WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural-to-urban within-country migration

  1. Rural-urban migration in a developing country: Botswana, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J D; Miller, H M

    1987-01-01

    Trends in internal migration in Botswana are analyzed, with a focus on rural-urban migration. Data are from the 1981 census and from a survey carried out in 1979. The authors note that even though the predominance of subsistence agriculture acts as a deterrent to rural-urban migration, it is probable that the total and percentage of people living in urban areas will increase. However, the magnitude and pattern of future migration will fluctuate over time as social and economic conditions change.

  2. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P < 0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P = 0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (≥ 4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P < 0.001). It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The impact of rural-urban migration on child survival.

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    Brockerhoff, M

    1994-10-01

    Large rural-urban child mortality differentials in many developing countries suggest that rural families can improve their children's survival chances by leaving the countryside and settling in towns and cities. This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 17 countries to assess the impact of maternal rural-urban migration on the survival chances of children under age two in the late 1970s and 1980s. Results show that, before migration, children of migrant women had similar or slightly higher mortality risks than children of women who remained in the village. In the two-year period surrounding their mother's migration, their chances of dying increased sharply as a result of accompanying their mothers or being left behind, to levels well above those of rural and urban non-migrant children. Children born after migrants had settled in the urban area, however, gradually experienced much better survival chances than children of rural non-migrants, as well as lower mortality risks than migrants' children born in rural areas before migration. The study concludes that many disadvantaged urban children would probably have been much worse off had their mothers remained in the village, and that millions of children's lives may have been saved in the 1980s as a result of mothers moving to urban areas.

  4. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

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    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  5. Rural-to-urban migration and the shadow wage in LDCs.

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    Renard, R

    1984-04-01

    "This paper discusses the amount of rural-to-urban migration which will be forthcoming when a new urban job is created for which an institutionally fixed wage above the market-clearing level is offered. A simple formula is proposed to estimate migration response. It can be used to calculate the shadow wage in cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in less developed countries (LDCs)." excerpt

  6. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

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    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.

  7. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

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    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    While the population of Ghana is expected to double in 25 years at the current rate of increase (approximately 2.5% per annum), the population of urban centers is increasing even faster. The 1970 census shows the urban population growing by 4.8% per annum. This is mainly the result of rural to urban migration and, to a smaller extent, the increase in the number of urban centers from 39 in 1948 to 98 in 1960 to 135 in 1970. In the 1970 census only 57.1% of the population were enumerated in their locality of birth and only 20.9% in a locality other than their place of birth but in the same region. 4.1% were born outside Ghana, mostly in another West African country. 1 striking difference between urban and rural areas is the differing sex ratio of the working population. In rural areas there are 91.0 males aged 15-64 years for every 100 females while in urban areas there are 107.1. Most migration in Africa is for employment and those most likely to migrate are working-age males. Because secondary schools are scarce in rural areas, urban dwellers generally have a higher education level. There are no significant differences between overall labor force participation rates for females. The nationwide participation rate was 38.9% for both males and females (males 43.8%, females 34.1%); in urban areas the total was 40.0% (males 46.3%, females 33.7%) and in rural areas 38.5% (males 42.7%, females 34.3%). Ghanaian women have traditionally occupied a prominent place in the labor force. The theory that urban migration is due to urban-rural income disparities is not confirmed by figures. Considering the high amount of unemployment in urban areas, a rural dweller can average as much as a city dweller. In fact, poorly educated migrants are the ones most affected by urban unemployment. A recent study by Kodwo Ewusi considered the impact of many variables on migration; he found depressed social conditions at the place of origin are more compelling motivations than economic factors

  8. Rural-to-urban migration and its implications for poverty alleviation.

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    Skeldon, R

    1997-03-01

    This article examines rural-urban migration, its role in poverty alleviation in Thailand, and policy implications. The empirical research literature suggests that the poorest tend be left behind by wealthier migrants moving to urban areas. The youngest tend to migrate. The impact of remittances tends to appear more positive in international migration, but the impact of remittances among rural internal migrant families can also be substantial and be responsible for wealth differences within rural communities. Return migrants contribute to communities by bringing back new ideas and new attitudes toward family size. Migration can also produce negative impacts for sending communities, but the total analysis appears to favor positive impacts. The urban sector becomes another resource base for rural populations that can sustain rural populations during rapid change processes. The migrant population tends to be wealthier and better educated than rural populations, but poorer and less educated than urban populations. Informal sectors in urban areas may offer migrants flexible working hours, no taxes or deductions, less bureaucratic structures, and only 9% less income than the formal sector. Social networks reinforce migrant work in the informal sector and segmentation of the labor force. Social networks may be formalized into associations and help in securing migrant's housing and living. Migrants are integrated in a variety of ways into city life. Migrant communities are a source of energy, organizational skills, and talent. The incidence of poverty appears to be the greatest among women. Women migrants and women left behind by migrants must adjust to new conditions. Migration policies tend to focus on regulating the volume of migration. The author concludes that migration alleviates poverty and that policies should address city management, migrant adjustment processes, and training programs for nonmigrants.

  9. Climate shocks and rural-urban migration in Mexico: Exploring nonlinearities and thresholds

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    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; DeWaard, Jack; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia; Ha, Jasmine Trang

    2016-01-01

    Adverse climatic conditions may differentially drive human migration patterns between rural and urban areas, with implications for changes in population composition and density, access to infrastructure and resources, and the delivery of essential goods and services. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this notion. In this study, we investigate the relationship between climate shocks and migration between rural and urban areas within Mexico. We combine individual records from the 2000 and 2010 Mexican censuses (n=683,518) with high-resolution climate data from Terra Populus that are linked to census data at the municipality level (n=2,321). We measure climate shocks as monthly deviation from a 30-year (1961-1990) long-term climate normal period, and uncover important nonlinearities using quadratic and cubic specifications. Satellite-based measures of urban extents allow us to classify migrant-sending and migrant-receiving municipalities as rural or urban to examine four internal migration patterns: rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-urban, and urban-rural. Among our key findings, results from multilevel models reveal that each additional drought month increases the odds of rural-urban migration by 3.6%. In contrast, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration is nonlinear. After a threshold of ~34 heat months is surpassed, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration becomes positive and progressively increases in strength. Policy and programmatic interventions may therefore reduce climate induced rural-urban migration in Mexico through rural climate change adaptation initiatives, while also assisting rural migrants in finding employment and housing in urban areas to offset population impacts. PMID:28435176

  10. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  11. Rural to urban migration is associated with increased prevalence of childhood wheeze in a Latin-American city.

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    Rodriguez, Alejandro; Vaca, Maritza G; Chico, Martha E; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cooper, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    The urbanisation process has been associated with increases in asthma prevalence in urban and rural areas of low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, although rural to urban migration and migration between cities are considered important determinants of this process, few studies have evaluated the effects of internal migration on asthma in urban populations of LMICs. The present study evaluated the effects of internal migration on the prevalence of wheeze in an urban area of Latin America. We did a cross-sectional analysis of 2510 schoolchildren living in the city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between childhood wheeze and different aspects of migration among schoolchildren. 31% of schoolchildren were migrants. Rural to urban migrants had a higher prevalence of wheeze, (adj.OR=2.01,95% CI1.30 to 3.01, p=0.001) compared with non-migrants. Age of migration and time since migration were associated with wheeze only for rural to urban migrants but not for urban to urban migrants. Children who had migrated after 3 years of age had a greater risk of wheeze (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.97, p=0.001) than non-migrants while migrants with less than 5 years living in the new residence had a higher prevalence of wheeze than non-migrants (Latin-American city. Age of migration and time since migration were important determinants of wheeze only among migrants from rural areas. A better understanding of the social and environmental effects of internal migration could improve our understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma and differences in prevalence between urban and rural populations.

  12. THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY ON RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION IN JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fauzia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates if the improvement of agricultural productivity will decrease rural to urban migration. Since rural to urban migration occurs due mainly to disparity between urban and agricultural wage, we assume that boosting agricultural income will reduce migration to urban areas. It is hypothesized that increase in agricultural productivity would result in a rise in agricultural wage, and hence income, ceteris paribus, reduces rural-urban migration. The data used in this study is the 2010 provincial statistics in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, Indonesia. The agricultural productivity and migration equations were estimated by using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS. The research findings may offer the suggestion to reduce rural to urban migration by boosting rural income through focusing the policy on agricultural productivity. Enhancing investment in agricultural sector such as increasing the number of subsidized fertilizer, adding agricultural labor and livestock, increasing education of rural people, and utilizing agricultural land resource are expected to increase agricultural output.Thus, it would also minimize the wage differential between urban and rural area.

  13. Impact of rural urban migration on physical and social environment: The case of Dhaka city

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    Momtaz Jahan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural urban migration is the principle component of rapid and unplanned growth of towns and cities in the developing countries. Gross disparities in socio-economic opportunity between urban and rural areas and frequent natural disasters in some regions encourage large flow of migrants from rural Bangladesh to the large cities. For various reasons Dhaka is an attractive destination for the rural migrants. Migration to Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is the focus of this article which identifies the factors contributing to the migration process. The impact of migration is diverse both at the urban destination and at the rural origin. At both ends there are economic, demographic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts. This paper focuses on the urban end. It examines the overall conditions of the underprivileged, poor migrants and the consequences of migration on the physical and social environment on their choice of destination.

  14. Climate Change as Migration Driver from Rural and Urban Mexico

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    Hunter, Lori M.; Runfola, Daniel M.; Riosmena, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating migration as a response to climate variability have largely focused on rural locations to the exclusion of urban areas. This lack of urban focus is unfortunate given the sheer numbers of urban residents and continuing high levels of urbanization. To begin filling this empirical gap, this study investigates climate change impacts on U.S.-bound migration from rural and urban Mexico, 1986–1999. We employ geostatistical interpolation methods to construct two climate change indices, capturing warm and wet spell duration, based on daily temperature and precipitation readings for 214 weather stations across Mexico. In combination with detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project, we model the influence of climate change on household-level migration from 68 rural and 49 urban municipalities. Results from multilevel event-history models reveal that a temperature warming and excessive precipitation significantly increased international migration during the study period. However, climate change impacts on international migration is only observed for rural areas. Interactions reveal a causal pathway in which temperature (but not precipitation) influences migration patterns through employment in the agricultural sector. As such, climate-related international migration may decline with continued urbanization and the resulting reductions in direct dependence of households on rural agriculture. PMID:26692890

  15. Climate Change as Migration Driver from Rural and Urban Mexico.

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    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Hunter, Lori M; Runfola, Daniel M; Riosmena, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Studies investigating migration as a response to climate variability have largely focused on rural locations to the exclusion of urban areas. This lack of urban focus is unfortunate given the sheer numbers of urban residents and continuing high levels of urbanization. To begin filling this empirical gap, this study investigates climate change impacts on U.S.-bound migration from rural and urban Mexico, 1986-1999. We employ geostatistical interpolation methods to construct two climate change indices, capturing warm and wet spell duration, based on daily temperature and precipitation readings for 214 weather stations across Mexico. In combination with detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project, we model the influence of climate change on household-level migration from 68 rural and 49 urban municipalities. Results from multilevel event-history models reveal that a temperature warming and excessive precipitation significantly increased international migration during the study period. However, climate change impacts on international migration is only observed for rural areas. Interactions reveal a causal pathway in which temperature (but not precipitation) influences migration patterns through employment in the agricultural sector. As such, climate-related international migration may decline with continued urbanization and the resulting reductions in direct dependence of households on rural agriculture.

  16. [Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru].

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    Miranda, J Jaime; Wells, Jonathan C K; Smeeth, Liam

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries this article seeks to present, in context, different transitional processes which societies and populations are currently undergoing. Relevant factors for specific contexts such as Peru are described, including internal migration, urbanization and profiles of adversity in early life, all of them linked to chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity and overweight. The capacity-load model, which considers chronic disease risk in adulthood as a function of two generic traits, metabolic capacity and metabolic load, is described. The contribution of rural-to-urban migration to this problem is also presented. Finally, these topics are framed within pending challenges for public health in Peru.

  17. Income inequality and urban/rural migration.

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    Slottje, D J; Hayes, K J

    1987-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the consequences of [U.S.] migration trends from 1970-1980, focusing on the relationship of income inequality within a state with population shifts within and across states. Furthermore, we wish to determine if the movement of wealth and the changing employment opportunities [have] had any effect on the distribution of income within the four census regions and for urban and rural populations across all fifty states." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses. excerpt

  18. Rural-urban migration in Zambia and migrant ties to home villages.

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    Ogura, M

    1991-06-01

    Rural to urban migration patterns in Zambia and migrant ties to home villages are discussed 1st in terms of a statistical overview of migration and urbanization, and followed by an examination of lengthening stays in towns and ties to the home village based on other studies and the author's field research and random sampling in 6 urban areas of Zambia. The primary population centers are the copperbelt which comprises 45% of the total urban population, and Lusaka which is 24% of the total urban population. 31% of the total population reside in Lusaka, 7 mining towns, Kabwe, and Livingstone. Migration and a high rate of natural population growth are responsible for the urban growth. Recent economic difficulties have reduced the flow of migration to urban areas and lead to the out migration in copper towns. independence also has had an effect on migration, such that female migration increased along with male migration. Female migration reflects female educational advances and the changing practice of housewives accompanying husbands. The informal sector absorbs a great number of the migrant labor force. Income gaps between urban and rural areas also contribute to migration flows. Other magnets in urban areas are better educational opportunities, a water supply, and the lure of city lights. Since independence, migrants have increased their length of stay in towns but continue to maintain links with their home villages. 87.5% of mine workers are estimated as intending to go back to their villages. Before the mid-1970s it is estimated in a Ngombe squatter camp that 65% of employed male household heads had sent money home the prior year, 58% had visited home within the past 5 years, but 25% had never visited in 10 years. 58% intended to return home and 36% intended to stay permanently. The author's research between 1987-89 found 3 types of squatter villages: those retired and not returning to home villages such as Kansusuwa, those workers living in compounds where farm

  19. Urban-rural migration: uncertainty and the effect of a change in the minimum wage.

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    Ingene, C A; Yu, E S

    1989-01-01

    "This paper extends the neoclassical, Harris-Todaro model of urban-rural migration to the case of production uncertainty in the agricultural sector. A unique feature of the Harris-Todaro model is an exogenously determined minimum wage in the urban sector that exceeds the rural wage. Migration occurs until the rural wage equals the expected urban wage ('expected' due to employment uncertainty). The effects of a change in the minimum wage upon regional outputs, resource allocation, factor rewards, expected profits, and expected national income are explored, and the influence of production uncertainty upon the obtained results are delineated." The geographical focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  20. Rural-urban migration: policy simulations in a dual economy model of Bangladesh.

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    Ahmed, S

    1986-03-01

    The process of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh is analyzed using a dual economy model. The focus is on the period 1976-1985. The main purpose of the paper is to examine alternative policies designed to reduce the level of such migration without adversely affecting the country's economy.

  1. Rural-urban migration and child survival in urban Bangladesh: are the urban migrants and poor disadvantaged?

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    Islam, M Mazharul; Azad, Kazi Md Abul Kalam

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the levels and trends of childhood mortality in urban Bangladesh, and examines whether children's survival chances are poorer among the urban migrants and urban poor. It also examines the determinants of child survival in urban Bangladesh. Data come from the 1999-2000 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate that, although the indices of infant and child mortality are consistently better in urban areas, the urban-rural differentials in childhood mortality have diminished in recent years. The study identifies two distinct child morality regimes in urban Bangladesh: one for urban natives and one for rural-urban migrants. Under-five mortality is higher among children born to urban migrants compared with children born to life-long urban natives (102 and 62 per 1000 live births, respectively). The migrant-native mortality differentials more-or-less correspond with the differences in socioeconomic status. Like childhood mortality rates, rural-urban migrants seem to be moderately disadvantaged by economic status compared with their urban native counterparts. Within the urban areas, the child survival status is even worse among the migrant poor than among the average urban poor, especially recent migrants. This poor-non-poor differential in childhood mortality is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The study findings indicate that rapid growth of the urban population in recent years due to rural-to-urban migration, coupled with higher risk of mortality among migrant's children, may be considered as one of the major explanations for slower decline in under-five mortality in urban Bangladesh, thus diminishing urban-rural differentials in childhood mortality in Bangladesh. The study demonstrates that housing conditions and access to safe drinking water and hygienic toilet facilities are the most critical determinants of child survival in urban areas, even after controlling for migration status. The findings of the study may

  2. Gender and rural-urban migration in China.

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    Davin, D

    1996-02-01

    Many men and women in China are migrating in search of better economic opportunities. Young women who migrate to urban centers in search of opportunity may stay away from their home villages for several years. At some point, however, they are likely to return home. This article considers the effect which such circular migration is having upon gender relations in China. The author's argument is presented in sections on China's 1990 census, migration and the sexual division of labor, migration and child care, the influence of returning migrants, the influence of young female returnees, and the fertility of returnees. She speculates that the demands and expectations of young women who return to their villages after spending some time earning high wages in urban areas will be affected by urban norms. While their return may lead to initial conflict, it is likely that the women will retain greater personal autonomy from their urban experience. Their return is also likely to lead to a higher degree of material consumption in the rural areas. Present circular migration in China has the potential to return human and financial resources to the villages, thereby helping to prevent the urban-rural gap between economic, social, cultural, and educational factors from growing even wider.

  3. Land tenure insecurity and rural-urban migration in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma Xian lei, Xianlei; Heerink, N.B.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Shi Xiaoping, X.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of land tenure security perceptions on rural-urban migration decisions of rural households, using data collected in Minle County in Northwest China. We find that tenure security perceptions play a significant role in household migration decisions in villages without

  4. HIV/AIDS-related sexual risk behaviors among rural residents in China: potential role of rural-to-urban migration

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    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between rural-to-urban migration and the spread of HIV is well described, although most studies focus on sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants at the urban destination areas. Few studies have examined the sexual risk behaviors of migrants who have returned from urban areas to their rural homes (“return migrants”) in comparison with those of local rural residents who have never migrated to cities (“non-migrants”). This study examines the potential association between rural-to-urban migration and sexual risk behaviors by comparing sexual risk behaviors between 553 return migrants and 441 non-migrants from same rural communities in China. Findings reveal that, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, return migrants in rural areas had higher levels of sexual risk, including unprotected sex, than non-migrants. Among return migrants, sexual risk behaviors were associated with age, gender, marital status, and number of different jobs they had previously held in the cities. These findings underscore the importance for HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts targeting the migrant population in urban destinations as well as the return migrant population in rural areas. PMID:17967110

  5. [Migration from a rural zone to an urban one is associated with android distribution of body fat in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barranco, J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Roiz-Simancas, M; Bravo-García, A L; Fanghänel-Salmón, G; Laviada Arrigunaga, E; Castaño, L R; García Tapia, M P

    2001-01-01

    Studies about migration to industrialized countries have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemias, all of them related to android body fat distribution. Migration status might be influence body fat distribution but it has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and migration from rural to urban areas in Mexico. This sequential sample of 433 women were seen in the outpatient obesity clinic of four federal states: Tabasco (n = 81), Mexico City (n = 166), Coahuila (n = 80), and Yucatan (n = 106). Migration history from rural to urban area, familial history of diabetes, ages of onset of obesity, height and weight circumferences were obtained. A regression logistic model was used and maintained as dependent variable body fat distribution. Age and federal state were considered as confounders and they adjusted the model. Migrating women from rural to urban area were 121 (27.9%). The waist circumference was higher in Tabasco (102.2 +/- 12 cm), and lesser in Yucatan (93.6 +/- 15 cm, p < 0.001); no differences were found for hip circumference. The logistic regression model showed that body fat distribution is associated to migration from rural to urban area, and also to diabetes of mother and age of onset of obesity. Migrating from rural to urban area is a risk factor for android body fat distribution and this risk increases with age, history of diabetes in mother and adulthood onset o obesity.

  6. Urban-rural variations in health in the Netherlands: does selective migration play a part?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.A.; Mheen, H.D. van de; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: urban-rural health differences are observed in many countries, even when socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are controlled for. People living in urban areas are often found to be less healthy. One of the possible causes for these differences is selective migration with

  7. Labor migration and risk aversion in less developed countries.

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    Katz, E; Stark, O

    1986-01-01

    "In this paper we question the pioneering work of Todaro, which states that rural-to-urban labor migration in less developed countries (LDCs) is an individual response to a higher urban expected income. We demonstrate that rural-to-urban labor migration is perfectly rational even if urban expected income is lower than rural income. We achieve this under a set of fairly stringent conditions: an individual decision-making entity, a one-period planning horizon, and global risk aversion. We obtain the result that a small chance of reaping a high reward is sufficient to trigger rural-to-urban labor migration." excerpt

  8. Differences in cardiovascular risk factors in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess differences in cardiovascular risk profiles among rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrant groups. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Ayacucho and Lima, Peru Participants rural (n=201); rural-urban migrants (n=589) and urban (n=199). Main outcome measures Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to migrant status (migrants vs. non-migrants), age at first migration, length of residency in an urban area and lifetime exposure to an urban area. Results For most risk factors, the migrant group had intermediate levels of risk between those observed for the rural and urban groups. Prevalences, for rural, migrant and urban groups, was 3%, 20% and 33% for obesity and 0.8%, 3% and 6% for type-2 diabetes. This gradient of risk was not observed uniformly across all risk factors. Blood pressure did not show a clear gradient of difference between groups. The migrant group had similar systolic blood pressure (SBP) but lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) than the rural group. The urban group had higher SBP but similar DBP than rural group. Hypertension was more prevalent among the urban (29%) compared to both rural and migrant groups (11% and 16% respectively). For HbA1c, although the urban group had higher levels, the migrant and rural groups were similar to each other. No differences were observed in triglycerides between the three groups. Within migrants, those who migrated when aged older than 12 years had higher odds of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome compared to people who migrated at younger ages. Adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic indicators had little impact on the patterns observed. Conclusions The impact of rural to urban migration on cardiovascular risk profile is not uniform across different risk factors, and is further influenced by the age at which migration occurs. A gradient in levels was observed for some risk factors across study groups. This observation indicates that urbanization is indeed

  9. An Analysis of the Determinants of Rural to Urban Migration Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Analysis of the Determinants of Rural to Urban Migration Among Rural Youths ... and permanent job opportunities, access to social services and infrastructure, ... partnerships and management of value chains for effective mainstreaming of ...

  10. A quantitative analysis of major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, S O

    1992-11-01

    "This paper discusses some major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria using the logit estimation technique. It utilizes cross-sectional data generated from a national sample survey of internal migration conducted...between January and March 1988.... The empirical results revealed that the significant determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria are income, contact, cost, spoken English, ability to speak two Nigerian languages, distance, marital status, sex and ethnicity. The results further suggest that rural-urban migration is selective of single people and males. Proximity to urban areas where prospective migrants have relatives, friends and townspeople is an important factor." excerpt

  11. Cumulative Causation of Rural Migration and Initial Peri-Urbanization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper posits that rural migration feeds the high demand for cheap labor in peri-urbanization, which is driven by globalization, flows of foreign capital, and entrepreneurial local governments. While the gravity model and push/pull perspective ignore the dynamics of migratory course, we use the cumulative causation of migration theory to conceptualize social expectations for outmigration and social resources from migrant networks in destinations. Four major findings are drawn from this demographic analysis based on micro data from China's 2000 Census. First, the expectation of outmigration significantly increases outmigration, and this effect is independent of push factors. Second, foreign direct investment (FDI) contributes to attracting rural labor migrants from other provinces to peri-urban areas as it does to cities. Third, social resources from migrant networks play an important role in attracting rural labor migrants to both city and noncity destinations. Fourth, the importance of wage differentials declines in gravitating rural labor migrants to peri-urban areas. These findings provide tentative evidence that rural labor migration is indispensable during initial peri-urbanization. Infused with flows of FDI and entrepreneurial local governments, rural migration has created a favorable initial condition for peri-urbanization.

  12. Rural to urban migration and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin Bushiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of rural to urban migration are a feature of most African countries. Our aim was to investigate changes, and their determinants, in cardiovascular risk factors on rural to urban migration in Tanzania. Methods Men and women (15 to 59 years intending to migrate from Morogoro rural region to Dar es Salaam for at least 6 months were identified. Measurements were made at least one week but no more than one month prior to migration, and 1 to 3 monthly after migration. Outcome measures included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and self reported physical activity and diet. Results One hundred and three men, 106 women, mean age 29 years, were recruited and 132 (63.2% followed to 12 months. All the figures presented here refer to the difference between baseline and 12 months in these 132 individuals. Vigorous physical activity declined (79.4% to 26.5% in men, 37.8% to 15.6% in women, p -1 respectively, p -1, p = 0.01, and triglycerides fell (0.31 mmoll-1, p = 0.034. Blood pressure appeared to fall in both men and women. For example, in men systolic blood pressure fell by 5.4 mmHg, p = 0.007, and in women by 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.001. Conclusion The lower level of physical activity and increasing weight will increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, changes in diet were mixed, and may have contributed to mixed changes in lipid profiles and a lack of rise in blood pressure. A better understanding of the changes occurring on rural to urban migration is needed to guide preventive measures.

  13. Rural-urban migration and urban employment opportunities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpara, E E

    1986-01-01

    The author suggests that most studies of rural-urban migration in the third world today are based on the European experience during the Industrial Revolution. He contends that the assumption that most migrants find wage employment in a rapidly growing modern industrial sector is not valid, particularly in Western Africa, where the pace of industrialization lags behind the rate of urbanization. Data from Nigeria are used to show that many potential migrants are aware of this situation and migrate seeking self-employment in informal sector trading activities.

  14. Migration from rural to urban habitat in Tropical Africa (1970-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerl, G G

    1982-01-01

    Problems associated with rural-urban migration in Tropical Africa are examined, with particular reference to the experience of Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zaire. The problems examined include overurbanization, maldistribution of population, poor urban living conditions, population density, and traditional methods of construction.

  15. The influence of rural-urban migration on migrant's fertility behavior in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B S

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of Cameroon fertility data suggests that rural stayers do not have a significantly higher fertility than rural-urban migrants in contrast to hypotheses suggested in the literature. Bongaarts and Caldwell both suggest that modernization plays a role in African fertility and migration patterns by increasing exposure to childbearing. Supply constraints are changed by higher levels of education, short duration of postpartum abstinence, less prevalence of polygamy, and more stable marriages. The influence of relatives may be weaker and the fear of losing a husband greater, which influence earlier returns to sexual relations. Because the levels of fertility of stayers and movers may be equal does not suggest that movers do not adapt fertility to urban norms. Analysis was conducted with d ata from the 1978 Cameroon World Fertility Survey on 8219 women aged 15-54 years for rural nonmigrants, rural-rural migrants, and rural-urban migrants. Rural-urban migrants were found to be better educated, have fewer cases of infertility, and have more stable first marriages. Descriptive statistics are provided for migrants and nonmigrants. Cross classification analysis shows that fertility is not lower for women with higher education, even when migration status is controlled for. Multivariate regression results in an autoregressive model in a first difference form indicated that the fertility rate of rural-urban migrant women was significantly higher than that of rural staryers during the period of 5-9 years after migration. The urban effect acts to reduce migrants' fertility by about .13 births. Comparisons are made with Mexican and Korean migration behavior, which reflect decreased fertility after migration of 1.5 births and 2.6 births, respectively. The suggestion is that the fertility-increasing effect of supply conditions in Cameroon is significantly offset by the fertility-depressing adaptation effect of migration to urban areas. It is expected that

  16. The Implication Of Mens Rural-Urban Migration On Household Decision Making In Soy Sub-County Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumayo Mildred Fedha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While most regions in the world have been experiencing an increase in rural-urban migration some have experienced excessive rates. As mens rural-urban migration occurs one of the sectors that is mostly affected is the family institution where women take up the role of decision making in the household in their absence. This study is an outcome of the study conducted on the impact of rural-urban migration on household decision making in Soy sub-county. The study found that mens absence in the household affects different aspects within the family context. Mens rural-urban migration has led to an increase in the number of women-headed households in the rural areas. Women who are left in charge of households are expected to continue to perform their traditional roles at the same time taking on mens responsibilities within the household. However culture dictates that they consult men even when they are away. From a socio-cultural context mens prolonged absence has many implications on the family and community life and greatly affects institutions such as health education and agriculture. Therefore the presence of men is crucial to household security decision-making and mobility. The study recommends that as much as men are away from home women should be empowered to make household decisions for smooth running of household undertakings.

  17. Rural-Urban Migration in China: Temporary Migrants in Search of Permanent Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Massive population flows from rural to urban areas since the start of economic reform have had consequences on almost every social, economic and political issue in the People's Republic of China. This paper maps the developments of rural to urban migration in reform era China, explaining the repercussions of the household registration system on migration patterns, the economic and social inclusion of rural migrant workers into urban communities, and the formation of migrant communities based on ethnic ties in some of China's major cities. The paper ends with a discussion of the consequences of both regional and rural-urban inequalities on future population flows, and on the possibilities of social tensions brought by the increasing presence of rural migrants in urban China.

  18. Urban bound migration and rural investment: the case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, A L; Crosson, P

    1983-02-01

    The authors investigate an agriculturally based policy for improving rural incomes and for retarding the rural-urban migration flow. The production of agricultural goods is characterized by a production function in which output increases with increases in agricultural labor inputs, capital, public infrastructure, land, and technology. Differences among regions in agricultural technology will reflect regional differences in education, the institutionalized form of productive organization, and differences in access to technological information channeled through more technically advanced cities. To pick up the effect of out-migration changes in state agricultural labor supply and upon agricultural output, the state's agricultural out-migration rate is included together with the agricultural labor force. The gross migrant flow between 2 locations is hypothesized to depend upon a set of variables influencing the individual's perception of the economic rate of return to be gained by moving, a set of variables reflecting the individual's propensity to relocate, the labor displacement effects of investments, and the at risk population at 1 location available to migrate. It is also taken into account that individuals differ in their response to information about origin and destination wage differentials and that individuals may or may not perceive a new ecnomic gain from migration but may base the decision on other considerations. Results of a statistical analysis using data from the Mexican census of population for 1960 and 1970 are: 1) size of the rural labor force was negatively associated with agricultural wages, contrary to expectations; 2) small farmers have benefited from the expansion of irrigation in Mexico; and 3) higher urban wages attract migration, and higher growth rate of agricultural income retards rural-urban migration. With respect to the 1950-60 decade both agricultural income and rural out-migration impacts could have been substantial but both the impact

  19. Internal and International Migration Across the Urban Hierarchy in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models. Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis. Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female. Initially, international migrants were primarily men who tended to originate from the main urban agglomerations. The diffusion of opportunities to emigrate down the urban hierarchy and across the sexes then redirected the rural exodus abroad, despite domestic economic development. This evolution in population mobility is related to the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows, as well as to rising inequalities within the urban hierarchy.

  20. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  1. [Contribution of migrations to the process of urbanization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, P

    1997-10-01

    An average of 22% of the populations of the Sahel countries resided in urban areas in the mid-1970s, a lower level than in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion urban has increased by about 5.5% annually over the past 2 decades. By 1993, four Sahel countries had over 30% of their populations in urban areas, and only Burkina Faso had less than 20% urban. The landlocked Sahel countries of Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Chad have maintained rates of urbanization comparable to those of the coastal countries (Cape Verde, Gambia, Mauritania, and Senegal), which had more significant levels of urbanization in the past. The rate of growth of the urban population of all of sub-Saharan Africa was around 5.0% during the past 20 years. Only Dakar among the Sahel capitals has a population of over 1 million. Cities are small, and the urban environment is usually limited to the capital. In Guinea-Bissau, for example, the capital concentrates nearly 85% of the urban population. The increased rates of urbanization are due mainly to migration. In the landlocked countries covered by surveys of the Migration and Urbanization Networks in Western Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger), the rural exodus was directed primarily to other countries. In Senegal and Mauritania, on the other hand, around two-thirds of migrations were internal. Women contribute more than men to urban growth in the Sahel. Returning migrants also show a strong preference for capital cities. Labor markets are international for men but national for women. Urban unemployment rates in the Sahel countries studied were lower for migrants than nonmigrants.

  2. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-11

    To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural), and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES) designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas of SSA. Specific

  3. Türkiye’de Kentten - Köye Göç Olgusu = The Phenomenon of the Urban - Rural Migration in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul GÜREŞÇİ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, causes and results of the urban-rural migration phenomena were evaluated. The relationship between urban-rural migration and rural-urban migration were determined taking them simultaneously. The significant result of study was that that the urban-rural migration stemmed from social changes taking part in Turkey.

  4. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  5. The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahim, Shah; Kinra, Sanjay; Bowen, Liza

    2010-01-01

    was identified. Migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by interview, examination, and fasting blood samples. Obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular risk factors were compared. A total of 6,510 participants (42......BACKGROUND: Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and may increase the risk of obesity and diabetes. We tested the hypotheses that rural-to-urban migrants have a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes than rural nonmigrants, that migrants would have an intermediate...... prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared with life-long urban and rural dwellers, and that longer time since migration would be associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and of diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The place of origin of people working in factories in north, central, and south India...

  6. Rural-urban Youth Migration and Informal Self-Employment in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bezu, Sosina; Holden, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies in the migration literature indicate that migration is often welfare improving for the migrant. But it is also possible that youth migrants become more susceptible and less competitive in urban areas because of lower endowment in education, experience, financial capital and social network. This report examines the experience of youth migrants, their challenges and opportunities using three sets of data that enable a mapping of youth migration from rural villages to the urban...

  7. Rush to the border? Market liberalization and urban- and rural-origin internal migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andrés; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-09-01

    In this study we examine the social and economic factors driving internal migration flows in Mexico. We pay particular attention to the effect that economic liberalization has had in encouraging migration to border cities. Our analysis of the origin and destination of migrants is carried out at a finer level of geographical detail than ever before. Microdata files from the 2000 population census allow us to distinguish urban- and rural-origin migrants to the largest 115 cities and metropolitan areas in the country. Our results indicate that economic liberalization, measured by the level of foreign investment and employment in the maquiladora export industry, strongly influences migrants' choice of destinations. However, economic liberalization fails to fully account for the attraction of the border, as do the higher emigration rates to the United States from border cities. Our analysis also reveals that migrants to the border region and to cities with high levels of foreign investment are younger, less educated and more likely to be men than migrants to other parts of Mexico. Rural migrants are significantly more likely to move to the border and to cities with high levels of foreign investment than urban migrants. The results of our study have important implication for other countries opening their economies to foreign investment and international trade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rural-urban migration and effects on agricultural labour supply in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... This study analyzed the effects of rural-urban migration on agricultural labour supply in ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, 3-point likert scale, multiple regression ...

  9. Effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Mbah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was assessed to determine the effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria during November 2014 to June 2015. Interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. Results indicate that majority (76.3% of the respondents were males, middle aged and married. Major causes of rural-urban youth migration indicated by the respondents include inadequate employment opportunities in rural areas (M=3.6, search for better education (M=3.5, inadequate social infrastructure such as schools (M=3.4, poor medical care services in rural areas (M=3.4, looking for money through labour (M=3.4, apprenticeship programme (M=3.2, etc. Findings of the study also indicate that reduction of agricultural labour force (M=3.5, low agricultural productivity (M=3.3, high cost of labour (M= 3.3, reduction on demand for locally grown foods (M=2.9, decrease in dependency ratio in the rural areas (M=2.7, reduction on number of mouths to feed (M=2.7, among others were major effects of rural-urban youth migration among farm families. The study recommends that Nigerian government should provide adequate physical and social infrastructure in rural areas in order to encourage youths to remain in agriculture, reduce rural-urban youth migration as well as sustain agriculture for enhanced food security.

  10. A comparison of the migration process to an urban barrio and to a rural community: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, W L; Cartano, D G

    1970-01-01

    The results of 2 case studies on migration in Colombia are outlined and compared. The 1st study examines inmigration to a shantytown, El Carmen, in Bogota. The 2nd study involves inmigration to a community in the eastern interior of Colombia, Granada. Migrants' motives, paths of migration, and personal characteristics are examined, suggesting hypotheses for future studies. Economic reasons were most often listed as motives for moving by both the residents of Granada and El Carmen. The type of economic motives varied greatly between the 2 communities. Reasons such as "looking for land," "establishing a business," or "to find a better life" ranked high in importance among Granada residents. These motives, along with the flight from violence, indicate that the independence provided by land and small business affords the inmigrants to Granada a certain security. Inmigrants to El Carmen were seeking employment. Only 34% of the migrants to El Carmen made 1 or more moves before settling in Bogota. 90% of the rural to rural migrants made 1 or more stops before moving to Granada. 68% of the migrants to El Carmen were born within 100 miles of Bogota while only 18% of the migrants to Granada were born within a 100 mile radius of the community. The usual pattern of the migrant to Granada was to move to a neighboring village, town, or city regardless of whether it was closer to Granada or not. The majority of inmigrants to Granada moved from distances greater than 100 miles. Over 70% of the inmigrants were born in towns and villages of more than 2000 population. If a nucleus of 10,000 inhabitants or more are considered urban, then 46% of the rural to rural migrants resided in urban areas prior to moving to Granada. This suggests that a sizable proportion of the migration to Granada is really urban to rural frontier. Studies done in Colombia and Brazil indicate that migrants to rural areas have a lower educational level than migrants to urban areas. Data from El Carmen and

  11. The effect of agricultural price-support policies on interregional and rural-to-urban migration in Korea: 1976-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, D

    1987-08-01

    The impact of rice price-support policies, designed to increase farmers' income and reduce rural-urban migration in the Republic of Korea, is examined for the period 1976-1980 using a polytomous logistic model. "Our findings revealed that the elasticity of migration with respect to rice yield per origin farm household is positive and is significantly different from zero. The elasticities of migration with respect to rate of urbanization, particularly urban concentration-agglomeration, and population size of the destination are also positive and are significantly different from zero.... Our findings questioned the wisdom of employing rice price price-support programs as a viable policy for reducing interregional and rural-to-urban migration in Korea." excerpt

  12. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Bowen

    Full Text Available Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants.The diets of migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 6,509 participants were included. Median energy intake in the rural, migrant and urban groups was 2731, 3078, and 3224 kcal respectively for men, and 2153, 2504, and 2644 kcal for women (p<0.001. A similar trend was seen for overall intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates (p<0.001, though differences in the proportion of energy from these nutrients were <2%. Migrant and urban participants reported up to 80% higher fruit and vegetable intake than rural participants (p<0.001, and up to 35% higher sugar intake (p<0.001. Meat and dairy intake were higher in migrant and urban participants than rural participants (p<0.001, but varied by region. Sibling-pair analyses confirmed these results. There was no evidence of associations with time in urban area.Rural to urban migration appears to be associated with both positive (higher fruit and vegetables intake and negative (higher energy and fat intake dietary changes. These changes may be of relevance to cardiovascular health and warrant public health interventions.

  13. The prevalence of angina symptoms and association with cardiovascular risk factors, among rural, urban and rural to urban migrant populations in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman Robert H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration in low- and middle-income countries causes an increase in individual cardiovascular risk. Cost-effective interventions at early stages of the natural history of coronary disease such as angina may stem an epidemic of premature coronary deaths in these countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of angina in developing countries, whilst the understanding the aetiology of angina is complicated by the difficulty in measuring it across differing populations. Methods The PERU MIGRANT study was designed to investigate differences between rural-to-urban migrant and non-migrant groups in specific cardiovascular disease risk factors. Mass-migration seen in Peru from 1980s onwards was largely driven by politically motivated violence resulting in less 'healthy migrant' selection bias. The Rose angina questionnaire was used to record chest pain, which was classified definite, possible and non-exertional. Mental health was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular disease risk factors and mental health were used to assess the risk of chest pain in the migrant and urban groups compared to the rural group, and further to assess the relationship (age and sex-adjusted between risk factors, mental health and chest pain. Results Compared to the urban group, rural dwellers had a greatly increased likelihood of possible/definite angina (multi-adjusted OR 2.82 (1.68- 4.73. Urban and migrant groups had higher levels of risk factors (e.g. smoking - 20.1% urban, 5.5% rural. No diabetes was seen in the rural dwellers who complained of possible/definite angina. Rural dwellers had a higher prevalence of mood disorder and the presence of a mood disorder was associated with possible/definite angina in all three groups, but not consistently with non-exertional chest pain. Conclusion Rural groups had a higher prevalence of angina as

  14. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  15. Causes and consequences of rural-urban migration: The case of Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babi Moses, Lomoro Alfred; Guogping, Xiong; Celestino Ladu John, Leju

    2017-08-01

    Migration is the movement of people from one ecological region to another; it may be on temporary or permanent basis. This research studies focused on the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan as a case study. The stratified random sampling method on the basis of existing payam (districts) was used to divide the study area into three zones of Juba, Kator and Munuku. Data were generated through primary and secondary sources. The data generated were analyzed using SPSS. The findings of the study show that Munuki payam covers most of the migrants. The study also reveals that males migrate more than the females in Juba and migration is high within the age cohorts of 30-39 years and 40-49 years old. Furthermore, the study revealed that the propensity to migrate is directly related to educational attainment. It can be inferred from the findings of the study that the majority of migrants in Juba Metropolitan migrated in search of employment while others migrated to continue their education while others migrated in search for basic amenities, to join relatives and get married. This means, until the imbalance or disparity in socio-economic development between the rural and urban areas are removed, no amount of persuasion or force can put a stop to rural-urban migration and its’ multiplying effects in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan.

  16. Rural-urban migration, urban unemployment and underemployment, and job-search activity in LDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, G S

    1975-06-01

    A quantity adjustment framework is used to analyze unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries (LDCs). The basic premise of the formal theoretical model presented is that the same kinds of forces that explain the choices of workers between the rural and urban sectors can also explain thier choices between 1 labor market and another within an urban area and are most likely made simultaneously. The decision makers, whether family units or individuals, are presumed to consider the various labor market opportunities available to them and to choose the one which maximizes their expected future income. In the model the primary equilibrating force is taken to be the movement of workers between labor markets, not changes in wages. The point of departure is the received theory of rural urban migration in LDS, which is the model of Harris and Todaro (1970). The 1st step is a summary of the basic features of the model. While accepting their basic approach emphasizing movement of workers rather than changes in wages, it is shown that the particular implication of the model with respect to the equilibrium urban unemployment rate substantially overstates the rates actually observed by Turnham (1971) and others. The analysis is then extended to consider several important factors which have previously been neglected--a more generalized approach to the job search process, the possibility of underemployment in the so-called urban "murky sector," preferential treatment by employers of the better educated, and consideration of labor turnover--and demonstrate that the resulting framework gives predictions closer to actual experience. Harris and Todaro in their original discussion concluded that a combination of a wage subsidy in the modern sector and physical restriction of migration would be required to realize a first best state lying on the economy's production possibility frontier. Subsequently Bhagwati and Srinivasan (1974) challenged them and demonstrated that a

  17. Migration magnet: The role of work experience in rural-urban wage differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelsen, Maren; Haisken-DeNew, John

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the nationally representative Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) to identify systematic differences in earnings returns to human capital endowments for formal and informal sector workers in rural and urban Mexico. Returns to experience are critical in explaining the large urban wage gap in a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and indeed drive pull migration from the rural informal sector to the urban informal sector, exacerbating urban population congestion in already over-crowded m...

  18. Rural-urban migration and socioeconomic development in Ghana: some discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twumasi-ankrah, K

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of rural-urban migration as a source of social and behavioral change in Ghana. It explores the extent to which the urban social environment in Ghana generates conflicts for migrants with a different value orientation and the degree of influence of the urban social environment on migrants' behavior. The first part of the discussion focuses on the nature of Ghana's urbanization process, the motivation and characteristics of rural-urban migrants, and the nature of the social interaction between migrants and the social urban environment. Migrants contribute directly and indirectly to rural development in many ways. Some urban migrants achieve economic and material wealth and, through their attachment to voluntary tribal associations, assist local community development. Government can augment this process of migrant investment in rural life by identifying these actions as patriotic efforts and awarding citizenship medals or challenge grants. Governments need to review their citizenship laws carefully in light of the "brain drain" issues in the new world order and maximize the flow of resources, technical skills, and ideas from international migrants. A high-quality rural labor force can be enticed to live in rural areas by offering higher salaries and benefits, low income tax rates, better housing, and rural electrification and sanitation. Private firms should be offered incentives to locate in rural areas and increase employment opportunities for rural labor. Career advancement of development planners should be tied to program success or some form of public accountability for careful allocation of resources in rural areas. Fertility policies should be sensitive to urban subgroups. Urban and rural social differences are minor and do not impede urban assimilation, but unemployment and underemployment are problems for many.

  19. Implications of rural-urban migration for conservation of the Atlantic Forest and urban growth in Misiones, Argentina (1970-2030).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Andrea E; Grau, Héctor R; Aide, T Mitchell

    2011-05-01

    Global trends of increasing rural-urban migration and population urbanization could provide opportunities for nature conservation, particularly in regions where deforestation is driven by subsistence agriculture. We analyzed the role of rural population as a driver of deforestation and its contribution to urban population growth from 1970 to the present in the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, a global conservation priority. We created future land-use-cover scenarios based on human demographic parameters and the relationship between rural population and land-cover change between 1970 and 2006. In 2006, native forest covered 50% of the province, but by 2030 all scenarios predicted a decrease that ranged from 18 to 39% forest cover. Between 1970 and 2001, rural migrants represented 20% of urban population growth and are expected to represent less than 10% by 2030. This modeling approach shows how rural-urban migration and land-use planning can favor nature conservation with little impact on urban areas.

  20. Rural-to-urban migration and its implication for new cooperative medical scheme coverage and utilization in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Juying

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China has been experiencing the largest rural to urban migration in history. Rural-to-urban migrants are those who leave their hometown for another place in order to work or live without changing their hukou status, which is a household registration system in China, categorizing people as either rural residents or urban residents. Rural-to-urban migrants typically find better job opportunities in destination cities, and these pay higher salaries than available in their home regions. This has served to improve the enrollment rates in the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS of rural families, protecting households from falling into poverty due to diseases. However, current regulations stipulate that people who are registered in China's rural hukou can only participate in their local NCMS, which in turn poses barriers when migrants seek medical services in the health facilities of their destination cities. To examine this issue in greater depth, this study examined the associations between migration, economic status of rural households, and NCMS enrollment rate, as well as NCMS utilization of rural-to-urban migrants. Methods A multistage cluster sampling procedure was adopted. Our sample included 9,097 households and 36,720 individuals. Chi-square test and T-test were used to examine differences between the two populations of migrants and non-migrants based on age, gender, marriage status, and highest level of education. Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the association between migration and household economic status. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the associations between household economic status, migration and enrollment in the NCMS. Results Migration was positively associated with improved household economic status. In households with no migrants, only 11.3% of the population was in the richest quintile, whereas the percentage was more than doubled in households with family members who migrated

  1. Migration and settlement of immigrants in a rural Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Since 2000, international migration has increased in several European countries with settlement in both urban and rural areas. However, the proportion of immigrants settling in rural areas is much larger in the Nordic regions compared to other European countries (Hedberg & Haandrikman, 2014; Søholt......, Aasland, Onsager & Vestby, 2012; Søholt, Tronstad, Rose & Vestby, 2015). At the same time, the Nordic countries have been the destination of a large number of asylum seekers and refugees, many of whom are settled in rural areas. Thus, migration of international migrants; immigrants and refugees change...... the demographic and ethnic composition of rural populations and contribute to the transformation of rural places (Hedberg, Forsberg, & Najib, 2012; Stenbacka: 2012 & 2016 and Søholt, Stenbacka & Nørgaard, 2017). This paper is based on a case study in a rural Danish municipality, where immigrants constitute...

  2. Migration and rural women in China: a look at the gendered impact of large-scale migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, D

    1996-01-01

    This preliminary study explored the impact on women of economic migration from rural to urban areas in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The study focused on economic migration, which accounted for 29% of the reasons for moving. In some provinces such as Guangdong, economic reasons account for almost 60% of in-migrants. Interprovincial migration is primarily economic, followed by marriage, which varies widely by province. Migrants tend to assume occupations that are assigned by gender. Male migrants tend to outnumber female migrants, and women are left to farm. Where migration is gender balanced, the sex ratio in the sending area may be stable, but gender division within individual households is upset. Children may be tended by grandparents in rural areas, when their parents find work in cities. Migrants in urban areas do not have the same rights as permanent urban household registrants and cannot send their children to school or use free or low cost health care. Migrants keep in close contact with home villages. Urban migrants without permanent household registration status face the loss of welfare benefits in urban areas as well as the high cost of purchase of a permanent residence permit, social discrimination, stigma from mass media portrayals, and poor housing. Most rural-urban migration is circular. Female return migrants bring back cash remittances and new family roles and status. Rural migrants are exposed to new urban experiences that are retold in rural areas and that may pose difficulties in readjustment to the hardships of rural life. Urban fertility is delayed and lower than that of rural fertility.

  3. Intellectually Gifted Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children's Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; He, Yunfeng; Tao, Ting; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The term "intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children" refers to intellectually gifted children who are in migration from rural to urban areas. We compared performances on seven attention tasks among intellectually gifted (n = 26) and average (n = 30) rural-to-urban migrant and intellectually gifted urban children (n = 31). Our…

  4. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Methods Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Results Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P grupos incluían habitantes rurales de una región endémica (n=200), inmigrantes de larga duración de zonas rurales a urbanas (n=589), e individuos que vivían en la misma zona urbana (n=196). Las convulsiones se detectaron mediante una encuesta y un neurólogo examinó a quienes habían respondido positivamente. Se procesaron muestras de suero de 981/985 individuos en busca de anticuerpos para cisticercosis mediante inmunoblot. Resultados La prevalencia de epilepsia (por 1,000 personas) era de 15.3 en el grupo urbano, 35.6 en inmigrantes y 25 en habitantes rurales. Se observó un gradiente en la seroprevalencia de los anticuerpos para cisticercosis: grupos urbano 2%, inmigrante 13.5% y rural 18% (p<0.05). Se observó un patrón de aumento similar de mayor seroprevalencia entre inmigrantes según la edad que tenían en el momento de emigrar. En pobladores rurales, había una evidencia importante de asociación entre tener una serología positiva y sufrir convulsiones (p=0

  5. Agent-Based Modeling of China's Rural-Urban Migration and Social Network Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhaohao; Hao, Lingxin

    2018-01-15

    We analyze China's rural-urban migration and endogenous social network structures using agent-based modeling. The agents from census micro data are located in their rural origin with an empirical-estimated prior propensity to move. The population-scale social network is a hybrid one, combining observed family ties and locations of the origin with a parameter space calibrated from census, survey and aggregate data and sampled using a stepwise Latin Hypercube Sampling method. At monthly intervals, some agents migrate and these migratory acts change the social network by turning within-nonmigrant connections to between-migrant-nonmigrant connections, turning local connections to nonlocal connections, and adding among-migrant connections. In turn, the changing social network structure updates migratory propensities of those well-connected nonmigrants who become more likely to move. These two processes iterate over time. Using a core-periphery method developed from the k -core decomposition method, we identify and quantify the network structural changes and map these changes with the migration acceleration patterns. We conclude that network structural changes are essential for explaining migration acceleration observed in China during the 1995-2000 period.

  6. Agent-based modeling of China's rural-urban migration and social network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhaohao; Hao, Lingxin

    2018-01-01

    We analyze China's rural-urban migration and endogenous social network structures using agent-based modeling. The agents from census micro data are located in their rural origin with an empirical-estimated prior propensity to move. The population-scale social network is a hybrid one, combining observed family ties and locations of the origin with a parameter space calibrated from census, survey and aggregate data and sampled using a stepwise Latin Hypercube Sampling method. At monthly intervals, some agents migrate and these migratory acts change the social network by turning within-nonmigrant connections to between-migrant-nonmigrant connections, turning local connections to nonlocal connections, and adding among-migrant connections. In turn, the changing social network structure updates migratory propensities of those well-connected nonmigrants who become more likely to move. These two processes iterate over time. Using a core-periphery method developed from the k-core decomposition method, we identify and quantify the network structural changes and map these changes with the migration acceleration patterns. We conclude that network structural changes are essential for explaining migration acceleration observed in China during the 1995-2000 period.

  7. Migration and Land Rental as Risk Response in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Patrick S.; Shively, Gerald E.

    2011-01-01

    Households in developing countries take various actions to smooth income or consumption as a means of managing or responding to risk. One of the principal means of smoothing income is through the diversification of income sources, including non-farm employment and rural-urban migration. An important consumption smoothing strategy involves the accumulation and depletion of assets. We examine migration and land rental market participation as responses to risk in rural China. Using a longitudina...

  8. Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Alisson F.; Carr, David L.

    2005-07-01

    The Ecuadorian Amazon, one of the richest reserves of biodiversity in the world, has faced one of the highest rates of deforestation of any Amazonian nation. Most of this forest elimination has been caused by agricultural colonization that followed the discovery of oil fields in 1967. Since the 1990s, an increasing process of urbanization has also engendered new patterns of population mobility within the Amazon, along with traditional ways by which rural settlers make their living. However, while very significant in its effects on deforestation, urbanization and regional development, population mobility within the Amazon has hardly been studied at all, as well as the distinct migration patterns between men and women. This paper uses a longitudinal dataset of 250 farm households in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon to understand differentials between men and women migrants to urban and rural destinations and between men and women non-migrants. First, we use hazard analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimator to obtain the cumulative probability that an individual living in the study area in 1990 or at time t, will out-migrated at some time, t+ n, before 1999. Results indicate that out-migration to other rural areas in the Amazon, especially pristine areas is considerably greater than out-migration to the growing, but still incipient, Amazonian urban areas. Furthermore, men are more likely to out-migrate to rural areas than women, while the reverse occurs for urban areas. Difference-of-means tests were employed to examine potential factors accounting for differentials between male and female out-migration to urban and rural areas. Among the key results, relative to men younger women are more likely to out-migrate to urban areas; more difficult access from farms to towns and roads constrains women's migration; and access to new lands in the Amazon-an important cause of further deforestation-is more associated with male out-migration. Economic factors such as

  9. Child Development in the Face of Rural-to-Urban Migration in China: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lamei; Mesman, Judi

    2015-11-01

    In the last 30 years, China has undergone one of the largest rural-to-urban migrations in human history, with many children left behind because of parental migration. We present a meta-analytic review of empirical studies on Chinese children's rural-to-urban migration and on rural children left behind because of parental migration. We examine how these events relate to children's emotional, social, and academic developmental outcomes. We include publications in English and in Chinese to uncover and quantify a part of the research literature that has been inaccessible to most Western scholars in the field of child and family studies. Overall, both migrant children and children left behind by migrant parents in China show significantly less favorable functioning across domains than other Chinese children. It appears that, similar to processes found in other parts of the world, the experience of economic and acculturation stress as well as disrupted parent-child relations constitute a risk for nonoptimal child functioning in the Chinese context. Further, we found evidence for publication bias against studies showing less favorable development for migrant children and children left behind. We discuss the results in terms of challenges to Chinese society and to future empirical research on Chinese family life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The Rapid Urban Growth Triad: A New Conceptual Framework for Examining the Urban Transition in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Farrell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the urban transition is a universal event that unfolds in all countries, the determinants, patterns, and outcomes do not necessarily follow a uniform process. With the urban transition being basically completed in developed countries around the turn of the 21st century, the growth of cities today is almost entirely confined to developing countries. Still, much of our conceptual understanding of this process is derived from earlier accounts, with definitions rooted in a historical context. This has resulted in common misconceptions such as a tendency to view the growth of cities primarily as an outcome of rural to urban migration, neglecting the growing contributions of urban natural population increase and reclassification of rural areas. A tendency to treat the components of urban growth in isolation has created a rift within the urban studies discourse, preventing any real theorization of their combined impacts and the interplay among them. Applying a systems thinking approach, this paper introduces a multidisciplinary framework for conceptualizing rapid urban growth in developing countries. The framework offers explanatory power to previously neglected components of urban growth and serves as a diagnostic for examining the urban transition—ultimately revealing new policy levers for managing it in a sustainable way.

  11. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....

  12. Rural-urban migration in Nigeria: consequences on housing, health-care and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnnie, P B

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the results of an on-going longitudinal study in selected high-density areas of Port Harcourt metropolis involving 240 respondents from 4 groups. When respondents in the 1st cohort (watchnights, laborers, and messengers) were asked what motivated them to move from rural areas to the city, 94% said to get better jobs and increase their earnings. 98% of the clerks migrated to Port Harcourt for better jobs and to find employment. All 40 school leavers confirmed that they had moved to the city to find jobs. In spite of the various statutory provisions and policy statements relating to housing in Nigeria there still exists an acute and noticeable shortage both in rural and urban housing. There not only exists a dearth of residential accommodation in these urban centers, but there is also a seemingly atrocious disparity in housing conditions between a large majority of poor urban dwellers and a negligible number of urban residents who are reasonably wealthy. With the growing number of persons migrating from the rural areas to the urban centers, there are also likely to be problems of overcrowding which would exacerbate the problems of communicable diseases and pollution. In terms of the allocation of medical personnel, equipment, and drugs, there is a disproportionately skewed distribution in favor of urban dwellers. 1 important cause of urban employment problems is the phenomenal growth in urbanization and the inability of these urban centers to be able to utilize or absorb the urban labor that was created through the process of urbanization. The other problem is the extremely slow pace of industrialization as compared to urbanization . A serious malady responsible for urban unemployment is the staggering rate at which young school leavers migrate to the city. Nigeria as a nation state has assumed the most dangerous dimensions of capitalism by deliberately erecting inequality and poverty in society. 1 way by which the state, controlled by the

  13. Migration in the urban-rural hierarchy of China: insights from the microdata of the 1987 National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Liaw, K L; Zeng, Y

    1997-04-01

    Microdata from the 1987 National Population Survey are used to analyze internal migration in China in the 1980s. The focus is on the impact of migration policies on rural-urban migration. "There are two main findings. First, although the migration policy resulted in a very low migration level and systematic distortions in migration schedules, its encouragement of downward migrations was very ineffective, whereas its control on rural-to-urban migrations was partially weakened by the strong upward aspirations of rural families awakened by recent economic reform. Consequently, net in-migration contributed substantially to the growth both of city and of town populations. Second, although the level of education had a strong positive effect on the migration propensities both of males and of females in general, it had a strong negative effect on the migration propensities of females at the time of marriage, a finding which suggests that the families at subsistence income level tended to marry their daughters to grooms in other communities in order to reduce the risk of familial income shortfalls." excerpt

  14. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number ...

  15. Global assessment of rural-urban interface in Portugal related to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Marj; Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G.

    2018-06-01

    The rural-urban interface (RUI), known as the area where structures and other human developments meet or intermingle with wildland and rural area, is at present a central focus of wildfire policy and its mapping is crucial for wildfire management. In the Mediterranean Basin, humans cause the vast majority of fires and fire risk is particularly high in the proximity of infrastructure and of rural/wildland areas. RUI's extension changes under the pressure of environmental and anthropogenic factors, such as urban growth, fragmentation of rural areas, deforestation and, more in general, land use/land cover change (LULCC). As with other Mediterranean countries, Portugal has experienced significant LULCC in the last decades in response to migration, rural abandonment, ageing of population and trends associated with the high socioeconomic development. In the present study, we analyzed the LULCC occurring in this country in the 1990-2012 period with the main objective of investigating how these changes affected RUI's evolution. Moreover, we performed a qualitative and quantitative characterization of burnt areas within the RUI in relation to the observed changes. Obtained results disclose important LULCC and reveal their spatial distribution, which is far from uniform within the territory. A significant increase in artificial surfaces was registered near the main metropolitan communities of the northwest, littoral-central and southern regions, whilst the abandonment of agricultural land near the inland urban areas led to an increase in uncultivated semi-natural and forest areas. Within agricultural areas, heterogeneous patches suffered the greatest changes and were the main contributors to the increase in urban areas; moreover, this land cover class, together with forests, was highly affected by wildfires in terms of burnt area. Finally, from this analysis and during the investigated period, it appears that RUI increased in Portugal by more than two-thirds, while the total

  16. Rural, urban and migrant differences in non-communicable disease risk-factors in middle income countries: a cross-sectional study of WHO-SAGE data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyinlola Oyebode

    Full Text Available Understanding how urbanisation and rural-urban migration influence risk-factors for non-communicable disease (NCD is crucial for developing effective preventative strategies globally. This study compares NCD risk-factor prevalence in urban, rural and migrant populations in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.Study participants were 39,436 adults within the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE, surveyed 2007-2010. Risk ratios (RR for each risk-factor were calculated using logistic regression in country-specific and all country pooled analyses, adjusted for age, sex and survey design. Fully adjusted models included income quintile, marital status and education.Regular alcohol consumption was lower in migrant and urban groups than in rural groups (pooled RR and 95%CI: 0.47 (0.31-0.68; 0.58, (0.46-0.72, respectively. Occupational physical activity was lower (0.86 (0.72-0.98; 0.76 (0.65-0.85 while active travel and recreational physical activity were higher (pooled RRs for urban groups; 1.05 (1.00-1.09, 2.36 (1.95-2.83, respectively; for migrant groups: 1.07 (1.0 -1.12, 1.71 (1.11-2.53, respectively. Overweight, raised waist circumference and diagnosed diabetes were higher in urban groups (1.19 (1.04-1.35, 1.24 (1.07-1.42, 1.69 (1.15-2.47, respectively. Exceptions to these trends exist: obesity indicators were higher in rural Russia; active travel was lower in urban groups in Ghana and India; and in South Africa, urban groups had the highest alcohol consumption.Migrants and urban dwellers had similar NCD risk-factor profiles. These were not consistently worse than those seen in rural dwellers. The variable impact of urbanisation on NCD risk must be considered in the design and evaluation of strategies to reduce the growing burden of NCDs globally.

  17. Urban Agriculture: Search for Agricultural Practice in Urbanized Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celile Özçiçek Dölekoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries involves unplanned migration, unemployment and poverty. The steady shrinking of rural areas and the use of agricultural land for other purposes are progressively increasing the pressure on natural resources. This development on the one hand increases the risk to food security, and on the other triggers climate change. The rural population who migrate to the cities or who are absorbed into urban areas continue their agricultural activities in the urban in order to provide themselves with an income or to maintain their food security. In the big cities of the developed world, contact with nature is kept by means of hobby gardens, recreational areas and urban and suburban plant and animal farming, and creative ideas such as roof gardens can be found. This development, known as urban agriculture, is practiced by 800 million people in the world. Urban agriculture has many economic, social and environmental benefits, but it may also have risks and adverse effects. In this study, the developments in this area in Turkey and the world are presented, and all aspects of its effects and outcomes are discussed.

  18. Coming out and Coming Back: Rural Gay Migration and the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annes, Alexis; Redlin, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the complex meaning and role of the city in American and French rural gay men's imaginary and life experience. It explores how gay men who grew up in the country build their sense of self through back-and-forth movement from rural to urban spaces. Therefore, it questions traditional gay migration studies, which have often…

  19. Discrimination, perceived social inequity, and mental health among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-04-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.

  20. [Ministerial Conference on Migration and Urbanization in West Africa: declaration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This declaration made by the participants of the Ministerial Conference on Migration and Urbanization in Western Africa, held in Bamako during November 5, 1999, commits the countries of the region to do the following: follow the urbanization process in an effort to make African cities hubs of development and social progress; improve the geographic distribution of populations; bring economic development to mid-sized cities; implement rural development projects and programs, especially in the least advantaged zones; manage urban constraints; define new pathways and coordinated approaches; implement measures which account for those who are newly migrating, such as women and young people; minimize administrative hurdles associated with the return and reintegration of migrants; provide those bodies responsible for urbanization and migration concerns with the communication tools they require; take the necessary measures to facilitate migrants¿ stays and inform potential migrants about the conditions of such stay in host countries; adapt laws to conform with the charters of subregional organizations; consider migration concerns at the commission level; and implement clear, explicit migration policies. Recommendations are offered to the Permanent Interstate Committee Against Drought in the Sahel (CILSS) as well as to all subregional organizations. It is hoped that international organizations and partner agencies in development will support countries¿ efforts.

  1. Immunisation coverage in rural-urban migrant children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoh, Abiyemi Benita; Plugge, Emma

    2016-03-01

    The majority of children who die from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) live in low-income and-middle-income countries (LMICs). With the rapid urbanisation and rural-urban migration ongoing in LMICs, available research suggests that migration status might be a determinant of immunisation coverage in LMICs, with rural-urban migrant (RUM) children being less likely to be immunised. To examine and synthesise the data on immunisation coverage in RUM children in LMICs and to compare coverage in these children with non-migrant children. A multiple database search of published and unpublished literature on immunisation coverage for the routine Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines in RUM children aged 5 years and below was conducted. Following a staged exclusion process, studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality and data extracted for meta-analysis. Eleven studies from three countries (China, India and Nigeria) were included in the review. There was substantial statistical heterogeneity between the studies, thus no summary estimate was reported for the meta-analysis. Data synthesis from the studies showed that the proportion of fully immunised RUM children was lower than the WHO bench-mark of 90% at the national level. RUMs were also less likely to be fully immunised than the urban-non-migrants and general population. For the individual EPI vaccines, all but two studies showed lower immunisation coverage in RUMs compared with the general population using national coverage estimates. This review indicates that there is an association between rural-urban migration and immunisation coverage in LMICs with RUMs being less likely to be fully immunised than the urban non-migrants and the general population. Specific efforts to improve immunisation coverage in this subpopulation of urban residents will not only reduce morbidity and mortality from VPDs in migrants but will also reduce health inequity and the risk of infectious disease

  2. THE RURAL IMAGINARY OF THE URBAN READER: The mythic dream of a house in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt, within a socio-anthropological
    approach, to understand an apparently common phenomenon: the dream many urban dwellers have of owning a house in the country. The investigation is carried out among readers of the Globo Rural magazine, a publication which specializes in agricultural matters. The subscribers live in the city of São Paulo and they do not own any kind of property in rural areas. The purpose of this study is to try to apprehend the motives of this imaginary vision, thus contributing to the debate on the relations between country and town, as well as to an understanding of the interaction between subjects and symbolic cultural products in contemporary urban daily life. Faced with the complex relationship between man and nature and the historical condition experienced in a metropolis at this turn of the century, it is perceived that when dreaming of a house in the country, urban readers of the magazine do not simply turn nostalgically to a rural past. In fact, they express their deep criticism of the civilizing model of urbanity in the metropolis at the present time, and, looking ahead, they imagine a better future away
    from the city in a rural environment, closer to nature, in a place with more solidarity, away from violence, heavy traffic, pollution, and therefore with improved quality of life.

  3. Migration and the Problem of Old Age People in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Gautam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of migration in Nepal imply that the extensive out-migration of young people from rural areas, to foreign and internal urban centres, coincides with a rise in the problem of older couples in rural areas. This article examines the impact of migration on living condition and internal feelings of old age couples by drawing on the results of sociological and demographic field studies in Kandebash Village Development Committee (VDC comprising multiethnic communities of western Nepal. The methodology for identifying older people is, social survey followed by direct interview with semi-structured questionnaire, examining variations by socio-economic strata and family structures. Comparative analysis indicates considerable heterogeneity in past and present migration patterns, both within and between countries. Economically higher status families are commonly able to reinforce their position by making better use of emigration opportunities. These families are migrating permanently to urban centers within country. Migrants from economically middle and lower status families are continuing temporary migration to foreign countries. Temporary migration, both within and between countries, is making old age couples alone in rural villages. The migrants' financial and material contributions are a nominal support. The old age lonely couples are facing many problems such as feeling loneliness, helplessness, frustration, increased household and social burdening.Key words: Migration, emigration, immigration, old age couple, rural migration, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1361Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.145-160

  4. Effect of rural-urban migration of youths on agricultural labour supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of rural-urban migration of youths on agricultural labour supply in Umuahia north local government area of Abia State, Nigeria was examined. Data for the study were collected from 100 respondents selected from three the three wards in the area. Data analysis was by use of frequencies, percentages and chi-square ...

  5. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

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    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  6. Association between Spouse/Child Separation and Migration-Related Stress among a Random Sample of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Zhu, Chaoyang; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China. Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45) from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design. 16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants. Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

  7. Association between Spouse/Child Separation and Migration-Related Stress among a Random Sample of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China.Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45 from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ, an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only, 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only. Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation. Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05. Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

  8. The emergence and consolidation of the Urban-Rural Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of a wider metropolitan region. Most recently, however, a shift of migration towards the urban centre has occurred. Was the emergence of the urban-rural region just an ephemeral phenomenon? Migration patterns are used to analyse urban-rural relationships. Generally, in-migration was concentrated in areas...

  9. Rural, Urban and Migrant Differences in Non-Communicable Disease Risk-Factors in Middle Income Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study of WHO-SAGE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Oyinlola; Pape, Utz J.; Laverty, Anthony A.; Lee, John T.; Bhan, Nandita; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how urbanisation and rural-urban migration influence risk-factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) is crucial for developing effective preventative strategies globally. This study compares NCD risk-factor prevalence in urban, rural and migrant populations in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Methods Study participants were 39,436 adults within the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), surveyed 2007–2010. Risk ratios (RR) for each risk-factor were calculated using logistic regression in country-specific and all country pooled analyses, adjusted for age, sex and survey design. Fully adjusted models included income quintile, marital status and education. Results Regular alcohol consumption was lower in migrant and urban groups than in rural groups (pooled RR and 95%CI: 0.47 (0.31–0.68); 0.58, (0.46–0.72), respectively). Occupational physical activity was lower (0.86 (0.72–0.98); 0.76 (0.65–0.85)) while active travel and recreational physical activity were higher (pooled RRs for urban groups; 1.05 (1.00–1.09), 2.36 (1.95–2.83), respectively; for migrant groups: 1.07 (1.0 -1.12), 1.71 (1.11–2.53), respectively). Overweight, raised waist circumference and diagnosed diabetes were higher in urban groups (1.19 (1.04–1.35), 1.24 (1.07–1.42), 1.69 (1.15–2.47), respectively). Exceptions to these trends exist: obesity indicators were higher in rural Russia; active travel was lower in urban groups in Ghana and India; and in South Africa, urban groups had the highest alcohol consumption. Conclusion Migrants and urban dwellers had similar NCD risk-factor profiles. These were not consistently worse than those seen in rural dwellers. The variable impact of urbanisation on NCD risk must be considered in the design and evaluation of strategies to reduce the growing burden of NCDs globally. PMID:25849356

  10. Impact of migration on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, M; Yang, X

    1994-01-01

    Much lower levels of fertility in urban than rural areas throughout sub-Saharan Africa imply that fertility decline in the region may be facilitated by rapid urbanization and rural-to-urban migration. The present study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in six countries--Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Togo and Uganda--to assess the impact of long-term rural-urban female migration on fertility. Results of logit analyses indicate that in most countries women who leave the countryside represent the higher fertility segment of the rural population in the years before migration. Migrants' risk of conception declines dramatically in all countries around the time of migration and remains lower in the long run among most migrant groups than among rural and urban nonmigrants. Descriptive analyses suggest that the decline in migrant fertility is related to the rapid and pronounced improvement in standard of living experienced by migrants after settling in the urban area and may be due in part to temporary spousal separation.

  11. Transplantation or rurality? Migration and HIV risk among Chinese men who have sex with men in the urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Fu, Rong; Tang, Weiming; Cao, Bolin; Pan, Stephen W; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D; Kumi Smith, M

    2018-01-01

    Migration of men who have sex with men (MSM) from rural to urban areas is common across low- and middle-income countries and is widely believed to contribute to elevated HIV risk among migrant MSM in urban areas. Little consensus exists on whether their risk is due to their transplantation or their being from resource-constrained rural areas. This study seeks to clarify the relationship between migration and HIV risks by comparing differences in HIV-related risky sexual behaviours and healthcare utilization across competing conceptualizations of migratory statuses. In July 2016, MSM ≥16 years old currently residing in one of eight urban cities in China were recruited for an online cross-sectional survey, which collected information on socio-demographics, sexual behaviours, HIV care-seeking behaviours, and healthcare utilization. Based on a question about residency status, each participant was classified as an urban local resident, urban transplant, or rural transplant. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between risky behaviours and healthcare utilization among these three groups. Among 2007 MSM, the proportion of local, urban transplant and rural transplant were 32% (648/2007), 24% (478/2007), and 44% (881/2007), respectively. Compared with urban local resident MSM, urban transplant MSM were more likely to have ever tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 1.80). Compared with urban transplant MSM, rural transplant MSM were less likely to have utilized any governmental sexual health services in the past three months (aOR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.93), ever tested for HIV (aOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.96), ever initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) (aOR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.52), and ever purchased sex (aOR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.85). No other significant differences were found in sexual behaviours among three groups. The widely used local

  12. Learning from HIV: exploring migration and health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearey, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa is associated with high HIV prevalence and diverse population movements, including temporary, circular movements between rural and urban areas within countries (internal migration), and movements across borders (international migration). Whilst most migration in southern Africa is associated with the search for improved livelihood opportunities in urban areas a small--but significant--number of people are forced to migrate to escape persecution or civil war. This paper utilises recent empirical studies conducted in South Africa to explore linkages between migration into urban areas and health, focusing on HIV. It is shown that the relationship between migration and HIV is complex; that both internal and international migrants move to urban areas for reasons other than healthcare seeking; and that most migratory movements into urban areas involve the positive selection of healthy individuals. Whilst healthy migration has economic benefits for rural sending households, the data uncovers an important process of return migration (internally or across borders) in times of sickness, with the burden of care placed on the rural, sending household. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive response that maintains the health of migrants in urban areas, and provides support to rural areas in times of sickness.

  13. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Rural areas are presently challenged by various restructuring processes; functionally and economically with changes in employment structure etc. as well as social and cultural transformations due to demographic change, population loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural...

  14. Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmers, A; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Gilman, RH; McDermott, AY; Smeeth, L; Miranda, JJ

    2015-01-01

    : To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES ...

  15. Rural-urban migrants - Challenges to Kilimo Kwanza initiatives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 80% of the population in Iringa region lives in rural areas where majority relies on agricultural productions. In spite of this dependency, 80% of agricultural practices are done using simple hand tools which makes rural life relatively tasking. These tasking rural lives are thought to accelerate rural-urban migration in ...

  16. Study and Comparison of Rural and Urban Household Income Distribution in Khorasan Province and Country during 2007-2012

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    R. Jamshidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined distrbution of household income in Khorasan Razavi province and the country for urban and rural areas, seprately. Using household income and expenditure statistics compiled by the Statistical Center of Iran during 2007-2012 the Gini index, Tile index, Atkinson index and the tenth docile to the first docile were applied.The study findings indicate that during the studied period income inequality in the country has been decreased. The levels of disparity in the urban areas have been usually higher than its levels in the country. , while the levels of disparity in the rural areas have been always lower than its levels in the country.. Morever, income distributions in the urban areas and the entire province have been always more uneven than what has been seen for the rural areas. Analysing the Tile and Atkinson indicies (ε=1 shows that both ascending and descending trends of the two indicies were consistent with the Gini index and thus, the three indicies are compatible and validate each other. On the other hand, analysing the Gross expenditures per capita for households and the Gini index shows that the levels of welfare in urban and rural areas of Khorasan were almost constant, however the index for the urban areas of the country has been decreased and for the rural areas has been increased. The social welfare often have been lower for the the rural areas than the social welfare for the urban areas. The results indicate significant differences in income distributions among the province, the country's rural areas and the urban areas.The sudy therefore proposes regional plannings to be considered.

  17. Comparative Study on Migration, Urbanization and Development in the ESCAP Region (RAS/P13/79). Rev. version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Development of a study project by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) on migration, urbanization, and development in the following countries is described: Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The project's immediate goal is to assist decision makers in formulating population redistribution policies. It was recommended that ESCAP develop and test a migration questionnaire to assist member countries in undertaking surveys to study the interrelationships of migration and development. Upon completion of survey manuals to assist in the survey implementation, it was suggested that ESCAP run a series of in-country workshops to discuss the applications of survey results for policy formulation. A national migration survey will be taken in each country in the early 1980s in order to discern pattern and type of population mobility, factors that cause people to move or not to move, and the consequences of migration on places of origin and destination. A sample of 14,000 households in each country will be selected and 1 person of age 15-64 will be chosen as the respondent for each household. the following are some items which will be studied: 1) volume of migration streams within and between metropolitan areas and urban-rural areas; 2) decision making factors; 3) interactions between population movement and family structure, chages in fertility levels, employment, and education; 4) impact of agricultural systems on seasonal movements; 5) contributions of migrants to the cities; and 6) implications of international migration to and from the country. Leading family planning agencies will use these results to develop policy relating to population distribution, industry location, migration laws, regional economic planning, modern technology, and rural education. The management framework of the project is presented. After these results are published, government agencies can utilize them by

  18. DOES RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION PLACE ADOLESCENTS AT RISK OF DELETERIOUS SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OUTCOMES? EVIDENCE FROM HAITI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the links between migration and sexual and reproductive health among rural-to-urban migrant youth in Haiti. It evaluates behavioural, knowledge and attitudinal components from the perspective of three competing explanations for migrants' behaviours: adaptation, disruption and selection. Discrete-time event history analysis is employed to compare these hypotheses using Haiti Demographic and Health Survey data (N=1215 adolescent girls, N=829 adolescent boys). Multi-level models are used to compare changes in knowledge and attitudes in individuals using data from the Haiti Youth Transitions Study (N=223). The findings reveal that disruption is the most plausible explanation for the timing of migration and first sex among girls. However, contrary to the assumption that migrant youth risk experiencing first sex earlier, girls are less likely to experience first sex near the time they migrate, and rural-to-urban migrant boys may experience first sex at later ages. The high aspirations of migrant youth provide a likely explanation for these findings. Furthermore, male migrants accumulate less protective knowledge, which is consistent with the disruption hypothesis, and migrants endorse premarital sex similarly to non-migrants. Sexual and reproductive health curricula should be adapted to the unique needs of migrant youth, and youth should be targeted before they migrate.

  19. Rural-to-Urban Migration, Strain, and Juvenile Delinquency: A Study of Eighth-Grade Students in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Bohm, Maggie; Zhong, Hua

    2018-02-01

    This examination of minor and serious delinquency among eighth graders in a large southern Chinese city, Guangzhou, also compared groups of these students, observing differences between the delinquency of migrants and that of urban natives. Data used were originally collected for the study "Stuck in the City: Migration and Delinquency Among Migrant Adolescents in Guangzhou." The present study asked whether and how various sources of strain and social control factors explained students' delinquency, questioning how meaningfully migration status moderated several of the observed delinquency relationships. Of students in the sample, 741 reported being natives of Guangzhou, and 497 reported migrating to Guangzhou from a rural area. The study conceptualized internal migration as a strain factor leading to delinquency, but the analyses did not suggest direct association between internal migration and delinquency. Results generally supported Agnew's theory, and, what's more, they tended to confirm that migration status moderated juvenile delinquency.

  20. Community Life as a Motive for Migration from the Urban Center to the Rural Periphery in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel

    2010-01-01

    A white house topped by a red roof, set in a garden, surrounded by a lawn dotted with trees and shrubs--this is not just a child's naive drawing. It is the aspiration of many in the modern world, Israelis among them. This case study deals with the inner migration of families, mainly from the urban center of Israel, to rural communities in its…

  1. Impact of migration on rural employment and earnings in the Western Development Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, I P

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the impact of migration on rural employment and income in the Western Development Region of Nepal. Data were obtained from interviews conducted among a sample population among villages in the mountain zone of the north, to the Terai in the south. The study area boundaries are irregular in order to ensure adequate spatial, topographic, and socioeconomic representation. The sample included 1387 hill people, 1248 mountain people, and 96 Terai people. Only 15.8% of the sample had access roads to villages in hill areas. 51% had access to roads in the Terai. There is no history of occupational mobility, but settlements changed over time as an adjustment to conditions. Pioneer models of development that aimed to increase economic opportunity included planned settlements. Presently, migration is comprised of rural to rural, rural to urban, and urban to urban. Rural to rural migration is primarily short distances, while long distances accompany hill to Terai moves. 37.0% of immigrants in hill areas migrate between hill districts. About 33% of hill valley settlers were first generation in-migrants, of which about 60% were migrants from hill settlements. Over 60% of the Terai plains' immigrants were from hill districts. The largest short distance movements were from higher to lower elevations, followed by horizontal movements. Permanent emigration has declined in recent years. At least one member from 34.9% of households was a temporary emigrant seeking employment. 41.5% of households had at least one employee in the Eastern Pokhara Valley. Many hill emigrants travel to foreign countries. Migrants were better educated and more involved in agriculture and salaried jobs. Analysis of variance findings indicates that rural temporary migrants came from households with smaller landholdings and larger family size. Findings support the Todaro hypothesis and findings of House and Rempel (1980) in Kenya, that reflect the benefits from migration.

  2. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  3. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among rural and urban groups and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson Creber, Ruth M; Smeeth, Liam; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime

    2010-07-01

    To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of rural-to-urban migrants in Peru versus lifetime rural and urban residents and to determine any associations between low physical activity and four cardiovascular risk factors: obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m²), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) cross-sectional study was designed to measure physical activity among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The World Health Organization (WHO) age-standardized prevalence of low physical activity was 2.2% in lifetime rural residents, 32.2% in rural-to-urban migrants, and 39.2% in lifetime urban residents. The adjusted odds ratios for low physical activity were 21.43 and 32.98 for migrant and urban groups respectively compared to the rural group. The adjusted odds ratio for being obese was 1.94 for those with low physical activity. There was no evidence of an association between low physical activity and blood pressure levels, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome. People living in a rural area had much higher levels of physical activity and lower risk of being overweight and obese compared to those living in an urban area of Lima. Study participants from the same rural area who had migrated to Lima had levels of physical inactivity and obesity similar to those who had always lived in Lima. Interventions aimed at maintaining higher levels of physical activity among rural-to-urban migrants may help reduce the epidemic of obesity in urban cities.

  4. Post-Secondary Education and Rural-Urban Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synge, J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined education and career plans of Scottish rural youth who entered post-secondary education in order to determine the extent to which the educational system offers rural youth not only specific training but only entry to the urban labour market. (Author/RK)

  5. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population Estimates, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Estimates consists of country-level estimates of urban, rural and total population and land area country-wide and...

  6. Female Migration, Local Context and Contraception Use in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are studies of the influence of rural-urban migration on contraceptive use in Africa, one question poorly explored is how the urban destination context shapes rural-urban migrants' use of contraceptives. Using data from the 2003 Mozambique Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the effect of ...

  7. Migration plans of the rural populations of the Third World countries: a probit analysis of micro-level data from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdevitt, T M; Hawley, A H; Udry, J R; Gadalla, S; Leoprapai, B; Cardona, R

    1986-07-01

    This study 1) examines the extent to which a given set of microlevel factors has predictive value in different socioeconomic settings and 2) demonstrates the utility of a probit estimation technique in examining plans of rural populations to migrate. Data were collected in 1977-1979 in Thailand, Egypt, and Colombia, 3 countries which differ in culture, extent of urbanization, and proportion of labor force engaged in nonextractive industries. The researchers used identical questionnaires and obtained interviews in 4 rural villages with the "migration shed" of each country's capital city. There were 1088 rural-resident men and women interviewed in Thailand, 1088 in Colombia, and 1376 in Egypt. The researchers gathered information about year-to-year changes in residence, marital status, fertility, housing, employment status, occupation, and industry. While in all 3 countries return moves are relatively frequent, especially among males, the proportions of migrants who have moved 3 or more times do not rise above 10%. The model used portrays the formation of migration intentions of the individual as the outcome of a decision process involving the subjective weighing of perceived differentials in well-being associated with current residence and 1 or more potential destinations, taking into account the direct relocation costs and ability to finance a move. The researchers used dichotomous probit and ordinal probit techniques and 4 variations on the dependant variable to generate some of the results. The only expectancy variable significant in all countries is age. Education is also positively and significantly associated with intentions to move for both sexes in Colombia and Egypt. Marital status is a deterrent to migration plans for males in Colombia and both sexes in Egypt. Previous migration experience fails to show any significant relationship to propensity to move. Conclusions drawn from the data include: 1) the effects of age and economic status appear to increase

  8. [A cutting obstacle to the harmonious development of the country. The migratory phenomenon in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, S

    1991-04-01

    Mali has long been affected by migration because of its location between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. Around 80% of the population depends on agriculture or herding for its livelihood. During the rainy season, from June-October, most of the population is busy in agricultural work, but during the dry season from November to May seasonal migration in search of wage employment is common. Seasonal migration is also part of the long tradition of commerce with neighboring countries. Economic difficulties of the last several years have encourage migration to urban centers and foreign countries. The drought that has afflicted Mali for over a decade is a further impetus to migration. 2 types of migration can be distinguished in Mali, shortterm movements of nomads and seasonal migration lasting less than 6 months, and definitive movements lasting longer including rural-urban and international migration. 4 further categories of migration include rural-rural movements especially in the south and in areas of industrial development, rural-urban migrations which are 1 of the most important factors in rapid urban growth especially around Bamako,, urban-urban migration essentially reflecting step migration from rural areas to secondary urban centers and finally to large cities, and urban-rural migration which occurs much less frequently. Over 80% of temporary movements take place within Mali. About 80% of those residing temporarily outside Mali are men. Temporary migrants inside Mali are oriented from the north to the region of Sikasso and the District of Bamako in the south and primarily are young men aged 15-29. There has been a progressive decline in the proportion of nomads in the general population from 7% in 1976 to 4% in 1987. There has been an increase in definitive migration from areas less favored ecologically to more desirable areas. A 1985 demographic survey found that 21% of the population aged 15 or over were migrants. 51.4% of migrants were male. 86% cited

  9. Rural/Urban Disparities in Science Achievement In Post-Socialist Countries: The Evolving Influence of Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Kryst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Disparities in educational outcomes exist between students in rural areas as compared to students in urban settings. While there is some evidence that these rural disparities are present in eastern Europe, little is known about young peoples’ lives in the rural areas of this region. This paper presents an analysis of science achievement by location (rural v. urban using all available waves of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS. We examined the eighth grade data from five countries: Lithuania, Romania, the Russian Federation, Hungary, and Slovenia. Findings demonstrated that students attending rural schools had significantly lower science scores and that the rural disadvantage grew between 1995 and 2011 in some countries, but became non-significant in others. Overall, family socioeconomic status played an important role in determining the educational outcomes of rural students. The implications of these findings are explored in relation to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO 2015 Education for All goals.

  10. The migration function and the Todaro paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Y

    1984-05-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to present a microeconomic foundation of the migration function and to discuss the impact of an increase in the job creation rate on migration and urban unemployment. Each rural worker must estimate his expected urban income on the basis of his own expected numbers of both newly created jobs and migrants during the coming period. Workers whose expected urban income is greater than the rural one decide to migrate, while those who estimate smaller urban income stay on." The geographical focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  11. The "rule of halves" does not apply in Peru: awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes in rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Alana G; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-06-01

    To determine the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes by migration status. Cross-sectional study, secondary analyses of the PERU MIGRANT study. Rural, rural-to-urban migrants, and urban participants. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were calculated using weights to account for participant's group size. Of 205 of the 987 (weighted prevalence 24.1%, 95% confidence interval: 21.1%-27.1%) participants identified as hypertensive, 48.3% were aware of their diagnosis, 40% of them were receiving treatment, and 30.4% of those receiving treatment were controlled. Diabetes was present in 33 of the 987 (weighted prevalence 4.6%, 95% confidence interval: 3.1%-6%), and diabetes awareness, treatment, and control were 71.1%, 40.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Suboptimal control rates, defined as those not meeting blood pressure or glycaemia targets among those with the condition, were 95.1% for hypertension and 97% for diabetes. Higher awareness, treatment, and control rates, for both hypertension and diabetes, were observed in rural-to-urban migrants and urban participants compared with rural participants. However, treatment rates were much lower among migrants compared with the urban group. These results identify major unmet needs in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes. Particular challenges are lack of awareness of both hypertension and diabetes in rural areas, and poor levels of treatment and control among people who have migrated from rural into urban areas.

  12. CHINA’S RURALURBAN MIGRATION: WHO GAINS, WHO LOSES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stober Emmanuel Olusegun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a price to pay for any and every country to develop. This price can be said to have been duly paid by migrant workers in China. The benefit of such price is the stamping out of extreme poverty by 94% from 1990 – 2015. This study is embodied by the Lewis Structural Change Model and looks at China’s population control programs – the restriction on internal labor mobility, its income inequality implication and economy development. The research reveals how the sacrifices of the migrant workers payoff in reforming the economic conditions in the rural areas; this points to the reasons why the rural income and development are highly dependent on migrant remittance and why China’s economy development would not have been possible without labor migration.

  13. State policies and internal migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberai, A S

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to identify policies and programs in Asia that are explicitly or implicitly designed to influence migration, to investigate why they were adopted and how far they have actually been implemented, and to assess their direct and indirect consequences. For study purposes, policies and programs are classified according to whether they prohibit or reverse migration, redirect or channel migration to specific rural or urban locations, reduce the total volume of migration, or encourage or discourage urban in-migration. Discussion of each type of policy is accompanied by a description of its rationale and implementation mechanism, examples of countries in Asia that have recourse to it, and its intended or actual effect on migration. Several countries in Asia have taken direct measures to reverse the flow of migration and to stop or discourage migration to urban areas. These measures have included administrative and legal controls, police registration, and direct "rustication" programs to remove urban inhabitants to the countryside. The availability of public land has prompted many Asian countries to adopt schemes that have been labeled resettlement, transmigration, colonization, or land development. These schemes have been designed to realize 1 or more of the following objectives: to provide land and income to the landless; increase agricultural production; correct spatial imbalances in the distribution of population; or exploit frontier lands for reasons of national security. 1 of the basic goals of decentralized industrialization and regional development policies has been the reduction of interregional disparities and the redirection of migrations from large metropolitan areas to smaller and medium sized towns. To encourage industry to move to small urban locations initial infrastructure investments, tax benefits, and other incentives have been offered. Policies to reduce the overall volume of migration have frequently included rural

  14. Transiciones en contexto: hallazgos vinculados a migración rural-urbana y enfermedades no transmisibles en Perú Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jaime Miranda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca describir, en contexto, los distintos procesos de cambio por el que transcurren, en la actualidad, nuestras sociedades y poblaciones a fin de comprender mejor la emergencia de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en países de ingresos medios y bajos. Se describen aquellos factores relevantes para contextos específicos como el Perú, entre ellos migración interna, urbanización y los perfiles de adversidad en etapas tempranas de la vida, todos vinculados con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, incluyendo el sobrepeso y la obesidad. Se describe el modelo de “capacidad y carga”, el cual considera al riesgo de adquirir una enfermedad crónica no transmisible en la etapa adulta como una función de dos rasgos genéticos: capacidad metabólica y carga metabólica. Se presenta también la contribución de la migración rural-urbana a esta problemática en nuestro medio. Finalmente, se mencionan los retos pendientes en este tema para la salud pública del PerúIn order to better understand the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries this article seeks to present, in context, different transitional processes which societies and populations are currently undergoing. Relevant factors for specific contexts such as Peru are described, including internal migration, urbanization and profiles of adversity in early life, all of them linked to chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity and overweight. The capacity-load model, which considers chronic disease risk in adulthood as a function of two generic traits, metabolic capacity and metabolic load, is described. The contribution of rural-to-urban migration to this problem is also presented. Finally, these topics are framed within pending challenges for public health in Peru

  15. Rural Urbanism? About urbanits moving to the countryside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Maja Louise Stiegnitz de

    to the city, and the concept of rhythm is employed as an analytical tool in order to avoid, or mediate, the urban-rural dichotomies. By thinking time-space relations in terms of rhythms I whish to try to capture the specific combinations of everyday experiences and practices such as for example high and low....... The urban-rural field is marked by a dichotomist thinking where everyday life in the countryside is often conceived in contrast to life in the city. Focusing on narratives from urban-rural migrants I whish to discuss how everyday life in the country should rather be regarded in relation and complementarity...

  16. Labour migration and rural transformation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoru, I P

    1994-06-01

    The trends in rural-urban migration in Nigeria responded to changes in political and socioeconomic developments which occurred during the 1980s. Since the 1980s, rural-urban migration trends were rapidly reversed, and migrants returned to rural areas. In 1981, government revenues from oil declined. The oil production and price declines between 1980 and 1986 resulted in a foreign exchange crisis. Import restrictions were imposed, and stabilization measures resulted in scarcities of raw materials and spare parts and declines in industrial capacity. About 50% of import substitution factories went bankrupt. Between 1981 and 1983, about one million workers were estimated to have been laid off, of which 55,000 were federal and state employees. Other estimates indicated one million laid off just in the industrial sector. The government reinforced this urban-rural movement by emphasizing increased food production. In 1992, government wages were increased in order to offset high inflation. In 1986 and 1992, State and Local Government Areas were established as political entities tied to grassroots development; local offices were situated in greater proximity to local populations. In 1986, the objective was to provide infrastructure, promote production, and organize rural areas for development. Several community banks devoted to rural areas were established. Development programs for rural women were initiated. Federal revenue allocations to rural areas increased from 10% to 15%. Inducements were given to attract private formal and informal commerce and industry. The result was less than expected. Obstacles to rural development included the absence of an effective and integrated approach, inadequate funding, and corruption. Provision of good roads and schools did meet objectives and may have induced out-migration. Delays in provision of entitlements exacerbated the ability of return migrants to establish new economic activity. The new political divisions did not conform to

  17. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946-51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06-1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01-1.31). The absence of rural-urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography.

  18. Flux-based Enrichment Ratios of Throughfall and Stemflow Found to Vary Significantly within Urban Fragments and Along an Urban-to-Rural Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowtin, A. L.; Levia, D. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Throughfall and stemflow are important inputs of water and solutes to forest soils in both rural and urban forests. In metropolitan wooded ecosystems, a number of factors can affect flux-based enrichment ratios, including combustion of fossil fuels and proximity to industry. Use of flux-based enrichment ratios provides a means by which this modification of net precipitation chemistry can be quantified for both throughfall and stemflow, and allows for a characterization of the relative contributions of stemflow and throughfall in the delivery of nutrients and pollutants to forest soils. This study utilizes five mixed deciduous forest stands along an urban-to-rural gradient (3 urban fragments, 1 suburban fragment, and a portion of 1 contiguous rural forest) within a medium-sized metropolitan region of the United States' Northeast megalopolis, to determine how the size, shape, structure, and geographic context of remnant forest fragments determine hydrologic and solute fluxes within them. In situ observations of throughfall and stemflow (the latter of which is limited to Quercus rubra and Quercus alba) within each study plot allow for an identification and characterization of the spatial variability in solute fluxes within and between the respective sites. Preliminary observations indicate significant intra-site variability in solute concentrations as observed in both throughfall and stemflow, with higher concentrations along the respective windward edges of the study plots than at greater depths into their interiors. Higher flux-based stemflow enrichment ratios, for both Q. rubra and Q. alba, were also evident for certain ions (i.e., S2-, NO3-) in the urban forest fragments, with significantly lower ratios observed at the suburban and rural sites. Findings from this research are intended to aid in quantifying the spatial variability of the hydrologic and hydrochemical ecosystem service provisions of remnant metropolitan forest fragments. This research is supported in

  19. A case control study of differences in non-work injury and accidents among sawmill workers in rural compared to urban British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a cohort of British Columbian male sawmill workers, we conducted a nested case-control study of the impact of rural compared to urban residence as well as rural/urban migration patterns in relation to hospitalization for non-work injury. We postulate that for many types of non-work injuries, rates will be higher in rural communities than in urban ones and that rates will also be higher for workers who migrate from urban to rural communities. Methods Using conditional logistic regression, univariate models were first run with each of five non-work injury outcomes. These outcomes were hospitalizations due to assault, accidental poisoning, medical mis-adventure, motor vehicle trauma, and other non-work injuries. In multivariate models marital status, ethnicity, duration of employment, and occupation were forced into the model and associations with urban, compared to rural, residence and various urban/migration patterns were tested. Results Urban or rural residence and migration status from urban to other communities, and across rural communities, were not associated with hospitalization for medical misadventure, assault, or accidental poisoning. The likelihood of a rural resident being hospitalized for motor vehicle trauma is higher than for an urban resident. The likelihood that a rural resident is hospitalized for "other" non-work injury is higher than for an urban resident. Conclusion In a relatively homogenous group of workers, and using a rigorous study design, we have demonstrated that the odds of other non-work injury are much higher for workers resident in and migrating to rural regions of Canada than they are for workers resident in or migrating to urban places.

  20. The ‘rule of halves’ does not apply in Peru: Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Alana G.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes by migration status. Design Cross-sectional study, secondary analyses of the PERU MIGRANT study. Patients Rural, rural-to-urban migrants, and urban participants. Main outcome measures Awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were calculated using weights to account for participant’s group size. Results Of the 205/987 (weighted prevalence 24.1%, 95%CI: 21.1%–27.1%) participants identified as hypertensive 48.3% were aware of their diagnosis, 40% of them were receiving treatment, and 30.4% of those receiving treatment were controlled. Diabetes was present in 33/987 (weighted prevalence 4.6%, 95%CI: 3.1%–6%) and diabetes awareness, treatment and control were 71.1%, 40.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Sub-optimal control rates, defined as those not meeting blood pressure or glycaemia targets among those with the condition, were 95.1% for hypertension and 97% for diabetes. Higher awareness, treatment and control rates, for both hypertension and diabetes, were observed in rural-to-urban migrants and urban participants compared to rural participants. However, treatment rates were much lower among migrants compared to the urban group. Conclusions These results identify major unmet needs in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes. Particular challenges are lack of awareness of both hypertension and diabetes in rural areas, and poor levels of treatment and control among people who have migrated from rural into urban areas. PMID:23680809

  1. Direct Energy Consumption Associated Emissions by Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Muye; Tao, Shu; Smith, Kirk; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Chen, Yilin; Chen, Xi; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; He, Canfei

    2015-11-17

    Hundreds of millions of rural residents have migrated to cities in China in recent years. Different lifestyles and living conditions lead to substantial changes in their household energy. Here, we present the result of a survey on direct household energy use of low-skilled rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing. The migrants moved up the energy ladder immediately after arriving in the city by replacing biomass fuels with coal, electricity, and liquefied petroleum gas. After the original shift, pattern of household energy use by the migrants has not changed much over decades, likely due to the long-existing household registration system (Hukou). As a result, the mix of energy types used by the rural-to-urban migrants were different from those by long-term urban residents, although total quantities were similar. Shifting from biomass fuels to coal, the migrants emitted 2.4 times more non-neutral CO2 than rural residents and 14% more than urban residents. The migration also resulted in significant increase in emissions of SO2 and mercury but dramatic decreases in some incomplete combustion products including particulate matter. All these changes have significant implication on air quality, health, and climate considering the scale of urbanization in China.

  2. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  3. Migration within China and from China to the USA: the effects of migration networks, selectivity, and the rural political economy in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David

    2013-07-01

    This paper tests a new strategy for simultaneously studying internal migration within, and international migration from, China. Our theoretical discussion draws on ideas from migration-networks theory and studies of the transition to a market-oriented economy. Data collection is modelled on the Mexican Migration Project. We find that education is more important in initiating internal migration than international migration. Second, although the role of migration networks at a community level seems similar to that for Mexico-USA migration, the networks at a family level show a different pattern. Third, there is evidence that internal and international migration are competing options. Finally, we find that individuals with cadres (public officials) in the family are less likely to undertake internal migration, but more likely to participate in international migration, a finding that highlights the continuing significance of the cadres in coastal rural China.

  4. Recommendations to bridge rural/urban drug-use(r) research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, C G; Edwards, R W

    1999-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed by a group of United States drug-use(r) researchers interested in rural and urban research and practice who met in Lexington, Kentucky, in October 1996. Overall, there was consensus about the importance of better understanding the urban/rural drug and alcohol use/dependency continuum. It was emphasized that drug and alcohol use/dependency are chronic and relapsing disorders. Definitions of rural and urban are most important, and different definitions may be associated with factors that are masked by population density. Specific recommendations are presented in the following areas: Rural Factors, Epidemiology, HIV/AIDS, Treatment and Other Services, Migration, Youth, Protective Factors, Systems Perspective, Measurement, Confidentiality, Criminal Justice, Research, Policy Research, Economic Factors, Service Providers, and Managed Care.

  5. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  6. Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmers, Angela; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; McDermott, Ann Y; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES was a significant predictor of overweight/obesity risk. Lower SES decreased the odds of being overweight/obese by 51.4 %. This association did not vary by gender nor was it explained by PA. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between SES and overweight/obesity may differ depending on the geographic location and sociocultural context of the population studied. Research on internal migration and health would benefit from the development of tailored acculturation measures and the evaluation of exploratory models that include diet.

  7. No Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Big Cities Affected by Conflict Related Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Sesay, Santigie; Moore, Marnijina G.; Ansumana, Rashid; Narh, Charles A.; Kollie, Karsor; Rebollo, Maria P.; Koudou, Benjamin G.; Koroma, Joseph B.; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS) in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012–0.021) and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018–0.052) for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines. Conclusions We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia. PMID:24516686

  8. Perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana: Implications for health sector staff internal migration control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Beyere, Christopher B; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, Prudence P

    2017-01-01

    The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70% of the estimated 27 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32% of the national health sector workforce works. Moreover, the rural-urban disparities in the density of health tutors (staff responsible for pre-service training of health professionals) are enormous. This paper explores perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana. This is a descriptive qualitative study conducted in the Greater Accra and Northern regions of Ghana. The Study used the deductive thematic and sub-thematic analysis approaches. Five health training institutions were randomly sampled, and 72 tutors engaged in separate focus group discussions with an average size of 14 participants per group in each training institution. Perceived rural-urban disparities among health tutors were found in the payment of extra duty allowances; school infrastructure including libraries and internet connectivity; staff accommodation; and opportunities for scholarships and higher education. Health tutors in rural areas generally expressed more frustration with these work conditions than those in urban areas. There is the need to initiate and sustain work incentives that promote motivation of rural health tutors to control ongoing rural-urban migration of qualified staff. It is recommended the following incentives be prioritized to promote retention of qualified health tutors in rural health training schools: payment of research, book and rural allowances; early promotion of rural staff; prioritizing rural tutors for scholarships, and introduction of national best health tutor awards.

  9. Psychosocial Studies of Migration and Community: Introduction to the Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas D. Perkins; Neal A. Palmer; Manuel García-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Introducing the special issue on psychosocial studies of migration and community, we briefly reflect on the global increase in, and issues related to, both international and domestic migration, particularly from rural areas of less developed countries, which has fueled rapid urbanization and intercultural tensions in both post-industrial and developing countries. Topics covered in the issue are summarized, including an Italian study of the emotional impact of discrimination against immigrant ...

  10. Rural versus Urban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøning, Signe Wedel

    and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....

  11. Tracking rural-to-urban migration in China: Lessons from the 2005 inter-census population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Avraham; Zhao, Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    We examined migration in China using the 2005 inter-census population survey, in which migrants were registered at both their place of original (hukou) residence and at their destination. We find evidence that the estimated number of internal migrants in China is extremely sensitive to the enumeration method. We estimate that the traditional destination-based survey method fails to account for more than a third of migrants found using comparable origin-based methods. The 'missing' migrants are disproportionately young, male, and holders of rural hukou. We find that origin-based methods are more effective at capturing migrants who travel short distances for short periods, whereas destination-based methods are more effective when entire households have migrated and no remaining family members are located at the hukou location. We conclude with a set of policy recommendations for the design of population surveys in countries with large migrant populations.

  12. Urbanization eases water crisis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

  13. The impact of the Mexican crisis on trade, agriculture, and migration:

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Sherman; Burfisher, Mary E.; Thierfelder, Karen

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses a two-country, computable general equilibrium (CGE), trade model to analyze the impact on Mexico and the U.S. of the precipitous peso depreciation in late 1994 and early 1995, and of the policy response to the crisis. The model includes explicit treatment of agricultural policies in the two countries, and of labor-market linkages, including rural-urban migration within Mexico and Mexico-U.S. migration. We explore “hard,” “medium,” and “soft” landing scenarios, which differ in ...

  14. Rainfall Patterns and U.S. Migration from Rural Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.; Murray, Sheena; Riosmena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In many rural regions of developing countries, natural resource dependency means changes in climate patterns hold tremendous potential to impact livelihoods. When environmentally-based livelihood options are constrained, migration can become an important adaptive strategy. Using data from the Mexican Migration Project, we model U.S. emigration from rural communities as related to community, household and climate factors. The results suggest that households subjected to recent drought conditions are far more likely to send a U.S. migrant, but only in communities with strong migration histories. In regions lacking such social networks, rainfall deficits actually reduce migration propensities, perhaps reflecting constraints in the ability to engage in migration as a coping strategy. Policy implications emphasize diversification of rural Mexican livelihoods in the face of contemporary climate change. PMID:25473143

  15. Urban-Rural Problems. Contemporary Social Problems Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee

    Various social problems are created by migration of low-income rural people into urban areas. These people are classified "low income" because their material level-of-living is often less than that found in urban areas. The dominant national values for material well-being are based upon urban middle class standards, thus creating a social problem…

  16. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately

  17. Impact of Rural-Urban Labour Migration on Education of Children: A Case Study of Left Behind and Accompanied Migrant Children in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Archana K Roy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, seasonal labour migration from rural to urban or from backward to developed region is a household livelihood strategy to cope with poverty. In this process, the children of those migrants are the worst affected whether they accompany their parents or are left behind in the villages. The present paper explores the impact of temporary labour migration of parent(s on school attendance of the children between 6–14 years and their dropping out from the school through an analysis of the cases from both the ends of migration stream in India. Data was collected from thirteen construction sites of Varanasi Uttar Pradesh and nine villages of Bihar by applying both qualitative and quantitative techniques. It is evident from the study that the migrants through remittances improve school accessibility for the left behind children and bridge gender gap in primary school education. However, among the accompanying migrant children of construction workers, many remain out of school and many are forced to drop out and some of them become vulnerable to work as child labour due to seasonal mobility of their parents. Thus, mainstreaming these children in development process is a big challenge in attaining the goal of universal primary education and inclusive growth in the country like India.

  18. Weaving Futures. Family Transnationalism in the migration from Dominican Republic and Brazil to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pedone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores forms of migrant families’ reorganization within a (new global economic crisis and the hardening of migration control in Europe; based on the cases of Dominican and Brazilian migration to Spain.Our goal is not to characterize the wholeness of strategies from these collectives, instead visualize its heterogeneity. Displacement of Dominican and Brazilian population to Spain shares the role of women as the first link of migration chains. In both cases women are the economic support of transnational families and they lead reunification's processes. Nevertheless, differences in the time spent in the destination country, migratory status, origin (rural-urban, level of education, class and labor insertion in destination country, affect differently, the planning and start up of migration projects, the organization of care and family reunification strategies. These findings question the predominant place granted to national origin in the study of international migration.

  19. Is there a step-wise migration in Nigeria? A case study of the migrational histories of migrants in Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolayan, A A

    1985-09-01

    "The paper sets out to test whether or not the movement pattern of people in Nigeria is step-wise. It examines the spatial order in the country and the movement pattern of people. It then analyzes the survey data and tests for the validity of step-wise migration in the country. The findings show that step-wise migration cannot adequately describe all the patterns observed." The presence of large-scale circulatory migration between rural and urban areas is noted. Ways to decrease the pressure on Lagos by developing intermediate urban areas are considered. excerpt

  20. [Migration and urbanization in the Sahel. Consequences of the Sahelian migrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, S

    1997-10-01

    The consequences of Sahelian migration are multiple and diverse. In rural areas there may be a loss of income in the short run and a reduced possibility of development in the long run. Apart from its implications for urban growth, Sahelian migration may have four series of consequences in the places of origin. In detaching peasants from their lands, migration may contribute to loss of appreciation and reverence for the lands. Attachment to the lands of the ancestors loses its meaning as soon as questions of survival or economic rationality are raised. Migration contributes to the restructuring of the societies of origin. Increasing monetarization of market relations and introduction of new needs create new norms that favor stronger integration into the world economy. Migration may cause a decline in production because of the loss of the most active population, and it changes the age and sex distribution of households and usually increases their dependency burden. The effects on fertility and mortality are less clear. The effects of migration on the zones of arrival in the Sahel depend on the type of area. Conflicts between natives and in-migrants are common in rural-rural migration. Degradation of land may result from the increased demands placed upon it. Migrants to cities in Africa, and especially in the Sahel, appear to conserve their cultural values and to transplant and reinterpret their village rules of solidarity.

  1. Impacts of rural worker migration on ambient air quality and health in China: From the perspective of upgrading residential energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Chen, Yilin; Russell, Armistead G; Hu, Yongtao; Shen, Guofeng; Yu, Haofei; Henneman, Lucas R F; Ru, Muye; Huang, Ye; Zhong, Qirui; Chen, Yuanchen; Li, Yufei; Zou, Yufei; Zeng, Eddy Y; Fan, Ruifang; Tao, Shu

    2018-04-01

    In China, rural migrant workers (RMWs) are employed in urban workplaces but receive minimal resources and welfare. Their residential energy use mix (REM) and pollutant emission profiles are different from those of traditional urban (URs) and rural residents (RRs). Their migration towards urban areas plays an important role in shaping the magnitudes and spatial patterns of pollutant emissions, ambient PM 2.5 (fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) concentrations, and associated health impacts in both urban and rural areas. Here we evaluate the impacts of RMW migration on REM pollutant emissions, ambient PM 2.5 , and subsequent premature deaths across China. At the national scale, RMW migration benefits ambient air quality because RMWs tend to transition to a cleaner REM upon arrival at urban areas-though not as clean as urban residents'. In 2010, RMW migration led to a decrease of 1.5 μg/m 3 in ambient PM 2.5 exposure concentrations (C ex ) averaged across China and a subsequent decrease of 12,200 (5700 to 16,300, as 90% confidence interval) in premature deaths from exposure to ambient PM 2.5 . Despite the overall health benefit, large-scale cross-province migration increased megacities' PM 2.5 levels by as much as 10 μg/m 3 due to massive RMW inflows. Model simulations show that upgrading within-city RMWs' REMs can effectively offset the RMW-induced PM 2.5 increase in megacities, and that policies that properly navigate migration directions may have potential for balancing the economic growth against ambient air quality deterioration. Our study indicates the urgency of considering air pollution impacts into migration-related policy formation in the context of rapid urbanization in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban-rural differences in psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness can vary between urban and rural locations. This study extended research to the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) by assessing the association between settlement type and psychological distress and whether factors associated with psychological distress vary by settlement type. Data on 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010/11 were analyzed. Settlement types were country capitals, regional capitals, cities/other urban settlements, and villages. Psychological distress was defined as the country-specific highest quintile of a composite score based on 11 questions. Logistic regression analysis with random effects was used to examine associations. In a pooled country analysis, living in a smaller urban settlement or village was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress compared to living in the country capital. Lower social support was a strong correlate of psychological distress in all locations except capital cities. The psychological distress measure has not been formally validated in the study countries. Lower levels of urbanicity are associated with greater psychological distress in the fSU countries. As many Western studies have linked greater urbanization to poorer mental health, this highlights the need for caution in extrapolating findings from one part of the world to others and the importance of undertaking research on the geographical correlates of mental health in different world regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. On the move: migration, urbanization and development in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, A C

    1987-03-01

    "Migration and urbanization data from Papua New Guinea's first truly national census in 1980 are considered against a backdrop of spatial and social inequalities. Source and destination factors affecting migration flows and destinations are found to relate to population density, availability of rural wages, ease of access, destination wage-earning opportunities, historical linkages and present day developments. Short-distance migration differs from longer-distance migration; many migrants are short-term, and possibly circular, migrants. Migration and urbanization are considered part of the same process of developmental change." A section is included on earlier censuses and surveys, data reliability, and related problems.

  4. A critical response to the (non‑ place of rural leisure users within the counterurban imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Halfacree

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of 'counterurbanisation' is now widely recognized within various branches of the academy. Over the past four decades has been essentially represent migration of people to rural areas, although not exclusively, particularly in many northern countries. The concept focuses on 'permanent' relocation, having distinguished from studies of more 'temporary' movements for the 'counterurbanisation' and in particular the recent debates around ideaia that we now live in an age of mobility leading the questioning of the concept of 'permanent' migration and its implicit separation and prioritization relative to other forms of mobility. In this way, we are led to the question d reconciliation (in migrants to the countryside and rural recreation users inside an idealization endows much broader 'counterurban'.

  5. Urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition: trends and socioeconomic correlates in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines levels and trends of urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and investigates whether residual differences exist between urban and rural areas, given comparable measures of socioeconomic status (SES) of households and communities. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys of 15 sub-Saharan African countries, and multilevel modelling, it shows that urban-rural differentials are considerable in all countries, that they have narrowed in most countries due primarily to an increase in urban malnutrition, and have widened in few countries as a result of sharp decline in urban malnutrition. These urban-rural gaps are abolished in almost all countries when SES is controlled. These results suggest that policies and programs contributing to the attainment of the MDGs should pay particular attention to the urban poor.

  6. Low HDL cholesterol as a cardiovascular risk factor in rural, urban, and rural-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Porras, María; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H; Acuña-Villaorduña, Ana; Cardenas-Montero, Deborah; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Whilst the relationship between lipids and cardiovascular mortality has been well studied and appears to be controversial, very little has been explored in the context of rural-to-urban migration in low-resource settings. Determine the profile and related factors for HDL-c patterns (isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c) in three population-based groups according to their migration status, and determine the effect of HDL-c patterns on the rates of cardiovascular outcomes (i.e. non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction) and mortality. Cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal data from the PERU MIGRANT study, designed to assess the effect of migration on cardiovascular risk profiles and mortality in Peru. Two different analyses were performed: first, we estimated prevalence and associated factors with isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c at baseline. Second, using longitudinal information, relative risk ratios (RRR) of composite outcomes of mortality, non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction were calculated according to HDL-c levels at baseline. Data from 988 participants, rural (n = 201), rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589), and urban (n = 199) groups, was analysed. Low HDL-c was present in 56.5% (95%CI: 53.4%-59.6%) without differences by study groups. Isolated low HDL-c was found in 36.5% (95%CI: 33.5-39.5%), with differences between study groups. In multivariable analysis, urban group (vs. rural), female gender, overweight and obesity were independently associated with isolated low HDL-c. Only female gender, overweight and obesity were associated with non-isolated low HDL-c. Longitudinal analyses showed that non-isolated low HDL-c increased the risk of negative cardiovascular outcomes (RRR = 3.46; 95%CI: 1.23-9.74). Isolated low HDL-c was the most common dyslipidaemia in the study population and was more frequent in rural subjects. Non-isolated low HDL-c increased three-to fourfold the 5-year risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The

  7. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality

  8. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  9. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited....

  10. Migration and Care for the Aged in Rural Nigeria | Eboiyehi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, ageing parents relied on adult children for care and support. However, this structure is gradually breaking down due to rural-urban migration of adult children. This paper examined the consequences of ruralurban migration of adult children on agedcare and support and coping mechanisms employed by the ...

  11. Psychotherapy Utilization Among Rural and Urban Veterans From 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Juliette M; Grubbs, Kathleen M; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Fortney, John C; Cully, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated change in rural and urban veterans' psychotherapy use during a period of widespread effort within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to engage rural veterans in mental health care. National VHA administrative databases were queried for patients receiving a new diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder in fiscal years (FY) 2007 and 2010. Using the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban Continuum Codes, we identified urban (FY 2007: n = 192,347; FY 2010: n = 231,471) and rural (FY 2007: n = 72,923; FY 2010: n = 81,905) veterans. Veterans' psychotherapy use during the 12 months following diagnosis was assessed. From FY 2007 to 2010, the proportion of veterans receiving any psychotherapy increased from 17% to 22% for rural veterans and 24% to 28% for urban veterans. Rural veterans were less likely to receive psychotherapy across both fiscal years; however, the magnitude of this disparity decreased significantly from 2007 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51) to 2010 (OR = 1.41). Similarly, although urban veterans received more psychotherapy sessions, urban-rural disparities in the receipt of 8 or more psychotherapy sessions decreased over the study period (2007: OR = 2.32; 2010: OR = 1.69). Rural and urban veterans are increasingly making use of psychotherapy, and rural-urban gaps in psychotherapy use are shrinking. These improvements suggest that recent VHA efforts to engage rural veterans in care have been successful at reducing differences between rural and urban veterans with respect to access and engagement in psychotherapy. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Rural-urban disparities in child nutrition in Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Chittur S; Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-06-14

    The persistence of rural-urban disparities in child nutrition outcomes in developing countries alongside rapid urbanisation and increasing incidence of child malnutrition in urban areas raises an important health policy question - whether fundamentally different nutrition policies and interventions are required in rural and urban areas. Addressing this question requires an enhanced understanding of the main drivers of rural-urban disparities in child nutrition outcomes especially for the vulnerable segments of the population. This study applies recently developed statistical methods to quantify the contribution of different socio-economic determinants to rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes in two South Asian countries - Bangladesh and Nepal. Using DHS data sets for Bangladesh and Nepal, we apply quantile regression-based counterfactual decomposition methods to quantify the contribution of (1) the differences in levels of socio-economic determinants (covariate effects) and (2) the differences in the strength of association between socio-economic determinants and child nutrition outcomes (co-efficient effects) to the observed rural-urban disparities in child HAZ scores. The methodology employed in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. This is particularly useful in providing specific insights into factors influencing rural-urban disparities at the lower tails of child HAZ score distributions. It also helps assess the importance of individual determinants and how they vary across the distribution of HAZ scores. There are no fundamental differences in the characteristics that determine child nutrition outcomes in urban and rural areas. Differences in the levels of a limited number of socio-economic characteristics - maternal education, spouse's education and the wealth index (incorporating household asset ownership and access to drinking water and sanitation) contribute a

  13. [Migration phenomena and urbanization as an object lesson: Mauritania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahem, A K

    1993-03-01

    Mauritania had been a country of nomads traveling long distances to water holes, cemeteries, and oases. A teacher was responsible for teaching young children about the Koran. The best students attended a traveling university to receive personalized teaching at a higher level. Between 1965 and 1988, the spatial distribution of the population changed considerably (nomads, 78% vs. 12%; settled rural dwellers, 15% vs. 41% [45% in 1977]; urban dwellers, 8% vs. 47%). The leading reasons for a settled life, especially in 1965-1980, were desertification and aridity and their effects on water sources and grazing lands. Other contributing factors included iron and copper mining, creation of new states after the war in the Western Sahara, birth of new towns (e.g., the capital Nouakchott), and suppression of slavery. Urbanization grew 10%/year (20%/year for Nouakchott between 1962-1977) after independence. The new towns were mining and industrial centers. Spatial redistribution of the population is a vast and fruitful subject to include in teaching curricula at all levels (primary, secondary, and postsecondary) and for almost all disciplines (e.g., geography, history, civics, and mathematics). The author has provided a model curriculum for grades 1 through 6 of primary school. For example, contents for 6th grade history and geography include causes for the shift from a nomadic lifestyle to a sedentary lifestyle and urbanization, impact on the family and the environment, international migrations, and case study of a town. The author also lists comprehensive knowledge, proficiency, and behavior objectives. Behavior objectives are: participant in manual activities and agricultural work; help uprooted classmates better integrate themselves in a new welcoming milieu; support rural development efforts; and preserve or strengthen links between the city and rural areas through exchange visits and correspondence. Using arrows on a map to show the flow of nomads from departure zones to

  14. On the specification and estimation of macro rural-urban migration functions: with an application to Indian data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, B; Kanbur, S M

    1981-01-01

    The authors suggest several extensions and modifications to the existing specifications of macro migration functions as suggested by Todar through a more careful investigation of the micro theory underlying migration decisions. They use a probabilistic migration model to examine internal migration in India and present evidence that migration tends first to rise and then to fall as rural income rises

  15. Balancing Rural and Urban Development: Applying Coordinated Urban–Rural Development (CURD Strategy to Achieve Sustainable Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Hin Li

    2017-10-01

    CURD policies reduce the pressure for rural residents to migrate to the city for better job opportunities, which in turn reduce the need to expand the development scale, especially housing needs, of the urban configuration. Consequently, CURD ideology helps contribute to a more sustainable urbanisation process in China that accommodates and balances the needs and interests of both the city and rural residents.

  16. Seasonal associations with urban light pollution for nocturnally migrating bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A

    2017-11-01

    The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Migration signatures across the decades: Net migration by age in U.S. counties, 1950-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle L. Winkler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration is the primary population redistribution process in the United States. Selective migration by age, race/ethnic group, and spatial location governs population integration, affects community and economic development, contributes to land use change, and structures service needs. Objective: Delineate historical net migration patterns by age, race/ethnic, and rural-urban dimensions for United States counties. Methods: Net migration rates by age for all US counties are aggregated from 1950−2010, summarized by rural-urban location and compared to explore differential race/ethnic patterns of age-specific net migration over time. Results: We identify distinct age-specific net migration 'signatures' that are consistent over time within county types, but different by rural-urban location and race/ethnic group. There is evidence of moderate population deconcentration and diminished racial segregation between 1990 and 2010. This includes a net outflow of Blacks from large urban core counties to suburban and smaller metropolitan counties, continued Hispanic deconcentration, and a slowdown in White counterurbanization. Conclusions: This paper contributes to a fuller understanding of the complex patterns of migration that have redistributed the U.S. population over the past six decades. It documents the variability in county age-specific net migration patterns both temporally and spatially, as well as the longitudinal consistency in migration signatures among county types and race/ethnic groups.

  18. The effects of ageing and urbanisation on China's future rural and urban populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates China's future population and labour force by developing a novel forecasting model for population. It combines information about age-specific parameters on fertility and mortality for both rural and urban areas using information about rural-urban migration and the transformation

  19. Temperature Changes, Household Consumption and Internal Migration: Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalle Hirvonen

    2015-01-01

    Large rural-urban wage gaps observed in many developing countries are suggestive of barriers to migration that keep potential migrants in the rural areas. Using long panel data spanning nearly two decades, I study the extent to which migration rates are constrained by liquidity constraints in rural Tanzania. The analysis begins by quantifying the impact of weather variation on household welfare. The results show how household consumption co-moves with temperature rendering households vulnerab...

  20. Nutritional status among the Shabar tribal children living in urban, rural and forest habitats of Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Chakrabarty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The current trend towards increasing urbanization due to urban migration among the scheduled tribes in developing countries like India should be reflected in differential nutritional outcomes and its associated factors. The aims of the present study are to investigate the nutritional status amongst Shabar children living in urban, rural and forest habitats and factors associated to nutritional state.

    Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 577 Shabar children (boys and girls aged 5 to 19 years (258 urban, 195 rural and 124 forest. The anthropometric nutritional indices, socio-economic condition and disease prevalence were used to evaluate the present conditions.

    Results: The results revealed that children from forest regions had the highest prevalence of under-nutrition followed by their rural and urban counterparts, 33.87%, 24.62% and 20.16%, respectively. Malaria prevalence in forest areas and economic conditions in rural and urban habitats might have been significantly related to underweight and stunting.

    Conclusions: To reduce the prevalence and the extent of under-nutrition, it is essential to improve the economic conditions and to simultaneously carry out measurements for reducing malaria specifically in forest habitats.

  1. Vejnettet og det urban-rurale landskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    and form and space and time. With this description it becomes clear that the development of modern road systems, which can be linked to the realisation of the functional divided city, has created a modern city which form and structure compromises the simple dichotomies city-country and centreperiphery...... of the traditional conception of the city. In this perspective the modern city appears more like an urban-rural landscape where urban and rural elements constitutes a complex patchwork. The character of this urban-rural landscape challenges the division among the traditional disciplines of urban and landscape......The western culture of planning has a tradition of considering infrastructure predominantly from technical, technocratic or historical perspectives that removes the focus away from infrastructure’s role in the mediating between culture and nature and in the production of the “city” (see Graham...

  2. Food systems: New-Ruralism versus New-Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Van Acker, Veronique; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Witlox, Frank

    2012-08-30

    There is a growing debate on whether agricultural land in urban fringes should be maintained or converted to other uses. While 'pro-ruralists' believe agricultural land conversion can threaten food security and cause rural-urban migration, 'pro-urbanists' find it a necessary change for transition from a primitive agricultural-based community to an advanced industrial-based society which has the capacity to create mass productions. New-Ruralists follow an agricultural-based development approach that promotes small-medium farming and acknowledges rural lifestyle while New-Urbanists give a priority to large industrial-based sectors and encourage urban lifestyle. Given the unlike concerns of different societies, the paper concludes that the approaches might have different priorities in the less developed, developing, and developed world. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  4. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  5. Intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. Results The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age, relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. Conclusion The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.

  6. The role of family decision in internal migration: the case of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of family decisions and individual decisions on rural-urban migration in India under 2 different rural institutions--family farm and wage labor systems. An analytical framework for explaining family migration decisions reveals that whenever a member of the extended family migrates, he gives up his share in the produce of the family farm. When this happens, the number of adult members on the farm goes down and the total product is affected. 3 case studies of Indian villages are analyzed for this study. 2 empirical relations are examined: 1) if individual migration decisions are predominant, and 2) if family decisions are important in determining the overall flow of migration. Relationships between migration decisions and other variables, such as: 1) number of males in urban areas; 2) urban wages; 3) daily wage rate; 4) average agricultural income; 5) railway distance between rural and urban areas; 6) size of the labor market in destination region; 7) probability that a migrant arriving in an urban area will find a job; and 8) comsumption expenditure, in urban areas estimated by working class consumer price index, are determined. Results show that: 1) the market determined wage variable does not play a very significant role in migration decisions; 2) distance is one of the most important variables in analyzing migration; and 3) the aggregate flow of migration is affected if migration decisions are predominantly family decisions. These findings have relevant policy implications for less developed countries (LDCs), especially because large flows of rural-urban migration in recent years have forced governments to adopt policies for controlling the flows to reduce the burden of unemployment in the urban areas. Government policies affecting rural institutions will have an impact on migration flow; those that lead to a reduction of uncertainty in agriculture will affect average per-capita consumption levels in family farms and hence

  7. China’s Rural-Urban Migration: The Structure and Gender Attributes of the Floating Rural Labor Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifen Luo

    2006-01-01

    On a more general level, the results of the study suggest that market-oriented economic reform brought about diverse effects on Chinese women in terms of labor market status. Though the institutional barriers put Chinese female rural workers in a position of disadvantage, the performance of female rural-urban migrant workers suggests that they are active beings rather than passive victims merely adapting to the social transformation. Female rural-urban migrant workers have been and still are playing important and speci? c roles at the crossover between the emerging capitalist economy and the traditional rural society. In doing so they are positive participants of globalization in a wider development perspective.

  8. What Aspects of Rural Life Contribute to Rural-Urban Health Disparities in Older Adults? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A; Cook, Sarah K; Sando, Trisha A; Sabik, Natalie J

    2017-11-29

    Rural-urban health disparities are well-documented and particularly problematic for older adults. However, determining which specific aspects of rural or urban living initiate these disparities remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between place-based characteristics of rural-urban status and health among adults age 65+. Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were geographically linked to place-based characteristics from the American Community Survey. Self-reported health (SRH), obesity, and health checkup within the last year were modeled against rural-urban status (distance to nearest metropolitan area, population size, population density, percent urban, Urban Influence Codes [UIC], Rural-Urban Continuum Codes [RUCC], and Rural-Urban Commuting Area [RUCA]) using generalized linear models, accounting for covariates and complex sampling, overall, and stratified by area-level income. In general, increasing urbanicity was associated with a reduction in negative SRH for all 7 measures of rural-urban status. For low-income counties, this association held for all measures and characteristics of rural-urban status except population density. However, for high-income counties, the association was reversed-respondents living in areas of increasing urbanicity were more likely to report negative SRH for 4 of the 7 measures (RUCC, UIC, RUCA, and percent urban). Findings were mixed for the outcome of obesity, where rural areas had higher levels, except in low-income counties, where the association between rurality and obesity was reversed (OR 1.033, 95%CI: 1.002-1.064). These results suggest that rural-urban status is both a continuum and multidimensional. Distinct elements of rural-urban status may influence health in nuanced ways that require additional exploration in future studies. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  9. 50 Years of Urbanization in Africa : Examining the Role of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Storeygard, Adam; Deichmann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents a significant impact of climate variation on urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in more arid countries. By lowering farm incomes, reduced moisture availability encourages migration to nearby cities, while wetter conditions slow migration. The paper also provides evidence for rural-urban income links. In countries with a larger industrial base, reduced moistu...

  10. Population migration and the spread of types 1 and 2 human immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T C

    1994-03-29

    Over 14 million people are estimated to be infected with the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV), with nearly three-fourths of the infected persons residing in developing countries. One factor responsible for dissemination of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 worldwide was the intense migration of individuals, from rural to urban centers with subsequent return migration and internationally due to civil wars, tourism, business purposes, and the drug trade. In sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 1980, urban centers with more than 500,000 inhabitants increased from 3 to 28, and more than 75 military coups occurred in 30 countries. The result was a massive migration of rural inhabitants to urban centers concomitant with the spread of HIV-1 to large population centers. With the associated demographic, economic, and social changes, an epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV-1 was ignited. Migratory patterns were also responsible for the spread of endemic HIV-2 to neighboring West African countries and eventually to Europe, the Americans, and India. Although Southeast Asia was the last region in which HIV-1 was introduced, it has the greatest potential for rapid spread due to population density and inherent risk behaviors. Thus, the migration of poor, rural, and young sexually active individuals to urban centers coupled with large international movements of HIV-infected individuals played a prominent role in the dissemination of HIV globally. The economic recession has aggravated the transmission of HIV by directly increasing the population at risk through increased urban migration, disruption of rural families and cultural values, poverty, and prostitution and indirectly through a decrease in health care provision. Consequently, social and economic reform as well as sexual behavior education need to be intensified if HIV transmission is to be controlled.

  11. Rural and urban energy scenario of the developing countries and related health assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of energy use in India is considered in order to assess the impact on health of rural and urban energy sources in the developing countries. The health impact of the 'non-commercial' sources of energy used in India is discussed, with particular reference to the use of firewood and farm wastes for domestic cooking. The commercial energy sources considered include coal, oil and electricity. The generation of electricity from coal, hydro sources and nuclear fuels is discussed with regard to their health impact. The production and use of biogas instead of dried animal dung for domestic cooking in the rural areas of India is proposed in order to reduce the health detriment. On the basis of the past trend in the use of commercial and non-commercial energy in India, projections are made for the future, taking into consideration health detriment and evironmental damage associated with different sources. Finally, bases for changing the energy-use pattern in the developing countries are discussed, with particular emphasis on renewable sources and nuclear energy. (author)

  12. Comparing earnings profiles in urban areas of an LDC: rural-to-urban migrants vs. native workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijverberg, W P; Zeager, L A

    1994-12-01

    "We use Tanzanian data to test a recently proposed hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have an incentive to supply greater work effort than native urban workers, because of the migrants' positive probability of returning to the low-wage rural areas. We treat the choice between public- and private-sector employment as endogenous and, for theoretical and empirical reasons, distinguish migrants with access to rural land from those without access. Our results show that migrants in both sectors face lower initial wage offers than native urban workers. But, the wage gap is eliminated within a decade or less, and thereafter, migrants surpass the wage offers of native workers." excerpt

  13. HIV/STD risk behaviors and perceptions among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Danhua; Mao, Rong; Wang, Jing; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole; Stanton, Bonita

    2004-12-01

    Data from 2,153 sexually active rural-to-urban migrants in China were analyzed to examine the relationship between the movement of rural-to-urban migration and increased HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) risk and the applicability of constructs of a Western-based theory of behavioral change to the study population. Measurements included migrant mobility, sexual risk, and the seven constructs of the protection motivation theory (PMT). Data in the current study suggest that high mobility among rural-to-urban migrants was associated with increased sexual risk. The PMT constructs are applicable in identifying perceptions and attitudes associated with sexual risk behaviors in this culturally distinct population. Increased sexual risk was associated with increased perceptions of extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response cost. Also consistent with PMT, increased sexual risk was associated with perceptions of decreased severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. After controlling for a number of key confounding factors, all seven PMT constructs were associated with sexual risk in the manner posited by the theory. The association between mobility and sexual risk underscores the importance of effective HIV/STD prevention efforts among this vulnerable population. The social cognitive theories including the PMT may form a logical base for prevention intervention programs targeting rural-to-urban migrants in China.

  14. Rural-urban Migration Decisions in China: Evidence from Rural Household Panel Data

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    Kyeongwon Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the household's off-farm labor response to risk using the Research Center on the Rural Economy (RCRE panel data in China. This paper aims to find out whether the off-farm labor market, especially the migrant labor market, could be used as a means of coping with risk and shocks to income by poor households in rural China who have only limited access to the credit and insurance markets for managing risk. Instead of using the endogenous transitory income variance under the short time span of the data, we suggest using relatively exogenous measure of risk, such as the coefficient of variation of rainfall in each village, might be more appropriate to find the effect of risk on household's off-farm labor participation decision. Our results support the idea that households facing a riskier or more volatile distribution of precipitation are more likely to participate in the off-farm labor market. Attention to the potential risk-coping benefits from off-farm employment is timely for Chinese policy makers because both local and national policies accommodating the growth of markets for off-farm migrant labor have come under increasing pressure. As cities face growing problems of unemployed workers from state- owned enterprises, both local and national governments have taken measures to reduce competition for jobs between rural laborers and those urban residents left unemployed during the state-owned enterprises reform period. This paper suggests that rural resident would suffer from urban policies restricting the in-flow of migrants in two ways. Households sending temporary migrants to cities will suffer both a loss of income, and a loss of means of coping with risk. In fact, the analysis of this paper suggests that the welfare of Chinese farm households in rural areas can be further improved by eliminating the remaining institutional obstacles to expansion of migrant employment opportunities.

  15. "A minimum of urbanism and a maximum of ruralism": the Cuban experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugler, J

    1980-01-01

    The case of Cuba provides social scientists with reasonably good information on urbanization policies and their implementation in 1 developing country committed to socialism. The demographic context is considered, and Cuban efforts to eliminate the rural-urban contradiction and to redefine the role of Havana are described. The impact of these policies is analyzed in terms of available data on urbanization patterns since January 1959 when the revolutionaries marched into Havana. Prerevolutionary urbanization trends are considered. Fertility in Cuba has declined simultaneously with mortality and even more rapidly. Projections assume a 1.85% annual growth rate, resulting in a population of nearly 15 million by the year 2000. Any estimate regarding the future trend in population growth must depend on prognosis of general living conditions and of specific government policies regarding contraception, abortion, female labor force participation, and child care facilities. If population growth in Cuba has been substantial, but less dramatic than that of many other developing countries, urban growth presents a similar picture. Cuba's highest rate of growth of the population living in urban centers with a population over 20,000, in any intercensal period during the 20th century, was 4.1%/year for 1943-1953. It dropped to 3.0% in the 1953-1970 period. Government policies achieved a measure of success in stemming the tide of rural-urban migration, but the aims of the revolutionary leadership went further. The objective was for urban dwellers to be involved in agriculture, and the living standards of the rural population were to be raised to approximate those of city dwellers. The goal of "urbanizing" the countryside found expression in a program designed to construct new small towns which could more easily be provided with services. A slowdown in the growth of Havana, and the concomitant weakening of its dominant position, was intended by the revolutionary leadership. Offical

  16. Recent trends in human migrations: the case of the Venezuelan Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, M M; Torrealba, R

    1982-01-01

    Changes in world capitalism caused prices of traditional raw materials to fall and new energy demands to arise at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. The Andean countries witnessed the fall in the value of their exports and began to receive large flows of foreign investment in mining and industry. Consequently, urban economies were strengthened and demographic patterns were changed. This led to the internal migrations and to a process of social change. These consequences are summarized from relevant studies focusing on Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. Since the 1960s a compendium of information has become available which highlights the causes of the migration, migration patterns, the composition of migratory movements, and the mechanisms that the migrant uses to establish himself/herself in the city. Preston (1969) distinguished 2 migratory patterns in Ecuador: rural to urban, with migratory flows from the rural areas to urban centers and new industrial cities that experienced development and high demand for unskilled labor at comparatively high wages: and rural to rural, based on the movement of population from depressed rural areas to other areas in which programs for colonization or commercial agriculture have been promoted. In a study of Colombia, McGreevey (1968) identifies the lack of cultivatable land, rural violence in certain departments, and other economic and family causes as the principal factors that induced migrations to the cities. The study emphasizes that the predominant model of movement relates to "fill in" migration. The spatial mobility of the Venezuelan Andean population was initially outlined in a voluminous report on economic and social problems of the region (1954). The study indicates that during the intercensal period 1941-50 cities grew much more rapidly than rural "municipos" and that the drive to find employment and earn a living were the most important motives in the movement of peasants to the cities. All of the

  17. Bending the urban flow: a construction-migration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1980-01-01

    The excess rate of migration to urban centers is a problem affecting over 50 developing countries and 18 developed ones (68% of the world's population). Policies that rely on compulsion or disincentives have mostly failed because they do not deal with the cause of the problem. This paper proposes a strategy of increasing or decreasing the rate of housing construction in different urban areas as a means of stimulating or reducing migration to those areas; in most developing areas priority is given to residential construction in already congested metropolitan areas. 5 assumptions are the basis for this approach: 1) migrants tend to gravitate to the most powerful growth poles; 2) residential construction is a leading sector of regional and urban economies; 3) the encouragement of construction activity will make itself felt indirectly via its effect on construction-related employment; 4) rates of residential construction may be manipulated through government policy affecting the cost of materials, availability of loans, level of unionization, and price of housing; and 5) residential construction is amenable to quick policy action. The central idea of the strategy is that an increase in residential construction will exercise a pull on migrants, increasing job opportunities, raising incomes, lowering housing costs, and improving the chances of home ownership. This idea has been verified by various projects in Hong Kong, Ghana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bahrain, Mexico, Colombia, Poland, USSR, and the UK. In Bahrain low-income housing programs have been used to relocate Bahraini nationals in new outlying suburbs and to promote population growth in rural villages. In Mexico self-help and low-income housing programs have helped to redirect migrants headed for small towns toward smaller communities. There is also evidence to show that building construction has the potential to expand and contribute to economic growth. Some problems of implementation might be finding an adequate

  18. Why factors rooted in the family may solely explain the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. The underlying cause(s) may hypothetically include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. In a recent study, we concluded that some of the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences...... explain the urban-rural differences. Although other potential explanations for these differences exist, we focus on this hypothesis as it has not previously been discussed in detail. To determine the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences, we need direct measurements of genetic and....../or environmental factors related to urban life...

  19. Not just a rural occurrence: differences in agricultural equipment crash characteristics by rural-urban crash site and proximity to town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Karisa K; Greenan, Mitchell; Ramirez, Marizen

    2014-09-01

    Although approximately one-third of agricultural equipment-related crashes occur near town, these crashes are thought to be a rural problem. This analysis examines differences between agricultural equipment-related crashes by their urban-rural distribution and distance from a town. Agricultural equipment crashes were collected from nine Midwest Departments of Transportation (2005-2008). Crash zip code was assigned as urban or rural (large, small and isolated) using Rural-Urban Commuting Areas. Crash proximity to a town was estimated with ArcGIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of crashing in an urban versus rural zip codes and across rural gradients. ANOVA analysis estimated mean distance (miles) from a crash site to a town. Over four years, 4444 crashes involved agricultural equipment. About 30% of crashes occurred in urban zip codes. Urban crashes were more likely to be non-collisions (aOR=1.69[1.24-2.30]), involve ≥2 vehicles (2 vehicles: aOR=1.58[1.14-2.20], 3+ vehicles: aOR=1.68[0.98-2.88]), occur in a town (aOR=2.06[1.73-2.45]) and within one mile of a town (aOR=1.65[1.40-1.95]) than rural crashes. The proportion of crashes within a town differed significantly across rural gradients (Purban-rural distribution (Pagricultural equipment are unexpectedly common in urban areas and near towns and cities. Education among all roadway users, increased visibility of agricultural equipment and the development of complete rural roads are needed to increase road safety and prevent agricultural equipment-related crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Labour Force Migration Effects within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Tudorache

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, there is no common policy on migration; there are common policies on certain aspects of migration. The Member States fear of migration, but their economies and societies will further need migrant workers. Labour force migration have positive, but also negative consequences for all parties involved: receiving countries, origin countries and migrant workers. Within this framework, a common approach of the migration management and the harmonization of the economic migration policies of the Member States represent already one of the most important challenges for the European Union and will be further emphasized.

  1. Stigmatization experienced by rural-to-urban migrant workers in China: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Danhua; Mathur, Ambika; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-12-01

    Global literature has suggested a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among those who are being stigmatized. However, limited data are available regarding the form of stigma and stigmatization against rural-to-urban migrant workers in developing countries, including China. This study, employing qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews with rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing, China, was designed to understand the forms and context of stigmatization against rural migrant workers. The data in the current study show that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of stigmatization including labelling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination. Stigmatization occurred through different contexts of migrant workers' lives in urban destinations, including employment seeking, workplace benefits, and access to health and other public services. The current study is a necessary first step to assess the potential impact of stigmatization on both the physical and psychological well-being of rural-to-urban migrant workers.

  2. People's Republic of China's Contemporary Migration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bofulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades of significant political, economic and social transformations in the People’s Republic of China have had a profound impact on the Chinese society. The article addresses selected topics of Chinese migration that give a more nuanced understanding of migration processes and their contextualization within the contemporary Chinese society: the internal migration, emigration from China and international immigration to China. Migration from rural area towards urban eastern coast is one of the largest spatial movements in the human history, as well as a key component of the economic rise and subsequent social change. Emigration from China has, despite its relatively small volume, profoundly transformed local places of origin, a process that is not independent from the current international geopolitical situation. Immigration of international migrants to China is a relatively new phenomenon that puts the country on the map of migration destination countries for the first time in sixty years. The author concludes that the prevalent research perspectives on Chinese migration offer only a limited insight and suggests some possible alternative ways of analyzing this phenomenon.

  3. Urbanization and its Political Challenges in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal ÖZDEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries in the twenty-first century is experiencing rapid urbanization with a high concentration of people in the urban areas while the population of people in the rural areas is decreasing due to the rise in rural-urban push which has adverse consequences on the economic and political development of developing countries, in particular African cities. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze the trends and nature of urbanization in Africa from the pre-colonial era to the contemporary period of globalization in order to ascertain the implications of rapid urbanization on the processes of democratic transitions, on the vagaries of food sufficiency and crisis as well as its multiplier effects on the escalating rate of poverty and insurgency in the cities. These problems stem from the lack of good governance, high rate of corruption and the misappropriation of state resources through diverse economic liberalizing reforms and development strategies. Thus, this study affirms that urbanization is a process that requires objective management and institutional role differentiations and performance to create the organizational synergy, moderation and frugality necessary for the equitable distribution of the common wealth for the greatest good of all peoples not only in the urban areas but also in the rural areas which invariably will bring about political and economic development in African cities, and reduce the high incidences of poverty, insurgency and food crisis.

  4. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

  5. Allergen sensitisation among chronic respiratory diseases in urban and rural areas of the south of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, H T; Godin, I; Phuong, N T; Nguyen, L H; Hiep, T T M; Michel, O

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for allergen sensitisation among patients with chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in southern Viet Nam. An environmental questionnaire and skin prick tests for airborne and food allergens were administered to patients with CRD, defined as individuals with respiratory symptoms and lung function defects. Of 610 CRD patients, 56% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 31% were asthma patients; 80% were males. The most frequent sensitisers were dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae 22%, Blomia tropicalis 19%, D. pteronyssinus 18%) and cockroach droppings (13%). Among study participants, 37% were from rural settings and 36% from urban areas, whereas 27% had migrated from rural to urban areas. Compared with people from rural areas, being born in an urban area was a risk factor for sensitisation to mites (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11-2.20, P Viet Nam. Compared with the urban population, being native to a rural area was protective against mite sensitisation, but this effect ceased to be significant after migration from rural to urban areas.

  6. Challenging urban health: towards an improved local government response to migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Vearey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the PhD thesis undertaken by Joanna Vearey that explores local government responses to the urban health challenges of migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbanisation in South Africa is a result of natural urban growth and (to a lesser extent in-migration from within the country and across borders. This has led to the development of informal settlements within and on the periphery of urban areas. The highest HIV prevalence nationally is found within urban informal settlements. South African local government has a ‘developmental mandate’ that calls for government to work with citizens to develop sustainable interventions to address their social, economic, and material needs. Through a mixed-methods approach, four studies were undertaken within inner-city Johannesburg and a peripheral urban informal settlement. Two cross-sectional surveys – one at a household level and one with migrant antiretroviral clients – were supplemented with semi-structured interviews with multiple stakeholders involved with urban health and HIV in Johannesburg, and participatory photography and film projects undertaken with urban migrant communities. The findings show that local government requires support in developing and implementing appropriate intersectoral responses to address urban health. Existing urban health frameworks do not deal adequately with the complex health and development challenges identified; it is essential that urban public health practitioners and other development professionals in South Africa engage with the complexities of the urban environment. A revised, participatory approach to urban health – ‘concept mapping’ – is suggested which requires a recommitment to intersectoral action, ‘healthy urban governance’ and public health advocacy.

  7. Challenging urban health: towards an improved local government response to migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis undertaken by Joanna Vearey that explores local government responses to the urban health challenges of migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbanisation in South Africa is a result of natural urban growth and (to a lesser extent) in-migration from within the country and across borders. This has led to the development of informal settlements within and on the periphery of urban areas. The highest HIV prevalence nationally is found within urban informal settlements. South African local government has a ‘developmental mandate’ that calls for government to work with citizens to develop sustainable interventions to address their social, economic, and material needs. Through a mixed-methods approach, four studies were undertaken within inner-city Johannesburg and a peripheral urban informal settlement. Two cross-sectional surveys – one at a household level and one with migrant antiretroviral clients – were supplemented with semi-structured interviews with multiple stakeholders involved with urban health and HIV in Johannesburg, and participatory photography and film projects undertaken with urban migrant communities. The findings show that local government requires support in developing and implementing appropriate intersectoral responses to address urban health. Existing urban health frameworks do not deal adequately with the complex health and development challenges identified; it is essential that urban public health practitioners and other development professionals in South Africa engage with the complexities of the urban environment. A revised, participatory approach to urban health – ‘concept mapping’ – is suggested which requires a recommitment to intersectoral action, ‘healthy urban governance’ and public health advocacy. PMID:21686331

  8. Urban-rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona; Diamond, Megan B; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S; Volmink, Jimmy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Laurence, Carien; Reid, Todd G; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Spiegelman, Donna; Holmes, Michelle D

    2016-10-28

    Overweight and obesity are on the rise in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a four-country survey to show the collective burden of these health conditions as they occur currently in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine the differences between urban and rural populations and other socio-economic factors. Participants were nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria (200), school teachers in South Africa (489) and Tanzania (229), and village residents in one peri-urban (297) and one rural location in Uganda (200) who completed a standardised questionnaire. Their height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Factor analysis procedure (Principal component) was used to generate a wealth index. Univariate and multivariate analyses with binary logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between potential correlates and the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95 % confidence intervals. The prevalence of overweight and obese (combined) was 46 %, 48 %, 68 %, 75 % and 85 % in rural Uganda, peri-urban Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa (SA), respectively. Rural Uganda, Peri- urban Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and SA had obesity prevalence of 10 %, 14 %, 31 %, 40 % and 54 %, respectively (p obesity, 414 (34 %). Female sex was a predictor of overweight and obesity (combined) in peri-urban Uganda [AOR = 8.01; 95 % CI: 4.02, 15.96) and obesity in rural Uganda [AOR = 11.22; 95%CI: 2.27, 55.40), peri-urban Uganda [AOR = 27.80; 95 % CI: 7.13, 108.41) and SA [AOR = 2.17; 95 % CI: 1.19, 4.00). Increasing age was a predictor of BMI > =25 kg/m 2 in Nigeria [Age > =45 - AOR = 9.11; 95 % CI: 1.72, 48.16] and SA [AOR = 6.22; 95 % CI: 2.75, 14.07], while marital status was predictor of BMI > =25 kg/m 2 only in peri-urban Uganda. [Married - AOR = 4.49; 95 % CI: 1.74, 11.57]. Those in Nigeria [AOR = 2.56; 95 % CI: 1.45, 4.53], SA [AOR = 4.97; 95 % CI: 3

  9. Newcomers to rural Denmark: exploring migration processes and social life changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    The paper explores processes of social change in rural communities by examining migration processes and social changes in remote rural locations in Denmark. Through a survey among both in-migrants and long-term residents focus lays on three themes: changes in rural life due to in-migration......, the development of relationships between local residents and newcomers and the integration of newcomers in rural communities. In this way the paper gives insight into the relation between migration processes and social life change and it also gives new insight in how rural communities can attract newcomers...

  10. Explanations for Long-Distance Counter-Urban Migration into Fringe Areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark, as in most other European countries, there is a net migration from the less urbanized to the more urbanized parts of the country. This article summarizes the results of a Danish study on the extent and composition of migration fl ows; and on factors and conditions that have a decisive...... infl uence on migration to fringe areas. The study shows that a considerable share of movers to the fringe areas in Denmark can be characterised as income-transfer mover. They are people without employment moving to get lower housing costs. But there are also groups of people moving to employment...

  11. The Impact of Migration on Access to Credit Markets: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sought to explore whether rural-urban migration and urban dwellers have equal access to credit ... The model identified annual income, membership to local network/associations ...... Economics of Rural Organizations: Theory,.

  12. Smoking and heavy drinking patterns in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: the PERU MIGRANT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, Germán F; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006-2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64-3.20), but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99). Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26-4.16), and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03-7.34). Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural), while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the urban group. In addition, our results suggest that different

  13. Smoking and heavy drinking patterns in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: the PERU MIGRANT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Taype-Rondan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. Methods We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006–2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. Results We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64–3.20, but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31–0.99. Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26–4.16, and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03–7.34. Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Conclusions Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural, while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the

  14. Going places, staying home : rural-urban connections and the significance of land in Buhera district, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book consists of four articles containing detailed ethnographic studies of people who are commonly known as migrant workers.Conventional studies on rural-urban migration and urbanisation have often examined such people in either rural or urban social situations,analysing respectively the

  15. Urban-Rural Temperature Differences in Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent N. Ojeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hourly air temperature differences between City hall (urban and Okoafo (rural in Lagos, Nigeria, were calculated using one year of meteorological observations, from June 2014 to May 2015. The two sites considered for this work were carefully selected to represent their climate zones. The city core, City hall, is within the Local Climate Zone (LCZ 2 (Compact midrise while the rural location, Okoafo, falls within LCZ B (Scattered Trees in the south-western part on the outskirt of the city. This study is one of very few to investigate urban temperature conditions in Lagos, the largest city in Africa and one of the most rapidly urbanizing megacities in the world; findings show that maximum nocturnal UHI magnitudes in Lagos can exceed 7 °C during the dry season, and during the rainy season, wet soils in the rural environment supersede regional wind speed as the dominant control over UHI magnitude.

  16. Differential effectiveness of depression disease management for rural and urban primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott J; Xu, Stanley; Dong, Fran; Fortney, John; Rost, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    Federally qualified health centers across the country are adopting depression disease management programs following federally mandated training; however, little is known about the relative effectiveness of depression disease management in rural versus urban patient populations. To explore whether a depression disease management program has a comparable impact on clinical outcomes over 2 years in patients treated in rural and urban primary care practices and whether the impact is mediated by receiving evidence-based care (antidepressant medication and specialty care counseling). A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted in a consecutively sampled cohort of 479 depressed primary care patients recruited from 12 practices in 10 states across the country participating in the Quality Enhancement for Strategic Teaming study. Depression disease management improved the mental health status of urban patients over 18 months but not rural patients. Effects were not mediated by antidepressant medication or specialty care counseling in urban or rural patients. Depression disease management appears to improve clinical outcomes in urban but not rural patients. Because these programs compete for scarce resources, health care organizations interested in delivering depression disease management to rural populations need to advocate for programs whose clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated for rural residents.

  17. Health professionals' migration in emerging market economies: patterns, causes and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Webster, Premila

    2013-03-01

    About a third of the countries affected by shortage of human resources for health are the emerging market economies (EMEs). The greatest shortage in absolute terms was found to be in India and Indonesia leading to health system crisis. This review identifies the patterns of migration of health workers, causes and possible solutions in these EMEs. A qualitative synthesis approach based on the 'critical review' and 'realist review' approaches to the literature review was used. The patterns of migration of health professionals' in the EMEs have led to two types of discrepancies between health needs and healthcare workers: (i) within country (rural-urban, public-private or government healthcare sector-private sector) and (ii) across countries (south to north). Factors that influence migration include lack of employment opportunities, appropriate work environment and wages in EMEs, growing demand in high-income countries due to demographic transition, favourable country policies for financial remittances by migrant workers and medical education system of EMEs. A range of successful national and international initiatives to address health workforce migration were identified. Measures to control migration should be country specific and designed in accordance with the push and pull factors existing in the EMEs.

  18. Front versus rear seat placement of children aged 12 or younger within vehicles: a rural/urban comparison in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseth-Zosel, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that rear-seated children are 36 to 40 percent safer than front-seated children. Because of the substantial differences in traffic safety culture that appear to exist in rural areas and the limited research regarding seat placement and rurality, this study seeks to contribute to the safety literature by determining at what rate children are riding in the front seat and whether differences exist between rural and urban areas in regards to child front seat placement. Current child placement frequencies within vehicles were ascertained through direct observations of morning child drop-offs at randomly selected urban and rural elementary schools in eastern North Dakota during November and December of 2009, with a focus on children aged 12 or younger. Two observers wearing orange safety vests and carrying observation sheets were stationed at each elementary school a minimum of 45 min prior to each school's designated start time. Based on the vehicles that entered the school's parking lot/drop-off circle and from which a minimum of one child exited, observers were instructed to record vehicle type, presence of children in the front seat appearing to be younger than 13 years old, availability of room in the back seat, and placement of other children in the vehicle. During November and December of 2009 a total of 537 vehicles were observed at urban schools and 150 vehicles were observed at rural schools. Of the 537 vehicles observed at urban schools, 28.7 percent had children seated in the front seat, whereas 41.3 percent of the 150 vehicles observed at rural schools had front-seated children. Significant urban/rural differences exist in child seat placement, with vehicles in rural areas much more likely to be carrying front-seated children than vehicles in urban areas. Based on a sample of vehicles observed at urban and rural elementary schools in North Dakota, the results of this study indicate that there are significant rural/urban differences in

  19. Determinants of under-five mortality in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettarh, R R; Kimani, J

    2012-01-01

    The disparity in under-five year-old mortality rates between rural and urban areas in Kenya (also reported in other in sub-Saharan African countries), is a critical national concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location and maternal factors on the likelihood of mortality among under-five children in rural and urban areas in Kenya. Data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to determine mortality among under-five children (n=16,162) in rural and urban areas in the 5 years preceding the survey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare the influence of key risk factors in rural and urban areas. Overall, the likelihood of death among under-five children in the rural areas was significantly higher than that in the urban areas (ppoverty was a key predictor for mortality in the rural areas, but the influence of breastfeeding was similar in the two areas. The likelihood of under-five mortality was significantly higher in the rural areas of Coast, Nyanza and Western Provinces than in Central Province. The study shows that the determinants of under-five mortality differ in rural and urban areas in Kenya. Innovative and targeted strategies are required to address rural poverty and province-specific sociocultural factors in order to improve child survival in rural Kenya.

  20. Electricity (in)accessibility to the urban poor in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rozita; Wang, Xiao; Mendoza, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    More than half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas. The difficulties involved in providing new urban residents with a wide variety of services reveals a new face of poverty, one in which urban communities cannot access or afford basic modern energy services for their development...... and empowerment. As an enabler of development processes, access to electricity in urban and peri-urban contexts plays a key role in providing possibilities and solutions to the urban poor. Energy poverty is no longer a rural-only phenomenon, and a concerted effort is needed to find solutions. Taking...... this into account, the Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD) initiated the Urban Peri-Urban Energy Access (UPEA) project in 2006. The objective was to understand the barriers to energy access in the context of the urban poor in seven countries. Barriers from both the supply and demand sides...

  1. From rural Colombia to urban alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valencia Arias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between poverty, inequality and conflict exacerbateyouth migration from rural areas. Policymakers need to consider anumber of areas where efforts are needed to address the impact onyoung people – both in the cities and in the rural areas.

  2. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary - Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R

    2017-07-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010-2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas.

  3. Does Urbanization Affect Rural Poverty? Evidence from Indian Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Calì, Massimiliano; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983-1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas....

  4. Underestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Kopmann, Angela; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is among the first to link internal migration and subjective well-being in developed countries. Economic theory predicts that individuals migrate towards urban agglomerations, if the potential gain in income is sufficient to cover costs. However, this narrow view cannot explain why migration exists also to the rural periphery. In our analysis, we investigate non-monetary benefits beyond economics from internal migration. Using highly disaggregated spatial information on people s mi...

  5. Liberalizing rural-to-urban construction land transfers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Rong; Wang, Rongyu; Heerink, Nico

    2018-01-01

    China's land market is characterized by a dual urban-rural system, with the government in control of rural-urban land transfers. In recent years, different types of pilot projects have been implemented to experiment with liberalizing markets for rural-urban construction land transfers. The objective

  6. Addressing the impact of urban exposure on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The PERU MIGRANT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Alejos, Andrea; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2018-04-03

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of T2DM in three population groups: rural, rural-to-urban migrants and urban dwellers. Data from the PERU MIGRANT Study was analysed. The baseline assessment was conducted in 2007-2008 using a single-stage random sample and further follow-up was undertaken in 2015-16. T2DM was defined based on fasting glucose and self-reported diagnosis. Poisson regression models and robust variance to account for cluster effects were used for reporting risk ratios (RR) and 95%CI. At baseline, T2DM prevalence was 8% in urban, 3.6% in rural-to-urban migrants and 1.5% in rural dwellers. After 7.7 (SD: 1.1) years, 6,076 person-years of follow-up, 61 new cases were identified. The incidence rates in the urban, migrant and rural groups were 1.6, 0.9 and 0.5 per 100 person-years, respectively. Relative to rural dwellers, a 4.3-fold higher risk (95%CI: 1.6-11.9) for developing T2DM was found in urban dwellers and 2.7-fold higher (95%CI: 1.1-6.8) in migrants with ≥30 years of urban exposure. Migration and urban exposure were found as significant risk factors for developing T2DM. Within-country migration is a sociodemographic phenomenon occurring worldwide; thus, it is necessary to disentangle the effect of urban exposure on non-healthy habits and T2DM development.

  7. PARENTAL AND SIBLING MIGRATION AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AMONG RURAL CHILDREN IN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Li, Kelin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental and sibling rural-to-urban migration and blood pressure (BP) of rural left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Analysis was based on the 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2009 waves of longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which is an ongoing prospective survey covering nine provinces with an individual-level response rate of 88%. Blood pressure levels were measured by trained examiners at three consecutive times on the same visit and the means of three measurements were used as the final BP values. An ordinal BP measure was then created using a recently validated age-sex-specified distribution for Chinese children and adolescents, distinguishing normal BP, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Random effect modelling was performed. Different migration circumstances play different roles in LBC's BP with mother-only and both-parent migration being particularly detrimental and father-only and sibling-only migration either having no association or a negative association with LBC's BP levels or odds of high BP. In conclusion, the link between family migration and left-behind children's blood pressure is complex, and depends on who is the person out-migrating.

  8. Global assessment of rural–urban interface in Portugal related to land cover changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tonini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The rural–urban interface (RUI, known as the area where structures and other human developments meet or intermingle with wildland and rural area, is at present a central focus of wildfire policy and its mapping is crucial for wildfire management. In the Mediterranean Basin, humans cause the vast majority of fires and fire risk is particularly high in the proximity of infrastructure and of rural/wildland areas. RUI's extension changes under the pressure of environmental and anthropogenic factors, such as urban growth, fragmentation of rural areas, deforestation and, more in general, land use/land cover change (LULCC. As with other Mediterranean countries, Portugal has experienced significant LULCC in the last decades in response to migration, rural abandonment, ageing of population and trends associated with the high socioeconomic development. In the present study, we analyzed the LULCC occurring in this country in the 1990–2012 period with the main objective of investigating how these changes affected RUI's evolution. Moreover, we performed a qualitative and quantitative characterization of burnt areas within the RUI in relation to the observed changes. Obtained results disclose important LULCC and reveal their spatial distribution, which is far from uniform within the territory. A significant increase in artificial surfaces was registered near the main metropolitan communities of the northwest, littoral-central and southern regions, whilst the abandonment of agricultural land near the inland urban areas led to an increase in uncultivated semi-natural and forest areas. Within agricultural areas, heterogeneous patches suffered the greatest changes and were the main contributors to the increase in urban areas; moreover, this land cover class, together with forests, was highly affected by wildfires in terms of burnt area. Finally, from this analysis and during the investigated period, it appears that RUI increased in Portugal by more than two

  9. [Fertility in rural and urban areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Y Garma, I O

    1989-01-01

    Data from 6 fertility surveys conducted in Mexico between 1969-87 were used to compare rural and urban fertility and to determine whether a significant level of contraceptive usage could be achieved in rural areas despite their lack of socioeconomic development. Age-specific marital fertility rates were calculated for the 4 national-level and 2 rural fertility surveys. The index of fertility control developed by Coale and Trussel was calculated for rural, urban, and all areas. The marital total fertility rate in rural areas declined from 10.6 in 1970 to 7.4 in 1982, a decline of 2.5% annually. From 1982-87 the annual rate of decline in rural fertility slowed to 1.6%, reaching 6.8 children in 1987. The urban marital total fertility rate declined from 7.72 in 1976 to 5.03 in 1987, while the marital total fertility rate for Mexico as a whole declined from 9.04 in 1976 to 5.85 in 1987. The indices of fertility control showed slowly increasing use of contraception in rural areas starting from the very low level of 1969. The urban index of fertility control showed some contraceptive use for all age groups in all surveys. The increases in contraceptive usage were considerable in rural areas from 1976-82 and much less marked in urban areas. From 1982-87 the inverse was observed and the fertility decline in urban areas was more marked. The condition of natural fertility found in rural areas in 1969 subsequently disappeared. Over time, fertility decline and use of contraception have intensified. Contraception is widely practiced in urban areas and is continuing to become more prevalent. The rural fertility decline in 1976-82 suggests that at least sometimes increases in fertility control are more important in rural areas than in urban areas. The theory of modernization, which holds that fertility decline in developed countries is attributable to factors associated with the process of modernization, thus comes into question. However, it is probable that a sustained fertility

  10. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating

  11. All projects related to | Page 493 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Women, Migration and Rights in Mali and Sénégal. Project. In West Africa, notably Mali and Sénégal, the flow of women's migration takes place mainly within and between countries. Start Date: February 15, 2008. End Date: August 26, 2011. Topic: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, RURAL URBAN MIGRATION, MIGRANT ...

  12. Rural vs urban hospital performance in a 'competitive' public health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lacalle, Javier; Martin, Emilio

    2010-09-01

    In some western countries, market-driven reforms to improve efficiency and quality have harmed the performance of some hospitals, occasionally leading to their closure, mostly in rural areas. This paper seeks to explore whether these reforms affect urban and rural hospitals differently in a European health service. Rural and urban hospital performance is compared taking into account their efficiency and perceived quality. The study is focused on the Andalusian Health Service (SAS) in Spain, which has implemented a freedom of hospital choice policy and a reimbursement system based on hospital performance. Data Envelopment Analysis, the Mann-Whitney U test and Multidimensional Scaling techniques are conducted for two years, 2003 and 2006. The results show that rural and urban hospitals perform similarly in the efficiency dimension, whereas rural hospitals perform significantly better than urban hospitals in the patient satisfaction dimension. When the two dimensions are considered jointly, some rural hospitals are found to be the best performers. As such, market-driven reforms do not necessary result in a difference in the performance of rural and urban hospitals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Socio-economic differentials in child stunting are consistently larger in urban than rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover

    2000-01-01

    Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 11 countries from three regions were used to test the hypothesis that intra-urban differentials in child stunting were greater than intra-rural differentials, and that the prevalence of stunting among the...

  14. Relationship Between Climate Change Impact, Migration and Socioeconomic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sann Oo, Kyaw

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data are available in raster and vector formats and some of them are available in open data form. The technique and tools to handle those data are also available in open source. Though it is free of charge, the knowledge to utilize those data is limited to non-educated in the specific field. The data and technology should be promoted to those levels to utilize in required fields with priceless in developing countries. Before utilize open data, which are required to verify with local knowledge to become usable information for the local people as priceless data resources. Developing country, which economic is based in agriculture, required more information about precise weather data and weather variation by the climate change impact for their socioeconomic development. This study found that rural to urban migration occurs in the developing countries such agriculture based country likes Myanmar when the agriculture economic are affected by unpredictable impact by the climate change. The knowledge sharing using open data resources to non-educated local people is one of the curable solutions for the agriculture economy development in the country. Moreover, the study will find ways to reduce the rural to urban migration.

  15. Calidad de vida vinculada a salud en población migrante rural-urbana y población urbana en Lima, Perú Health-related quality of life among urban and rural to urban migrant populations in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Márquez-Montero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Explorar si existe una diferencia en la percepción y autorreporte de calidad de vida en población migrante rural-urbana en comparación con un grupo urbano no migrante. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, análisis secundario del estudio PERU-MIGRANT (PEru’s Rural to Urban MIGRANTs study. Utilizando la prueba de Kruskall- Wallis y evaluando magnitud de efectos se midieron y compararon los puntajes global y por dominios obtenidos en la encuesta WHOQOL-Brief. Resultados. Se encuestó a 307 individuos. La edad promedio de fue de 47 años, 57% correspondieron al sexo femenino y 62,2% a población migrante. Comparado con el grupo urbano, el grupo migrante reportó puntajes menores de calidad de vida a nivel global y en los dominios de salud psicológica y del ambiente en elque viven y a la vez, reportaron una mejor percepción en el dominio de salud física. Conclusiones. El impacto de la migración rural-urbana en la calidad de vida indica un efecto diferencial según sus distintos dominios.Objectives. To explore if there is a difference in the perception and self reported quality of life between rural-to-urban migrants and urban groups. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the PERU-MIGRANT study (PEru’s Rural to Urban MIGRANTs Study. WHOQOL-Brief survey’s global scores and per specific domains obtained in the survey were compared using Kruskall-Wallis’ test and assessing size effect. Results. A total of 307 subjects (62.2% migrants, 57% female, means age 47 years-old were surveyed. Compared with the urban group, migrants reported lower quality of life both on the global scores as well as in psychological health and the living environment domains. Migrants reported a higher score on the physical health’s domain. Conclusions. The impact of rural-to-urban migration on quality of life suggests a differential effect within its specific domains.

  16. [Migration patterns of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    The past three decades have seen the number of international migrants double, to reach the unprecedented total of 175 million people in 2003. National health systems are often the biggest national employer, responsible for an estimated 35 million workers worldwide. Health professionals are part of the expanding global labour market. Today, foreign-educated health professionals represent more than a quarter of the medical and nursing workforces of Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Destination countries, however, are not limited to industrialised nations. For example, 50 per cent of physicians in the Namibia public services are expatriates and South Africa continues to recruit close to 80% of its rural physicians from other countries. International migration often imitates patterns of internal migration. The exodus from rural to urban areas, from lower to higher income urban neighbourhoods and from lower-income to higher-income sectors contributes challenges to the universal coverage of the population. International migration is often blamed for the dramatic health professional shortages witnessed in the developing countries. A recent OECD study, however, concludes that many registered nurses in South Africa (far exceeding the number that emigrate) are either inactive or unemployed. These dire situations constitute a modern paradox which is for the most part ignored. Shared language, promises of a better quality of life and globalization all support the continued existence of health professionals' international migration. The ethical dimension o this mobility is a sensitive issue that needs to be addressed. A major paradigm shift, however, is required in order to lessen the need to migrate rather than artificially curb the flows.

  17. Dynamics of urban population growth in Nigeria: The role of repeated migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, A

    1976-02-01

    The paper examines the direct contribution of migration to the growth of the urban population both in terms of its mobility and stability components with special reference to Western Nigeria. The basis of the paper is a survey of urban migration conducted by the author in 1971-1972; the findings are supplemented where necessary by the 1952-1953 and 1963 census figures. Migration is a major factor in the growth of the urban population. The direct contribution by migrants to such growth can be traced to the following groups: the initial streams of migrants, the follow-up migrants and the potentially mobile migrants attracted from the migrants' communities of origin to the towns. Repeated migration by some migrants, particularly the young, the educated and the white collar-workers, are also major factors in the urban population growth. Such repeated migrations are predominantly urban to urban or turnover moves. The high mobility rate among a group of migrants tends to conceal the relative stability among the migrant population as a whole. Repeated migrants usually stay between 3 and 5 years at each destination, before moving on. A substantial proportion of migrants, mainly farmers, the less educated and the old, are relatively stable in the survey towns (Ife and Oshogho). The urban residence ration indices also indicate an increase in the rate of immigration, mainly of young persons, to the towns. The youthful age structure, the age selectivity in migration and the marital status of the young migrants tend to exacerbate the masculinity in the form of unbalanced sex ratio prevailing in most urban centers. The urban population is unlikely to be stable. The tendency for old migrants of rural origin to return to their villages at the end of their migration career and for contemporary migrants to consist predominantly of youths, will for the next generation or 2 lead to a young and unstable urban population.

  18. Rural Versus Urban Use of Traditional and Emerging Tobacco Products in the United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Stanton, Cassandra A; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Villanti, Andrea C; Gaalema, Diann E; Keith, Diana R; Kurti, Allison N; Lopez, Alexa A; Redner, Ryan; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-10-01

    To examine urban-rural differences in US prevalences of traditional and emerging tobacco product use as well as dual or polytobacco use of these products. Our data were derived from wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. We estimated weighted prevalences of adult tobacco use across urban-rural geographies and examined prevalences classified by gender, poverty level, and region of the country. Nationally, cigarette use and smokeless tobacco use, as well as dual or polytobacco use of traditional products, were more prevalent in rural than in urban areas. Conversely, cigarillo and hookah use and dual or polytobacco use of emerging products were higher in urban areas. There was no significant urban-rural difference in use of e-cigarettes. Gender, poverty, and region of the country did not seem to be driving most urban-rural differences, although differences related to cigarillo use and dual or polytobacco use of emerging products became nonsignificant after control for covariates. Our findings highlight important urban-rural differences in tobacco use. Whether the changing tobacco product landscape will contribute to a continuation of rural health disparities remains to be seen.

  19. Chilling out in "Cosmopolitan Country": Urban/Rural Hybridity and the Construction of Daylesford as a "Lesbian and Gay Rural Idyll"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman-Murray, Andrew; Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper advances scholarship on "lesbian and gay rural idylls". A growing literature examines how "lesbian and gay rural idylls" are not only produced in opposition to the urban, but are themselves urban constructs. We extend these contentions by exploring the processes of idyllisation suffusing lesbian and gay festival…

  20. [Migration, urbanization, and development policy in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, D

    1992-01-01

    "The various studies focussing on human settlements in Senegal show that the share of population living in cities is ever increasing because of the massive and continuous flow from rural areas. The persistance of such migration trends from the country to cities deepens regional disparities, compounds the difficulties and cost of city management and development, specially in the case of Dakar, and runs counter to the goals of social and economic development plans.... The growing importance of such phenomena calls for the designing of corrective measures in favour of rural areas and small towns in order to settle rural populations and halt the inordinate and chaotic geographical growth of large cities. Failing this, development efforts may well be compromised." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  1. Sib-recruitment for studying migration and its impact on obesity and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran Dorairaj

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban-rural comparisons are of limited relevance in examining the effects of urban migration in developing countries where urbanisation is due to growth of existing urban populations, expansion of urban boundaries, and rural in-migration. Cultural, genetic and life-style backgrounds of migrants and host populations further limit the value of rural-urban comparisons. Therefore we evaluated a sib-comparison design intended to overcome the limitations of urban-rural comparisons. Methods Using the framework of a current cardiovascular risk factor screening study conducted in Indian factories, we recruited the non-migrant rural sibs of migrant urban factory workers and the urban sibs of non-migrant factory workers. The response rate, completed interviews and examinations conducted were assessed. Adequacy of generic food frequency questionnaires and WHO quality of life questionnaire were assessed. Results All the urban factory workers and spouses approached agreed to be interviewed. Of the 697 participants interviewed, 293 (42% had at least one rural dwelling sibling. Twenty (22% siblings lived further than 100 km from the study site. An additional 21 urban siblings of non-migrant factory workers were also investigated to test the logistics of this element of the study. Obesity (BMI >25 kg/m2 was more common in rural sibs than urban factory workers (age adjusted prevalence: 21.1% (17.1 to 25.0 vs. 16.1% (11.9, 20.3. Diabetes prevalence (fasting plasma glucose greater than 126 mg/dl was higher than expected (age-adjusted prevalence: 12.5% (22 out of 93 in urban migrants and 4.5% (8 out of 90 in rural non-migrant sibs. Conclusion The sib-comparison design is robust and has been adopted in the main study. It is possible that simple urban-rural study designs under-estimate the true differences in diabetes risk between migrants and non-migrants.

  2. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary – Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010–2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas. PMID:29430017

  3. Psychosocial factors and obesity in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries: the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, A; Teo, K; Rangarajan, S; Kabali, C; Khumalo, I; Kutty, V R; Gupta, R; Yusuf, R; Iqbal, R; Ismail, N; Altuntas, Y; Kelishadi, R; Diaz, R; Avezum, A; Chifamba, J; Zatonska, K; Wei, L; Liao, X; Lopez-Jaramillo, P; Yusufali, A; Seron, P; Lear, S A; Yusuf, S

    2015-08-01

    Psychosocial stress has been proposed to contribute to obesity, particularly abdominal, or central obesity, through chronic activation of the neuroendocrine systems. However, these putative relationships are complex and dependent on country and cultural context. We investigated the association between psychosocial factors and general and abdominal obesity in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study. This observational, cross-sectional study enrolled 151 966 individuals aged 35-70 years from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries. Data were collected for 125 290 individuals regarding education, anthropometrics, hypertension/diabetes, tobacco/alcohol use, diet and psychosocial factors (self-perceived stress and depression). After standardization for age, sex, country income and urban/rural location, the proportion with obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m(-)(2)) increased from 15.7% in 40 831 individuals with no stress to 20.5% in 7720 individuals with permanent stress, with corresponding proportions for ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity of 48.6% and 53.5%, respectively (P<0.0001 for both). Associations between stress and hypertension/diabetes tended to be inverse. Estimating the total effect of permanent stress with age, sex, physical activity, education and region as confounders, no relationship between stress and obesity persisted (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for obesity 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.10)). There was no relationship between ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity (adjusted PR 1.00 (0.97-1.02)). Stratification by region yielded inconsistent associations. Depression was weakly but independently linked to obesity (PR 1.08 (1.04-1.12)), and very marginally to abdominal obesity (PR 1.01 (1.00-1.03)). Although individuals with permanent stress tended to be slightly more obese, there was no overall independent effect and no evidence that abdominal obesity or its consequences

  4. Urban-rural differences in the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes among older adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufan; Dupre, Matthew E; Qiu, Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yuan; Gu, Danan

    2017-07-19

    Studies have shown that inadequate access to healthcare is associated with lower levels of health and well-being in older adults. Studies have also shown significant urban-rural differences in access to healthcare in developing countries such as China. However, there is limited evidence of whether the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes differs by urban-rural residence at older ages in China. Four waves of data (2005, 2008/2009, 2011/2012, and 2014) from the largest national longitudinal survey of adults aged 65 and older in mainland China (n = 26,604) were used for analysis. The association between inadequate access to healthcare (y/n) and multiple health outcomes were examined-including instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability, ADL disability, cognitive impairment, and all-cause mortality. A series of multivariate models were used to obtain robust estimates and to account for various covariates associated with access to healthcare and/or health outcomes. All models were stratified by urban-rural residence. Inadequate access to healthcare was significantly higher among older adults in rural areas than in urban areas (9.1% vs. 5.4%; p China. The associations between access to healthcare and health outcomes were generally stronger among older adults in rural areas than in urban areas. Our findings underscore the importance of providing adequate access to healthcare for older adults-particularly for those living in rural areas in developing countries such as China.

  5. Are the cause(s) responsible for urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk rooted in families or individuals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. Hypothetical underlying cause(s) may include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. The authors investigated whether the underlying cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences were rooted...... evaluated whether the nearest older sibling's place of birth had an independent effect on schizophrenia risk. If the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences are rooted in individuals only, the nearest older sibling's place of birth should have no independent effect. In this analysis....... Some of the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk are rooted in families, but some might also be rooted in individuals....

  6. Migration and work-life balance in the periphery

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    This paper will address the potential of teleworking in relation to migration decisions to leave or stay in rural, peripheral locations. Various studies document long term patterns of migration from rural to urban areas but also urban-rural migration as well as significant differences between rural localities in regard to population growth or decline.Mobility is generally low in Denmark, decreases with age and is very low from age 50 whereas mobility is high when establishing family. Thus, mi...

  7. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  8. Connecting rural-urban economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lazaro, Evelyn

    The interlinked relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are perceived crucial in enhancing possibilities for livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Urban settlements provide opportunities for investment in more remunerative economic...... activities, job/employment opportunities that retain potential migrants in the area, and access to services for the rural hinterlands. This paper examines the role of emerging urban centres (EUCs) as ‘drivers’ of rural development based on a study of two EUCs and their rural hinterlands in Tanzania. Findings...... and poverty reduction....

  9. The role of emigration and migration in Swedish industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, U

    1982-10-01

    It is possible, within a general equilibrium framework, to reveal some of the important mechansims in the rather complicated interplay among the variables causing demoeconomic development. The model for this study is a computable general equilibrium model within the tradition of multisectoral growth models and is designed to fit Swedish prewar development and to enable counterfactual analysis. The model is reviewed briefly followed by comments on the database, estimation procedure and validation; displays of some comparative static experiments; and an evaluation of the capability of the model in replicating Swedish demoeconomic development between 1871-90 before examining the counterfactual simulations which address the role of external and internal migration in Swedish industrialization. There are at least 2 reasons for carrying out comparative static experiments: by undertaking parameter changes and exploring the equilibrium effect on the model, further insights will be realized concerning the behavior of the model and its validity; and some of the comparative static experiments are interesting from the point of view of policy analysis because they reveal the static, total effect on the economy of changes in some variables discussed by 19th century Swedish politicians. The experiments are organized into 2 groups: rural and population experiments. The base run simulation from 1871-90 indicates that the model captures the essential factors of the demoeconomic development of Sweden. The model's ability to replicate historical trends in some of the crucial variables permits use of the base simulation as a reference point when undertaking counterfactual simulations. The 1st simulation evaluates the effects of emigration on the Swedish economy; the remaining 2 simulations assess the importance of rural to urban migration. The model indicates that without emigration real rural wages would have been 1.8% lower in 1880 and 10.0% lower in 1890. Urban wages would have been

  10. Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Annelien; Jirovsky, Elena; Blacklock, Claire; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Moosa, Shabir; De Maeseneer, Jan; Kutalek, Ruth; Peersman, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the migration intentions of sub-Saharan African medical students and health professionals within the context of a legacy of active international recruitment by receiving countries. However, many health workers migrate outside of this recruitment paradigm. This paper aims to explore the reasons for migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to Belgium and Austria; European countries without a history of active recruitment in sub-Saharan Africa. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Twenty-seven health workers were interviewed about their migration experiences. Included participants were born in sub-Saharan Africa, had trained as health workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and were currently living in Belgium or Austria, though not necessarily currently working as a health professional. Both Austria and Belgium were shown not to be target countries for the health workers, who instead moved there by circumstance, rather than choice. Three principal reasons for migration were reported: 1) educational purposes; 2) political instability or insecurity in their country of origin; and 3) family reunification. In addition, two respondents mentioned medical reasons and, although less explicit, economic factors were also involved in several of the respondents' decision to migrate. These results highlight the importance of the broader economic, social, and political context within which migration decisions are made. Training opportunities proved to be an important factor for migration. A further development and upgrade of primary care might help to counter the common desire to specialize and improve domestic training opportunities.

  11. Rural Transformation and the Emergence of Urban Centres in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, Evelyne; Agergaard, Jytte; Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted

    as market places for sale of a dominant crop. In all four cases, new employment opportunities have been created in the value chain sequence of economic activities and the influx of migrant works have increased significantly. 3) How do migration and investments contribute to the consolidation of EUCs...... that have been stimulated by Tanzanian market liberalizations and its long term effects on private enterprise. The paper is based on a study of four EUCs in Tanzania (Ilula, Igowole, Madizini and Kibaigwa) and seeks to answer three major research questions: 1) What economic and spatial trends, including......Urbanization and rural transformation in the Global South can be conceptualized and explored as integrated processes. Recent academic debates have discussed how rural places are changing in close relation to economic and social processes where the distinction between rural and urban livelihoods...

  12. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively.

  13. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  14. Rural-urban household energy use and inter-relation in the Central Region of the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgizouli, I.A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Urban and rural household energy consumption accounts for the major part of total energy consumption in most African countries. It ranges between 50 and 70 percent in African countries with medium per capita incomes and between 58 and 93 percent in those with low per capita incomes. Satisfying household energy needs takes up a substantial portion of the income of the urban household, while in the rural areas much time and effort are spent collecting wood instead of in more productive activities. Woodfuel meets over 85 percent of household energy demand in most African countries. This high level of consumption will remain, irrespective of the country's per capita income: woodfuel will continue to play a major role in the economics of developing countries and especially in the living standards of both rural and urban poor. The two major issues which must be considered are whether the forest resources are going to meet the future demand for woodfuel and whether prices will remain affordable to the low income groups. This paper deals with household energy issues with special reference to the Central Region in the Sudan. It assesses local resources in the region, analyzes consumption patterns of both rural and urban households, and discusses possible solutions to the impact of current energy practices

  15. Rural-Urban Interdependence in Food Systems in Nsukka Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    by influencing the decision to migrate, remain in the rural area, or provide urban services in ..... (dried cassava) processing machines, vehicles, corrugated iron houses. A final .... It can also influence learning and adoption rates of new ..... 18.3. 8 . Palm tree. Small. 46.7. 73.3. Medium. 51.7. 3.3. Large. 1.7. None. 0.0. 23.3 ...

  16. Oral health status of rural-urban migrant children in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Li; McGrath, Colman; Lin, Huan-Cai

    2011-01-01

    In China, there is a massive rural-urban migration and the children of migrants are often unregistered residents (a 'floating population'). This pilot study aimed to profile the oral health of migrant children in South China's principal city of migration and identify its socio-demographic/behavioural determinants. An epidemiological survey was conducted in an area of Guangzhou among 5-year-old migrant children (n = 138) who received oral examinations according to the World Health Organization criteria. Parents' oral health knowledge/attitude, child practices, and impact of children's oral health on their quality-of-life (QoL) were assessed. The caries rate and mean (SD) dmft were 86% and 5.17 (4.16), respectively, higher than those national statistics for both rural and urban areas (P Oral hygiene was satisfactory (DI-S Oral health impacts on QoL were considerable; 60% reported one or more impacts. 58% variance in 'dmft' was explained by 'non-local-born', 'low-educated parents', 'bedtime feeding', 'parental unawareness of fluoride's effect and importance of teeth', and 'poor oral hygiene' (all P oral health-related QoL (both P Oral health is poor among rural-urban migrant children and requires effective interventions in targeted sub-groups. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Urbanization and Condition of Urban Slums in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digambar Abaji Chimankar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempted to study the urbanization in India and condition of urban slums in terms of water, sanitation, electricity, garbage collection and health care, and education which are supposed to be basic minimum needs for the slum dwellers. India is going through the process of rapid urbanization because of industrialization like other third world countries.  The percent of urbanization increase from 27.8 percent in 2001 to 31.1 percent in 2011 census. The increase in the percentage of population in urban areas is because of natural growth, rural to urban migration and the reclassification of village and towns. The share of the slum population in the total urban population of the country was 18.3 percent in 2001 while in 2011 it was 17.4 percent. The condition of urban slums in India is to be improved so as to make them better for living.

  18. Importance of latrine communication in European rabbits shifts along a rural-to-urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziege, Madlen; Bierbach, David; Bischoff, Svenja; Brandt, Anna-Lena; Brix, Mareike; Greshake, Bastian; Merker, Stefan; Wenninger, Sandra; Wronski, Torsten; Plath, Martin

    2016-06-14

    Information transfer in mammalian communication networks is often based on the deposition of excreta in latrines. Depending on the intended receiver(s), latrines are either formed at territorial boundaries (between-group communication) or in core areas of home ranges (within-group communication). The relative importance of both types of marking behavior should depend, amongst other factors, on population densities and social group sizes, which tend to differ between urban and rural wildlife populations. Our study is the first to assess (direct and indirect) anthropogenic influences on mammalian latrine-based communication networks along a rural-to-urban gradient in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in urban, suburban and rural areas in and around Frankfurt am Main (Germany). The proportion of latrines located in close proximity to the burrow was higher at rural study sites compared to urban and suburban ones. At rural sites, we found the largest latrines and highest latrine densities close to the burrow, suggesting that core marking prevailed. By contrast, latrine dimensions and densities increased with increasing distance from the burrow in urban and suburban populations, suggesting a higher importance of peripheral marking. Increased population densities, but smaller social group sizes in urban rabbit populations may lead to an increased importance of between-group communication and thus, favor peripheral over core marking. Our study provides novel insights into the manifold ways by which man-made habitat alterations along a rural-to-urban gradient directly and indirectly affect wildlife populations, including latrine-based communication networks.

  19. Towards Rural Land Use: Challenges for Oversizing Urban Perimeters in Shrinking Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, João; Virtudes, Ana

    2017-12-01

    This article, based on the literature review, aims to study the challenges of the urban dispersion and oversizing of urban perimeters, in the cases where the towns are shrinking or spreading to the rural land-use. It is focused on the case of Portugal where during the last decades there was an escaping to the big cities alongside to the sea (Atlantic and Mediterranean) shore. In the Interior part of the country, which means near to the border with Spain, several towns are shrinking, despite their huge urban perimeters, proposed by the municipal master plans, since the middle of the nineties. Consequently, these urban perimeters are nowadays oversizing, with empty buildings and non-urbanized areas. At the same time, the social patterns of occupation of this territory have changed significantly, moving from a society with signs of rurality to an urban realm, understood not only in territorial terms but also regarding the current lifestyle. This deep changing has occurred not only in urbanistic terms but also in the economic, cultural and social organizations of the country, under a movement that corresponds to a decline of the small urban settlements in rural areas, far away from the cosmopolitan strip of land nearby the sea, in between the capital city, Lisbon and the second one Oporto. These transformations were not driven by any significant public policy for land-use actions. On the contrary, the production of urban areas, supporting the new model of economic and social development was largely left to the initiative of economic and social private agents and land owners. These agents were the leading responsible for the new urban developments and housing. In this sense, this research aims to present some strategies for the short time period regarding the devolution of urban areas to rural land use. In this sense, the next steps of spatial planning policies, under the role of local authorities (the 308 municipalities including Madeira and Azores islands, plus the

  20. Managing rapid urbanization in the third world: some aspects of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, K R

    1989-01-01

    A priority task for developing countries is the formulation of national urbanization policies that: 1) foster the full development of national resources; 2) promote cohesion among regions, especially where there are striking inequities in per capita output; 3) prevent or correct the overconcentration of economic activity in a few urban centers; and 4) create a more efficient, equitable management of growth within cities. Although urban households tend to be served better by the health and educational sectors than their rural counterparts, the urban poor are denied these benefits in the absence of special programs to ensure universal access. The urban poor are further denied access to the benefits of urban centers through a transportation policy that is oriented more toward roads and cars than public transit systems. Of major concern are the overcrowded squatter settlements that have developed in response to massive rural-urban migration. Since the landlessness, joblessness, and demoralization in rural areas and the consequent urban influx are at the root of the urban crisis in the Third World, integrated rural development is essential to retain substantial new additions to the urban labor force in rural areas. Land reform is the single strategy with the greatest potential to improve the quality of life of the landless poor and small holders. Other needs include programs of labor-intensive rural public works to provide supplementary income-earning opportunities and improve the rural infrastructure and more widespread participation of the rural poor in the development process. Increasingly sophisticated administrative and financing systems will be required to carry out a national urbanization policy, and current politicized bureaucracies must be replaced by a reliance on technically skilled professional administrators.

  1. Rural tobacco use across the United States: How rural and urban areas differ, broken down by census regions and divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Kurti, Allison N; Redner, Ryan; Gaalema, Diann E; Stanton, Cassandra A; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    This project compared urban/rural differences in tobacco use, and examined how such differences vary across regions/divisions of the U.S. Using pooled 2012-2013 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we obtained weighted prevalence estimates for the use of cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipes. NSDUH also provides information on participants' residence: rural vs. urban, and Census region and division. Overall, use of cigarettes, chew, and snuff were higher in rural, compared to urban areas. Across all tobacco products, urban/rural differences were particularly pronounced in certain divisions (e.g., the South Atlantic). Effects did not appear to be fully explained by differences in poverty. Going beyond previous research, these findings show that urban/rural differences vary across different types of tobacco products, as well as by division of the country. Results underscore the need for regulatory efforts that will reduce health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strengthening Rural-Urban Interactions as a Contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    finance through remittances as well as the flow of goods and services between rural and urban ... of the South-West Region of Cameroon as a case study. ..... major areas of interest within the Kumba urban area were the urban market, cash ... This study makes use of two main concepts – the Growth Pole and Growth.

  3. Rural transformations in the context of changing rural-urban connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Ørtenblad, Sinne Borby; Msese, Lukelo

    , the infrastructure, including road systems and means of communication, has in general increased and improved. This development has among a number of other things caused changing patterns of mobility. These changes are highly interrelated and connected to changing rural-urban linkages, which include flows of people......, capital, resources, agricultural commodities, goods, services, technology and information, between rural and urban locations. We emphasize that the rural-urban connections go beyond the spatial dichotomy and that the linkages often occur in a dynamic rural-urban continuum. Influenced by these changes......, this paper sets out to elucidate patterns and dynamics of rural transformation in Tanzania in the context of changing rural-urban linkages by presenting data from a particularly dynamic region; namely Njombe Region in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Based on fieldwork conducted during 2014 and 2015...

  4. Rural and Urban Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  5. The Danish urban-rural gradient of allergic sensitization and disease in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, G; Linneberg, A; Husemoen, L L N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of allergic sensitization among children is lower in rural areas than in urban areas of the world. The aim was to investigate the urban-rural differences of allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens in adults depending on childhood exposure living in an indu......BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of allergic sensitization among children is lower in rural areas than in urban areas of the world. The aim was to investigate the urban-rural differences of allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens in adults depending on childhood exposure living...... in an industrialized country as Denmark. METHODS: A total of 1236 male participants of 30-40 years of age recruited from two epidemiological studies were divided into four groups with regard to place of upbringing; city, town, rural area and farm. Allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick tests (SPTs) to 10...... sensitization and specific allergen sensitization in adults depending on their childhood exposure. In this highly homogenous western population, exposure to a less urbanized childhood was associated with lower risk of allergic sensitization and disease as an adult....

  6. Body Mass Index and Self-Perception of Overweight and Obesity in Rural, Urban and Rural-to-Urban Migrants: PERU MIGRANT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Pillay, Timesh D.; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare self-reported weight and body mass index (BMI) in order to determine discrepancies between subjective and objective obesity-related markers, and possible explanatory factors of overweight and obesity underestimation, in urban, rural and migrant populations. Materials and Methods: Data from the PERU MIGRANT study, a cross-sectional study, in low-income settings, of urban, migrant (rural-to-urban), and rural groups, including BMI, self-reported weight and ...

  7. Migration Stress, Poor Mental Health, and Engagement in Sex with High-Risk Partners: A Mediation Modeling Analysis of Data from Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Xinguang; Yan, Yaqiong; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Robserson, Emily

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing need for better understanding of mechanisms underpinning the relationship between migration stress and HIV risk behaviors for the development of HIV prevention and control policy. Survey data from a random sample of 1,293 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants were analyzed. Stress was assessed using the Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), mental health status was assessed using the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and having sex with high risk partners was assessed as if ever have had sex with high risk partners (e.g., sex workers, intravenous injection drug users, blood donors, persons infected with HIV, persons with sexually transmitted infection, and same gender partners) in the past year. The proposed relationship was tested using mediation modeling method. Among the sample, 5.5% reported having had sex with high-risk partners in the past year. Mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between DMSQ scores and having sex with high-risk partners was mediated by BSI (coefficient =0.41, 95% CI [0.21, 0.65]), including its components of somatization (0.32 [0.15, 0.53]), obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.31 [0.07, 0.55]), depression (0.45 [0.23, 0.72]), anxiety (0.41 [0.23, 0.63]), and hostility (0.35 [0.17, 0.56]). Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced in males than in females. The study findings provide new data advancing our understanding of the mechanism of engagement in risky sex, underscoring the need for the HIV prevention policies in China to pay more attention to mental health of the rural-to-urban migrant population.

  8. Rural and Urban Differences in Sexual Behaviors Among Adolescents in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Mahony, Helen; Noble, Charlotte; Wang, Wei; Ziemba, Robert; Malmi, Markku; Maness, Sarah B; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R; Daley, Ellen M

    2018-04-01

    The national teen birth rate is higher in rural compared to urban areas. While national data suggest rural areas may present higher risk for adverse sexual health outcomes among adolescents, it is unknown whether there are differences within the state of Florida. Overall, Florida has poorer sexual health indicators for adolescents compared to national rates. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in sexual behaviors among Florida adolescents by rural-urban community location. This study includes baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Florida high schools. Of the 6316 participants, 74% were urban and 26% were rural. Participants responded to questions on sexual behaviors, sexual behavior intentions, and demographics. We estimated the effect of rural-urban status on risk outcomes after controlling for demographic variables using generalized linear mixed models. More teens from rural areas reported ever having sex (24.0%) compared to urban teens (19.7%). No significant differences were observed for most of sexual behaviors assessed. Nonetheless, urban participants were less likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to rural participants (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Overall, there were no major differences in sexual behaviors between rural and urban adolescents in Florida. However, sexual intentions differed between rural and urban adolescents; specifically, rural adolescents were more likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to urban adolescents. Understanding the specific disparities can inform contraception and sexual health interventions among rural youth.

  9. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Associated Risk Factors among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jiali; You, Liming

    2017-11-14

    Rural-to-urban migration, which has achieved a huge scale during China's economic reform, is a potential risk factor for the mental health of migrant children. To test this hypothesis, this study assessed the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant children. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, the study explored the risk factors associated with mental health. The study recruited 1182 fifth/sixth-grade children from four private and four public primary schools in Guangzhou in 2014 in a descriptive cross-sectional design. Mental health status was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Predisposing characteristics including demographics (e.g., age, gender), social structure (e.g., education, occupation) and health beliefs (health attitude) were recorded. Enabling characteristics including family and community resources and the need for health services were analyzed to explore the risk factors. The results indicate that more rural-to-urban migrant children were classified in the abnormal (21.0%) or borderline (18.8%) categories based on the total difficulties scores, the proportions of which were much higher than those of local children (9.8% abnormal, 13.8% borderline). Factors associated with a greater likelihood of mental health problems included single-parent families, seeking health information actively, family income cannot meet basic needs and poor perceived health status. Compared with the local children, the rural-to-urban migrant children had relatively poor mental health, hence monitoring and supporting mental health for rural-urban migrant children is critical.

  10. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010, Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007, Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008, Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008 or Sahn and Stifel (2002 are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data

  11. A Life-cycle Approach to Improve the Sustainability of Rural Water Systems in Resource-Limited Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Stacey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A WHO and UNICEF joint report states that in 2008, 884 million people lacked access to potable drinking water. A life-cycle approach to develop potable water systems may improve the sustainability for such systems, however, a review of the literature shows that such an approach has primarily been used for urban systems located in resourced countries. Although urbanization is increasing globally, over 40 percent of the world’s population is currently rural with many considered poor. In this paper, we present a first step towards using life-cycle assessment to develop sustainable rural water systems in resource-limited countries while pointing out the needs. For example, while there are few differences in costs and environmental impacts for many improved rural water system options, a system that uses groundwater with community standpipes is substantially lower in cost that other alternatives with a somewhat lower environmental inventory. However, a LCA approach shows that from institutional as well as community and managerial perspectives, sustainability includes many other factors besides cost and environment that are a function of the interdependent decision process used across the life cycle of a water system by aid organizations, water user committees, and household users. These factors often present the biggest challenge to designing sustainable rural water systems for resource-limited countries.

  12. A matching decomposition of the rural-urban difference in malnutrition in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Child malnutrition remains widespread in many developing countries. Malnutrition during infancy may substantially increase vulnerability to infection and disease, and the risk of premature death. Malnutrition in children may also lead to permanent effects and to their having diminished health capital later in life as adults. These negative consequences of child malnutrition entail that the reduction of child malnutrition is vital for the social-economic development of countries. Urban children generally have better nutritional status than rural children. Malawi is no exception in this regard. The objective of this paper is to explore how much of the rural-urban nutrition gap in Malawi is explained and how much is unexplained by differences in characteristics. Using data from the 2006 multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS), the paper used the Nopo decomposition method to decompose the rural-urban malnutrition gap. This nonparametric method takes into account the fact that the supports of the distributions of characteristics between the two areas can be different. The results show that 90% and 89% of the stunting and underweight gaps respectively would be eliminated if there were no urban children with combinations of characteristics which positively influence child nutrition that remain entirely unmatched by rural children. Further to that, 4% and 6% of the stunting and underweight gaps respectively would disappear if there were no rural children with combinations of characteristics which negatively affect child nutrition that remain entirely unmatched by urban children. These findings suggest that the characteristics which negatively affect child nutrition in rural areas play a small role in the gap, and that most of the gap is largely due to the favourable characteristics such as better parental education and better household economic status among others that urban children have. The findings imply that in order to reduce the malnutrition gap policy

  13. Defining urban and rural areas: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Blanca; Roca, Josep

    2017-10-01

    The separation between the countryside and the city, from rural and urban areas, has been one of the central themes of the literature on urban and territorial studies. The seminal work of Kingsley Davis [10] in the 1950s introduced a wide and fruitful debate which, however, has not yet concluded in a rigorous definition that allows for comparative studies at the national and subnational levels of a scientific nature. In particular, the United Nations (UN) definition of urban and rural population is overly linked to political and administrative factors that make it difficult to use data adequately to understand the human settlement structure of different countries. The present paper seeks to define a more rigorous methodology for the identification of rural and urban areas. For this purpose it uses the night lights supplied by the SNPP satellite, and more specifically by the VIIRS sensor for the determination of the urbanization gradient, and by means of the same construct a more realistic indicator than the statistics provided by the UN. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and most meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, this paper proposes a new methodology designed to identify highly impacted (urbanized) landscapes worldwide based on the analysis of satellite imagery of night-time lights. The application of this methodology on a global scale identifies the land highly impacted by light, the urbanization process, and allows an index to be drawn up of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The methodology used in this paper can be summarized in the following steps: a) a logistic regression between US Urban Areas (UA), as a dependent variable, and night-time light intensity, as an explanatory variable, allows us to establish a nightlight intensity level for the determination of Areas Highly Impacted by Light (AHIL); b) the delimitation of

  14. Strong association between in-migration and HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, Hélène A C M; Vissers, Debby C J; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia; White, Richard G; de Vlas, Sake J; Habbema, J Dik F

    2010-04-01

    Enormous variation exists in HIV prevalence between countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of migration to the spread of HIV has long been recognized, but its effect at the population level has never been assessed. In this ecological analysis, we explore how much variation in HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa is explained by in-migration. We performed a linear regression to analyze the association between the proportion of recent in-migrants and HIV prevalence for men and women in urban areas, using 60 data points from 28 sub-Saharan African countries between 1987 and 2005. We found a strong association between recent in-migration and HIV prevalence for women (Pearson R = 57%, P Africa (R = 50%, P = 0.003). For both genders, the association was strongest between 1985 and 1994, slightly weaker between 1995 and 1999, and nonexistent as from 2000. The overall association for both men and women was not confounded by the developmental indicators GNI per capita, income inequalities, or adult literacy. Migration explains much of the variation in HIV spread in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa, especially before the year 2000, after which HIV prevalences started to level off in many countries. Our findings suggest that migration is an important factor in the spread of HIV, especially in rapidly increasing epidemics. This may be of relevance to the current HIV epidemics in China and India.

  15. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D

    1986-12-01

    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.

  16. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education. PMID:29430018

  17. Migration, klima og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which environ...

  18. Población y migraciones rurales en México: Hipótesis para otro siglo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crescencio Ruiz Chiapetto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the issue on territorial population allocation in Mexico and its concentration in the cities, understood as a specific dimension of the countryís economic development. Specifically, two strong trends, pointed out in some population projections for the year 2000, are analyzed. These trends are: the decrease on rural-urban migration and the decrease on rural population in total terms. The first hypothesis comes to contradict, what has been called for about a century, one of the ìdemographic lawsî: the steady increase of rural-urban migration. The second hypothesis demands for a detailed analysis because at first glance it would seem opposed to the former, but the contradiction vanishes if the phenomenon is considered from the reclassification perspective of rural localities into urban ones. Ultimately, both hypothesis represent important warnings for the design of population politics.

  19. Psychosocial Studies of Migration and Community: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Perkins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the special issue on psychosocial studies of migration and community, we briefly reflect on the global increase in, and issues related to, both international and domestic migration, particularly from rural areas of less developed countries, which has fueled rapid urbanization and intercultural tensions in both post-industrial and developing countries. Topics covered in the issue are summarized, including an Italian study of the emotional impact of discrimination against immigrant adolescents; acculturation, integration and adaptation of Muslim immigrant youth in New Zealand; perceptions of human trafficking in Moldova; Chinese migrant workers´ social networks, life satisfaction and political participation; physician brain drain from sub-Saharan Africa; and a critical analysis of the oppressive and liberating impact of organizations on immigrants, multiculturalism, and social justice. The issue concludes with commentary articles by four leading international scholars of migration and community. The breadth of topics helps to address wide-ranging gaps in the literature, but more psychological and social research must connect ecologically across multiple levels and to cultural, political, economic, and environmental studies of migration and community.

  20. ¿Por qué se van? Mujeres de pueblo y desarraigo en la ruralidad valenciana. (Why do they migrate? Women from village and uprooting in the Valencian rurality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pérez Soriano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La ausencia relativa de mujeres jóvenes es una amenaza para la sostenibilidad social de los municipios rurales. Las ciencias sociales han atribuido la sobre-emigración femenina a factores como el mercado de trabajo o la educación, entre otros. La feminización de las migraciones rurales es una consecuencia de la desigualdad social, territorial y de género. Junto a aquellas variables causales se deben considerar además, las estructuras simbólicas de dominación, la supremacía urbana. En este texto se exponen las razones que subyacen al desarraigo femenino, tras haber observado las representaciones sociales de la ruralidad en el País Valenciano, mediante una aproximación cualitativa. Las mujeres de pueblo hoy son móviles, urbanas y expresan una creciente resistencia a la subordinación rural. The relative absence of young women is a threat to the social sustainability of rural municipalities. The social sciences have attributed this female migration to causes such as labor market or education among other factors. The feminization of rural migration is a consequence of social, regional and gender, inequalities. Along those causal variables also must be considered the symbolic structures of domination, as urban supremacy. This paper refers to the reasons of rural female uprooting, having observed the social representations of rurality in the Valencian Country, using a qualitative approach. Village women today are mobile people: urban, modern, and they express an increasing resistance to the rural subordination.

  1. The influence of social stigma and discriminatory experience on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2010-07-01

    The global literature has revealed a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among stigmatized individuals; however, the mechanisms through which social stigma affects the individual's quality of life and mental health are not well understood. This research simultaneously examines the relationships of several determinants and mediating factors of psychological distress and quality of life. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey among 1006 adult (predominantly male) rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported on their perceived social stigma, discriminatory experiences in daily life, preparation for migration, discrepancy between expectation and reality, coping with stigma-related stress, psychological distress, and quality of life. Structural equation modeling was performed. We found that perceived social stigma and discriminatory experiences had direct negative effects on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants. Expectation-reality discrepancy mediated the effects of perceived social stigma and discriminatory experiences on psychological distress and quality of life; coping mediated the effect of social stigma on quality of life. Psychological distress was associated with quality of life. Preparation prior to migration was positively related to coping skills, which were positively related to quality of life. We conclude that perceived social stigma and daily discriminatory experiences have a significant influence on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants. Pre-migration training with a focus on establishment of effective coping skills and preparation of migration may be helpful to improve their quality of life and mental health.

  2. Does Migration Limit the Effect of Health Insurance on Hypertension Management in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai; Jin, Yinzi; Zhao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Huyang; A Rizzo, John; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2017-10-20

    Background: In China, rapid urbanization has caused migration from rural to urban areas, and raised the prevalence of hypertension. However, public health insurance is not portable from one place to another, and migration may limit the effectiveness of this non-portable health insurance on healthcare. Our study aims to investigate whether migration limits the effectiveness of health insurance on hypertension management in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the national baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, including 4926 hypertensive respondents with public health insurance. Outcome measures included use of primary care, hypertension awareness, medication use, blood pressure monitoring, physician advice, and blood pressure control. Multivariate logistic regressions were estimated to examine whether the effects of rural health insurance on hypertension management differed between those who migrated to urban areas and those who did not migrate and lived in rural areas. Results: Among hypertensive respondents, 60.7% were aware of their hypertensive status. Compared to rural residents, the non-portable feature of rural health insurance significantly reduced rural-to-urban migrants' probabilities of using primary care by 7.8 percentage points, hypertension awareness by 8.8 percentage points, and receiving physician advice by 18.3 percentage points. Conclusions: In China, migration to urban areas limited the effectiveness of rural health insurance on hypertension management due to its non-portable nature. It is critical to improve the portability of rural health insurance, and to extend urban health insurance and primary care coverage to rural-to-urban migrants to achieve better chronic disease management.

  3. Aging, and separation from children: The health implications of adult migration for elderly parents in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Massive rural-to-urban migration in China has profoundly altered the family life of rural older adults, as adult children remain the primary caretakers of their elderly parents. And yet little is known about the health and well-being of the parents of adult migrants in rural China whose main source of support has been displaced. Objective: This study takes a comprehensive view and compares the trajectories of self-rated health among the rural elderly and examines how these health trajectories are associated with adult children's migration. Methods: We analyze older adults aged 55 years and over in rural China, using four waves of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1997, 2000, 2004, 2006 and multilevel growth curve models. Results: The results show that parents of migrants persistently scored worse self-rated health across ages than their counterparts whose children had not migrated. Long-term migration of adults takes a heavier toll on the health of their elderly parents than short-term migration. However, these associations with children's migration are driven by the migration of sons. The migration of daughters and of children of both genders may have disparate effects on the health trajectories of elderly men and women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the interplay of gendered family dynamics and migration processes affects the health outcomes of older adults. Contribution: The findings contribute to current debates on the health and well-being of family members left behind by migrants and call for further study of the relationship between migration and family processes in the well-being of migrant families.

  4. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  5. Analysing the Great Urban Divide: Turning the Lens to Rural to Understand Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Dhanda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Instead of looking at slums as strictly ‘urban problems’ requiring ‘urban solutions’, this paper attempts to build a structural link between growth of slums in urban areas and, what can be called, the ‘decay’ of the rural in India. It contends that uneven development of Indian cities with great spatial disparities – made evident by increasing number of slums – is related to uneven development between rural and urban areas. Thus, in order to grapple with the ‘enigma’ of slums, the political economy of rural areas – from where the migrants living in slums ‘originally’ belong – becomes the essential site to engage with. The paper foregrounds the need to study transformations in the rural domain in order to make sense of the growth of slums in cities. In a nutshell, the argument is that the ‘decay’ of the rural and the ‘swelling’ of the city are to be visualised in hyphenated terms since the rural-urban divide is at the heart of the ‘great urban divide’.

  6. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: → Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. → Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. → The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to 11 fold. → Anthropogenic Ti input lowered by within-river retention. → Up to 79% of Ti colloidal/NP for rural, down to 28% for urban/industrial rivers.

  7. Migration and risk: net migration in marginal ecosystems and hazardous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc; Adamo, Susana; MacManus, Kytt; Yetman, Greg; Mara, Valentina; Razafindrazay, Liana; Aichele, Cody; Pistolesi, Linda; Goodrich, Benjamin; Srebotnjak, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    The potential for altered ecosystems and extreme weather events in the context of climate change has raised questions concerning the role that migration plays in either increasing or reducing risks to society. Using modeled data on net migration over three decades from 1970 to 2000, we identify sensitive ecosystems and regions at high risk of climate hazards that have seen high levels of net in-migration and out-migration over the time period. This paper provides a literature review on migration related to ecosystems, briefly describes the methodology used to develop the estimates of net migration, then uses those data to describe the patterns of net migration for various ecosystems and high risk regions. The study finds that negative net migration generally occurs over large areas, reflecting its largely rural character, whereas areas of positive net migration are typically smaller, reflecting its largely urban character. The countries with largest population such as China and India tend to drive global results for all the ecosystems found in those countries. Results suggest that from 1970 to 2000, migrants in developing countries have tended to move out of marginal dryland and mountain ecosystems and out of drought-prone areas, and have moved towards coastal ecosystems and areas that are prone to floods and cyclones. For North America results are reversed for dryland and mountain ecosystems, which saw large net influxes of population in the period of record. Uncertainties and potential sources of error in these estimates are addressed. (letter)

  8. Built environment and active commuting: Rural-urban differences in the U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie X. Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties. We found that the average AC rates were 3.44% rural and 2.77% urban (p<0.01 for walking to work, 0.40% rural and 0.58% urban (p<0.01 for biking to work, and 0.59% rural and 5.86% urban (p<0.01 for public transportation to work. Some environmental variables had similar relationships with AC in rural and urban tracts, such as a negative association between tract greenness and prevalence of walking to work. Others had opposite correlational directions for rural vs. urban, such as street connectivity for walking to work and population density for both walking to work and public transportation to work. We concluded that rurality is an important moderator in AC-environment relationships. In developing strategies to promote AC, attention needs to be paid to rural-urban differences to avoid unintended consequences.

  9. Urban-rural differences in self-reported limiting long-term illness in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A

    2003-12-01

    Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. The aim of this study is to describe the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in health in Scotland and to examine the factors associated with health inequalities in urban and rural areas. The data used in this study were limiting long-term illness (LLTI) and socio-economic data collected by the 1991 Census. A rurality indicator was created using Scottish Household Survey rurality classifications. Multilevel Poisson regression modelling was carried out with LLTI as a health indicator for each type of rurality within Scotland. A variety of socio-economic factors were investigated for each rurality. Areas with the highest Standardized Illness Ratios (SIRs) (>125) are predominantly urban whereas the lowest SIRs (rural areas. Rural communities are more heterogeneous than urban areas in terms of their social make-up with relation to health; however, when these areas are split according to minor road length and different socio-economic factors are added, the model fit for each new model is improved and the reduction in total variation is comparable with that of the urban models. These findings suggest that rural areas should not be treated as a homogeneous group but should be subdivided into rural types.

  10. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsuvivatwong Virasakdi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Methods Years of life lost (YLL rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Results Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2–8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Conclusion Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  11. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2006-10-14

    Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Years of life lost (YLL) rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2-8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  12. Comparison of patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Rasouli-Azad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of the prevalence of substance abuse in rural and urban population in different countries revealed variable results regarding to the study method, study population, age group and measuring tools. The purpose of this research is to compare the patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population in Mashhad.Materials and Method: Two groups consecutively admitted patients who referred to substance treatment clinics of Mashhad, were selected (110 urban and 100 rural patients. Samples were evaluated with structured demographic questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview (SCID for DSM-IV. Data were analyzed by χ2 and independent t-test.Results: This study showed statistically significant differences between two groups in marital status, education level, monthly income and job. Also the samples were differed in substance type, history of injection and quit, abuse of nicotine, cannabis and alcohol in long life. Conclusion: Rural and urban societies have differences in patterns of substance abuse that can be originated from social-context differences

  13. The effects of siblings on the migration of women in two rural areas of Belgium and the Netherlands, 1829-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, H.; Neven, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the presence and activities of siblings shaped the chances of women migrating to rural and urban areas in two rural areas of Belgium and the Netherlands during the second half of the nineteenth and first decades of the twentieth century. Shared-frailty Cox

  14. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  15. Low-cost housing developments in South Africa miss the opportunities for household level urban greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chackleton, C.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Kaoma, M.; Chishaleshale, M.; Shackleton, S.; Gambiza, J.; Gumbo, D.

    2014-01-01

    Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees.

  16. Childhood Asthma and Allergies in Urban, Semiurban, and Rural Residential Sectors in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Kausel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While rural living protects from asthma and allergies in many countries, results are conflicting in Latin America. We studied the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in children from urban, semiurban, and rural sectors in south Chile. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in semiurban and rural sectors in the province of Valdivia (n=559 using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Results were compared to prevalence in urban Valdivia (n=3105 by using data from ISAAC III study. Odds ratios (+95% confidence intervals were calculated. No statistical significant differences were found for asthma ever and eczema symptoms stratified by residential sector, but a gradient could be shown for current asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with urban living having highest and rural living having lowest prevalence. Rural living was inversely associated in a statistical significant way with current asthma (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.9 and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7 in logistic regression analyses. Rural living seems to protect from asthma and respiratory allergies also in Chile, a South American country facing epidemiological transition. These data would be improved by clinical studies of allergic symptoms observed in studied sectors.

  17. Childhood asthma and allergies in urban, semiurban, and rural residential sectors in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Leonie; Boneberger, Anja; Calvo, Mario; Radon, Katja

    2013-01-01

    While rural living protects from asthma and allergies in many countries, results are conflicting in Latin America. We studied the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in children from urban, semiurban, and rural sectors in south Chile. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in semiurban and rural sectors in the province of Valdivia (n = 559) using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) questionnaire. Results were compared to prevalence in urban Valdivia (n = 3105) by using data from ISAAC III study. Odds ratios (+95% confidence intervals) were calculated. No statistical significant differences were found for asthma ever and eczema symptoms stratified by residential sector, but a gradient could be shown for current asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with urban living having highest and rural living having lowest prevalence. Rural living was inversely associated in a statistical significant way with current asthma (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) in logistic regression analyses. Rural living seems to protect from asthma and respiratory allergies also in Chile, a South American country facing epidemiological transition. These data would be improved by clinical studies of allergic symptoms observed in studied sectors.

  18. Impact of rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2007-01-01

    By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  19. Rural Dispositions of Floating Children within the Field of Beijing Schools: Can Disadvantaged Rural Habitus Turn into Recognised Cultural Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Jia, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of urbanisation in China has seen a massive increase in the movement of the rural population to work and live in urban regions. In this large-scale migration context, the educational, health, and psychological problems of floating children are becoming increasingly visible. Different from extant studies, we focus our investigation…

  20. The Approaches to Narrowing Urban-Rural Income Gap——From the Perspective of Rural Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From the situations about the incomes and life quality of the urban and rural residents,the thesis briefly introduces the status quo of the urban-rural income gap and explores the impact of the income gap on social economy:firstly,it hampers economic development;secondly,it is detrimental to the social development.Then the thesis analyzes the role of a sound social security in narrowing urban-rural income gap:at first,it broadens the institutional environment of improving the agricultural efficiency;secondly,it eliminates the uncertainties influencing the farmers’ income;thirdly,it improves the farmers’ capacity to increase income;at last,it enhances the farmers’ consciousness of wealth.Next the thesis inquires into the problems existing in the system of rural social security:the first problem is more obviously fragmented system;the second is inadequate security projects and narrower coverage;the third is an obvious lack of equality in urban and rural security;the fourth is even less sound management system;the last is the lagging of legislation.Afterwards the thesis proposes the countermeasures and suggestions to improve the system of rural social security and narrow urban-rural income gap:firstly,to integrate the social security system in rural areas;secondly,to perfect security projects and enhance the security system;thirdly,to integrate the administrative management of social security;at last,to enforce the legal system.

  1. Psychological adjustment among left-behind children in rural China: the role of parental migration and parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S; Li, X; Lin, D; Xu, X; Zhu, M

    2013-03-01

    Left-behind children refer to those rural children who are under 18 years of age and are left at home when both or one of their parents migrate to urban area for work. Recent findings showed that left-behind children were disadvantaged by developmental, emotional and social problems. A sample of 1165 rural children and adolescents were recruited to examine the characteristics of left-behind children and explore the differences in psychological adjustment (including satisfaction, loneliness and happiness) by patterns of parental migration (i.e. no parent migrating, one parent migrating or two parents migrating) and the level of parent-child communication in rural China. (1) Compared with children with one parent migrating, children with two parents migrating were separated from their parents at younger ages, for longer periods, and saw their migrant parents less frequently. (2) Children with two parents migrating reported the lowest level of satisfaction among the three groups of rural children. Both groups of children with one or two parents migrating experienced more loneliness compared with children with no parent migrating. There were no significant differences in school satisfaction and happiness among the three groups. (3) The children who reported a higher level of parent-child communication also reported a higher level of life and school satisfaction and happiness, and no differences in loneliness were found by levels of parent-child communication. These results indicate that loneliness was the most common and important experience of left-behind children. Parent-child communication is important for the development of all rural children, including those who were left behind by their migrant parents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Vanuatu, the country of rural decentralized electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maigne, Y.; Molli, L.

    1998-01-01

    The status of decentralized rural electrification in Vanuatu was presented. Vanuatu is a sparsely populated rural country in the south Pacific. The country includes 92 populated islands spread over 1,000 kilometers in the south Pacific, halfway between Fiji and Australia. The low population density and the tremendous distances between the different islands have made local electrical networks a necessity in Vanuatu. Apart from the two principal urban centres, Vanuatu does not have a centralized electrical distribution network. In the early 1990s the government initiated a program to provide independent power sources to the isolated communities. Photovoltaic cells are used to power most telecommunications services. Solar cells are also used to provide power to important community buildings such as the schools or nursing stations on the remote islands. Two small hydroelectric generating stations of 600 kW were also installed with the help of the German government

  3. Use of mobile phones for improving vaccination coverage among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Horng, Lily; Labrique, Alain; Vasudevan, Lavanya; Zeller, Kelsey; Chowdhury, Mridul; Larson, Charles P; Bishai, David; Alam, Nurul

    2016-01-04

    In Bangladesh, full vaccination rates among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets are low. We conducted a quasi-experimental pre-post study of a 12-month mobile phone intervention to improve vaccination among 0-11 months old children in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller areas. Software named "mTika" was employed within the existing public health system to electronically register each child's birth and remind mothers about upcoming vaccination dates with text messages. Android smart phones with mTika were provided to all health assistants/vaccinators and supervisors in intervention areas, while mothers used plain cell phones already owned by themselves or their families. Pre and post-intervention vaccination coverage was surveyed in intervention and control areas. Among children over 298 days old, full vaccination coverage actually decreased in control areas--rural baseline 65.9% to endline 55.2% and urban baseline 44.5% to endline 33.9%--while increasing in intervention areas from rural baseline 58.9% to endline 76*8%, difference +18.8% (95% CI 5.7-31.9) and urban baseline 40.7% to endline 57.1%, difference +16.5% (95% CI 3.9-29.0). Difference-in-difference (DID) estimates were +29.5% for rural intervention versus control areas and +27.1% for urban areas for full vaccination in children over 298 days old, and logistic regression adjusting for maternal education, mobile phone ownership, and sex of child showed intervention effect odds ratio (OR) of 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-9.2) in rural areas and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4-6.4) in urban areas. Among all age groups, intervention effects on age-appropriate vaccination coverage were positive: DIDs +13.1-30.5% and ORs 2.5-4.6 (pmobile phone intervention can improve vaccination coverage in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller communities in Bangladesh. This small-scale successful demonstration should serve as an example to other low-income countries with high mobile phone usage. Copyright © 2015

  4. Built Environment and Active Commuting: Rural-Urban Differences in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Wan, Neng

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC) and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties. We found that the average AC rates were 3.44% rural and 2.77% urban (purban (purban (ptransportation to work. Some environmental variables had similar relationships with AC in rural and urban tracts, such as a negative association between tract greenness and prevalence of walking to work. Others had opposite correlational directions for rural vs. urban, such as street connectivity for walking to work and population density for both walking to work and public transportation to work. We concluded that rurality is an important moderator in AC-environment relationships. In developing strategies to promote AC, attention needs to be paid to rural-urban differences to avoid unintended consequences.

  5. Urban and Rural MSW Stream Characterization for Separate Collection Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ciuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new legislation framework enacted by new member countries of the European Union (EU, the characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW represents an important instrument for local governments and sanitation operators in setting and achieving targets for waste recycling and recovery. This paper presents the results of a study conducted in accordance with the Romanian methodology for domestic wastes characterization ROMECOM, aiming to provide a proper basis for developing clear and realistic forecasts in current municipal waste management, based on MSW composition and generation rate. The analyzed MSW came both from areas where the waste is collected in mixed and separate ways, in urban and rural areas. The MSW composition by fraction is detailed for dense urban areas, urban areas, rural and touristic areas from Romania. Based on these results, the MSW composition was determined for the eight development regions in Romania, and a generation rate of 0.9·kgMSW inhabitant−1·day−1 for the urban region and 0.4·kgMSW inh−1·day−1 for the rural region was established. The calorific values of urban and rural areas were determined as 6801 kJ·kg−1 and 5613 kJ·kg−1, respectively. In the perspective of sustainable development in this technical area, based on the obtained results and on the prognosis made for the following years, two proposals for urban and rural areas were developed for MSW treating options improvement. The two systems are characterized by selective collection (different efficiencies for urban and rural areas with subsequent recovery of the separated materials and energy recovery of the residual waste in a large-scale waste to energy (WTE plant.

  6. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.

  7. Perceived ease of access to alcohol, tobacco and other substances in rural and urban US students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2015-01-01

    to a variety of substances, with rural students reporting higher levels of access to legal substances and urban students reporting higher levels of access predominantly to illicit substances. Most troubling were the high levels of perceived access to substances, particularly among high school students. Even within rural students who reported lower ease of access, more than half of students reported having at least somewhat easy access to marijuana. More than 60% of both rural and urban high school students reported easy access to alcohol. Future research should investigate ways to decrease the perceptions of access to substances in order to prevent use and abuse.

  8. Otitis media in indonesian urban and rural school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, Ratna; Hartanto, Widya W; Djelantik, Bulantrisna; Ghanie, Abla; Utama, Denny S; Setiawan, Eka P; Lukman, Erica; Hardiningsih, Chintriany; Asmuni, Suprihati; Budiarti, Rery; Rahardjo, Sutji Pratiwi; Djamin, Riskiana; Mulyani, Tri; Mutyara, Kuswandewi; Carosone-Link, Phyllis; Kartasasmita, Cissy B; Simões, Eric A F

    2014-10-01

    Although the epidemiology of otitis media is well-known in industrialized countries, the extent of otitis media in developing Asian countries, especially in south East Asia is not well studied. To define the burden of otitis media and its sequelae in children 6-15 years of age, we enrolled elementary and junior high school children in 6 areas in rural and urban Indonesia. Randomly selected schools and classrooms were selected. All children were administered a questionnaire and had ear examinations, pneumatic otoscopy and screening audiometry. Children with any abnormality on examination or with a relevant history underwent diagnostic audiometry and tympanometry, if indicated. Of the 7005 children studied, 116 had chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), 30 had acute otitis media and 26 had otitis media with effusion. 2.7% of rural children had CSOM compared with 0.7% of urban children (P < 0.0001). The rates per 1000 of CSOM in rural Bali and Bandung were significantly higher (75 and 25, respectively) than in the rest of Indonesia (P < 0.05). In rural Bali, the rate per 1000 children of inactive CSOM was 63 in 6- to 9-year-old children, compared with 37 in children aged 13-15 years. Concomitantly, the rates of tympanosclerosis were 7 and 26/1000, respectively, in these age groups. In Indonesia, the prevalence of CSOM is relatively high with most disease occurring in rural areas. The high rates in rural Bali with early progression to tympanosclerosis suggest a significant burden of potentially vaccine preventable illness.

  9. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  10. Impact of the rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2008-01-01

    By 1979, 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  11. Migration and development in Pakistan: some selected issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M

    1986-01-01

    Various sources of cross-sectional data were used as a basis for considering some of the interrelationships between migration and development in Pakistan, particularly the effects on the labor-exporting rural areas. The available data yield a range of estimates as to the level of mobility. During the 1970s, around 7-10% of Pakistan's population changed residence. The incidence of migration was higher among females than males. Women's greater propensity to migrate can be attributed primarily to patrilocal marriage customs wherein a significant proportion of females migrate, particularly in the rural areas. According to the 1979 Population, Labor Force and Migration Survey, the share of migrants in the total female population fell from 11.8% to 4.8% when migration for marriage is excluded. In Pakistan, mobility is predominantly local or involves short distances only. Only 19% of the internal migrants crossed provincial boundaries. 29.8% of the flow was from rural to urban areas. The remainder of the volume of internal migration was shared equally by inter-city and urban-to-rural migrants. The coincidence of the timing of marriage and entry into the labor market in individuals' life cycles generated a peak for the 15-24 age group in the age-mobility curve. A positive association exists between education and the propensity to migrate. In terms of origin, the propensity to move exhibited by the higher educational group was higher (33%) in rural areas than in urban areas (10%). 83% of this group from rural areas moved to urban centers; 80% of the same educational background chose another urban center as destination. The data on remittances may suffer both from reporting areas and being unrepresentative. The remittances estimated due to internal migration, on the basis of the PLM survey, amounted to 3 billion rupees in 1978. On average, remittances accounted for 35% of the earnings of the migrants. Average remittances were substantially less than the earnings of

  12. A Comparison of the Number of Men Who Have Sex with Men among Rural-To-Urban Migrants with Non-Migrant Rural and Urban Residents in Wuhan, China: A GIS/GPS-Assisted Random Sample Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Zhou, Dunjin; Zhou, Wang; Gong, Jie; Li, Shiyue; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile populations and men who have sex with men (MSM) play an increasing role in the current HIV epidemic in China and across the globe. While considerable research has addressed both of these at-risk populations, more effective HIV control requires accurate data on the number of MSM at the population level, particularly MSM among migrant populations. Methods Survey data from a random sample of male rural-to-urban migrants (aged 18-45, n=572) in Wuhan, China were analyzed and compared with those of randomly selected non-migrant urban (n=566) and rural counterparts (580). The GIS/GPS technologies were used for sampling and the survey estimation method was used for data analysis. Results HIV-related risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants were similar to those among the two comparison groups. The estimated proportion of MSM among migrants [95% CI] was 5.8% [4.7, 6.8], higher than 2.8% [1.2, 4.5] for rural residents and 1.0% [0.0, 2.4] for urban residents, respectively. Among these migrants, the MSM were more likely than non-MSM to be older in age, married, and migrated to more cities. They were also more likely to co-habit with others in rental properties located in new town and neighborhoods with fewer old acquaintances and more entertainment establishments. In addition, they were more likely to engage in commercial sex and less likely to consistently use condoms. Conclusion Findings of this study indicate that compared to rural and urban populations, the migrant population in Wuhan consists of a higher proportion of MSM who also exhibit higher levels of HIV-related risk behaviors. More effective interventions should target this population with a focus on neighborhood factors, social capital and collective efficacy for risk reduction. PMID:26241900

  13. Health Selection, Migration, and HIV Infection in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglewicz, Philip; VanLandingham, Mark; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-27

    Despite its importance in studies of migrant health, selectivity of migrants-also known as migration health selection-has seldom been examined in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This neglect is problematic because several features of the context in which migration occurs in SSA-very high levels of HIV, in particular-differ from contextual features in regions that have been studied more thoroughly. To address this important gap, we use longitudinal panel data from Malawi to examine whether migrants differ from nonmigrants in pre-migration health, assessed via SF-12 measures of mental and physical health. In addition to overall health selection, we focus on three more-specific factors that may affect the relationship between migration and health: (1) whether migration health selection differs by destination (rural-rural, rural-town, and rural-urban), (2) whether HIV infection moderates the relationship between migration and health, and (3) whether circular migrants differ in pre-migration health status. We find evidence of the healthy migrant phenomenon in Malawi, where physically healthier individuals are more likely to move. This relationship varies by migration destination, with healthier rural migrants moving to urban and other rural areas. We also find interactions between HIV-infected status and health: HIV-infected women moving to cities are physically healthier than their nonmigrant counterparts.

  14. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail: cassiano@eletrovento.com.br; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: godfrey@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  15. Urban-Rural Differences in School Nurses' Asthma Training Needs and Access to Asthma Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Roberts, Courtney A; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Durbin, Kathy; Jones, Graceann Clyburn; North, Steve

    Few studies have examined school nurses preferences' for asthma training. Our purpose was to: 1) assess school nurses' perceived asthma training needs, 2) describe nurses' access to asthma educational resources, and 3) identify urban-rural differences in training needs and access to resources in southern states. A convenience sample of school nurses (n=162) from seven counties (two urban and five rural) in North Carolina and South Carolina completed an online, anonymous survey. Chi-square tests were used to examine urban-rural differences. Although most nurses (64%) had received asthma training within the last five years, urban nurses were more likely to have had asthma training than rural nurses (χ 2 =10.84, p=0.001). A majority of nurses (87%) indicated they would like to receive additional asthma training. Approximately half (45%) of nurses reported access to age-appropriate asthma education materials, but only 16% reported that their schools implemented asthma education programs. Urban nurses were more likely than rural nurses to have access to asthma education programs (χ 2 =4.10, p=0.04) and age-appropriate asthma education materials (χ 2 =8.86, p=0.003). Few schools are implementing asthma education programs. Rural nurses may be disadvantaged in terms of receiving asthma training and having access to asthma education programs and materials. Schools are an ideal setting for delivering age-appropriate asthma education. By providing school nurses with access to age-appropriate asthma education resources and additional asthma training, we can help them overcome several of the barriers that impede their ability to deliver asthma care to their students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of Pesticide Poisoning in Rural and Urban Settings in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bastian; Ssemugabo, Charles; Nabankema, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    , pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25.6%) where unintentional poisonings prevailed. Men were older than women...... and represented a majority of around 60% of the cases in both the urban and rural settings. Unintentional cases were almost the only ones seen below the age of 10, whereas self-harm dominated among adolescents and young persons from 10 to 29 years of age. Organophosphorus insecticides accounted for 73.......0% of the poisonings. Urban hospitals provided a more intensive treatment and had registered fever complications than rural health care settings. To minimize self-harm with pesticides, a restriction of pesticide availability as shown to be effective in other low-income countries is recommended. Training of health care...

  17. Increased level of linkage disequilibrium in rural compared with urban communities: a factor to consider in association-study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitart, Veronique; Carothers, Andrew D; Hayward, Caroline; Teague, Peter; Hastie, Nicholas D; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F

    2005-05-01

    Few studies have investigated genetic differentiation within nonisolate European populations, despite the initiation of large national sample collections such as U.K. Biobank. Here, we used short tandem repeat markers to explore fine-scale genetic structure and to examine the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within national subpopulations. We studied 955 unrelated individuals of local ancestry from nine Scottish rural regions and the urban center of Edinburgh, as well as 96 unrelated individuals from the general U.K. population. Despite little overall differentiation on the basis of allele frequencies, there were clear differences among subpopulations in the extent of pairwise LD, measured between a subset of X-linked markers, that reflected presumed differences in the depths of the underlying genealogies within these subpopulations. Therefore, there are strategic advantages in studying rural subpopulations, in terms of increased power and reduced cost, that are lost by sampling across regions or within urban populations. Similar rural-urban contrasts are likely to exist in many other populations with stable rural subpopulations, which could influence the design of genetic association studies and national biobank data collections.

  18. Rural/Urban Disparities in Science Achievement in Post-Socialist Countries: The Evolving Influence of Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, Erica L.; Kotok, Stephen; Bodovski, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in educational outcomes exist between students in rural areas as compared to students in urban settings. While there is some evidence that these rural disparities are present in eastern Europe, little is known about young peoples' lives in the rural areas of this region. This paper presents an analysis of science achievement by…

  19. Complex association between rural/urban residence, household wealth and women's overweight: evidence from 30 cross-sectional national household surveys in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani Janet; Letamo, Gobopamang

    2017-01-01

    We sought to demonstrate that the relationship between urban or rural residence and overweight status among women in Sub-Saharan Africa is complex and confounded by wealth status. We applied multilevel logistic regression to data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries which were collected between 2006 and 2012 to examine the association between women's overweight status (body mass index ≥ 25) and household wealth, rural or urban place of residence, and their interaction. Macro-level statistics from United Nations agencies were used as contextual variables to assess the link between progress in globalization and patterns of overweight. Household wealth was associated with increased odds of being overweight in nearly all of the countries. Urban/rural living and household wealth had a complex association with women's overweight status, shown by 3 patterns. In one group of countries, characterised by low national wealth (median per capita gross national income (GNI) = $660 in 2012) and lower overall prevalence of female overweight (median = 24 per cent in 2010), high household wealth and urban living had independent associations with increased risks of being overweight. In the second group of less poor countries (median per capita GNI = $870) and higher national levels of female overweight (median = 29), there was a cross-over association where rural women had lower risks of overweight than urban women at lower levels of household wealth, but in wealthier households, rural women had higher risks of overweight than urban women. In the final group of countries, household wealth was an important predictor of overweight status, but the association between urban or rural place of residence and overweight status was not statistically significant. The median per capita GNI for this third group was $800 and national prevalence of female overweight was high (median = 32% in 2010). As nations develop and household wealth increases, rural African women

  20. Scottish urban versus rural trauma outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffie, A Crawford; Graham, Colin A; Beard, Diana; Henry, Jennifer M; Fitzpatrick, Michael O; Wilkie, Stewart C; Kerr, Gary W; Parke, Timothy R J

    2005-09-01

    Outcome following trauma and health care access are important components of health care planning. Resources are limited and quality information is required. We set the objective of comparing the outcomes for patients suffering significant trauma in urban and rural environments in Scotland. The study was designed as a 2 year prospective observational study set in the west of Scotland, which has a population of 2.58 million persons. Primary outcome measures were defined as the total number of inpatient days, total number of intensive care unit days, and mortality. The participants were patients suffering moderate (ISS 9-15) and major (ISS>15) trauma within the region. The statistical analysis consisted of chi square test for categorical data and Mann Whitney U test for comparison of medians. There were 3,962 urban (85%) and 674 rural patients (15%). Urban patients were older (50 versus 46 years, p = 0.02), were largely male (62% versus 57%, p = 0.02), and suffered more penetrating traumas (9.9% versus 1.9%, p rural patients (p rural major trauma group (p = 0.002). There were more serious head injuries in the urban group (p = 0.04), and also a higher proportion of urban patients with head injuries transferred to the regional neurosurgical unit (p = 0.037). There were no differences in length of total inpatient stay (median 8 days, p = 0.7), total length of stay in the intensive care unit (median two days, p = 0.4), or mortality (324 deaths, moderate trauma, p = 0.13; major trauma, p = 0.8). Long prehospital times in the rural environment were not associated with differences in mortality or length of stay in moderately and severely injured patients in the west of Scotland. This may lend support to a policy of rationalization of trauma services in Scotland.

  1. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001. Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05. Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.

  2. Urban/rural interface: Governing the chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. An important issue in what concerns urban sprawl is the interface between the urban and the rural territories. Being an extremely dynamic landscape, and assuring some quality of life and buffering some of the pervasive negative impacts of urban areas in terms of disrupting the function of the natural ecosystems, in limit situations this interface can act as a conveyor belt of catastrophic events originated in the rural world, into the urban space. The Coimbra 2005 wildfire is a fine example of how a poorly managed urban/rural interface can put populations in danger, by allowing the fire to spread towards the urban green infrastructure, burning houses in the process. Major river flows that flood urban areas are also good examples of the lack of management and planning can result in the loss of assets and even put in danger human lives. This presentation reviews the impact of extreme events and the transmission from the urban to the rural worlds, but also from the rural to the urban territories, and establishes the need to govern risk at various levels and using the full range of governance tools.

  3. A MODEL OF RURAL-URBAN CONFLICT IN DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    A two-sector model for developing countries explicitly takes into account the influence of consumer goods rationing on the labour supply for market production and considers the effects of fiscal policy and exchange rate policy on the production of agricultural and urban goods. An increase in

  4. Vivid valleys, pallid peaks? Hypsometric variations and rural-urban land change in the Central Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    What happens to the land cover within the hinterland's altitudinal belts while Central Andean cities are undergoing globalization and urban restructuring? What conclusions can be drawn about changes in human land use? By incorporating a regional altitudinal zonation model, direct field observations and GIS analyses of remotely sensed long term data, the present study examines these questions using the example of Huancayo Metropolitano - an emerging Peruvian mountain city of 420,000 inhabitants, situated at 3260 m asl in the Mantaro Valley. The study's results indicate that rapid urban growth during the late 1980s and early 1990s was followed by the agricultural intensification and peri-urban condominization at the valley floor ( quechua ) - since the beginning of Peru's neoliberal era. Moreover, regarding the adjoining steep slopes ( suni ) and subsequent grassland ecosystems ( puna ), the research output presents land cover change trajectories that clearly show an expansion of human land use, such as reforestation for wood production and range burning for livestock grazing, even at high altitudes - despite rural-urban migration trends and contrary to several results of extra-Andean studies. Consequently, rural-urban planners and policy makers are challenged to focus on the manifold impacts of globalization on human land use - at all altitudinal belts of the Andean city's hinterland: toward sustainable mountain development that bridges the social and physical gaps - from the bottom up.

  5. Quality-of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosević, Jadranka; Odović, Gordana; Rapaić, Dragan; Davidović, Mladen; Trgovcević, Sanja; Milovanović, Verica

    2015-11-01

    The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a socio-demographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012), the life of those with family members (p = 0.009), and health status (p = 0.000), in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040), predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720). For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  6. Quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. Methods. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L, as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. Results. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012, the life of those with family members (p = 0.009, and health status (p = 0.000, in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040, predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720. For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. Conclusion. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  7. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Nicole L; Allender, Steven; Scarborough, Peter; West, Douglas

    2012-07-20

    Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban-rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents' occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was

  8. Urban job creation and unemployment in LDCs: Todaro vs. Harris and Todaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, A G

    1978-03-01

    Overwhelming urban migration occurred so rapidly in many developing countries that widespread unemployment and squalid living conditions are commonplace. For many of these countries, stopping urban migration has become a major policy. Two models propose 2 different theories of urban unemployment. Todaro's short-term effects model concludes that job creation actually causes unemployment. Todaro and Harris formulated a long-term effects model in which welfare subsidies create more employment and stimulate the economy. A real solution to urban job creation would include optimal allocation of investment between the rural and labor sectors. A once and for all hiring tax would reduce replacement hiring. It is impossible to design an optimal tax subsidy package for urban unemployment unless it includes knowledge of the dynamic response of migration and unemployment to the rate of net and gross hiring of labor. If subsidy taxes are levied on the agricultural sector, the net result may be a higher rate of capital formation in the (low social return) manufacturing sector and a lower one in the agricultural sector.

  9. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  10. Examining Empowerment, Family-School Partnerships, and Advocacy among Rural and Urban Latino Families of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.

    2017-01-01

    Latino students and their families are the fastest growing minority group in the country, yet it is unclear whether rural (vs. urban) Latino families of students with disabilities have different needs. In this pilot study, 65 Latino family members of students with disabilities (15 rural; 50 urban) responded to a questionnaire about empowerment,…

  11. Men's and women's migration in coastal Ghana: An event history analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E. Reed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses life history calendar (LHC data from coastal Ghana and event history statistical methods to examine inter-regional migration for men and women, focusing on four specific migration types: rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-urban, and urban-rural. Our analysis is unique because it examines how key determinants of migration-including education, employment, marital status, and childbearing-differ by sex for these four types of migration. We find that women are significantly less mobile than men overall, but that more educated women are more likely to move (particularly to urban areas than their male counterparts. Moreover, employment in the prior year is less of a deterrent to migration among women. While childbearing has a negative effect on migration, this impact is surprisingly stronger for men than for women, perhaps because women's search for assistance in childcare promotes migration. Meanwhile, being married or in union appears to have little effect on migration probabilities for either men or women. These results demonstrate the benefits of a LHC approach and suggest that migration research should further examine men's and women's mobility as it relates to both human capital and household and family dynamics, particularly in developing settings.

  12. Domestic and International Climate Migration from Rural Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Runfola, Daniel M.; Hunter, Lori M.; Riosmena, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that climate change and variability may influence human migration patterns. However, there is less agreement regarding the type of migration streams most strongly impacted. This study tests whether climate change more strongly impacted international compared to domestic migration from rural Mexico during 1986-99. We employ eight temperature and precipitation-based climate change indices linked to detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project. Results from multilevel discrete-time event-history models challenge the assumption that climate-related migration will be predominantly short distance and domestic, but instead show that climate change more strongly impacted international moves from rural Mexico. The stronger climate impact on international migration may be explained by the self-insurance function of international migration, the presence of strong migrant networks, and climate-related changes in wage difference. While a warming in temperature increased international outmigration, higher levels of precipitation declined the odds of an international move. PMID:28439146

  13. Domestic and International Climate Migration from Rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Runfola, Daniel M; Hunter, Lori M; Riosmena, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is increasing that climate change and variability may influence human migration patterns. However, there is less agreement regarding the type of migration streams most strongly impacted. This study tests whether climate change more strongly impacted international compared to domestic migration from rural Mexico during 1986-99. We employ eight temperature and precipitation-based climate change indices linked to detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project. Results from multilevel discrete-time event-history models challenge the assumption that climate-related migration will be predominantly short distance and domestic, but instead show that climate change more strongly impacted international moves from rural Mexico. The stronger climate impact on international migration may be explained by the self-insurance function of international migration, the presence of strong migrant networks, and climate-related changes in wage difference. While a warming in temperature increased international outmigration, higher levels of precipitation declined the odds of an international move.

  14. Two types of population migration in China: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, S

    1992-01-01

    The patterns, extent of, and trends in permanent and temporary migration in China are presented. Permanency is determined by a household registration transfer. Floaters are considered temporary migrants. The regulatory history of migration is given: restrictions prior to 1978 on temporary migration and relaxation of restrictions after 1978. Permanent migration was greatest in the 1950s. Between 1949 and 1960, there were 73.37 million permanent migrants to urban areas from rural areas out of an urban population increase of 105.83 million. During the 1960 and 1970s, urban population was lowered. During the Cultural Revolution, emigration surpassed immigration and the nonagricultural population increased in cities and towns. Between 1976 and 1987, the natural growth of the urban population declined, and nonagricultural population increased from 57.65 million to 204.057 million in cities and towns (1949-88). The trends in the floating population show the lowest ratio of temporary migrants to permanent migrants between 1984 and 1987 to be in Shenyang (15:100); the highest was in Guangzhou (33:100) with an average of 23:100. When the ratio is considered as 20:100 in cities, the average floating population is calculated at 52.87 million in 1987 out of 264.354 million total urban population. 70% were from rural areas. In a comparison of six provinces, Hebei had the lowest percentage of floaters (19%) and Shandong the highest (40%). In country-governed towns, and estimated temporary in-migrants numbered 9.48 million; 8/86 million were floaters. During peak migration, temporary migration averages 50 million/day and permanent migration averages 50,000/day. The primary difference between floaters and permanent migrants is that floaters keep their ties to the land. Surplus labor drives temporary migration, and as such is a release valve. Permanent migration, which is government-controlled, does not allow as much flexibility in adapting to socioeconomic conditions. The sectors

  15. Broadband Communications for Rural Development? Yes -- But We Will Need a Marketing Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Widespread provision of non-entertainment services by way of telecommunications can have a significant impact on rural growth and public services and on rural-urban migration patterns if the mix of these services and the places where they are to be introduced are chosen within the context of a national rural policy, and if local residents perceive…

  16. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Rowland, Philip, E-mail: apr@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the < 0.45 {mu}m filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1 {mu}g/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48 {mu}g/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7 {mu}g/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (> 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: {yields} Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. {yields} Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. {yields} The urban

  17. Internal Displacement and Forced Migration within Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that, contrary to the picture portrayed by the government of Zimbabwe, internal displacement, as one form of (forced) migration within a country's borders, is more prevalent in the country than is at first discernable. The paper offers an overview of the current scholarship on the forced mobility of particular ...

  18. The Transformative Forces of Migration: Refugees and the Re-Configuration of Migration Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Hamann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic issue, we attempt to show how migrations transform societies at the local and micro level by focusing on how migrants and refugees navigate within different migration regimes. We pay particular attention to the specific formation of the migration regimes that these countries adopt, which structure the conditions of the economic, racialised, gendered, and sexualized violence and exploitation during migration processes. This interactive process of social transformation shapes individual experiences while also being shaped by them. We aim to contribute to the most recent and challenging question of what kind of political and social changes can be observed and how to frame these changes theoretically if we look at local levels while focusing on struggles for recognition, rights, and urban space. We bring in a cross-country comparative perspective, ranging from Canada, Chile, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and to Germany in order to lay out similarities and differences in each case, within which our authors analyse these transformative forces of migration.

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Shandong, China: Urban-Rural Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The pattern of urban-rural disparity in childhood obesity varies across countries. The present study examined the change trend of urban-rural disparity in childhood overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from four cross-sectional surveys of school children carried out in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2014 in Shandong Province, China. In this study, 39 943 students aged 7-18 years were included (14 458 in 1985, 7198 in 1995, 8568 in 2005 and 9719 in 2014). Height and weight of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) was calculated from their height and weight. The BMI cutoff points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was increasing continuously both in urban and rural areas over the past 29 years (1985-2014). The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was significantly higher in urban than in rural children and adolescents in 1985, 1995 and 2005 (p overweight and obesity was observed in rural areas after 2005; as a result, the urban-rural disparity was getting narrower, and no significant urban-rural disparity was observed in 2014 (p > 0.05). The change trend of urban-rural disparity should be concerned in the future; policies and interventions focused on childhood overweight and obesity should pay attention to rural areas. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Internal migration: why do Filipinos move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolipa, N

    1980-01-01

    The rapid movement of Filipinos from 1 part of the Philippines to another is not a new phenomenon, but mobility has been increasing. A study conducted by Peter C. Smith revealed that interprovincial lifetime mobility of the national population increased from 15.8% in 1960 to 17.6% in 1970, while interregional mobility increased from 12.7% to 13.4%. People still disagree as to whether the size and rate of growth of the population are excessive, but there seems to be total consensus as regards its spatial imbalance. Because internal migration appears to be an important factor in national development, a need exists to examine different aspects of internal migration, such as the directions taken by migration flows, the migrants' reasons for moving, the migrants' characteristics, the migrants' success or lack of success at their places of destination, the social problems accompanying internal migration, effforts to deal with the problems caused by internal migration, and the implications of migration trends for policy and for the country's development programs. The most dominant migration trend in the Philippines in recent years has been toward the urban, or more accurately the suburban, areas adjacent to Metropolitan Manila. The city of Manila itself suffered a net outflow, further pointing to the trend toward suburbanization. Migration flows are primarily caused by economic reasons. About one half the sample of a Filipinas Foundation Study moved to provinces other than the province of birth in the pursuit of employment and other economic opportunities. A study of the country's migrant population age 15 and older showed that 53% of migrants were female. For male migrants, age ranges from 20-40; it ranges from 15-35 for females. Where cash income is concerned, migrants in Pernia's study of rural urban migration were better off than nonmigrants. Migrants were, on the average, as well off as native urbanites or metropolitanites. Among the more significant points raised by

  1. Determination of Urban Thermal Characteristics on an Urban/Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Urban Thermal Characteristics on an Urban/Rural Land Cover Gradient Using Remotely Sensed Data. ... an urbanization process and the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is known to significantly compromise urban environmental quality and has been linked to climate change and associated impacts.

  2. Amplification or suppression: Social networks and the climate change-migration association in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M; Runfola, Daniel M

    2015-11-01

    Increasing rates of climate migration may be of economic and national concern to sending and destination countries. It has been argued that social networks - the ties connecting an origin and destination - may operate as "migration corridors" with the potential to strongly facilitate climate change-related migration. This study investigates whether social networks at the household and community levels amplify or suppress the impact of climate change on international migration from rural Mexico. A novel set of 15 climate change indices was generated based on daily temperature and precipitation data for 214 weather stations across Mexico. Employing geostatistical interpolation techniques, the climate change values were linked to 68 rural municipalities for which sociodemographic data and detailed migration histories were available from the Mexican Migration Project. Multi-level discrete-time event-history models were used to investigate the effect of climate change on international migration between 1986 and 1999. At the household level, the effect of social networks was approximated by comparing the first to the last move, assuming that through the first move a household establishes internal social capital. At the community level, the impact of social capital was explored through interactions with a measure of the proportion of adults with migration experience. The results show that rather than amplifying , social capital may suppress the sensitivity of migration to climate triggers, suggesting that social networks could facilitate climate change adaptation in place.

  3. The potential migration effect of rural hospital closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    to out-migration, although the hypothetical way of questioning leaves uncertainty about the actual scale of out-migration. Child families appear to be the most likely out-migrants. Elderly people may be hardest hit by a hospital closure, being most reliant on health care and least inclined to move away.......Rural hospital closures are high on the current health care agenda in Denmark. One raised concern is that rural hospital closures may further decrease population numbers in rural areas, as closures may induce some residents to move away from affected areas, i.e. closer to health care services...

  4. Preventive Dental Checkups and Their Association With Access to Usual Source of Care Among Rural and Urban Adult Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aishah; Thapa, Janani R; Zhang, Donglan

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between rural or urban residence and having a usual source of care (USC), and the utilization of preventive dental checkups among adults. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2012. We performed a logit regression on the relationship between rural and urban residence, having a USC, and having at least 1 dental checkup in the past year, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health status. After controlling for covariates, rural adult residents had significantly lower odds of having at least 1 dental checkup per year compared to their urban counterparts (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.86, P rural and urban residents, having a USC was significantly associated with an 11% (95% CI = 9%-13%) increase in the probability of having a preventive dental checkup within a year. Individuals with a USC were more likely to obtain a preventive dental visit, with similar effects in rural and urban settings. We attributed the lower odds of having a checkup in rural regions to the lower density of oral health care providers in these areas. Integration of rural oral health care into primary care may help mitigate the challenges due to a shortage of oral health care providers in rural areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Associations of street layout with walking and sedentary behaviors in an urban and a rural area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Sugiyama, Takemi; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Liao, Yung; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro

    2017-05-01

    We examined whether street layout -a key urban design element- is associated with walking and sedentary behaviors in the context of a non-Western country; and, whether such associations differ between an urban and a rural area. In 2011, 1076 middle-to-older aged adults living in an urban and a rural area of Japan reported their walking and sedentary (sitting) behaviors. Two objective measures of street layout (intersection density and street integration) were calculated. Participants exposed to more-connected street layouts were more likely to walk for commuting and for errands, to meet physical activity recommendations through walking for commuting, and less likely to drive. These relationships differed between the urban and the rural area. This shows that previous findings from Western countries on associations of street connectivity with travel behaviors may also be applicable to Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Migration, settlement change and health in post-apartheid South Africa: triangulating health and demographic surveillance with national census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A; Tollman, Stephen M; Kahn, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    World population growth will be increasingly concentrated in the urban areas of the developing world; however, some scholars caution against the oversimplification of African urbanization noting that there may be "counter-urbanization" and a prevailing pattern of circular rural-urban migration. The aim of the paper is to examine the ongoing urban transition in South Africa in the post-apartheid period, and to consider the health and social policy implications of prevailing migration patterns. Two data sets were analysed, namely the South African national census of 2001 and the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system. A settlement-type transition matrix was constructed on the national data to show how patterns of settlement have changed in a five-year period. Using the sub-district data, permanent and temporary migration was characterized, providing migration rates by age and sex, and showing the distribution of origins and destinations. The comparison of national and sub-district data highlight the following features: urban population growth, particularly in metropolitan areas, resulting from permanent and temporary migration; prevailing patterns of temporary, circular migration, and a changing gender balance in this form of migration; stepwise urbanization; and return migration from urban to rural areas. Policy concerns include: rural poverty exacerbated by labour migration; explosive conditions for the transmission of HIV; labour migrants returning to die in rural areas; and the challenges for health information created by chronically ill migrants returning to rural areas to convalesce. Lastly, suggestions are made on how to address the dearth of relevant population information for policy-making in the fields of migration, settlement change and health.

  7. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junying; Da Liangjun; Song Kun; Li Bailian

    2008-01-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  8. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) o...

  9. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban and rural contexts within Rome province, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Laura; Marini, Francesca; Bongiorno, Gioia; Facchinelli, Luca; Pombi, Marco; Caputo, Beniamino; Maroli, Michele; Della Torre, Alessandra

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the frequency of contact between a mosquito species and its different hosts is essential to understand the role of each vector species in the transmission of diseases to humans and/or animals. However, no data are so far available on the feeding habits of Aedes albopictus in Italy or in other recently colonized temperate regions of Europe, due to difficulties in collecting blood-fed females of this diurnal and exophilic species. We analyzed Ae. albopictus host-feeding patterns in two urban and two rural sites within the area of Rome (Italy). Ae. albopictus was collected using sticky-traps and the blood-meal origin of 303 females was determined by direct dot-ELISA. The blood-fed sample, although representing only 4% of the total Ae. albopictus collected, demonstrates the useful application of sticky-trap in studying the feeding behavior of the species. The human blood index was significantly different among sites, ranging from 79-96% in urban sites to 23-55% in rural sites, where horses and bovines represented the most bitten hosts. The results obtained confirm the plastic feeding behavior shown by Ae. albopictus in its original range of distribution and highlights the high potential of this species as a vector of human pathogens in urban areas of Italy, where both humans and the mosquito itself may reach very high densities.

  10. Youth access to indoor tanning salons in urban versus rural/suburban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Rosenthal, Meagen; Lemon, Stephenie C; Kane, Kevin; Cheng, Jie; Oleski, Jessica L; Li, Wenjun; Hillhouse, Joel J; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-03-01

    Research suggests that youth proximity to tanning salons may promote use; however, little is known about tanning salon proximity to schools. We assessed the proximity of tanning salons to schools in urban versus rural/suburban communities across Worcester County, Massachusetts (population > 800K). To put findings in context, we compared school proximity to tanning salons to school proximity to McDonald's restaurants, a large franchise that also caters to young people. Accessibility was measured by ArcGIS 10.2 Network Analyzer (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA) and the most current road network data layer from Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT). A total of 145 schools were observed in the study area, of which about 39% of schools were within 1 mile from a tanning salon. Urban schools (53.41%) had a higher proportion within 1 mile of a tanning salon than rural/suburban schools (17.54%; P < .001). More schools (39.31%) were within 1 mile of a tanning salon than schools within 1 mile of a McDonald's (22.70%; P < .001). Schools may be particularly impactful for implementing skin cancer prevention programing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hygiene, atopy and wheeze-eczema-rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren from urban and rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze-rhinitis-eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze-rhinitis-eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9-10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms.

  12. Hygiene, atopy and wheeze–eczema–rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren from urban and rural Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-01-01

    Background Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. Methods We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Results Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9–10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Conclusions Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms. PMID:24105783

  13. Urban ecology in a developing world: why advanced socioecological theory needs Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Melissa R; Bunn, David N; Pickett, Steward Ta; Twine, Wayne

    2013-12-01

    Socioecological theory, developed through the study of urban environments, has recently led to a proliferation of research focusing on comparative analyses of cities. This research emphasis has been concentrated in the more developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere (often referred to as the "Global North"), yet urbanization is now occurring mostly in the developing world, with the fastest rates of growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Countries like South Africa are experiencing a variety of land-cover changes that may challenge current assumptions about the differences between urban and rural environments and about the connectivity of these dynamic socioecological systems. Furthermore, questions concerning ecosystem services, landscape preferences, and conservation - when analyzed through rural livelihood frameworks - may provide insights into the social and ecological resilience of human settlements. Increasing research on urban development processes occurring in Africa, and on patterns of kinship and migration in the less developed countries of the "Global South", will advance a more comprehensive worldview of how future urbanization will influence the progress of sustainable societies.

  14. How rural and urban parents describe convenience in the context of school-based influenza vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L; Collins, Ramona; MacDonald, Judy; Frank, Christine J; Davis, Amy E

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among school-age children has been low, particularly among rural children, even in jurisdictions in Canada where this immunization is publicly funded. Providing this vaccination at school may be convenient for parents and might contribute to increased vaccine uptake, particularly among rural children. We explore the construct of convenience as an advantage of school based influenza vaccination. We also explore for rural urban differences in this construct. Participants were parents of school-aged children from Alberta, Canada. We qualitatively analyzed focus group data from rural parents using a thematic template that emerged from prior work with urban parents. Both groups of parents had participated in focus groups to explore their perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools. Data from within the theme of 'convenience' from both rural and urban parents were then further explored for sub-themes within convenience. Data were obtained from nine rural and nine urban focus groups. The template of themes that had arisen from prior analysis of the urban data applied to the rural data. Convenience was a third level theme under Advantages. Five fourth level themes emerged from within convenience. Four of the five sub-themes were common to both rural and urban participants: reduction of parental burden to schedule, reduction in parental lost time, decrease in parental stress and increase in physical access points for influenza immunization. The fifth subtheme, increases temporal access to influenza immunization, emerged uniquely from the rural data. Both rural and urban parents perceived that convenience would be an advantage of adding an annual influenza immunization to the vaccinations currently given to Alberta children at school. Improving temporal access to such immunization may be a more relevant aspect of convenience to rural

  15. New Partner Recruitment to Rural Versus Urban Ob-Gyn Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Fialkow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the recruitment efforts of practicing obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyns from rural and urban practices. Method: The authors surveyed practicing ob-gyns from 5 states in the Pacific Northwest in 2016 about their background, practice setting, practice profile, partner recruitment, and retention. Results: Seventy-three patients completed the study (53.2% response rate. Thirty-seven percent of respondents work in an urban practice and 43% have a rural practice, with the remainder in a suburban setting. A majority of the respondents attempted to recruit a new partner in the past 5 years. Respondents were most interested in experience and diversity in new recruits. Urban respondents, however, were more interested in hiring those with specialized skills (χ 2 = 7.842, P = .02 than rural providers who were more interested in partners familiar with their community (χ 2 = 7.153, P = .03. Reasons most often cited to leave their practice were reimbursement, limited social/marital options, and workload, other than rural providers who more often also cited lack of access to specialty care (χ 2 = 13.256, P = .001. Rural providers were more likely to cite marital and family status as an advantage to recruitment, whereas urban and suburban providers were more often neutral. Conclusions: Reduced access to care has led to significant health disparities for women living in rural communities. Understanding which providers are most likely to be successful in these settings might help preserve access as our health-care systems evolves.

  16. Body mass index and self-perception of overweight and obesity in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Pillay, Timesh D; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare self-reported weight and body mass index (BMI) in order to determine discrepancies between subjective and objective obesity-related markers, and possible explanatory factors of overweight and obesity underestimation, in urban, rural and migrant populations. Data from the PERU MIGRANT study, a cross-sectional study, in low-income settings, of urban, migrant (rural-to-urban), and rural groups, including BMI, self-reported weight and socio-demographic indicators were analyzed. Percentage of concurrences between BMI and self-reported weight and Kappa coefficients for inter-rater agreement were calculated. Univariate and standardized descriptive analyses were performed to identify potential explanatory variables for weight underestimation in only overweight and obese individuals, using established BMI and waist circumference cut offs. 983 Participants-199 urban, 583 migrants and 201 rural-were analyzed. Based on BMI, overall prevalence of obesity was 20.1% (95% CI 17.6%-22.6%), and overweight was 38.3% (95% CI 35.2%-41.2%), with differences between study groups (poverweight category. In overweight and obese individuals, deprivation index (p = 0.016), age (p = 0.014) and waist circumference (poverweight, obesity, and underestimation of BMI status were found, with poor agreement between BMI and self-reported weight, showing the unawareness of weight status severity in this low-income setting.

  17. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  18. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-West, Charles Ibiene; Isodje, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. Yet evidence continues to indicate poor treatment outcomes which have been attributed to poor quality of care. This study aims to identify some of the systemic problems in order to inform policy decisions for improved quality of services and treatment outcomes in Nigeria. A comparative assessment of the quality of TB care in rural and urban health facilities was carried out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0. The level of significance was set at p facility infrastructures were more constrained in the urban than rural settings. Both the urban and rural facilities lacked adequate facilities for infection control such as, running water, air filter respirators, hand gloves and extractor fans. Health education and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) were limited in rural facilities compared to urban facilities. Although anti-TB drugs were generally available in both settings, the DOTS strategy in patient care was completely ignored. Finally, laboratory support for diagnosis and patient monitoring was limited in the rural facilities. The study highlights suboptimal quality of TB care in Rivers State with limitations in health education and HCT of patients for HIV as well as laboratory support for TB care in rural health facilities. We, therefore, recommend that adequate infection control measures, strict observance of the DOTS strategy and sufficient laboratory support be provided to TB clinics in the State.

  19. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in girls from rural and urban Egypt: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Muna S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to endocrine active compounds, including bisphenol A (BPA, remains poorly characterized in developing countries despite the fact that behavioral practices related to westernization have the potential to influence exposure. BPA is a high production volume chemical that has been associated with metabolic dysfunction as well as behavioral and developmental effects in people, including children. In this pilot study, we evaluate BPA exposure and assess likely pathways of exposure among girls from urban and rural Egypt. Methods We measured urinary concentrations of total (free plus conjugated species of BPA in spot samples in urban (N = 30 and rural (N = 30 Egyptian girls, and compared these concentrations to preexisting data from age-matched American girls (N = 47 from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. We also collected anthropometric and questionnaire data regarding food storage behaviors to assess potential routes of exposure. Results Urban and rural Egyptian girls exhibited similar concentrations of urinary total BPA, with median unadjusted values of 1.00 and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. Concentrations of urinary BPA in this group of Egyptian girls (median unadjusted: 0.70 ng/mL were significantly lower compared to age-matched American girls (median unadjusted: 2.60 ng/mL according to NHANES 2009-2010 data. Reported storage of food in plastic containers was a significant predictor of increasing concentrations of urinary BPA. Conclusions Despite the relatively low urinary BPA concentrations within this Egyptian cohort, the significant association between food storage behaviors and increasing urinary BPA concentration highlights the need to understand food and consumer product patterns that may be closing the gap between urban and rural lifestyles.

  20. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in girls from rural and urban Egypt: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to endocrine active compounds, including bisphenol A (BPA), remains poorly characterized in developing countries despite the fact that behavioral practices related to westernization have the potential to influence exposure. BPA is a high production volume chemical that has been associated with metabolic dysfunction as well as behavioral and developmental effects in people, including children. In this pilot study, we evaluate BPA exposure and assess likely pathways of exposure among girls from urban and rural Egypt. Methods We measured urinary concentrations of total (free plus conjugated) species of BPA in spot samples in urban (N = 30) and rural (N = 30) Egyptian girls, and compared these concentrations to preexisting data from age-matched American girls (N = 47) from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We also collected anthropometric and questionnaire data regarding food storage behaviors to assess potential routes of exposure. Results Urban and rural Egyptian girls exhibited similar concentrations of urinary total BPA, with median unadjusted values of 1.00 and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. Concentrations of urinary BPA in this group of Egyptian girls (median unadjusted: 0.70 ng/mL) were significantly lower compared to age-matched American girls (median unadjusted: 2.60 ng/mL) according to NHANES 2009-2010 data. Reported storage of food in plastic containers was a significant predictor of increasing concentrations of urinary BPA. Conclusions Despite the relatively low urinary BPA concentrations within this Egyptian cohort, the significant association between food storage behaviors and increasing urinary BPA concentration highlights the need to understand food and consumer product patterns that may be closing the gap between urban and rural lifestyles. PMID:22472083

  1. Educational Quality Differences in a Middle-Income Country: The Urban-Rural Gap in Malaysian Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mariam; Muijs, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Shortcomings of educational quality in rural schools remain a key focus in the literature related to developing countries. This paper studies whether rural primary schools in Malaysia, an upper middle-income developing country, are still experiencing lower levels of educational resources, school climate, school leadership, and parental involvement…

  2. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among rural and urban groups and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru: a cross-sectional study Actividad física y factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en grupos rurales y urbanos y en migrantes de zonas rurales a urbanas en Perú: estudio transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Masterson Creber

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of rural-to-urban migrants in Peru versus lifetime rural and urban residents and to determine any associations between low physical activity and four cardiovascular risk factors: obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m², systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs cross-sectional study was designed to measure physical activity among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. RESULTS: The World Health Organization (WHO age-standardized prevalence of low physical activity was 2.2% in lifetime rural residents, 32.2% in rural-to-urban migrants, and 39.2% in lifetime urban residents. The adjusted odds ratios for low physical activity were 21.43 and 32.98 for migrant and urban groups respectively compared to the rural group. The adjusted odds ratio for being obese was 1.94 for those with low physical activity. There was no evidence of an association between low physical activity and blood pressure levels, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: People living in a rural area had much higher levels of physical activity and lower risk of being overweight and obese compared to those living in an urban area of Lima. Study participants from the same rural area who had migrated to Lima had levels of physical inactivity and obesity similar to those who had always lived in Lima. Interventions aimed at maintaining higher levels of physical activity among rural-to-urban migrants may help reduce the epidemic of obesity in urban cities.OBJETIVO: Comparar los patrones de actividad física y de comportamiento sedentario de migrantes de zonas rurales a urbanas del Perú con los patrones de habitantes permanentes de zonas rurales y urbanas, e identificar cualquier asociación entre el bajo nivel de actividad física y cuatro factores de

  3. Skilled migration and health outcomes in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Dambar

    2018-04-30

    Many studies have found that health outcomes decline when health professionals leave the country, but do such results remain consistent in gender- and income-disaggregated skilled migration? To help uncover explanations for such a pro-migration nature of health outcomes, the present study revisits this topic but allows for associations of skilled migration with mortality and life expectancy to differ between male and female, and between low- and high-income countries. Using a panel of 133 developing countries as source and 20 OECD countries as destination from 1980 to 2010 allowing the coefficient on emigration across different education levels to differ, the study finds the negative effect of high-skilled emigration on health outcomes. Such effect is more pronounced for high-skilled female migration than those for male and for low-income countries than for middle-and high-income countries. Results also show that such adverse effect is larger for African countries than non-African ones. However, the low-skilled migration appears to be insignificant to affect health outcomes in developing countries. Thus, skilled migration is detrimental to longevity in developing countries but unskilled migration is not.

  4. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Nicole L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD, or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1 To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2 To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3 To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35 with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7, India (33.2, Peru (39.4. Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest

  5. City mouse, country mouse: a mixed-methods evaluation of perceived communication barriers between rural family physicians and urban consultants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Pollard, Megan; Morrison, Megan; Coombs-Thorne, Heidi; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-05-06

    To examine perceived communication barriers between urban consultants and rural family physicians practising routine and emergency care in remote subarctic Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through exploratory surveys, comprised of closed and open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analysed using comparative statistical analyses, and a thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. 52 self-identified rural family physicians and 23 urban consultants were recruited via email. Rural participants were also recruited at the Family Medicine Rural Preceptor meetings in St John's, NL. Rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL completed a survey assessing perceived barriers to effective communication. Data confirmed that both groups perceived communication difficulties with one another; with 23.1% rural and 27.8% urban, rating the difficulties as frequent (p=0.935); 71.2% rural and 72.2% urban as sometimes (p=0.825); 5.8% rural and 0% urban acknowledged never perceiving difficulties (p=0.714). Overall, 87.1% of participants indicated that perceived communication difficulties impacted patient care. Primary trends that emerged as perceived barriers for rural physicians were time constraints and misunderstanding of site limitations. Urban consultants' perceived barriers were inadequate patient information and lack of native language skills. Barriers to effective communication are perceived between rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Is There A Rural-Urban Technology Gap? Results of the ERS Rural Manufacturing Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced technology use is less prevalent in rural than in urban manufacturing plants, but plants of comparable size in the same industry use about the same level of technology, regardless of urban/rural location. The rural gap comes about because the mix of rural industries is more heavily weighted with "low-technology" industries. Both rural and urban businesses rate inadequate worker skills as the most important barrier to use of new production technologies and management practices, while ...

  7. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  8. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  9. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the

  10. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, T I

    1991-01-01

    Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the

  11. Restrictions and Countermeasures of Rural Vocational Education in Urban-rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Developing rural vocational education is of great significance to urban-rural integration: developing rural vocational education is helpful to cultivating new farmers for construction of new socialist countryside,favorable to improving farmers’ ability of finding jobs and starting undertaking, and beneficial to transfer of rural surplus labor and acceleration of urbanization. Restrictions on development rural vocational education mainly include: low value cognition of society and social assessment of rural vocational education; out of balance of cost and expected return of rural vocational education; the quality of supply of rural vocational education failure to satisfy demand of socio-economic development; imperfect rural vocational education system. In view of these,following countermeasures and suggestions are put forward: strengthen propaganda and guidance to build environment of public opinion for rural vocational education; push forward rural vocational compulsory education system to lay social foundation for rural vocational education; reinforce policy support to assist in building rural vocational education system; improve education system to build overall framework of rural vocational education; perfect laws and regulations to establish system and norm for development of rural vocational education.

  12. Short report: migration among persons living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Marc L; Schur, Claudia L; Dunbar, Jennifer L; Bozzette, Sam; Shapiro, Martin

    2003-09-01

    Data from the first national probability sample of persons with HIV, the HIV Cost of Services and Utilization Survey (HCSUS), are used to examine migration patterns among persons with HIV/AIDS in the USA. Persons with serious illness may choose to relocate to receive better care or support. This migration has implications for the distribution of resources. This study describes the frequency and reasons that persons with HIV move to different communities. An analytic file of 3014 respondents was obtained from the first national probability sample of persons with HIV/AIDS, the HCSUS. A migration section of the baseline questionnaire questioned respondents on their residential history. Persons were defined as movers if they moved across state lines or to a non-contiguous county after knowing they were HIV positive but before the HCSUS baseline interview. Forty percent of movers said that their HIV status was a very important factor in their decision to move. Although earlier studies of limited generalizability found movement among the HIV population from urban to rural counties, this study found only eight percent of HIV migration was from urban to rural counties, just slightly more than the migration from rural to urban counties. In addition, the vast majority of people who were moving were not moving to return home. Major factors in the decision to move included being near caregivers and being in a community with shared needs and interests. Significant numbers of persons also moved to obtain care from a physician knowledgeable in HIV treatment or to get away from discrimination. Financial assistance and the availability of Medicaid also played a prominent role in many decisions to move. Persons with HIV/AIDS are more likely to move than non-infected persons in the general population. Moreover, they are almost twice as likely to be moving out-of-state. Persons with HIV who move are similar to persons with HIV who do not move on most demographic characteristics

  13. Urban and rural land use in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We have developed three land use regions for Puerto Rico: Urban, Suburban, and Rural (Gould et al. 2008; Martinuzzi et al. 2007). These three regions can also be considered urban, densely-populated rural, and sparsely-populated rural or as urban and wildland with a wildland-urban interface. The suburban use is the most dynamic in terms of population growth and land...

  14. Stories of upward social mobility and migration in one Romanian commune. On the emergence of “rurban” spaces in migrant-sending communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica ALEXANDRU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore how international migration changed rural communities and social mobility trajectories. I show how the intense structural changes following the socio-economic transition in Romania supported the emergence and growth of labour migration. I look at migration instances that reveal positive changes of the quality of life, housing, educational and occupational opportunities of migrants. I posit that migration changes social mobility trajectories and shapes “rurban” villages where standards of living and lifestyles merge old and new ways of life. These communities gradually begin to resemble more to host countries and to urban localities in Romania than to the traditional rural spaces.

  15. Green migration into rural America: The new frontier of environmentalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Emmet Jones; J. Mark Fly; James Talley; H. Ken Cordell

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes that shifts in rural population and economic growth patterns may help explain rising levels of support for environmental values in many rural areas. In particular, it assesses a model of "green migration" that assumes that domestic in-migration, with its impacts on the character and composition of rural communities, is one of the reasons...

  16. Amplification or suppression: Social networks and the climate change—migration association in rural Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M.; Runfola, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing rates of climate migration may be of economic and national concern to sending and destination countries. It has been argued that social networks – the ties connecting an origin and destination – may operate as “migration corridors” with the potential to strongly facilitate climate change-related migration. This study investigates whether social networks at the household and community levels amplify or suppress the impact of climate change on international migration from rural Mexico. A novel set of 15 climate change indices was generated based on daily temperature and precipitation data for 214 weather stations across Mexico. Employing geostatistical interpolation techniques, the climate change values were linked to 68 rural municipalities for which sociodemographic data and detailed migration histories were available from the Mexican Migration Project. Multi-level discrete-time event-history models were used to investigate the effect of climate change on international migration between 1986 and 1999. At the household level, the effect of social networks was approximated by comparing the first to the last move, assuming that through the first move a household establishes internal social capital. At the community level, the impact of social capital was explored through interactions with a measure of the proportion of adults with migration experience. The results show that rather than amplifying, social capital may suppress the sensitivity of migration to climate triggers, suggesting that social networks could facilitate climate change adaptation in place. PMID:26692656

  17. Coping with Migration-Induced Urban Growth: Addressing the Blind Spot of UN Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The demography of cities in the 21st century will be shaped, to a large extent, by migration. This paper argues that the rights-based approach to urban policy advocated in the preparatory work of Habitat III, the UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development to be held in October 2016 in Quito, Ecuador, may not be conducive to this goal. The approach lacks a contextual and dynamic understanding of urbanization. It implicitly assumes that a growing and expansive urban economy would primarily benefit the rich and harm the poor. The resulting containment policies to stop “urban sprawl” and defend “the right to the city” can, however, be counterproductive if adopted in cities in less developed countries (LDCs that grow fast due to internal migration. Attempts to limit urban growth may merely lead to more informal settlements, less affordable housing, and increasing costs of doing business. In other words, it may benefit the rich and harm the poor. LDCs should, therefore, refrain from adopting defensive urban policies mostly advocated by more developed countries (MDCs and, instead, plan for sustainable urban expansion designed to improve access to essential urban services and to create a level playing field for newcomers in business. In this context, urban policies may build upon the basic insights of the late urbanist Jane Jacobs. She recognized that the vital function of cities is to provide affordable infrastructure and an institutional environment that enable migrants and other marginal urban communities to contribute to urban prosperity and problem-solving with their skills, networks, and entrepreneurial minds. The resulting social and economic empowerment increases access to essential human rights and ensures that cities become more inclusive, resilient, and sustainable.

  18. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    , identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri- urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination...... of transport, land use and open space planning; (ii) urban containment and densification – development a green compact city; (iii) preservation of blue and green infrastructure; and (iv) preservation of agricultural land and the promotion of local production. The need also remains to strengthen governance...... at the regional level while at the pan-European level there is clearly a need for more policy attention to be given to urban-rural linkages....

  19. Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mockford, Emily J; Marshall, Rupert C; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low......-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less...... degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban...

  20. Urban-rural demarcation within a metropolitan area: a methodology for using small area disaggregation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate with regard to the levels of service provision in urban and rural areas. However, progress with respect to the delivery of planned services can only be efficiently and equitably measured once benchmarks for different areas...

  1. Everyday mobility and infrastructure in the configuration of non peri-urban rural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cerón Aparicio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine how the non peri-urban rural space in the Mexico’s central region, which is a highly urbanized context, is organized. Changes taking place within the framework of globalization promote greater openness and flexibilization in the territory, resulting in an increased mobility, which takes a great diversity of forms and expands everyday interaction spaces. In order to study this phenomenon, this article examines the usual movements of rural population, which allow for the definition of ties between rural space and its rural-urban entourage. According to the origin-destination analysis of displacements, the balance of territorial changes is negative as for mobility practices, as well with regard to the interweaving of new interaction networks with their urban environment. Interaction places have remained in the traditional municipal space, even when favorable physical conditions exist for displacement.

  2. Marginalization and health service coverage among indigenous, rural, and urban populations: a public health problem in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, José; Álvarez, Marsela; Carrasco, María; Guarneros, Noé; Ledesma, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Chávez, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

      Marginalization is a significant issue in Mexico, involving a lack of access to health services with differential impacts on Indigenous, rural and urban populations. The objective of this study was to understand Mexico’s public health problem across three population areas, Indigenous, rural and urban, in relation to degree of marginalization and health service coverage.   The sampling universe of the study consisted of 107 458 geographic locations in the country. The study was retrospective, comparative and confirmatory. The study applied analysis of variance, parametric and non-parametric, correlation and correspondence analyses.   Significant differences were identified between the Indigenous, rural and urban populations with respect to their level of marginalization and access to health services. The most affected area was Indigenous, followed by rural areas. The sector that was least affected was urban.   Although health coverage is highly concentrated in urban areas in Mexico, shortages are mostly concentrated in rural areas where Indigenous groups represent the extreme end of marginalization and access to medical coverage. Inadequate access to health services in the Indigenous and rural populations throws the gravity of the public health problem into relief.

  3. Interface between urban and rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2007-01-01

      Counterurbanisation combined with recent trends in agricultural technology has resulted in a ‘multifunctional countryside regime', raising new questions on the relation between nature and land use in rural areas and between very different values and interests developing in these areas. Indicators...... for new trends in rural landscapes have been related to a model for urban pressure on rural areas in Denmark however without any convincing results. A model for the historical development of a typical Danish village has been made, to see if the socially differentiated process of counterurbanisation can...... be related to the differentiation in the development of different types of village developments. Such a model can elucidate the potentials of a multifunctional landscape as a basis for a varied and and attractive fulfilment of human needs in an urban-rural continuum....

  4. Migration: Pre-Requisite for Rural Economic Regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Aileen

    2006-01-01

    Migration from and to depopulating areas is related to the prospects for rural economic regeneration. The focus is on whether or not migration processes give rise to the necessary human capital required for successful endogenous development. Data from Scottish case studies pertaining to in-, out- and return migrants are analysed. Only by leaving…

  5. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  6. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David L

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all migration research examines international migration or urbanization. Yet understudied rural migrants are of critical concern for environmental conservation and rural sustainable development. Despite the fact that a relatively small number of all migrants settle remote rural frontiers, these are the agents responsible for perhaps most of the tropical deforestation on the planet. Further, rural migrants are among the most destitute people worldwide in terms of economic and human development. While a host of research has investigated deforestation resulting from frontier migration, and a modest literature has emerged on frontier development, this article explores the necessary antecedent to tropical deforestation and poverty along agricultural frontiers: out-migration from origin areas. The data come from a 2000 survey with community leaders and key informants in 16 municipios of migrant origin to the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), Petén, Guatemala. A common denominator among communities of migration origin to the Petén frontier was unequal resource access, usually land. Nevertheless, the factors driving resource scarcity were widely variable. Land degradation, land consolidation, and population growth prevailed in some communities but not in others. Despite similar exposure to community and regional level push factors, most people in the sampled communities did not out-migrate, suggesting that any one or combination of factors is not necessarily sufficient for out-migration.

  7. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  8. Homicide in post-Soviet Belarus: urban-rural trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of homicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet period. All-age male and female homicide mortality and population data were obtained for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 for urban and rural regions of Belarus. These data were recalculated into three age categories and directly standardised. To assess relative changes in rural-urban homicide rates across time Poisson regression models were used to calculate rate ratios. Between 1990 and 1995 homicide rates rose sharply in urban and rural regions although the rise was greater in the former. Although there was little change in homicide rates in 2000, a notable divergence had occurred by 2005. While homicide rates rose slightly in rural areas, a large fall occurred in the rates of both men and women in urban areas. This resulted in significantly higher rural homicide rate ratios at the end of the study period. With some variations age-specific homicide rates followed this overall general pattern resulting in significantly higher homicide rate ratios in all rural groups aged 15 and above in 2005. It is probable that a combination of factors such as high levels of poverty, the effects of alcohol consumption, as well as the poor provision of emergency medical services underlie both the high levels of lethal violence and the growing rural-urban divergence in homicide rates in contemporary Belarus. Urgent action is now needed to address the deteriorating social and economic conditions underpinning violence, especially in rural regions.

  9. Urban-rural difference in satisfaction with primary healthcare services in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Yaya

    2017-11-01

    %CI: -0.022, 0.043. Bivariate analysis showed that region, highest level of education, wealth index and type of facility were significantly associated with location of residence (urban-rural areas. After adjusting for confounding variables using logistic regression, geographical location became a key factor of satisfaction with primary healthcare services by location of residence. In urban areas, respondents from Greater Accra had 64% increase in the level of satisfaction when compared to those in Western region (OR = 1.64; 95CI: 1.09–2.47, Upper East had 75% increase in satisfaction compared to Western region (OR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.08–2.84, Northern had an estimated 44% reduction in satisfaction when compared to Western region (OR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.34–0.92. However, rural areas in Central, Volta, Eastern, Ashanti, Brong Aghafo, Northern and Upper West region had 51, 81, 69, 46, 62, 75 and 61% reduction respectively in the level of satisfaction when compared to Western region. Conclusions Patient satisfaction is an important indicator of health outcomes. Quality of care and measuring level of patient satisfaction has been found to be the most useful tool to predict utilization and compliance. In fact, satisfied patients are more likely than unsatisfied ones to continue using health care services. Our results suggest that policymakers need to better understand the determinants of satisfaction with the health system and how different socio-demographic groups perceive satisfaction with healthcare services so as to address health inequalities between urban and rural areas within the same country.

  10. Care interrupted: Poverty, in-migration, and primary care in rural resource towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kathleen; Webster, Fiona

    2017-10-01

    Internationally, rural people have poorer health outcomes relative to their urban counterparts, and primary care providers face particular challenges in rural and remote regions. Drawing on ethnographic fieldnotes and 14 open-ended qualitative interviews with care providers and chronic pain patients in two remote resource communities in Northern Ontario, Canada, this article examines the challenges involved in providing and receiving primary care for complex chronic conditions in these communities. Both towns struggle with high unemployment in the aftermath of industry closure, and are characterized by an abundance of affordable housing. Many of the challenges that care providers face and that patients experience are well-documented in Canadian and international literature on rural and remote health, and health care in resource towns (e.g. lack of specialized care, difficulty with recruitment and retention of care providers, heavy workload for existing care providers). However, our study also documents the recent in-migration of low-income, largely working-age people with complex chronic conditions who are drawn to the region by the low cost of housing. We discuss the ways in which the needs of these in-migrants compound existing challenges to rural primary care provision. To our knowledge, our study is the first to document both this migration trend, and the implications of this for primary care. In the interest of patient health and care provider well-being, existing health and social services will likely need to be expanded to meet the needs of these in-migrants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. North-South Migration and Remittances in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mobility and high rates of rural-urban migration and in recent times child migration .... after the migrant settles at the place of destination and his income profile starts rising .... the rural areas of Northern Ghana had little or no education. ... The poor educational infrastructure, lack of schools and teachers, high dropout rates.

  12. Migration, urban population growth and regional disparity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Renard, Mary-Françoise; Xu, Zelai; Zhu, Nong

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the determinants of city population growth in China during the 1990s', as well as the determinants of migrations towards cities, which constitutes the main source of urban population growth in this period. A second objective is to identify regional differences in the urban growth and migrations, that is, whether urban growth and migration patterns are different between coastal and inland provinces. Additionally, we are interested in the differences...

  13. Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, David M; Blevins, Meridith; Afzal, Arfan R; Andrews, Ben; Derbew, Miliard; Kaur, Simran; Mipando, Mwapatsa; Mkony, Charles A; Mwachaka, Philip M; Ranjit, Nirju; Vermund, Sten

    2014-10-01

    To assess medical and nursing students' intentions to migrate abroad or practice in rural areas. We surveyed 3199 first- and final-year medical and nursing students at 16 premier government institutions in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nepal, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. The survey contained questions to identify factors that could predict students' intentions to migrate. Primary outcomes were the likelihoods of migrating to work abroad or working in rural areas in the country of training within five years post-training. We assessed predictors of migration intentions using multivariable proportional odds models. Among respondents, 28% (870/3156) expected to migrate abroad, while only 18% (575/3158) anticipated a rural career. More nursing than medical students desired professions abroad (odds ratio, OR: 1.76; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.25-2.48). Career desires before matriculation correlated with current intentions for international (OR: 4.49; 95% CI: 3.21-6.29) and rural (OR: 4.84; 95% CI: 3.52-6.66) careers. Time spent in rural areas before matriculation predicted the preference for a rural career (20 versus 0 years: OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.98) and against work abroad (20 versus 0 years: OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.96). A significant proportion of students surveyed still intend to work abroad or in cities after training. These intentions could be identified even before matriculation. Admissions standards that account for years spent in rural areas could promote greater graduate retention in the country of training and in rural areas.

  14. Urban squatting and migration in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, M

    1983-01-01

    "This article examines some of the links between the phenomena of urban migration and squatter settlements in the Third World city. This will be done by demonstrating that both are outcomes of fundamental social and political forces that have operated on these societies. Migration and squatting are placed in a context of the historical processes that led to the uneven development of Malaysia. The article offers some explanation for the origin of the inequalities observed in spatial structures--in this case urban housing--by focusing on one of the contributory factors, namely migration." excerpt

  15. Rethinking Rural–Urban Migration and Women’s Empowerment in the Era of the SDGs: Lessons from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Pickbourn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Women who migrate within national borders in Africa have been largely ignored in contemporary conversations about migration. This is partly due to the fact that internal migration, and in particular, rural–urban migration, has been viewed in a negative light in development theory and praxis. This leads to the perception that women who migrate within national borders are worse-off than they would have been otherwise and to a policy stance that seeks to discourage their migration. Drawing on field research in Ghana, I argue that while rural–urban migration gives women access to an independent source of income, the emancipatory potential of migration for women is limited by the official stance towards rural–urban migration and informality. Nevertheless, the decision by women to migrate represents an attempt to improve their life outcomes as well as those of their families, in the face of severely constrained options for doing so. Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG5—promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment—requires a different approach to women’s internal migration. Rather than seeking to constrain women’s mobility, policy and program interventions should be geared towards expanding women’s freedom to choose whether or not to migrate—by expanding the options available to women who stay at home as well as improving migration outcomes for those who migrate.

  16. Responses to migration: Tensions and ambiguities of churches in Pretoria Central and Mamelodi East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Renkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of research being conducted to explore how churches in two regions of the City of Tshwane – Pretoria Central and Mamelodi East – respond to urban change and vulnerability. Both regions are deeply affected by urban migration patterns. Firstly, I will explore various forms of migration – transnational, rural-urban, urban–suburban and generational – and the causes of migration – social-economic and political – as experienced and described by the churches themselves. Secondly, I will seek to reflect on some of the tensions or ambiguities of how churches respond to migration, how the identity, self-understanding or locatedness of churches inform their responses to migration, and/or how churches and their identity are shaped by migration – commuter or local church, home or temporary church.

  17. Rural-urban comparisons of dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hoon Chew

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year an estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide. In Malaysia, dengue is a growing public health concern but estimate of its disease burden remains uncertain. We compared the urban-rural difference of dengue seroprevalence and determined age-specific dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia. Methods We undertook analysis on 11,821 subjects from six seroprevalence surveys conducted in Malaysia between 2001 and 2013, which composed of five urban and two rural series. Results Prevalence of dengue increased with age in both urban and rural locations in Malaysia, which exceeded 90 % among those aged 70 years or beyond. The age-specific rates of the 5 urban surveys overlapped without clear separation among them, while prevalence was lower in younger subjects in rural series than in urban series, the trend reversed in older subjects. There were no differences in the seroprevalence by gender, ethnicity or region. Poisson regression model confirmed the prevalence have not changed in urban areas since 2001 but in rural areas, there was a significant positive time trend such that by year 2008, rural prevalence was as high as in urban areas. Conclusion Dengue seroprevalence has stabilized but persisted at a high level in urban areas since 2001, and is fast stabilizing in rural areas at the same high urban levels by 2008. The cumulative seroprevalence of dengue exceeds 90 % by the age of 70 years, which translates into 16.5 million people or 55 % of the total population in Malaysia, being infected by dengue by 2013.

  18. Rural-urban comparisons of dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Cheng Hoon; Woon, Yuan Liang; Amin, Faridah; Adnan, Tassha H; Abdul Wahab, Asmah Hani; Ahmad, Zul Edzhar; Bujang, Mohd Adam; Abdul Hamid, Abdul Muneer; Jamal, Rahman; Chen, Wei Seng; Hor, Chee Peng; Yeap, Lena; Hoo, Ling Ping; Goh, Pik Pin; Lim, Teck Onn

    2016-08-18

    Each year an estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide. In Malaysia, dengue is a growing public health concern but estimate of its disease burden remains uncertain. We compared the urban-rural difference of dengue seroprevalence and determined age-specific dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia. We undertook analysis on 11,821 subjects from six seroprevalence surveys conducted in Malaysia between 2001 and 2013, which composed of five urban and two rural series. Prevalence of dengue increased with age in both urban and rural locations in Malaysia, which exceeded 90 % among those aged 70 years or beyond. The age-specific rates of the 5 urban surveys overlapped without clear separation among them, while prevalence was lower in younger subjects in rural series than in urban series, the trend reversed in older subjects. There were no differences in the seroprevalence by gender, ethnicity or region. Poisson regression model confirmed the prevalence have not changed in urban areas since 2001 but in rural areas, there was a significant positive time trend such that by year 2008, rural prevalence was as high as in urban areas. Dengue seroprevalence has stabilized but persisted at a high level in urban areas since 2001, and is fast stabilizing in rural areas at the same high urban levels by 2008. The cumulative seroprevalence of dengue exceeds 90 % by the age of 70 years, which translates into 16.5 million people or 55 % of the total population in Malaysia, being infected by dengue by 2013.

  19. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on, in and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account, by decision makers, when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository

  20. Secular trends of obesity prevalence in Chinese children from 1985 to 2010: Urban-rural disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing; Agard, Anette

    2015-02-01

    To examine the trend of urban-rural disparity in obesity prevalence among Chinese children from 1985 to 2010. The data were from five cross-sectional surveys (1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) of urban-rural areas for obesity prevalence in different surveys. The standardized prevalence of obesity in Chinese children increased rapidly from 0.1% in 1985 to 5.0% in 2010, and significant differences were found between two adjacent surveys in most of the age subgroups (Pobesity prevalence was significantly higher in urban than in rural children of all age subgroups at different survey points, the changing pace was faster in rural than in urban areas from 1995 to 2010. The PORs had increased in 1995 in most age subgroups and then began to decline in all age subgroups after 1995. The gradually decreasing urban-rural disparity suggests that the obesity prevalence in rural areas would contribute to a growing proportion of obese children. Therefore, rural children should be included in obesity prevention efforts even though obesity rates are still lower in rural than in urban areas. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  1. Labour migration and rural development in Egypt. A study of return migration in six villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, C

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of labor migration on social change in 6 rural villages (Shanawan and Kafr Shanawan north of Cairo, Kafr Yusuf and Tambul el Kubra near Simbalaween, and Abu Girg and Bani Walims in Minya governate) in Egypt was conducted in 1987-88. Since the 1991 Gulf war, the political environment, the labor markets, and the structure of migration opportunities have changed. An estimated 5% of rural households might have been directly affected by migrants' departure from Kuwait and Iraq. Data collection involved a household census survey of 8620 households, of which 2483 were migrants, including 1765 return migrants. A sample of return migrant (639) was interviewed about their migration experiences. Participant observation was also conducted among migrants and nonmigrants, and case studies were developed. Villages were demographically and socioeconomically very different; migration ranged from 18.5-434.2%. Structural change was measured on a scale of 1 to 6 in terms of population size, literacy of household heads, share of agricultural occupations, share of new red brick houses, and availability of infrastructural or institutional facilities. The probability of having a household with a migrant member increased with the rural character of the village. Landholdings or other major household variables were unrelated to migration. Rural outmigration was almost exclusively male, the average age was 29.6 years, and the average stay was 2.6 years. Migration destination was specific to individuals but affected by occupation and family or village resources. Professionals were overrepresented in Saudi Arabia, and farm and unskilled laborers or the unemployed were overrepresented in Iraq. Remittances from international migration have contributed along with the economic reforms of Sadat to new, private initiatives from all strata in rural society. 74.3% of returnees stated that improvement in income and living standards was the motivation for migration; many motives

  2. Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Rotich K.; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored

  3. Urban and rural risks of Lyme disease in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, S; Hopkins, P C; MacLennan, A; Joss, A W L; Ho-Yen, D O

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of Lyme disease testing and infection within the Highland region of Scotland. Data from all Highland samples tested during 2004-2006 were analysed according to result and patient's residence in relation to the eight fold Scottish Executive's urban/rural classification, and distance from woodland. In total, 1602 patients were tested for Lyme disease, 0.71% of the Highland population. From these, 104 (6.5%) were seropositive. There were more patients tested, and seropositive patients from rural than urban locations, 1113 vs 489, and 79 vs 25 respectively. There were also significantly more seropositive patients per patients tested from rural locations (chi2, prural areas become more remote. The likelihood of being tested for Lyme disease also increased as the distance between a patient's residence and woodland decreased. The relative risk of being tested elevated by 74% for those patients living within 200 metres of woodland. Those living in the most rural areas of Highland and those living closest to woodland have an increased risk of being tested and having Lyme disease.

  4. Social Work Practice Behaviors and Beliefs: Rural-Urban Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A. Croxton

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available There is continuing debate within the social work profession on whether there are significant differences in the practice behaviors and beliefs between rural and urban clinical social workers and whether different standards should be applied in defining ethical practices. This study measures those differences with regard to five practice behaviors: bartering,maintaining confidentiality, competent practice, dual relationships, and social relationships. Differences were found in beliefs regarding the appropriateness of professional behavior though such differences did not translate into practice behaviors.More significantly, the research suggests considerable confusion about the meanings of ethical standards and the utilization of intervention techniques without formal training across both urban and rural social workers.

  5. The urban risk and migration risk factors for schizophrenia: are cats the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Being born in and/or raised in an urban area is a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. Migrating from countries such as Jamaica or Morocco to countries such as England or the Netherlands is also a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. The transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts to children is reviewed and proposed as a partial explanation for both of these risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How do the definitions of urban and rural matter for transportation safety? Re-interpreting transportation fatalities as an outcome of regional development processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Beyer, Kirsten; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Urban and rural places are integrated through economic ties and population flows. Despite their integration, most studies of road safety dichotomize urban and rural places, and studies have consistently demonstrated that rural places are more dangerous for motorists than urban places. Our study investigates whether these findings are sensitive to the definition of urban and rural. We use three different definitions of urban-rural continua to quantify and compare motor vehicle occupant fatality rates per person-trip and person-mile for the state of Wisconsin. The three urban-rural continua are defined by: (1) popular impressions of urban, suburban, and rural places using a system from regional economics; (2) population density; and (3) the intensity of commute flows to core urbanized areas. In this analysis, the three definitions captured different people and places within each continuum level, highlighting rural heterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, the three definitions resulted in similar fatality rate gradients, suggesting a potentially latent "rural" characteristic. We then used field observations of urban-rural transects to refine the definitions. When accounting for the presence of higher-density towns and villages in rural places, we found that low-density urban places such as suburbs and exurbs have fatality rates more similar to those in rural places. These findings support the need to understand road safety within the context of regional development processes instead of urban-rural categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Urban and Rural Dropout Rates of Distance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hart, K. L.; Venter J. M. P.

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest university dropout rates in the world. As a country, it also has a history of forced location and the withholding of resources, including quality education, from certain rural areas. This study investigates, the effect of urbanization (of the area in which a student resides) on the dropout rate of distance…

  8. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies. (letter)

  9. Body mass index and self-perception of overweight and obesity in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare self-reported weight and body mass index (BMI in order to determine discrepancies between subjective and objective obesity-related markers, and possible explanatory factors of overweight and obesity underestimation, in urban, rural and migrant populations.Data from the PERU MIGRANT study, a cross-sectional study, in low-income settings, of urban, migrant (rural-to-urban, and rural groups, including BMI, self-reported weight and socio-demographic indicators were analyzed. Percentage of concurrences between BMI and self-reported weight and Kappa coefficients for inter-rater agreement were calculated. Univariate and standardized descriptive analyses were performed to identify potential explanatory variables for weight underestimation in only overweight and obese individuals, using established BMI and waist circumference cut offs.983 Participants-199 urban, 583 migrants and 201 rural-were analyzed. Based on BMI, overall prevalence of obesity was 20.1% (95% CI 17.6%-22.6%, and overweight was 38.3% (95% CI 35.2%-41.2%, with differences between study groups (p<0.001. Only 43% of the whole sample had matching self-reported weight and BMI status, whereas 54% underestimated and 3% overestimated their BMI category. Kappa coefficient, between BMI and self-reported weight, for the entire sample was 0.16, rural residents had the lowest coefficient (0.01 and the most underestimation, especially in the overweight category. In overweight and obese individuals, deprivation index (p = 0.016, age (p = 0.014 and waist circumference (p<0.001 were associated with weight underestimation.Overall, high levels of overweight, obesity, and underestimation of BMI status were found, with poor agreement between BMI and self-reported weight, showing the unawareness of weight status severity in this low-income setting.

  10. Socio-economic and Environmental impacts, planning and administration of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Haroun Osman

    1999-01-01

    The majority of the population in Sudan still lives in the rural areas where they still suffer from problems of poverty, unemployment, high rates of illiteracy, poor health services, shortage of water, and migration to urban areas. Development plans within decentralization efforts taking place in the country should give great importance to rural development by activating rural productive sector comprising agriculture and small scale industries. Rural electrification (RE) can play an important role as akey infrastructure for rural development, and could change the rural communities socially and economically to the better. RE also have desirable environmental impacts when substituting polluting and scare fuels such as petroleum fuel and fuel wood by electricity. Compared with urban electrification, RE is characterized by scattered consumers, low demands, and low load factors. This results in high connection costs of electricity per consumer, and high unit (Kwh) cost. In Sudan, rural electricity demands range from small industries of 50 or industries and individual farms. To bring electricity supply to these different categories of rural consumers at a reasonable investment cost requires proper planning. It needs regular data collection and updating, selection of appropriate technology, project formulation, financing implementation, management, and follow-up. The Sudan National Electricity Corporation (NEC), gives priority to the generation and transmission of electricity to the big urban and industrial areas. NEC treats RE as low priority to which resources are only devoted after the more urgent needs of the urban and industrial consumers not impossible, for a utility like the NEC to construct, operate, and maintain a large number of small scale projects in rural areas. To enable RE to play an effective institution with RE as its primary objectives is very crucial. This paper aims to highlight the importance of RE and its impacts on the rural inhabitants socially

  11. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking.Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  12. Smoking among Young Rural to Urban Migrant Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18–24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18–30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = brands” had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation. PMID:21829683

  13. An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

    2000-05-01

    The paper describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India. The purpose of the study was to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Ecologically valid curricula teach the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values required by students to function effectively in current and future environments (e.g., urban and/or rural, academic, vocational, domestic, community and recreational) in which the students perform. The discussion illustrates application of ecological inventories and describes several related data collection instruments and procedures. The paper also describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure (ICCS) as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories. An example is provided of a practical Thematic Unit Plan derived from the ICCS and integrating a variety of functional and academic skills into a guide for instruction and evaluation. The discussion provides a clear insight into many of the problems faced by students, school leavers and graduates in rural areas of developing countries, both in their daily lives and as they plan for their futures.

  14. Organizing and Managing Transition to Sustainable Urban Districts and Housing Structures. A Comparative Study of Swedish and Danish Cases of Current Urban Planning Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    through analysis of documents, field observation, interviews and focus group seminars. Results showed that despite many similarities between the Swedish and Danish welfare state models, the organization of the social housing sector differs significantly between the two countries. This brings about very......In Scandinavia baby boomers coming of age in 1960s, in combination with a massive migration from rural to urban areas, caused a massive demand for new housing. Public authority responded by soliciting to social housing associations to construct a huge number of dwellings within a short time span...... different conditions for finance and consequently for organization of sustainable regeneration of 1960-70s’ suburban housing estates. On the Swedish side housing estates are either privately owned or organized as part of a municipal organization, whereas on the Danish side social housing estates are owned...

  15. Extracellular fluid management and hypertension in urban dwelling versus rural dwelling hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Lloyd, Anita; Pannu, Neesh; Klarenbach, Scott; Ravani, Pietro; Jindal, Kailash; MacRae, Jennifer; Unsworth, Larry; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda

    2018-02-01

    Rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients have less frequent contact with nephrologists than urban-dwelling patients, and are known to have higher mortality. We hypothesized that rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients would have more evidence of poorly controlled extracellular fluid volume (ECVF) than otherwise similar urban-dwellers. We studied prevalent hemodialysis patients within a single renal program in Alberta, Canada and assessed ECFV using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Our primary outcome was impedance vector length (ohm/m) as assessed by BIS using the Xitron Hydra 4200 device, where shorter vector length indicated poorer ECFV control. Because poor ECFV control can lead to hypertension, we also assessed pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure. We measured outcomes at baseline. We studied 228 hemodialysis patients, of whom 115 (50.4 %) and 113 (49.6 %) were urban- and rural-dwelling, respectively. There were no differences in volume control in urban versus rural participants; odds ratio (OR) for vector length in the lowest sex-specific quartile of vector length was 0.93 (95 % CI 0.54, 1.59) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetic status, years since dialysis initiation and phase angle. The odds of very poor blood pressure control (pre-dialysis blood pressure ≥180/100) did not differ between urban and rural participants [fully adjusted OR 0.96 (0.36, 2.60)]. Differences in ECFV control do not appear to explain higher mortality among remote- and rural- dwelling hemodialysis patients, compared to urban-dwellers.

  16. Migration and nutritional status of Tarahumara schoolchildren from Chihuahua State (México).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Hernández, Zuliana Paola; De la Torre-Díaz, María de Lourdes; Cervantes-Borunda, Mónica; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Cabañas, María Dolores; López-Ejeda, Noemí; Marrodán, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The Tarahumara ethnic group is composed of indigenous people from the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. Conditions of isolation and poverty compel them to migrate to the city in search of better opportunities. This work aims to explore the influence of migration on the growth and nutritional status of Tarahumara schoolchildren. One hundred Tarahumara students were analyzed (50 rural with a mean age of 9.78 ± 1.25 years; 50 urban aged 10.0 ± 1.04 years), comparing anthropometric indicators and body composition (T-Student, U-Mann-Whitney Tests). Twenty percent of rural girls and 35% of rural boys showed stunted growth compared to only 9% of the urban girls (no stunted growth among urban boys). Migrants showed greater body size, skinfold thickness, and fat percentage. Weight excess, understood as an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, was detected in 17.8% of urban boys and 13.6% of urban girls compared to 10.0% of boys and 3.3% of girls of the rural series. Migration reduces stunting and increases adiposity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. OBJECTIVES: As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban......, and rural areas. METHODS: Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. RESULTS: On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR...... doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural...

  18. Rural-to-Urban Migrants' Experiences with Primary Care under Different Types of Medical Institutions in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhi Zeng

    Full Text Available China is facing the unprecedented challenge of rapidly increasing rural-to-urban migration. Migrants are in a vulnerable state when they attempt to access to primary care services. This study was designed to explore rural-to-urban migrants' experiences in primary care, comparing their quality of primary care experiences under different types of medical institutions in Guangzhou, China.The study employed a cross-sectional survey of 736 rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China in 2014. A validated Chinese version of Primary Care Assessment Tool--Adult Short Version (PCAT-AS, representing 10 primary care domains was used to collect information on migrants' quality of primary care experiences. These domains include first contact (utilization, first contact (accessibility, ongoing care, coordination (referrals, coordination (information systems, comprehensiveness (services available, comprehensiveness (services provided, family-centeredness, community orientation and culturally competent. These measures were used to assess the quality of primary care performance as reported from patients' perspective. Analysis of covariance was conducted for comparison on PCAT scores among migrants accessing primary care in tertiary hospitals, municipal hospitals, community health centers/community health stations, and township health centers/rural health stations. Multiple linear regression models were used to explore factors associated with PCAT total scores.After adjustments were made, migrants accessing primary care in tertiary hospitals (25.49 reported the highest PCAT total scores, followed by municipal hospitals (25.02, community health centers/community health stations (24.24, and township health centers/rural health stations (24.18. Tertiary hospital users reported significantly better performance in first contact (utilization, first contact (accessibility, coordination (information system, comprehensiveness (service available, and cultural competence

  19. Migration, remittances and micro-finance in rural Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel G. Chávez Ángeles

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using quantitative and qualitative techniques we gathered a 334 household basedata from three rural municipalities in Mexico to estimate through an instrumental variables model the impact of labor migration and remittances in household’s agricultural yield and financial constraints. We found a positive effect of migration on agriculture yield and a negative impact of migration on financial liquidity maybe due to the migration is often financed by their own savings or borrowing of the household because of lack of liquidity, raising a vicious circle of migration and lack of credit.

  20. Urbanism, Migration, and Tolerance: A Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Urbanism's impact on the personality may be stronger than previously thought. Finds that urban residence has a strong positive effect on tolerance. Migration also promotes tolerance, regardless of the size of the destination community. (DM)

  1. Demographic situation and population migration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Problem of the Chernobyl accident effect on the population migration in controlled areas of the Ukraine, Belarus and in Russian Federation. Comparison of the data on migration for 1990 and for 1995 has shown considerable growth of the intensity of efflux of rural population at most Ukrainian areas affected due to the Chernobyl accident. Negative migration growth in urban settlements of these regions is marked. Decrease in rural resident migration is observed. Migrant current in Russia is twice increased. Main regions of North-West, Central, North-Caucasus ones in Russia and Donetsk-Dnieper river in the Ukraine. 6 tabs

  2. Rural-Urban Differences in Access to Preventive Health Care Among Publicly Insured Minnesotans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, John; Allen, Elizabeth M; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2018-02-01

    Reduced access to care and barriers have been shown in rural populations and in publicly insured populations. Barriers limiting health care access in publicly insured populations living in rural areas are not understood. This study investigates rural-urban differences in system-, provider-, and individual-level barriers and access to preventive care among adults and children enrolled in a public insurance program in Minnesota. This was a secondary analysis of a 2008 statewide, cross-sectional survey of publicly insured adults and children (n = 4,388) investigating barriers associated with low utilization of preventive care. Sampling was stratified with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities. Rural enrollees were more likely to report no past year preventive care compared to urban enrollees. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.00-1.88). Provider- and system-level barriers associated with low use of preventive care among rural enrollees included discrimination based on public insurance status (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.34-2.38), cost of care concerns (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89) and uncertainty about care being covered by insurance (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.85). These and additional provider-level barriers were also identified among urban enrollees. Discrimination, cost of care, and uncertainty about insurance coverage inhibit access in both the rural and urban samples. These barriers are worthy targets of interventions for publicly insured populations regardless of residence. Future studies should investigate additional factors associated with access disparities based on rural-urban residence. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  3. Commercial agriculture and territorial resistance: Analysis of urban-rural relations in the province of Azuay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Rebai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian province of Azuay, agro-ecology seems to signal towards the rebirth of family agriculture in a context of regional migration. Given changes in land usage and the improvement of peasant economies, we envisage a profound mutation in the rural landscape of Azuay. Notwithstanding, in lieu of a true model of territorial rural development, the term territorial resistance is used as weak regional commercial networks do not allow an adequate integration of a majority of peasants, evidencing the need for a more ambitious vision that takes into account the close ties between rural and urban areas, to assist the insertion of poor peasant farmers into commercial agriculture.

  4. Rural-urban variation in injury-related hospitalisation, health outcomes and treatment cost in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Lower, Tony

    2018-04-19

    To compare differences in injury characteristics, health outcomes and treatment costs between urban and rural residents who were hospitalised following an injury. A retrospective examination of injury-linked hospitalisation and mortality data in New South Wales from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2014. Urban (496 325) and rural (213 139) residents who were hospitalised following an injury. Demographic and injury characteristics, injury severity, hospital length of stay, 28-day hospital readmission, 90-day mortality and treatment cost. Rural residents had an increased likelihood of being hospitalised for injuries from motorcycles, vehicles, animate causes, venomous animals or plants and assault compared to urban residents. Rural residents were less likely to be readmitted to hospital within 28 days and had a lower length of stay and age-adjusted length of stay than urban residents. Injury-related hospitalisations for urban and rural residents cost $4.4 billion and $1.7 billion, respectively. Annually, acute injury treatment ($1.1 billion), rehabilitation ($130 million) and subacute non-acute patient care ($57 million) cost $1.3 billion ($990 million for urban and $384 million for rural residents) in New South Wales. Fall-related injuries and transport incidents were the costliest injury mechanisms for both urban and rural residents. Injuries contribute substantially to hospitalised morbidity and its cost. The development and implementation of injury prevention strategies targeting the most common injuries for urban and rural residents will go some way towards reducing hospitalised injury and its cost. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  5. The effects of siblings on the migration of women in two rural areas of Belgium and the Netherlands, 1829-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Hilde; Neven, Muriel

    2007-03-01

    This study explores the extent to which the presence and activities of siblings shaped the chances of women migrating to rural and urban areas in two rural areas of Belgium and the Netherlands during the second half of the nineteenth and first decades of the twentieth century. Shared-frailty Cox proportional hazard analyses of longitudinal data from historical population registers show that siblings exerted an additive impact on women's migration, independently of temporal and household characteristics. Just how siblings influenced women's migration depended on regional modes of production and on employment opportunities. In the Zeeland region, sisters channelled each other into service positions. In the Pays de Herve, where men and women found industrial work in the Walloon cities, women were as much influenced by their brothers' activities. Evidence is found for two mechanisms explaining the effects of siblings: micro-economic notions of joint-household decision-making and social capital theory.

  6. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  7. Infection prevention needs assessment in Colorado hospitals: rural and urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Sara M; Gilmartin, Heather; Rich, Karen L; Price, Connie S

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to conduct a needs assessment for infection prevention programs in both rural and urban hospitals in Colorado. Infection control professionals (ICPs) from Colorado hospitals participated in an online survey on training, personnel, and experience; ICP time allocation; and types of surveillance. Responses were evaluated and compared based on hospital status (rural or urban). Additionally, rural ICPs participated in an interview about resources and training. Surveys were received from 62 hospitals (77.5% response); 33 rural (75.0% response) and 29 urban (80.6% response). Fifty-two percent of rural ICPs reported multiple job responsibilities compared with 17.2% of urban ICPs. Median length of experience for rural ICPs was 4.0 years compared with 11.5 years for urban ICPs (P = .008). Fifty-one percent of rural ICPs reported no access to infectious disease physicians (0.0% urban) and 81.8% of rural hospitals reported no antimicrobial stewardship programs (31.0% urban). Through the interviews it was revealed that priorities for rural ICPs were training and communication. Our study revealed numerous differences between infection prevention programs in rural versus urban hospitals. An infection prevention outreach program established in Colorado could potentially address the challenges faced by rural hospital infection prevention departments. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Urban-Rural Humidity Contrasts in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, E.; Tejeda, A.

    1997-02-01

    Data from one pair of urban-suburban (Tacubaya and Airport) andone pair of urban-rural (School of Mines and Plan Texcoco) temperature and humidity measuring stations were used to illustrate specific humidity(q) contrasts in Mexico City. Results show a marked seasonal variation of q from around 7.9 g kg-1 during the dry months to 10 g kg-1 in the wet season (May-October) on both urban and suburban sites. The mean monthly contrasts for this pair of stations, albeit small, show that the city air is somewhat drier during the first half of the year. Comparison of urban and rural q on an hourly basis shows that although urban air is more humid at night the reverse is true during the afternoon. Areal distribution of q shows two centres of maximum humidity over the city at night and a corresponding minimum during the afternoon. On average the urban-rural contrasts in q were found to be somewhat smaller than the estimated uncertainty. The above results are in agreement with mid-latitude experience.

  9. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  10. Urban development and employment in Abidjan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H; Lubell, H; Mouly, J

    1975-04-01

    The city of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast has grown physically, economically, and demographically at rates exceeding all reasonable expectation. Yet, as in many other development nations, the employment generated by Abidjan's rapid economic expansion has failed to keep pace with the increase in working population it has attracted. Consequently, economic success has been accompanied by a variety of social strains. Some of these have been discussed in earlier issues of the "International Labour Review" by Louis Roussel. This discussion expands on Roussel's earlier treatment by focusing more specifically on several facets of the urban employment problem created by the rapid growth of Abidjan. Attention is directed to labor supply and employment, factors affecting migration, foreign Africans in the Ivory Coast labor force; the urban informal sector; urban infrastructure and development; social problems of population pressure; employment policy options (current government policies and other policy options); and general issues and policy alternatives (motivations for rural urban migration, smaller urban centers as alternative growth poles, and distributing the gains from development). Several essential features of the employment problem stem from the rural urban distribution of the workforce. The rural labor force, including temporary seasonal workers from the savannah countries to the north, remains more or less in balance with increasing rural employment opportunities, since the migration of Ivory Coast nationals to the cities is balanced by the inflow of foreign workers. In contrast, the influx of migrants into urban areas has led to a more rapid increase in the urban labor force than in urban employment, with a consequent rise in unemployment. In 1970 the Abidjan rate of open unemployment was probably around 20%. At this time, most people's idea of a desirable job is one in the formal sector of the urban economy. If there is to be any hope of an eventual balance between

  11. Rural versus urban academic hospital mortality following stroke in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Bussières, Sylvain; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France; Plant, Jeff; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick M; Dupuis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. While stroke care has improved dramatically over the last decade, outcomes following stroke among patients treated in rural hospitals have not yet been reported in Canada. To describe variation in 30-day post-stroke in-hospital mortality rates between rural and urban academic hospitals in Canada. We also examined 24/7 in-hospital access to CT scanners and selected services in rural hospitals. We included Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) data on adjusted 30-day in-hospital mortality following stroke from 2007 to 2011 for all acute care hospitals in Canada excluding Quebec and the Territories. We categorized rural hospitals as those located in rural small towns providing 24/7 emergency physician coverage with inpatient beds. Urban hospitals were academic centres designated as Level 1 or 2 trauma centres. We computed descriptive data on local access to a CT scanner and other services and compared mean 30-day adjusted post-stroke mortality rates for rural and urban hospitals to the overall Canadian rate. A total of 286 rural hospitals (3.4 million emergency department (ED) visits/year) and 24 urban hospitals (1.5 million ED visits/year) met inclusion criteria. From 2007 to 2011, 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke were significantly higher in rural than in urban hospitals and higher than the Canadian average for every year except 2008 (rural average range = 18.26 to 21.04 and urban average range = 14.11 to 16.78). Only 11% of rural hospitals had a CT-scanner, 1% had MRI, 21% had in-hospital ICU, 94% had laboratory and 92% had basic x-ray facilities. Rural hospitals in Canada had higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke than urban academic hospitals and the Canadian average. Rural hospitals also have very limited local access to CT scanners and ICUs. These rural/urban discrepancies are cause for concern in the context of Canada's universal health care system.

  12. Rural and urban transit district benchmarking : effectiveness and efficiency guidance document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rural and urban transit systems have sought ways to compare performance across agencies, : identifying successful service delivery strategies and applying these concepts to achieve : successful results within their agency. Benchmarking is a method us...

  13. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H

    1982-06-01

    The cross-sectional picture of urban and rural fertility which emerges from recently published Indonesian national level data from the 1976 Intercensal Survey are described. The data reveal only small differences in the average numbers of children ever born or children surviving of ever married women (or mothers) in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. In urban areas, ever married mothers had a standardized average of 3.4 children ever born, and in rural areas 3.3 These averages cannot reveal any differences in past and present childbearing levels. The fertility of urban women, as opposed to rural women, appeared more highly associated with indicators which tend to directly or indirectly depress the average number of children ever born: a higher age at 1st marriage; a higher level of "sterility;" a higher survival ratio of children born; and a higher level of educational attainment. At least some of these factors might be regarded as associated with modernizing trends in the urban areas: increased accessibility to educational facilities; the opening of female opportunities outside the home so that marriage occurs later in life; and a better health environment so that there is less pregnancy wastage and time spent in bearing children. These factors help to provide an incentive to women to limit their fertility; knowledge of contraception methods provides a means. The depressing factors most highly associated with average rural fertility do not appear associated with modernization but with traditional folk customs regarding acceptable behavior. The inflating effects of early marriage are offset by a greater prevalence of marital disruption. This may reflect a cultural acceptability. The reasons may include adolescent or true sterility leading to disunion, the outmigration of a partner, or some other form of disharmony. Female labor force participation is more prevalent in rural than urban areas. There are both traditional and modern aspects to be seen in its

  14. The socioeconomic gradient of secondhand smoke exposure in children: evidence from 26 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-12-01

    To provide the first analysis of socioeconomic inequalities in children's daily exposure to indoor smoking in households in 26 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used nationally representative household samples (n=369 654) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys between 2010 and 2014 to calculate daily exposure to secondhand smoke (ESHS) among children aged 0-5 years. The relative and absolute concentration (RC and AC) indices were used to quantify wealth-based inequalities in daily ESHS in each country and in urban and rural areas in each country. We decomposed total socioeconomic inequalities in ESHS into within-group and between-group (rural-urban) inequalities to identify the sources of wealth-based inequality in ESHS in LMICs. We observed substantial variation across countries in the prevalence of daily ESHS among children. Children's ESHS was higher in rural areas compared to urban areas in the majority of the countries. The RC and AC demonstrated that daily ESHS was concentrated among poorer children in almost all countries (RC, median=-0.179, IQR=0.186 and AC, median=-0.040, IQR=0.055). The concentration of ESHS among poorer children was greater in urban relative to rural areas. The decomposition of the overall socioeconomic inequality in daily ESHS revealed that wealth-based differences in ESHS within urban and rural areas were the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in most countries (median=46%, IQR=32%). Special attention should be given to reduce ESHS among children from rural and socioeconomically disadvantaged households as social inequalities in ESHS might contribute to social inequalities in health over the life course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Quality of life in patients with sickle cell disease in Jamaica: rural-urban differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Monika R; Reid, Marvin E; Ali, Susanna B; Lipps, Garth; Williams-Green, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) refers to people's ability to function in the ordinary tasks of living. It moves beyond direct manifestations of illness to the patient's personal morbidity. These assessments are an important aspect of chronic disease management. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic and potentially, quite a debilitating disease. The disease is severe and may result in significant morbidity, as well as a shortened life span. It is the most common genetic disorder seen in Jamaica and impacts on physical, psychological, social and occupational wellbeing. Jamaica is a developing country where support systems that exist for patients with SCD are sparse. Health related QOL has been shown to be poorer in people living in the rural areas as compared with urban populations. Utilization of comprehensive sickle cells disease services has also been shown to be lower for individuals with the disease living in rural areas than for those living in urban areas. As there are rural-urban differences in Jamaica's health services, it is hypothesized that there may be rural-urban differences in the experiences of the disease and the QOL of these patients in these subgroups. The SF 36 v2 (Short Form 36) questionnaire has been validated for use in the Jamaican SCD population. This validated questionnaire was interviewer-administered to 166 patients presenting to an urban clinic for routine health maintenance visits and to 90 patients presenting to the rural clinics for routine visits. Socio-demographic information was also collected on these two groups. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to study predictors of QOL in these two sub-populations. The study received ethical approval from the University of the West Indies/University Hospital of the West Indies Ethics Committee. There were no significant differences in the measured socio-demographic characteristics of the rural and urban patients. Living in rural areas compared with urban areas (p <0.001), being

  16. Migration from the CIS Countries to Amur Oblast in the Context of the Synthetic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Nikolaevna Zhuravskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers international migration from the CIS countries to the Amur region in 2010- 2014 in the context of the synthetic theory of international migration by D. Massey. It is shown that separate economic theories of migration cannot explain the CIS migrants’ choice of the Amur region as a destination. In particular, socio-economic indicators characterize the region as unattractive both for permanent (high mortality, low life expectancy, relatively low standard of living and labor (low GRP, specialization in primary industries, high transport costs and pay for a patent migration. The attractiveness factors of the region fit the theory of a dual labor market: the Amur region has higher wages than the countries of origin and the growing shortage of personnel. However, it is also insufficient to explain increasing migration flows from the CIS countries, which were identified on the basis of statistical data of the Federal Migration Service of the Amur region. Based on the analysis of qualitative data the author reveals the motives (economic, educational, cultural, forced, non-self-moving and channels (social networks, intermediaries, enterprises, government programs of migration. In general, the motivation and channels of migration in the case of the Amur region look quite traditional within the framework of economic theories. However, only a comprehensive consideration of all the issues allows determining regional specificity and answering the question about the destination choice. Sources of empirical data include following: series of keynote expert and biographical interviews carried out in 2014-2015, official statistical data of FSSS and FMS, as well as data from Amurstat, the FMS of the Amur region and the insurance company ‘Kolymskaya’

  17. Parental encouragement of initiative-taking and adjustment in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  19. Application of Greenhouse Gas Inventory to Urban Rural Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; C.; T.; YIP

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse Gas (GHG) inventory analysis provides crucial scientific basis to support the preparation of urban-rural planning policies on managing climate change. This article reviews current studies on GHG inventory in China and points out the short fall in translating these inventory data into specific local policies. It examines the issue of setting up the GHG inventory based on the statutory urban-rural planning systems in China. It enables the local government to set up a platform coordinating various city policies and to serve well as the platform for local emission mitigation and removal policies. The urban-rural planning GHG inventory system needs to address the issue of spatial boundary in accounting for local emission sources and origins with respect to the boundaries of planning area, and it must directly relate to the various statutory master plan policy contents and the local municipal government functional structure. Finally it presents a case study of applying the proposed inventory as a planning tool for Jiangyin at the Jiangsu Province.

  20. Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg

    2018-03-01

    Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rural-urban differences in cooking practices and exposures in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, Christine; Dickinson, Katherine; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Kanyomse, Ernest; Coffey, Evan; Hannigan, Michael; Alirigia, Rex; Oduro, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    Key differences between urban and rural populations can influence the adoption and impacts of new cooking technologies and fuels. We examine these differences among urban and rural households that are part of the REACCTING study in Northern Ghana. While urban and rural populations in the study area all use multiple stoves, the types of stoves and fuels differ, with urban participants more likely to use charcoal and LPG while rural households rely primarily on wood. Further, rural and urban households tend to use different stoves/fuels to cook the same dishes—for example, the staple porridge Tuo Zaafi (TZ) is primarily cooked over wood fires in rural areas and charcoal stoves in urban settings. This suggests that fuel availability and ability to purchase fuel may be a stronger predictor of fuel choice than cultural preferences alone. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants also differ in these two types of areas, with urban areas having pollutant hot spots to which residents can be exposed and rural areas having more homogeneous and lower pollutant concentrations. Further, exposures to carbon monoxide and particulate matter differ in magnitude and in timing between urban and rural study participants, suggesting different behaviors and sources of exposures. The results from this analysis highlight important disparities between urban and rural populations of a single region and imply that such a characterization is needed to successfully implement and assess the impacts of household energy interventions.

  2. Migration, settlement change and health in post-apartheid South Africa: Triangulating health and demographic surveillance with national census data1

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLINSON, MARK A.; TOLLMAN, STEPHEN M.; KAHN, KATHLEEN

    2010-01-01

    Background World population growth will be increasingly concentrated in the urban areas of the developing world; however, some scholars caution against the oversimplification of African urbanization noting that there may be “counter-urbanization” and a prevailing pattern of circular rural–urban migration. The aim of the paper is to examine the ongoing urban transition in South Africa in the post-apartheid period, and to consider the health and social policy implications of prevailing migration patterns. Methods Two data sets were analysed, namely the South African national census of 2001 and the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system. A settlement-type transition matrix was constructed on the national data to show how patterns of settlement have changed in a five-year period. Using the sub-district data, permanent and temporary migration was characterized, providing migration rates by age and sex, and showing the distribution of origins and destinations. Findings The comparison of national and sub-district data highlight the following features: urban population growth, particularly in metropolitan areas, resulting from permanent and temporary migration; prevailing patterns of temporary, circular migration, and a changing gender balance in this form of migration; stepwise urbanization; and return migration from urban to rural areas. Conclusions Policy concerns include: rural poverty exacerbated by labour migration; explosive conditions for the transmission of HIV; labour migrants returning to die in rural areas; and the challenges for health information created by chronically ill migrants returning to rural areas to convalesce. Lastly, suggestions are made on how to address the dearth of relevant population information for policy-making in the fields of migration, settlement change and health. PMID:17676507

  3. Extent of telehealth use in rural and urban hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marcia M; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Key Findings. Data from 4,727 hospitals in the 2013 HIMSS Analytics database yielded these findings: (1) Two-thirds (66.0% of rural defined as nonmetropolitan and 68.0% of urban) had no telehealth services or were only in the process of implementing a telehealth application. One-third (34.0%rural and 32.0% urban) had at least one telehealth application currently in use. (2) Among hospitals with "live and operational" telehealth services, 61.4% indicated only a single department/program with an operational telehealth service, and 38.6% indicated two or more departments/programs with operational telehealth services. Rural hospitals were significantly less likely to have multiple services (35.2%) than were urban hospitals (42.1%) (3) Hospitals that were more likely to have implemented at least one telehealth service were academic medical centers, not-for-profit institutions, hospitals belonging to integrated delivery systems, and larger institutions (in terms of FTEs but not licensed beds). Rural and urban hospitals did not differ significantly in overall telehealth implementation rates. (4) Urban and rural hospitals did differ in the department where telehealth was implemented. Urban hospitals were more likely than rural hospitals to have operational telehealth implementations in cardiology/stroke/heart attack programs (7.4% vs. 6.2%), neurology (4.4% vs. 2.1%), and obstetrics/gynecology/NICU/pediatrics (3.8% vs. 2.5%). In contrast, rural hospitals were more likely than urban hospital to have operatio