wendy; Kelly, Janet; Rischbieth, Amanda; Zeitz, Christopher; Beltrame, John F; Tideman, Philip A; Brown, Alex

    2016-09-05

    To assess differences in the rates of angiography and subsequent revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS); to explore the reasons for any observed differences. Analysis of administrative data with logistic regression modelling to assess the relationship between Aboriginal status and the decision to undertake diagnostic angiography. A detailed medical record review of Aboriginal admissions was subsequently undertaken. Emergency ACS admissions to SA cardiac catheterisation hospitals, 2007-2012. 13 701 admissions of patients with an ACS, including 274 Aboriginal patients (2.1%). Rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation; documentation of justification for non-invasive management. After adjustment for age, comorbidities and remoteness, Aboriginal patients presenting with an ACS were significantly less likely than non-Aboriginal patients to undergo angiography (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5; P Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients who had undergone angiography. Reasons for Aboriginal patients not undergoing angiography included symptoms being deemed non-cardiac (16%), non-invasive test performed (8%), and discharge against medical advice (11%); the reasons were unclear for 36% of Aboriginal patients. After controlling for age and other factors, the rate of coronary angiography was lower among Aboriginal patients with an ACS in SA. The reasons for this disparity are complex, including patient-related factors and their preferences, as well as the appropriateness of the intervention. Improved consideration of the hospital experience of Aboriginal patients must be a priority for reducing health care disparities.

  11. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  12. Bioethics for clinicians: 18. Aboriginal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Jonathan H.; McKenzie, John; McKay, Stanley; Gariépy, Gilbert J.; Kaufert, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Although philosophies and practices analogous to bioethics exist in Aboriginal cultures, the terms and categorical distinctions of "ethics" and "bioethics" do not generally exist. In this article we address ethical values appropriate to Aboriginal patients, rather than a preconceived "Aboriginal bioethic." Aboriginal beliefs are rooted in the context of oral history and culture. For Aboriginal people, decision-making is best understood as a process and not as the correct interpretation of a unified code. Aboriginal cultures differ from religious and cultural groups that draw on Scripture and textual foundations for their ethical beliefs and practices. Aboriginal ethical values generally emphasize holism, pluralism, autonomy, community- or family-based decision-making, and the maintenance of quality of life rather than the exclusive pursuit of a cure. Most Aboriginal belief systems also emphasize achieving balance and wellness within the domains of human life (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual). Although these bioethical tenets are important to understand and apply, examining specific applications in detail is not as useful as developing a more generalized understanding of how to approach ethical decision-making with Aboriginal people. Aboriginal ethical decisions are often situational and highly dependent on the values of the individual within the context of his or her family and community. PMID:11033715

  13. Disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Keefe, Dorothy; Farshid, Gelareh; Eckert, Marion; Cargo, Margaret; Brown, Alex

    2017-06-01

    This study tested the utility of retrospectively staging cancer registry data for comparing stage and stage-specific survivals of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Differences by area level factors were also explored. This test dataset comprised 950 Aboriginal cases and all other cases recorded on the South Australian cancer registry with a 1977-2010 diagnosis. A sub-set of 777 Aboriginal cases diagnosed in 1990-2010 were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by year of birth, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site of cancer. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, and geographic attributes with risk of cancer death. Aboriginal cases were 10 years younger at diagnosis, more likely to present in recent diagnostic years, to be resident of remote areas, and have primary cancer sites of head & neck, lung, liver and cervix. Risk of cancer death was associated in the matched analysis with more advanced stage at diagnosis. More Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal cases had distant metastases at diagnosis (31.3% vs 22.0, pAboriginal residents had higher risks of cancer death than Aboriginal residents of metropolitan areas. Non-Aboriginal cases had the lowest risk of cancer death. Retrospective staging proved to be feasible using registry data. Results indicated more advanced stages for Aboriginal than matched non-Aboriginal cases. Aboriginal people had higher risks of cancer death, which persisted after adjusting for stage, and applied irrespective of remoteness of residence, with highest risk of death occurring among Aboriginal people from remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Engaging Australian Aboriginal narratives to challenge attitudes and create empathy in health care: a methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Toni; Sim, Moira; Bessarab, Dawn; Mak, Donna; Hayward, Colleen; Rudd, Cobie

    2016-06-02

    Unconscious bias and negative attitudes towards minority groups have detrimental effects on the way health care is, or is not, provided to these groups. Recognition of racist attitudes and behaviours as well as understanding clients' experiences of health and health care are pivotal to developing better health care strategies to positively impact on the quality and safety of care provided to Indigenous people. Indigenous research demands inclusive research processes and the use of culturally appropriate methodologies. This paper presents a methodological account of collecting narratives which accurately and respectfully reflect Aboriginal Australians' experiences with health care in Western Australia. The purpose of these narratives is to provide health students and professionals with an opportunity to 'walk-in the shoes' of Aboriginal people where face-to-face interaction is not feasible. With the incorporation of Indigenous peoples' voices being an important link in cultural safety, the project was led by an Indigenous Reference group, who encouraged active participation of Aboriginal people in all areas of the project. Using a phenomenological approach and guided by the Indigenous Reference group, yarning data collection was implemented to collect stories focusing on Aboriginal people's experiences with health care services. An open-access, on-line website was established to host education resources developed from these "yarns". Yarning provided a rich source of information on personal experiences and encouraged the story provider to recognise their facilitative role in the research process. While the methodology used in this project was lengthy and labour-intensive it afforded a respectful manner for story collection and highlighted several innate flaws when Western methods are applied to an Indigenous context. Engagement of an Indigenous Reference Group was pivotal to designing an appropriate methodology that incorporated the voices of Aboriginal people in a

  15. In Search of the Aboriginal Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Notions of aboriginal cultural reclamation and healing presuppose the existence of distinctly aboriginal selves that were damaged or lost in a process of colonization and that those selves can be “restored” in some meaningful way. Such aboriginal healing has been done without a detailed examination of the selves of individuals to be assisted in this manner. This article examines the selves of four contemporary individuals with varying relationships to the concept of aboriginality using a method of mapping the self with elemental units of culture called “memes.” It is suggested that a spectrum of healthy selves is possible for people who either identify with aboriginality culturally or satisfy a racial definition of the concept. The co-evolution of the self and culture is discussed along with the utility of various definitions of what it means to be aboriginal in a North American context.

  16. Russell Body Gastroenteritis: An Aberrant Manifestation of Chronic Inflammation in Gastrointestinal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriyl Bhaijee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1998, Russell body gastritis is a rare chronic inflammatory condition characterized by abundant intramucosal polyclonal plasma cells, which contain intracytoplasmic eosinophilic globules of immunoglobulins (Russell bodies that displace the nucleus, with an accompanying chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Russell bodies represent a cellular response to overstimulation of plasma cells, leading to the accumulation of abundant, nondegradable, condensed immunoglobulin in dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Russell body gastritis usually occurs in the gastric antrum, but two cases of Russell body duodenitis have been recently described. Herein, we report an unusual case of Barrett esophagus with prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and Russell bodies, which expands the current spectrum of Russell body gastritis/duodenitis. Given the various anatomic locations in which Russell body gastritis may arise, we suggest that “Russell body gastroenteritis” may be a more appropriate designation for this uncommon reactive condition.

  17. Promoting women's health in remote Aboriginal settings: Midwifery students' insights for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C; Durey, Angela

    2015-12-01

    To describe midwifery students' insights on promoting health to Aboriginal women in remote Australia following a supervised clinical placement. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with all midwifery students who undertook the placement between 2010 and 2013. Aboriginal communities on the Ngaanyatjarra Lands, Western Australia. Undergraduate and postgraduate midwifery students from a Western Australian university. Remote cultural immersion clinical placement. Student learning related to culturally respectful health care delivery and promotion of health. Students observed that, despite vast distances, high rates of participation in a breast screening program were achieved due to the informal provision of culturally relevant information and support. Opportunistic encounters in communities also enabled sexual health messages to be delivered more widely and in less formal settings. The role played by Aboriginal Health Workers and female family members was vital. The importance of culturally respectful approaches to sensitive women's business, including discretion, the use of local language and pictorial representations of information, was recognised as was the socio-cultural context and its impact on the health and well-being of the community. Although short in duration, the Ngaanyatjarra Lands clinical placement provided midwifery students with a rare opportunity to observe the importance of local contexts and cultural protocols in Aboriginal communities, and to adapt health promotion strategies to meet local needs and ways of doing things. These strategies embraced the strengths, assets and capacities of communities, yet students also witnessed challenges associated with access, delivery and acceptance of health care in remote settings. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Forming mutually beneficial Aboriginal partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, L.; Shaw, M. [ATCO Frontec, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Alberta-based ATCO Group is engaged in power generation, utilities logistics and energy services and technologies in Alaska, Canada's north, and around the world. In 2001, 56 per cent of ATCO's revenue came from Aboriginal joint ventures. ATCO's foundation for successful partnerships is a mutual trust, an understanding of the environment, and constant communication. The partnerships begin with a long term vision, resulting in community-based northern businesses that benefit Aboriginal partners, shareholders, customers and local staff. This paper described 2 unique joint venture case studies: (1) the north warning system in Cambridge Bay, a radar and communication service for government, and (2) Yellowknife's Tli Cho logistics site for support and municipal services to the mining industry. The north warning system joint venture includes Pan Arctic Inuit Logistics (PAIL), representing Inuvialuit, Labrador, Nunavik and Nunavut, while the Tli Cho joint venture includes participation of the Dog Rib Rae band. Management practices in all joint ventures reflect cultural differences, and Aboriginal people are involved in long term jobs relating to northern pipeline development. 21 figs.

  19. Síndrome de Silver-Russell: relato de caso Silver-Russell Syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Freitas Rossi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever o fenótipo da síndrome de Silver-Russell (SSR e apresentar um caso diagnosticado com esta afecção genética, abordando aspectos genéticos, psicológicos e fonoaudiológicos. MÉTODOS: trata-se de relato de caso de uma criança do gênero feminino, sete anos e onze meses, portadora da síndrome de Silver-Russel. Foram realizadas avaliação genética médica e molecular, avaliação psicológica, avaliação fonoaudiológica e aplicação de testes complementares. RESULTADOS: a análise molecular da região 7p11 excluiu a dissomia uniparental para este caso. No exame físico foram constatados os principais sinais clínicos da SSR que incluiu retardo no crescimento de origem pré-natal, fácies típica, assimetrias ósseas e clinodactilia do 5º dedo. A avaliação cognitiva e fonoaudiológica mostraram deficiência mental, distúrbio de linguagem oral e comprometimento das funções orais. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo deste caso possibilitou a divulgação do fenótipo da SSR com suas manifestações físicas, cognitivas e fonoaudiológicas. Embora o teste molecular não tenha confirmado um dos possíveis mecanismos etiológicos da síndrome, a avaliação genética médica constatou a presença dos principais sinais clínicos que foram correlacionados à literatura. A avaliação psicológica e fonoaudiológica apontaram para comprometimento cognitivo e de comunicação, funções orais , sugerindo que importantes alterações fonoaudiológicas podem fazer parte do fenótipo desta síndrome, ainda pouco difundida para fonoaudiólogos.PURPOSE: to describe Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS phenotype and report a case with this condition, concerning genetics, psychological and speech/language and oral function evaluation. METHODS: we will submit the case of a girl, seven years and eleven months with Silver-Russell syndrome. Medical genetic evaluation, molecular test, psychological and speech/language evaluation was done. Complementary

  20. Barriers and enablers to the provision of alcohol treatment among Aboriginal Australians: a thematic review of five research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis; Wilson, Mandy; Allsop, Steve; Saggers, Sherry; Wilkes, Edward; Ober, Coralie

    2014-09-01

    To review the results of five research projects commissioned to enhance alcohol treatment among Aboriginal Australians, and to highlight arising from them. Drafts of the papers were workshopped by project representatives, final papers reviewed and results summarised. Lessons arising were identified and described. While the impact of the projects varied, they highlight the feasibility of adapting mainstream interventions in Aboriginal Australian contexts. Outcomes include greater potential to: screen for those at risk; increase community awareness; build capacity and partnerships between organisations; and co-ordinate comprehensive referral networks and service provision. Results show a small investment can produce sustainable change and positive outcomes. However, to optimise and maintain investment, cultural difference needs to be recognised in both planning and delivery of alcohol interventions; resources and funding must be responsive to and realistic about the capacities of organisations; partnerships need to be formed voluntarily based on respect, equality and trust; and practices and procedures within organisations need to be formalised. There is no simple way to reduce alcohol-related harm in Aboriginal communities. However, the papers reviewed show that with Aboriginal control, modest investment and respectful collaboration, service enhancements and improved outcomes can be achieved. Mainstream interventions need to be adapted to Aboriginal settings, not simply transferred. The lessons outlined provide important reflections for future research. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emma; Hohnen, Harry; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Scalley, Benjamin D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011-2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell's cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including individual attributes, experiences and relationships and systemic factors

  2. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including

  3. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  4. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  5. Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The…

  6. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  7. How teachers of English in South African schools recognise their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How teachers of English in South African schools recognise their change agency. ... values consistent with the fundamental rights contained in the Constitution of ... Keywords: change agency; democracy; empowerment; teachers of English ...

  8. Obituary: Russell Makidon (1971-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2009-12-01

    Russell Benjamin Makidon died at the age of 38 in Baltimore on June 22, 2009. Complications following surgery to remove a tumor cut his life tragically short. Russ was a Mission Systems Scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which he joined straight out of graduate school in 1997. He brought both the force of his intellect and his superb people skills to STScI, where he served the Institute and the broader community with extraordinary effectiveness. Russ was pivotal in helping to develop the wavefront sensing and control system of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). He was also a member of the NSF Center for Adaptive Optics at Lick Observatory. Born to Cathy Ann and Peter Makidon, a worker at General Motors, on January 22, 1971, in Bay City, Michigan, Russ was an only child. He was raised by his mother, in Florida, and her parents, in Munger, Michigan. He is survived by his mother, his grandfather Benjamin Franklin Histed, and his father. In addition to his interest in science, Russ was a talented artist and his sketches had appeared in statewide and national competitions. Turning down a scholarship at the Savannah College of Art and Design, he studied physics and astronomy at the University of Michigan, followed by a Masters under Stephen Strom at the University of Massachusetts. He measured pre-main sequence stellar rotation in NGC 2264 and other OB associations, providing insight on the role that circumstellar disks play in setting stellar angular momentum in young stellar clusters and associations. This work, and his extraordinary skills in facilitating scientific exchange, led to his co-investigatorship on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Orion Treasury Project. Russ advanced the understanding of high contrast imaging, especially the relation between the properties of a wavefront control or adaptive optics systems and the physics of coronagraphic imaging. He developed a practical understanding of coronagraphy, performing timely and

  9. 76 FR 23342 - Russell Investment Management Company, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ...] Russell Investment Management Company, et al.; Notice of Application April 20, 2011. AGENCY: Securities...: Applicants request an order that would permit (a) series of certain open-end management investment companies... registered management investment companies and unit investment trusts outside of the same group of investment...

  10. Epigenotype-phenotype correlations in Silver-Russell syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeling, E. L.; Amero, S. Abu; Alders, M.; Bliek, J.; Forsythe, E.; Kumar, S.; Lim, D. H.; Macdonald, F.; Mackay, D. J.; Maher, E. R.; Moore, G. E.; Poole, R. L.; Price, S. M.; Tangeraas, T.; Turner, C. L. S.; van Haelst, M. M.; Willoughby, C.; Temple, I. K.; Cobben, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterised by intrauterine growth restriction, poor postnatal growth, relative macrocephaly, triangular face and asymmetry. Maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD) of chromosome 7 and hypomethylation of the imprinting control region (ICR) 1 on chromosome 11p15 are

  11. Is Russell's vicious circle principle false or meaningless?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischhacker, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    P. Vardy asserts the thesis that the vicious circle principle has the same structure as Russell's paradox. But structure is not the thing itself. It is the thing objectivated from the wiewpoint of a mathematician. So this structure can be expressed in a mathematical formalism, e. g. the Λ-calculus.

  12. A case of Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS): multiple pituitary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hypomethylation of the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) at the IGF2/H19 locus on 11p15 is linked to Silver–Russell syndrome .... lowing criteria have to be met: low birth weight, short stature ..... school-aged children and adolescents. Bull.

  13. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  14. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  15. Associations of television viewing, physical activity and dietary behaviours with obesity in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Carmina; Young, T Kue; Corey, Paul N

    2010-09-01

    To determine associations of diet, physical activity and television (TV) viewing time with obesity among aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth in conjunction with socio-economic variables. Cross-sectional study of differences between aboriginal and non-aboriginal groups and associations between lifestyle and socio-economic factors with obesity were examined. Population data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 conducted in 2004 in the ten provinces of Canada. A total of 198 aboriginal and 4448 non-aboriginal Canadian youth aged 12-17 years. Compared to non-aboriginal youth, physical activity participation among aboriginal youth was higher, but consumption of vegetables and dairy products was lower, and more aboriginal youth were 'high' TV watchers. Low income adequacy was associated with decreased odds for obesity among aboriginal youth in contrast to higher odds among non-aboriginal youth. Non-aboriginal 'high' TV watchers consumed more soft drinks and non-whole-grain products than did 'low' TV watchers. Physical activity participation did not differ between 'high' and 'low' TV watchers for both groups, and was associated with lowered odds for obesity only among aboriginal youth. Sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with obesity differ between aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth. These findings may be useful for guiding intervention efforts.

  16. Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Characteristics and Survival in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Western Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Frydrych, A.M; Slack-Smith, L.M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Methods: All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (...

  17. Uranium royalties and Aboriginal economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1978 and 1979 agreements were negotiated under the Land Rights Act for development of the Ranger and Nabarlek uranium deposits, both located in the Alligator River Region. Over the period between March 1979 and June 1986, some $70 million have been paid to Aboriginal communities by these two projects. This paper is concerned with expenditure of uranium revenues by Aboriginal associations which have been established to receive up front and rental payments provided for in these agreements as well as the 30% of statutory royalties payable to Aboriginal communities affected by mining operations

  18. Aboriginal parent support: A partnership approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2018-02-01

    This study was positioned within a larger action research study relating to a peer-led Aboriginal home visiting parent support program in an urban Western Australian setting. The aims for this study component were to identify program elements, exploring participants' perceptions of the program's suitability, feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness to inform program model recommendations and add to the body of knowledge on effective Aboriginal peer-led program models. The ability of Aboriginal parents to develop positive family environments is crucial, with parent support needing to be reflexive to local needs and sociocultural influences. Culturally appropriate service provision needs meaningful and acceptable strategies. This study was situated within a critical paradigm supporting Participatory Action Research methodology, using Action Learning Sets as the participant engagement and data collection setting. Within ten Action Learning Sets, focus group interviews were carried out with Aboriginal peer support workers, a non-Aboriginal parent support worker, an Aboriginal program coordinator, an Aboriginal education support officer and non-Aboriginal program managers (n = 8), and individual interviews with parents (n = 2) and community agencies (n = 4). Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes were derived from peer support worker and community agency cohorts: peer support worker home visiting skills; responding to impacts of social determinants of health; client support and engagement; interagency collaboration; and issues addressing program sustainability. Parent responses augmented these themes. Participants identified five key elements relating to peer-led home visiting support for Aboriginal parents. These are uniquely placed to inform ongoing program development as there is little additional evidence in wider national and international contexts. Engagement with communities and peer support workers to develop culturally relevant

  19. Issues with prescribed medications in Aboriginal communities: Aboriginal health workers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrosi, Kim; Taylor, Susan J; Aslani, Parisa

    2006-01-01

    The health of Indigenous Australians remains appalling. The causes of this situation are multi-factorial, however one contributing factor is poor medication compliance within Aboriginal populations. Anecdotal evidence provided by Aboriginal health workers in western New South Wales (NSW), Australia, has suggested that there are problems associated with the use of prescribed medications within the Aboriginal community. Aboriginal health workers form a core component of the Aboriginal health service sector and they have an in-depth knowledge of the community and its healthcare provision, as well as a familiarity with clinic patients and families. As such they are an important group whose opinions and beliefs about medication use in the Aboriginal population should be investigated. While there have been studies on the issues of prescribing in Aboriginal communities and access to medications, limited investigation into the use of prescribed medicines in Aboriginal communities and the role of the pharmacist in that process, has taken place. Therefore, this research aimed to identify the type of and reasons for inappropriate use of prescribed medications within Aboriginal communities serviced by the Mid Western Area Health Service (since incorporated into the Greater West Area Health Service) as perceived by the Aboriginal health workers in the area, and to explore strategies in conjunction with those Aboriginal health workers to address identified issues. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were held with 11 Aboriginal health workers employed in Community Health Centres and hospitals in the Mid Western Area Health service of NSW. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were content analysed for emerging themes. The interviews explored the beliefs, perceptions and experiences of the Aboriginal health workers regarding prescribed medication use, the role of the pharmacist, and identification of future strategies to improve medication use in

  20. Insect brains use image interpolation mechanisms to recognise rotated objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian G Dyer

    Full Text Available Recognising complex three-dimensional objects presents significant challenges to visual systems when these objects are rotated in depth. The image processing requirements for reliable individual recognition under these circumstances are computationally intensive since local features and their spatial relationships may significantly change as an object is rotated in the horizontal plane. Visual experience is known to be important in primate brains learning to recognise rotated objects, but currently it is unknown how animals with comparatively simple brains deal with the problem of reliably recognising objects when seen from different viewpoints. We show that the miniature brain of honeybees initially demonstrate a low tolerance for novel views of complex shapes (e.g. human faces, but can learn to recognise novel views of stimuli by interpolating between or 'averaging' views they have experienced. The finding that visual experience is also important for bees has important implications for understanding how three dimensional biologically relevant objects like flowers are recognised in complex environments, and for how machine vision might be taught to solve related visual problems.

  1. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  2. Aboriginal fractions: enumerating identity in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Notions of identity in Taiwan are configured in relation to numbers. I examine the polyvalent capacities of enumerative technologies in both the production of ethnic identities and claims to political representation and justice. By critically historicizing the manner in which Aborigines in Taiwan have been, and continue to be, constructed as objects and subjects of scientific knowledge production through technologies of measuring, I examine the genetic claim made by some Taiwanese to be "fractionally" Aboriginal. Numbers and techniques of measuring are used ostensibly to know the Aborigines, but they are also used to construct a genetically unique Taiwanese identity and to incorporate the Aborigines within projects of democratic governance. Technologies of enumeration thus serve within multiple, and sometimes contradictory, projects of representation and knowledge production.

  3. Russell bodies in a skin biopsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheij Joanne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The presence of eosinophilic bodies in a skin biopsy can be found in a variety of situations and this may present a challenge to the pathologist. The differential diagnosis of these eosinophilic structures include microorganisms such as histoplasmosis or cryptococcosis, fungi, Michaelis-Gutmann bodies, deposits of amyloid or immunoglobulins, colloid bodies or elastic bodies. Case presentation During a routine examination of a skin biopsy with actinic keratosis taken from the cheek of a 61-year-old man, clusters of eosinophilic bodies were seen within an inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, both intracytoplasmic and extracellular. Using additional immunohistochemical staining, these structures were identified as polyclonal Russell bodies. Conclusion The differential diagnosis of intracytoplasmic eosinophilic structures in a skin biopsy includes Russell bodies, an uncommon finding that may be associated with chronic inflammatory conditions.

  4. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  5. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-09-20

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  6. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C.; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergströ m, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y.; Crawford, Jacob E.; Heupink, Tim H.; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Ví ctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A.; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Sø ren; Campos, Paula F.; Clark, Warren; Ellingvå g, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; McAllister, Peter J.; Mentzer, Alexander J.; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B.; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E.; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G.; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma’ run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazó n; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  7. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  8. Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

  9. Recognising Health Care Assistants' Prior Learning through a Caring Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This article critically appraises a process of recognising prior learning (RPL) using analytical tools from Habermas' theory of communicative action. The RPL process is part of an in-service training program for health care assistants where the goal is to become a licensed practical nurse. Data about the RPL process were collected using interviews…

  10. Recognising Non-Formal and Informal Learning: An Open Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perulli, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The social-institutional endorsement towards the perspective of recognising and enhancing learning acquired outside the formal education and training contexts (non-formal and informal learning), has been gaining strength and has entered policy agendas throughout Europe, but also in other major non-European countries. Nevertheless there are still…

  11. Recognising "Good at Mathematics": Using a Performative Lens for Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many students do not recognise in themselves positive learner identities in mathematics and thus exclude themselves from further mathematics education, limiting their life opportunities. In this study, I use a performance metaphor for identity, drawing on G.H. Mead, Erving Goffman and Judith Butler to analyse interviews with students, taken at…

  12. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  13. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Strategy 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Council, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Despite determined effort much more needs to be done to close the gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are the first Australians with the oldest continuing cultures in human history. Governments across Australia affirm the right of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people to…

  14. Niyith NiyithWatmam [corrected] (the quiet story): exploring the experiences of Aboriginal women who give birth in their remote community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Wulili Narjic, Concepta; Belton, Suzanne; Kildea, Sue

    2011-10-01

    to investigate the beliefs and practices of Aboriginal women who decline transfer to urban hospitals and remain in their remote community to give birth. an ethnographic approach was used which included: the collection of birth histories and narratives, observation and participation in the community for 24 months, field notes, training and employment of an Aboriginal co-researcher, and consultation with and advice from a local reference group. a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory, Australia. narratives were collected from seven Aboriginal women and five family members. findings showed that women, through their previous experiences of standard care, appeared to make conscious decisions and choices about managing their subsequent pregnancies and births. Women took into account their health, the baby's health, the care of their other children, and designated men with a helping role. narratives described a breakdown of traditional birthing practices and high levels of non-compliance with health-system-recommended care. standard care provided for women relocating for birth must be improved, and the provision of a primary maternity service in this particular community may allow Aboriginal Women's Business roles and cultural obligations to be recognised and invigorated. International examples of primary birthing services in remote areas demonstrate that they can be safe alternatives to urban transfer for childbirth. A primary maternity service would provide a safer environment for the women who choose to avoid standard care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recognising `good at mathematics': using a performative lens for identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Many students do not recognise in themselves positive learner identities in mathematics and thus exclude themselves from further mathematics education, limiting their life opportunities. In this study, I use a performance metaphor for identity, drawing on G.H. Mead, Erving Goffman and Judith Butler to analyse interviews with students, taken at four time points as they make the transition from primary to secondary school. The question I focus on is `How do you recognise someone who is "good at mathematics"?' The students' responses reveal that there is a wide variety of scripts available when enacting the role of `good at mathematics', and these include getting high marks, knowing the answer quickly, helping others and demonstrating the confidence to put up their hand to answer questions. Despite the variety of ways in which to demonstrate `good at mathematics', most of the students did not recognise themselves in their own descriptions. This goes some way towards explaining why students may opt out of further study in mathematics, despite high achievement in this subject.

  16. Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn L. Richmond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use.

  17. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma - characteristics and survival in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Western australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, A M; Slack-Smith, L M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm. Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC.

  18. Bertrand Russell: pacifismo político relativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Laca-Arocena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Siguiendo la biografía de Bertrand Russell (1872-1970, lógico matemático, filósofo, premio Nobel de Literatura 1950 y militante pacifista a lo largo de gran parte del conflictivo siglo XX, se analiza el doble conflicto que afronta un pacifista: de desobediencia civil a un gobierno que ha declarado una guerra y de relativa marginación social con una opinión pública cuando ésta es mayoritariamente favorable a esa guerra. Tras un breve análisis del pacifismo contrastándolo con una doble tradición en el pensamiento político anglosajón, el utilitarismo y la teoría del contrato social, se incide en la distinción personal de Russell entre guerras ¿de prestigio¿ y ¿de valores¿. Fue pacifista en la Primera Guerra Mundial considerándola una guerra de prestigio, pero fue partidario de oponerse al nazismo en la Segunda Guerra entendiendo que se trataba de un combate de valores. Volvería a un activismo pacifista en su oposición a la guerra de Vietnam. Estas diferentes posiciones ante la guerra en relación con lo que en cada caso esté en juego, se conoce como ¿pacifismo político relativo¿, cuyo representante más genuino fue el propio Russell.

  19. Participation of Aboriginal peoples in resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.; Snow, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The means by which the petroleum industry can establish a successful relationship with Aboriginal people and their community are described. It was emphasized that industry and Aboriginals must define training, employment and business objectives jointly for the longer term. Suncor's Oil Sands Group operates in an area considered to be traditional lands by the First Nation and Metis people of Fort McKay. Suncor recognizes its responsibilities to Fort McKay and has taken the approach to support Aboriginal community development through written agreements and protocols which identify the social, economic, environmental and political issues that are important to them. The Memorandum of Understanding between Suncor Energy Oil Sands, Fort McKay First Nation, and Fort McKay Metis Local 122 is used as an example of one major company's initiatives to establish a mutually supportive and interdependent relationship

  20. FILSAFAT ANALITIK Kritik Epistemologi Ide Analitik Logis Bertrand Russell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhmidayeli Muhmidayeli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Each logical statement reflected in the way expressed in a logical language. If a statement is expressed by a language that one would then have it wrong, therefore, necessary test of logical forms that fit with the empirical facts. In short every statement must be understood by returning to the real meaning or context. Russell offers a translation grammatically any statement that may seem misleading to the appropriate forms and logical. Bertrand Russell described his philosophy asan area of human thought that was between theology on the one hand and science on the other side. Philosophy can be said astheology, due to the nature and character of philosophy which also contains a world speculations about the definitive knowledge, but it can notbe ascertained. On the other hand, itcan be said as science, because the working procedures of philosophy that is moreleads and functioning sense like science knowledge (science. Anydogma, because it transcends knowledge certainly, including in the sphere of theology. In between there is this no man's land area that is prone to both theology and science issues. Abstrak: Setiap penyataan logis tercermin dari cara mengungkapkannya dalam bahasa logis. Jika suatu pernyataan diungkap dengan bahasa yang salah maka akan memiliki maka yang salah, oleh karena itu, diperlukan uji bentuk-bentuk logis yang cocok dengan dengan fakta empiris. Pendeknya setiap pernyataan mesti dipahami dengan mengembalikannya pada makna riil atau kontekstual. Russell menawarkan pener¬jemahan secara gramatikal setiap pernyataan yang mungkin saja tampak me¬nyesat¬¬kan ke dalam bentuk-bentuk yang tepat dan logis. Bertrand Russell menggambarkan filsafat sebagai suatu wilayah pemikiran manusia yang berada antara teologi di satu sisi dan ilmu pengetahuan di sisi lainnya. Filsafat dapat dikatakan seperti teologi, karena sifat dan watak filsafat yang juga bersikan dunia spekulasi-spekulasi tentang pengetahun yang pasti namun ia tidak

  1. Alfred Russel Wallace and the antivaccination movement in Victorian England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas P

    2010-04-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace's background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind.

  2. Destructive Cholangitis in an Adult Jack Russell Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kodama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old female Jack Russell terrier dog exhibited vomiting and severe jaundice of the visible mucous membranes and skin. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse areas of high echogenicity and focal areas of low echogenicity in the left lobe of the liver. On macroscopic observation of the biopsied liver specimen, many scattered irregularly shaped red spots were observed on the liver surface and on the cut surface. Histopathologically, there was loss of the interlobular bile duct and cholangitis accompanied by infiltration of pigment-laden macrophages in the Glisson’s capsule. Therefore, in the present case the dog was diagnosed with destructive cholangitis.

  3. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  4. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  5. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  6. Improving the efficacy of healthcare services for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Kylie; Jeffries, Thomas; Lincoln, Michelle

    2018-01-16

    Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the enablers for effective health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. Methods This systematic review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Papers were included if they had data related to health services for Australian Aboriginal people and were published between 2000 and 2015. The 21 papers that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Seven papers were subsequently excluded due to weak methodological approaches. Results There were two findings in the present study: (1) that Aboriginal people fare worse than non-Aboriginal people when accessing usual healthcare services; and (2) there are five enablers for effective health care services for Australian Aboriginal people: cultural competence, participation rates, organisational, clinical governance and compliance, and availability of services. Conclusions Health services for Australian Aboriginal people must be tailored and implementation of the five enablers is likely to affect the effectiveness of health services for Aboriginal people. The findings of the present study have significant implications in directing the future design, funding, delivery and evaluation of health care services for Aboriginal Australians. What is known about the topic? There is significant evidence about poor health outcomes and the 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and limited evidence about improving health service efficacy. What does this paper add? This systematic review found that with usual health care delivery, Aboriginal people experience worse health outcomes. This paper identifies five strategies in the literature that improve the effectiveness of health care services intended for Aboriginal people. What are the implications for

  7. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (not rare but infrequently recognised syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, I.; Kaissi, A.; Ghachem, M.; Chehida, F.; Safi, H.; Masel, J.; Kozlowsk, K.

    2006-01-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome - a rarely recognised entity - is characterised by malsegmentation of the spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. The main reason for the rarity of its diagnosis is that radiographs of the hands and feet are not routinely performed in children with scoliosis and/or kyphoscoliosis, and fusion of the carpal/tarsal bones may not be evident in preschool children. We report four patients with spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome; the diagnosis in three of these was not made until radiographs of the hands were performed. The amount of scoliosis was much less evident in two of these patients (sibs) than in the others. (author)

  8. Aborigines and uranium: consolidated report to the Minister for Aboriginal Affairs on the social impact of uranium mining on the aborigines of the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This consolidated report for the period October 1978 to June 1984 examines the aboriginal social environment, the impact and consequences for aborigines of uranium mining. The report looks at the question of monitoring social impact and examines in detail the findings and recommendations of the Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry. The social impact of mining is discussed, including the complexity of law and administration, economic consequences, health and aboriginal civic culture

  9. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-06-30

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Gender variations in waist circumference levels between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbija, Odewumi Oluwarotimi; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To compare gender-specific waist circumference (WC) levels of Aboriginal Australians with non-Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search on Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify papers that reported gender-specific waist circumference (WC) estimates of participants from the age of 15 years and above among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Means and their 95% confidence intervals of gender differences in WC, height and weight were recorded or calculated where they were not provided. Gender-specific WC, height and weight mean estimates were pooled and the I(2) statistic was used to test heterogeneity among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Of 17 selected cross-sectional studies, 9 focused on Aboriginal and 8 on non-Aboriginal Australians. Seven studies reported significantly higher WC estimates among indigenous females than males. On the other hand, non-indigenous males had significantly higher WC levels than females. Males had greater height and weight estimates than females in both groups. Although indigenous women were shorter and had lower weight estimates, they had greater WC levels than indigenous men. This is the first systematic review to assess the gender-specific differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The findings of this review warrant more efforts to understand and reduce the high prevalence of central obesity and related chronic diseases among Aboriginal women. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Russell Crowe maailma tipust maailma äärele / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Näitleja Russell Crowe ja tema suhe oma rolliga seiklusfilmis "Kapten ja komandör : retk maailma äärele" ("Master and Commander : The Far Side of the World") : stsenarist Patrick O'Briani romaanide järgi ja režissöör Peter Weir : peaosas Russell Crowe : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2003

  12. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  13. Baseline investigations of folate status in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal West Australians prior to the introduction of mandatory fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah J; Brameld, Kate J; Bower, Caroline; D'Antoine, Heather; Hickling, Siobhan; Marley, Julia; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-02-01

    In September 2009, Australia implemented mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for bread-making to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Our study aimed to establish baseline folate status data in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Patients who presented at a health service or collection centre for blood tests were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-one Aboriginals and 159 non-Aboriginals were recruited between April 2008 and September 2009. Participants completed a five-minute questionnaire and had blood taken for red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Data were analysed using SPSS (version 17.0.2, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Ten per cent (95% confidence intervals (CI): 5, 19) of the Aboriginal women participants and 26% (95% CI: 16, 40) of men had RBC folate concentrations below 250 ng/mL, the cut-off associated with folate deficiency. None of the non-Aboriginal women (95% CI: 0, 4) and 4% of the non-Aboriginal men (95% CI: 2, 12) had RBC folate concentrations below 250 ng/mL. All participants were vitamin B12 replete. None of the 96 Aboriginal and 8% of non-Aboriginal women aged 16-44 reported consumption of supplements with a daily intake of >400 μg folic acid during the previous week. This study established a baseline of RBC folate, folate consumption and supplement use in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups. We identified 10% of Aboriginal women and none of non-Aboriginal women participants with low folate concentrations. The higher prevalence of folate deficiency in Aboriginal participants suggests they are more likely to benefit from a universal program of folate fortification. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  15. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  16. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  17. Education in Aboriginal Communities: Dilemmas around Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donald M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Sudden empowerment of Canadian Aboriginal communities has raised many dilemmas concerning community controlled education, including issues related to educational planning and decision making by inexperienced administrators, focusing educational goals on the community versus mainstream society, discontinuities between community and school culture,…

  18. 75 FR 39046 - Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, Including Employees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,116] Russell Brands, LLC..., 2009, applicable to workers of Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom... applicable to TA-W-71,116 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Russell Brands, LLC, Fabric Division, a...

  19. Diagnosis and management of Silver-Russell syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeling, Emma L; Brioude, Frédéric; Lokulo-Sodipe, Oluwakemi

    2017-01-01

    small for gestational age and those with SRS. However, many specific management issues exist and evidence from controlled trials remains limited. SRS is primarily a clinical diagnosis; however, molecular testing enables confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and defines the subtype. A 'normal' result......This Consensus Statement summarizes recommendations for clinical diagnosis, investigation and management of patients with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), an imprinting disorder that causes prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. Considerable overlap exists between the care of individuals born...... from a molecular test does not exclude the diagnosis of SRS. The management of children with SRS requires an experienced, multidisciplinary approach. Specific issues include growth failure, severe feeding difficulties, gastrointestinal problems, hypoglycaemia, body asymmetry, scoliosis, motor...

  20. Russell body apical periodontitis: an unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo Silva; Barros, Adna Conceição; de Freitas, André Carlos; Crusoé-Rebello, Iêda Maria

    2008-12-01

    Russell bodies (RBs) changes in chronic apical lesions have rarely been reported in the literature. We describe a case of a periapical lesion abundantly and extensively composed of RB. Microscopic examination showed accumulation of plasma cells containing globular, spherical, polygonal, and eosinophilic structures against fibrous connective tissue. Initial diagnostic considerations based on a smaller magnification included hypersecretory plasmocytoma, although there was no evidence of infiltrative growth, mitotic activity, nuclear atypia, or cellular pleomorphism. Then, a panel of immunohistochemical markers was applied and the cells showed positivity with both kappa and lambda chains demonstrating their polyclonal origin. The extensive accumulation of RBs involving the periapical region represents an unreported and significant histologic change, as it was mimicking a malignant neoplasm.

  1. The Structure of Aboriginal Child Welfare in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Sinha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal children are currently overrepresented in out-of-home care in Canada; this extends a historical pattern of child removal that began with the residential school system. The overrepresentation of Aboriginal children persists despite legislative and structural changes intended to reduce the number of Aboriginal children in care. Several recent developments suggest potential for improvement in services for Aboriginal children and families in the near future. However, greater information about the structure of Aboriginal child welfare in Canada is needed to support program and policy development. We present a broad overview of the variation in Aboriginal child welfare legislation and standards, service delivery models, and funding formulas across Canadian provinces and territories. We draw on this review to suggest specific priorities for future research.

  2. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Wirting in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  3. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Writing in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  4. Closing the Aboriginal child injury gap: targets for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-02-01

    To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Corporate social responsibility and aboriginal relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, J.; Cook, H.D.

    2002-01-01

    All of Canada's uranium mining activity occurs in the northern half of the province of Saskatchewan in western Canada. This region has a total population of 38 000 people living in many small communities scattered over 250 000 square kilometres. Demographically, the north's population is 75% aboriginal representing the Woodland Cree, Dene, and Metis Nations. The majority of the aboriginal population of northern Saskatchewan are treaty Indians (First Nations). The dominant first nations group in the north is The Lac La Ronge Indian Band, also Saskatchewan's largest Woodland Cree First Nation. Despite the fact that the Lac La Ronge Band and other First Nations of the region do not have surface or mineral rights, other than those on their reserve lands, they have significant influence in the development process. The extraction of the mineral resources of Canada are now undertaken with very considerable input from first nations groups and with sensitivity to their treaty rights and aboriginal traditional rights. Treaty rights in Canada include, among other things, hunting and fishing, access to post secondary education and special taxation considerations. This presentation will introduce participants to a unique perspective on northern Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry. This perspective will be provided by Harry Cook, Chief of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.In his presentation, Chief Cook will provide a first nation's perspective on industrial development generally and uranium development specifically. He will begin by outlining the challenges facing aboriginal people in Canada and will provide an insightful view of the historical conflict between industrial developers and first nations people. He will describe the aspirations of his people and the importance they place on preservation of the natural environment. He will also speak to the critical need now emerging for aboriginal people to seek a balance between retaining traditional culture and participating in the

  6. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John D Scott; Naomi Garland

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death.Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD,but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD.Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive.In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

  7. Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2010-10-01

    Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.

  8. KINSHIP, MARRIAGE AND AGE IN ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Denham, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    McConnell (1930) first described and attempted to explain an “age spiral” in Australian Aboriginal systems of descent, marriage and kinship over eighty years ago. Since then, ethnographic and theoretical research concerning this matter has been sporadic and inconclusive, with societies that display this feature most often being treated as anomalous, transitional, hybrid or aberrant. Atkins (1981) attributed the failure to understand these societies to a lack of realism in the models; specific...

  9. Are lay people good at recognising the symptoms of schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Erritty

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the general public's perception of schizophrenia symptoms and the need to seek-help for symptoms. The recognition (or 'labelling' of schizophrenia symptoms, help-seeking behaviours and public awareness of schizophrenia have been suggested as potentially important factors relating to untreated psychosis. METHOD: Participants were asked to rate to what extent they believe vignettes describing classic symptoms (positive and negative of schizophrenia indicate mental illness. They were also asked if the individuals depicted in the vignettes required help or treatment and asked to suggest what kind of help or treatment. RESULTS: Only three positive symptoms (i.e., Hallucinatory behaviour, Unusual thought content and Suspiciousness of schizophrenia were reasonably well perceived (above 70% as indicating mental illness more than the other positive or negative symptoms. Even when the participants recognised that the symptoms indicated mental illness, not everyone recommended professional help. CONCLUSION: There may be a need to improve public awareness of schizophrenia and psychosis symptoms, particularly regarding an awareness of the importance of early intervention for psychosis.

  10. The impact of taxation on Aboriginal ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranson, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper covers several key objectives including: sheltering income and assets owned by Bands from taxation; structuring businesses so that taxes are minimized at the outset; maintaining and managing business operations so as to ensure taxes continue to be minimized; and shifting permissible deductions to non-Aboriginal business partners (whenever possible) without infringing upon the rights Indians are entitled to under Section 87 of the Indian Act. The paper does not consider exploiting the rights or assets of Indians, rather it is about willing and cooperative business partners who are able to take advantage of a unique situation so that various levels of government do not get a bigger slice of the pie. It is important to remember that if one partner needs more cash to pay taxes, all partners suffer, because there is less cash available to reinvest in the business. Most First Nations and Aboriginal people maintain that taxes do not apply to them because various levels of government have no jurisdiction over them. The paper does not dispute this claim, rather while the issue of self-government and related jurisdictions issues are being resolved, it is still important to focus on using the status quo in minimizing taxes for Aboriginal businesses. The paper considers: the various taxes requiring consideration; the impact of other legislation and agreements; the various business structures and their treatment; and how to find the best structure for each business

  11. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; van Schaik, Katherine D; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-07-23

    Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers' experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the 'cultural security' framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to impinge on Aboriginal people's willingness and

  12. Antenatal services for Aboriginal women: the relevance of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Tracy; Walker, Roz

    2010-01-01

    Due to persistent significantly poorer Aboriginal perinatal outcomes, the Women's and Newborns' Health Network, Western Australian Department of Health, required a comprehensive appraisal of antenatal services available to Aboriginal women as a starting point for future service delivery modelling. A services audit was conducted to ascertain the usage frequency and characteristics of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women in Western Australia (WA). Telephone interviews were undertaken with eligible antenatal services utilising a purpose specific service audit tool comprising questions in five categories: 1) general characteristics; 2) risk assessment; 3) treatment, risk reduction and education; 4) access; and 5) quality of care. Data were analysed according to routine antenatal care (e.g. risk assessment, treatment and risk reduction), service status (Aboriginal specific or non-specific) and application of cultural responsiveness. Significant gaps in appropriate antenatal services for Aboriginal women in metropolitan, rural and remote regions in WA were evident. Approximately 75% of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women have not achieved a model of service delivery consistent with the principles of culturally responsive care, with few services incorporating Aboriginal specific antenatal protocols/programme, maintaining access or employing Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs). Of 42 audited services, 18 Aboriginal specific and 24 general antenatal services reported utilisation by Aboriginal women. Of these, nine were identified as providing culturally responsive service delivery, incorporating key indicators of cultural security combined with highly consistent delivery of routine antenatal care. One service was located in the metropolitan area and eight in rural or remote locations. The audit of antenatal services in WA represents a significant step towards a detailed understanding of which services are most highly utilised and their defining characteristics

  13. Consulting Whom? Lessons from the Toronto Urban Aboriginal Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T. Nguyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted here looks at the current Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS in Toronto. The purpose of this Strategy is to provide long-term investments to support Aboriginal communities in urban settings by focusing on three priority areas: improving life skills; promoting job training, skills, and entrepreneurship; and supporting Aboriginal women, children, and families. This article seeks to answer the following question: Does the UAS provide Aboriginal participants with the ability to effectively participant in the consultation process? It argues that the UAS process of consulting with the urban Aboriginal community does not allow for the effective participation of Aboriginal peoples because of problematics related to consulting in an urban setting and despite the language of partnership, the federal government still reserves the right to make final decisions. These problems diminish the ability to build renewed Aboriginal-State relations based on mutual respect and trust, which has been absent within the Aboriginal-State apparatus and resulted in the political exclusion of Aboriginals in Canada. Though consultation can be a vehicle for empowering participants with decision-making authority, this is not the case in Toronto. The lack of a common vision, political buy-in, and the aura of secrecy leads to a political relationship built on mistrust. Mistrust between members and government renders the consultation process ineffective. This article combines the literature on public consultations with official government documents to identify critical components that must be evident for consultations to be fruitful and participation effective. These criteria are the benchmarks upon which to measure effectiveness. Based on interviews with the Steering Committee, this article finds that the UAS process of consulting with the Toronto Aboriginal community does not enable Aboriginal participants to effectively participate in the democratic process.

  14. Russell's Unknown Logicism A Study in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gandon, Professor Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    In this excellent book Sebastien Gandon focuses mainly on Russell's two major texts, Principa Mathematica and Principle of Mathematics, meticulously unpicking the details of these texts and bringing a new interpretation of both the mathematical and the philosophical content.

  15. O Platonismo de Russell na metafísica e na matemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Imaguire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analiso o surgimento e a superação do Platonismo em B. Russell, tanto na sua filosofia da matemática como na sua metafísica. Começo por explicitar os argumentos que levaram Russell a aderir ao chamado "Platonismo Proposicional" - posição que será tecnicamente relevante na definição de números. Na seção seguinte, discutirei até que ponto a teoria das descrições definidas determina, necessariamente, uma adesão ao nominalismo, e as dificuldades que surgem para o logicismo conseqüentes do abandono do platonismo. Finalmente, mostrarei como a posição madura de Russell caracteriza-se mais como um reducionismo do que propriamente como um nominalismo, e como este é fundado no princípio do mínimo vocabulário.In this paper, I analyze the emergence and the overcoming of Platonism both in Russell's philosophy of mathematics and his metaphysics. I begin by examining the arguments which led Russell to endorse a position that I term "Propositional Platonism" - this position proves to be relevant for Russell's definition of numbers. In the following section, I address the question of the extent to which Russell's theory of descriptions implies the acceptance of nominalism. Moreover, I examine the difficulties which arise for logicism, if it no longer goes hand in hand with platonism. Finally, I argue argue that Russell's mature position is to be characterized as a form of reductionism rather than as a variant of nominalism

  16. Supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in a young adult with Silver-Russell syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, E

    2008-12-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder in which patients demonstrate intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, triangular facies, excessive sweating during early childhood, late closure of the anterior fontanelle and skeletal asymmetry. An association with malignancy exists and only one previous intracranial tumour has been reported, a craniopharyngioma. We report the first case of Silver-Russell syndrome associated with a supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.

  17. Factors associated with pretreatment and treatment dropouts: comparisons between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients admitted to medical withdrawal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessing an inpatient medical withdrawal management program, and identified risk factors associated with the probabilities of pretreatment and treatment dropouts, respectively. Methods 2231 unique clients (Aboriginal = 451; 20%) referred to Vancouver Detox over a two-year period were assessed. For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with pretreatment dropout and treatment dropout as dependent variables, respectively. Results Aboriginal clients had higher pretreatment and treatment dropout rates compared to non-Aboriginal clients (41.0% vs. 32.7% and 25.9% vs. 20.0%, respectively). For Aboriginal people, no fixed address (NFA) was the only predictor of pretreatment dropout. For treatment dropout, significant predictors were: being female, having HCV infection, and being discharged on welfare check issue days or weekends. For non-Aboriginal clients, being male, NFA, alcohol as a preferred substance, and being on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) at referral were associated with pretreatment dropout. Significant risk factors for treatment dropout were: being younger, having a preferred substance other than alcohol, having opiates as a preferred substance, and being discharged on weekends. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of social factors for the Aboriginal population compared to substance-specific factors for the non-Aboriginal population. These findings should help clinicians and decision-makers to recognize the importance of social supports especially housing and initiate appropriate services to improve treatment intake and subsequent retention, physical and mental health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of treatment. PMID:24325629

  18. Inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Australia: a population data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falster, Kathleen; Banks, Emily; Lujic, Sanja; Falster, Michael; Lynch, John; Zwi, Karen; Eades, Sandra; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa

    2016-10-21

    Australian Aboriginal children experience a disproportionate burden of social and health disadvantage. Avoidable hospitalizations present a potentially modifiable health gap that can be targeted and monitored using population data. This study quantifies inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. This statewide population-based cohort study included 1 121 440 children born in New South Wales, Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012, including 35 609 Aboriginal children. Using linked hospital data from 1 July 2000 to 31 December 2013, we identified pediatric avoidable, ambulatory care sensitive and non-avoidable hospitalization rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Absolute and relative inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children were measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively. Individual-level covariates included age, sex, low birth weight and/or prematurity, and private health insurance/patient status. Area-level covariates included remoteness of residence and area socioeconomic disadvantage. There were 365 386 potentially avoidable hospitalizations observed over the study period, most commonly for respiratory and infectious conditions; Aboriginal children were admitted more frequently for all conditions. Avoidable hospitalization rates were 90.1/1000 person-years (95 % CI, 88.9-91.4) in Aboriginal children and 44.9/1000 person-years (44.8-45.1) in non-Aboriginal children (age and sex adjusted rate ratio = 1.7 (1.7-1.7)). Rate differences and rate ratios declined with age from 94/1000 person-years and 1.9, respectively, for children aged primary care, have potential to narrow this gap.

  19. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiner, A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will prove to be of a private law

  20. The Ancestor Project: Aboriginal Computer Education through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla; Biin, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the ANCESTOR program is to use digital storytelling as a means of promoting an interest in technology careers for Aboriginal learners, as well as increasing cultural literacy. A curriculum was developed and first tested with Aboriginal students at the LÁU,WELNEW Tribal School near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Based on feedback…

  1. Australian Engineering Educators' Attitudes towards Aboriginal Cultures and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinch, Thomas; Prpic, Juliana Kaya; Jolly, Lesley; Leigh, Elyssebeth; Kennedy, Jade

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, representation of Aboriginal populations within the engineering profession is very low despite participation targets set by Government departments, professional bodies and Universities. Progressing the Aboriginal inclusion agenda within Australian Engineering Education requires a clearer understanding of engineering educators'…

  2. Imaginative Education Engages Aboriginal Learners in Prince Rupert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago, only 10% of the aboriginal students attending the public school of Prince Rupert took down their diploma of secondary studies. Across British Columbia, only 47 percent of the Aboriginal students who entered Grade 8 in 2003 have since completed high school, compared to 79 percent for all students in the province, an inequity that…

  3. Learning Mathematics: Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Children and Their Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…

  4. Troubled traces: painting and displaying intercultural traumas of Aboriginality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Kamarra Shearer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behind the pointillism of dot paintings or ‘naïve’ techniques, Aboriginal artists stridently critique histories of injustice, incarceration, racism, colonialism and dispossession. This personal testimony from Heather Kamarra Shearer, one of the ‘stolen generation’ of Aboriginal Australians, reflects on her life story and her present vocation in the field of legal rights and as an artist.

  5. Aboriginal Students in Victoria. ACER Research Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marion M.

    An estimated 80%-90% of all Aboriginal students enrolled in the primary and secondary schools of Victoria, Australia, were tested and surveyed to determine their numbers, distribution, attendance, achievement, attitudes, and school leaving patterns. Most of the 1244 Aboriginals surveyed attended state schools and 75% were schooled in rural areas.…

  6. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner (Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people,

  7. Becoming empowered: a grounded theory study of Aboriginal women's agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Roxanne

    2011-07-01

    The study aim was to identify the process underlying the performance of agency for urban-dwelling Aboriginal women in contemporary Australian society with a view to promoting social change for Aboriginal people. Grounded theory methods were used in the conduct of 20 life history narrative interviews with Aboriginal women from across fourteen different language groups. Analysis identified a specific ecological model of Aboriginal women's empowerment, defined as "becoming empowered". "Performing Aboriginality" was identified as the core category and encompassed the women's concern for carving out a fulfilling life and carrying out their perceived responsibilities as Aboriginal women. While confirming much of the extant literature on empowerment, the analysis also offered unique contributions--a spiritual sensibility, cultural competence and an ethics of care and morality. This sheds new light on the creative ways in which Aboriginal women "disrupt" discourses and create alternate modes of existence. The findings have implications for improving quality of life for Aboriginal people by informing the practical development and delivery of social and health policies and programs.

  8. Fostering Aboriginal Leadership: Increasing Enrollment and Completion Rates in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    Aboriginal people have philosophies with a holistic approach to learning that are imperative to Aboriginal leadership development. The Aboriginal worldview is needed in any long-term education strategies of Aboriginal students to increase the awareness of higher education and to address cultural, financial, and academic barriers. This article…

  9. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  10. The neurological legacy of John Russell Reynolds (1828-1896).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, M J

    2007-04-01

    Sir John Russell Reynolds was an eminent and highly influential physician in the Victorian era who held the Presidencies of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and of the British Medical Association. He was the protégée of the great experimental physiologist, Marshall Hall, who discovered the reflex arc, and succeeded to Hall's clinical practice in London. Reynolds' thought and clinical activities linked the emerging British neurology of the first half of the 19th century with its blossoming, particularly in London, from 1860 onwards. In his writings Reynolds was the first English author to apply the approach to classification of neurological disorders that is still often used, though now in modified form. He was also the first to enunciate the notion of positive and negative symptoms arising from neurological disease and to suggest their pathogenesis, and was arguably the originator of the influential concept that an idiopathic disease, epilepsy, existed, one to be distinguished from 'epileptiform' seizures due to brain pathology.

  11. SINDROME DE SILVER-RUSSELL, REPORTE DE UN CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Liliana Grandas Ramírez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome Silver-Russell es un desorden genético (hipometilación en la región centro 1 (ICR1 del  IGF2 /H19  locus 11p15 y clínicamente heterogéneo, caracterizado por retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, baja talla y peso, y perímetro cefálico normal. Su tratamiento se basa en la  hormona del crecimiento. Se presenta el caso de una niña de 5 años que ingresa al servicio de Estomatología Pediátrica de la Fundación HOMI Hospital de la Misericordia de Bogotá, con antecedente de retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, manejada con dieta rica en carbohidratos y uso de biberón hasta los 2 y medio años, Al examen talla 88 cm y peso 9 Kg,  cara forma triangular, frente prominente, micrognatismo mandibular, apiñamiento dental y caries de la infancia temprana. Se diagnostica con retardo de la edad ósea, dental y morfológica. El tratamiento programa individual riesgo de caries y proveer una alta calidad de salud oral.

  12. SINDROME DE SILVER-RUSSELL, REPORTE DE UN CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Liliana Grandas Ramírez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome Silver-Russell es un desorden genético (hipometilación en la región centro 1 (ICR1 del  IGF2 /H19  locus 11p15 y clínicamente heterogéneo, caracterizado por retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, baja talla y peso, y perímetro cefálico normal. Su tratamiento se basa en la  hormona del crecimiento. Se presenta el caso de una niña de 5 años que ingresa al servicio de Estomatología Pediátrica de la Fundación HOMI Hospital de la Misericordia de Bogotá, con antecedente de retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, manejada con dieta rica en carbohidratos y uso de biberón hasta los 2 y medio años, Al examen talla 88 cm y peso 9 Kg,  cara forma triangular, frente prominente, micrognatismo mandibular, apiñamiento dental y caries de la infancia temprana. Se diagnostica con retardo de la edad ósea, dental y morfológica. El tratamiento programa individual riesgo de caries y proveer una alta calidad de salud oral.

  13. Mass loss rates in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, C. de; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Hucht, K.A. van der

    1988-01-01

    From the literature we collected values for the rate of mass loss for 271 stars, nearly all of population I, and of spectral types 0 through M. Rates of stellar mass loss determined according to six different methods were compared and appear to yield the same result per star within the limits of errors; this is true regardless of the star's position in the HR-diagram. Thus average rates of mass loss were determined, and weights were allocated to the M-determinations for each star. In addition we studied some groups of other stars: fast rotators (22 Be-type stars), and chemically evolved stars (31 Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 C- and 4 S-type stars and 15 nuclei of planetary nebulae). The chemically evolved stars have rates of mass loss which are larger than those of ''normal'' stars occupying the same positions in the Hertzprung-Russel diagram, by factors: 160 for Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 for C-type stars, and by estimated factors of 10 3 to 10 4 for the nuclei of planetary nebulae

  14. The Solar Eclipse Mural Series by Howard Russell Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich trove of astronomical phenomena in works of art by artists from the greater New York area, a trend that is even more pronounced in the oeuvres of New York City residents through the present day. A case in point is the trio of oil paintings by artist (and former physics professor) Howard Russell Butler depicting total solar eclipses in 1918, 1923, and 1925 that are based on his own observations. They were long displayed in the former art-deco building of the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History, the location of this conference. (The Museum also has nine other Butler paintings, none of which are currently exhibited.) Since the eclipse paintings have been in storage for many years, these once famous works are now virtually forgotten. Based on our research as an astronomer who has seen sixty-two solar eclipses and an art historian who has written extensively about astronomical imagery, we will discuss Butler's Solar Eclipse Triptych to explore its place in the history of astronomical imaging.

  15. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  16. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  17. Association of Modality with Mortality among Canadian Aboriginals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Rigatto, Claudio; Komenda, Paul; Yeates, Karen; Promislow, Steven; Mojica, Julie; Tangri, Navdeep

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Previous studies have shown that Aboriginals and Caucasians experience similar outcome on dialysis in Canada. Using the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry, this study examined whether dialysis modality (peritoneal or hemodialysis) impacted mortality in Aboriginal patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study identified 31,576 adult patients (hemodialysis: Aboriginal=1839, Caucasian=21,430; peritoneal dialysis: Aboriginal=554, Caucasian=6769) who initiated dialysis between January of 2000 and December of 2009. Aboriginal status was identified by self-report. Dialysis modality was determined 90 days after dialysis initiation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and competing risk models were constructed to determine the association between race and mortality by dialysis modality. Results During the study period, 939 (51.1%) Aboriginals and 12,798 (53.3%) Caucasians initiating hemodialysis died, whereas 166 (30.0%) and 2037 (30.1%), respectively, initiating peritoneal dialysis died. Compared with Caucasians, Aboriginals on hemodialysis had a comparable risk of mortality (adjusted hazards ratio=1.04, 95% confidence interval=0.96–1.11, P=0.37). However, on peritoneal dialysis, Aboriginals experienced a higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazards ratio=1.36, 95% confidence interval=1.13–1.62, P=0.001) and technique failure (adjusted hazards ratio=1.29, 95% confidence interval=1.03–1.60, P=0.03) than Caucasians. The risk of technique failure varied by patient age, with younger Aboriginals (Aboriginals on peritoneal dialysis experience higher mortality and technique failure relative to Caucasians. Reasons for this race disparity in peritoneal dialysis outcomes are unclear. PMID:22997343

  18. Obesity and its association with sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and health status among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine Ann; Joshy, Grace; Korda, Rosemary; Eades, Sandra J; Wade, Vicki; Bambrick, Hilary; Liu, Bette; Banks, Emily

    2018-06-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is the second leading contributor to Australia's burden of disease and is particularly prevalent among Aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to provide insight into factors relating to obesity among Aboriginal adults and Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal differences. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 45 and Up Study, comparing obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) prevalence and risk factors among 1515 Aboriginal and 213 301 non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales. Age-sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity by sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and health status were estimated (multivariable log-binomial regression) for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants separately. We quantified the extent to which key factors (physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness, area-level disadvantage) accounted for any excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. Obesity prevalence was 39% among Aboriginal and 22% among non-Aboriginal participants (PR=1.65, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.76). Risk factors for obesity were generally similar for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants and included individual-level and area-level disadvantage, physical inactivity, and poor physical and mental health, with steeper gradients observed among non-Aboriginal participants for some factors (P interaction 40% of the excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. A substantial proportion of the excess obesity prevalence among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants was explained by physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness and area-level disadvantage. Socioeconomic and health behaviour factors are potential targets for promoting healthy BMI, but these must be considered within the context of upstream social and cultural factors. Adults with health needs and disability require particular attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  19. Factors that drive the gap in diabetes rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Rebecca; Church, Jody; Haas, Marion; Bradford, Wylie; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-10-01

    To identify factors underpinning the gap in diabetes rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW. This will indicate appropriate target areas for policy and for monitoring progress towards reducing the gap. Data from the 2004-05 National Health Survey and National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey were used to estimate differences in self-reported diabetes rates and risk/prevention factors between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the contribution of each factor to predicting the probability of diabetes. Risk factors for diabetes are more prevalent and diabetes rates 2.5 to 4 times higher in Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal adults in non-remote NSW. The odds of (known) diabetes for both groups are significantly higher for older people, those with low levels of education and those who are overweight or obese. In the Aboriginal sample, the odds of diabetes are significantly higher for people reporting forced removal of their relatives. Differences in BMI and education appear to be driving the diabetes gap, together with onset at younger ages in the Aboriginal population. Psychological distress, indicated by removal of relatives, may contribute to increased risk of diabetes in the Aboriginal population. The results imply that improved nutrition and exercise, capacity to access and act upon health care information and early intervention are required to reduce the diabetes gap. Current strategies appear to be appropriately aligned with the evidence; however, further research is required to determine whether implementation methods are effective. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.

  1. Altered states, altered spaces : architecture, space and landscape in the film and television of Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Altered States, Altered Spaces: Architecture, Landscape and Space in the work of Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell.\\ud \\ud Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell, at first, seem like unlikely bedfellows for a critical comparison: the combined Baroque, Mannerist, frequently excessive and romantic nature of Russell’s screen standing in apparent contrast to the structure, order, organisation, Brutalism and spatial complexity of Kubrick’s.\\ud \\ud In an online blogpost1 (2007) Russell biographer Paul Sutto...

  2. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  3. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  4. Methylation profiling in individuals with Russell-Silver syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaherrera, Maria S; Weindler, Susanne; Van Allen, Margot I; Yong, Siu-Li; Metzger, Daniel L; McGillivray, Barbara; Boerkoel, Cornelius; Langlois, Sylvie; Robinson, Wendy P

    2010-02-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a heterogeneous disorder associated with pre- and post-natal growth restriction and relative macrocephaly. Involvement of imprinted genes on both chromosome 7 and 11p15.5 has been reported. To further characterize the role of epimutations in RSS we evaluated the methylation status at both 11p15.5 imprinting control regions (ICRs): ICR1 associated with H19/IGF2 expression and ICR2 (KvDMR1) associated with CDKN1C expression in a series of 35 patients with RSS. We also evaluated methylation at the promoter regions of other imprinted genes involved in growth such as PLAGL1 (6q24), GCE (7q21), and PEG10 (7q21) in this series of 35 patients with RSS. Thirteen of the 35 patient samples, but none of 22 controls, showed methylation levels at ICR1 that were more than 2 SD below the mean for controls. Three RSS patients were highly methylated at the SCGE promoter, all of which were diagnosed with upd(7)mat. To identify further potential global methylation changes in RSS patients, a subset of 22 patients were evaluated at 1505 CpG sites by the Illumina GoldenGate methylation array. Among the few CpG sites displaying a significant difference between RSS patients and controls, was a CpG associated with the H19 promoter. No other sites associated with known imprinted genes were identified as abnormally methylated in RSS patients by this approach. While the association of hypomethylation of the H19/IGF2 ICR1 is clear, the continuous distribution of methylation values among the patients and controls complicates the establishment of clear cut-offs for clinical diagnosis. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The Representation of Aboriginality in the Novels of Peter Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identity politics is fraught with difficulties. Of few places is this truer than in Australia when it comes to the representation of Aboriginality. On the one hand the absence or invisibility of Aboriginality in Australian life and culture maybe interpreted as a deliberate exclusion of a people whose presence is uncomfortable or inconvenient for many Australians of immigrant origin. Equally, the representation of Aboriginality by non-Aboriginals may be seen as an appropriation of identity, an inexcusable commercial exploitation or an act of neocolonialism. Best-selling and prize-winning South African-born author Peter Temple appears to be very much aware of these pitfalls. In his crime novels, written between 1996 and 2009, he has obviously made the decision to grasp the nettle and attempt to represent Aboriginality in a way that would be as acceptable as possible. This paper traces the evolution of Temple's representation of Aboriginality through the three major Aboriginal characters present in his novels: Cameron Delray (Bad Debts, 1996; Black Tide, 1999; Dead Point, 2000; and White Dog, 2003, Ned Lowey (An Iron Rose, 1998 and Detective Sergeant Paul Dove (The Broken Shore, 2005 and Truth, 2009.

  6. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to ...

  8. Evolutionists and Australian Aboriginal art: 1885-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines key examples of writing about Australian Aboriginal art in the decades around 1900 specifically in relation to the way in which it is used to provide evidence for theories concerning the evolution of art. Analysis of published works by late nineteenth-century men of science reveals the main influences shaping their perceptions of Aboriginal art during this time and provides an early working definition of this emerging category. This paper confirms that turn-of-the-century European understandings of Aboriginal art were based on limited evidence mediated through a specifically ethnographic notion of ‘decorative art’.

  9. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  10. Proceedings of Canada Forum 4. annual conference : powering up Aboriginal energy : clean energy driving Aboriginal economic development across Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [Lumos Energy, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Aboriginal Clean Energy Network, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Buckell, J. [Michipicoten First Nation, Wawa, ON (Canada)] (comps.)

    2010-07-01

    This conference provided a form to discuss issues related to renewable energy and methods of creating successful and sustainable business models and plans in Aboriginal communities. The Government of Canada's new Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development promotes partnerships supporting Aboriginal businesses in order to maximize access to capital. More than $350 billion in major resource and energy developments have been identified in or near Aboriginal communities. The tools available for small, medium and large-sized Aboriginal businesses were discussed along with financing sources and mechanisms for creating equity in renewable energy projects. Speakers also addressed the need for new transmission to serve renewable generation; recognition of rights in sharing the land; and Ontario's Aboriginal Energy Partnerships Program which provides an opportunity for First Nations and Metis to work with the government and private sector to build, own and operate new electricity transmission. Other topics presented at the conference included biomass district heating; bioenergy projects; wind partnerships with Aboriginal communities; hydroelectric development; and northern and remote communities. The conference featured 11 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. A comparison of the effectiveness of an adult nutrition education program for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S

    2015-11-01

    Adult nutrition education is an important component of broader societal efforts to address the high prevalence of nutrition-related diseases. In Australia, Aboriginal people are a critical target group for such programs because of their substantially higher rates of these diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relative effectiveness of an adult nutrition education program for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Pre-and post-course evaluation data were used to assess changes in confidence in ability to buy healthy foods on a budget, nutrition knowledge, and dietary behaviours among individuals attending FOODcents nutrition education courses. The total sample of 875 Western Australians included 169 who self-identified as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. Perceptions of course usefulness were very high and comparable between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Significantly larger improvements in confidence, nutrition knowledge, and reported consumption behaviours were evident among Aboriginal participants. The findings suggest that adult nutrition education programs that address specific knowledge and skill deficits that are common among disadvantaged groups can be effective for multiple target groups, and may also assist in reducing nutrition-related inequalities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Proceedings of Canada Forum 4. annual conference : powering up Aboriginal energy : clean energy driving Aboriginal economic development across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, C.; Buckell, J.

    2010-01-01

    This conference provided a form to discuss issues related to renewable energy and methods of creating successful and sustainable business models and plans in Aboriginal communities. The Government of Canada's new Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development promotes partnerships supporting Aboriginal businesses in order to maximize access to capital. More than $350 billion in major resource and energy developments have been identified in or near Aboriginal communities. The tools available for small, medium and large-sized Aboriginal businesses were discussed along with financing sources and mechanisms for creating equity in renewable energy projects. Speakers also addressed the need for new transmission to serve renewable generation; recognition of rights in sharing the land; and Ontario's Aboriginal Energy Partnerships Program which provides an opportunity for First Nations and Metis to work with the government and private sector to build, own and operate new electricity transmission. Other topics presented at the conference included biomass district heating; bioenergy projects; wind partnerships with Aboriginal communities; hydroelectric development; and northern and remote communities. The conference featured 11 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  13. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  14. Aboriginal Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tremblay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining an understanding of how best to support the development of Aboriginal children is important in promoting positive social, emotional, educational, and health outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the most important elements of healthy development for Aboriginal children, with a particular focus on social-emotional development. Focus groups were conducted with 37 Aboriginal Canadians, including parents, service providers, adolescents, and young adults. Five inter-connected themes emerged: cultural wellness, emotional wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, and strong identity, with strong identity described as central and foundational to the other themes. This study strengthens the assertion that Aboriginal children require an additional set of social-emotional skills to successfully navigate different cultural contexts during development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  15. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-07

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  16. Perinatal depression and screening among Aboriginal Australians in the Kimberley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Jayne; Munns, Ailsa; Marriott, Rhonda; Marley, Julia V

    2016-02-01

    Adhoc culturally questionable perinatal mental-health screening among Aboriginal women in the Kimberley. Mental-health issues, substance abuse and suicide attempts are high among young Aboriginal women in Australia. There is no evidence that the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is effective or culturally safe. Screening practices are complicated by limited understanding of the complex cultural interface between Western and Aboriginal beliefs and notions about health and mental-health. What is the current context of perinatal mental-health screening practices among Aboriginal women in the Kimberley and what might be considered a culturally safe approach? A review of the literature and exploration of current screening practices preceded community participatory action research (CPAR) of perinatal mental-health screening. More than 100 Kimberley women and 72 health practitioners contributed to this joint strategic body of work. Recommendations for practice include one single culturally appropriate Kimberley version of the EPDS.

  17. A cohort study: temporal trends in prevalence of antecedents, comorbidities and mortality in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians with first heart failure hospitalization, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Hung, Joseph; Knuiman, Matthew; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Bessarab, Dawn; Hobbs, Michael; Thompson, Sandra C

    2015-08-12

    Little is known about trends in risk factors and mortality for Aboriginal Australians with heart failure (HF). This population-based study evaluated trends in prevalence of risk factors, 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality following first HF hospitalization among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians in the decade 2000-2009. Linked-health data were used to identify patients (20-84 years), with a first-ever HF hospitalization. Trends in demographics, comorbidities, interventions and risk factors were evaluated. Logistic and Cox regression models were fitted to test and compare trends over time in 30-day and 1-year mortality. Of 17,379 HF patients, 1,013 (5.8%) were Aboriginal. Compared with 2000-2002, the prevalence (as history) of myocardial infarction and hypertension increased more markedly in 2006-2009 in Aboriginal (versus non-Aboriginal) patients, while diabetes and chronic kidney disease remained disproportionately higher in Aboriginal patients. Risk factor trends, including the Charlson comorbidity index, increased over time in younger Aboriginal patients. Risk-adjusted 30-day mortality did not change over the decade in either group. Risk-adjusted 1-year mortality (in 30-day survivors) was non-significantly higher in Aboriginal patients in 2006-2008 compared with 2000-2002 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44; 95% CI 0.85-2.41; p-trend = 0.47) whereas it decreased in non-Aboriginal patients (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.78-0.97; p-trend = 0.01). Between 2000 and 2009, the prevalence of HF antecedents increased and remained disproportionately higher in Aboriginal (versus non-Aboriginal) HF patients. Risk-adjusted 1-year mortality did not improve in Aboriginal patients over the period in contrast with non-Aboriginal patients. These findings highlight the need for better prevention and post-HF care in Aboriginal Australians.

  18. Implementing a working together model for Aboriginal patients with acute coronary syndrome: an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse working together to improve hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daws, Karen; Punch, Amanda; Winters, Michelle; Posenelli, Sonia; Willis, John; MacIsaac, Andrew; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) contributes to the disparity in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Improving hospital care for Aboriginal patients has been identified as a means of addressing this disparity. This project developed and implemented a working together model of care, comprising an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse, providing care coordination specifically directed at improving attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services for Aboriginal Australians in a large metropolitan hospital in Melbourne. A quality improvement framework using a retrospective case notes audit evaluated Aboriginal patients' admissions to hospital and identified low attendance rates at cardiac rehabilitation services. A working together model of care coordination by an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse was implemented to improve cardiac rehabilitation attendance in Aboriginal patients admitted with ACS to the cardiac wards of the hospital. A retrospective medical records audit showed that there were 68 Aboriginal patients admitted to the cardiac wards with ACS from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2011. A referral to cardiac rehabilitation was recorded for 42% of these. During the implementation of the model of care, 13 of 15 patients (86%) received a referral to cardiac rehabilitation and eight of the 13 (62%) attended. Implementation of the working together model demonstrated improved referral to and attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services, thereby, has potential to prevent complications and mortality. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: Aboriginal Australians experience disparities in access to recommended care for acute coronary syndrome. This may contribute to the life expectancy gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This paper describes a model of care involving an Aboriginal Hospital Liaisons Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse working

  19. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the ‘cultural security’ framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Results Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Conclusion Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to

  20. Determination of spatial parameters for different star groups in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharadze, E.K.; Bartaya, R.A.; Vereshchagin, S.V.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Piskunov, A.Eh.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Space densities and parameters of z-distribution for ten star groups in the Hertzsprung - Russell diagram (A - K3, A - G4, A - G5) were determined. Data from the Abastumani two-dimensional spectral classification catalogue, and a statistical procedure of data processing, allowing to take into account uncertainties of observational data as well as the catalogue selection effect, were used. The study of the space distributions allowed to carry out an independent estimation of a luminosity dispersion for different sequences in the Hertsprung - Russell diagram

  1. Grannies, elders, and friends: aging Aboriginal women in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Cyndy; Davey, Caitlin J

    2015-01-01

    Based on a research project in Toronto, Canada, this article highlights the strengths and resiliency of 12 female Aboriginal Elders and seniors as they age together. For these women, being actively involved in their families and the Aboriginal community gives them a solid grounding in who they are, what their roles are and how they contribute to the whole. Of particular significance is the support and friendship the women offer each other through their commonalities, activities, and sense of humor.

  2. Communication between hospitals and isolated aboriginal community health clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, G; Currie, B J

    1999-04-01

    This study described the communication dynamics, identified problems and recommended changes to improve patient follow-up and communication between Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) and isolated Aboriginal community health clinics (CHC) in the Northern Territory (NT). In 1995, staff interviews were conducted and an audit of isolated Aboriginal patients' RDH discharge summaries (DS). Eighteen per cent of RDH DSs never arrived in CHCs. DSs were often prepared late and more likely to be in CHC records if written on time and if the referral source was specified. Interviews revealed discontent between CHCs and RDH regarding: communication, DS documentation, the supply of discharge medication, as well as different hospital and community perceptions of Aboriginies' reliability to carry a DS and CHC desire for patients to be given DSs at discharge. Aboriginal patients should be given a DS at discharge and resident medical officers should be educated as to the function and importance of the DS. In 18 months following this study, RDH appointed unit-based Aboriginal health workers and a policy was produced for written communication between hospital and CHCs, as well as a discharge planning manual for Aboriginal communities. Projects investigating communication between hospitals and isolated Aboriginal clinics and patient follow-up may result in significant policy changes concerning these processes.

  3. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori......We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show...... that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves...... prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa....

  4. Aboriginal experiences of cancer and care coordination: Lessons from the Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD) narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Rachel; Micklem, Jasmine; Yerrell, Paul; Banham, David; Morey, Kim; Stajic, Janet; Eckert, Marion; Lawrence, Monica; Stewart, Harold B; Brown, Alex

    2018-04-24

    Aboriginal people with cancer experience worse outcomes than other Australians for a range of complex and interrelated reasons. A younger age at diagnosis, higher likelihood of more advanced cancer or cancer type with poorer prognosis, geographic isolation and cultural and language diversity mean that patient pathways are potentially more complex for Aboriginal people with cancer. In addition, variation in the quality and acceptability of care may influence cancer outcomes. This study sought to understand how care coordination influences Aboriginal people's experiences of cancer treatment. Interviews with 29 Aboriginal patients or cancer survivors, 11 carers and 22 service providers were carried out. Interviews were semi-structured and sought to elicit experiences of cancer and the health-care system. The manifest content of the cancer narratives was entered onto a cancer pathway mapping tool and underlying themes were identified inductively. The practice of cancer care coordination was found to address the needs of Aboriginal patients and their families/carers in 4 main areas: "navigating the health system"; "information and communication"; "things to manage at home"; and "cultural safety". The CanDAD findings indicate that, when the need for cancer care coordination is met, it facilitated continuity of care in a range of ways that may potentially improve cancer outcomes. However, the need remains unmet for many. Findings support the importance of dedicated care coordination to enable Aboriginal people to receive adequate and appropriate patient-centred care, so that the unacceptable disparity in cancer outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people can be addressed. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The neural basis of precise visual short-term memory for complex recognisable objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldsman, Michele; Mitchell, Daniel J; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity estimated using simple objects, such as colours and oriented bars, may not generalise well to more naturalistic stimuli. More visual detail can be stored in VSTM when complex, recognisable objects are maintained compared to simple objects. It is not yet known if it is recognisability that enhances memory precision, nor whether maintenance of recognisable objects is achieved with the same network of brain regions supporting maintenance of simple objects. We used a novel stimulus generation method to parametrically warp photographic images along a continuum, allowing separate estimation of the precision of memory representations and the number of items retained. The stimulus generation method was also designed to create unrecognisable, though perceptually matched, stimuli, to investigate the impact of recognisability on VSTM. We adapted the widely-used change detection and continuous report paradigms for use with complex, photographic images. Across three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, we demonstrated greater precision for recognisable objects in VSTM compared to unrecognisable objects. This clear behavioural advantage was not the result of recruitment of additional brain regions, or of stronger mean activity within the core network. Representational similarity analysis revealed greater variability across item repetitions in the representations of recognisable, compared to unrecognisable complex objects. We therefore propose that a richer range of neural representations support VSTM for complex recognisable objects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  7. Alfred Russel Wallace’s record of his consignments to Samuel Stevens, 1854-1861

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    An annotated facsimile of those pages of Alfred Russel Wallace’s notebook recording his consignments from the Malay Archipelago to his London agent, Samuel Stevens, is provided. Records of individual consignments are linked with the stages of Wallace’s and Charles Allen’s itineraries to which they

  8. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Russell James, JD, PhD, CFP(R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell James

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Russell James is a professor and the CH Foundation Chair in Personal Financial Planning in the Department of Personal Financial Planning at Texas Tech University, where he is also the Director of Graduate Studies in Charitable Financial Planning. His research is focused on encouraging generosity and satisfaction in financial decision-making.

  9. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N215; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior (DOI). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish...

  10. 75 FR 54381 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N078; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability: Draft comprehensive conservation plan and draft...

  11. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised Determination on... relevant time period at the Orion, Michigan location of Bruss North America, Inc. The Orion, Michigan..., Kentucky facility also led to worker separations at the Orion, Michigan location during the relevant time...

  12. 76 FR 20388 - Russell Investment Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...: Applicants request an order to permit open-end management investment companies relying on rule 12d1-2 under... Investment Funds (each a ``Trust and collectively the ``Trusts), Russell Investment Management Company... Blass, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management, Office of Investment Company...

  13. A reflection on Russell's ramified types and Kripke's hierarchy of truths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamareddine, F.; Laan, T.D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Both in Kripke's Theory of Truth KTT [8] and Russell's Ramified Type Theory RTT [16, 9] we are confronted with some hierarchy. In RTT, we have a double hierarchy of orders and types. That is, the class of propositions is divided into different orders where a propositional function can only depend on

  14. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevailsover the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive”identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations ofexogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada wouldbe significantly smaller.RésuméCet article examine en quoi la mobilité ethnique intergénérationnelle contribueà la reproduction démographique des groupes autochtones du Canada; c'est-àdire: Les Amérindiens, les Métis et les Inuits. Pour ce faire, l’article tented’examiner si les enfants de familles de recensement époux et épouse gardentl'identité de leurs parents. Tel que prévu, les enfants issus de couples endogènesont tendance à garder l'identité de leurs parents. Cependant, pour la plupart desenfants issus de couples exogènes se composant d’une personne autochtone etd’une personne non-autochtone, l’identité autochtone l’emporte sur l’identiténon-autochtone. Si l'identité autochtone n'était pas une identité qui semble"attrayante" au moment de la déclaration de l’affiliation ethnique des enfantsdans le cas d’unions exogènes, la population autochtones du Canada serait bienmoindre.

  15. A man before his time: Russell's insights into nicotine, smoking, treatment and curbing the smoking problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Robson, Debbie

    2018-04-01

    This narrative review aimed to provide a brief overview of five key research 'classics' produced by the innovative and radical thought leader, Professor Michael Anthony Hamilton Russell (1932-2009), drawing upon his other work wherever feasible. Narrative review. From more than 250 publications, we selected papers we considered seminal texts, published in 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979 and 1991. Russell was among the first researchers to explain that smoking was a dependence disorder caused by the drug nicotine decades before this was recognized formally. He therefore saw quickly the importance of delivering nicotine in a less harmful format as a way of controlling nicotine withdrawal when stopping smoking, first studying nicotine gum. In addition to pharmacotherapies, Russell's research also explored the role of behavioural support, particularly the role of general practitioners (GPs), alone as well as supported by specialist clinics; this research underpinned initiatives in England to reimburse doctors for giving advice to smokers, and to provide a national network of smoking cessation services. Research on nicotine uptake from other delivery systems and routes led Russell to theorize that the speed and dose of delivery impacted upon the effectiveness of a product to act as a substitute for smoking. He commented on the addictiveness of the high nicotine boli delivered in quick succession when smoking cigarettes and argued that alternative recreational nicotine delivery systems would need to be promoted actively to smokers in order for them to compete with cigarettes, a forerunner for contemporary debates on electronic cigarettes. The legacy of Russell's landmark research is seen in present-day nicotine science, policy and discourse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Education for Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: An Overview of Four Realms of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2016-01-01

    In line with an Aboriginal worldview of interconnectivity, I outline successful educational programs, policies, and services for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. These programs and initiatives are presented within four thematic areas related to (a) early childhood education, (b) Aboriginal pedagogy, language, and culture (throughout kindergarten to…

  17. Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

  18. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  19. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  20. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  1. Recognising life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ’ – that the contemporary discursive pragmatics of more or less pharmaceutical life practices still include forms of transcendence – and by the wish to fertilize the field of bio-politics with the indexical inter-subjectivity of the concept of ideology, as derived from an antiessentialist reading of Hegelian......–Marxist traditions. The analysis unfolds as an ideology critique that reconstructs, and seeks ways to overcome, particular forms of recognition that are identifiable in the data and in the field of drug practices, and how these form part of the constitution of singular collectives and participants – in these life...

  2. Incidence of and case fatality following acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians (2000-2004): a linked data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2010-12-01

    Despite Coronary Heart Disease exacting a heavy toll among Aboriginal Australians, accurate estimates of its epidemiology are limited. This study compared the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 28-day case fatality (CF) among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years from 2000-2004. Incident (AMI hospital admission-free for 15 years) AMI events and 28-day CF were estimated using person-based linked hospital and mortality data. Age-standardised incidence rates and case fatality percentages were calculated by Aboriginality and sex. Of 740 Aboriginal and 6933 non-Aboriginal incident events, 208 and 2352 died within 28 days, respectively. The Aboriginal age-specific incidence rates were 27 (males) and 35 (females) times higher than non-Aboriginal rates in the 25-29 year age group, decreasing to 2-3 at 70-74 years. The male:female age-standardised incidence rate ratio was 2.2 in Aboriginal people 25-54 years compared with 4.5 in non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal age-standardised CF percentages were 1.4 (males) and 1.1 (females) times higher at age 25-54 years and 1.5 times higher at age 55-74 years. These data suggest higher CF and, more importantly, AMI incidence contribute to the excess ischaemic heart disease mortality in Aboriginal Western Australians. The poorer cardiovascular health in Aboriginal women, particularly in younger age groups, should be investigated. Copyright © 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aboriginal groups taking leadership positions in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2009-09-15

    First Nations and Metis communities are now initiating and managing projects in the Canadian energy sector. Federal and provincial governments are now developing training programs to ensure that Aboriginal communities develop the skills needed to successfully manage energy projects. The Supreme Court of Canada has issued a number of rulings ensuring that companies and government agencies have a duty to consult with Aboriginal people when Crown decisions impact Treaty or Aboriginal rights. The Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure has now set up a unit to provide advice and guidance to facilitate partnership opportunities with First Nations and Metis communities. Major companies in Ontario have also developed consultation policies that focus on relationship building, internal education, and promoting business and workforce development. The Pic River First Nation group now owns a minority interest in the Wawatay generating station. A 23 MW facility is fully owned by the First Nations group. The province of Ontario has made a provision for up to $250 million to serve as loan guarantees for First Nations groups. It was concluded that the Electricity Sector Council (ESC) has developed an Aboriginal participation engagement project designed to increase Aboriginal awareness of opportunities within the electricity and renewable energy sector. 3 figs.

  4. Successful chronic disease care for Aboriginal Australians requires cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw Teng; Lau, Phyllis; Pyett, Priscilla; Furler, John; Burchill, Marlene; Rowley, Kevin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    To review the literature to determine the attributes of culturally appropriate healthcare to inform the design of chronic disease management (CDM) models for Aboriginal patients in urban general practice. A comprehensive conceptual framework, drawing on the Access to Care, Pathway to Care, Chronic Care, Level of Connectedness, and Cultural Security, Cultural Competency and Cultural Respect models, was developed to define the search strategy, inclusion criteria and appraisal methods for the literature review. Selected papers were reviewed in detail if they examined a chronic disease intervention for an Aboriginal population and reported on its evaluation, impacts or outcomes. In the 173 papers examined, only 11 programs met the inclusion criteria. All were programs conducted in rural and remote Aboriginal community-controlled health services. Successful chronic disease care and interventions require adequate Aboriginal community engagement, utilising local knowledge, strong leadership, shared responsibilities, sustainable resources and integrated data and systems. These success factors fitted within the conceptual framework developed. Research and development of culturally appropriate CDM models concurrently in both urban and rural settings will enable more rigorous evaluation, leading to stronger evidence for best practice. A partnership of mainstream and Aboriginal-controlled health services is essential to successfully 'close the gap'. Findings will inform and guide the development, implementation and evaluation of culturally appropriate CDM in mainstream general practice and primary care. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Partnerships between Aboriginal Organizations and Academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Chartier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the importance of the partnership between university professors and the Métis community. The Métis are a distinct nation and people that emerged in the northwest of what is now Canada and a bit into the United States through a process of ethnogenesis. The Métis Nation expressed its nationhood and defended its territory militarily in 1870 and again in 1885. Subsequently, Canada dealt with the Métis as individuals by implementing a scrip system, which displaced the Métis from their lands. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Métis Nation, along with other Aboriginal peoples, engaged in a constitutional process that witnessed limited success. Following that process, in 1993, the Métis moved their fight to the courts as many of their citizens were being charged with hunting and fishing infractions. This process necessitated the need for historical research and expert testimony, so the already emerging relationships with academia became more pronounced with progressive professors engaging in preparing expert reports and testifying at trial. Outside of the courts, research alliances were also engaged in. The outlook for the Métis Nation is more and more positive. The partnerships with academia has been a key contributor to this movement forward.

  6. A comparison of socioeconomic status and mental health among inner-city Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdullahpur, Kevin; Jacobs, Kahá Wi J; Gill, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal women in urban areas have been reported to experience high rates of poverty, homelessness, interpersonal violence, and health problems. However, there are few prior ethnocultural comparisons of urban women from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. The current study explored the mental and physical health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women accessing social services agencies and shelters. Half of the sample (n=172) was Aboriginal (48.3%). The lifetime rate of physical abuse was significantly higher in Aboriginal women, and they were more likely to have been victims of violence or crime in the past year (A=50.6%, NA=35.6%, pwomen were also more likely to have previously received treatment for a drug or alcohol problem. There were no differences in self-reported physical health, medication use, hospitalisations, and current substance misuse. Irrespective of ethnicity, lifetime rates of anxiety, depression and suicide attempts were extremely high. Future research should explore the effects of individual resources (e.g. social support, family relations) and cultural beliefs on women's ability to cope with the stress of living with adverse events, particularly among low SES women with children.

  7. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2009-12-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

  8. Observations of red-giant variable stars by Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2018-04-01

    Aboriginal Australians carefully observe the properties and positions of stars, including both overt and subtle changes in their brightness, for subsistence and social application. These observations are encoded in oral tradition. I examine two Aboriginal oral traditions from South Australia that describe the periodic changing brightness in three pulsating, red-giant variable stars: Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis), Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri), and Antares (Alpha Scorpii). The Australian Aboriginal accounts stand as the only known descriptions of pulsating variable stars in any Indigenous oral tradition in the world. Researchers examining these oral traditions over the last century, including anthropologists and astronomers, missed the description of these stars as being variable in nature as the ethnographic record contained several misidentifications of stars and celestial objects. Arguably, ethnographers working on Indigenous Knowledge Systems should have academic training in both the natural and social sciences.

  9. A concise culture review of Aboriginal and Australian fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the Australian fiction, we have suggested that some blossoming of this Australian genre happened during the nineteenth century, so in this review we have to start with some earlier works to express the cultural and poetical picture just unpretentious but completely. Firstly, it ought to be the Aboriginal literature which is of great importance to many both within Australia and internationally. This culture review will relate to the Aboriginal writing in English. The transformative survey of Aboriginal writing presents the stories and patterns of Australian culture and society in new ways, foregrounding and celebrating Indigenous experience and expression. It introduces powerful and creative individual voices as it also reveals a larger history of struggle, suffering and strength.

  10. Predictive Accuracy of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version Risk and Change Scores in Treated Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Sowden, Justina N; Kingston, Drew A; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexual offenders in a combined sample of 1,063 Canadian federally incarcerated men. All men participated in sexual offender treatment programming through the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) at sites across its five regions. The Static-99R was also examined for comparison purposes. In total, 393 of the men were identified as Aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Métis, Circumpolar) while 670 were non-Aboriginal and primarily White. Aboriginal men scored significantly higher on the Static-99R and VRS-SO and had higher rates of sexual and violent recidivism; however, there were no significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups on treatment change with both groups demonstrating close to a half-standard deviation of change pre and post treatment. VRS-SO risk and change scores significantly predicted sexual and violent recidivism over fixed 5- and 10-year follow-ups for both racial/ancestral groups. Cox regression survival analyses also demonstrated positive treatment changes to be significantly associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men after controlling baseline risk. A series of follow-up Cox regression analyses demonstrated that risk and change score information accounted for much of the observed differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in rates of sexual recidivism; however, marked group differences persisted in rates of general violent recidivism even after controlling for these covariates. The results support the predictive properties of VRS-SO risk and change scores with treated Canadian Aboriginal sexual offenders.

  11. Comorbidities contribute to the risk of cancer death among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians: Analysis of a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Brown, Alex

    2018-02-01

    Aboriginal Australians have poorer cancer survival than other Australians. Diagnoses at later stages and correlates of remote area living influence, but do not fully explain, these disparities. Little is known of the prevalence and influence of comorbid conditions experienced by Aboriginal people, including their effect on cancer survival. This study quantifies hospital recorded comorbidities using the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI), examines their influence on risk of cancer death, then considers effect variation by Aboriginality. Cancers diagnosed among Aboriginal South Australians in 1990-2010 (N = 777) were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by birth year, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site, then linked to administrative hospital records to the time of diagnosis. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, geographic attributes and comorbidities with risk of cancer death. A threshold of four or more ECI conditions was associated with increased risk of cancer death (sub-hazard ratio SHR 1.66, 95%CI 1.11-2.46). Alternatively, the presence of any one of a subset of ECI conditions was associated with similarly increased risk (SHR = 1.62, 95%CI 1.23-2.14). The observed effects did not differ between Aboriginal and matched non-Aboriginal cases. However, Aboriginal cases experienced three times higher exposure than non-Aboriginal to four or more ECI conditions (14.2% versus 4.5%) and greater exposure to the subset of ECI conditions (20.7% versus 8.0%). Comorbidities at diagnosis increased the risk of cancer death in addition to risks associated with Aboriginality, remoteness of residence and disease stage at diagnosis. The Aboriginal cohort experienced comparatively greater exposure to comorbidities which adds to disparities in cancer outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM). Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1- children and 14%, 5% and 18% in 146 non-Aboriginal children. OM was diagnosed at least once in 71% of Aboriginal children and 43% of non-Aboriginal children. After controlling for age, sex, presence of other bacteria and environmental factors, early nasopharyngeal carriage of NTHi increased the risk of subsequent OM (odds ratio = 3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.23) in Aboriginal children, while Mcat increased the risk of OM in non-Aboriginal children (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% CI 1.32-5.23). Early carriage of Pnc was not associated with increased risk of OM. Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia. PMID:23256870

  13. Improving forensic mental health care for Aboriginal Australians: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-06-01

    Mental illnesses constitute a major burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders (hereafter Aboriginal Australians), who are also overrepresented in the prison system. A legacy of colonization compounds such prevalence, and is further exacerbated by the persistence of racial discrimination and insensitivity across many sectors, including health. This research completed in a Western Australian forensic mental health setting identifies non-Aboriginal health professionals' support needs to deliver high-quality, culturally-safe care to Aboriginal patients. Data were collected from health professionals using an online survey and 10 semistructured interviews. Survey and interview results found that ongoing education was needed for staff to provide culturally-safe care, where Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values were respected. The findings also support previous research linking Aboriginal health providers to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal patients. In a colonized country, such as Australia, education programmes that critically reflect on power relations privileging white Anglo-Australian cultural dominance and subjugating Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values are important to identify factors promoting or compromising the care of Aboriginal patients and developing a deeper understanding of 'cultural safety' and its clinical application. Organizational commitment is needed to translate the findings to support non-Aboriginal health professionals deliver high-quality care to Aboriginal patients that is respectful of cultural differences. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. Structuring oil and gas joint ventures with aboriginal communities: conference papers conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Insight Conference featured twelve articles on the following topics: 1 - researching and understanding your legal partners; II - an aboriginal game plan - a plan for success; III - legal and management issues relating to aboriginal ventures; IV - tax status of reserve-based aboriginal people and businesses under the Indian Act; v - first nations as exempt bodies under the Income Tax Act; V I - innovative options for structuring oil and gas leases and exploration permits on aboriginal lands; VII - joint venture and partnership arrangements; V III - the impact of taxation on aboriginal ventures; I X - bankruptcy and insolvency issues for on-reserve businesses; X - financing options for oil and gas ventures with first nations; XI - Syncrude's commitment to aboriginal development; and X II - structuring oil and gas ventures with aboriginal communities. Articles abstracted/indexed separately include: I, II, V I (2), V III, X, XI, and X II

  15. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  16. A new cycle of jökulhlaups at Russell Glacier, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Andrew J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    years. Robust calculations of lake volumes and peak discharges are made, based onintensive field surveys and utilizing high-spatial-resolution orthophotographs of the lake basin and icemargin. These data enable identification of controls on the behaviour of the ice-dammed lake andprovide the first field......Jokulhlaups in 2007 and 2008 from an ice-dammed lake at the northern margin of RussellGlacier, West Greenland, marked the onset of a renewed jokulhlaup cycle after 20 years of stability. Wepresent a record of successive ice-dammed lake drainage events and associated ice-margin dynamicsspanning 25......-based examination of controls on jokulhlaup magnitude and frequency for thissystem. We find that Russell Glacier jokulhlaups have a much higher peak discharge than predicted bythe Clague–Mathews relationship, which we attribute to an unusually short englacial/subglacialrouteway and the presence of a thin ice dam...

  17. Bertrand Russell : [poems] / Jaan Kaplinski ; transl. by the author, ed. by Fiona Sampson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplinski, Jaan, 1941-

    2003-01-01

    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 266. Sisu: Bertrand Russell ; "Once again I think of what I have read..." ; "I do not feel at home in this synthetic world..." ; "Silence is always here and everywhere..." ; "In the morning, I was presented to President Mitterrand..." ; Evening is coming. The land and the forest meet..." ; " A cloudy afternoon in late autumn..." ; "My poems often aren't poems..." ; "My eyesight's weakening...". Orig.: Bertrand Russell ; Mõtlen taas loetule..." ; "Ei ole kodune siin sünteetilises maailmas..." ; "Vaikus on alati siin..." ; "Hommikul tutvustati mind president Mitterrandile.." ; "Õhtu tuleb ja maa ja mets saavad kokku..." ; "Pilvealune südasügise-pärastlõuna..." ; "Mu luuletused ei ole tihti luuletused..." ; "Silmad on nõrgaks jäänd..."

  18. A Case of Monoclonal Lymphoplasmacytosis of the Bone Marrow with IgM-Positive Russell Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Kayano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old Japanese male patient infected with HCV was diagnosed with thrombocytopenia. Histological examination of the bone marrow aspirate showed numerous lymphoid aggregates with Russell bodies. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated clonal expansion of CD5+ CD23+ B cells. Russell bodies were positive for IgM and lambda immunoglobulin light chain. The patient also underwent gastric biopsy, which revealed Helicobacter pylori (HP infection. Subsequent eradication of the bacteria resulted in improvement of his thrombocytopenia. The clinical course remained uneventful at 15-month follow-up, consistent with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. The observed clonal expansion with plasmacytic differentiation may have occurred under the influence of HCV with HP infection.

  19. The Joint Philosophical Program of Russell and Wittgenstein and Its Demise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Milkov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Between April and November 1912, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein were engaged in a joint philosophical program. Wittgenstein’s meeting with Gottlob Frege in December 1912 led, however, to its dissolution—the joint program was abandoned. Section 1 of this paper outlines the key points of that program, identifying what Russell and Wittgenstein each contributed to it. The second section determines precisely those features of their collaborative work that Frege criticized. Finally, building upon the evidence developed in the first two sections, section 3 recasts along previously undeveloped lines Wittgensein’s logical–philosophical discoveries in the two years following his encounter with Frege in 1912. The paper concludes, in section 4, with an overview of the dramatic consequences the Frege–Wittgenstein critique had for Russell’s philosophical development.

  20. Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: their dispute over the units of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace independently discovered the mechanism of natural selection for evolutionary change. However, they viewed the working of selection differently. For Darwin, selection was always focused on the benefit for the individual. For Wallace, selection was as much something of benefit for the group as for the individual. This difference is traced to their different background political-economic views, with Darwin in favor of Adam Smith's view of society and Wallace following Robert Owen in being a socialist.

  1. Recognising haemorrhagic rash in children with fever: a survey of parents' knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurel, M; Dubos, F; Motte, B; Pruvost, I; Leclerc, F; Martinot, A

    2011-07-01

    Early recognition and treatment of meningococcal disease improves its outcome. Haemorrhagic rash is one of the most specific signs that parents can learn to recognise. To determine the percentage of parents able to recognise a haemorrhagic rash and perform the tumbler test. 123 parents of children consulting for mild injuries were interviewed about the significance and recognition of haemorrhagic rash in febrile children. Although 88% of parents undressed their children when they were febrile, it was never to look specifically for a skin rash. Only 7% (95% CI 3% to 12%) were able to recognise a petechial rash and knew the tumbler test. Information campaigns about the significance of haemorrhagic rash and about the tumbler test are needed.

  2. The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in aboriginal and non-aboriginal western Australians from 1997 through 2007 and emergence of nonvaccine serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Deborah; Willis, Judith; Moore, Hannah C; Giele, Carolien; Murphy, Denise; Keil, Anthony D; Harrison, Catherine; Bayley, Kathy; Watson, Michael; Richmond, Peter

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND. In 2001, Australia introduced a unique 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster for Aboriginal children, and in 2005, 7vPCV alone in a 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule for non-Aboriginal children. Aboriginal adults are offered 23vPPV but coverage is poor. We investigated trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australia (WA). METHODS. Enhanced IPD surveillance has been ongoing since 1996. We calculated IPD incidence rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians before and after introduction of 7vPCV. RESULTS. A total of 1792 cases occurred during the period 1997-2007; the IPD incidence rate was 47 cases per 100,000 population per year among Aboriginal people and 7 cases per 100,000 population per year in non-Aboriginal people. After introduction of 7vPCV, IPD rates among Aboriginal children decreased by 46% for those Aboriginal children. IPD rates decreased by >30% in non-Aboriginal people 50 years of age but increased among Aboriginal adults (eg, from 59.1 to 109.6 cases per 100,000 population per year among those 30-49 years of age). Although IPD due to 7vPCV serotypes decreased in all age groups, IPD incidence due to non-7vPCV serotypes increased, and it almost doubled among Aboriginal adults 30-49 years of age (from 48.3 to 97.0 cases per 100,000 population per year). Among non-Aboriginal children, 37% of IPD is now due to serotype 19A. CONCLUSIONS. IPD incidence rates have decreased markedly among children and non-Aboriginal adults with a 3-dose infant 7vPCV schedule. However, IPD due to non-7vPCV serotypes has increased and is of particular concern among young Aboriginal adults, for whom an intensive 23vPPV campaign is needed. An immunization register covering all age groups should be established.

  3. Mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: a multilevel data linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Deborah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart disease is a leading cause of the gap in burden of disease between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Our study investigated short- and long-term mortality after admission for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI to public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, and examined the impact of the hospital of admission on outcomes. Methods Admission records were linked to mortality records for 60047 patients aged 25–84 years admitted with a diagnosis of AMI between July 2001 and December 2008. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR for 30- and 365-day all-cause mortality. Results Aboriginal patients admitted with an AMI were younger than non-Aboriginal patients, and more likely to be admitted to lower volume, remote hospitals without on-site angiography. Adjusting for age, sex, year and hospital, Aboriginal patients had a similar 30-day mortality risk to non-Aboriginal patients (AOR: 1.07; 95% CI 0.83-1.37 but a higher risk of dying within 365 days (AOR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63. The latter difference did not persist after adjustment for comorbid conditions (AOR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.38. Patients admitted to more remote hospitals, those with lower patient volume and those without on-site angiography had increased risk of short and long-term mortality regardless of Aboriginal status. Conclusions Improving access to larger hospitals and those with specialist cardiac facilities could improve outcomes following AMI for all patients. However, major efforts to boost primary and secondary prevention of AMI are required to reduce the mortality gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.

  4. An Aboriginal game plan - a plan for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favelle, G.

    1999-01-01

    A presentation is included of some of the more intangible and hands-on types of advice that a corporation should consider when they decide to do business with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Although there are numerous areas of business concern (both legally and culturally) to consider when working with Aboriginal people and communities, developing a proactive strategy and approach to this segment of Canadian society is just as important and compelling as environmental or gender-related issues because they too can be seen to affect the company operations at any level. Having good corporate business relations with Aboriginal communities is going to take some thinking 'outside of the box,' but with committed understanding and focus on open communications, there is no reason why a company should not be able to develop a corporate-wide approach with relative ease. By being open to learning and listening, companies can begin to develop 'Aboriginal Relations' strategies that will become an automatic inclusion item at corporate strategy meetings and planning discussions. This would be in keeping with the corporation's choice to negotiate and not litigate

  5. Evaluation of a sealant intervention program among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Hsieh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The application of pit-and-fissure sealants was 94.54% effective in preventing caries on newly erupted permanent molars among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren. Complete sealant failure demonstrated a high risk for caries, and such teeth should immediately be resealed.

  6. Der Sport und die traditionelle Bewegungskultur der Aborigines

    OpenAIRE

    Wrogemann, Ohle

    2001-01-01

    Bei mehreren Studienaufenthalten in Australien wurde nach den Betrachtungsweisen der deutschen Sportwissenschaft umfangreiches Material der nachstehenden Quellen gesammelt: persönliche Kontakte zu einzelnen Personen, Besuch von öffentlichen und privaten Institutionen, Verfolgen des aktuellen Mediengeschehens, narrative Interviews mit Aborigines, Gespräche mit Experten unterschiedlicher Fachrichtungen, Politikern und Personen der multikulturellen australischen Gesellschaft, Teilnahme ...

  7. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  8. Narrative inquiry: Locating Aboriginal epistemology in a relational methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sylvia S

    2004-03-01

    This methodology utilizes narrative analysis and the elicitation of life stories as understood through dimensions of interaction, continuity, and situation. It is congruent with Aboriginal epistemology formulated by oral narratives through representation, connection, storytelling and art. Needed for culturally competent scholarship is an experience of research whereby inquiry into epiphanies, ritual, routines, metaphors and everyday experience creates a process of reflexive thinking for multiple ways of knowing. Based on the sharing of perspectives, narrative inquiry allows for experimentation into creating new forms of knowledge by contextualizing diabetes from the experience of a researcher overlapped with experiences of participants--a reflective practice in itself. The aim of this paper is to present narrative inquiry as a relational methodology and to analyse critically its appropriateness as an innovative research approach for exploring Aboriginal people's experience living with diabetes. Narrative inquiry represents an alternative culture of research for nursing science to generate understanding and explanation of Aboriginal people's 'diabetic self' stories, and to coax open a window for co-constructing a narrative about diabetes as a chronic illness. The ability to adapt a methodology for use in a cultural context, preserve the perspectives of Aboriginal peoples, maintain the holistic nature of social problems, and value co-participation in respectful ways are strengths of an inquiry partial to a responsive and embodied scholarship.

  9. Aboriginal Language Maintenance, Development, and Enhancement: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnaby, Barbara

    This paper offers a general review of literature relating to the maintenance, development, and enhancement of Aboriginal languages in North America, particularly Canada. Drawing primarily on sociolinguistics, several concepts about language usage and change are outlined that are useful for the purposes of thinking about language maintenance. Next,…

  10. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  11. Teaching Australian Aboriginal Higher Education Students: What Should Universities Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a recent study of Australian Aboriginal higher education student experience. Reported here are extracts from a set of case studies of staff, specifically those working in Indigenous Centres, involved with these students in both teaching and support capacities. These participants provided a rich set of qualitative…

  12. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  13. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  14. Identifying barriers to aboriginal renewable energy deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, Joel

    2012-01-01

    As one of the largest and wealthiest countries in the world, Canada stands well-positioned to take advantage of ongoing growth in North American demand for primary energy supply by expanding domestic delivery of renewable energy generation to internationally interconnected electric grids across the country. There are myriad benefits of adopting the renewable energy approach to development—as the province of Ontario has acknowledged through the implementation of their 2009 Green Energy Act—including drastic reductions in carbon emissions, the decommissioning of existing fossil fuel power generation that cause serious public health problems, and opportunities for sustainable development at the community level. One group in particular stands poised to shape these debates. In Canada, historically marginalized Aboriginal peoples remain one of the groups with the greatest potential for meeting these enormous renewable energy deployment needs. Aboriginal involvement in renewable energy generation in Canada has been as diverse as Canada's Aboriginal peoples and groups have already adopted a range of different solutions to meet energy supply needs. However, many significant barriers exist that prevent this diverse cultural group from reaching its full potential. The article identifies some of these shortcomings and analyzes their roots. - Highlights: ► Renewable energy is one of the most important sustainable development opportunities today. ► Aboriginal-led renewable development could dramatically increase Canadian supply. ► Surmountable barriers are identified.

  15. Motivators of Educational Success: Perceptions of Grade 12 Aboriginal Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.; Claypool, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify motivators that support educational success, as perceived by Aboriginal high school students enrolled in two urban Saskatchewan schools. Twelve semi-structured individual interviews revealed that students were motivated by a hospitable school culture, relevant learning opportunities, and positive personal…

  16. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  17. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... well as the NOAA regulation at 50 CFR 230.4(c), forbid the taking of calves or any whale accompanied by... captains or crew under the control of those captains may engage in whaling. They must follow the provisions... aboriginal hunters must have adequate crew, supplies, and equipment. They may not receive money for...

  18. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... well as the NOAA regulation at 50 CFR 230.4(c), forbid the taking of calves or any whale accompanied by... captains or crew under the control of those captains may engage in whaling. They must follow the provisions... aboriginal hunters must have adequate crew, supplies, and equipment. They may not receive money for...

  19. "Try to Understand Us":Aboriginal Elders’ Views on Exceptionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Phillips

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article provides an analysis of the views of four Elders at the “A Window to Seeing the World Differently, National Symposium on Aboriginal Special Education” that was held in October 2005 at First Nations University of Canada in Regina.  The symposium was an opportunity to provide educators, students, parents, and community members with information on Aboriginal views on special education.  Concern had been expressed over the high numbers of Aboriginal students being identified as “special needs” attending schools on reserves throughout Canada.  There was also concern over difficulties with the current special education system, e.g., funding, assessment, and service issues.  It was believed that the Aboriginal worldview of students with special needs as having special gifts from the Creator was not integrated into the curriculum or into teaching practices.  The article concludes with suggestions for educators on how to address exceptionalities in Aboriginal communities. Keywords: Aboriginal education, Elders, exceptionality, special education, Aboriginal special   education.

  20. Use of family relationships improved consistency of identification of Aboriginal people in linked administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Alison J; Simpson, Judy M; Eades, Sandra J

    2017-10-01

    Algorithms are often used to improve identification of Aboriginal Australians in linked data sets with inconsistent and incomplete recording of Aboriginal status. We compared how consistently some common algorithms identified family members, developed a new algorithm incorporating relatives' information, and assessed the effects of these algorithms on health estimates. The sample was people born 1980-2011 recorded as Aboriginal at least once (or a relative) in four Western Australian data sets and their relatives (N = 156,407). A very inclusive approach, ever-Aboriginal (EA/EA+, where + denotes children's records incorporated), and two more specific approaches, multistage median (MSM/MSM+) and last record (LR/LR+), were chosen, along with the new algorithm (MSM+Family). Ever-Aboriginal (EA) categorized relatives the least consistently; 25% of parent-child triads had incongruent Aboriginal statuses with EA+, compared with only 9% with MSM+. With EA+, 14% of full siblings had different statuses compared with 8% for MSM+. EA produced the lowest estimates of the proportion of Aboriginal people with poor health outcomes. Using relatives' records reduced the number of uncategorized people and categorized as Aboriginal more people who had few records (e.g., no hospital admissions). When many data sets are linked, more specific algorithms select more representative Aboriginal samples and identify Aboriginality of relatives more consistently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Opportunistic screening to detect atrial fibrillation in Aboriginal adults in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaskas, Yvonne; O'Brien, Ciaran; Jeffries, Thomas Lee; McCowen, Debbie; Finlayson, Heather; Martin, Tanya; Neubeck, Lis; Freedman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for Aboriginal Australians is cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known precursor to stroke there are no published studies about the prevalence of AF for Aboriginal people and limited evidence about AF in indigenous populations globally. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will recruit and train Aboriginal health workers to use an iECG device attached to a smartphone to consecutively screen 1500 Aboriginal people aged 45 years and older. The study will quantify the proportion of people who presented for follow-up assessment and/or treatment following a non-normal screening and then estimate the prevalence and age distribution of AF of the Australian Aboriginal population. The study includes semistructured interviews with the Aboriginal health workers about the effectiveness of the iECG device in their practice as well as their perceptions of the acceptability of the device for their patients. Thematic analysis will be undertaken on the qualitative data collected in the study. If the device and approach are acceptable to the Aboriginal people and widely adopted, it may help prevent the effects of untreated AF including ischaemic stroke and early deaths or impairment in Aboriginal people. Ethics and dissemination This mixed methods study received ethics approval from the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (1135/15) and the Australian Health Council of Western Australia (HREC706). Ethics approval is being sought in the Northern Territory. The findings of this study will be shared with Aboriginal communities, in peer reviewed publications and at conferences. There are Aboriginal investigators in each state/territory where the study is being conducted who have been actively involved in the study. They will also be involved in data analysis

  2. Recognising Differences in Weed and Crop Species Recognition Skills of Agriculture Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Students in an agricultural science degree were surveyed to assess their ability to recognise plants of agricultural importance. The survey consisted of high quality images of 25 species. Students were surveyed at the start of their studies in first year, and at various times during their second year of studies. At the start of their studies…

  3. Recognising and Certifying Lifelong Skills: Impact on Labour Market Integration of the Unemployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Pedro Afonso

    2009-01-01

    The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…

  4. Recognising Informal Elearning with Digital Badging: Evidence for a Sustainable Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Patrina

    2015-01-01

    Digital badging as a trend in education is now recognised. It offers a way to reward and motivate, providing evidence of skills and achievements. Badged Open Courses (BOCs) were piloted by The Open University (OU) in 2013. The project built on research into the motivations and profiles of learners using free educational resources which the OU…

  5. Recognising Opportunities : A Case Study on Fostering a Culture of Innovation Through Individual and Collective Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhof, Lysanne; van Vuuren, Mark; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Every innovation in organisations starts with recognising the opportunity to improve one’s way of working. Feeling psychological ownership for such innovative work behaviours can be identified for individuals (i.e. ‘this task is mine’) and collectives (i.e. ‘this task is ours’). Our question was how

  6. Why should Aboriginal peoples learn to write?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serra Pagès

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultures and worldviews are inscribed by means of ‘writing’, or what Derrida calls ‘the perdurable inscription of a sign’ (Of Grammatology. A sign is the union between signifier and signified. The signifier may be natural (clouds indicate that it is going to rain or artificial. All cultures are made up of relations that stay at the level of signs, that is, everything that belongs to culture is empirical and conventional. In this regard, both Aboriginal and Western culture remain at the same level. Moreover, both cultures produce objectivity by means of contrast and experimentation, in the design of a sharp object, for example an arrow or a knife. In Ancient Greece, Havelock contends that the invention of writing dramatically increased the possibilities of objective thought (The Muse Learns To Write, but it also created a logic of binaries that transcended the objectivity of science and transpired into the ideology behind colonialism. In this context, the role of writing is analyzed in David Malouf’s Remembering Babylon. How does writing affect Gemmy all throughout the book? Already in the first Chapter, the teacher and the minister of the colony analyze Gemmy ‘in writing’. Gemmy knows what writing is but hasn’t learnt its ‘trick’: he does not know how to read or write. All he can see is that what he tells about his life, all his pain and suffering, is translated into marks and magic squiggles on the paper: only the spirit of the story he tells is captured. But little by little, the cognitive effects of writing get hold of Gemmy, until he starts to understand his life within the framework of the logic of binaries and identity upon which all reflective thought and science rest. All in all, this deconstructive reading can be seen as a critique of Europe’s modern idea of the autonomy of reason, in the name of a heteronymous rationality in the form of writing.

  7. A Comparison of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students on the Inter-Related Dimensions of Self-Concept, Strengths and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward; Brownlee, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the…

  8. Disparities experienced by Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal metropolitan Western Australians in receiving coronary angiography following acute ischaemic heart disease: the impact of age and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-10-21

    Aboriginal Australians have a substantially higher frequency of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events than their non-Aboriginal counterparts, together with a higher prevalence of comorbidities. The pattern of health service provision for IHD suggests inequitable delivery of important diagnostic procedures. Published data on disparities in IHD management among Aboriginal Australians are conflicting, and the role of comorbidities has not been adequately delineated. We compared the profiles of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in the metropolitan area undergoing emergency IHD admissions at Western Australian metropolitan hospitals, and investigated the determinants of receiving coronary angiography. Person-linked administrative hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD emergency admission events (n =20,816) commencing at metropolitan hospitals in 2005-09. The outcome measure was receipt of angiography. The Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal risk ratio (RR) was estimated from a multivariable Poisson log-linear regression model with allowance for multiple IHD events in individuals. The subgroup of myocardial infarction (MI) events was modelled separately. Compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts, Aboriginal IHD patients were younger and more likely to have comorbidities. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, Aboriginal patients were less likely than others to receive angiography (RRIHD 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.83; RRMI 0.81, 95% CI 0.75-0.87) but in the full multivariable model this disparity was accounted for by comorbidities as well as IHD category and MI subtype, and private health insurance (RRIHD 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.01; RRMI 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-1.01). When stratified by age groups, this disparity was not significant in the 25-54 year age group (RRMI 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02) but was significant in the 55-84 year age group (RRMI 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). The disproportionate under-management of older Aboriginal IHD patients is of

  9. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-07-07

    Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Health Action Groups (DAHAGs) to collaborate with health providers in designing culturally-responsive healthcare. The purpose of the strategy was to improve local health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. The evaluation aimed to identify whether the Aboriginal community considered the community engagement strategy effective in identifying their health service needs, translating them to action by local health services and increasing their trust in these health services. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Qualitative data was collected from Aboriginal participants and health service providers using semi-structured interviews or yarning circles that were recorded, transcribed and independently analysed by two senior non-Aboriginal researchers. Responses were coded for key themes, further analysed for similarities and differences between districts and cross-checked by the senior lead Aboriginal researcher to avoid bias and establish reliability in interpreting the data. Three ethics committees approved conducting the evaluation. Findings from 60 participants suggested the engagement process was effective: it was driven and owned by the Aboriginal community, captured a broad range of views and increased Aboriginal community participation in decisions about their healthcare. It built community capacity through regular community forums and established DAHAGs comprising local Aboriginal community members and health service representatives who met quarterly and were

  10. A review of life expectancy and infant mortality estimations for Australian Aboriginal people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant variation exists in published Aboriginal mortality and life expectancy (LE) estimates due to differing and evolving methodologies required to correct for inadequate recording of Aboriginality in death data, under-counting of Aboriginal people in population censuses, and unexplained growth in the Aboriginal population attributed to changes in the propensity of individuals to identify as Aboriginal at population censuses. The objective of this paper is to analyse variation in reported Australian Aboriginal mortality in terms of LE and infant mortality rates (IMR), compared with all Australians. Methods Published data for Aboriginal LE and IMR were obtained and analysed for data quality and method of estimation. Trends in reported LE and IMR estimates were assessed and compared with those in the entire Australian population. Results LE estimates derived from different methodologies vary by as much as 7.2 years for the same comparison period. Indirect methods for estimating Aboriginal LE have produced LE estimates sensitive to small changes in underlying assumptions, some of which are subject to circular reasoning. Most indirect methods appear to under-estimate Aboriginal LE. Estimated LE gaps between Aboriginal people and the overall Australian population have varied between 11 and 20 years. Latest mortality estimates, based on linking census and death data, are likely to over-estimate Aboriginal LE. Temporal LE changes by each methodology indicate that Aboriginal LE has improved at rates similar to the Australian population overall. Consequently the gap in LE between Aboriginal people and the total Australian population appears to be unchanged since the early 1980s, and at the end of the first decade of the 21st century remains at least 11–12 years. In contrast, focussing on the 1990–2010 period Aboriginal IMR declined steeply over 2001–08, from more than 12 to around 8 deaths per 1,000 live births, the same level as Australia overall in

  11. Factors relating to participation in follow-up to the 45 and up study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Gubhaju

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to characterise the factors relating to participation in a postal follow-up study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals, given the need to quantify potential biases from loss to follow-up and the lack of evidence regarding postal surveys among Aboriginal people. Methods The first 100,000 participants from the Sax Institute’s 45 and Up Study, a large scale cohort study, were posted a follow-up questionnaire gathering general demographic, health and risk factor data, emphasising Social, Economic and Environmental Factors (“The SEEF Study”. For each variable of interest, percentages of those invited who went on to participate in follow-up were tabulated separately for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants and age- and sex-adjusted participation rate ratios (aPRR were calculated. Results Of the 692 Aboriginal and 97,178 non-Aboriginal invitees to the study, 314 Aboriginal (45 % and 59,175 non-Aboriginal (61 % individuals responded. While Aboriginal people were less likely to respond than non-Aboriginal people (aPRR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.66–0.78, factors related to response were similar. Follow-up study participants were more likely than non-participants to have university versus no educational qualifications (1.6, 1.3–2.0 [Aboriginal]; 1.5, 1.5–1.5 [non-Aboriginal] and an annual income of ≥70,000 versus < $20,000 (1.6, 1.3–2.0; 1.2, 1.2–1.3 [χ 2 = 7.7; p = 0.001]. Current smokers (0.55, 0.42–0.72; 0.76, 0.74–0.77 [χ 2 = 7.14; p = 0.03], those reporting poor self-rated health (0.68, 0.47–0.99; 0.65, 0.61–0.69, poor quality of life (0.63, 0.41–0.97; 0.61, 0.57–0.66 and very high psychological distress (0.71, 0.68–0.75 [non-Aboriginal] were less likely than other cohort members to respond. Conclusions Relatively large numbers of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals participated in the first 45 and Up Study follow-up suggesting that postal surveys

  12. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  13. With good intentions: complexity in unsolicited informal support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding people's social lived experiences of chronic illness is fundamental to improving health service delivery and health outcomes, particularly in relation to self-management activity. In explorations of social lived experiences this paper uncovers the ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness experience informal unsolicited support from peers and family members. Methods Nineteen Aboriginal and Torres Islander participants were interviewed in the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS. Participants were people with Type 2 diabetes (N = 17, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (N = 3 and/or chronic heart failure (N = 11 and family carers (N = 3. Participants were asked to describe their experience of having or caring for someone with chronic illness. Content and thematic analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews was undertaken, assisted by QSR Nvivo8 software. Results Participants reported receiving several forms of unsolicited support, including encouragement, practical suggestions for managing, nagging, growling, and surveillance. Additionally, participants had engaged in 'yarning', creating a 'yarn' space, the function of which was distinguished as another important form of unsolicited support. The implications of recognising these various support forms are discussed in relation to responses to unsolicited support as well as the needs of family carers in providing effective informal support. Conclusions Certain locations of responsibility are anxiety producing. Family carers must be supported in appropriate education so that they can provide both solicited and unsolicited support in effective ways. Such educational support would have the added benefit of helping to reduce carer anxieties about caring roles and responsibilities. Mainstream health services would benefit from fostering environments that encourage informal interactions that

  14. The contribution of socio-economic position to the excesses of violence and intimate partner violence among aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Smylie, Janet; Urquia, Marcelo; Allan, Billie; O'Campo, Patricia

    2013-07-25

    To examine the contribution of socio-economic position (SEP) in explaining the excess of any abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV) among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal women in Canada. This comparison has not been studied before. We conducted logistic regression analysis, using nationwide data from a weighted sample of 57,318 Canadian-born mothers of singletons who participated in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey 2006-7. The unadjusted odds of any abuse and IPV were almost four times higher among Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal mothers; OR 3.91 (95% CI 3.12-4.89) and OR 3.78 (2.87-4.97), respectively. Adjustment for SEP reduced the unadjusted OR of any abuse and IPV by almost 40%. However, even with this adjustment, the odds of any abuse and IPV for Aboriginal mothers remained twice that of non-Aboriginal mothers; OR 2.34 (1.82-2.99) and OR 2.19 (1.60-3.00), respectively. SEP is a predominant contributor to the excess of abuse against Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal women in Canada. Reducing violence against Aboriginal women can be achieved mostly by improving their SEP, and simultaneously be informed by social processes and services that can mitigate abuse. The fact that SEP did not fully explain the excess of abuse among the Aboriginal women might lend support to "colonization or postcolonial theories," and related contextual factors such as differences in community social resources (e.g., social capital) and services. The effect of these factors on the excess of abuse warrants future research.

  15. Blending Aboriginal and Western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in Aboriginal peoples who live in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Teresa Naseba; Coholic, Diana; Cote-Meek, Sheila; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-05-20

    As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders represents major challenges in the treatment of both disorders. There appears to be an underutilization of substance use and mental health services, substantial client dropout rates, and an increase in HIV infections in Aboriginal communities in Canada. The aim of this paper is to explore and evaluate current literature on how traditional Aboriginal healing methods and the Western treatment model "Seeking Safety" could be blended to help Aboriginal peoples heal from intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. A literature search was conducted using the keywords: intergenerational trauma, historical trauma, Seeking Safety, substance use, Two-Eyed Seeing, Aboriginal spirituality, and Aboriginal traditional healing. Through a literature review of Indigenous knowledge, most Indigenous scholars proposed that the wellness of an Aboriginal community can only be adequately measured from within an Indigenous knowledge framework that is holistic, inclusive, and respectful of the balance between the spiritual, emotional, physical, and social realms of life. Their findings indicate that treatment interventions must honour the historical context and history of Indigenous peoples. Furthermore, there appears to be strong evidence that strengthening cultural identity, community integration, and political empowerment can enhance and improve mental health and substance use disorders in Aboriginal populations. In addition, Seeking Safety was highlighted as a well-studied model with most populations, resulting in healing. The provided recommendations seek to improve the treatment and healing of Aboriginal peoples presenting with intergenerational trauma and addiction. Other recommendations include the input of qualitative and quantitative

  16. Transfers to metropolitan hospitals and coronary angiography for rural Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients with acute ischaemic heart disease in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-05-01

    Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as a filter to reduce rural residents

  17. The pattern of psychiatric morbidity in a Victorian urban aboriginal general practice population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, J; Cutter, T; Mackenzie, A; Chiu, E

    1992-03-01

    Victorian Aboriginal people, most of whom live an urban lifestyle, form a distinct cultural group within the wider Victorian community. This paper describes a unique psychosocial study of urban Aboriginal adults attending a general practitioner at the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service in Fitzroy. The frequency and nature of psychiatric disorders among survey respondents is reported, together with a discussion of the association between this morbidity and certain sociodemographic variables.

  18. A clash of paradigms? Western and indigenous views on health research involving Aboriginal peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Theresa Diane

    2014-07-01

    To explore the issues of data management and data ownership with regard to health research conducted in aboriginal or indigenous populations in Canada. Research with aboriginal communities in Canada has often been conducted by researchers who had little or no understanding of the community in which the research was taking place. This led to 'helicopter' research, which benefitted the researcher but not the community. National aboriginal leadership developed the ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) principles, which outline how to manage research data regarding aboriginal people and to counteract disrespectful methodologies. However, these principles present their own set of challenges to those who would conduct research with aboriginal populations. Documents from the Assembly of First Nations, the Government of Canada, Aboriginal writers and researchers, and Nursing theorists and researchers. This is a methodology paper that reviews the issues of data ownership when conducting research with Aboriginal populations. The authors explore indigenous and Western views of knowledge development, outline and discuss the OCAP principles, and present the Canadian Institute of Health Research's guidelines for health research involving aboriginal people as a guide for those who want to carry out ethical and culturally competent research, do no harm and produce research that can benefit aboriginal peoples. There are special considerations associated with conducting research with Aboriginal populations. The Assembly of First Nations wants researchers to use the Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP) principles with First Nations data. These principles are restrictive and need to be discussed with stakeholders before research is undertaken. In Canada, it is imperative that researchers use the Canadian Institute of Health Research Guidelines for Health Research Involving Aboriginal People to ensure culturally sensitive and ethical conduct during the course of

  19. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing bur...

  20. No evidence for impaired humoral immunity to pneumococcal proteins in Australian Aboriginal children with otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Corscadden, Karli J; Coates, Harvey L; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Hillwood, Jessica; Toster, Sophie; Edminston, Phillipa; Zhang, Guicheng; Keil, Anthony; Richmond, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Aboriginal population experiences disproportionately high rates of otitis media (OM). Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the main pathogens responsible for OM and currently no vaccine offering cross strain protection exists. Vaccines consisting of conserved antigens to S. pneumoniae may reduce the burden of OM in high-risk populations; however no data exists examining naturally acquired antibody in Aboriginal children with OM. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG were measured against the S. pneumoniae antigens PspA1 and 2, CbpA and Ply in a cross sectional study of 183 children, including 36 non-Aboriginal healthy control children and 70 Aboriginal children and 77 non-Aboriginal children undergoing surgery for OM using a multiplex bead assay. Significant differences were observed between the 3 groups for serum anti-PspA1 IgA, anti-CbpA and anti-Ply IgG and for all salivary antibodies assessed. Aboriginal children with a history of OM had significantly higher antibody titres than non-Aboriginal healthy children with no history of OM and non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM for several proteins in serum and saliva. Non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM had significantly higher salivary anti-PspA1 IgG than healthy children, while all other titres were comparable between the groups. Conserved vaccine candidate proteins from S. pneumoniae induce serum and salivary antibody responses in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM. Aboriginal children do not have an impaired antibody response to the antigens measured from S. pneumoniae and they may represent vaccine candidates in Indigenous populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A petition to Mr Peel: Gideon Mantell and the trial of Hannah Russell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, R J; Watson, K D

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 1826, Hannah Russell was tried for petty treason, viz. the murder of her husband, Benjamin Russell, by poisoning. Their lodger, Daniel Leney, was indicted as her accomplice. The exact circumstances surrounding the death were unclear but Hannah was known to have purchased white arsenic (arsenious oxide). A local surgeon, Thomas Evans, supported at the post-mortem examination by two further surgeons, not only reported severe corrosion of the gastrointestinal tract, but also the recovery of nearly an eighth of an ounce of arsenic from the victim's stomach. Both accused were convicted and sentenced to death. Leney was executed, but Hannah Russell was respited because the trial judge, Sir Robert Graham, had doubts as to a direction he had given to the jury. The surgeon and paleontologist Gideon Mantell took up her case, stressing that death from arsenic could not have taken place as quickly as was alleged and maintaining that the chemical evidence of arsenic poisoning was inconclusive. He gained the support of some eminent chemists and physicians. Subsequently, forensic toxicologists [Sir] Robert Christison and Alfred Swaine Taylor pointed out that Mantell's arguments as to the possible time to death in arsenic poisoning were quite wrong. Moreover, Evans gave details of the analyses he and his colleagues had undertaken to Christison, who pronounced the findings sound, as indeed did Mantell after Evans and his colleagues published details of their investigations in the Sussex Advertiser. Papers in The National Archives show that Hannah was pardoned for the offence for which she was indicted, leaving it open to prefer a lesser charge. That this was never done may have been due to Mantell's campaign, at least in part, but the pardon she did receive was due to the concern of the trial judge as to the implications of the evidence presented at trial.

  2. Prenatal molecular testing for Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Brioude, Frédéric; Russo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (BWS/SRS) are two imprinting disorders (IDs) associated with disturbances of the 11p15.5 chromosomal region. In BWS, epimutations and genomic alterations within 11p15.5 are observed in >70% of patients, whereas in SRS they are observed in about 60% ......, the consequences for prenatal genetic testing and counseling and our cumulative experience in dealing with these disorders.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 October 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.224....

  3. Reminiscences on the 40th anniversary of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1997-01-01

    After 40 years the main message of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto stands out clearly in its relevance to the hiroshima tragedy: 'Shall we put an end to the human race: or shall mankind renounce war?' With the end of the titanic struggle between Communism and Anti-Communism, the immediate threat of nuclear holocaust has abated, but the potential threat to the existence of mankind is still existing, and always will be. Pugwash has achieved much during the 40 years, but much more remains to be achieved

  4. Syndrome de Silver Russell: à propos de 3 cas et revue de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Le syndrome de Silver Russell (SSR) est une maladie génétique rare. Sa prévalence est estimée à 1/100.000. Il s'agit d'une pathologie de l'empreinte parentale, caractérisée par une grande diversité phénotypique. Ses signes cliniques majeurs sont: un retard de croissance intra-utérin sévère, un retard ...

  5. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Funada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS.

  6. Supporting Aboriginal Women to Quit Smoking: Antenatal and Postnatal Care Providers' Confidence, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelepis, Flora; Daly, Justine; Dowe, Sarah; Bourke, Alex; Gillham, Karen; Freund, Megan

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use during pregnancy is substantially higher among Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women in Australia. However, no studies have investigated the amount or type of smoking cessation care that staff from Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal services provide to clients who smoke or staff confidence to do so. This study examined Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal staff confidence, perceived role and delivery of smoking cessation care to Aboriginal women and characteristics associated with provision of such care. Staff from 11 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Services and eight Aboriginal Child and Family Health services in the Hunter New England Local Health District in Australia completed a cross-sectional self-reported survey (n = 67, response rate = 97.1%). Most staff reported they assessed clients' smoking status most or all of the time (92.2%). However, only a minority reported they offered a quitline referral (42.2%), provided follow-up support (28.6%) or provided nicotine replacement therapy (4.7%) to most or all clients who smoked. Few staff felt confident in motivating clients to quit smoking (19.7%) and advising clients about using nicotine replacement therapy (15.6%). Staff confident with talking to clients about how smoking affected their health had significantly higher odds of offering a quitline referral [OR = 4.9 (1.7-14.5)] and quitting assistance [OR = 3.9 (1.3-11.6)] to clients who smoke. Antenatal and postnatal staff delivery of smoking cessation care to pregnant Aboriginal women or mothers with young Aboriginal children could be improved. Programs that support Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal providers to deliver smoking cessation care to clients are needed. Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal service staff have multiple opportunities to assist Aboriginal women to quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. However, staff confidence and practices of offering various forms of smoking cessation support to pregnant Aboriginal

  7. An Exploration of Underrepresentation of Aboriginal Cancer Patients Attending a Regional Radiotherapy Service in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Siddhartha; Cheetham, Shelley; Shahid, Shaouli

    2018-01-01

    Travel logistics impede Aboriginal patients’ uptake of cancer treatments and is one reason for the poorer outcomes of Aboriginal people with cancer. This research examined benefits of a newly established rurally based radiotherapy unit in southwest Western Australia (WA), and included exploring the experience of Aboriginal patients and possible reasons for Aboriginal people’s underrepresentation in treatment. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 service providers involved in the treatment and care of people with cancer, and 3 Aboriginal patients with cancer who undertook radiotherapy at the Service were undertaken. Data were subject to thematic analysis involving immersion in the data for familiarization, inductive coding, investigator discussion and refining of emerging themes and triangulation of patient and provider interviews. Aboriginal cancer patients were positive about the treatment and support they had received, highlighting the often complex challenges faced by rural Aboriginal cancer patients in accessing and maintaining treatment. Service providers offered suggestions for small numbers presenting to the Service, including late presentation, potential perceptions of cultural insensitivity on the part of service providers, out-of-pocket costs and under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status. The Service has put in place practices and initiatives to support patient health and wellbeing, including making the facility more welcoming towards Aboriginal people and ensuring culturally appropriate care. PMID:29443892

  8. Levels of glutathione and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in the red blood cells of Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, N S

    1980-01-01

    There were no significant differences in packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in Australian Aborigines and Caucasians. A highly significant negative correlation was found between PCV and 2,3-DPG in both Aborigines (r = 0.251; n = 231) and Caucasians (r = 0.435; n = 227). Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the red blood cells of Aborigines were significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to those of Caucasians. There was a significant negative correlation between PCV and GSH in both the groups; (Aborigines r = -0.637, n = 115; Caucasians r = 0.388, n = 111).

  9. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  10. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  11. Improving mental health awareness among rural Aboriginal men: perspectives from Gippsland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Anton; Maybery, Darryl

    2012-04-01

    To identify views of Aboriginal people in rural areas about improving mental health awareness among Aboriginal men. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 Aboriginal people, including men, carers and health workers. Participants highlighted the need for mental health awareness programs in the community. They described the type of programs to be conducted as well as their method, content and frequency. This study demonstrates that mental health awareness programs designed specifically for rural Aboriginal men need to involve local Elders and other significant individuals from the community, be de-stigmatised by including mental health under Men's Health and by embedding the messages within a cultural framework.

  12. The economic impact on Aboriginal communities of the Ranger Project: 1979-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, C.

    1986-01-01

    What are the benefits generated for Aboriginal people by mining projects like the Ranger Project? Are these projects likely to fulfill the expectations of Aborigines who support the controlled exploitation of mineral resources on their land? This article examines the economic impact of the Ranger uranium project on Aboriginal people. Its principal aim is to provide detailed information on the use of royalty-related payments made to traditional owners as a result of Ranger's operations, and the consequent employment, training and social service opportunities for Aborigines

  13. Recognising Informal Elearning with Digital Badging: Evidence for a Sustainable Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrina Law

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital badging as a trend in education is now recognised. It offers a way to reward and motivate, providing evidence of skills and achievements. Badged Open Courses (BOCs were piloted by The Open University (OU in 2013. The project built on research into the motivations and profiles of learners using free educational resources which the OU makes available through its OpenLearn platform (Law, Perryman & Law, 2013. This research found that an increasing proportion of learners are keen to have their informal learning achievements recognised (Law & Law, 2014. Based on these data, a suite of free BOCs, assessed through the deployment of Moodle quizzes, was launched. This paper reports on evaluation of the BOCs and what we now know of the strategic importance of informal learning recognition. The initiative aligns with University strategies to provide accessible routes into formal learning for those who might not otherwise have the opportunity.

  14. Individual differences in recognising involuntary autobiographical memories: impact on the reporting of abstract cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Bernas, Ronan S; Clevinger, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined individual differences in the ability to recognise involuntary autobiographical memories. We hypothesised that individuals may not always recognise involuntary memories which are cued by abstract experiences (e.g., thoughts or language), while they are better able to recognise those which are cued by concrete sensory/perpetual experiences. We hypothesised that individuals without formal training in psychology would be more prone to these recognition failures than individuals with training in psychology. We tested the hypothesis by comparing the results of general first-year undergraduate students, graduate students in psychology and graduates students in other disciplines after each had participated in a two-week diary study of their naturally occurring involuntary memories. The results showed undergraduate participants and non-psychology graduate participants reporting fewer involuntary memories being triggered by abstract cues than the graduate psychology participants, while the groups did not differ in the report of memories triggered by sensory/perpetual cues. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. The triglyceride and glucose index is useful for recognising insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morán, M; Simental-Mendía, L E; Guerrero-Romero, F

    2017-06-01

    Although recognising insulin resistance (IR) in children is particularly important, the gold standard test used to diagnose it, the euglyceamic glucose clamp, is costly, invasive and is not routinely available in our clinical settings in Mexico. This study evaluated whether the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index would provide a useful alternative. A total of 2779 school children aged seven to 17 years, from Durango, Mexico, were enrolled during 2015-2016. The gold standard euglyceamic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test was performed in a randomly selected subsample of 125 children, and diagnostic concordance between the TyG index and the homoeostasis model assessment of IR was evaluated in all of the 2779 enrolled children. The best cut-off values for recognising IR using the TyG index were 4.65 for prepubertal girls and boys, 4.75 for pubertal girls and 4.70 for pubertal boys. Concordance between the TyG index and the homoeostasis model assessment of IR was 0.910 and 0.902 for the prepubertal girls and boys, 0.932 for the pubertal girls and 0.925 for the pubertal boys. The TyG index was useful for recognising IR in both prepubertal and pubertal children and could provide a feasible alternative to the costly and invasive gold standard test for IR in resource-limited settings. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Surrogate mothers: aboriginal grandmothers raising grandchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.

  17. Did Aboriginal vegetation burning affect the Australian summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    For thousands of years, Aboriginal Australians burned forests, creating grasslands. Some studies have suggested that in addition to changing the landscape, these burning practices also affected the timing and intensity of the Australian summer monsoon. Different vegetation types can alter evaporation, roughness, and surface reflectivity, leading to changes in the weather and climate. On the basis of an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model, Notaro et al. conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of decreased vegetation cover on the summer monsoon in northern Australia. They found that although decreased vegetation cover would have had only minor effects during the height of the monsoon season, during the premonsoon season, burning-induced vegetation loss would have caused significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature. Thus, by burning forests, Aboriginals altered the local climate, effectively extending the dry season and delaying the start of the monsoon season. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047774, 2011)

  18. "Rebuilding our community": hearing silenced voices on Aboriginal youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Melissa L; Hautala, Dane; Hurley, Jenna

    2014-02-01

    This paper brings forth the voices of adult Aboriginal First Nations community members who gathered in focus groups to discuss the problem of youth suicide on their reserves. Our approach emphasizes multilevel (e.g., individual, family, and broader ecological systems) factors viewed by participants as relevant to youth suicide. Wheaton's conceptualization of stressors and Evans-Campbell's multilevel classification of the impacts of historical trauma are used as theoretical and analytic guides. Thematic analysis of qualitative data transcripts revealed a highly complex intersection of stressors, traumas, and social problems seen by community members as underlying mechanisms influencing heightened levels of Aboriginal youth suicidality. Our multilevel coding approach revealed that suicidal behaviors were described by community members largely as a problem with deep historical and contemporary structural roots, as opposed to being viewed as individualized pathology.

  19. Healing history? Aboriginal healing, historical trauma, and personal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, James B

    2014-06-01

    What can an exploration of contemporary Aboriginal healing programs such as those offered in Canadian prisons and urban clinics tell us about the importance of history in understanding social and psychological pathology, and more significantly the salience of the concept of "historical trauma"? The form of Aboriginal "healing" that has emerged in recent decades to become dominant in many parts of the country is itself a reflection of historical processes and efforts to ameliorate the consequences of what is today often termed "historical trauma." In other words, contemporary notions of "healing" and the social, cultural, medical, and psychological disruption and distress caused by colonialism and captured in the term "historical trauma" have coevolved in an interdependent manner. I also argue that there is a tension between the attribution of this distress to both specific (e.g., residential schools) and generalized (e.g., colonialism) historical factors, as evident in the "historical trauma" concept, and the prevailing emphasis in many healing programs to encourage the individual to take personal responsibility for their situation and avoid attributing blame to other factors. I conclude that "historical trauma" represents an idiom of distress that captures a variety of historical and contemporary phenomena and which provides a language for expressing distress that is gaining currency, at least among scholars, and that the contemporary Aboriginal healing movement represents an effort to deal with the absence or failure of both "traditional" Aboriginal healing and government-sponsored medical and psychological services to adequately deal with this distress of colonialism. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

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    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  1. The determinants of chronic bronchitis in Aboriginal children and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Alomgir; Konrad, Stephanie; Dosman, James A; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McCrosky, Jesse; Pahwa, Punam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge concerning chronic bronchitis (CB) in Canadian Aboriginal peoples. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted) of CB and its associated risk factors in Canadian Aboriginal children and youth six to 14 years of age. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples Survey were analyzed in the present study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of CB among Aboriginal children and youth. The balanced repeated replication method was used to compute standard errors of regression coefficients to account for clustering inherent in the study design. The outcome of interest was based on the question: “Have you been told by a doctor, nurse or other health professional that you have chronic bronchitis?” Demographics, environment and population characteristics (predisposing and enabling resources) were tested for an association with CB. RESULTS: The prevalence of CB was 3.1% for boys and 2.8% for girls. Other significant risk factors of CB were age (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.52] for 12 to 14 year olds versus six to eight year olds), income (OR 2.28 [95% CI 2.02 to 2.59] for income category <$25,000/year versus ≥$85,000/year), allergies (OR 1.96 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.16] for having allergies versus no allergies), asthma (OR 7.61 [ 95% CI 6.91 to 8.37] for having asthma versus no asthma) and location of residence (rural/urban and geographical location). A significant two-way interaction between sex and body mass index indicated that the relationship between the prevalence of CB and body mass index was modified by sex. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of CB was related to well-known risk factors among adults, including older age and lower annual income. PMID:23248806

  2. Restricted access: aboriginal women and health care in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Falcon-Borduas, Amelie

    2010-01-01

    “Restricted Access: Aboriginal Women and Health Care in Canada” addresses the barriers faced by indigenous women when accessing health care services in Canada. Using the distinction of practical (or needs-based) and strategic (or equity-based) barriers, it highlights the impact of physical isolation, cultural differences, and socio-economic disparities when using health services. However, the emphasis is placed on strategic challenges and more specifically on the impact of marginalization fro...

  3. Variable effects of prevalence correction of population denominators on differentials in myocardial infarction incidence: a record linkage study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the impact of prevalence correction of population denominators on myocardial infarction (MI) incidence rates, rate ratios, and rate differences in Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years during the study period 2000-2004. Person-based linked hospital and mortality data sets were used to estimate the number of prevalent and first-ever MI cases each year from 2000 to 2004 using a 15-year look-back period. Age-specific and -standardized MI incidence rates were calculated using both prevalence-corrected and -uncorrected population denominators, by sex and Aboriginality. The impact of prevalence correction on rates increased with age, was higher for men than women, and substantially greater for Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people. Despite the systematic underestimation of incidence, prevalence correction had little impact on the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal age-standardized rate ratios (6% and 4% underestimate in men and women, respectively), although the impact on rate differences was more marked (12% and 6%, respectively). The percentage underestimate of differentials was greater at older ages. Prevalence correction of denominators, while more accurate, is difficult to apply and may add modestly to the quantification of relative disparities in MI incidence between populations. Absolute incidence disparities using uncorrected denominators may have an error >10%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  5. Understanding practitioner professionalism in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: lessons from student and registrar placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Lyall, Vivian J; Ewen, Shaun C; Paul, David; Wheeler, Melissa

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to be pathologised in medical curriculum, leaving graduates feeling unequipped to effectively work cross-culturally. These factors create barriers to culturally safe health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this pilot pre-post study, the learning experiences of seven medical students and four medical registrars undertaking clinical placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service in 2014 were followed. Through analysis and comparison of pre- and post-placement responses to a paper-based case study of a fictitious Aboriginal patient, four learning principles for medical professionalism were identified: student exposure to nuanced, complex and positive representations of Aboriginal peoples; positive practitioner role modelling; interpersonal skills that build trust and minimise patient-practitioner relational power imbalances; and knowledge, understanding and skills for providing patient-centred, holistic care. Though not exhaustive, these principles can increase the capacity of practitioners to foster culturally safe and optimal health care for Aboriginal peoples. Furthermore, competence and effectiveness in Aboriginal health care is an essential component of medical professionalism.

  6. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    2016-10-01

    In this presentation we address issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and other minorities. We deal specially with intangible astronomical heritage and its particularities. Also, we study (from ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways in which the natives' knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by scientists, state politicians, professional artists and NGOs. Furthermore, we address several cases that illustrate these kinds of conflicts. We aim to analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when they are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, and the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of applying the label ``cultural heritage'' without a careful consideration of each specific case. In particular we suggest possible ways in which the international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way, we aim to contribute to the promotion of respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  7. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

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    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  8. Prevalence of dementia in urban and regional Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Delbaere, Kim; Broe, Gerald A

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dementia in collaboration with urban/regional Aboriginal communities. A census of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women aged 60 years and above in the target communities identified 546 potential participants, with 336 (61.5%) participating in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed a structured interview and cognitive screening tests. One hundred fifty-three participants also completed a detailed medical assessment. Assessment data were reviewed by a panel of clinicians who determined a diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) according to standard criteria. Crude prevalence of dementia was 13.4%, and age-standardized prevalence was 21.0%. The most common types of dementia were Alzheimer's dementia (44%) and mixed dementia diagnoses (29%). Estimated prevalence of MCI was 17.7%. Consistent with previous findings in a remote population, urban and regional Aboriginal Australians face high rates of dementia at younger ages, most commonly Alzheimer's dementia. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression, Suicidal Behaviour, and Mental Disorders in Older Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Tang; Radford, Kylie; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Broe, Tony G A; Draper, Brian

    2018-03-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%), current late-life depression (18.1%), and suicidal ideation (11.1%). Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.

  10. What oil and gas activities infringe on Aboriginal interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the experiences that First Nations communities in British Columbia have had in dealing with the petroleum industry and government are reviewed, emphasizing the past lack of consultation with First Nations whose treaty and Aboriginal rights were being infringed. The focus is primarily on Treaty 8, one of the series of numbered treaties negotiated during the 1800s, but which is still very much in effect. Changes expected as a result of the recent Delgamuukw decision which obligates regulatory authorities to consult with First Nations prior to issuing any permits for exploration or extraction of natural resources where such proposed projects might infringe on treaty and Aboriginal rights, are reviewed. Recent examples of settlements that confirm governments' and the industry's readiness to deal with aboriginal title claims as intended by the courts are cited. Other examples, showing reluctance by both governments and industry to accept the concept of mutually acceptable and meaningful consultation despite court rulings, and in the face of increasing levels of conflict, are also discussed.2 figs

  11. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander casemix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D A; Murray, J M; Cleary, M I; Brewerton, R E

    1998-10-19

    With increasing implementation of casemix-based funding for hospitals, quantitative data were needed to confirm the clinical impression that treating Aboriginal (compared with non-Aboriginal) inpatients consumes significantly more resources. Utilisation data, collected over a three-month period in 10 hospitals, were used to determine a cost per inpatient episode, which was grouped according to AN-DRG-3 to give a cost per AN-DRG for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) patients and non-ATSI patients. ATSI patients had consistently longer average length of stay and significant variation in relative frequency of admissions, compared with non-ATSI patients, with higher prevalences of infectious diseases. Degenerative and neoplastic conditions were more common in non-ATSI patients. There were significant differences in casemix-adjusted costs per patient episode (ATSI, $1856; non-ATSI, $1558; P < 0.001). Our study has quantified differential resource consumption between two Australian populations, and highlights the need for recognition of some hospitals' atypical populations and special funding requirements.

  12. Depression, Suicidal Behaviour, and Mental Disorders in Older Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%, current late-life depression (18.1%, and suicidal ideation (11.1%. Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.

  13. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-09-13

    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. The Lauramann Howe Russell Papers: a Window into Critical Care Medicine during the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbaty, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    The Civil War influenced all aspects of American society and culture, including the field of medicine and critical care. Union physician Lauramann Howe Russell's letter to his daughter, Ellen Howe, written on October 19, 1862, illustrates the changes in hospital construction, gender roles in healthcare and medical treatments which revolutionized healthcare during the Civil War. This letter offers a glimpse of the medical care of wounded soldiers during the early years of the Civil War. In describing his conversion hospital, he reveals the precursor to the new hospital construction which would greatly influence hospital design for decades to come. His description of women volunteers hints at the evolving role and growing importance of women in healthcare. Finally, the advancements in surgical and medical practice which developed during the Civil War are embodied in Russell's descriptions of his patients. His letter freezes a moment in medical history, bridging the gap between archaic medical practice and modern critical care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aboriginal women in rural Australia; a small study of infant feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Catherine; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Aboriginal women in rural areas have lower rates of breastfeeding than Australian averages. The reasons for this are poorly understood. Aboriginal people experience higher morbidity and increased rates of chronic disease throughout the life cycle. The protective effects of sustained breastfeeding could benefit rural Aboriginal communities. To explore the factors impacting upon infant feeding choices in a rural Aboriginal Community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Aboriginal rural dwelling first time mothers. These women received a continuity of midwife and Aboriginal Health Worker model of care. Interviews were also undertaken with five Aboriginal Health Workers and two Aboriginal community breastfeeding champions. The analysis was integrated with a conventional literature review and was further developed and illustrated with historical literature. Indigenist methodology guided the study design, analysis and the dissemination of results. Three key themes were identified. These were "I'm doing the best thing for..." which encompasses the motivations underpinning infant feeding decisions; "this is what I know..." which explores individual and community knowledge regarding infant feeding; and "a safe place to feed" identifying the barriers that negative societal messages pose for women as they make infant feeding decisions. It appears loss of family and community breastfeeding knowledge resulting from colonisation still influences the Aboriginal women of today. Aboriginal women value and trust knowledge which is passed to them from extended family members and women within their Community. Cultural, historical and socioeconomic factors all strongly influence the infant feeding decisions of individuals in this study. Efforts to normalise breastfeeding in the culture of rural dwelling Aboriginal women and their supporting community appear to be necessary and may promote breastfeeding more effectively than optimal professional care of individuals can

  16. The Reflection Effect on the Eclipsing Binary by the Wilson and Devinney's Model and Russell and Merrill's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hee Choea

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The reflection effect on three types of eclipsing binaries has been analyzed Wilson and Devinney's model and Russell and Merrill's model. The reflection effect was displayed on the theoretical light curves for the various conditions using the Wilson and Devinney's light curve program. Two models were compared after the rectifing the theoretical light curves including the reflection effect with the Russell and Merrill's method. The result shows that two models have an agreement on the reflection effect just in cases of the small difference in temperature and albedo between two stars in the system.

  17. A Guide for Health Professionals Working with Aboriginal Peoples: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective to provide Canadian health professionals with a network of information and recommendations regarding Aboriginal health. Options health professionals working with Aboriginal individuals and communities in the area of women’s health care. Outcomes improved health status of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Appropriateness and accessibility of women’s health services for Aboriginal peoples. Improved communication and clinical skills of health professionals in the area of Aboriginal health. Improved quality of relationship between health professionals and Aboriginal individuals and communities. Improved quality of relationship between health care professionals and Aboriginal individuals and communities. Evidence recommendations are based on expert opinion and a review of the literature. Published references were identified by a Medline search of all review articles, randomized clinical control trials, meta-analyses, and practice guidelines from 1966 to February 1999, using the MeSH headings “Indians, North American or Eskimos” and “Health.”* Subsequently published articles were brought to the attention of the authors in the process of writing and reviewing the document. Ancillary and unpublished references were recommended by members of the SOGC Aboriginal Health Issues Committee and the panel of expert reviewers. Values information collected was reviewed by the principal author. The social, cultural, political, and historic context of Aboriginal peoples in Canada, systemic barriers regarding the publication of information by Aboriginal authors, the diversity of Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and the need for a culturally appropriate and balanced presentation were carefully considered in addition to more traditional scientific evaluation. The majority of information collected consisted of descriptive health and social information and such evaluation tools as the evidence guidelines of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health exam were not

  18. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  19. Translanguaging on Facebook: Exploring Australian Aboriginal Multilingual Competence in Technology-Enhanced Environments and Its Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Nguyen, Bich

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explore how Aboriginal multilingual speakers use technology-enhanced environments, specifically Facebook, for their translanguaging practices. Using data collected from Facebook posts written by seven Aboriginal youth over a period of 18 months, we investigate how the participants move between Aboriginal English (AE) and Standard…

  20. A postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of urban Aboriginal women's description of pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-02-01

    Excessive weight gain and physical inactivity in pregnancy have been identified as risk factors for negative health outcomes for mothers and fetuses, particularly among Aboriginal women. In this paper we engage with postcolonial feminist theory and critical discourse analysis to examine the question, "how do urban Aboriginal women understand pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity." We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 25 urban Aboriginal pregnant or postpartum women between the ages of 16 and 39 in Ottawa, Canada. Three prominent discourses emerged: Aboriginal women have different pregnancies than non-Aboriginal women because Aboriginal women gain more weight and are more likely to develop gestational diabetes; Aboriginal women feel personally responsible for and shameful about excessive weight gain; finally, Aboriginal women need culturally safe pregnancy resources. Our results illuminate the complex and often paradoxical ways in which discourses around weight gain and physical activity are produced and taken-up by Aboriginal women and their healthcare providers. Based on these findings, we argue there is a lack of accessible and culturally safe resources for urban Aboriginal women, specifically concerning weight gain and physical activity in pregnancy. We recommend the development of resources that are created for/by/with Aboriginal women to better address that issues that urban Aboriginal women themselves identify as being of key importance. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Engaging aboriginal peoples in Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    The interests and concerns of Aboriginal peoples are integral to development and implementation of Canada's plans for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has an ongoing statutory obligation and a commitment to active and meaningful participation with Aboriginal peoples. The organization has worked with Aboriginal organizations and individuals to develop long-term engagement and dialogue processes that respect traditional Aboriginal practices, culture, protocols and approaches to decision-making. Aboriginal peoples were significant participants in the 2003-2005 study that resulted in the recommendation for Adaptive Phased Management (APM). After the Canadian government agreed to proceed with APM, Aboriginal peoples provided valuable input into development of the process for selecting a site for a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The involvement of Aboriginal stakeholders continues to be important as Canada moves into the siting process. Engagement of Aboriginal peoples is guided by principles that respond to the unique interests, perspectives and culture of Aboriginal peoples. These principles recognize and honour the special relationship that Aboriginal peoples have with the natural environment, their unique stewardship responsibilities, and the fact that Aboriginal peoples are holders of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK), which brings value to planning processes. The NWMO has been working with Aboriginal Elders and others to learn about ATK and to interweave this knowledge into its work. ATK includes important knowledge about the land, ecology and intergenerational decision-making. The NWMO and Aboriginal peoples have given life to engagement principles and the wisdom of ATK by collaboratively developing a number of programs including agreements with national, regional and local Aboriginal organizations. Additionally, the NWMO has

  2. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Durey, Angela; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-11-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians' perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers' (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs' views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006-September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. CSPs' lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients' limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient-provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people's distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs

  3. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff

  4. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  5. Factors Affecting Language and Literacy Development in Australian Aboriginal Children: Considering Dialect, Culture and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwendalyn L.; Williams, Cori J.

    2018-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children, in general, lag behind their mainstream peers in measures of literacy. This article discusses some of the complex and interconnected factors that impact Aboriginal children's early language and literacy development. Poor health and historically negative socio-political factors are known influences on Aboriginal…

  6. Closing the (service) gap: exploring partnerships between Aboriginal and mainstream health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-08-01

    Although effective partnerships between Aboriginal and mainstream health services are critical to improve Aboriginal health outcomes, many factors can cause these partnerships to be tenuous and unproductive. Understanding the elements of best practice for successful partnerships is essential. A literature review was conducted in 2009 using keyword searches of electronic databases. Sourced literature was assessed for relevance regarding the benefits, challenges, lessons learnt and factors contributing to successful Aboriginal and mainstream partnerships. Key themes were collated. Although there is much literature regarding general partnerships generally, few specifically examine Aboriginal and mainstream health service partnerships. Twenty-four sources were reviewed in detail. Benefits include broadening service capacity and improving the cultural security of healthcare. Challenges include the legacy of Australia's colonial history, different approaches to servicing clients and resource limitations. Recommendations for success include workshopping tensions early, building trust and leadership. Although successful partnerships are crucial to optimise Aboriginal health outcomes, failed collaborations risk inflaming sensitive Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal relationships. Factors supporting successful partnerships remind us to develop genuine, trusting relationships that are tangibly linked to the Aboriginal community. Failure to invest in this relational process and push forward with 'business as usual' can ultimately have negative ramifications on client outcomes.

  7. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  8. Unfinished dreams: community healing and the reality of aboriginal self-government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warry, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    ... of community development and cultural revitalization that are essential precursors to self-government. Warry's notion of 'community healing' involves efforts to rebuild the human foundations for self-governing Aboriginal societies. The book analyses key areas such as health care and the judicial and political systems where Aboriginal peoples ...

  9. Aboriginal Education with Anti-Racist Education: Building Alliances across Cultural and Racial Identity Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Denis, Verna

    2007-01-01

    A critical race analysis could provide both Aboriginal students and their university student advisors with knowledge to understand and potentially challenge the effects and processes of racialization that have historically, legally, and politically divided Aboriginal communities and families. Coalition and alliances can be made within and across…

  10. What is the impact of diabetes for Australian Aboriginal women when pregnant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cynthia, Porter; Timothy, Skinner; Isabelle, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    The impact differential of diabetes for Aboriginal maternal and infant health outcomes is different to Caucasian outcomes. With maternal diabetes, Aboriginal infant's birth weight increases and stillbirth rate is 22/1000 for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 53/1000 for pre-existing diabete...

  11. Cultural mismatch and the education of Aboriginal youths: the interplay of cultural identities and teacher ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A

    2013-01-01

    In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools.

  12. Giibinenimidizomin: Owning Ourselves--Critical Incidents in the Attainment of Aboriginal Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Alanaise O.; McCormick, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the facilitation and hindrance of Aboriginal identity attainment and developed a scheme of categories to describe what facilitates and hinders cultural identity among Canadian Aboriginal adults living in British Columbia. Twelve individuals, interviewed using the critical incident technique, were asked to describe observable…

  13. Enhancing Opportunities for Australian Aboriginal Literacy Learners in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lee; Clancy, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the context of contemporary Australian society, the education system is still failing to increase educational outcomes among the majority of Australian Aboriginal (1) learners. This educational dilemma has persisted despite the regular introduction of systemic initiatives and funding aimed at addressing Australian Aboriginal learners' low…

  14. The Koori Growing Old Well Study: investigating aging and dementia in urban Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Robertson, Hamish; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Broe, Gerald A

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is an emerging health priority in Australian Aboriginal communities, but substantial gaps remain in our understanding of this issue, particularly for the large urban section of the population. In remote Aboriginal communities, high prevalence rates of dementia at relatively young ages have been reported. The current study is investigating aging, cognitive decline, and dementia in older urban/regional Aboriginal Australians. We partnered with five Aboriginal communities across the eastern Australian state of New South Wales, to undertake a census of all Aboriginal men and women aged 60 years and over residing in these communities. This was followed by a survey of the health, well-being, and life history of all consenting participants. Participants were also screened using three cognitive instruments. Those scoring below designated cut-offs, and a 20% random sample of those scoring above (i.e. "normal" range), completed a contact person interview (with a nominated family member) and medical assessment (blind to initial screening results), which formed the basis of "gold standard" clinical consensus determinations of cognitive impairment and dementia. This paper details our protocol for a population-based study in collaboration with local Aboriginal community organizations. The study will provide the first available prevalence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment in a representative sample of urban Aboriginal people, across city and rural communities, where the majority of Aboriginal Australians live. It will also contribute to improved assessment of dementia and cognitive impairment and to the understanding of social determinants of successful aging, of international significance.

  15. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  16. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  17. Identifying High Academic Potential in Australian Aboriginal Children Using Dynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffey, Graham W.; Bailey, Stan B.; Vine, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dynamic testing as a method for identifying high academic potential in Australian Aboriginal children. The 79 participating Aboriginal children were drawn from Years 3-5 in rural schools in northern New South Wales. The dynamic testing method used in this study involved a…

  18. Politics, pain and pleasure: the art of art-making for ‘settled’ Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Gibson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the ‘acrylic art movement’ which came out of Papunya in the Western Desert of Australia in the 1970s, Aboriginal art and cultures have become intertwined in public discourse, through government policy, and in visual art worlds. It is arguably through their artworks that Australian Aboriginal people have become increasingly known both within Australia and overseas (Merlan 2001; cf. Fourmille 1994.i Indeed, in many ways, Aboriginal art has come to represent Aboriginal people and their culture (Myers 2002. But what kind of art is acceptably deemed Aboriginal in mainstream art worlds, by Australian Aboriginal people, and why? What does this mean personally, socially and economically for those Aboriginal artists who are located in the south-eastern parts of Australia which were first colonised? For the most part these people are deemed by the mainstream population to have ‘lost their culture’. More than this, they are spoken of by some other Aboriginal people from the more remote and later colonised parts of the continent in similar terms. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork with the Barkindji people of Wilcannia, a small country town in the south-east of Australia, this paper explores the role of art making and art talk and the ways in which these are implicated in the politics of culture, in cultural subjectivity, and in the consolidation and (recreation of cultural identity.

  19. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  20. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  1. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in a Canadian Aboriginal Population: Results from the Prairie Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Yosel Minuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Aboriginal population of Canada is at increased risk of exposure to the hepatitis C virus (HCV. Previous data indicate that spontaneous clearance of HCV occurs more often in Aboriginals than Caucasians. Whether this enhanced response extends to antiviral therapy for chronic HCV remains to be determined.

  2. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  3. 'We've fallen into the cracks': Aboriginal women's experiences with breast cancer through photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudrier, Jennifer; Mac-Lean, Roanne Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Despite some recognition that Aboriginal women who have experienced breast cancer may have unique health needs, little research has documented the experiences of Aboriginal women from their perspective. Our main objective was to explore and to begin to make visible Aboriginal women's experiences with breast cancer using the qualitative research technique, photovoice. The research was based in Saskatchewan, Canada and participants were Aboriginal women who had completed breast cancer treatment. Although Aboriginal women cannot be viewed as a homogeneous group, participants indicated two areas of priority for health-care: (i) Aboriginal identity and traditional beliefs, although expressed in diverse ways, are an important dimension of breast cancer experiences and have relevance for health-care; and (ii) there is a need for multidimensional support which addresses larger issues of racism, power and socioeconomic inequality. We draw upon a critical and feminist conception of visuality to interrogate and disrupt the dominant visual terrain (both real and metaphorical) where Aboriginal women are either invisible or visible in disempowering ways. Aboriginal women who have experienced breast cancer must be made visible within health-care in a way that recognizes their experiences situated within the structural context of marginalization through colonial oppression.

  4. The Language of Literacy: A National Resource Directory of Aboriginal Literacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Beverly; Globensky, Peter Andre

    This directory presents, in narrative form, core information about the operations of approximately 100 Aboriginal literacy programs throughout Canada. To qualify for inclusion in the directory, each program had to offer basic, functional, or advanced literacy training; offer literacy training in English, French, or an Aboriginal language; be…

  5. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  6. Semantic Size Does Not Matter: “Bigger” Words Are Not Recognised Faster

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sean H.K.; Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Kurby, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Sereno, O’Donnell, and Sereno (2009) reported that words are recognised faster in a lexical decision task when their referents are physically large rather than small, suggesting that “semantic size” might be an important variable that should be considered in visual word recognition research and modelling. We sought to replicate their size effect, but failed to find a significant latency advantage in lexical decision for “big” words (cf. “small” words), even though we used the same word stimul...

  7. Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed.

  8. A newly recognised Australian endemic species of Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson 1998 (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Po; Ding, Zheng Yee; Gullan, Penny J; Cook, Lyn G

    2017-05-26

    Austrolecanium cryptocaryae Lin & Cook sp. n. is described based on adult female morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This Australian endemic species was found on the underside of leaves of Cryptocarya microneura (Lauraceae) in Queensland. All phylogenetic analyses of four independent DNA loci and a concatenated dataset show that A. cryptocaryae is monophyletic and closely related to A. sassafras Gullan & Hodgson, the type species of Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson. The adult female of A. cryptocaryae is described and illustrated and a table is provided of the characters that differ among adult females of the three species of Austrolecanium currently recognised (A. cappari (Froggatt), A. cryptocaryae sp. n. and A. sassafras).

  9. Antenatal emotional wellbeing screening in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausia, Kaniz; Thompson, Sandra; Nagel, Tricia; Rumbold, Alice; Connors, Christine; Matthews, Veronica; Boyle, Jacqueline; Schierhout, Gill; Bailie, Ross

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which antenatal emotional wellbeing (EW) assessments are undertaken in primary health care (PHC) centres and factors associated with completion of EW screening. Medical records of 797 pregnant women from 36 PHC centres in five states (NSW, QLD, SA, WA and NT) were audited. Overall, 85% of the women were Aboriginal. The proportion of women with documented screening for EW varied from 5 to 38% between states (mean 17%). Aboriginal women were four times more likely (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 2.46-6.92) to not be screened for antenatal EW than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginality, lack of counselling on financial support were independently linked with no screening of EW. Provision of training for health service providers and further research on appropriate screening tools for Aboriginal women are needed to help redress this gap.

  10. Outpatient alcohol withdrawal management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leanne; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Kate

    2014-08-01

    There is concern from within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about the lack of access to alcohol withdrawal management ('detox') services. Outpatient detox is described within national Australian guidelines as a safe option for selected drinkers. However, uncertainly exists as to how suited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are to this approach. 
 Consultations were conducted with stakeholders of four health services providing outpatient detox for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW. Thematic analysis was performed to determine elements perceived as important for success. Key themes that emerged were individual engagement, flexibility, assessment of suitability, Aboriginal staff and community engagement, practical support, counselling, staff education and support, coping with relapse and contingency planning. 
 There is a need to improve access to alcohol detox services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The outpatient setting seems to be a feasible and safe environment to provide this kind of service for selected drinkers.

  11. Evaluating the Aboriginal child's mind: assimilation and cross-cultural psychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David

    2018-06-01

    This article examines two psychological interventions with Australian Aboriginal children in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first involved evaluating the cognitive maturation of Aboriginal adolescents using a series of Piagetian interviews. The second, a more extensive educational intervention, used a variety of quantitative tests to measure and intervene in the intellectual performance of Aboriginal preschoolers. In both of these interventions the viability of the psychological instruments in the cross-cultural encounter created ongoing ambiguity as to the value of the research outcomes. Ultimately, the resolution of this ambiguity in favour of notions of Aboriginal 'cultural deprivation' reflected the broader political context of debates over Aboriginal self-governance during this period.

  12. Missed opportunities in educating Aboriginal Australians about bowel cancer screening: whose job is it anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Aliki; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-12-01

    A culturally relevant educational flipchart targeting Aboriginal people was distributed across Western Australia to support education on bowel cancer screening and encourage participation in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. Respondents sampled from the flipchart distribution list were surveyed on the appropriateness, usefulness, and the extent to and manner in which they used the flipchart for educating Aboriginal clients. Despite praising the resource, few respondents used the flipchart as intended for various reasons, including the view that Aboriginal health education was the responsibility of Aboriginal health workers. Greater recognition by all health service providers is needed of their potential role in Aboriginal health education. Promoting a national health program of under-appreciated importance for a marginalised population is challenging. Effective utilisation of an educational tool is predicated on factors beyond its production quality and wide dissemination. Intended users require awareness of the underlying problem, and adequate time for and specific training in implementation of the tool.

  13. Health Care and Aboriginal Seniors in Urban Canada: Helping a Neglected Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loleen Berdahl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canadian researchers and policymakers have paid limited attention to the health care needs of Aboriginal seniors. This lack of attention is problematic, as the situation of Aboriginal seniors – including both status and non-status First Nations, Métis and Inuit – is particularly bleak. Using Winnipeg, Regina and Saskatoon as examples, this paper analyses the health care challenges facing Aboriginal seniors in urban Canada. We ask, what policy approaches are needed to improve the health and wellbeing of urban Aboriginal seniors so that they can have good quality living reflective of their needs and culture? We suggest that, in thinking throughpresent and future health services for urban Aboriginal seniors, policymakers should consider four key factors: socioeconomic conditions; underutilization of urban health services; jurisdiction; and elder abuse.

  14. Building relationships with Aboriginal Communities and the Energy and Utilities Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, R.; Handel, J.; Healy, D. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    One of the challenges facing the oil and gas industry in Alberta is building a relationship between industry, government and Aboriginal people. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is promoting and developing positive relationships with Aboriginal communities in terms of land-use issues and land claim agreements. A study was commissioned in 2000 by the EUB to identify concerns to communities affected by sour gas development. The study identified the need to improve working relations with Aboriginal communities. This paper describes the experience of the Field Surveillance Branch of the EUB over the past few years in building such relationships. Historical information provides insight that helps in establishing effective working relationships with Aboriginal communities. An important ingredient is appreciation of the perspective of these communities, which is achieved through awareness training. The use of local Aboriginal resource people as part of the training is recommended in order to address local issues. 1 ref.

  15. Aboriginal Homelessness: A Framework for Best Practice in the Context of Structural Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly D. Oelke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness among Indigenous peoples is an important issue in Canada and internationally. Research was conducted in seven metropolitan areas in the four western provinces of Canada to explore current services with the aim of developing a best practices framework to end homelessness for Aboriginal peoples. Sequential mixed methods were used. Key results found agreement that Aboriginal peoples were overrepresented among the homeless and policy determined the approach to and comprehensiveness of services provided. Funding, lack of time, and lack of resources were highlighted as issues. Gaps identified included a lack of partnership, cross-cultural collaboration, cultural safety, and evaluation and research in service provision. Best practices included ensuring cultural safety, fostering partnerships among agencies, implementing Aboriginal governance, ensuring adequate and sustainable funding, equitable employment of Aboriginal staff, incorporating cultural reconnection, and undertaking research and evaluation to guide policy and practices related to homelessness among Aboriginal peoples.

  16. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Whitley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.

  17. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  18. The role of Aboriginal family workers in delivering a child safety focused home visiting program for Aboriginal families in an urban region of NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Kathleen; Bennett-Brook, Keziah; Hunter, Kate

    2018-05-09

    Aboriginal Australian children experience higher rates of injury than other Australian children. However few culturally acceptable programs have been developed or evaluated. The Illawarra Aboriginal Medical Service (IAMS) developed the Safe Homes Safe Kids program as an injury prevention program targeting disadvantaged Aboriginal families with children aged 0-5 in an urban region of NSW. Delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers the program aims to reduce childhood injury by raising awareness of safety in the home. A program evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the home visiting model as an injury prevention program. This paper reports on the qualitative interviews which explored the ways in which clients, IAMS staff, and external service providers experienced the program and assessed its delivery by the Aboriginal Family Workers. A qualitative program evaluation was conducted between January 2014 and June 2015. We report here on the semi-structured interviews undertaken with 34 individuals. The results show increased client engagement in the program; improved child safety knowledge and skills; increased access to services; improved attitudes to home and community safety; and changes in the home safety environment. Safe Homes Safe Kids provides a culturally appropriate child safety program delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers to vulnerable families. Clients, IAMS staff, and external service were satisfied with the family workers' delivery of the program and the holistic model of service provision. SO WHAT?: This promising program could be replicated in other Aboriginal health services to address unintentional injury to vulnerable Aboriginal children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Lepromatous leprosy patients produce antibodies that recognise non-bilayer lipid arrangements containing mycolic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Baeza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate structure of the tubular hexagonal phase II are present in a bilayer of lipids. Antibodies that recognise these arrangements have been described in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and/or systemic lupus erythematosus and in those with preeclampsia; these antibodies have also been documented in an experimental murine model of lupus, in which they are associated with immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate the presence of antibodies against non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements containing mycolic acids in the sera of lepromatous leprosy (LL patients, but not those of healthy volunteers. The presence of antibodies that recognise these non-bilayer lipid arrangements may contribute to the hypergammaglobulinaemia observed in LL patients. We also found IgM and IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 77% of the patients. This positive correlation between the anti-mycolic-non-bilayer arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies suggests that both types of antibodies are produced by a common mechanism, as was demonstrated in the experimental murine model of lupus, in which there was a correlation between the anti-non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies to non-bilayer lipid arrangements may represent a previously unrecognised pathogenic mechanism in LL and the detection of these antibodies may be a tool for the early diagnosis of LL patients.

  20. Sense data and the philosophy of mind: Russell, James, and Mach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Hatfield

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of knowledge in early twentieth-century Anglo American philosophy was oriented toward phenomenally described cognition There was a healthy respect for the mind body problem, which meant that phenomena in both the mental and physical domain were taken sinuously Bertrand Russell's developing position on sense-data and momentary particulars drew upon, and ultimately became like, the neutral monism of Ernst Mach and William James Due to a more recent behaviorist and physicalist inspired "fear of the mental", this development has been down played in historical work on early analytic philosophy Such neglect as sumes that the "linguistic turn" is a proper and permanent effect of twentieth century philosophy, an assumption that distorts early analytic historiography, and begs a substantive philosophical question about thought and cognition.

  1. Alfred Russel Wallace and the road to natural selection, 1844-1858.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has had it that the naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace and his colleague Henry Walter Bates journeyed to the Amazon in 1848 with two intentions in mind: to collect natural history specimens, and to consider evidential materials that might reveal the causal basis of organic evolution. This understanding has been questioned recently by the historian John van Wyhe, who points out that with regard to the second matter, at least, there appears to be no evidence of a "smoking gun" variety proving it so. In the present essay the circumstances of Wallace's interest in the matter are reviewed, and van Wyhe is taken to task with alternate explanations for the facts he introduces in his argument. The conclusion is that Wallace almost certainly did have the second objective in mind when he left for both the Amazon, and the Far East.

  2. Capturing the will: Imposture, delusion, and exposure in Alfred Russel Wallace's defence of spirit photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Benjamin David

    2014-06-01

    The co-discoverer of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace, found himself deeply embroiled in a range of controversies surrounding the relationship between science and spiritualism. At the heart of these controversies lay a crisis of evidence in cases of delusion or imposture. He had the chance to observe the many epistemic impasses brought about by this crisis while participating in the trial of the American medium Henry Slade, and through his exchanges with the physiologist William Benjamin Carpenter and the psychical researcher Frederic Myers. These contexts help to explain the increasing value that Wallace placed on the evidence of spirit photography. He hoped that it could simultaneously break these impasses, while answering once and for all the interconnected questions of the unity of the psyche and the reliability of human observation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Indigenous Knowledge Approach to Successful Psychotherapies with Aboriginal Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is disproportionately common among Aboriginal people in Canada. Life stories were collected from 54 Aboriginal suicide attempters in northern Saskatchewan. Constant comparison techniques and modified grounded theory identified common themes expressed. Three common plots/themes preceded suicide attempts: 1) relationship breakup, usually sudden, unanticipated, involving a third person; 2) being publicly humiliated by another person(s), accompanied by high levels of shame; and 3) high levels of unremitting, chronic life stress (including poverty) with relative isolation. We found 5 common purposes for suicide attempts: 1) to "show" someone how badly they had hurt the attempter, 2) to stop the pain, 3) to save face in a difficult social situation, 4) to get revenge, and 5) don't know/don't remember/made sense at the time, all stated by people who were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time of their suicide attempt. We found 5 common beliefs about death: 1) you just cease to exist, and everything just disappears; 2) you go into the spirit world and can see and hear everything that is happening in this world; 3) you go to heaven or hell; 4) you go to a better place; and 5) don't know/didn't think about it. The idea of personal and cultural continuity is essential to understanding suicide among First Nations youth. Interventions targeted to the individual's beliefs about death, purpose for suicide, and consistent with the life story (plot) in which they find themselves may be more successful than one-size-fits-all programs developed outside of aboriginal communities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Pregnancy intentions among female sex workers: recognising their rights and wants as mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jeannie; Feng, Cindy; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the prevalence and correlates of pregnancy intentions among female sex workers (FSWs). Cross-sectional analysis using data from an open prospective cohort of street and off-street FSWs in Vancouver, Canada, in partnership with local sex work and community agencies. FSWs were recruited through outreach to street and off-street locations (e.g. massage parlours, micro-brothels) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of pregnancy intention, based on a 'yes' or 'no' response to the question "Are you planning on have any (any more) children in the future?". Of the 510 women, 394 (77.3%) reported prior pregnancy, with 140 (27.5%) of the entire sample reporting positive pregnancy intentions. Regarding ethnicity, 35.3% were Caucasian and 26.3% were Asian/visible minority, with no differences in pregnancy intention by ethnicity or HIV status; 38.4% reported Canadian Aboriginal ancestry. In our final multivariable model, servicing clients in formal indoor settings, inconsistent condom use by clients, younger age, and intimate partner violence (IPV) were associated with pregnancy intention. FSWs may have pregnancy intention levels similar to that of women in other occupations. Policy changes are needed to improve FSWs' access to integrated HIV and reproductive health services and harm reduction services, particularly for FSWs experiencing IPV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Dental caries risk indicators among Australian Aboriginal young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Sayers, S M

    2010-06-01

    To determine dental caries risk indicators among a birth cohort of Australian Aboriginal young adults (n=442). Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Models representing demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural, dental service utilization and clinical oral health variables were tested using multivariate regression. The percent DT>0 was 72.9 (95% CI 68.7-77.1), mean DT was 4.19 (95% CI 3.8-4.6), percent DMFT>0 was 77.4 (95% CI 73.5-81.3) and mean DMFT was 4.84 (95% CI 4.4-5.3). After controlling for other covariates, risk indicators for percent DT>0 included soft drink consumption every day or a few times a week (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.45), not consuming milk every day or a few times a week (PR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.30) and sweet consumption every day or a few times a week (PR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). Risk indicators for mean DT included sweet consumption every day or a few times a week (B=1.14, 95% CI 0.27-2.02), nonownership of a toothbrush (B=0.91, 95% CI 0.10-1.87) and presence of plaque (B=2.46, 95% CI 0.96-3.96). Those with 4 +  occupants in their house the previous night had 1.2 times the prevalence of having DMFT>0 than their counterparts with less household occupants (95% CI 1.01-1.49). Percent DMFT>0 was also associated with consumption of soft drink every day or a few times a week (PR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34) and consumption of sweets every day or a few times a week (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.37). Mean DMFT was higher among those who consumed sweets every day or a few times a week (B = 0.13, 95% CI 0.05-0.22) and who had dental anxiety (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.19). In an Australian Aboriginal young adult cohort, risk indicators for dental caries included social determinants such as household size, dietary behaviours such as regular consumption of soft drink and sweets, dental behaviour such as nonownership of a toothbrush and

  6. Songlines and navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Harney, Bill Yidumdum

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Aboriginal Australian language groups, using previously-unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the Earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass and by using it as a mnemonic.

  7. Recognising out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during emergency calls increases bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initiation of early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) depends on bystanders' or medical dispatchers' recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The primary aim of our study was to investigate if OHCA recognition during the emergency call was associated...... with bystander CPR, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and 30-day survival. Our secondary aim was to identify patient-, setting-, and dispatcher-related predictors of OHCA recognition. METHODS: We performed an observational study of all OHCA patients' emergency calls in the Capital Region of Denmark from...... the association between OHCA recognition and bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of OHCA recognition. RESULTS: We included 779 emergency calls in the analyses. During the emergency calls, 70.1% (n=534) of OHCAs were recognised...

  8. Cinderella Gets an Invitation: recognising and organising systems maintenance and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. James Bacon

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems maintenance of existing systems is a 'Cinderella' subject in the field of information systems & technology (1ST. Although it accounts for the majority of systems work, the subject is generally neglected and taken for granted. Based on studies carried out in a large Australasian organisation, evidence is presented for recognising the strategic role of systems maintenance, as a complement to new development. Alternative means of organising systems development work is examined, with the conclusion that a separate systems support group for carrying out maintenance may have net advantage. A re-definition of maintenance, according to a taxonomy of eight different types, is proposed. Effective methodology and metrics for maintenance are also addressed, together with the general phenomenon of "entropological deterioration', and 12 factors that need to be used in assessing existing systems.

  9. Medical dispatchers recognise substantial amount of acute stroke during emergency calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2016-01-01

    without an inappropriate amount of false positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: We report an overall high recognition of stroke by medical dispatchers. A final diagnosis of TIA, compared to ICH, was positively associated with recognition of acute stroke. Emergency medical dispatchers serve as the essential first...... stroke are therefore critical in organising emergency stroke care. We aimed to describe the sensitivity and positive predictive value of medical dispatchers' ability to recognise acute stroke during emergency calls, and to identify factors associated with recognition. METHODS: This was an observational...... study of 2653 consecutive unselected patients with a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). All admitted through the Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, during a 2-year study period (2012-2014). Final diagnoses were matched with dispatch codes from the Emergency Medical...

  10. Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.

  11. What are the social concerns? consultation and respect for the rights of aboriginal peoples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcombe, P.

    2003-01-01

    Large scale developments, whether hydroelectric development, mining, or forestry, to name a few types, have the potential to broadly and adversely impact on Aboriginal peoples and communities. Perhaps more so than any other segment of Canadian society, Aboriginal peoples, and particularly those residing in remote communities, are heavily reliant upon healthy environments and healthy natural resources in order to preserve and maintain their lifestyles, cultures, and economies. Further, Aboriginal peoples in Canada have the unique circumstance of having Treaty and Aboriginal rights protected under the terms of Treaties, Land Claims, and/or the Constitution of Canada Act, 1982. As with other forms of large scale Development - Nuclear fuel waste storage and management projects may have the potential to adversely impact on Aboriginal peoples. The following presentation outlines some key considerations relevant to understanding the social concerns, consultation requirements, and best practices for involving Aboriginal peoples - the key ingredients to enhancing the confidence of Aboriginal Peoples in nuclear fuel waste storage and management projects. (author)

  12. “No More Boomerang”: Environment and Technology in Contemporary Aboriginal Australian Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based in oral traditions and song cycles, contemporary Aboriginal Australian poetry is full of allusions to the environment. Not merely a physical backdrop for human activities, the ancient Aboriginal landscape is a nexus of ecological, spiritual, material, and more-than-human overlays—and one which is increasingly compromised by modern technological impositions. In literary studies, while Aboriginal poetry has become the subject of critical interest, few studies have foregrounded the interconnections between environment and technology. Instead, scholarship tends to focus on the socio-political and cultural dimensions of the writing. How have contemporary Australian Aboriginal poets responded to the impacts of environmental change and degradation? How have poets addressed the effects of modern technology in ancestral environments, or country? This article will develop an ecocritical and technology-focused perspective on contemporary Aboriginal poetry through an analysis of the writings of three significant literary-activists: Jack Davis (1917–2000, Oodgeroo Noonuccal (1920–1993, and Lionel Fogarty (born 1958. Davis, Noonuccal, and Fogarty strive poetically to draw critical attention to the particular impacts of late modernist technologies on Aboriginal people and country. In developing a critique of invasive technologies that adversely affect the environment and culture, their poetry also invokes the Aboriginal technologies that sustained (and, in places, still sustain people in reciprocal relation to country.

  13. Fall-related hospitalisations of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara A; Sherrington, Catherine; Close, Jacqueline Ct; Coombes, Julieann; Mitchell, Rebecca J; Moore, Robyn; Ivers, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    To compare the socio-demographic characteristics and type of injury sustained, the use of hospital resources and rates of hospitalisation by injury type, and survival following fall injuries to older Aboriginal people and non-Indigenous Australian people hospitalised for fall-related injuries. Population-based retrospective cohort data linkage study. Setting, participants: New South Wales residents aged 50 years or more admitted to a public or private NSW hospital for a fall-related injury during 1 January 2003 - 31 December 2012. Proportions of patients with defined injury types, mean hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, age-standardised hospitalisation rates and age-adjusted rate ratios, 28-day re-admission rates. There were 312 758 fall-related injury hospitalisations for 234 979 individuals; 2660 admissions (0.85%) were of Aboriginal people. The proportion of hospitalisations for fall-related fracture injuries was lower for Aboriginal than for non-Indigenous Australians (49% v 60% of fall-related hospitalisations; P Aboriginal patients was non-fracture injury to head or neck (19% of hospitalisations); for non-Indigenous patients it was hip fractures (18%). Age-adjusted LOS was lower for Aboriginal than for non-Indigenous patients (9.1 v 14.0 days; P Aboriginal people, fall injury hospitalisations increased at an annual rate of 5.8% (95% CI, 4.0-7.7%; P Aboriginal people and other older Australians, suggesting that different approaches are required to prevent and treat fall injuries.

  14. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes. PMID:21401923

  15. The mouth as a site of structural inequalities; the experience of Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, A; Bessarab, D; Slack-Smith, L

    2016-06-01

    To address the mouth as a site of structural inequalities looking through the lens of Aboriginal Australian experience. This is a critical review of published literature relevant to our objective. Criteria for selection included articles on: the social context of oral and general health inequalities for Aboriginal Australians; Aboriginal perceptions and meanings of the mouth and experiences of oral health care and the role of the current political-economic climate in promoting or compromising oral health for Aboriginal Australians. Evidence suggests oral health is important for Aboriginal Australians yet constrained by challenges beyond their control as individuals, including accessing dental services. Competing demands on limited budgets often led to oral health dropping off the radar unless there was an emergency. Structural (social, political and economic) factors often inhibited Aboriginal people making optimum health choices to prevent oral disease and access services for treatment. Factors included cost of services, limited education about oral health, intense advertising of sugary drinks and discrimination from service providers. Yet the literature indicates individuals, rather than structural factors, are held responsible and blamed for the poor state of their oral health. The current neoliberal climate focuses on individual responsibility for health and wellbeing often ignoring the social context. To avoid the mouth becoming an ongoing site for structural inequality, critically reviewing oral health policies and practices for whether they promote or compromise Aboriginal Australians' oral health is a step towards accountability-related oral health outcomes.

  16. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durey Angela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes.

  17. Final report on the comprehensive approach to energy conservation for the Aboriginal community in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.D. [Fort William First Nation, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-13

    This report presented a comprehensive approach to energy conservation programming for the Fort William First Nation, located in Thunder Bay, Ontario. The report outlined the historical context of the relationship between the Canadian government and Aboriginal people. The Aboriginal community in Ontario was described with reference to the difference between First Nations population, Metis, and Inuit. Statistics on the Aboriginal population in Ontario was broken down. Different Aboriginal organizations as well as organizations serving Aboriginal peoples were identified and described. The report also described the political process and administrative protocol for energy conservation and energy efficiency. Energy conservation in the Aboriginal community was also explained. Last, the report provided several recommendations related to awareness and education; translation; incentives; delivery mechanisms; and pilot projects. The report concluded with an agreement to hold a provincial conference in Toronto on the issues raised in the report. The report concluded that an Aboriginal unit within the Bureau of Conservation of the Ontario Power Authority was envisioned to plan, develop, implement, manage and monitor the deliverables resulting from the report.

  18. Is Aboriginal nutrition a priority for local government? A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, Catherine; Walker, Ruth; Palermo, Claire; Rounsefell, Kim; Aron, Yudit; MacDonald, Catherine; Atkinson, Petah; Browne, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to explore how Australian local governments prioritise the health and well-being of Aboriginal populations and the extent to which nutrition is addressed by local government health policy. In the state of Victoria, Australia, all seventy-nine local governments' public health policy documents were retrieved. Inclusion of Aboriginal health and nutrition in policy documents was analysed using quantitative content analysis. Representation of Aboriginal nutrition 'problems' and 'solutions' was examined using qualitative framing analysis. The socio-ecological framework was used to classify the types of Aboriginal nutrition issues and strategies within policy documents. Victoria, Australia. Local governments' public health policy documents (n 79). A small proportion (14 %, n 11) of local governments addressed Aboriginal health and well-being in terms of nutrition. Where strategies aimed at nutrition existed, they mostly focused on individual factors rather than the broader macroenvironment. A limited number of Victorian local governments address nutrition as a health issue for their Aboriginal populations in policy documents. Nutrition needs to be addressed as a community and social responsibility rather than merely an individual 'behaviour'. Partnerships are required to ensure Aboriginal people lead government policy development.

  19. Prevalence of Recognised and Unrecognised Depression among Medical and Surgical Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A. S.; Jamal, Q.; Riaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the prevalence of recognised and unrecognised depression among in-patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, and comprised patients admitted in the Medicine and Surgical departments at the time. Patients with known history of depression or on anti-depressants or on anti-psychotics, or with suicidal attempt were excluded. The prevalence of unrecognised depression was then perceived using Patient Health Qurstionnaire-9. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20. Results: Of the 1180 patients, 432(36.6 percent) either had history of depression or on were on anti-depressants. The study sample, as such, comprised 748(65 percent), and of them 399(53 percent) were from the Medicine and 349(47 percent) patients were from Surgery department. Prevalence of recognised depression was 36.6 percent; 48 percent in Medical and 14 percent in Surgical patients. Unrecognised depression was 51.2 percent; 45.3 percent in Medical and 53.6 in Surgical patients. Overall prevalence was 87.9 percent; 93.4 percent in Medical and 53 percent in Surgical patients. Gender was not found to be significantly associated with depression in Medical (p= 0.367) and Surgical (p=0.606) patients. No depression was found in 48(12 percent) Medical patients and 131(37.5 percent) Surgical patients. Conclusion: More than one-third of in-patients had co-morbid depression diagnoses, mostly unrecognised by their clinicians. (author)

  20. Early mortality from external causes in Aboriginal mothers: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fairthorne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal loss can have a deep-rooted impact on families. Whilst a disproportionate number of Aboriginal women die from potentially preventable causes, no research has investigated mortality in Aboriginal mothers. We aimed to examine the elevated mortality risk in Aboriginal mothers with a focus on external causes. Methods We linked data from four state administrative datasets to identify all women who had a child from 1983 to 2010 in Western Australia and ascertained their Aboriginality, socio-demographic details, and their dates and causes of death prior to 2011. Comparing Aboriginal mothers with other mothers, we estimated the hazard ratios (HRs for death by any external cause and each of the sub-categories of accident, suicide, and homicide, and the corresponding age of their youngest child. Results Compared to non-Aboriginal mothers and after adjustment for parity, socio-economic status and remoteness, Aboriginal mothers were more likely to die from accidents [HR = 6.43 (95 % CI: 4.9, 8.4], suicide [HR = 3.46 (95 % CI: 2.2, 5.4], homicide [HR = 17.46 (95 % CI: 10.4, 29.2] or any external cause [HR = 6.61 (95 % CI: 5.4, 8.1]. For mothers experiencing death, the median age of their youngest child was 4.8 years. Conclusion During the study period, Aboriginal mothers were much more likely to die than other mothers and they usually left more and younger children. These increased rates were only partly explained by socio-demographic circumstances. Further research is required to examine the risk factors associated with these potentially preventable deaths and to enable the development of informed health promotion to increase the life chances of Aboriginal mothers and their children.

  1. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide "culturally appropriate" clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people.

  2. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  3. Low uptake of Aboriginal interpreters in healthcare: exploration of current use in Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Anna P; Lowell, Anne; Murphy, Jean; Dias, Tara; Butler, Deborah; Spain, Brian; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Campbell, Lauren; Bauert, Barbara; Salter, Claire; Tune, Kylie; Cass, Alan

    2017-11-15

    In Australia's Northern Territory, most Aboriginal people primarily speak an Aboriginal language. Poor communication between healthcare providers and Aboriginal people results in adverse outcomes including death. This study aimed to identify remediable barriers to utilisation of Aboriginal Interpreter services at the Northern Territory's tertiary hospital, which currently manages over 25,000 Aboriginal inpatients annually. This is a multi-method study using key stakeholder discussions, medical file audit, bookings data from the Aboriginal Interpreter Service 2000-2015 and an online cross-sectional staff survey. The Donabedian framework was used to categorise findings into structure, process and outcome. Six key stakeholder meetings each with approximately 15 participants were conducted. A key structural barrier identified was lack of onsite interpreters. Interpreter bookings data revealed that only 7603 requests were made during the 15-year period, with completion of requests decreasing from 337/362 (93.1%) in 2003-4 to 649/831 (78.1%) in 2014-15 (p < 0.001). Non-completion was more common for minority languages (p < 0.001). Medical files of 103 Aboriginal inpatients were audited. Language was documented for 13/103 (12.6%). Up to 60/103 (58.3%) spoke an Aboriginal language primarily. Of 422 staff who participated in the survey, 18.0% had not received 'cultural competency' training; of those who did, 58/222 (26.2%) indicated it was insufficient. The Aboriginal Interpreter Service effectiveness was reported to be good by 209/368 (56.8%), but only 101/367 (27.5%) found it timely. Key process barriers identified by staff included booking complexities, time constraints, inadequate delivery of tools and training, and greater convenience of unofficial interpreters. We identified multiple structural and process barriers resulting in the outcomes of poor language documentation and low rates of interpreter bookings. Findings are now informing interventions to improve

  4. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E; Si, Damin

    2010-08-17

    Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Six hundred and eighty six (686) Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty four (124) new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3), adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5) for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4) for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  5. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiqiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Methods Six hundred and eighty six (686 Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI. Results One hundred and twenty four (124 new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3, adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5 for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4 for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Conclusions Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  6. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Habibis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  7. The unmet needs of Aboriginal Australians with musculoskeletal pain: A mixed method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ivan B; Bunzli, Samantha; Mak, Donna B; Green, Charmaine; Goucke, Roger; Coffin, Juli; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2017-12-15

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) conditions are the biggest cause of disability and internationally, Indigenous peoples experience a higher burden. There are conflicting reports about Aboriginal Australians and MSP. We conducted a systematic review to describe the prevalence, associated factors, impacts, care access, health care experiences, and factors associated with MSP among Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search of quantitative and qualitative scientific and grey literature (PROSPERO number: CRD42016038342). Articles were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Due to study heterogeneity a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 536 articles identified, 18 were included (14 quantitative, 4 qualitative), of high (n=11), medium (n=2) and low (n=5) quality. Prevalences of MSP in Aboriginal populations were similar to or slightly higher than the non-Aboriginal population (prevalence rate ratio 1.1 for back pain, 1.2-1.5 for osteoarthritis (OA), 1.0-2.0 for rheumatoid arthritis). Aboriginal people accessed primary care for knee or hip OA at around half the rate of non-Aboriginal people, and were less than half as likely to have knee or hip replacement surgery. Communication difficulties with health practitioners were the main reason why Aboriginal people with MSP choose not to access care. No articles reported interventions. Findings provide preliminary evidence of an increased MSP burden amongst Aboriginal Australians and, particularly for OA, a mismatch between the disease burden and access to health care. To increase accessibility, health services should initially focus on improving Aboriginal patients' experiences of care, in particular by improving patient-practitioner communication. Implications for care and research are outlined. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Offshore oil and gas and coastal British Columbia : Aboriginal rights, title and interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D. [First Nations Summit, West Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed the legal duty of offshore proponents in the oil and gas industry to consult with Aboriginal nations. The Crown court's support for Aboriginal title to ocean areas within proposed offshore regions was also discussed, and Aboriginal rights to manage ocean resources were outlined. Haida and Taku River Tlingit legal decisions have confirmed both a constitutional and fiduciary duty for the Crown to consult with Aboriginal nations who assert their rights or title to lands subject to development. Resource rights granted without meaningful consultation with Aboriginal nations can be challenged, which may result in legal and financial liability for resource companies. A consultative process that addresses ownership, capacity and benefit sharing must be developed so that Aboriginal governments can participate in the design and development of appropriate fiscal and regulatory regimes. The developed regime must consider benefit and revenue sharing, as well as the integration of traditional knowledge within western science for the lifetime of any project. All decision-making bodies must include participation from Aboriginal groups. Mechanisms must also be developed to mitigate the environmental and socio-economic consequences of resource development. Impact and benefit agreements must be negotiated with coastal nations. Dissatisfaction with the concept of consultation processes has led first nations to reconsider the role that they must play in ensuring that oil and gas developments in the coastal regions of British Columbia do not negatively impact on their communities. It was noted that Inuit land claims reserve special rights for the Inuit over 18,800 miles of tidal waters. Earlier attempts by Aboriginal societies to assert their right to control their own ocean resources free from governmental interference were also discussed. It was concluded that litigation of Aboriginal rights and title poses serious challenges to offshore oil and gas

  9. Identification of Aboriginal children using linked administrative data: Consequences for measuring inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialamas, Angela; Pilkington, Rhiannon; Berry, Jesia; Scalzi, Daniel; Gibson, Odette; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the identification of Aboriginal children in multiple administrative datasets and how this may affect estimates of health and development. Data collections containing a question about Aboriginal ethnicity: birth registrations, perinatal statistics, Australian Early Development Census and school enrolments were linked to datasets recording developmental outcomes: national literacy and numeracy tests (National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy), Australian Early Development Census and perinatal statistics (birthweight) for South Australian children born 1999-2005 (n = 13 414-44 989). Six algorithms to derive Aboriginal ethnicity were specified. The proportions of children thus quantified were compared for developmental outcomes, including those scoring above the national minimum standard in year 3 National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy reading. The proportion of Aboriginal children identified varied from 1.9% to 4.7% when the algorithm incremented from once to ever identified as Aboriginal, the latter using linked datasets. The estimates of developmental outcomes were altered: for example, the proportion of Aboriginal children who performed above the national minimum standard in year 3 reading increased by 12 percentage points when the algorithm incremented from once to ever identified as Aboriginal. Similar differences by identification algorithm were seen for all outcomes. The proportion of South Australian children identified as Aboriginal in administrative datasets, and hence inequalities in developmental outcomes, varied depending on which and how many data sources were used. Linking multiple administrative datasets to determine the Aboriginal ethnicity of the child may be useful to inform policy, interventions, service delivery and how well we are closing developmental gaps. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  11. 'Gotta be sit down and worked out together': views of Aboriginal caregivers and service providers on ways to improve dementia care for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Shadforth, Geraldine; Carroll, Emily; Ralph, Naomi; Atkinson, David; Lindeman, Melissa; Schaper, Frank; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Dementia is five-fold more prevalent among Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal Australians. Despite this, the quality of care available to people living with dementia in remote Aboriginal communities is poor. The objective of this study was to determine ways to overcome factors affecting the successful delivery of services to Aboriginal people with dementia living in remote communities, and to their families and communities. This qualitative research took place in the Kimberley Region of Western Australia. Data collection occurred in three stages: (1) interviews with service providers to identify the services available; (2) interviews with the caregivers of Aboriginal people living with dementia and community-based care workers; and (3) focus groups with community representatives and community care staff. Each stage was concluded when no new themes emerged. At each stage the transcribed information was analysed and joint interpretation identified common themes. In total, 42 service providers, 31 caregivers and community-based care workers were interviewed and 3 focus groups were conducted. Obstacles to accessing quality care were mentioned and recommendations on ways to improve care were made. The key themes that emerged were caregiver role, perspectives of dementia, community and culturally-appropriate care, workforce, education and training, issues affecting remote communities and service issues. Detailed information on how each theme affects the successful delivery of dementia care is provided. These research findings indicate that people living with dementia and their caregivers in remote Aboriginal communities are struggling to cope. They are requesting and require better community care. Implementing a culturally safe model of dementia care for remote Aboriginal communities that encompasses the recommendations made and builds on the strengths of the communities could potentially deliver the required improvements to dementia care for this population.

  12. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)-developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-12-23

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the recommendations in these documents. Published by the

  13. Dog and Cat Interactions in a Remote Aboriginal Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Kennedy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined dog and cat demographics, roaming behaviours, and interspecific interactions in a remote Aboriginal island community using multiple methods. Our results revealed temporal differences between the roaming behaviours of dogs, cats, and wildlife. Dogs showed crepuscular behaviour, being active around dawn (5:30 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. and dusk (6:00 p.m. and 11:35 p.m.. The majority of cats were active between dawn (6:30 a.m. and dusk (7:30 p.m. and travelled shorter distances than dogs. However, some cats were also observed roaming between dusk and dawn, and were likely to be hunting since flightless wildlife were also recorded on our remote-sensing cameras during this time. These baseline data provide evidence to suggest that new management programs are needed to reduce the number of roaming cats and therefore their potential impacts on native wildlife. Collaborations between Aboriginal owners and other stakeholders is necessary to design innovative and effective animal management and policy on the island.

  14. Factors Associated with Routine Dental Attendance among Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, Najith; Kapellas, Kostas; Skilton, Michael R; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Brown, Alex; Bartold, Mark; O'Dea, Kerin; Celermajer, David; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    To determine factors associated with routine dental attendance in Aboriginal Australians. Data of 271 Aboriginal adults residing in Australia's Northern Territory were used. Routine dental attendance was defined as last visiting a dentist less than one year ago or visiting a dentist for a check-up. Both bivariate and multivariable analytical techniques were used. While 27% visited a dentist in the past year, 29% of these visited for a check-up. In bivariate analysis, being female, low psychological distress, and low clinical attachment loss (CAL) were associated with visiting a dentist within last year. Being aged younger than 39 years, male, no oral health impairment, being caries-free, low CAL, and low apolipoprotein B were associated with visiting for a check-up. Clinical attachment loss remained associated with visiting a dentist less than one year ago while being younger than 39 years and having no oral health impairment remained associated with usually visiting for a check-up in multivariable analysis. Younger age, no oral health impairment, and low CAL were associated with routine dental attendance among Indigenous Australians.

  15. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.

  16. Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

  17. Using/designing Digital Technologies Of Representation In Aboriginal Australian Knowledge Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Verran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians are often keen to use digital technologies in their struggle to develop sustainable livelihoods on their own lands. This paper tells of gradually coming to recognize how an Aboriginal Australian elder struggled against the grain of digital technologies designed to represent, in using them in Aboriginal Australian knowledge practices where knowledge is always actively performative rather than representional. The performance of Aboriginal knowledge must express the remaking of an ancestral reality. At the same time, this man exploited possibilities the technologies offered for representation in achieving political ends in dealing with representatives of mainstream Australia.

  18. Statistical methods to enhance reporting of Aboriginal Australians in routine hospital records using data linkage affect estimates of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Deborah A; Lujic, Sanja; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R

    2013-10-01

    To investigate under-recording of Aboriginal people in hospital data from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, define algorithms for enhanced reporting, and examine the impact of these algorithms on estimated disparities in cardiovascular and injury outcomes. NSW Admitted Patient Data were linked with NSW mortality data (2001-2007). Associations with recording of Aboriginal status were investigated using multilevel logistic regression. The number of admissions reported as Aboriginal according to six algorithms was compared with the original (unenhanced) Aboriginal status variable. Age-standardised admission, and 30- and 365-day mortality ratios were estimated for cardiovascular disease and injury. Sixty per cent of the variation in recording of Aboriginal status was due to the hospital of admission, with poorer recording in private and major city hospitals. All enhancement algorithms increased the number of admissions reported as Aboriginal, from between 4.1% and 37.8%. Admission and mortality ratios varied markedly between algorithms, with less strict algorithms resulting in higher admission rate ratios, but generally lower mortality rate ratios, particularly for cardiovascular disease. The choice of enhancement algorithm has an impact on the number of people reported as Aboriginal and on estimated outcome ratios. The influence of the hospital on recording of Aboriginal status highlights the importance of continued efforts to improve data collection. Estimates of Aboriginal health disparity can change depending on how Aboriginal status is reported. Sensitivity analyses using a number of algorithms are recommended. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. TESOL and TESD in Remote Aboriginal Australia: The "True" Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Kate; Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a second dialect (TESD) in remote Indigenous Australia have a history of repeated failure of both policy and practice. National language testing has been been forcefully attacked by TESOL specialists, producing strong debate amongst…

  20. Comment on 'Intercalibration of solar wind instruments during the International Magnetospheric Study' by S. M. Petrinec and C. T. Russell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paularena, K. I.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    In their paper Petrinec and Russell (PR) (1993) claim to have developed a 'more homogeneous and accurate set of solar wind data' by 'correcting' the reported ion densities from three plasma instruments: the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion electrostatic analyzer on ISEE 3 and the LANL electrostatic analyzer and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Faraday cup plasma instrument on Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP 8). Their data manipulation techniques are examined. The foundations on which their data set are built, are discussed. Reanalysis by MIT on the MIT instrument (IMP 8) was done. Initial results have been issued. The Petrinec & Russell (1993) (PR) paper does not provide accurate density estimates and is an exercise that will only bring confusion to users of the data. The results of PR should be treated with skepticism.

  1. Family caregiver distress with children having rare genetic disorders: a qualitative study involving Russell-Silver Syndrome in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Ju; Niu, Dau-Ming; Turale, Sue; Tsao, Lee-Ing; Shih, Fu-Jong; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Chang, Chun-Chi; Shih, Fu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    To extend nursing knowledge of distress experienced by family caregivers of children with rare genetic disorders, by exploring the perspectives of caregivers of children with Russell-Silver Syndrome in Taiwan. Caring for a child with a rare genetic disorder often has profound effects on families, especially when diagnosis and treatment is complex or not yet well developed, such as that in Russell-Silver Syndrome (or Silver-Russell syndrome). This disorder causes dwarfism and developmental difficulties, requiring long-term care planning. Previous research has focused mostly on medical care, but little is known about families' perspectives of caring difficulties, the help they need and nursing care required. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to inform this study. Family caregivers, whose children were undergoing medical care in a leading Taiwan medical centre, were invited to participate in face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Data were analysed by content analysis. Fifteen caregivers including 11 mothers, two fathers and two grandmothers participated. Five major themes and 13 sub-themes of care-giving distress were identified: endless psychological worries; the lengthy process to confirm a medical diagnosis; adjustment efforts in modifying family roles; dilemmas in deciding between Western or Chinese traditional medicine; and negative responses to society's concerns. Their primary sources of support were spouses, parents and health professionals, accordingly. Complex physio-psycho-social and decision-making distress in caring for children with a rare genetic disorder were systematically revealed from the perspectives of ethnic-Chinese family caregivers. Long-term care plans for children with a rare genetic disorder such as Russell-Silver Syndrome need to focus on positive dynamic family interactions, life-stage development and family caregiver support. Research on care-giving in rare genetic disorders is also warranted across cultures and countries to

  2. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  3. Aboriginal self-government: rights to citizenship and access to governmental services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyon, N

    1984-01-01

    ... them. Entitlement to essential public services of reasonable quality, which inheres in Canadian citizenship, comes to aboriginal peoples by virtue of their contribution of the entire land base of Canada...

  4. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  5. Redistribution and Recognition: Assessing Alternative Frameworks for Aboriginal Policy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Maciel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that government approaches to addressing the claims of Aboriginal peoples in Canada are insufficient. Historically, these approaches have focused on redistribution. At the same time, these approaches have all but ignored recognition. We argue that a more holistic approach that addresses both redistribution and recognition is necessary. Further, we attempt to show that our approach is consistent with the tenets of liberalism. By conceiving of Aboriginal politics as such, the state may be better able to address claims. We begin by providing a theoretical overview of redistribution and recognition, respectively. Then, we proceed to show how redistribution and recognition must work together in an adequate account of justice with respect to Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Finally, we offer a conception of Aboriginal politics that fulfills this desideratum, and integrates the principle of recognition and redistribution in a way that is within the bounds of liberalism.

  6. The prominent absence of Alfred Russel Wallace at the Darwin anniversaries in Germany in 1909, 1959 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the contribution of Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the "Darwinian" principle of natural selection has often been neglected. Here we focus on how the three anniversaries to celebrate the origin of the Darwin-Wallace theory in Germany in 1909, in 1959 in the divided country, as well as in 2009, have represented Charles Robert Darwin's and Alfred Russell Wallace's contributions. We have analyzed books and proceedings volumes related to these anniversaries, and the main result is that Wallace was almost always ignored, or only mentioned in passing. In 1909, Ernst Haeckel gave a talk in Jena, later published under the title The worldview of Darwin and Lamarck (Das Weltbild von Darwin und Lamarck), but not as the Darwin-Wallace concept. Haeckel mentions Wallace only once. In two important proceedings volumes from the 1959 anniversaries, Wallace was ignored. The only fair treatment of Wallace is given in another book, a collection of documents edited by Gerhard Heberer, for which the author selected nine key documents and reprinted excerpts (1959). Three of them were articles by Wallace, including the Sarawak- and Ternate-papers of 1855 and 1858, respectively. An analysis of the dominant themes during the celebrations of 2009 shows that none of the six topics had much to do with Wallace and his work. Thus, the tendency to exclude Alfred Russell Wallace is an international phenomenon, and largely attributable to the "Darwin industry".

  7. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, A

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child\\'s weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres\\' for Disease Control\\'s BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  8. Individual differences in the ability to recognise facial identity are associated with social anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Davis

    Full Text Available Previous research has been concerned with the relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face expression but the question of whether there is a relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face identity has been neglected. Here, we report the first evidence that social anxiety is associated with recognition of face identity, across the population range of individual differences in recognition abilities. Results showed poorer face identity recognition (on the Cambridge Face Memory Test was correlated with a small but significant increase in social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale but not general anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The correlation was also independent of general visual memory (Cambridge Car Memory Test and IQ. Theoretically, the correlation could arise because correct identification of people, typically achieved via faces, is important for successful social interactions, extending evidence that individuals with clinical-level deficits in face identity recognition (prosopagnosia often report social stress due to their inability to recognise others. Equally, the relationship could arise if social anxiety causes reduced exposure or attention to people's faces, and thus to poor development of face recognition mechanisms.

  9. Individual differences in the ability to recognise facial identity are associated with social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua M; McKone, Elinor; Dennett, Hugh; O'Connor, Kirsty B; O'Kearney, Richard; Palermo, Romina

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has been concerned with the relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face expression but the question of whether there is a relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face identity has been neglected. Here, we report the first evidence that social anxiety is associated with recognition of face identity, across the population range of individual differences in recognition abilities. Results showed poorer face identity recognition (on the Cambridge Face Memory Test) was correlated with a small but significant increase in social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale) but not general anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). The correlation was also independent of general visual memory (Cambridge Car Memory Test) and IQ. Theoretically, the correlation could arise because correct identification of people, typically achieved via faces, is important for successful social interactions, extending evidence that individuals with clinical-level deficits in face identity recognition (prosopagnosia) often report social stress due to their inability to recognise others. Equally, the relationship could arise if social anxiety causes reduced exposure or attention to people's faces, and thus to poor development of face recognition mechanisms.

  10. Paperbark and pinard: A historical account of maternity care in one remote Australian Aboriginal town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Belton, Suzanne; McGrath, Ann; Saggers, Sherry; Narjic, Concepta Wulili

    2015-12-01

    Maternity care in remote areas of the Australian Northern Territory is restricted to antenatal and postnatal care only, with women routinely evacuated to give birth in hospital. Using one remote Aboriginal community as a case study, our aim with this research was to document and explore the major changes to the provision of remote maternity care over the period spanning pre-European colonisation to 1996. Our research methods included historical ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2013); interviews with Aboriginal women, Aboriginal health workers, religious and non-religious non-Aboriginal health workers and past residents; and archival review of historical documents. We identified four distinct eras of maternity care. Maternity care staffed by nuns who were trained in nursing and midwifery serviced childbirth in the local community. Support for community childbirth was incrementally withdrawn over a period, until the government eventually assumed responsibility for all health care. The introduction of Western maternity care colonised Aboriginal birth practices and midwifery practice. Historical population statistics suggest that access to local Western maternity care may have contributed to a significant population increase. Despite population growth and higher demand for maternity services, local maternity services declined significantly. The rationale for removing childbirth services from the community was never explicitly addressed in any known written policy directive. Declining maternity services led to the de-skilling of many Aboriginal health workers and the significant community loss of future career pathways for Aboriginal midwives. This has contributed to the current status quo, with very few female Aboriginal health workers actively providing remote maternity care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, Shaun; Hollinsworth,David

    2016-01-01

    Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in bot...

  12. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  13. Peer-led Aboriginal parent support: Program development for vulnerable populations with participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2017-10-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a credible, culturally appropriate methodology that can be used to effect collaborative change within vulnerable populations. This PAR study was undertaken in a Western Australian metropolitan setting to develop and evaluate the suitability, feasibility and effectiveness of an Aboriginal peer-led home visiting programme. A secondary aim, addressed in this paper, was to explore and describe research methodology used for the study and provide recommendations for its implementation in other similar situations. PAR using action learning sets was employed to develop the parent support programme and data addressing the secondary, methodological aim were collected through focus groups using semi-structured and unstructured interview schedules. Findings were addressed throughout the action research process to enhance the research process. The themes that emerged from the data and addressed the methodological aim were the need for safe communication processes; supportive engagement processes and supportive organisational processes. Aboriginal peer support workers (PSWs) and community support agencies identified three important elements central to their capacity to engage and work within the PAR methodology. This research has provided innovative data, highlighting processes and recommendations for child health nurses to engage with the PSWs, parents and community agencies to explore culturally acceptable elements for an empowering methodology for peer-led home visiting support. There is potential for this nursing research to credibly inform policy development for Aboriginal child and family health service delivery, in addition to other vulnerable population groups. Child health nurses/researchers can use these new understandings to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities and families to develop empowering and culturally acceptable strategies for developing Aboriginal parent support for the early years. Impact Statement Child

  14. Awareness and impact of the 'Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Pearson, Glenn; Monteiro, Heather; McAullay, Daniel; Economo, Kristina; Stewart, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers. To evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the 'Bubblewrap' campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia. A personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008 across three sites (the Perth metropolitan area and the non-metropolitan towns of Kalgoorlie and Broome). An opportunity or convenience sampling strategy was used to recruit Aboriginal participants, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 198 Aboriginal smokers to ascertain awareness of the campaign advertisements, whether they were seen as believable and relevant, and the impact the advertisements had on smoking behaviour. The majority of the participants interviewed had seen and/or heard the 'Bubblewrap' campaign advertisements, although there was considerably greater awareness of the television advertisement than the radio advertisements. Both forms of advertising were considered to be believable and relevant by the majority of Aboriginal smokers. Most of the smokers interviewed thought about cutting down and/or quitting after seeing or hearing the advertisements. Our findings suggest that mainstream antismoking mass media campaigns can positively influence the thoughts and behaviours that Aboriginal smokers have, and exhibit, towards quitting smoking. Notwithstanding this, advertisers should continue to look for better ways to incorporate Aboriginal themes in campaign messages. Future mainstream antismoking campaigns should source sufficient funds to ensure that advertising messages reach the large Aboriginal populations in regional and remote Australia.

  15. The Aboriginal Australian Family Wellbeing Program: A Historical Analysis of the Conditions That Enabled Its Spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program—the Family Wellbeing (FWB program—to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years.Materials and methodsA historical account of the spread of the FWB Program was constructed using situational analysis, a theory-methods package derived from a poststructural interpretation of grounded theory methods. Data were collected from published empirical articles, evaluation reports and project articles, and interviews with 18 key actors in the spread of FWB. Social worlds and arenas maps were used to determine the organizations and their representative agents who were involved in FWB spread and to analyze the enabling and constraining conditions.ResultsThe program was transferred through three interwoven social arenas: employment and community development; training and capacity development; and social and emotional wellbeing promotion and empowerment research. Program spread was fostered by three primary conditions: government policies and the availability and Aboriginal control of funding and support; Aboriginal leadership, associated informal networks and capability; and research evidence that built credibility for the program.Discussion and conclusionThe continued demand-driven transfer of empowerment programs requires policies that enable Aboriginal control of funding and Aboriginal leadership and networks. Flexible and sustained coordination of

  16. A framework for understanding culture and its relationship to information behaviour: Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nei-Ching Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. This article proposes a model of culture and its relationship to information behaviour based on two empirical studies of Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour. Method. The research approach is ethnographic and the material was collected through observations, conversations, questionnaires, interviews and relevant documents. In 2003-2004, the author lived with two Taiwan aboriginal tribes, the Yami tribe and the Tsau tribe and conducted forty-two theme-based interviews. An...

  17. Sindrome de russel tumor diencefálico em uma criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. C. Roxo da Motta

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso de criança do sexo masculino com síndrome de Russel devida a astrocitoma pilocítico localizado na região diencefálica. O diagnóstico foi realizado aos 16 meses de idade, mas sua sintomatologia se iniciou aos 4 meses, com emagrecimento progressivo. À internação apresentava-se com peso de 6150g e 74cm de estatura, emaciada, sem panículo adiposo, irritadica e com sinais de hipertensão intracraniana. Existia estrabismo convergente, nistagmo vertical do olho esquerdo e papiledema bilateral. Os reflexos tendinosos eram exaltados e tinha tetraparesia espástica. A avaliação endócrina demonstrou aumento basal do GH (23 ng/ml, do TSH (6,2 mUI/l e da prolactina (26 ng/ml. Os dois primeiros hormônios não responderam ao teste agudo com o TRH, enquanto a prolactina teve resposta pobre. Foi submetida a radioterapia com acelerador linear (dose total de 4000 rads e a cirurgia, na qual não se conseguiu extirpar todo o tumor, devido a seu tamanho. Nove meses após, a criança encontra-se bem, com apreciável ganho ponderai (2500g.

  18. The ornithologist Alfred Russel Wallace and the controversy surrounding the dinosaurian origin of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Over many years of his life, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) explored the tropical forests of Malaysia, collecting numerous specimens, including hundreds of birds, many of them new to science. Subsequently, Wallace published a series of papers on systematic ornithology, and discovered a new species on top of a volcano on Ternate, where he wrote, in 1858, his famous essay on natural selection. Based on this hands-on experience, and an analysis of an Archaeopteryx fossil, Wallace suggested that birds may have descended from dinosaurian ancestors. Here, we describe the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis" that originated with the work of Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895). We present the strong evidence linking theropod dinosaurs to birds, and briefly outline the long and ongoing controversy around this concept. Dinosaurs preserving plumage, nesting sites and trace fossils provide overwhelming evidence for the dinosaurian origin of birds. Based on these recent findings of paleontological research, we conclude that extant birds indeed descended, with some modifications, from small, Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs. In the light of Wallace's view of bird origins, we critically evaluate recent opposing views to this idea, including Ernst Mayr's (1904-2005) arguments against the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis", and document that this famous ornithologist was not correct in his assessment of this important aspect of vertebrate evolution.

  19. The mine and the furnace: Francis Bacon, Thomas Russell, and early Stuart mining culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding Francis Bacon's praise for the philosophical role of the mechanical arts, historians have often downplayed Bacon's connections with actual artisans and entrepreneurs. Addressing the specific context of mining culture, this study proposes a rather different picture. The analysis of a famous mining metaphor in The Advancement of Learning shows us how Bacon's project of reform of knowledge could find an apt correspondence in civic and entrepreneurial values of his time. Also, Bacon had interesting and so far unexplored links with the early modern English mining enterprises, like the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, ofwhich he was a shareholder. Moreover, Bacon's notes in a private notebook, Commentarius Solutus, and records of patents of invention, allow us to start grasping Bacon's connections with the metallurgist and entrepreneur Thomas Russell. Lastly, this paper argues that, to fully understand Bacon's links with the world of Stuart technicians and entrepreneurs, it is necessary to consider a different and insufficiently studied aspect of Bacon's interests, namely his work as patents referee while a Commissioner of Suits.

  20. Alfred Russel Wallace and the destruction of island life: the Iguana tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Kleinhans, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) are usually associated with the explorations and theoretical deductions of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), but Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) also investigated these islands and published several reports on the living world of this unique archipelago. In contrast to Darwin, Wallace described the destruction of natural ecosystems by humans and foresaw the resulting extinction of species. Here, we outline two case studies pertinent to Wallace's prediction. First, we summarize the behavior of the predator-naive marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands, which are threatened by feral dogs and cats imported by humans. We also describe the unique life cycle of the spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura bakeri) from the island of Utila (Honduras), a rare species whose populations are declining because of habitat destructions. In contrast to these threatened, endemic island species, the Green iguana (Iguana iguana) is still widely distributed, although, as a result of de-forestation, in some areas of South America local populations have disappeared. We conclude that Wallace was correct in his prediction that, because of human activities, numerous species of animals and plants will be driven to extinction, notably on islands.

  1. Alfred Russel Wallace's medical libertarianism: state medicine, human progress, and evolutionary purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), naturalist and explorer of South America and the Malay Archipelago, secured his place in history by independently discovering the theory of natural selection. His letter outlining the theory was sent from Ternate in eastern Indonesia and received at Down House, according to Charles Darwin (1809-82), on June 18, 1858, prompting the now-famed evolutionist to rush his languishing manuscript to press. Wallace's contributions to evolutionary biology, biogeography, and anthropology are well known, but his medical views have received far less attention. Within the context of a strident populist antivaccination movement and an ominous elitist eugenics campaign, Wallace took his stand, which revealed itself in a libertarianism that defended traditional socialist constituencies (the working poor, the lumpenproletariat, and feminist reformers) against state-mandated medical interventions. Rather than viewing Wallace as a heterodox contrarian, this article argues that his positions were logical outgrowths of his medical libertarianism and evolutionary and social theories. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ice-dammed lake drainage evolution at Russell Glacier, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Tweed, Fiona S.; Ng, Felix; Quincey, Duncan J.; Mallalieu, Joseph; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Andreas B.; Palmer, Steven J.; Yde, Jacob C.; Homer, Rachel; Russell, Andrew J.; Hubbard, Alun

    2017-11-01

    Glaciological and hydraulic factors that control the timing and mechanisms of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) remain poorly understood. This study used measurements of lake level at fifteen minute intervals and known lake bathymetry to calculate lake outflow during two GLOF events from the northern margin of Russell Glacier, west Greenland. We used measured ice surface elevation, interpolated subglacial topography and likely conduit geometry to inform a melt enlargement model of the outburst evolution. The model was tuned to best-fit the hydrograph’s rising limb and timing of peak discharge in both events; it achieved Mean Absolute Errors of Lake water temperature, which strongly governed the enlargement rate, preconditioned the high peak discharge and short duration of these floods. We hypothesize that both GLOFs were triggered by ice dam flotation, and localised hydraulic jacking sustained most of their early-stage outflow, explaining the particularly rapid water egress in comparison to that recorded at other ice-marginal lakes. As ice overburden pressure relative to lake water hydraulic head diminished, flow became confined to a subglacial conduit. This study has emphasised the inter-play between ice dam thickness and lake level, drainage timing, lake water temperature and consequently rising stage lake outflow and flood evolution.

  3. Diagnosis and management of Silver-Russell syndrome: first international consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Emma L; Brioude, Frédéric; Lokulo-Sodipe, Oluwakemi; O'Connell, Susan M; Salem, Jennifer; Bliek, Jet; Canton, Ana P M; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H; Davies, Justin H; Dias, Renuka P; Dubern, Béatrice; Elbracht, Miriam; Giabicani, Eloise; Grimberg, Adda; Grønskov, Karen; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Jorge, Alexander A; Kagami, Masayo; Linglart, Agnes; Maghnie, Mohamad; Mohnike, Klaus; Monk, David; Moore, Gudrun E; Murray, Philip G; Ogata, Tsutomu; Petit, Isabelle Oliver; Russo, Silvia; Said, Edith; Toumba, Meropi; Tümer, Zeynep; Binder, Gerhard; Eggermann, Thomas; Harbison, Madeleine D; Temple, I Karen; Mackay, Deborah J G; Netchine, Irène

    2017-02-01

    This Consensus Statement summarizes recommendations for clinical diagnosis, investigation and management of patients with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), an imprinting disorder that causes prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. Considerable overlap exists between the care of individuals born small for gestational age and those with SRS. However, many specific management issues exist and evidence from controlled trials remains limited. SRS is primarily a clinical diagnosis; however, molecular testing enables confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and defines the subtype. A 'normal' result from a molecular test does not exclude the diagnosis of SRS. The management of children with SRS requires an experienced, multidisciplinary approach. Specific issues include growth failure, severe feeding difficulties, gastrointestinal problems, hypoglycaemia, body asymmetry, scoliosis, motor and speech delay and psychosocial challenges. An early emphasis on adequate nutritional status is important, with awareness that rapid postnatal weight gain might lead to subsequent increased risk of metabolic disorders. The benefits of treating patients with SRS with growth hormone include improved body composition, motor development and appetite, reduced risk of hypoglycaemia and increased height. Clinicians should be aware of possible premature adrenarche, fairly early and rapid central puberty and insulin resistance. Treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues can delay progression of central puberty and preserve adult height potential. Long-term follow up is essential to determine the natural history and optimal management in adulthood.

  4. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a jack russell terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO'Neill Emma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A twenty-month-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with a four-day history of thrombocytopenia, echymotic inguinal haemorrhages, coughing and reduced exercise tolerance. Clinical examination revealed several petechial haemorrhages on the gingivae and small echymotic haemorrhages in the inguinal region, along with mild bilateral epistaxis. Haematology confirmed a platelet count of 1.0 × 10/L. Thoracic radiographs revealed a wide-spread mixed alveolar-interstitial lung pattern, apparent throughout the entire lungfield, but particularly marked within the left lung lobes. A presumptive diagnosis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was made and the dog was treated with vincristine and immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone. Initially anaemia developed following gastrointestinal haemorrhage; however, after symptomatic treatment the dog showed a marked clinical improvement. Evaluation for an underlying cause of the disease revealed Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae on faecal analysis and treatment with fenbendazole was commenced. The dog made a full clinical recovery with all treatment was withdrawn within five weeks of diagnosis. This is the second report of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection and it is the first to be successfully managed. The report highlights that Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered in young dogs presented with thrombocytopenia.

  5. Dilute Russel Viper Venom Time analysis in a Haematology Laboratory: An audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, W; Meyer, P W A; Nel, J G

    2018-04-17

    To determine whether the current set of evaluation criteria used for dilute Russel Viper Venom Time (dRVVT) investigations in the routine laboratory meet expectation and identify possible shortcomings. All dRVVT assays requested from January 2015 to December 2015 were appraised in this cross-sectional study. The raw data panels were compared with the new reference interval, established in 2016, to determine the sequence of assays that should have been performed. The interpretive comments were audited, and false-negative reports identified. Interpretive comments according to three interpretation guidelines were compared. The reagent cost per assay was determined, and reagent cost wastage, due to redundant tests, was calculated. Only ~9% of dRVVT results authorized during 2015 had an interpretive comment included in the report. ~15% of these results were false-negative interpretations. There is a significant statistical difference in interpretive comments between the three interpretation methods. Redundant mixing tests resulted in R 7477.91 (~11%) reagent cost wastage in 2015. We managed to demonstrate very evident deficiencies in our own practice and managed to establish a standardized workflow that will potentially render our service more efficient and cost effective, aiding clinicians in making improved treatment decisions and diagnoses. Furthermore, it is essential that standard operating procedures be kept up to date and executed by all staff in the laboratory. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Using systems thinking and the Intervention Level Framework to analyse public health planning for complex problems: Otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Schubert, Lisa; Vaughan, Lisa; Willis, Cameron D

    2018-01-01

    Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The objective of this paper is to examine the alignment between efforts designed to address otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Queensland, Australia and core concepts of systems thinking. This paper's overall purpose is to identify which combination of activities, and at which level, hold the potential to facilitate systems changes to better support ear health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. We began with a review of documents identified in consultation with stakeholders and an online search. In addition, key informants were invited to participate in an online survey and a face-to-face or phone interview. Qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were used to explore survey responses in more depth. We also undertook interviews at the community level to elicit a diverse range of views. Ideas, statements or activities reported in the documents and interviews as being performed under the Intervention Level Framework were identified using qualitative thematic and content analysis. A quantitative descriptive analysis was also undertaken, whereby data was extracted into an Excel spreadsheet and coded under the relevant strategic directions and performance indicators of the Framework. Subsequently, we coded activities against the five-level intervention framework developed by Malhi and colleagues, that is: 1) paradigm; 2) goals; 3) system structure; 4) feedback and delays; and 5) structural elements. Overall, twenty

  7. Best practices for effective working relationships between industry, First Nations and Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibley, B. [Travers Food Service Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, Travers Food Service Ltd. was presented with the Aboriginal Relations Best Practice Award of Distinction by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. The company has formal partnerships, joint ventures and working relationships with over 20 First Nations and aboriginal communities throughout northern Canada. The Travers workforce is approximately 40 per cent aboriginal, and nearly 60 per cent of the company's gross revenue is attributed to their partnerships with aboriginal communities. Partners within the company are encouraged to approach other aboriginal communities to form partnerships with the company. Partnership agreements place an emphasis on respecting land usage and environmental stewardship, and include employment obligations; training and scholarship obligations; equity options and financing; and marketing and profit sharing options. The company also gives financial support to community events, and has provided support for day care facilities, truck stops, open camps and contracts for support services. It was suggested that in order to develop successful partnerships, oil and gas industry leaders should consider that communities are fearful of the environmental and social impacts of resource development. Time must be spent in communities to take part in community activities, ask questions and understand perspectives. It was concluded that partnerships have been beneficial to Travers, and provide opportunities to aboriginal communities through employment, training, education and economic opportunities. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. [Oxidation of sulfur-containing substrates by aboriginal and experimentally designed microbial communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, T A; Bulaev, A G; Roshchupko, P V; Belyĭ, A V; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and experimental (constructed of pure microbial cultures) communities of acidophilic chemolithotrophs have been studied. The oxidation of elemental sulfur, sodium thiosulfate, and potassium tetrathionate as sole sources of energy has been monitored. The oxidation rate of the experimental community is higher as compared to the aboriginal community isolated from a flotation concentrate of pyrrhotine-containing pyrite-arsenopyrite gold-arsenic sulfide ore. The degree of oxidation of the mentioned S substrates amounts to 17.91, 68.30, and 93.94% for the experimental microbial community and to 10.71, 56.03, and 79.50% for the aboriginal community, respectively. The degree of oxidation of sulfur sulfide forms in the ore flotation concentrate is 59.15% by the aboriginal microbial community and 49.40% by the experimental microbial community. Despite a higher rate of oxidation of S substrates as a sole source of energy by the experimental microbial community, the aboriginal community oxidizes S substrates at a higher rate in the flotation concentrate of pyrrhotine-containing pyrite-arsenopyrite gold-arsenic sulfide ore, from which it was isolated. Bacterial-chemical oxidation of the flotation concentrate by the aboriginal microbial community allows for the extraction of an additional 32.3% of gold from sulfide minerals, which is by 5.7% larger compared to the yield obtained by the experimental microbial community.

  9. Study on alcohol dependence and factors related to erectile dysfunction among aborigines in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiang, Han-Sun; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Taiwanese- most have described ED and medical problems in the general population. In this study, the cardiovascular risk factors of ED among aborigines in Taiwan were investigated. However, alcohol dependence (AD) was prevalent in Taiwan's aborigine population. So this study also focused on the relationship among AD, the cardiovascular risk factors and ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data was obtained from a baseline survey of 192 aboriginal adults (35-75 years of age). The participants' demographic data, AD, markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone, and ED status were assessed. Ninety-four (49%) of the 192 participants had a history of alcoholism and 79 (84%) of those with alcoholism had ED. The study reported that AD and hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), ED, abnormality of testosterone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are highly prevalent among the aborigines. Factors that may affect ED included age, AD, central obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, MetS, and testosterone. ED is highly prevalent among aborigines with the risk factors of AD, MetS, old age, and abnormal testosterone serum level. MetS, atherosclerosis, and ED are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, an increased focus on Taiwanese aborigines with ED is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Barriers and enhancers to dietary behaviour change for Aboriginal people attending a diabetes cooking course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope; Davison, Joyce; Moore, Louise; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal people access diabetes and nutrition education less than non-Aboriginal people. Culturally appropriate, effective and accessible diabetes and nutrition education for Aboriginal people is urgently needed. A qualitative approach was used to explore the experiences of Aboriginal people who had attended cooking courses run at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney between 2002 and 2007. Data from 23 semi-structured interviews were analysed thematically. Despite reported improvements in nutrition knowledge and cooking skills, the ability of participants to implement desired dietary changes varied. A new health diagnosis, such as diabetes, pre-diabetes, heart disease or cancer and the desire of participants to influence their families to lead healthier, diabetes-free lives were strong motivators for dietary change. In contrast, lack of family support for dietary change and a sense of social isolation caused by dietary change strongly impeded some participants' attempts to improve their diets. Other significant barriers were poor oral health and depression, the higher cost of healthier food and generational food preferences. Aboriginal cooking course participants faced multiple barriers to dietary change - social, financial, medical and historical. The family was the most crucial determinant of participant ability to achieve sustained dietary change.

  11. The economic feasibility of price discounts to improve diet in Australian Aboriginal remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Moodie, Marj L; Ferguson, Megan; Cobiac, Linda J; Liberato, Selma C; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fiscal measures applied in remote community food stores for Aboriginal Australians. Six price discount strategies on fruit, vegetables, diet drinks and water were modelled. Baseline diet was measured as 12 months' actual food sales data in three remote Aboriginal communities. Discount-induced changes in food purchases were based on published price elasticity data while the weight of the daily diet was assumed constant. Dietary change was converted to change in sodium and energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) over a 12-month period. Improved lifetime health outcomes, modelled for the remote population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, were converted to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) saved using a proportional multistate lifetable model populated with diet-related disease risks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rates of disease. While dietary change was small, five of the six price discount strategies were estimated as cost-effective, below a $50,000/DALY threshold. Stakeholders are committed to finding ways to reduce important inequalities in health status between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and non-Indigenous Australians. Price discounts offer potential to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Verification of these results by trial-based research coupled with consideration of factors important to all stakeholders is needed. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Principles for the development of Aboriginal health interventions: culturally appropriate methods through systemic empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Barnett, Leda

    2015-01-01

    To increase Aboriginal participation in mainstream health services, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence health service usage. This knowledge can contribute to the development of culturally appropriate health services that respect Aboriginal ways of being. We used a community-based participatory approach to examine the reasons for underutilization of health services by Aboriginal Australians. Based on three focus groups and 18 interviews with Aboriginal health professionals, leaders, and community members in rural, regional, and urban settings, we identified five factors that influenced usage, including (1) negative historical experiences, (2) cultural incompetence, (3) inappropriate communication, (4) a collective approach to health, and (5) a more holistic approach to health. Given that these factors have shaped negative Aboriginal responses to health interventions, they are likely to be principles by which more appropriate solutions are generated. Although intuitively sensible and well known, these principles remain poorly understood by non-Aboriginal health systems and even less well implemented. We have conceptualized these principles as the foundation of an empathic health system. Without empathy, health systems in Australia, and internationally, will continue to face the challenge of building effective services to improve the state of health for all minority populations.

  13. Doctor-patient communications in the Aboriginal community: towards the development of educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Alexander, Ted

    2006-09-01

    Aboriginal people in Canada have poorer health than the rest of the population. Reasons for health disparities are many and include problems in communication between doctor and patient. The objective of this study was to understand doctor-patient communication in Aboriginal communities in order to design educational interventions for medical students based on the needs and experiences of patients. Experiences of good and poor communication were studied by semi-structured interviews or focus groups with 22 Aboriginal community members, 2 community health representatives and 2 Aboriginal trainee physicians. Transcribed data were coded and subjected to thematic analysis. Positive and negative experiences of communicating with physicians fell into three broad and interrelated themes: their histories as First Nations citizens; the extent to which the physician was trusted; time in the medical interview. Aboriginal peoples' history affects their communication with physicians; barriers may be overcome when patients feel they have a voice and the time for it to be heard. Physicians can improve communication with Aboriginal patients by learning about their history, building trust and giving time.

  14. Historical Factors, Discrimination and Oral Health among Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Margie; Jamieson, Lisa; Kapellas, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations. This relationship, however, is far from causal in any straight-forward way. In support of the work by Paradies, research from the U.S. also shows that racism, both explicit and subtle, contributes to chronic disease and suffering among ethnic minorities. While the exploration of the perceived or self-reported racial discrimination is recent, this concept has increasing evidence to support its relationship to poor health outcomes.

  15. Structuring oil and gas ventures with Aboriginal communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Pimee Well Servicing Ltd., a 100% Aboriginal owned company that provides safe, competitive and high quality services to the oil and gas industry, is described. Working safely at Pimee is the company's number one priority. The chiefs of each shareholder First Nation make up the board of directors. The company has learned that it is extremely important for a company's management to posses a great amount of knowledge of the business at hand, that they had to be very patient when starting up a new company, and that signed contracts are a necessity. The size of the company tripled in the past four years, and the company can provide guidance through the implementation of business and operating practices and safety and training programs

  16. Reanimating Lost Landscapes: Bringing Visualisation to Aboriginal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Public History Review volume 11, Peter Osborne called for the methodologies of environmental history to be brought more securely and more imaginatively into public history. Environmental history by its own definition, he argued, encompassed Indigenous, ethnic and Anglo-Celtic histories, and heritages natural and built, material and intangible. I believe too that we public historians need to Incorporate changing landscapes and topographies as a vital element in understanding why communities and their built heritages constantly transfigure. Sometimes a single geographic factor such as the northern Gulf Stream can go far to explain the spectacular rise of a small island like Great Britain to world power. Equally we can help to explain the precipitous decline of towns like Bourke by degradation and siltation in the Darling River. This paper uses the case study of the Narrabeen town camp to explore the potential of digital visual technologies in Aboriginal History.

  17. Slow weight gain is strongly associated with morbidity in children under 6 months, but health staff fail to recognise it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeofor, Ifeyinwa; Garcia, Ada; Wright, Charlotte; Ibeziako, Ngozi

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and aims: Young infants are weighed regularly and plotted on a Road-to-Health (RTH) or similar charts, but it is not clear whether early morbidity is associated with slow weight gain or whether health staff recognises it. We aimed to: 1) Compare the weight gain of very young Nigerian infants admitted to hospital to their healthy peers. 2) Assess whether health staff recognise slow weight gain. Methods: Weights were collected for 210 infants aged 2SD in weight, but these falls tend to be unrecognized, particularly when presented on the RTH format. (author)

  18. Recognising out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during emergency calls increases bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Bækgaard, Josefine Stokholm; Claesson, Andreas; Hollenberg, Jacob; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy K

    2017-06-01

    Initiation of early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) depends on bystanders' or medical dispatchers' recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The primary aim of our study was to investigate if OHCA recognition during the emergency call was associated with bystander CPR, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and 30-day survival. Our secondary aim was to identify patient-, setting-, and dispatcher-related predictors of OHCA recognition. We performed an observational study of all OHCA patients' emergency calls in the Capital Region of Denmark from 01/01/2013-31/12/2013. OHCAs were collected from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry and the Mobile Critical Care Unit database. Emergency call recordings were identified and evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to all OHCAs and witnessed OHCAs only to analyse the association between OHCA recognition and bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of OHCA recognition. We included 779 emergency calls in the analyses. During the emergency calls, 70.1% (n=534) of OHCAs were recognised; OHCA recognition was positively associated with bystander CPR (odds ratio [OR]=7.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.10-12.05) in all OHCAs; and ROSC (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.13-3.06) and 30-day survival (OR=2.80, 95% CI: 1.58-4.96) in witnessed OHCA. Predictors of OHCA recognition were addressing breathing (OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.17-2.66) and callers located by the patient's side (OR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.46-3.19). Recognition of OHCA during emergency calls was positively associated with the provision of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival in witnessed OHCA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Osteoarthritis in the cat: 1. how common is it and how easy to recognise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David; Zainal Ariffin, Siti Mariam bt; Johnston, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is very common, particularly in older cats, but its clinical significance has largely gone unrecognised until recently. As in other species, OA is often painful and appropriate treatment is required to improve the animal's quality of life. Most cases appear to be primary or idiopathic. It is important for the clinician to actively seek these cases in the practice population. The recognition of chronic arthritic pain is a major challenge since most cats will not exhibit lameness. The main features of feline OA are changes in behaviour and lifestyle, which develop gradually and which owners tend to interpret as simply being the effects of old age. A meaningful physical orthopaedic examination can be difficult to achieve. A lack of familiarity with feline joint radiographs, and the fact that major cartilage pathology can be present in the absence of any bony change, mean that radiographic identification of OA in the cat can also be problematic. CLIENT QUESTIONNAIRE: The recognition of chronic arthritic pain in the cat is based on owner questionnaires designed to elicit information about changes in mobility, activity levels, grooming habits and general demeanour. Several publications now report on the significance of behavioural and lifestyle changes as indicators of chronic arthritic pain in the cat. However, there is not as yet a fully validated owner-based questionnaire for recognising chronic pain in the cat. Furthermore, the aetiopathogenesis of feline OA still requires detailed investigation. Such studies are likely to make a major contribution to comparative rheumatology, since feline OA, more so than the canine disease, shows many similarities with human OA.

  20. Recognising customers' patterns of bus service patronage using a loyalty framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hoang-Tung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of identifying typical characteristics of travellers, traditional segmentation approaches were based on socio-demographic variables. However, the approaches could not reveal the factors motivating individual behaviour. This result led to an emerging interest in psychological research models that are adhered to the decision-making process. Among various related theories, the concept of loyalty was attractive because the major purpose of establishing a loyalty concept is to recognise a customer's pattern towards a given service. However, there were few efforts aimed at determining market segments based on a loyalty framework. In addition, there was no consensus achieved on theoretical loyalty typology due to different empirical findings in different market contexts. This study aims to be the first loyalty-based attempt to provide an operational method of segmenting bus service market. Seeking practical implementation, another focus of this study is to determine typical characteristics of the market segments. Analyses that included cluster techniques were conducted on questionnaire data collected from 333 respondents in Hidaka city, Japan. A cross-classification between relative attitude and service patronage was successfully established, dividing the market into four segments. Segments of loyalty and no-loyalty were observed to be dominant over the remaining market. In contrast, the spurious loyalty segment was small and insignificant. An expansion of the latent loyalty segment was also observed when moving from the intention phase to the actual behaviour phase. Notably, not only demographic factors but also social awareness variables including environmental concern and elderly support were observed to be significant in distinguishing customer segments from one another.

  1. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  2. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  3. 1st Workshop on Human Factors and Activity Recognition in Healthcare, Wellness and Assisted Living: Recognise2Interact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casale, P.; Houben, S.; Amft, O.D.

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware systems have the potential to revolutionize the way humans interact with information technology. The first workshop on Human Factors and Activity Recognition in Healthcare, Wellness and Assisted Living (Recognise2Interact) aims to enable researchers and practitioners from both,

  4. We do not recognise anything 'private': public interest and private law under the socialist legal tradition and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Sitek, B.; Szczerbowski, J.J.; Bauknecht, A.W.; Szpanowska, M.; Wasyliszyn, K.

    2015-01-01

    In line with Lenin’s famous quote that Bolsheviks "do not recognise anything private" and that private law must be permeated with public interest, the private (civil) law of the USSR and other countries of the Soviet bloc, including Poland underwent reform aimed at furthering the public interest at

  5. Can Gaze Avoidance Explain Why Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome Can't Recognise Emotions from Facial Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; Williamson, Paul; Young, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties recognising emotions from facial expressions. Since eye contact is important for accurate emotion recognition, and individuals with ASD tend to avoid eye contact, this tendency for gaze aversion has been proposed as an explanation for the emotion recognition…

  6. Correction of the axial and appendicular deformities in a patient with Silver-Russel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scoliosis and limb length discrepancy are the major orthopaedic abnormalities in patients with Silver-Russel syndrome (SRS. In this paper, we describe a series of orthopaedic interventions in an attempt to overcome the progressive pathologic mechanism in a 7-year-old girl who manifested the full phenotypic features of SRS. Materials and Methods: Unilateral hip dislocation, progressive scoliosis and limb length discrepancy have been dealt with through Pemberton osteotomy, spinal fusion and Taylor-Spatial-Frame respectively. Results: In order to correct the axial and the appendicular deformities a sum of seven operations were performed (between the age of 7 years and 13 years. Pemberton osteotomy was performed to treat dislocation of her right hip because of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Spinal fusion (spondylodesis of segments Th3-L5 was done to correct her scoliosis. And, to overcome the limb length discrepancy of 15-cm we used Taylor-Spatial-Frame with percutaneous distal corticotomy of the femur, and the proximal tibia, as well as the foot, were performed. We were able to minimize the limb length discrepancy to 5 cm. The girl became able to walk with the aid of a below knee orthosis and through lifting the left limb with 5-cm height shoe. Conclusion: Limb lengthening surgery in patients with multiple malformation complex as in SRS is associated with high recurrence risk because of; muscular hypotonia, overtubulation of the long bones, and the poor bone regenerative quality. Our interventions were principally directed towards improving the cosmetic outlook, functions and the biomechanics.

  7. Ice-Dammed Lake Drainage Evolution at Russell Glacier, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L. Carrivick

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS/HIGHLIGHTSTwo rapid ice-dammed lake drainage events gauged and ice dam geometry measured.A melt enlargement model is developed to examine the evolution of drainage mechanism(s.Lake temperature dominated conduit melt enlargement and we hypothesize a flotation trigger.Glaciological and hydraulic factors that control the timing and mechanisms of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs remain poorly understood. This study used measurements of lake level at 15 min intervals and known lake bathymetry to calculate lake outflow during two GLOF events from the northern margin of Russell Glacier, west Greenland. We used measured ice surface elevation, interpolated subglacial topography and likely conduit geometry to inform a melt enlargement model of the outburst evolution. The model was tuned to best-fit the hydrograph rising limb and timing of peak discharge in both events; it achieved Mean Absolute Errors of <5%. About one third of the way through the rising limb, conduit melt enlargement became the dominant drainage mechanism. Lake water temperature, which strongly governed the enlargement rate, preconditioned the high peak discharge and short duration of these floods. We hypothesize that both GLOFs were triggered by ice dam flotation, and localized hydraulic jacking sustained most of their early-stage outflow, explaining the particularly rapid water egress in comparison to that recorded at other ice-marginal lakes. As ice overburden pressure relative to lake water hydraulic head diminished, flow became confined to a subglacial conduit. This study has emphasized the inter-play between ice dam thickness and lake level, drainage timing, lake water temperature and consequently rising stage lake outflow and flood evolution.

  8. Regional economic impacts of current and proposed management alternatives for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Ishizaki, Asuka; Ritten, John

    2013-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. Charles M. Russell (CMR) National Wildlife Refuge, located in north-central Montana, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for the Refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge-management strategies. For refuge CCP planning, an economic analysis provides a means of estimating how current management (No Action Alternative) and proposed management activities (Alternatives) affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of information: (1) it illustrates a refuge’s contribution to the local community; and (2) it can help in determining whether economic effects are or are not a real concern in choosing among management alternatives. It is important to note that the economic value of a refuge encompasses more than just the impacts on the regional economy. Refuges also provide substantial nonmarket values (values for items not exchanged in established markets) such as maintaining endangered species, preserving wetlands, educating future generations, and adding stability to the ecosystem (Carver and Caudill, 2007). However, quantifying these types of nonmarket values is beyond the scope of this study. This report first presents a description of the local community and economy near the Refuge. Next, the methods used to conduct a regional economic impact analysis are described. An analysis of the final CCP management strategies that could affect stakeholders and residents and the local economy is then presented. The refuge management activities of economic concern in this analysis are:

  9. Acute hypopituitarism complicating Russell's viper envenomation: case series and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopala, S; Thabah, M M; Ariga, K K; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2015-09-01

    Chronic hypopituitarism following Russell viper envenomation (RVE) is a rare but well-recognized syndrome. The clinical features, associations, management and outcomes of RVE associated-acute hypopituitarism (AHP) are not well described. To describe the clinical features, intensive care unit (ICU) management and outcomes of a series of patients with RVE-AHP and identify the clinical associations of RVE-AHP. We describe a series of patients with prospectively identified AHP related to RVE and describe our findings comparing RVE with and without AHP and a systematic search of literature on AHP related to RVE. We identified nine cases of AHP related to RVE. Unexplained hypoglycemia (100%) and hypotension (66.7%) were the most common findings at presentation. AHP occurred after a median of 9 (range, 2-14) days after severe envenomation and was associated with multi-organ dysfunction, lower platelet counts, more bleeding and transfusions when compared to patients with RVE alone. The presence of clinically defined capillary leak syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation and mortality were not different from those without AHP. Our systematic search yielded 12 cases of AHP related to RVE; data on associated clinical manifestations, therapy and ASV administration were not available in most reports. AHP is a very rare complication of RVE. Unexplained hypoglycemia and hypotension should prompt evaluation for AHP in RVE. AHP is associated with severe RVE, multi-organ dysfunction, bleeding and need for transfusion. Prompt treatment with steroids may reduce mortality related to AHP in RVE. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Longitudinal vocabulary development in Australian urban Aboriginal children: Protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K; Eadie, P; Descallar, J; Comino, E; Kemp, L

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development. One hundred thirteen Aboriginal children in South Western Sydney from the longitudinal birth cohort Gudaga study were assessed on The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test multiple times: 3 years, just prior to school entry, at the end of the first and second years of formal schooling. Multilevel models were used to determine the effects of 13 fixed and manipulable maternal, child, and family variables drawn from previous research. Higher maternal education was found to be protective at 3 years and over time. The number of children in urban Australian Aboriginal households made an impact on vocabulary development and this varied over time. From 3 to 6 years, those with early poor non-verbal cognitive skills had vocabulary skills that remained below those with stronger non-verbal skills at 3 years. Girls exhibit an earlier advantage in vocabulary acquisition, but this difference is not sustained after 4 years of age. The risk and protective factors for vocabulary development in Australian Aboriginal children are similar to those identified in other studies with some variation related to the number of children in the home. In this limited set of predictors, maternal education, gender, non-verbal cognitive skills, and the number of children in households were all shown to impact on the acquisition of vocabulary to 3

  11. Chronic condition self-management support for Aboriginal people: Adapting tools and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Malcolm; Lawn, Sharon; Kowanko, Inge; Bertossa, Sue; Trowbridge, Coral; Liddicoat, Raylene

    2018-04-22

    Chronic conditions are major health problems for Australian Aboriginal people. Self-management programs can improve health outcomes. However, few health workers are skilled in self-management support and existing programs are not always appropriate in Australian Aboriginal contexts. The goal was to increase the capacity of the Australian health workforce to support Australian Aboriginal people to self-manage their chronic conditions by adapting the Flinders Program of chronic condition self-management support for Australian Aboriginal clients and develop and deliver training for health professionals to implement the program. Feedback from health professionals highlighted that the Flinders Program assessment and care planning tools needed to be adapted to suit Australian Aboriginal contexts. Through consultation with Australian Aboriginal Elders and other experts, the tools were condensed into an illustrated booklet called 'My Health Story'. Associated training courses and resources focusing on cultural safety and effective engagement were developed. A total of 825 health professionals  across Australia was trained and 61 people qualified as accredited trainers in the program, ensuring sustainability. The capacity and skills of the Australian health workforce to engage with and support Australian Aboriginal people to self-manage their chronic health problems significantly increased as a result of this project. The adapted tools and training were popular and appreciated by the health care organisations, health professionals and clients involved. The adapted tools have widespread appeal for cultures that do not have Western models of health care and where there are health literacy challenges. My Health Story has already been used internationally. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  12. Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease in Aboriginal Australians: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E

    2013-01-30

    Lifetime risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important yardstick by which policy makers, clinicians and the general public can assess and promote the awareness and prevention of CHD. The lifetime risk in Aboriginal people is not known. Using a cohort with up to 20 years of follow-up, we estimated the lifetime risk of CHD in Aboriginal people. A cohort study. A remote Aboriginal region. 1115 Aboriginal people from one remote tribal group who were free from CHD at baseline were followed for up to 20 years. During the follow-up period, new CHD incident cases were identified through hospital and death records. We estimated the lifetime risks of CHD with and without adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes. Participants were followed up for 17 126 person-years, during which 185 developed CHD and 144 died from non-CHD causes. The average age at which the first CHD event occurred was 48 years for men and 49 years for women. The risk of developing CHD increased with age until 60 years and then decreased with age. Lifetime cumulative risk without adjusting for competing risk was 70.7% for men and 63.8% for women. Adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes, the lifetime risk of CHD was 52.6% for men and 49.2% for women. Lifetime risk of CHD is as high as one in two in both Aboriginal men and women. The average age of having first CHD events was under 50 years, much younger than that reported in non-Aboriginal populations. Our data provide useful knowledge for health education, screening and prevention of CHD in Aboriginal people.

  13. Coronary heart disease events in Aboriginal Australians: incidence in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Pamela J; Alfonso, Helman S; Finn, Judith C; Owen, Julie; Thompson, Peter L

    2009-05-18

    To determine the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in an urban Aboriginal population. Cohort study of 906 Aboriginal people without CHD from 998 who had undergone risk-factor assessment in the Perth Aboriginal Atherosclerosis Risk Study (PAARS) in 1998-1999. PAARS cohort data were electronically linked to a range of databases that included Western Australian hospital morbidity data and death registry data. We analysed data from January 1980 to December 2006 to identify previous admissions for CHD from 1980 to baseline (1998-1999) and new events from baseline to 2006. First CHD event (hospital admission or death). There were 891 linked records for the 906 participants without previous CHD. The event rate was 12.6/1000 person-years (95% CI, 10.2-15.6/1000 person-years). Annual CHD event rates ranged from 8 to 18/1000 person-years. After adjustment for age (sex was not associated with the risk factors assessed), factors associated with risk of a CHD event in the PAARS cohort were a history of diabetes, overweight or obesity (indicated by body mass index), smoking, and hypertension, but not waist circumference. People with these risk factors were 1.9-2.7 times more likely to experience a CHD event. Compared with previously published information from a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory, the incidence of CHD events among urban-dwelling Aboriginal people was not significantly different (P > 0.05 overall and for subgroups defined by age and sex). City-dwelling Aboriginal Australians have an incidence of CHD events comparable to that of Aboriginal people living in remote northern Australia.

  14. Recent fertility and mortality trends among aboriginal and nonaboriginal populations of central Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, W R; Keenleyside, A; Ivakine, E

    1997-06-01

    We examine mortality and fertility patterns of aboriginal (primarily Evenki and Keto) and Russian (i.e., nonaboriginal) populations from the Baykit District of Central Siberia for the period 1982-1994. Mortality rates in the aboriginal population of Baykit are substantially greater than those observed in the Russians and are comparable to levels recently reported for other indigenous Siberian groups. Infant mortality rates average 48 per 1000 live births among Baykit aboriginals, three times greater than the Russians of the district (15 per 1000 births) and more than double the rates for Inuit and Indian populations of Canada. Similarly, crude death rates of the Baykit aboriginals are twice as high as those observed in either the Baykit Russians or the Canadian aboriginal populations (13 vs 6-7 deaths per 1000 individuals). Birth rates of the indigenous population of Baykit are higher than those of the Russians (33 vs. 15 births per 1000 individuals) but are comparable to those of Canadian aboriginal groups. Violence and accidents are the leading causes of adult male mortality in both ethnic groups, whereas circulatory diseases have emerged as the prime cause of death in women. The greater male mortality resulting from violence and accidents is a widely observed cross-cultural phenomenon. The emergence of circulatory diseases as a major mortality risk for women, however, appears to be linked to specific lifestyle changes associated with Soviet reorganization of indigenous Siberian societies. Marked declines in mortality and increases in fertility were observed in the Baykit aboriginal population during the mid to late 1980s with the government's implementation of anti-alcohol policies. The decline in mortality, however, was largely erased during the early 1990s, as the region became increasingly isolated and marginalized following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Demographic trends in the Baykit District suggest that because the indigenous groups have become more

  15. Development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI): A screening tool for identifying acquired communication disorders in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth M; Ciccone, Natalie; Hersh, Deborah; Katzenellebogen, Judith; Coffin, Juli; Thompson, Sandra; Flicker, Leon; Hayward, Colleen; Woods, Deborah; McAllister, Meaghan

    2017-06-01

    Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments. The literature searches revealed no existing screening tool for ACD in these populations, but identified tools in the areas of cognition and social-emotional wellbeing. Articles retrieved described details of the content and style of these tools, with recommendations for the development and administration of a new tool. The findings from the interview and focus group views were consistent with the approach recommended in the literature. There is a need for a screening tool for ACD to be developed but any tool must be informed by knowledge of Aboriginal language, culture and community input in order to be acceptable and valid.

  16. The Role of Aboriginal Literacy in Improving English Literacy in Remote Aboriginal Communities: An Empirical Systems Analysis with the Interplay Wellbeing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Byron; Quinn, Stephen J.; Abbott, Tammy; Cairney, Sheree

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous language endangerment is critical in Australia, with only 120 of 250 known languages remaining, and only 13 considered strong. A related issue is the gap in formal education outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people compared with other Australians, with the gap wider in remote regions. Little empirical research exists in…

  17. Managing the Organizational and Cultural Precursors to Major Events — Recognising and Addressing Complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R. H.; Carhart, N.; May, J.; Wijk, L. G. A. van

    2016-01-01

    Research at the University of Bristol, Safety Systems Research Centre has drawn out the key organizational and cultural precursors leading to major events in several industries (nuclear, petrochemical, transport and major civil engineering projects). It has shown that these are strikingly similar. The research built on preliminary work reported to the IAEA in 2004. Organizational and cultural findings contributing to each event were assembled from the published reports for twelve events and grouped under eight generic headings. These were: 1. leadership issues; 2. ‘local’ operational attitudes and behaviours (operational ‘culture’); 3. the impact of the business environment (often commercial and budgetary pressures); 4. oversight and scrutiny; 5. competence and training (at all levels); 6. risk assessment and risk management (also at all levels); 7. organizational learning; 8. communication issues. From the findings, sets of ‘Expectations’ were then developed as statements of good practice, which if recognised and implemented, should enable organizations to build stronger defences against the occurrence of future events. To probe operational reality, these were reformulated and developed into sets of draft ‘penetrating’ questions which explore whether ‘reality aligns with expectation’. Initial work has been carried out to refine some of these expectations and question sets by working with industry and further work is planned. The questions can be used by both duty holders and regulators to assess the vulnerability of organizations (‘condition monitoring’). Examples will be given in the presentation and full paper. To enable organizations to address these often neglected factors, new tools are being developed that can be employed to address the risks systematically. This might be regarded as analogous to the use of systematic processes (e.g., fault and event trees) to assess risks arising from engineering and human factors-related issues. An

  18. Exploration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of Home Medicines Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Lindy S; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, Home Medicines Review (HMR) has been found to be an important tool to raise awareness of medication safety, reduce adverse events and improve medication adherence. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are 'underserviced' by the HMR program and are the most likely of all Australians to miss out on HMRs despite their high burden of chronic disease and high rates of hospitalisation due to medication misadventure. The goal of this study was to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of the Home Medicines Review program and their suggestions for an 'improved' or more readily accessible model of service. Eighteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 102 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients at 11 Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs). Participants who were multiple medication users and understood English were recruited to the study by AHS staff. Seven focus groups were conducted for people who had already used the HMR program (User, n=23) and 11 focus groups were conducted for people who had not had an HMR (Non User, n=79). Focus groups were recorded, de-identified and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Focus groups continued and concepts were explored until no new findings were being generated and thus saturation of data occurred. Focus group participants who had not had an HMR had little or no awareness of the HMR program. All the participants felt that lack of awareness and promotion of the HMR program were contributing factors to the low uptake of the HMR program by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Most participants felt that an HMR would assist them to better understand their medicines, would empower them to seek information about medicines, would improve relationships with health professionals and would increase the likelihood of medication adherence. Most of the User participants reported that the HMR interview had been very useful for learning more about their

  19. Forest carbon trading : legal, policy, ecological and aboriginal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's forest ecosystems store 88 billion tonnes of carbon, with trees alone storing 13 billion tonnes, twice the global annual carbon emissions. Carbon trading could affect forest management. Certain types of forest carbon project will offer cost-effective carbon sequestration options. This paper addresses current concerns about forest carbon trading such as phony carbon gains, biodiversity impact and increased fossil fuel emissions. Statistics were presented with information on global carbon stocks. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Canada must count all changes in forest carbon stocks resulting from afforestation, reforestation or deforestation, and that Canada has the option of counting carbon stock changes from forest management. The decision must be made by 2006, and considerations are whether to present projected net source or sink, or whether to count current commercially managed areas or all timber productive areas. An outline of federal constitutional authority power regarding Kyoto was presented, including limits and risks of trade and treaty powers. The economics of forest carbon were outlined with reference to increasing forest carbon storage. A two-pronged approach was advised, with avoided logging and plantation and intensive management securing carbon and timber benefits. Examples of pre-Kyoto pilots were presented, including the SaskPower project, the Little Red River Cree project and the Labrador Innu project. The disadvantages of offset trading were presented. It was concluded that forest carbon markets are part of a larger vision for sustainable development in Canada's north, especially for aboriginal peoples, and may indicate a growing market for ecological services. Constitutional limits to federal power to regulate carbon trading are not insurmountable, but require care. Ownerships of forest carbon rights raises important policy and legal issues, including aboriginal right, efficiency and equity. An estimated cost of forest carbon projects

  20. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  1. Creating walking tracks to success: A narrative analysis of AustralianAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ stories ofsuccess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; Foster, Kim; Usher, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of morbidity and mortality thanother Australians. One proposed strategy to improve this situation is to increase the participation ofAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nurses, inthe health workforce. Although the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students under-taking tertiary nursing courses have increased, completion rates have not kept pace. The study aimedto describe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ experiences of enablers for successfulcourse completion and to develop a narrative of student experience. A qualitative study using a strengths-based approach with a narrative analysis of semi-structured interview data was conducted across fourschools of Nursing in Queensland, Australia. Eight final-year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursingstudents volunteered to participate in the study. A collective story with the overarching plotline Creatingwalking tracks to success was developed. Six threads of experience emerged: Making a difference, Valu-ing Indigeneity, Healing strength of connections, Resisting racism, Embracing support, and perseveringtowards completion. Key success factors included resilient attributes, building supportive connectionsand having positive expectations of the future, along with sustained institutional support from Aboriginaland Torres Strait Islander nurse academics and clinicians. Development of tailored resilience-buildingtraining for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students and appointment of Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander academics in Schools of Nursing that include such students may facilitate futuresuccessful completions in other programs.

  2. Black on White: or varying shades of grey? Indigenous Australian photomedia artists and the ‘making of’ Aboriginality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Centre for Contemporary Photography in Melbourne presented the Indigenous photo-media exhibition Black on White. Promising to explore Indigenous perspectives on non-Aboriginality, its catalogue set forth two questions: how do Aboriginal artists see the people and culture that surrounds

  3. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  4. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  5. Seeking a Pedagogy of Difference: What Aboriginal Students and Their Parents in North Queensland Say about Teaching and Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Osborne, Barry; Lloyd, Natalie; Llewellyn, Linda; Boon, Helen; Webber, Tammi; Laffin, Gail; Kemp, Codie; Day, Cathy; Wills, Jennifer; Harrison, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the outcomes of the first phase of a three phase research initiative which begins by identifying through the voices of Aboriginal students and community members the teaching practices that influence Aboriginal student engagement and learning. The study occurs within the Diocese of Townsville Catholic Education schools in North…

  6. Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

  7. Paternal Genetic Structure of Hainan Aborigines Isolated at the Entrance to East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongna; Li, Hui; Ou, Caiying; Lu, Yan; Sun, Yuantian; Yang, Bo; Qin, Zhendong; Zhou, Zhenjian; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report that haplogroups O1a* and O2a* are dominant among Hainan aborigines. In addition, the frequency of the mainland dominant haplogroup O3 is quite low among these aborigines, indicating that they have lived rather isolated. Clustering analyses suggests that the Hainan aborigines have been segregated since about 20 thousand years ago, after two dominant haplogroups entered East Asia (31 to 36 thousand years ago). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Hainan aborigines have been isolated at the entrance to East Asia for about 20 thousand years, whose distinctive genetic characteristics could be used as important controls in many population genetic studies. PMID:18478090

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in aboriginal peoples of Taiwan, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chang, Jia-Ru; Huang, Wei-Feng; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Jang, Chang-Sheng; Sun, Jun-Ren; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

    2014-04-01

    Previous research revealed a 6-fold higher incidence of tuberculosis (TB) amongst aborigines compared to Han Chinese in Taiwan. To investigate the reasons for this disparity, we genotyped Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains obtained from members of different aboriginal tribes in different geographical regions of Taiwan by using molecular methods. In total, 177 isolates of MTB collected from patients at four hospitals in Taiwan from January 2006 to December 2011 were analysed by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. The most prevalent strains in the eastern and central regions of Taiwan were Beijing (45.7% in eastern) and Haarlem (39.1% in eastern, 37.1% in central) lineages, whereas in southern regions the most prevalent strains were EAI (47.7%) and Haarlem (20.5%) lineages. The high prevalence of EAI in southern Taiwan aborigines may be closely associated with Austronesian culture. This study provides a first overview of the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in aboriginal populations in Taiwan. The high prevalences of certain MTB lineages within aboriginal sub-populations suggest that transmission of MTB may have been restricted to close contacts. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 'Race' matters: racialization and egalitarian discourses involving Aboriginal people in the Canadian health care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sannie Y; Browne, Annette J

    2008-04-01

    The major purpose of this paper is to examine how 'race' and racialization operate in health care. To do so, we draw upon data from an ethnographic study that examines the complex issues surrounding health care access for Aboriginal people in an urban center in Canada. In our analysis, we strategically locate our critical examination of racialization in the 'tension of difference' between two emerging themes, namely the health care rhetoric of 'treating everyone the same,' and the perception among many Aboriginal patients that they were 'being treated differently' by health care providers because of their identity as Aboriginal people, and because of their low socio-economic status. Contrary to the prevailing discourse of egalitarianism that paints health care and other major institutions as discrimination-free, we argue that 'race' matters in health care as it intersects with other social categories including class, substance use, and history to organize inequitable access to health and health care for marginalized populations. Specifically, we illustrate how the ideological process of racialization can shape the ways that health care providers 'read' and interact with Aboriginal patients, and how some Aboriginal patients avoid seeking health care based on their expectation of being treated differently. We conclude by urging those of us in positions of influence in health care, including doctors and nurses, to critically reflect upon our own positionality and how we might be complicit in perpetuating social inequities by avoiding a critical discussion of racialization.

  10. An Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Pilot Study in Australia using Yes I Can

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Boughton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the remote Aboriginal community of Wilcannia in western NSW hosted the first Australian pilot of a Cuban mass adult literacy campaign model known as Yes I Can. The aim was to investigate the appropriateness of this model in Aboriginal Australia. Building on an intensive community development process of ‘socialisation and mobilisation’, sixteen community members with very low literacy graduated from the basic literacy course, with the majority continuing on into post-literacy activities, further training and/or employment. The pilot was initiated by the National Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Steering Committee (NAALCSC consisting of Aboriginal leaders from the education and health sectors, and managed by the University of New England (UNE, working in partnership with the Wilcannia Local Aboriginal Land Council as the local lead agency. The pilot was supported by a Cuban academic who came to Australia for this purpose, and included a Participatory Action Research (PAR evaluation led by the UNE Project Manager. In this paper, members of the project team and the NAALCSC describe the pilot and reflect on its outcomes.

  11. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  13. Maximizing Aboriginal participation in oil and gas development : the role of the government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, P. [Alberta Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the special relationship that the First Nations of Alberta have with the federal and provincial governments. There are 46 First Nations in 3 treaty areas of Alberta. 52,000 people from these First Nations live on reserves, while 31,000 live off reserves. In addition, there are 8 Metis settlements in the province. The challenges facing First Nations are discussed. These include socio-economic disparities, unique demographics, lower than average economic participation, and a dynamic and legal constitutional environment. The Aboriginal Policy Framework is the first comprehensive provincial policy statement on Aboriginal relations in Canada. It was designed with 2 goals in mind, that of self reliance, and clarification of roles. The provincial government has a role in legal and constitutional matters regarding Aboriginal affairs. These include the negotiation of land claims and other claims involving Aboriginal people. In addition, it represents provincial interests in litigation against the crown. Provincial policy initiatives regarding Aboriginal Affairs are designed to meet the objectives of health and well being, educational attainment, and participation in the economy. 7 figs.

  14. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation - an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers.

  15. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Culture, context and therapeutic processes: delivering a parent-child intervention in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.

  17. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Bolam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.

  18. Meaningful and efficient? Enduring challenges to Aboriginal participation in environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udofia, Aniekan; Noble, Bram; Poelzer, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the underlying practice-based challenges to meaningful and efficient Aboriginal participation in environmental assessment (EA) - participation that provides meaningful opportunities for Aboriginal communities to shape EA, yet assures a degree of efficiency for project proponents who need to obtain EA approvals in a timely and financially viable manner. We do so based on an analysis of the EA policy community's experience with uranium exploration and mining in Saskatchewan, Canada. Many of the challenges to meaningful and efficient Aboriginal participation that emerged are multi-dimensional, often concerning participation processes, decision-making, and relationships. Although scholars have explored many of these issues and have proposed numerous solutions, challenges persist in practice. Several other issues also emerged from our study that have received limited attention, including the non-commitment to early and ongoing participation by smaller project proponents, and the EA exemption of exploration projects; the limited availability of information to project developers on local right holders and Aboriginal interests; expectations about the integration of traditional knowledge and land use in EA not aligning with the information that is available to proponents; confusion about who is responsible for initiating early participation and consultation processes; the lack of early relationship building with potentially affected communities, particularly by governments; and the lack of other viable avenues, outside EA, for Aboriginal communities to raise more strategic issues of concern that affect traditional lands and treaty rights.

  19. 'Talk, talk, cry, laugh': learning, healing and building an Aboriginal workforce to address family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauw, Marlene L; Spangaro, Jo; Herring, Sigrid; McNamara, Lorna D

    2013-02-01

    Sexual abuse and family violence are widespread and under-reported phenomena for which Aboriginal victims face even greater barriers to asking for and receiving assistance than do others in the community. There is a need for strategies to address abuse without disempowering and alienating Aboriginal people. A program developed by the New South Wales Health Education Centre Against Violence is addressing this issue at the same time as contributing towards a strengthened Aboriginal health workforce. The training program which is a 1-year qualification course has grown from a 52% rate of graduation in its first 6 years to 92%. Three practices in the classroom have contributed to this success. These are: (i) recognition of the emotional impact of the training and its links to participants own histories; (ii) providing space to address participants negative prior educational experiences; and (iii) further developing content on the recent sociopolitical history of Aboriginal people. These practices have strengthened this successful course, which is building a skilled workforce to provide accessible, culturally sensitive services for Aboriginal people experiencing abuse.

  20. Aboriginal community controlled health services: leading the way in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretto, Kathryn S; Wenitong, Mark; Button, Selwyn; Ring, Ian T

    2014-06-16

    The national Closing the Gap framework commits to reducing persisting disadvantage in the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, with cross-government-sector initiatives and investment. Central to efforts to build healthier communities is the Aboriginal community controlled health service (ACCHS) sector; its focus on prevention, early intervention and comprehensive care has reduced barriers to access and unintentional racism, progressively improving individual health outcomes for Aboriginal people. There is now a broad range of primary health care data that provides a sound evidence base for comparing the health outcomes for Indigenous people in ACCHSs with the outcomes achieved through mainstream services, and these data show: models of comprehensive primary health care consistent with the patient-centred medical home model; coverage of the Aboriginal population higher than 60% outside major metropolitan centres; consistently improving performance in key performance on best-practice care indicators; and superior performance to mainstream general practice. ACCHSs play a significant role in training the medical workforce and employing Aboriginal people. ACCHSs have risen to the challenge of delivering best-practice care and there is a case for expanding ACCHSs into new areas. To achieve the best returns, the current mainstream Closing the Gap investment should be shifted to the community controlled health sector.

  1. Heritability and complex segregation analysis of deafness in Jack Russell Terriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain George M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between patterns of pigmentation and deafness in the dog has a long-documented history, with reports dating back over one hundred years. Long suspected of having a genetic basis, the search for loci with a pronounced influence in the expression of hearing loss in the dog has yet to be successful. No studies in the dog to date have found a possible influence of a specific colour locus associated with deafness. The present study is intended to evaluate the heritability of deafness in the Jack Russell Terrier (JRT, characterize the mode of inheritance, and evaluate the existence of a sex, coat colour, or coat texture influence on the expression of sensorineural deafness. Results The estimation of heritability of deafness in the JRT was 0.22 when deafness was considered a binary (normal/deaf trait and 0.31 when deafness was considered a three-category (normal/unilateral/bilateral deafness. The influence of coat colour in the incidence of JRT deafness was statistically significant, indicating that dogs with more white are more likely to be deaf. The influence of sex or coat texture was not statistically significant in the incidence of JRT deafness. Complex segregation analysis revealed a model of a single locus with a large effect on the binary measure of hearing loss is not supported. Conclusion This is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to characterize a genetic component responsible for deafness in the JRT. The heritability of deafness in the JRT was found to be 0.22 and 0.31 considering deafness to be a two-category or three-category trait, respectively. There appears to be an influence of coat colour on the expression of deafness. In an attempt to characterize the mode of inheritance of deafness in the JRT, a model of a single locus with a large effect on hearing loss is not supported with this data. Further study is needed to determine if a single locus may be influencing deafness in the JRT. While the

  2. Cognitive development in Silver-Russell syndrome: a sibling-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeker, Meinolf; Wollmann, Hartmut A

    2004-05-01

    This study examined cognitive development in Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a condition with intrauterine growth retardation, persisting short stature, and specific stigmata. Neuropsychological function and cognitive abilities were assessed in a sample of 36 children with SRS (21 males, 15 females; mean age 7 years 6 months, SD 2 years 8 months; age range 3 to 12 years) and 25 normally developing siblings (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD 2 years 7 months; age range 3 to 12 years) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Special measures were taken to control for confounding factors and sample bias. Mean overall IQ score in the total SRS sample (95.7, SD 10.63), as measured by the Mental Processing Composite Scale, was significantly reduced (p=0.021) compared with test norms (IQ 100, SD 15), indicating a moderate cognitive impairment. Subscale analysis revealed some specific deficiencies. However, these cannot be attributed to an established category of specific learning disorder. The mean score in the Achievement Scale (91.25, SD 14.92), which is more sensitive to educational influences, showed stronger deficits (p=0.001). The sibling control group achieved a slightly better mean IQ score (104.20, SD 12.32) than test norms (p=0.10). Direct analysis of paired differences between the subsample of children with SRS and a sibling among the control group (n=25) revealed a significant mean difference of 8.08 IQ points (p=0.011). Risk factor analysis revealed that cognitive development is not associated with birth length (p=0.404), birthweight (p=0.820), growth hormone therapy (p=0.810), phenotypic severity (p=0.828), or sex (p=0.880). Two children with maternal uniparental disomy for the entire chromosome 7 had markedly lower IQ scores (81 and 84 respectively). In contrast to the few previous findings, children with SRS show only moderate, but significant, impairments in cognitive outcome, which are more striking in our sample when compared with siblings than

  3. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional North Australian aboriginal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.S.; Johnston, A.; Hancock, G.J.; Martin, P.

    1997-01-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 227 Ac were measured in edible flesh of traditional Aboriginal food items from the Magela and Cooper Creek systems in the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. Fish, buffalo, pig, magpie goose, filesnake, goanna, turtle, freshwater shrimp and freshwater crocodile were studied. Activity concentrations in water were also measured to enable the calculation of concentration ratios (CRs).For most edible flesh samples, activity concentrations followed the approximate order: 210 Po>> 226210 [ 234 Usimilar 238 [ 230 Thsimilar 232 Th]. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio was particularly high (greater than 100) for pig flesh. CRs for fish species fall into two groups. Group 1 (bony bream and sleepy cod) had CRs about five times higher than for group 2 (eight other species). CRs for turtle flesh were similar to those for fish in group 1, while those for turtle liver were about a factor of 10 higher. CRs for magpie goose, filesnake, freshwater shrimp, goanna and crocodile flesh were also of the same order as for fish in groups 1 or 2.Calculations of dose resulting from release of wastewaters from uranium mining operations in the region show that the dominant pathway would be uptake of radionuclides, especially 226 Ra, by freshwater mussels, followed by radionuclide uptake by fish. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Australian aboriginal tooth succession, interproximal attrition, and Begg's theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruccini, R S

    1990-04-01

    In 1954, P.R. Begg analyzed interproximal attrition as a prehistorically universal mechanism to reduce tooth size. With modern processed diets and the virtual disappearance of constant interproximal attrition, Begg asserted, teeth remain too large for the arches and become crowded. Later investigators have questioned Begg's estimate of attritional tooth-size reduction, as well as aspects of his theory relating the succession sequence of permanent teeth to different malocclusions. The present paper examines the theory using longitudinal casts and records of modern Australian aborigines who are among the first generation lacking notable interproximal attrition thanks to a "modernized" diet. Deciduous and permanent tooth size, arch size, and occlusal relational variables were analyzed with respect to the expected occlusal outcomes in the absence of attritional tooth reduction. Permanent incisor overjet correlated with crowding status, as predicted by Begg. On the other hand, longer teeth did not relate to crowding in general nor to crowding in relevant local areas or during developmental stages. Unfavorable leeway space did not relate clearly to crowding or other malocclusions. Lowered correlations among structures and narrowness of the maxilla related more significantly to malocclusion. These results are in keeping with recent thinking that small jaws rather than large teeth underlie tooth/arch discrepancy.

  5. Emerging opportunities between the Aboriginal communities and the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowfoot, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The management of oil and gas resources from Indian Reserve lands across Canada is the responsibility of Indian Oil and Gas Canada (IOGC). The IOGC issues and executes all agreements relating to exploration and development of oil and gas on Indian lands. Band Council signs all agreements as consenters. In the last two years, activity levels at the IOGC have exceeded average normal levels. In 1997-98, a total of 116 new wells were drilled on First Nation Lands; in 1996-97 the number of new wells drilled was 130. Currently, there are a total of 800 wells administered by the IOGC. A total of 179 oil and gas companies operate on 76 First Nation reserves in Alberta, Saskatchewan, British Columbia and Manitoba. There are 14 First Nation-owned oil and gas companies holding leases on reserve lands. This paper reviews the changes in the structuring of joint ventures and resource development arrangement with Aboriginal communities in light of the recent Delgamuukw decision

  6. Sustaining health education research programs in Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisener, Katherine; Shapka, Jennifer; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Despite evidence supporting the ongoing provision of health education interventions in First Nations communities, there is a paucity of research that specifically addresses how these programs should be designed to ensure sustainability and long-term effects. Using a Community-Based Research approach, a collective case study was completed with three Canadian First Nations communities to address the following research question: What factors are related to sustainable health education programs, and how do they contribute to and/or inhibit program success in an Aboriginal context? Semi-structured interviews and a sharing circle were completed with 19 participants, including members of community leadership, external partners, and program staff and users. Seven factors were identified to either promote or inhibit program sustainability, including: 1) community uptake; 2) environmental factors; 3) stakeholder awareness and support; 4) presence of a champion; 5) availability of funding; 6) fit and flexibility; and 7) capacity and capacity building. Each factor is provided with a working definition, influential moderators, and key evaluation questions. This study is grounded in, and builds on existing research, and can be used by First Nations communities and universities to support effective sustainability planning for community-based health education interventions.

  7. [Obesity and leptin association in three Chilean aboriginal populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, F; Santos, J L; Albala, C; Calvillán, M; Carrasco, E

    2000-01-01

    Although there is a clear relationship between body mass index and leptin levels, few authors have addressed the possible influence of ethnic factors on these levels. To measure serum leptin in three different Chilean aboriginal populations. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 345 rural mapuche individuals, 247 rural aymara subjects and 162 urban mapuche subjects. A body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 was used as cutoff point to classify study subjects. Among the three ethnic groups, women had serum leptin levels three times higher than men. In all three ethnic groups, there was a significant association between leptin levels, body mass index and gender (r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p mapuche, r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p mapuche populations). No differences in leptin levels were observed for the interaction between age and insulin. The increments per quartile in leptin levels were lower among mapuche than aymara individuals. Rural mapuche individuals have a high frequency of obesity. However their leptin levels are lower than those of aymara or urban mapuche populations. The higher leptin levels observed in urban mapuche subjects could be due to environmental influences.

  8. Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: growing and advancing in spite of global climate change and the 1986 and 2002 Russell Lake outburst floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, Dennis C.; March, Rod S.; Thomas, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    Hubbard Glacier, the largest calving glacier on the North American Continent (25 percent larger than Rhode Island), advanced across the entrance to 35-mile-long Russell Fiord during June 2002, temporarily turning it into a lake. Hubbard Glacier has been advancing for more than 100 years and has twice closed the entrance to Russell Fiord during the last 16 years by squeezing and pushing submarine glacial sediments across the mouth of the fiord. Water flowing into the cutoff fiord from mountain streams and glacier melt causes the level of Russell Lake to rise. However, both the 1986 and 2002 dams failed before the lake altitude rose enough for water to spill over a low pass at the far end of the fiord and enter the Situk River drainage, a world-class sport and commercial fishery near Yakutat, Alaska.

  9. A DNA aptamer recognising a malaria protein biomarker can function as part of a DNA origami assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godonoga, Maia; Lin, Ting-Yu; Oshima, Azusa; Sumitomo, Koji; Tang, Marco S. L.; Cheung, Yee-Wai; Kinghorn, Andrew B.; Dirkzwager, Roderick M.; Zhou, Cunshan; Kuzuya, Akinori; Tanner, Julian A.; Heddle, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA aptamers have potential for disease diagnosis and as therapeutics, particularly when interfaced with programmable molecular technology. Here we have combined DNA aptamers specific for the malaria biomarker Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) with a DNA origami scaffold. Twelve aptamers that recognise PfLDH were integrated into a rectangular DNA origami and atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the incorporated aptamers preserve their ability to specifically bind target protein. Captured PfLDH retained enzymatic activity and protein-aptamer binding was observed dynamically using high-speed AFM. This work demonstrates the ability of DNA aptamers to recognise a malaria biomarker whilst being integrated within a supramolecular DNA scaffold, opening new possibilities for malaria diagnostic approaches based on DNA nanotechnology. PMID:26891622

  10. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  11. Prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon; O'Connor, Catherine C; Morgan, Stephen; Chamberlain, Catherine; Hocking, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) are Australia's first peoples. Between 2006 and 2015, HIV notifications increased among Aboriginal people; however, among non-Aboriginal people, notifications remained relatively stable. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people overall and by subgroups. In November 2015, a search of PubMed and Web of Science, grey literature and abstracts from conferences was conducted. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people tested and those who tested positive for HIV. The following variables were extracted: gender; Aboriginal status; population group (men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, adults, youth in detention and pregnant females) and geographical location. An assessment of between study heterogeneity (I 2 test) and within study bias (selection, measurement and sample size) was also conducted. Seven studies were included; all were cross-sectional study designs. The overall sample size was 3772 and the prevalence of HIV was 0.1% (I 2 =38.3%, P=0.136). Five studies included convenient samples of people attending Australian Needle and Syringe Program Centres, clinics, hospitals and a youth detention centre, increasing the potential of selection bias. Four studies had a sample size, thus decreasing the ability to report pooled estimates. The prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people in Australia is low. Community-based programs that include both prevention messages for those at risk of infection and culturally appropriate clinical management and support for Aboriginal people living with HIV are needed to prevent HIV increasing among Aboriginal people.

  12. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  13. Aboriginal Health Care and Bioethics: A Reflection on the Teaching of the Seven Grandfathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Martin, Gerry

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary bioethics recognizes the importance of the culture in shaping ethical issues, yet in practice, a process for ethical analysis and decision making is rarely adjusted to the culture and ethnicity of involved parties. This is of a particular concern in a health care system that is caring for a growing Aboriginal population. We raise the possibility of constructing a bioethics grounded in traditional Aboriginal knowledge. As an example of an element of traditional knowledge that contains strong ethical guidance, we present the story of the Gifts of the Seven Grandfathers. We note a resemblance of this Ojibway teaching to virtue ethics in European traditions, but we suggest that there are also important differences in how these two traditions are currently presented. We hope that further engagement with a variety of indigenous moral teachings and traditions could improve health care involving Aboriginal patients and communities, and enrich the discipline of bioethics.

  14. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  15. Problems of communicating radiation doses to aboriginal members of the public in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.

    1985-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, Aboriginal people of the Alligator Rivers Region have had to come to grips with the effects of uranium mining at Nabarlek and Ranger. One element in their cost-benefit approach to mine operations has been the expectation that bush foods in the region will not be contaminated by the mining operations. Recent studies on radionuclide concentrations in freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi) in the region have shown this species, and perhaps others, to be efficient accumulators of radium. Information concerning natural radium accumulation in mussels and accompanying health risk estimates have been conveyed to Aboriginal people of the area and such information transfer has not been without its problems. Application of the ALARA principle to environmental management of the effluent pathways needs to consider Aboriginal expectations

  16. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2014-11-01

    In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

  17. Confronting uncomfortable truths: receptivity and resistance to Aboriginal content in midwifery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-12-01

    The emotional responses of students undertaking a new, compulsory unit on Indigenous cultures and health were investigated as part of a broader study looking at culturally secure practice in midwifery education and service provision for Aboriginal women. Classroom observations were conducted on a first year midwifery cohort from July to October 2012 and students completed 'before and after' questionnaires. A spectrum of emotional responses was identified and found to be consistent with studies of medical student exposure to Aboriginal content. While stereotypes were challenged and perceptions altered as a result of the content, issues surrounding racism remained unresolved, with some students expressing dismay at the attitudes of their peers. This study confirmed the need for content on Aboriginal health and cultures to extend beyond one unit in a course. Learning and knowledge must be carefully integrated and developed to maximise understanding and ensure that unresolved issues are addressed.

  18. Balancing Culture, Ethics, and Methods in Qualitative Health Research with Aboriginal Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meadows

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Including Aboriginal women in qualitative health research expands our understanding of factors that contribute to their health and well-being. As part of the larger WHEALTH study, we gathered qualitative health data on midlife Aboriginal women living both on and off reserves. Despite careful planning and a commitment to methodological congruence and purposiveness we encountered a number of challenges that raised ethical questions. We present how we addressed these issues as we attempted to produce ethical, culturally sensitive, and sound research in a timely fashion. This article provides important considerations for other researchers and funding bodies while illustrating the benefits of working with Aboriginal women as an under researched population.

  19. Environmental agreements in Canada : Aboriginal participation, EIA follow-up and environmental management of major projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Faircheallaigh, C. [Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Politics and Public Policy

    2006-05-15

    Attempts are now being made to address the historic marginalization of indigenous peoples from the management of resource projects located on their ancestral lands through the use of environmental agreements. However, the rapid pace of resource development in certain regions of Canada has meant that there is an increased need to ensure effective follow-up procedures for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) processes in order to achieve meaningful Aboriginal participation in the management of large-scale resource projects. Lack of effective follow-up has made it difficult for the relevant agencies to manage risks and uncertainties. This book discussed the use of new policy environmental agreements between industry, government, and Aboriginal peoples. Case studies where environmental agreements were used in the Northwest Territories, Alberta, and Newfoundland were presented in order to demonstrate their efficacy. It was concluded that structures and processes must be designed to encourage Aboriginal participation in consultation processes. refs., tabs.

  20. Role of art centres for Aboriginal Australians living with dementia in remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Melissa; Mackell, Paulene; Lin, Xiaoping; Farthing, Annie; Jensen, Heather; Meredith, Maree; Haralambous, Betty

    2017-06-01

    To explore the role art centres in remote communities play for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians living with dementia. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken, with no restrictions on articles regarding year of publication. Art programmes have been found to be of benefit to both people living with dementia and their carers, particularly when programmes are administered in environments that are culturally revered. Findings indicate remote art centres play a key role in maintaining traditions, culture and practices unique to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding how they cater for the needs of people with dementia. Addressing this gap will be helpful in remote areas where prevalence of dementia is up to five times that of non-Aboriginal people, and there are limited health and support services. Further research is required to explore strengths and gaps of current practices. © 2017 AJA Inc.