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Sample records for rural west bengal

  1. Determinants of Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship of Farmers in West Bengal : A Structural Equations Approach

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    Folmer, Henk; Dutta, Subrata; Oud, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  2. Determinants of rural industrial entrepreneurship of farmers in West Bengal: A structural equations approach

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    Folmer, H.; Dutta, S.; Oud, J.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  3. Level of Rural Development in Burdwan and Murshidabad Districts, West Bengal: A Comparative Study

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    Syfujjaman Tarafder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this research is to examine the level of attainment of rural development in the two districts—Burdwan and Murshidabad. The reasons for selecting these two districts stems from the fact that majority of the population of these two districts dwell in rural areas. The concept of rural development is comprehensive. It includes economic development of rural people through the development of productive sectors and employment associated with rural infrastructural development as well human development. Therefore, rural development includes in its domain all the aspects of human development of the rural people. The present Central as well as State Governments have undertaken different policies and plans to bring about positive changes amidst the rural people. In most cases, however, the policies and plans fail to achieve the desired level of changes in the rural areas (Desai, 1991. Although in fewer isolated cases, some success has been achieved, but overall development remains to be reached. This research, based mainly on secondary data aims to investigate the scale of progress in the two districts —Burdwan and Murshidabad of West Bengal, India, in the areas embracing social correlates of rural poverty, basic infrastructure facilities, standard of living and quality of life. The data are analysed with the help of statistical and cartographical analysis.

  4. Probable psychiatric disorder in a rural community of West Bengal, India.

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    Barik, Anamitra; Sarkhel, Sujit; Basu, Saugata; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    India faces multiple challenges to mitigate a high burden of psychiatric disorders. The risk of developing psychiatric disorder among the rural Indian population is poorly investigated. This study aims to understand the factors associated with probable psychiatric disorder (PPD) among a select rural Indian population. Data from the Birbhum population project of the society for health and demographic surveillance, West Bengal, India, were utilized. Cross-sectional data covering a sample of 31,135 respondents (male 15,384 and female 15,751) aged ≥ 16 years were used. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered and the responses were computed into three categories: psychological case, psychological caseness, and normal. Bivariate and multivariate ordered logit regression analyses were applied to attain the study objective. Of the total population, 26% of respondents were identified with PPD. People aged ≥ 60 years, females, divorced/separated/widowed individuals, the unemployed and people with no formal education, individuals from the poorest economic group, and people with a history of selling or mortgaging assets towards their healthcare expenditure had a higher prevalence of psychiatric case within their respective group. A high burden of PPD was estimated in the select rural community. While designing an intervention for measuring and addressing psychiatric disorders, the socioeconomic gradient of PPD could be helpful.

  5. Impact of religious faith & female literacy on fertility in a rural community of west Bengal

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    Mandal N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Role of different social factors on fertility control is evident from different studies. What is the impact of religious faith and female literacy on fertility? Objectives : To study the role of religious faith and female literacy on fertility regulation in a rural community of West Bengal. Methods : Cross Sectional Study at rural field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, NRS Medical College, Kolkata, based on interview of married women in reproductive age group. A total of 671 filled in schedules were analyzed by Epi info package. Results : Average number of pregnancies ever occurred among Muslim mothers (2.8 were higher in comparison with Hindu mothers (1.68. Regarding current fertility, live births in last 2 yrs was more among Muslim mothers (25.2% as compared with their counterparts among Hindu community (12.4%. In both the cases differences were found to be statistically significant. Female literacy was found to have no impact on fertility as a whole, but while stratified, its positive role was evident among Hindu mothers but not among Muslim mothers. Conclusions : Factors, which have made differences in fertility between two religious groups, should be properly assessed and duly addressed for better fertility control in the community.

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering among rural adult population in West Bengal, India.

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    Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering in a rural adult population of West Bengal, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 1007 participants (645 males and 362 females) aged ≥20 years in a rural community. All participants were grouped: Group I (20-39 years); Group II (40-59 years); Group III (≥60 years). Anthropometric measures were collected using standard techniques. Metabolic profiles and blood pressure were also measured. Mean of minimum waist circumference (MWC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), trunk-extremity ratio (TER), fat free mass (FFM), basal metabolic rate (BMR), intra-abdominal visceral fat (IVF) and arm muscle area (AMA) was found to be higher among males in comparison to females, whereas, the mean of body mass index (BMI), maximum hip circumference (MHC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), sum of four skinfolds (∑SF4), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), insulin, HOMA-IR and arm fat area (AFA) was higher in females. 37% of individuals (males 25% and females 49%) with high triglyceride (TG) also had low high density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas, 25% individuals (males 25% and females 24%) with overweight also had high fasting blood glucose (FBG). The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) among individuals having high %BF was higher in the age groups of 40-59 years for both sexes. The study showed that prevalence of CVD risk factor clustering is high in the study population and warranted early intervention to safeguard the cardiovascular health of the nation. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unsafe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Community-based Study in a Rural Block in West Bengal, India

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    Preeti PS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal. Methods Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Results The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal. Conclusions This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.

  8. Three Years’ Experience of Management of Different Types of Rhinosporidiosis in Rural Part of Western West Bengal

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    Debdulal Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of different types of rhinosporidiosis is very high in the rural western part of West Bengal.  The treatment of choice is surgical excision and cauterization of the base. The recurrence rate is very high. Aims and objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the distribution of rhinosporidiosis according to age, sex, presenting features, site of origin, recurrence rate and compare them with literature; and describe the surgical technique to reduce recurrence of the disease. Materials and methods: This prospective case study was done in the department of Otorhinolaryngology in a tertiary care hospital in the western part of West Bengal from April 2012 to March 2015. Wide local excision of rhinosporidiosis along with electrocautery of the base was done. We took the help of endoscope and microscope whenever needed. Regular follow up with endoscope was done in postoperative period. Results: Out of total 112 patients 62 were male and 50 were female. Commonest age group affected was 2nd decade. There was no recurrence in patients undergoing operation for the first time. Recurrence was noted in nasopharynx of 3 patients undergoing revision surgery. Conclusion: Complete removal of rhinosporidiosis from the base is the basic criterion to reduce recurrence. It is possible by using meticulous technique along with the guidance of endoscope or microscope whenever needed. Regular postoperative follow up with endoscope is must to detect and treat early recurrence.

  9. Tobacco abuse among school going adolescents in a rural area of West Bengal, India.

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    Mukherjee, Anindya; Sinha, Abhik; Taraphdar, Pranita; Basu, Gandhari; Chakrabarty, Debadatta

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry with all consequences of usage. Studies reveal that tobacco abuse is rising in this age group in India. A cross sectional survey was carried out in two coeducational high schools of Anandanagar village of Singur block, Hooghly district, West Bengal among 276 students of VIII-IX standard to study the knowledge and abuse of tobacco and to find out influencing socio-demographic factors. Knowledge score was higher in females, students from nuclear families, and those with literate parents. Low prevalence of tobacco intake was obtained among the students, with 9.8% reported having ever used smokeless tobacco and 4.3% ever smoked. Tobacco intake was higher among those with a history of parental tobacco intake. Continued information education and communication (IEC) activities should be conducted by the school authorities, with involvement of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and parents for primary prevention.

  10. Quality of life among menopausal women: A community-based study in a rural area of West Bengal.

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    Karmakar, Nabarun; Majumdar, Somak; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Das, Sulagna

    2017-01-01

    During menopausal transition, there is a lot of fluctuation in the hormone levels making the peri and postmenopausal women susceptible to various mental and physical disorders. There is considerably lack of awareness about the effects of the menopausal symptoms in women in India. Studies on issues relating to menopause, especially among rural women, are also lacking. With this background, the current study was carried out in a rural area of West Bengal with the objective to assess the quality of life (QOL) of peri-menopausal women. The study was carried out among 100 peri and postmenopausal women (40-60 years) in Dearah village of West Bengal which is the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health during February-March 2014. The questionnaire used as study tool had two parts - Part 1: Sociodemographic characteristics. Part 2: About QOL due to menopausal symptoms based on four domains (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual) using the 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Occurrence of vasomotor symptoms was average with 60% of them reporting hot flushes and 47% sweating. Most prevalent psychosocial symptoms reported were feeling of anxiety and nervousness (94%) and overall depression (88%). Physical symptoms were quite varying in occurrence with some symptoms such as feeling tired or worn out, decrease in physical strength and lack of energy occurring in 93% of the women to only 5% suffering from growth of facial hair. Overall sexual changes were reported among 49% who reported of avoiding intimacy with a partner and 26% complained of vaginal dryness. The results support that menopause causes both physical and psychiatric problems. Education, creating awareness and providing suitable intervention to improve their QOL are important which should be imparted to menopausal women at both individual and community level.

  11. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  12. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

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    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  13. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathy, ABO and rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India

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    Bikash Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It could be formed a fatal scenario in concern of lacking of actual information. Beside this, ABO and Rh blood grouping are also important matter in transfusion and forensic medicine and to reduce new born hemolytic disease (NHD. Materials and Methods: The spectrum and prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies, ABO and rhesus (Rh blood groups was screened among patients who visited B.S. Medical College and Hospital, Bankura, West Bengal, India. This study was carried out on 958 patients of different ages ranging from child to adults from January to June 2011. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, complete blood count (CBC and hemagglutination technique were performed for the assessment of abnormal hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups, respectively. Results: Results from this study had been shown that there was high prevalence of hemoglobinpathies (27.35% where β-thalassemia in heterozygous state occurred more frequent than other hemoglobinopathies. Out of 958 patients, 72.65% were HbAA and 27.35% were hemoglobinopathies individuals where 17.64% β-thalassemia heterozygous, 2.92% β-thalassemia homozygous, 3.86% HbAE, 1.15% HbAS trait, 1.25% HbE-β thalassemia trait and 0.52% HbS-β thalassemia trait were found. No incidence of HbSS, HbSC, HbCC, HbD and other variants of hemoglobinpathies were observed. The gene frequencies with respect to ABO systems had been shown as O > B > A > AB. Blood group O was the highest (35.8% and the least percentage distribution was blood group AB (6.68%. Rhesus positive (Rh+ were 97.7%, while the remaining was 2.3% Rhesus negative (Rh-. The frequencies of A + , B + , AB +, and O + blood groups were 22.44%, 33.61%, 6.58%, and 35.07%, respectively. Conclusions: Remarkable percentages of hemoglobinopathies were prevalent from the present study. An extensive screening of the population is needed to assess the

  14. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathy, ABO and rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India.

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    Mondal, Bikash; Maiti, Soumyajit; Biswas, Biplab Kumar; Ghosh, Debidas; Paul, Shyamapada

    2012-08-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It could be formed a fatal scenario in concern of lacking of actual information. Beside this, ABO and Rh blood grouping are also important matter in transfusion and forensic medicine and to reduce new born hemolytic disease (NHD). The spectrum and prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies, ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups was screened among patients who visited B.S. Medical College and Hospital, Bankura, West Bengal, India. This study was carried out on 958 patients of different ages ranging from child to adults from January to June 2011. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), complete blood count (CBC) and hemagglutination technique were performed for the assessment of abnormal hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups, respectively. Results from this study had been shown that there was high prevalence of hemoglobinpathies (27.35%) where β-thalassemia in heterozygous state occurred more frequent than other hemoglobinopathies. Out of 958 patients, 72.65% were HbAA and 27.35% were hemoglobinopathies individuals where 17.64% β-thalassemia heterozygous, 2.92% β-thalassemia homozygous, 3.86% HbAE, 1.15% HbAS trait, 1.25% HbE-β thalassemia trait and 0.52% HbS-β thalassemia trait were found. No incidence of HbSS, HbSC, HbCC, HbD and other variants of hemoglobinpathies were observed. The gene frequencies with respect to ABO systems had been shown as O > B > A > AB. Blood group O was the highest (35.8%) and the least percentage distribution was blood group AB (6.68%). Rhesus positive (Rh+) were 97.7%, while the remaining was 2.3% Rhesus negative (Rh-). The frequencies of A(+), B(+), AB(+,) and O(+) blood groups were 22.44%, 33.61%, 6.58%, and 35.07%, respectively. Remarkable percentages of hemoglobinopathies were prevalent from the present study. An extensive screening of the population is needed to assess the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, which will help in identification of

  15. Determinants of the use of alternatives to arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater: an exploratory study in rural West Bengal, India.

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    Delaire, Caroline; Das, Abhijit; Amrose, Susan; Gadgil, Ashok; Roy, Joyashree; Ray, Isha

    2017-10-01

    Shallow groundwater containing toxic concentrations of arsenic is the primary source of drinking water for millions of households in rural West Bengal, India. Often, this water also contains unpleasant levels of iron and non-negligible fecal contamination. Alternatives to shallow groundwater are increasingly available, including government-built deep tubewells, water purchased from independent providers, municipal piped water, and household filters. We conducted a survey of 501 households in Murshidabad district in 2014 to explore what influenced the use of available alternatives. Socioeconomic status and the perceived likelihood of gastrointestinal (GI) illness (which was associated with dissatisfaction with iron in groundwater) were the primary determinants of the use of alternatives. Arsenic knowledge was limited. The choice amongst alternatives was influenced by economic, social, and aesthetic factors, but not by health risk perceptions. The use of purchased water was rarely exclusive and was strongly associated with socioeconomic status, suggesting that this form of market-based water provision does not ensure universal access. Demand for purchased water appeared to decrease significantly shortly after free piped water became available at public taps. Our results suggest that arsenic mitigation interventions that also address co-occurring water problems (iron, GI illness) could be more effective than a focus on arsenic alone.

  16. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

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    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  17. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

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    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  18. Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship - The Case of Bardhaman District in West Bengal

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    Dutta, S.

    2004-01-01

    For a living, most of the rural people in developing countries are primarily dependent on agriculture. If the farmers, who have investible surplus generated from agriculture, are interested in non-farm entrepreneurship then rural economy can find an industrial route of development. With this

  19. Cardiometabolic risk factors and TV watching in a rural community in West Bengal, India.

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    Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    No study has been undertaken among rural adult population of India to investigate the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with TV watching. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 1007 participants (645 males and 362 females) aged 20-80 years from a rural community. Anthropometric measures were collected using standard techniques. HOMA-IR was calculated accordingly. The significant higher value for MWC, WHtR, TER, SF4, BMI, %BF, FM, VFL, IVF, TC, LDL and FBG was observed with increasing duration of TV watching. No significant change was observed for TG, HDL, VLDL, DBP and MAP. Chi-square revealed significant difference for central obesity between male and females across TV watching category. The higher metabolic syndrome phenotypes were prevalent among both sexes with increasing duration of TV watching. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses (stepwise) revealed that occupation, monthly income, duration of TV watching in a day, education and monthly expenditure cumulatively explained ∼19% (R(2)=0.191) of the total variance of % body fat in the study. It seems rational to argue that lengthy TV watching time might have detrimental effect on CVD health. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on psychological assessment of adolescent girls in rural schools of West Bengal

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    Nirmalya Manna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the adolescent population constitutes one-sixth of the total global population, their physical and mental health have become a serious concern. Depression is becoming the most common mental health problem. According to the WHO, depression is projected to become the second leading cause of disability after heart disease. Anxiety and its manifestations are influenced by cultural beliefs, practices and associated with substantial negative effects on children’s social, emotional and academic success. Specific effects include poor social and coping skills, loneliness, low self-esteem, and difficulty forming friendships. The objectives of the present study were to assess the psychological health profile of students using DASS21 Scale. This cross-sectional study was done among 435 rural school students selected by random sampling. Statistically significant association of depression with absence of sibling, self-reported scholastic performance, and relationship with parents and peers were found.

  1. A study on psychological assessment of adolescent girls in rural schools of West Bengal

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    Nirmalya Manna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the adolescent population constitutes oneHsixth of the total global population, their physical and mental health have become a serious concern. Depression is becoming the most common mental health problem. According to the WHO, depression is projected to become the second leading cause of disability after heart disease. Anxiety and its manifestations are influenced by cultural beliefs, practices and associated with substantial negative effects on children’s social, emotional and academic success. Specific effects include poor social and coping skills, loneliness, low selfHesteem, and difficulty forming friendships. The objectives of the present study were to assess the psychological health profile of students using DASS21 Scale. This cross sectional study was done among 435 rural school students selected by random sampling. Statistically significant association of depression with absence of sibling, self Hreported scholastic performance, relationship with parents and peers were found.

  2. Adoption Of Small Family Norms In A Rural Community Of West Bengal

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    Biswas A.K

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: 1. To what extent do rural eligible couples accept the small family norm? 2. What are the factors which influence the adoption of small family norm by these couples? Objectives: 1. To determine the extent of adoption of small norm among family planning service acceptors (2 To identify factors influencing adoption of small family norm. Study Design: Cross sectional Study Setting: 2 villages- a PHC village and one 5 kms away of Block Sonarpur. Participants: 312 eligible couples of these villages. Study Variables: Socio â€" economics status, literacy of the wives, type of family, religion, number of children, type of family planning method. Outcome Variables: Prevalence of contraceptive method use, reasons for not using family planning methods. Statistical Analysis: Proportions Results : The prevalence of contraceptive use was 44.9% but the Effective Couple Protection Rate was only 20.5% and the Crude Birth Rate was still high (35/1000. This was because 40% of the couples had more then 2 children and of them 38% were still exposed to the risk of conception. Muslim couples had a lower contraceptive acceptance rate than Hindu couples. The more literate the wife, the greater the acceptance of the small family norm. Male preference pressure from elders and fear about contraception were the main reasons for non acceptance of family planning methods: The health teams were the main source of information to these couples. Recommendations: There is an urgent need to increase the emphasis on the 2 child family norm. The IEC activities of the health team should be strengthened.

  3. Effectiveness of training on infant feeding practices among community influencers in a rural area of west Bengal.

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    Haldar, A; Ray, S; Biswas, R; Biswas, B; Mukherjee, D

    2001-01-01

    Total 34 Influencers were trained in a subcentre area of South 24-parganas district of West Bengal. Knowledge was imparted to community influencers on infant feeding practices through lecture, group discussion, question-answer session and hand-on-training by trained health workers. Pre-assessment was done before initiation of training. Repeat training was conducted at frequent intervals within a period of 3 months. Mean score of knowledge of influencers during pre-training assessment was 13.3 and improved thereafter-following training to 20.8 (1st assessment), 20.6 (2nd assessment), 23.7 (3rd assessment) and 25.2 (final-assessment). Repeat training had also desired impact.

  4. Magnitude, types and sex differentials of aggressive behaviour among school children in a rural area of West Bengal

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    Debashis Dutt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development, can damage school climate and if not controlled early and may precipitate extreme violence in the future. Objective s : (1 To determine the magnitude and types of aggressive behavior in school children. (2 To identify the influence of age and sex on aggressive behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anandanagar High School, Singur village, West Bengal. Participants were 161 boys and 177 girls of classes VII to IX. The students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behavior by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to statements indicating verbal/physical aggression. Results: Overall, 66.5% of the children were physically aggressive in the previous month: Boys 75.8%, girls 58.2% ( P = 0.001; 56.8% were verbally aggressive: Boys 55.2%, girls 61% ( P = 0.97. Verbal indirect passive aggression was more common among girls (55.3% than among boys (22.3% ( P = 0.000 [1.17E-09 ]. Boys were more liable to physical aggression, viz. 60.2% of the boys would hit on provocation compared with only 9% of the girls ( P = 0.000 [6.6E -23 ]. Regarding attributes indicating verbal aggression, girls were more argumentative (63.8% than boys (55.2% ( P = 0.134 and disagreeing (41.8% compared with boys (33.5% ( P = 0.145. With increasing age/class, physical direct active aggression decreased while physical indirect passive and verbal indirect passive aggression increased. No classes had been taken on anger control/management by school the authorities. Conclusions: Aggressive behavior was common both among boys and girls. Life skills education/counseling/classroom management strategies are recommended.

  5. A study on domestic violence against adult and adolescent females in a rural area of West Bengal

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    Sarkar Madhutandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, domestic violence against females is common across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. There are various reasons for domestic violence and it might have serious health outcomes. Objectives: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, characteristics, reasons and the socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence, if any, and to find out the perceptions of the females to cope with the act of violence and to overcome the situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken by interviewing 141 adult and adolescent females residing in a village of West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance (Chi-square test. Results: Out of 141 respondents, 33 (23.4% adult and adolescent females in this village were exposed to domestic violence in the past year. Among the demographic characteristics, statistically significant maximum prevalence was observed among 30-39 years age group, illiterate and unmarried females. For most of the females who were exposed to domestic violence, their husbands acted as the perpetrators (72.73% and they reported slapping as the specific act of physical assault (72.73%. Majority of the respondents reported that opportunity of education (31.9%, being economically productive (31.9% and better family income (23.4% would help them to overcome the situation. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for justified female empowerment and this calls for multidisciplinary approach to develop public health measures, which would most effectively address the problem of domestic violence.

  6. The prevalence and characterization of β-thalassemia trait by using high-performance liquid chromatography among the rural population in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman K. Maji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies, common genetic disorders of hemoglobin, can be prevented by population screening and genetic counseling. Identification of these disorders is immensely important epidemiologically and aid in prevention of more serious hemoglobin disorders. Thalassemia is the commonest monogenic disorder in India, which belongs to the thalassemia belt of the world. The present study was undertaken to find out the characteristics of β-thalassemia trait and spectrum of this disorder among the rural population, screened under the hospital-based screening program in West Bengal, a state in eastern part of India. This study was carried out in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of five southern districts of this state. Blood samples were tested by high-performance liquid chromatography. Total 1429 β-thalassemia traits were detected by random screening from this population. The mean value of HbA2 of the study population, having β-thalassemia trait is 4.9%. The prevalence (10.5% of β-thalassemia trait in West Bengal is higher than other parts of the country. These data are likely to help us in future planning for screening programmes in rural areas of West Bengal, India.  血红蛋白病——常见的血红蛋白遗传疾病,是可以通过人口筛查和遗传咨询的方法来预防的。鉴定此种疾病,对于其传播性及预防其导致的更加严重的血红蛋白疾患有非常重大的意义。印度所处世界地中海贫血带,地中海贫血在印度是最常见的单基因疾病。本研究的目的是通过医院筛查程序来研究印度西孟买邦农村人口有关β-地中海贫血症频谱和特征。该研究在印度南部的五个农村地区进行,研究对象是接受过相关咨询后的在校生,大学生,新婚夫妇和孕妇。血液样本通过高效液相色谱法检测。总计1429例带有β-地中海贫血症特质的

  7. The rearing system of Black Bengal Goat and their farmers in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Bera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bengal Goat is a precious germplasm of West Bengal. Mostly the women (91.3% of the farming families in West Bengal rear goat. Goat rearing is a subsidiary income source to rural poor along with agriculture. In majority of cases the flock size ranges from 1 to 4 (56%. Male female ratio in adult flock is observed as 1:8 in field condition. The animals are mostly housed along with residential housing (67.1%; houses are mostly kachha type (82.63% with earthen floor (86.47% and straw roof (91.33%. All most all the farmers used to graze their goats for feeding. Ponds water is the major source for drinking water (58.14% of goats. Black Bengal Goats have natural resistant power to many diseases but are vulnerable to cold, water logging situation, diarrhoea, ecto and entro parasitic infestation and respiratory diseases. Under field condition mortality rate is 9.63%. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 254-257

  8. Drug utilization study from a government sponsored pharmacy in a tertiary care teaching hospital of rural West Bengal: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tanmoy Gangopadhyay; Ananya Mandal; Sonai Mandal; Bishan Basu; Tamoghna Maiti; Abhijit Das; Soumitra Mandal; Sekhar Mandal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Newly started government sponsored pharmacies providing discounts have been available to the public at the medical college hospitals in West Bengal. Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the drug prescribing trends from the prescriptions at such a pharmacy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The study was a prospective cross-sectional study that spanned for a period of 1-month from 1 to 31 August 2015. Prescriptions were reviewed and analyzed using the World Health Org...

  9. Groundwater System of Sundarbans (Basanti), West Bengal, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopmann, Moritz; Binning, Philip John; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    In Basanti, a rural block in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, the water availability is vital for its inhabitants. Groundwater levels are decreasing, and a proper understanding of key factors influencing the water resource is required. In the following, a social review of Basanti is given followed...... by a geologic and hydrostratigraphic analysis. The main hydrologic flows, a water balance, and the trend of salinity in the groundwater are presented. Finally, available long- and short-term drawdown data of South 24 Parganas and Basanti to determine groundwater level and annual recharge trends. The assessment...

  10. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  11. Nursing Personnel Planning for Rural Hospitals in Burdwan District, West Bengal, India, Using Workload Indicators of Staffing Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rabindra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Das; Misra, Raghu Nath; Roy, Sima; Saha, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lack of appropriate human resources planning is an important factor in the inefficient use of the public health facilities. Workforce projections can be improved by using objective methods of staffing needs based on the workload and actual work undertaken by workers, a guideline developed by Peter J. Shipp in collaboration with WHO—Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN). A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the nursing stuff requirement for the rural hospitals and provide a quantitative description of imbalances, if there is any, in the allocation at the district level during 2011. The average WISN turns out to be 0.35 for entire district, which means only 35% of the required nurses is available or 65% understaffed. So, there is an urgent need for more allocations and deployment of staff so that workload can be tackled and evenly distributed among all nursing personnel. PMID:25895199

  12. MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE SOLAR UV-B RADIATION AT TROPICAL COASTAL STATION BAKKHALI IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    R. BHATTACHARYA; A. BHOUMICK

    2012-01-01

    Surface solar ultraviolet irradiance has been measured at Bakkhali (21.8ºN, 87.8ºE), a tropical rural station on the coast of Bay of Bengal, India in West Bengal. The measurements show a remarkable variation in UV-B load exists with a peak value at noon. The blockage of direct UV radiation in mangrove forest of costal site appears low when compared with UV load beneath the multiple trees of Mangifera indica in an inland site of Kalyani (22058' N, 88028' E), West Bengal. Mangrove forests have ...

  13. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  14. Indoor gamma radiation dose levels in West Bengal using passive dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.G.; Sahu, S.K.; Swarnkar, M.; Takale, R.A.; Pandit, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    Geography of West Bengal, a state in eastern India, is diverse, of high peaks of Himalaya in the northern extremes to coastal regions down south, with regions such as plateau and Ganges delta intervening in between. West Bengal is only state in India where Himalayas are in the north and Sea is at the south, with both plains and plateaus covering the remaining region. West Bengal is divided into three main divisions known as the Jalpaiguri division, Burdwan division and the Presidency division. It shows the district map of West Bengal. The result of preliminary indoor gamma radiation monitoring carried out in different districts of West Bengal is given in this paper

  15. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans...

  16. The Significance Of Experience Of West Bengal For Poverty Alleviation In Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Nemova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes socio-economic problems and ways of eliminating poverty in Bangladesh. The focal point of the research is poverty among rural population which is the most vulnerable one. The author’s assumption is that the main reason for rural poverty is historical inequality of land property distribution in Bangladesh. The existing measures of poverty alleviation in Bangladesh (micro crediting among others have made the country a role model for development. However, due to the limited potential of micro crediting a broader program of socio-economic reforms is required for any country striving to provide inclusive development. Using comparative-historical method the article compares the experience of Bangladesh and Indian state of West Bengal in implementing agricultural reforms aimed at improving life of the poor. West Bengal under the CPM rule is considered as a state with strong government whereas Bangladesh is considered as a state with weak government but rather strong non-governmental actors (NGOs. The article makes a conclusion that a weak institutional power of Bangladesh is one of the main reasons why agricultural reforms have not been adopted in this country and that poverty elimination there requires structural reforms to redistribute land property and to guarantee rural population legal and economic equality.

  17. Validity of mid arm circumference to detect protein energy malnutrition among 8-11 months old infants in a rural medical college of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Sanjoy Kr; Chatterjee, Chitra; Shrivastava, Prabha; Sardar, Jadav Chandra; Joardar, Gautam Kr; Lahiri, Saibendu

    2010-09-01

    This institution-based cross-sectional observational validation study was conducted in the immunisation clinic of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, Sushrutanagar. The objective was to identify the validity characteristics of mid arm circumference to detect protein energy malnutrition among 8-11 months infants and to find out a suitable cut-off value if any. Study variables were age, sex, body weight and mid arm circumference. Mid arm circumference was validated against weight for age criteria (gold standard) of malnutrition. The mean mid arm circumference of the infants was found to be almost constant with only about 2.22% change over 4 months, signifying that single cut-off point can be used to detect protein energy malnutrition. Mid arm circumference values from 13.0 to 12.5 cm were found to have the highest accuracy to detect protein energy malnutrition (about 86%). The cut-off values of 12.5 and 12.6 cm were noted to have a sensitivity and specificity of about 52% and 96% respectively, a false negativity of 48% but a false positivity of only 4%. Receiver operating characteristics curve detected 12.5(12.6) cm as the best diagnostic cut-off point which can detect more than 50% of the malnourished babies with very little false positivity/misdiagnosis (only 4%). A simple measuring tape with some reorientation of the health workers can detect the beginning of childhood malnutrition.

  18. A study on health risk behavior of mid-adolescent school students in a rural and an urban area of West Bengal, India

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    Nivedita Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: High-risk behaviors can have adverse effects on health of adolescents. It is essential to identify risks so that modification can be initiated before any damage. The present study was conducted among adolescents to study their risk behaviors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study based on the concept of Global School-based Student Health Survey was conducted by interviewing adolescents of one urban and one rural randomly selected school. For quick overall assessment of their risk behaviors, a predesigned three-point scoring system was followed. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Results: The study of six domains of important risk behaviors among 788 school-going adolescents (rural: 436 [55.3%], urban: 352 [44.7%], (male: 406 [51.5%], female: 382 [48.5%] revealed that occurrence of dietary high-risk behavior was more in urban students (11.4% than rural students (1.8%. Regarding violence, occurrence of high-risk behavior was also higher among urban students (18.8% vs. 6%. The number of mentally disturbed girls is more than boys. Conclusion: The mean risk scores in all domains, except personal hygiene, are either in ′Moderate′ or ′high′ risk grade. It is of great concern that rural and urban, male and female adolescents are at risk though their vulnerability varies.

  19. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  20. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  1. Alcohol Use-Related Problems Among a Rural Indian Population of West Bengal: An Application of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-03-01

    To examine alcohol use and related problems among a rural subset of the Indian population. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used as part of Health and Demographic Surveillance of 36,611 individuals aged ≥18 years. From this survey data on 3671 current alcohol users were analysed using bivariate and multivariate ordered logit regression. Over 19% of males and 2.4% of females were current alcohol users. Mean ethanol consumption on a typical drinking day among males was estimated to be higher (96.3 gm) than females (56.5 gm). Mean AUDIT score was 11 among current alcohol users. AUDIT showed in the ordered logit regression estimated alcohol use-related problems to be low among women, Scheduled Tribes and unmarried people, whereas alcohol use-related problems registered high among Muslims. This rural population appears to be in need of an effective intervention program, perhaps targeting men and the household, aimed at reducing the level of alcohol use and related problems. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  3. Urinary Incontinence, Its Risk Factors, and Quality of Life: A Study among Women Aged 50 Years and above in a Rural Health Facility of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijit; Bhattacharyya, Aritra; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Karmakar, Anubrata; Mallick, Nazrul; Sembiah, Sembagamuthu

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a chronic debilitating disease which is often under reported, but laid significant impact on one's quality of life (QoL) thus is of public health importance. The aim of this study is to find out proportion of rural women have UI, its associated risk factors and treatment-seeking behavior, QoL of affected women. This was a cross-sectional clinic-based study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017 among 177 women aged 50 years or above attending a rural health facility with a structured schedule. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods by SPSS (version 16). Forty-nine (27.7%) out of 177 women were found having UI. The most prevalent type of UI was stress UI (51.0%), followed by mixed UI (32.7%) and urge UI (16.3%). In bivariate analysis, study participants who were illiterate, having a history of prolonged labor, having a history of gynecological operation, normal vaginal deliveries (NVDs) (>3), diabetic, having chronic cough, having constipation, and having lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) had shown significantly greater odds of having UI. In multivariable illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] - 2.41 [1.02-5.69]), NVDs (AOR - 3.37 [1.54-7.37]), a history of gynecological operation (AOR - 3.84 [1.16-12.66]), chronic cough (AOR - 2.69 [1.21-5.99]), LUTS (AOR - 2.63 [1.15-6.00]) remained significant adjusted with other significant variable in bivariate analysis. Those with mixed UI had 5.33 times higher odds having unfavorable QoL. Only 30.6% sought medical help. Treatment-seeking behavior shown negative correlation with QoL while fecal incontinence and LUTS shown possitive correlation. The study revealed that rural women are indeed at high risk of developing UI. Majority of them did not sought treatment for UI which is matter of concern. Generating awareness regarding UI may help to improve health-seeking behavior and QoL.

  4. Urinary incontinence, its risk factors, and quality of life: A study among women aged 50 years and above in a rural health facility of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit Biswas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Urinary incontinence (UI is a chronic debilitating disease which is often under reported, but laid significant impact on one's quality of life (QoL thus is of public health importance. Aims: The aim of this study is to find out proportion of rural women have UI, its associated risk factors and treatment-seeking behavior, QoL of affected women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional clinic-based study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017 among 177 women aged 50 years or above attending a rural health facility with a structured schedule. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods by SPSS (version 16. Results: Forty-nine (27.7% out of 177 women were found having UI. The most prevalent type of UI was stress UI (51.0%, followed by mixed UI (32.7% and urge UI (16.3%. In bivariate analysis, study participants who were illiterate, having a history of prolonged labor, having a history of gynecological operation, normal vaginal deliveries (NVDs (>3, diabetic, having chronic cough, having constipation, and having lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS had shown significantly greater odds of having UI. In multivariable illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] - 2.41 [1.02–5.69], NVDs (AOR - 3.37 [1.54–7.37], a history of gynecological operation (AOR - 3.84 [1.16–12.66], chronic cough (AOR - 2.69 [1.21–5.99], LUTS (AOR - 2.63 [1.15–6.00] remained significant adjusted with other significant variable in bivariate analysis. Those with mixed UI had 5.33 times higher odds having unfavorable QoL. Only 30.6% sought medical help. Treatment-seeking behavior shown negative correlation with QoL while fecal incontinence and LUTS shown possitive correlation. Conclusions: The study revealed that rural women are indeed at high risk of developing UI. Majority of them did not sought treatment for UI which is matter of concern. Generating awareness regarding UI may help to improve health-seeking behavior and QoL.

  5. A first note on Japanese encephalitis virus isolation from Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Northern West Bengal.

    OpenAIRE

    V. Thenmozhi; T. Mariappan; R. Krishnamoorthy; R. Krishnamoorthi; T. Balaji; B. K. Tyagi; V. Thenmozhi

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in many parts of India including the state of West Bengal. In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973. The Culex vishnui subgroup of mosquitoes has been implicated as major vectors of JE. However in India, JE virus (JEV) has been isolated from 16 species of mosquitoes. During September 2011, JE cases were reported from four districts -Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Dinajpur and Cooch Behar of West Ben...

  6. A study on cognitive status of 50 years and above aged non-demented women in a rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjay Kumar; Sanyal, Debasish; Bhattacharyya, Agnihotri; Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Barman, Neepamanjari; Mukherjee, Anindya

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of ageing population is increasing not only in developed countries but also in developing world like India. Epidemiological reports about cognitive impairment or dementia in elderly people from developing countries are scarce. To study the cognitive status of women more than 50 years of age and to study the relationship of sociodemographic factors with cognitive status of the study subjects a descriptive epidemiological, community based cross-sectional survey was done involving 179 old women of 50 years and above in the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata. The data were analysed using Epi-info 6.04, software packages. The mean age of the sample was 64.0 +/- 7.6 years. In the total sample, 53 subjects (29.6%) were in 50-59 years, 83 (43.4%) in 60-69 years, 34 (19%) in 70-79 years and 9 (5%) in women who were more than 80 years old. The cognitive defect was found to be 42.4% in elderly women .The variables like age > 70 years, widowhood, low per capita income, economic dependence, non-support from children, not staying with own children and having no satisfaction with life, were found to be significantly associated with cognitive defect. On (stepwise) multiple regression analysis these factors together contributed to 37% of cognitive impairment among these women. Prevalence of cognitive defect of more than 40% in the elderly women of this study emphasises the need for more attention and more social security measures for this neglected group.

  7. Is Ramadan Fasting Cardio-protective? A Study in a Village of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Dasgupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Islam is the second largest religion of the World (23% and Muslims are the second largest majority of Indian Republic (14.3%. Ramadan is the ninth and holiest month(Hijra of the 12-month Islamic calendar during which Muslims fast from dawn to dusk each day maintaining certain rules (consuming food/drink once, avoiding smoking and sexual activity, as well as impure thoughts, words and immoral behavior. It is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad. Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Ramadan on cardio-metabolic profile among adult Muslims residing in rural West Bengal. Methods and Materials: The present study was a longitudinal community based study done among 43 Muslims residing in a village of West Bengal during 6thJune to 7th July 2016. Cardio-metabolic profile (physical activity, diet, BMI, blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose were assessed before, during and after Ramadan. Results: There was a significant reduction in VLDL and TG level while significant elevation in HDL level along with the reduction in Framingham risk score after fasting. All the anthropometric measurements along with blood pressure reduced significantly after Ramadan with significant reduction in intake of all micro-nutrients during Ramadan. However physical activity also reduced significantly during Ramadan. Conclusion: Our study had found no detrimental effects of Ramadan fasting on the contrary has an overall beneficial effect on cardiovascular profile was observed.

  8. Profile of hemoglobin D trait in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuphan K. Dolai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb D Punjab is one of the most commonly observed abnormal hemoglobinopathy worldwide. There was no systematic large published study to investigate the characteristic of Hb D Punjab trait in India. This study was conducted in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of West Bengal state in eastern India. Complete blood count was done by Sysmax Automated Hematology Analyzer KX 21 (Sysmex Corp., Kobe, Japan and thalassemia testing was done using high-performance liquid chromatography (Variant TM - Bio-Rad Lab., Hercules, CA, USA. A total of 46,139 individuals were screened for hemoglobinopathies. Hb D trait was found in 0.35%. Hypochromia rather than microcytosis is consistent finding in Hb D trait. Anisocytosis is absent in Hb D trait. In almost all (99.37% cases, Hb D is within 40% of total hemoglobin. This data is likely to be helpful for screening of hemoglobinopathy in resource poor setting.  血红蛋白(Hb D Punjab是全球最普遍的异常血红蛋白病之一。在印度,之前并没有研究D型特征血红蛋白病的大型出版物。本研究在印度东部的西孟加拉邦的农村地区进行,研究对象是接受过相关咨询后的在校生,大学生,新婚夫妇和孕妇。完整的血细胞计数由日本神户市Sysmex公司的KX21自动化血液分析仪完成,血液测试由美国加州赫拉克勒斯Variant-Bio-Rad实验室通过高效液相色谱法完成。总计46139人被筛查,D型特征血红蛋白病的发现率为0.35%。血红蛋白过少而非小红细胞症,是D型特征血红蛋白病的主要症状。红细胞大小不均没有在D型特征血红蛋白病中被检测出。在所有的情况中(99.37%),D型特征血红蛋白占所有血红蛋白总数的40%。这些数据有利于在资源匮乏地区对血红蛋白病的筛查。

  9. A first note on Japanese encephalitis virus isolation from Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Northern West Bengal.

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    V. Thenmozhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is endemic in many parts of India including the state of West Bengal. In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973. The Culex vishnui subgroup of mosquitoes has been implicated as major vectors of JE. However in India, JE virus (JEV has been isolated from 16 species of mosquitoes. During September 2011, JE cases were reported from four districts -Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Dinajpur and Cooch Behar of West Bengal (North. Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified, pooled and screened for JEV using antigen capture ELISA. Out of 279 mosquito pools tested, one pool of Cx. pseudovishnui and three pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found positive for JEV. The ELISA positive pools were further confirmed as JEV by insect bioassay (Toxo-IFA. Two pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were confirmed as JEV. This represents the first report of JEV isolation from Cx. quinquefasciatus in West Bengal.

  10. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

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    Ghosh Sambuddha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  11. Commuting patterns of workers in a village of Barddhaman district, West Bengal

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    Bhaswati Mondal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commuting helps to keep balance between residence and workplace of workers. With growing accessibility and connectivity, the importance of commuting is increasing all over the world. It is becoming a major substitute to migration. In commute-studies, commute-pattern is an important chapter. It highlights commuters’ directions of movement, distance they cover, modes of transport they use, the time they take to commute, etc. Unlike the urban-based commute pattern, commute pattern in rural areas are relatively an under-researched issue. In fact, traditionally rural people are thought to carry a sedentary lifestyle. Using primary data, this study aims to explore the commute patterns of rural workers located in the village of Gandharbapur of Barddhaman district of West Bengal, India. All the commuters were found to be engaged in non-farm work. Commuters stem from two major groups. One group of commuters is accumulated farm-income induced. They possess sufficient agricultural land. Investing their surplus farm-income, they have established non-farm works. The second group of commuters is poverty-driven. They are landless poor or are marginal farmers and to escape poverty, they have slipped into these works. Located beyond the suburban area (Memari being the nearest town, most commuters commute to nearby rural areas. Due to non-availability of public transport, women commute less than men do. Regular-paid government employees commute longer than other workers commute. The article concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.

  12. Creatinine, diet, micronutrients, and arsenic methylation in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arin; Mitra, Soma; Chung, Joyce; Guha Mazumder, D N; Ghosh, Nilima; Kalman, David; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Steinmaus, Craig; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H

    2011-09-01

    Ingested inorganic arsenic (InAs) is methylated to monomethylated (MMA) and dimethylated metabolites (DMA). Methylation may have an important role in arsenic toxicity, because the monomethylated trivalent metabolite [MMA(III)] is highly toxic. We assessed the relationship of creatinine and nutrition--using dietary intake and blood concentrations of micronutrients--with arsenic metabolism, as reflected in the proportions of InAS, MMA, and DMA in urine, in the first study that incorporated both dietary and micronutrient data. We studied methylation patterns and nutritional factors in 405 persons who were selected from a cross-sectional survey of 7,638 people in an arsenic-exposed population in West Bengal, India. We assessed associations of urine creatinine and nutritional factors (19 dietary intake variables and 16 blood micronutrients) with arsenic metabolites in urine. Urinary creatinine had the strongest relationship with overall arsenic methylation to DMA. Those with the highest urinary creatinine concentrations had 7.2% more arsenic as DMA compared with those with low creatinine (p creatinine concentration was the strongest biological marker of arsenic methylation efficiency, and therefore should not be used to adjust for urine concentration in arsenic studies. The new finding that animal fat intake has a positive relationship with MMA% warrants further assessment in other studies. Increased MMA% was also associated, to a lesser extent, with low serum selenium and folate.

  13. Is Ramadan Fasting Cardio-protective? A Study in a Village of West Bengal

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    Aparajita Dasgupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Islam is the second largest religion of the World (23% and Muslims are the second largest majority of Indian Republic (14.3%. Ramadan is the ninth and holiest month(Hijra of the 12-month Islamic calendar during which Muslims fast from dawn to dusk each day maintaining certain rules (consuming food/drink once, avoiding smoking and sexual activity, as well as impure thoughts, words and immoral behavior. It is observed by Muslims as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad. Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Ramadan on cardio-metabolic profile among adult Muslims residing in rural West Bengal. Methods and Materials: The present study was a longitudinal community based study done among 43 Muslims residing in a village of West Bengal during 6thJune to 7th July 2016. Cardio-metabolic profile (physical activity, diet, BMI, blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose were assessed before, during and after Ramadan. Results: There was a significant reduction in VLDL and TG level while significant elevation in HDL level along with the reduction in Framingham risk score after fasting. All the anthropometric measurements along with blood pressure reduced significantly after Ramadan with significant reduction in intake of all micro-nutrients during Ramadan. However physical activity also reduced significantly during Ramadan. Conclusion: Our study had found no detrimental effects of Ramadan fasting on the contrary has an overall beneficial effect on cardiovascular profile was observed.

  14. Impact of extension interventions in improving livelihood of dairy farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Suman; Garai, Sanchita; Maiti, Sanjit; Meena, B S; Ghosh, M K; Bhakat, Champak; Dutta, T K

    2017-03-01

    Livestock is a one of the major sources of livelihood for most of the small and marginal farmers in India, particularly for rural households who live in below poverty line. Extension interventions have long been seen as a key element for enabling farmers to obtain information and technologies that can improve their livelihoods. It is also recognized that extension is an important factor in promoting dairy development. Ex-post-facto cause to effect research design was applied in this study to trace out the impact of extension interventions in improving knowledge, attitude, adoption towards scientific dairy farming practices and improvement in milk production of dairy animal and income from dairying which will be resulted into improved livelihood of rural poor in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Therefore, 60 dairy farmers of experimental villages who were considered as beneficiaries and 60 dairy farmers of control villages who were considered as non-beneficiaries were selected as sample for the study. It was found that beneficiaries had significantly higher score in all the five components of livelihood improvement with its all sub components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, adoption of scientific dairy farming practices, milk production per household per day and monthly income from dairying except disease control, and marketing component of adoption. Hence, it may be concluded that extension interventions had a significant impact on improving livelihood of rural dairy farmers in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

  15. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

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    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  16. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  17. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Paromita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  18. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

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    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  19. Cultural context and impact of alcohol use in the Sundarban Delta, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Chakraborty, Ajoy K; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2006-08-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a worldwide problem with many locally distinctive features across cultures, but studies to guide policy in developing countries are notably lacking. This community study aimed to clarify local patterns of alcohol use in six villages of West Bengal, India. It considered the variety of local alcoholic preparations, who consumed them, when, and where. It sought to determine how social changes in the region influence changing patterns of acceptable and problem use of alcohol. Ethnographic methods included participant observation and focus group discussions. The qualitative data analysis of field notes and transcripts included a review of full texts and a computer-assisted analysis of thematically coded segments with reference to a structured agenda. We found that drinking is an integral feature of the cultural landscape. Locally brewed rice beer (handia), palm wine (tadi), distilled country liquor (chullu), and so-called Indian-made foreign liquor (IMFL) are consumed in these villages. Each is identified with particular segments of society and settings in these communities. Reported effects of problem drinking included social disturbances, family discord, and domestic violence. Increasing problem alcohol use was attributed by villagers to social changes resulting from development, which were otherwise valued, such as improved transportation and communications. In a field dominated by Western and urban studies, this research clarifies features of alcohol availability, use, and acceptance in a neglected rural area of India. It illustrates the limitations of western clinical models of dependence and the importance of clarifying sociocultural conditions that define locally acceptable and problem use.

  20. Measuring Spatiality in Infrastructure and Development of High School Education in Hooghly District of West Bengal, India

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    Shovan Ghosh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing access and enrolment do not necessarily ensure school effectiveness or educational progress. They are, of course, other parameters of development of education, rather than being measures of standards of quality education. The present paper opts to scrutinize whether infrastructural development in schools at all ensures good educational development or not. To accomplish this, Education Infrastructural Index has been prepared through Access, Facility and Teacher Index whereas a combination of Enrollment Index and Literacy Index gave rise Educational Development Index. The study reveals that accessibility factor begets a division within rural spaces in the form of backward rural, rural and prosperous rural that manifests through the availability of the teachers and facilities. In the urban areas, wherein accessibility is not a matter of concern, facilities and teachers matter in making difference between the less developed and developed urban areas. The higher Educational Development Index at the non-rural areas indicates town- centric nature of the development of our educational system. Superimposition of the infrastructural and developmental parameters revealed that good infrastructure does not always ensure good educational achievement. In the light of these backdrops, the key purpose of this article is to measuring spatiality in infrastructure and development of high school education in Hooghly District of West Bengal, India.

  1. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

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    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  2. Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India--a review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Chowdhury, U K; Mukherjee, S C; Mondal, B K; Paul, K; Lodh, D; Biswas, B K; Chanda, C R; Basu, G K; Saha, K C; Roy, S; Das, R; Palit, S K; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D

    2001-01-01

    Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of 50 districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal are 118,849 km2 and 104.9 million and 38,865 km2 and 42.7 million, respectively. Our current data show arsenic levels above 50 microg/ L in 2000 villages, 178 police stations of 50 affected districts in Bangladesh and 2600 villages, 74 police stations/blocks of 9 affected districts in West Bengal. We have so far analyzed 34,000 and 101,934 hand tube-well water samples from Bangladesh and West Bengal respectively by FI-HG-AAS of which 56% and 52%, respectively, contained arsenic above 10 microg/L and 37% and 25% arsenic above 50 microg/L. In our preliminary study 18,000 persons in Bangladesh and 86,000 persons in West Bengal were clinically examined in arsenic-affected districts. Of them, 3695 (20.6% including 6.11% children) in Bangladesh and 8500 (9.8% including 1.7% children) in West Bengal had arsenical dermatological features. Symptoms of chronic arsenic toxicity developed insidiously after 6 months to 2 years or more of exposure. The time of onset depends on the concentration of arsenic in the drinking water, volume of intake, and the health and nutritional status of individuals. Major dermatological signs are diffuse or spotted melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Chronic arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder. Apart from generalized weakness, appetite and weight loss, and anemia, our patients had symptoms relating to involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver, spleen, genitourinary system, hemopoietic system, eyes, nervous system, and cardiovascular system. We found evidence of arsenic neuropathy in 37.3% (154 of 413 cases) in one group and 86.8% (33 of 38 cases) in another. Most of these cases had mild and predominantly sensory neuropathy. Central nervous system involvement

  3. Financial Inclusion in India: A case-study of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Sadhan Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The study observes that although there has been an improvement in outreach activity in the banking sector, the achievement in respect of financial inclusion is not significant in West Bengal. An index of financial inclusion (IFI) has been developed in the study using data on three dimensions of financial inclusion. It is revealed from the index that Kolkata district leads with the highest value of IFI, while rest of the districts show a very low level of financial inclusion. This implies that...

  4. Primary completion rates across socio-religious communities in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Zakir; Chatterjee, Amrita

    2009-01-01

    Primary completion rates of Muslims in West Bengal are substantially lower than that of upper caste communities as well as backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes. Further, analysis of age-specific pcr indicates that differences in pcr between Muslims and other communities may have actually increased in recent years. An econometric analysis reveals that age, gender, household size and expenditure levels, education and gender of decision-maker, etc, are importan...

  5. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Amalesh Bera; Manojit Bhattacharya; Bidhan Chandra Patra; Utpal Kumar Sar

    2014-01-01

    The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossifor...

  6. Increasing trend of Japanese encephalitis cases in West Bengal, India - a threat to paediatric population

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    Debjani Taraphdar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV as the etiologic agent from the acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases mainly amongst the children and young adults from vaccinated and non-vaccinated districts of West Bengal. Methods: For the detection of JEV, a total of 828 sera were referred from vaccinated and non vaccinated districts of West Bengal during 2005-2011. Japanese encephalitis (JE positive cases were confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR method. Results: Out of 828 cases, 245 samples were positive by ELISA method and 46 samples were positive by RT-PCR method. Out of 291 total positive cases, 162 (55.6% were below 20 years of age. Initially in 2005, JE cases were highest amongst the children and young adults (0-20 years. After vaccination, although the JE cases declined gradually in the vaccinated districts, but again from 2010, JE cases from the said age group showed an increasing trend from those districts. JE cases were also reported from other endemic zones of this state, which were still non-vaccinated. Conclusions: In West Bengal, JE cases are still predominated among children and young adults till the year 2011. Mass scale vaccination programme and investigation on the circulating strains are essentially required to find out the reasons of increasing tendency of JE cases in this state.

  7. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

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    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  8. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  9. Septic Abortion Managed in a Tertiary Hospital in West Bengal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a cross-sectional study carried out in Burdwan Medical College and Hospital in West ... beyond the uterus to the parametrium, tubes, and ovaries or pelvic peritoneum; grade III: Generalized peritonitis and/or ... 1297 cases of abortion were admitted among which 107 were septic ..... Obstetric infection disease emergencies.

  10. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  11. The Politics of Starvation Deaths in West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the local socio-political causes behind a sudden wave of starvation deaths that swept across the West Bengali village of Amlashol during the summer of 2004. Following the new paradigm of famine analysis where focus is placed on political failures, the article addresses three...... of chronic food insecurity into an acute hunger crisis, which was not mitigated by effective public policies at the local level due to extensive political patronage and a politicisation of the bureaucracy. Amlashol suffered disproportionally from this due to the village’s affiliation with a weak...

  12. Intra-District Disparities in Primary Education: A Case Study of Bankura District, West Bengal

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    Krishnendu Maji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of education and its response to different educational opportunities vary from one spatial unit to another depending on various factors like social, economic, cultural, and institutional. It is understood that certain regions acquire relative advancements over others in terms of human resource development and human capital formation. The key purpose of this research is to examine the intra-district disparities in primary education in Bankura District one of the districts of West Bengal. It ranks 11thamong the 19 districts of West Bengal (Human Development Report, 2007.  Overall literacy rate of the district stands at 70.26% but the district scores low in terms of female literacy rates, which is 60.05%,whereas the male literacy rate is 80.05%, which is a huge gender literacy gap of 20%. There are also regional inequalities existing at block level. Kotulpur ranks first with a literacy rate of 78.01% while Saltora occupies the bottom position with literacy rate of just 61.45% (Census of India, 2011. The level of educational development is dependent on several factors—enrolment ratio, dropout and repetition rates, pupil-teacher ratio, habitations covered by educational institutions, space-student ratio, drinking water and sanitation facilities in school, etc. In this context, the present study aims at examining the issues of intra-district disparities in educational attainment with regard to various educational amenities of Bankura district, West Bengal. Ten attributes have been selected to examine the level of development in primary education. It is clear from the study that the level of development in eastern part of the district is relatively better in comparison to other regions. Economic backwardness and physical bottlenecks continue to be major issues in western blocks.

  13. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal

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    Arnab Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaVIM, tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. Results: In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50 were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (36% isolates, and 6 (12% harbored blaTEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried blaSHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10% isolates harbored tet(A gene, and 8 (16% isolates carried tet(B gene. No tet(C gene was detected from the isolates. Conclusion: This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  14. Present scenario of hemoglobinopathies in West Bengal, India: An analysis of a large population

    OpenAIRE

    Prakas Kumar Mandal; Suman Kumar Maji; Tuphan Kanti Dolai

    2014-01-01

    Background: To find out the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies by screening large population in West Bengal from Eastern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 50,487 subjects are screened for hemoglobinopathies from June 2010 to August 2013. A 2.5 ml of venous blood samples were collected in the tri-potassium EDTA vacuum container from each subject and tested with automated blood cell counter (Sysmex KX21) for red cell indices. Diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies was done by VARIANT TM (Bio-Rad ...

  15. Past and present status of the Indian Tiger in northern West Bengal, India: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Mallick

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the distribution range and the estimates of Tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in northern West Bengal from the late 19th century to 2009 were examined in detail. According to a 2004 census there were 70 tigers in the region, while a 2008 estimate put the number at 8-12. The tiger survives only in protected areas of terai and duars extending over about 1000km2 of Buxa, Jaldapara, Neora Valley and Mahananda, the Panighat and Bamanpokhri Ranges of Kurseong Division and the Chilapata...

  16. Stigma towards mental illness: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among caregivers in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shrabani; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti

    2018-01-01

    Stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness has a serious impact on the disease outcome and lives of people with mental illness as well as other family members. The objectives of this study were (i) To determine the level of self-perceived stigma toward mental illness, (ii) To measure perception to it among caregivers of people with mental illness, and (iii) To identify the factors associated with self-perceived stigma of caregivers. In this cross-sectional study, a structured interview was conducted among 200 caregivers of people with mental illness in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India. Stigma and perception regarding mental illness were assessed with a validated 12-item Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue and 20-item perception scale, respectively. Information on their sociodemographic characteristics was also collected. Average stigma score (53.3 ± 13.2) was higher than 50% of maximum attainable score. Caregivers of higher age, female gender, low income, higher education, manual job, rural residence, and those who are single or widowed scored higher in stigma scale. Caregivers with female gender (P = 0.007) and rural residence (P = 0.01) were more likely to have stigma while the perception score was negatively associated (P illness and improve family life.

  17. Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Dipti, E-mail: dipti@kth.se [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Ashis [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Šlejkovec, Zdenka [Environmental Sciences Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Chatterjee, Debashis [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Nriagu, Jerome [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (< 10 μg L{sup −1}) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population. - Highlights: • Pairs of raw and cooked rice samples are collected from households. • Total and different species of As in raw and cooked rice samples are compared. • Cooking with As safe water reduces total and inorganic As contents in cooked rice. • Inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). • Risks of As exposure from cooked rice consumption exceed the safety standards.

  18. Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Dipti; Biswas, Ashis; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Chatterjee, Debashis; Nriagu, Jerome; Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (< 10 μg L −1 ) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population. - Highlights: • Pairs of raw and cooked rice samples are collected from households. • Total and different species of As in raw and cooked rice samples are compared. • Cooking with As safe water reduces total and inorganic As contents in cooked rice. • Inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). • Risks of As exposure from cooked rice consumption exceed the safety standards

  19. First report of Seuratascaris numidica Seurat, 1917 (Nematoda: Ascarididae) and other helminths from amphibians of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Sujan K; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-03-01

    Studies on nematode parasites from anuran hosts from Eastern India, particularly West Bengal, are rare. To our knowledge, there is a report of larvae of Monhysterides sp. (a fish parasite) from cysts within the body cavity and musculature of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus and Euphlyctis hexadactylus as well as descriptions of Aplectana duttaphryni from D. melanostictus , Aplectana dubrajpuri from H. tigerinus , Cosmocerca microhylae from Microhyla rubra and Rhabdias bulbicauda from D. melanostictus . Here, we report mature individuals of typical anuran parasites, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Seuratascaris numidica , from H. tigerinus and larvae of Acuariidae (a bird parasite) from Fejervarya limnocharis collected in Kulti, West Bengal.

  20. Metering of agricultural power supply in West Bengal, India: Who gains and who loses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherji, A.; Das, B.; Majumdar, N.; Nayak, N.C.; Sethi, R.R.; Sharma, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing power sector reforms in India, the state of West Bengal is in the process of metering agricultural electricity supply. This paper presents a first cut assessment of this initiative. Results suggest that the majority of the pump owners benefit from the reforms in two ways: first by having to pay a lower electricity bill for same usage and second through increased profit margins by selling water. This is because in response to the changed incentive structure, water prices rose sharply by 30-50% immediately after metering. In contrast, water buyers have lost out by having to pay higher water charges and face adverse terms of contract. Impact of metering on operation of groundwater markets and volume of groundwater extracted is less clear; they may expand, contract or remain unchanged, though water use efficiency is likely to go up. At current tariff rates, the electricity utilities are likely to earn less revenue than before. These findings are context specific and hold good for West Bengal where high flat tariff had fostered competitive groundwater markets and hence cannot be generalised for other Indian states.

  1. A study on association of smoking and gastric carcinoma in the residents of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Saha, Goutam Chatterjee, Subhas Chandra Hazra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to know the association of tobacco intake in the form of smoking and chewing with gastric carcinoma in West Bengal. Materials and methods: Total 28860 patients (smokers and tobacco chewer 17240, nonsmokers 11620 were interrogated before performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Among the smokers and tobacco chewers, isolated bidi and cigarette smokers were 5067, 9323 and 2850 respectively. Among 542 gastric cancer cases, smokers were 301 (165 cigarette and 136 bidi smokers and tobacco chewers 82 respectively. Then comparisons were done: 1. to know the incidence of smokers and nonsmokers in total number of patients, the influence of bidi and cigarette smoking on gastric carcinoma, 3] Effects of the early starters and number of cigarettes/bidi per day on gastric carcinogenesis. Again, comparisons were done to know influence of bidi and cigarettes on the sites of gastric carcinoma. Results: Bidi smokers, earlier starters of smoking and significantly (P<0.0001 suffered from gastric carcinoma. Heavy drinkers were mostly affected (P<0.0001. Conclusions: Bidi smokers, young heavy smokers were mostly affected. So there were strong associations between bidi smoking and gastric carcinoma in the residents of West Bengal.

  2. Molecular analysis of microbial community in arsenic-rich groundwater of Kolsor, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angana; Paul, Dhiraj; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial community composition within the highly arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater from Kolsur, West Bengal was analyzed over a period of 3 years using 16S rRNA gene clone library and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Molecular phylogenetic study revealed abundance of α-Proteobacteria (56%) and Firmicutes (29%) along with members of β-Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Sphingobacteria as relatively minor groups. Along with consistent physicochemical environment, a stable microbial community structure comprising of bacterial genera Agrobacterium-Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Anoxybacillus and Penibacillus was recorded over the three years study period. Presence of cytosolic arsenate reductase (arsC) gene was observed within the microbial community. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the arsC sequences were closely related to the same gene from γ-proteobacterial members while the community was consisted of mainly α-proteobacterial groups. Such phylogenetic incongruence between 16S rRNA and arsC genes possibly indicated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the ars genes within the groundwater community. Overall, the study reported a nearly stable geomicrobial environment and genetic determinant related to As homeostasis gene, and provided a better insight on biogeochemistry of As contaminated aquifer of West Bengal.

  3. The development of mental hospitals in West Bengal: A brief history and changing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ranjan

    2018-02-01

    The communication between G. S Bose and Sigmund Freud is a well-documented fact, and philosophical blend of rich cultural experiences is unique to modification of traditional psychoanalysis in the context of development of psychiatry in West Bengal. The Calcutta lunatic asylum was established at Bhowanipore, and first general hospital psychiatric unit was formed at R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Prof. Ajita Chakraborty was a pioneer to describe her struggling days in the early career and shared her views with experiences in her autobiography. The volume and quality of research work, especially in the field of epidemiology led by Dr. D. N. Nandi is worth mentioning. A jail had been converted to mental hospital which is the largest in terms of bed strength ( n = 350) at Berhampore, Murshidabad district where Kazi Nazrul Islam and Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose had spent some period as prisoner during British rules. Bankura was the first district in West Bengal to start District Mental Health program. The various nongovernmental organizations are working together in public-private partnership model or indigenous ways in tandem over years for the betterment of mental health services both at institutional and community level.

  4. HAEMATOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NATURALLY OCCURING TICK BORNE HAEMOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CATTLE OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Debbarma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemoparasites reduces productivity and may lead to high mortality among animals. The present study was carried out to evaluate the heamotological change in cattle of different districts in West Bengal, India affected with naturally occurring tick- borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHD. A total of 310 cattle blood samples were screened for the presence of haemoparasites from July, 2015 to June, 2016. The blood samples were examined for haemoparasites by making thin blood smear and staining with Giemsa’s stain. The result showed that108 (34.84% cattle were found positive with TBHD, out of which 22.9% were Theileria sp, 5.8% were Babesia sp., 11.93% Anaplasma sp., and 5.8% were having mixed infection, respectively. The positive samples were subjected to estimations of haematological parameters i. e. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total erythrocyte count (TEC and Total leucocytes count (TLC using standard protocol. The haematological analysis showed statistically a significant (p<0.01 decreased levels of Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC in infected groups of cattle compared to infection free group cattle. This is probably the first systematic report in West Bengal, India. The result showed the haemoparasites have a negative impact on haematological parameters. This study may be useful in disease epidemiological map preparation, parasitic control policy preparation of the study areas.

  5. Transformation of Agricultural Land for Urbanisation, Infrastructural Development and Question of Future Food Security: Cases from Parts of Hugli District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasuddin Siddique

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries of the world encounter urbanisation and infrastructural development in or around the fertile tracts and the absence of any landuse plan for desired land use change has led to conversion of farmlands, which is detrimental to future food security and environmental quality. Hugli district is traditionally well known as one of the most prosperous agricultural regions of West Bengal but the district is experiencing rapid urban extension and infrastructural development towards productive agricultural land since 1991. This has caused decline in the amount of agricultural production which may be treated as an indicator of increasing threat to the long run sustainable livelihood security of the people of the whole of West Bengal. This article critically explores the transformation of agricultural (farm land because of growing rate of urbanisation and infrastructural development, which in turn poses the question of threat to food (in security. Although, this is a growing problem across the universe, this article probes the future food security questions of Hugli district, West Bengal by examining the impact of the highly intertwined indicators of urbanisation and infrastructural development on agricultural (farm land use and its effect on food security. Regression analysis, Spearman’s Ranking Correlation Coefficient, Remote Sensing technologies, Markov Chain Model, Projection of future population growth and yield rate are employed to understand the depth of the problem. The result not only shows a direct negative correlation between urban extension and agricultural areal contraction but also the supervised classification of satellite imageries shows that there is rapid change of rural land use from 1996-2016. There is no match between future population growth and future yield rate of crops and the Markov Chain Model further predicts that the cropland will decrease from 62.77% to 42.90% and the built up area will increase from 31

  6. Spectrum of hemoglobin variants in the population of northern region of West Bengal: An ethnogenetic proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Krishna Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The birth of transfusion-dependent states of hemoglobinopathies including thalassemias is preventable by population screening and genetic counseling. Magnitude is not addressed in the Northern Region of West Bengal where many ethnic variants inhabit. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to find out the burden of different entities of hemoglobinopathies, their correlation with ethnicity and the "at risk" groups. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from the Hematology Unit of North Bengal Medical College over 1 year on the subjects underwent screening for hemoglobinopathies for detection of abnormal hemoglobin (Hb variants by "cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography" principle along with other relevant tests. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by frequency distribution and Chi-square test assuming P value as 95% of the level of significance using the SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Result: Abnormal Hb variant was 47.5% among 1872. Hb E trait (34.4% was most common followed by Hb E disease (25.3% and others. Hb E disorders (92.7% were observed mostly among Rajbangsi population while E-β-thalassemias (40% in the Muslims and a heterogeneous pattern noted among tribal and mongoloid. Conclusion: Hb E hemoglobinopathies was high among Rajbangsi and Muslims with identification of some other hemoglobinopathies involving tribal and mongoloid.

  7. Shore protection for the coast of Mousuni Island in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sundar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mousuni Island in West Bengal, India is wide-open to Bay of Bengal. This island by virtue of its location is exposed to river flow as well as wave action. It is thus subjected to severe erosion along its south-western coastal stretch and also significantly affecting agriculture due to seawater inundation. This is due to the lower level of bund crest elevation combined with high water levels during coastal flooding. The most suitable method to arrest the shore erosion and salt water intrusion is to divert the flow gradually toward the deeper section of the channel. To meet this requirement, after carrying out a comprehensive profiling of the existing bund, bank connected series of spurs with locally available construction materials and unskilled labor are proposed. In order to design these spurs, the magnitude and direction of sediment movement along the stretch is estimated. The layout of protection measures is proposed based on a detailed analysis of site conditions and the environmental conditions. The tranquility inside the proposed coastal protecting structure is substantiated with a two-dimensional horizontal flow model. Furthermore, the behavior of the shorelines has been studied numerically with the proposed coastal protection measure. The detailed analysis of the results from the numerical model and the protection measure are discussed in this article.

  8. Spatial Association of Wetlands over Physical Variants in Barind Tract of West Bengal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeb Tarani Das

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Barind tract of west Bengal is an uplifted old alluvial plain area where only <1 percent area is covered by wetland. Present paper concentrates on general understanding of wetland association with different geographical settings like geological, geomorphological lithological structure and altitudinal gradations. Detail investigation reveals that geological and morphological structure do not have deep influence on wetland formation and their distribution in particular favourable sub-region. But altitudinal control on wetland is noticeable. An irregular distribution of wetland is found throughout the region because of multi parametric influence on it. In recent decades wetlands in barind tract has been undergoing into rapid loss. Continuous encroachment of agricultural field and newly built-up area to wetland are considered as main causes of wetland loss in barind tract.

  9. Human and cattle population changes in deltaic West Bengal, India between 1977-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odend' hal, S.

    1988-03-01

    In 1967-1970, 3.81 km/sup 2/ of a densely populated deltaic area of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India was intensively studied. This same area was resurveyed in 1977 and 1987. From 1977-1987, the human population has increased 10.1%, while the number of households has increased 25%. The total number of children below 10 years of age has diminished. The cattle have increased 26.5%. The number of working-age male cattle has dropped significantly with reliance, primarily on hand tractor power for field cultivation. The number of female cattle has increased substantially. Artificial insemination and the use of temperate breeds of bulls have had an obvious impact. Improvements in the general environment were observed.

  10. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE HERPES VIRUS - 1 IN ORGANIZED FARMS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis, caused by Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1 maintains latency in trigeminal nerve ganglia of bovine. The sero-positive bull infected with BoHV-1 secretes the virus through semen intermittently, when the immune system is compromised. Sera from bulls housed at different bull stations were analyzed using gE protein specific IDEXX Kit, which showed 78.69% positivity. Each batch of semen from sero-positive bull was investigated further for presence of virus in semen by Real Time-PCR technique for validation of presence of virus in the frozen semen doses using gB specific primers and probe, which showed 0.968 % semen batches positive. This study showed that despite high sero prevalence in bull, the semen excretes very negligible amount of the virus indicating the subtypes circulating in farms of West Bengal, India is assumed to be respiratory type.

  11. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipak [School of Studies in Environmental Radiation and Archaeological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)], E-mail: dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar [School of Studies in Environmental Radiation and Archaeological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2008-02-15

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 {+-} 2.5 to 590.6 {+-} 16.8 Bq kg{sup -1}. The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health.

  12. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 ± 2.5 to 590.6 ± 16.8 Bq kg -1 . The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health

  13. Removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major concerns in many parts of the world including Bangladesh and India. Considering the high toxicity of arsenic, World Health Organization (WHO) has set a provisional guideline value of 10 μg L -1 for arsenic in drinking water. Several methods have been adopted for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Most of the methods fail to remove As(III), the most toxic form of arsenic. An extra oxidative treatment step is essential for effective removal of total arsenic. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) oxidizes As(III) to As(V). Removal of arsenic from water using manganese dioxide has been reported. During this work, removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from arsenic contaminated area of West Bengal, India were carried out using MnO 2

  14. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

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    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to face many of problems in social aspects. Some of the problems namely, absence of social security, education problem, bad habits, health problem, stigma and discrimination, access to information and service problem, violence, Hijra community issues, and sexual behavior problem are considered in this study. Based on the expert’s opinion and the notion of indeterminacy, we formulate neutrosophic cognitive map. Then we studied the effect of two instantaneous state vectors separately on connection matrix E and neutrosophic adjacency matrix N(E.

  15. Milk marketing under cooperative and non-cooperative marketing channels: Evidence from west Bengal

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    Sarker Debnarayan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to empirically investigate the price spread, marketing costs, marketing margins, marketing efficiency, and profit efficiency among market middlemen under cooperative and non-cooperative marketing channels in the domestic trade market of liquid milk in West Bengal. One of the important findings of this study is that, although the inter-market (and intramarket price variation for liquid milk under the cooperative marketing agency in not far from uniformity, and all marketing agencies under cooperative channels receive much lower abnormal profit per unit of milk as compared with non-cooperative channels, the former fails to provide much economic benefit, either to the producer or to the consumer, because of the burden of much higher fixed cost per unit of liquid milk.

  16. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

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    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  17. Nomophobic behaviors among smartphone using medical and engineering students in two colleges of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Pallabi; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Dasgupta, Samir; Roy, Jayanta Kumar; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Growing smartphone usage among global and Indian college students has resulted in considerable issues of "nomophobia" (NMP) or feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals whenever unable to use their smartphones. This significantly impacts their health, work, and study. The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence of NMP among smartphone using medical and engineering undergraduates of West Bengal and to compare the nomophobic behaviors, its predictors, and smartphone usage among them. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 303 medical and 305 engineering undergraduates in West Bengal using a validated NMP questionnaire consisting of four factors. Comparison of means of individual questions and factor scores was done. Nomophobic clusters among the two groups were identified using two-stage cluster analysis. Binary logistic regression was used for comparison of predictors of NMP. Engineering students showed a higher proportion of nomophobics (44.6%) than medical students (42.6%). Significant higher means was observed among engineering students for the factor "giving upconvenience" and individual variables like "scared due to running out of battery," "nervous due to disconnection from online identity," "uncomfortable when unable stay up-to-date with social media" and "anxious when unable to check E-mails." A Higher proportion of nomophobics among both groups were females, those owning smartphone beyond 2 years, having monthly mobile bill above Rs. 200 and spending over 4 h daily on smartphone. NMP has emerged as a significant cause of concern among both the groups. Standardized measures for identification and appropriate psychobehavioral therapy for those seeking help might alleviate the problem.

  18. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  19. A simple chemical free arsenic removal method for community water supply - A case study from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, B.; Chatterjee, S.; Rott, U.; Kauffman, H.; Bandopadhyay, A.; DeGroot, W.; Nag, N.K.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Mukherjee, S.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a simple chemical free method that was successfully used by a team of European and Indian scientists ( (www.qub.ac.uk/tipot)) to remove arsenic (As) from groundwater in a village in West Bengal, India. Six such plants are now in operation and are being used to supply water to the local population ( (www.insituarsenic.org)). The study was conducted in Kasimpore, a village in North 24 Parganas District, approximately 25 km from Kolkata. In all cases, total As in treated water was less than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg L -1 . The plant produces no sludge and the operation cost is 1.0 US$ per day for producing 2000 L of potable water. - This work presents the chemical free arsenic removal method from groundwater and its successful implementation in West Bengal for community water supply.

  20. The energy-irrigation nexus and its impact on groundwater markets in eastern Indo-Gangetic basin: Evidence from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherji, Aditi

    2007-01-01

    South Asia in general and India in particular is heavily dependent on groundwater for supporting its largely agrarian population. Informal pump irrigation services markets have played an important role in providing access to irrigation to millions of small and marginal farmers and had positive equity, efficiency and sustainable impacts in water-abundant regions such as West Bengal. Quite predictably, in such pump lift-based economy, fortunes of energy and irrigation sectors are closely entwined. This has often been called the 'energy-irrigation' nexus. There are two major sources of energy for pumping groundwater, viz. electricity and diesel. Most of the current discourse in the field has looked only at the 'electricity-irrigation' nexus to the exclusion of the 'diesel-irrigation nexus'. This paper looks at both these aspects. In doing so, it makes two propositions. First, high flat-rate electricity tariff encourages development of water markets whereby the water buyers-who are mostly small and marginal farmers-benefit through access to irrigation. Second, low rate of rural electrification has forced majority of farmers to depend on diesel for groundwater pumping and the steep increase in diesel prices over the last few years has resulted in economic scarcity of groundwater. This in turn has had serious negative impacts on crop production and farm incomes. Using primary field data from West Bengal, India, this paper makes a case for rapid rural electrification and continuation of high flat-rate tariff, which would in turn support developed groundwater markets and provide access to irrigation to the poor and marginal farmers

  1. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal

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    Lina Bandyopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 230, 6th and 7th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. Results: The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t-test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47 to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30. To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96 to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03; Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Conclusion: Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  2. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Lina; Manjula, M; Paul, Bobby; Dasgupta, Aparajita

    2017-01-01

    First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. A total of 230, 6 th and 7 th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t -test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47) to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30). To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d) was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96) to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03); Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  3. Economic benefits of arsenic removal from ground water--a case study from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Joyashree

    2008-07-01

    People living in almost 50% of the districts in West Bengal are exposed to arsenic contaminated water. This paper seeks to estimate the economic costs imposed by arsenic-related health problems. We use data from a primary survey of 473 households carried out in the districts of North 24 Parganas and Midnapore. We take into account household actions to either decrease the exposure of family members to unsafe water or to alleviate the health effects of consuming arsenic-contaminated water. This allows us to assess the benefits of arsenic-safe water by estimating a three equation system that includes averting actions, medical expenditures and a sickness function. We find that by reducing arsenic concentration to the safe limit of 50 microg/l, a representative household will benefit by Rs 297 ($7) per month. The current cost of supplying filtered piped water by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation to households is Rs 127 ($3) per month per household. Thus, investing in safe drinking water is economically feasible and households are willing to pay for such investments if made aware of the effective gain in welfare. Poor households, who make up the highest proportion of arsenic-affected households and incur the largest number of sick days, will be major beneficiaries of such investments.

  4. Past and present status of the Indian Tiger in northern West Bengal, India: an overview

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    J.K. Mallick

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the distribution range and the estimates of Tiger (Panthera tigris populations in northern West Bengal from the late 19th century to 2009 were examined in detail. According to a 2004 census there were 70 tigers in the region, while a 2008 estimate put the number at 8-12. The tiger survives only in protected areas of terai and duars extending over about 1000km2 of Buxa, Jaldapara, Neora Valley and Mahananda, the Panighat and Bamanpokhri Ranges of Kurseong Division and the Chilapata and Kodalbusty Ranges under Wildlife-III Division. Tigers became extinct in Chapramari Sanctuary about a decade back; Gorumara sightings were recorded up to the 1980s. The species has already lost about 1000km2 of its historic range in the territorial forest divisions of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, Dinajpur and Malda Districts. The State Forest Department has undertaken efforts involving regular monitoring, protection measures and habitat improvements and tigers are now being sighted in areas where they were absent for years. Resident tigers appear to be expanding their ranges to new areas, sometimes at higher altitudes as in Neora Valley National Park and Buxa Tiger Reserve crossing into Bhutan and Sikkim.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of ichthyodiversity in a hill stream of the Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal, india

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    M.L. Acharjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small torrential spring-fed hill-stream Relli in the Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal was studied from March 2007 to February 2009 to assess seasonal dynamics and diversity of fish populations.  The study revealed that the stream sustained 25 rheophilic cold water fish species from 15 genera and five families having ornamental, food and sport value.  Seven omnivorous species were abundantly found, and the array of juveniles and sub adults suggests this stream is used as a breeding and nursery ground for some species.  The stream harboured fish with unique modifications such as adhesive structures.  Analysis of monthly data indicate that abundance and diversity indices increased slightly during April–May and sharply during October–November, indicating significant seasonal variations with the low diversity observed during monsoon months reflecting environmental stresses.  Evenness was high in all sampling sites, and inversely related to the dominance index of ichthyofauna.  The density and diversity of fish assemblages along the gradient of the stream may be interrupted due to anthropogenic disturbances.  Our study provides baseline data which may be helpful for conservation and management of fish species, and in formulating fishery policy. 

  6. Two algal species of Volvox L. with their taxonomy and ecology from West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilu Halder

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was communicated with the taxonomic description and ecology of two species of the genus Volvox L. viz. Volvox aureus Ehr. and Volvox globator L. under the order Volvocales of class Chlorophyceae. They are freshwater and planktonic phycoflora. The colony of former species was comparatively smaller (340 µm than the later (480 µm whereas, somatic cells were found slightly larger in the former species in comparison to later species. Both were colonial, multicellular, greenish and formed dots like appearances in the water bodies and, exhibited phototactic movements. These two species were being reported first time from Hooghly of West Bengal, India. The ecological study showed that they preferred to grow in alkaline water (pH 7.3-7.5 with slight high organic nutrient contents (NO3 -N: PO4 3- ratios: 0.25-0.35: 0.30-0.32 mg/l. This study also revealed that higher total alkalinity values (174.0-184.0 mg/l were favorable for their developments and their maximum growth noticed in summer in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Literacy Rates and its Impact on Birth Rates in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equality in socio-economic component is essential for human development and social change. Educational inequality reduces economic growth and women's empowerment on the one hand and increases birth rate on the other. In population studies, it has been established that educational level is collinearly related with demographic behaviour. This study aims to investigate inequalities in literacy rates and its impact on birth rates in Nowpara-I Gram Panchayat (GP located in the Krishnagar II C.D. Block, Nadia District of West Bengal using a household survey conducted in 356 households among women aged 49 and above in triangulation with secondary data. The aim of this study is to explore the causes of the spatial inequalities in education and its effect on spatial variations in birth rates. The key finding suggest that in Nowpara-I, negative relationships exist between female education and birth rate because education has a positive impact on empowerment, late marriage, use of contraceptives and family size.

  8. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  9. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes & assessment of vector control in two districts of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Shankar, Lokesh; Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Shankar; Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Mandal, Rakesh; Das, Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Kala-azar or visceral leishmanisis (VL) is known to be endemic in several States of India including West Bengal (WB). Only meager information is available on the vector dynamics of its vector species, Phlebotomus argentipes particularly in relation to control measure from this State. Hence, a pilot study was undertaken to assess the control strategy and its impact on vector in two endemic districts of WB, India. Two villages each from the two districts, Maldah and Burdwan, were selected for the study. Seasonal variation of sandflies was observed during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Susceptibility test of P. argentipes against DDT and bioassay on DDT sprayed wall and on long lasting insecticide nets (LN) Perma Net [®] 2.0 were conducted as per the WHO standard methods. P. argentipes density was high during March to October. Susceptibility status of P. argentipes ranged from 40 to 61.54 per cent. Bioassay test showed 57.89 per cent mortality against LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. and 50 per cent against DDT on wall within 30 min of exposure. Despite the integrated vector management approach, the sandfly population was high in the study area. The reason could be development of resistance in P. argentipes against DDT and low effectiveness of LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. The more pragmatic step will be to conduct large studies to monitor the susceptibility level in P. argentipes against DDT.

  10. Transition towards Renewable Energy Production? Potential in Smallholder Agricultural Systems in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Winkler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy (RE production promotes the efficient and sustainable utilization of natural resources at the local level. This study assessed smallholder farmers’ perceptions of RE production in two villages in West Bengal, India. The availability and potential of renewable resources and livelihood characteristics of smallholders were explored. Relevant factors for the selection of appropriate RE technologies were identified, based on the participatory, bottom-up Integrated Renewable Energy Potential Assessment. The research area has abundant solar resources and substantial amounts of organic residues and waste suitable for biodigestion. Important factors for RE technology selection, as stated by farmers, are: ease of daily activities, government support, and limited land requirements. Solar-photovoltaic (PV systems providing sufficient electricity for household use and irrigation are considered the most appropriate. Key informants focus on initial investment costs, government support, and reduced energy expenditure. They favor solar-PV systems for household electrification. Second choice was an integrated food and energy system that combines solar-PV for irrigation and vermicomposting of organic residues/wastes for fertilizer production. Smallholder famers’ motivation to produce and use RE is high. Their perspective should be integrated in the design of RE-supporting policies and related programs to utilize local natural resources effectively and promote the transition towards renewable energy.

  11. Does quality of drinking water matter in kidney stone disease: A study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Pubali; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Das, Madhusudan

    2018-05-01

    The combined interaction of epidemiology, environmental exposure, dietary habits, and genetic factors causes kidney stone disease (KSD), a common public health problem worldwide. Because a high water intake (>3 L daily) is widely recommended by physicians to prevent KSD, the present study evaluated whether the quantity of water that people consume daily is associated with KSD and whether the quality of drinking water has any effect on disease prevalence. Information regarding residential address, daily volume of water consumption, and source of drinking water was collected from 1,266 patients with kidney stones in West Bengal, India. Drinking water was collected by use of proper methods from case (high stone prevalence) and control (zero stone prevalence) areas thrice yearly. Water samples were analyzed for pH, alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solutes, electrical conductivity, and salinity. Average values of the studied parameters were compared to determine if there were any statistically significant differences between the case and control areas. We observed that as many as 53.6% of the patients consumed water daily. Analysis of drinking water samples from case and control areas, however, did not show any statistically significant alterations in the studied parameters. All water samples were found to be suitable for consumption. It is not the quality of water, rather the quantity of water consumed that matters most in the occurrence of KSD.

  12. Impact of integrated child development scheme on child malnutrition in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana

    2017-10-01

    With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Waterborne cholera outbreak following Cyclone Aila in Sundarban area of West Bengal, India, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ghosh, Sougata

    2011-04-01

    Following Cyclone Aila, a block of Sundarban area, West Bengal, India, reported an increased number of diarrhoea cases at the end of May 2009. This study was performed to identify the agent and source of the outbreak as well as to propose control measures. The outbreak is described by time, place and person. A matched case-control study was conducted and rectal swabs and water specimens were collected. In total, 1076 probable case patients and 14 deaths (attack rate 44/10 000) were identified. Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa was isolated from two of five probable case patients' stool specimens. The outbreak started in the fourth week of May, with two peaks in the second and fourth weeks of June, and lasted until August 2009. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to drink non-chlorinated piped water [matched odds ratio (MOR)=16, 95% CI 4.9-51; population attributable fraction 58%) and were less likely to drink chlorine-treated water (MOR=0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.18). Villagers broke the water pipelines near their houses for easy access to water. Piped water specimens and stored drinking water were positive for faecal contamination. Contaminated drinking water was the probable source of the cholera outbreak. Repairing the pipelines, chlorination at household level and educating villagers regarding the danger of breached water pipe connections controlled the outbreak. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cholera outbreak secondary to contaminated pipe water in an urban area, West Bengal, India, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Hutin, Yvan; Gupte, Mohan D

    2009-01-01

    Outbreaks of cholera are common in West Bengal. In April 2006, Garulia municipality reported a cluster of diarrhea cases. We investigated this cluster to identify the etiological agent, source of transmission and propose control measures. We defined a case of diarrhea as occurrence of > or =3 loose/watery stools a day among the residents of Garulia since April 2006. We searched for cases of diarrhea in health care facilities and health camp. We conducted a gender- and age-matched case-control study to identify risk factors. We inspected the sanitation and water supply system. We collected rectal swabs from diarrhea patients and water specimens from the affected areas for laboratory investigation. Two hundred and ninety-eight cases of diarrhea were reported to various health care facilities (attack rate: 3.5/1000, no deaths). The attack rate was highest among children (6.4/1000). Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Inaba was isolated from two of 7 rectal swabs. The outbreak started on 10 April 2006, peaked on 26 April and lasted till 6 May. Cases clustered in an area distal to leaking water pipelines. Drinking municipal water exclusively was significantly associated with the illness (OR 13, 95% CI=6.5-27). Eight of the 12 water specimens from the affected area had fecal contamination and poor chlorine content. This outbreak was due to a contaminated municipal piped water supply and V. cholera 01 Inaba was possibly the causative organism.

  15. Mucocutaneous features of Chikungunya fever: a study from an outbreak in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar

    2008-11-01

    Chikungunya fever (CF) epidemic has recently re-emerged in India on a large scale affecting many parts of the country. We have reviewed the mucocutaneous manifestations of the disease in a number of cases. Twenty six serologically proven cases of CF with rash from the district of 24-Paraganas (North) in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal were subjected to detailed clinical study to investigate the chronology and evolution of mucocutaneous lesions, the type and distribution of the rash, and systemic changes. Most patients were in their 3rd and 4th decade (23% each). Males and females were equally affected. Most patients developed the rash concomitantly with the onset or during the febrile illness, but 5 (19.2%) developed rash after defervescence. Most (57.7%) patients developed rash within the first 2 days of fever. The upper limb was the most common site of first appearance of lesions. Morbilliform eruption was the most common type of lesion noted, followed by scaling, macular erythema, intertrigo, hypermelanosis, xerosis, excoriated papules, urticaria and petechial spots. Cutaneous lesions were generally asymptomatic but 5 (19.2%) patients had intense pruritus. Mucosal lesions were found in 4 (15.4%) patients. Moderate to marked joint involvement was universal. CF exanthem may have varying morphology. Since the disease is spreading widely in different parts of the world, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any acute febrile arthropathy with rash.

  16. Preservation strategies for inorganic arsenic species in high iron, low-Ehgroundwater from West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gault, Andrew G.; Polya, David A. [University of Manchester, Department of Earth Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Jana, Joydeb; Chakraborty, Sudipto; Mukherjee, Partha; Sarkar, Mitali; Nath, Bibash; Chatterjee, Debashis [University of Kalyani, Department of Chemistry, Kalyani, (India)

    2005-01-01

    Despite the importance of accurately determining inorganic arsenic speciation in natural waters to predicting bioavailability and environmental and health impacts, there remains considerable debate about the most appropriate species preservation strategies to adopt. In particular, the high-iron, low-Eh(redox potential) shallow groundwaters in West Bengal, Bangladesh and SE Asia, the use of which for drinking and irrigation purposes has led to massive international concerns for human health, are particularly prone to changes in arsenic speciation after sampling. The effectiveness of HCl and EDTA preservation strategies has been compared and used on variably arsenic-rich West Bengali groundwater samples, analysed by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Immediate filtration and acidification with HCl followed by refrigerated storage was found to be the most effective strategy for minimizing the oxidation of inorganic As(III) during storage. The use of a PRP-X100 (Hamilton) column with a 20 mmol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} as mobile phase enabled the separation of Cl{sup -} from As(III), monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and As(V), thereby eliminating any isobaric interference between {sup 40}Ar{sup 35}Cl{sup +} and {sup 75}As{sup +}. The use of EDTA as a preservative, whose action is impaired by the high calcium concentrations typical of these types of groundwater, resulted in marked oxidation during storage. The use of HCl is therefore indicated for analytical methods in which chloride-rich matrices are not problematical. The groundwaters analysed by IC-ICP-MS were found to contain between 5 and 770 ng As mL{sup -1} exclusively as inorganic arsenic species. As(III)/total-As varied between 0 and 0.94. (orig.)

  17. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Pradyut; Jana, Bana Bihari; Benz, Florian; Goldmaier, Alexander; Feistel, Ulrike; Jana, Joydev; Lahiri, Susmita; Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V) occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L), iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L), manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L), phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L) and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L) concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L), >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L), 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L), 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L) and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L) were achieved—without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas. PMID:28974053

  18. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration-A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Philipp; Malakar, Pradyut; Jana, Bana Bihari; Grischek, Thomas; Benz, Florian; Goldmaier, Alexander; Feistel, Ulrike; Jana, Joydev; Lahiri, Susmita; Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2017-10-02

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V) occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus ® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L), iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L), manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L), phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L) and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L) concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L), >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L), 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L), 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L) and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L) were achieved-without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas.

  19. Elevated arsenic and manganese in groundwaters of Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, M S; Vega, M A; Defoe, P P; Kibria, M G; Ford, S; Telfeyan, K; Neal, A; Mohajerin, T J; Hettiarachchi, G M; Barua, S; Hobson, C; Johannesson, K; Datta, S

    2014-08-01

    High levels of geogenic arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in drinking water has led to widespread health problems for the population of West Bengal, India. Here we delineate the extent of occurrences of As and Mn in Murshidabad, where the contaminated aquifers occur at shallow depths between 35 and 40 m and where access to safe drinking water is a critical issue for the local population. A total of 78 well-water samples were taken in 4 blocks on either side of the river Bhagirathi: Nabagram and Kandi (west, Pleistocene sediments), Hariharpara and Beldanga (east, Holocene sediments). High As, total iron (FeT) and low Mn concentrations were found in waters from the Holocene gray sediment aquifers east of the river Bhagirathi, while the opposite was found in the Pleistocene reddish-brown aquifer west of the river Bhagirathi in Murshidabad. Speciation of As in water samples from Holocene sediments revealed the dominant species to be As(III), with ratios of As(III):AsT ranging from 0.55 to 0.98 (average 0.74). There were indications from saturation index estimations that Mn solubility is limited by the precipitation of MnCO3. Tubewells from high As areas in proximity to anthropogenic waste influx sources showing high molar Cl/Br ratios, low SO4(2-) and low NO3(-) demonstrate relatively lower As concentrations, thereby reducing As pollution in those wells. Analyses of core samples (2 in each of the blocks) drilled to a depth of 45 m indicate that there is no significant variation in bulk As (5-20mg/kg) between the Holocene and Pleistocene sediments, indicating that favorable subsurface redox conditions conducive to mobilization are responsible for the release of As. The same applies to Mn, but concentrations vary more widely (20-2000 mg/kg). Sequential extraction of Holocene sediments showed As to be associated with 'specifically sorbed-phosphate-extractable' phases (10-15%) and with 'amorphous and well crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxide' phases (around 37%) at As

  20. Prospecting Russula senecis: a delicacy among the tribes of West Bengal

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    Somanjana Khatua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Russula senecis, a worldwide distributed mushroom, is exclusively popular among the tribal communities of West Bengal for food purposes. The present study focuses on its reliable taxonomic identification through macro- and micro-morphological features, DNA barcoding, confirmation of its systematic placement by phylogenetic analyses, myco-chemicals and functional activities. For the first time, the complete Internal Transcribed Spacer region of R. senecis has been sequenced and its taxonomic position within subsection Foetentinae under series Ingratae of the subgen. Ingratula is confirmed through phylogenetic analysis. For exploration of its medicinal properties, dried basidiocarps were subjected for preparation of a heat stable phenol rich extract (RusePre using water and ethanol as solvent system. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through hydroxyl radical scavenging (EC50 5 µg/ml, chelating ability of ferrous ion (EC50 0.158 mg/ml, DPPH radical scavenging (EC50 1.34 mg/ml, reducing power (EC50 2.495 mg/ml and total antioxidant activity methods (13.44 µg ascorbic acid equivalent/mg of extract. RusePre exhibited antimicrobial potentiality against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, different parameters were tested to investigate its chemical composition, which revealed the presence of appreciable quantity of phenolic compounds, along with carotenoids and ascorbic acid. HPLC-UV fingerprint indicated the probable existence of at least 13 phenolics, of which 10 were identified (pyrogallol > kaempferol > quercetin > chlorogenic acid > ferulic acid, cinnamic acid > vanillic acid > salicylic acid > p-coumaric acid > gallic acid. Result from the present work suggests that the fraction, RusePre, may open novel prospect as a functional ingredient in antioxidant supplements and in drugs to treat infectious disease.

  1. Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India

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    Mukhopadhyay Shiladitya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian communities are very good indicators of any ecosystem. Despite the alarming consequences of rapid urbanization, studies of avian diversity in the human-dominated landscapes of India are very few. Therefore, we studied the avian assemblage of Bongaon in southern West Bengal, India, a suburban area whose avifauna has thus far remained undocumented. Bird surveys were carried out from June 2015 to May 2016, following the fixed-radius (25 m point count method together with opportunistic observations. We recorded 119 avian species belonging to 53 families. Ardeidae was the most diverse avian family in the study area (RDi value = 5.882. Among the recorded avifauna, 89 species were resident, 26 species were winter visitors, three species were summer visitors, and one species was a passage migrant. Species richness of the resident and passage migrant species did not vary seasonally, while the winter and summer visitors displayed significant seasonal variation. In this suburban area, the species richness of feeding guilds varied significantly. Most birds were insectivorous (41.2%, followed by carnivorous (24.4%, omnivorous (18.5%, granivorous (7.6%, frugivorous (3.4%, nectarivorous (3.4% and herbivorous species (1.7%. Maximum species richness was recorded in November and minimum species richness in July. Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria are two near-threatened species found in this region. Interestingly, six species having a globally declining trend are still very common in the study area. Long-term studies are required to monitor any change in the avian communities of this suburban landscape resulting from urbanization.

  2. Hypertension, Prehypertension and Normotension among Police Personnel in a District of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Debabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti; Kumar, Pranav; Sinhababu, Apurba

    2014-11-01

    We conducted the present study to assess the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, normotension and the associated factors along with awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among police personnel in Bankura, West Bengal, India. We collected information on individual, lifestyle, service-related and anthropometric characteristics of 1817 police personnel. We also measured blood pressure (BP) and plasma glucose level of the participants. Individuals were classified as hypertensive (BP ≥ 140/ 90 mmHg), prehypertensive (BP 120-139/ 80-89 mmHg) and normotensive (BP < 120/ 80 mmHg) on the basis of BP and their prevalence were expressed in percentages. Relation of individual, lifestyle, service-related and anthropometric characteristics with hypertension and/or prehypertension was examined with binary logistic regression. Prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension and normotension are 41.9%, 42.9% and 15.2% respectively. Even one-quarter of below 40 years subjects have hypertension. Mean BP remains in the prehypertensive range. Prevalence of hypertension and mean BP increases with age. Cardiovascular risk factors show clustering in higher age and with hypertension. Older age group, male gender, abdominal obesity, diabetes and service length are positively associated with hypertension and/or prehypertension. Around 40% of hypertensive knew their status, three-quarter of aware subjects received treatment and only one-third of treated subjects have controlled BP (< 140/ 90 mmHg). High prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension, high mean BP, mean age above 40 years and clustering of other risk factors pose a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity in the current study population.

  3. Assessment of groundwater quality in Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anindita; Nag, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater resources of Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Twenty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, major anions (CO3 2-, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, F-) and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Na+, K+). Study results reveal that the groundwater of the area is mostly acidic in nature. The trend amongst average ionic concentrations of cations and anions is Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > Fe2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3 - > CO3 2- > SO4 2- > F- respectively during the post monsoon whereas the trend for cations and anions are Mg2+ > Ca2+> Na+ > K+ > Fe and Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > F- > CO3 - in pre monsoon session, respectively. To explore the ionic toxicity of the study area, the derived parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated. The hydro geochemical data suggest that weathering of rock forming minerals along with secondary contributions from agricultural and anthropogenic sources are mainly controlling the groundwater composition of Kashipur Block, Purulia District. According to piper diagram, water samples of most of the area of the block are fresh water and in some areas sulphate rich throughout the year. All samples are distributed to central rock dominance category. Groundwater chemistry of this block is mainly controlled by the interaction existing between the litho units and the percolating water into the subsurface domain. However, the groundwater quality and suitability of this study area can be termed as good to moderate with a few exceptions which have been encountered on a local scale.

  4. Arsenic release and geochemical evolution of groundwater in an alluvial aquitard, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Pal, T.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Beckie, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    According to the World Health Organization, contamination of groundwater by geogenic arsenic (As) represents the largest mass poisoning in history. At a field site in West Bengal, India, the source of As affecting a shallow aquifer was traced to silty sediments filling an abandoned river meander. Along with As-bearing phases, these sediments also contain 0.46 % organic carbon. The release of As within the channel fill is investigated using a geochemical mass balance model supported by detailed field observations of aqueous chemistry, sequential extraction analyses of sediment chemistry, and analyses of sediment mineralogy. The model explores the evolution of groundwater chemistry along a flow path extending from its recharge point in an abandoned channel pond, through the channel-fill sequence, to the underlying aquifer. Variations in groundwater composition within the host sediments are explained in terms of mineral weathering driven by organic carbon decay. The model yields reaction coefficients expressing amounts of minerals (and gases) reacting or precipitating along the flow path. Arsenic and phosphorus cycles appear closely linked as these species are hosted by goethite, Fe-rich chlorite, and vivianite. Arsenic is released through the rapid reductive dissolution of goethite and the slower weathering of chlorite. Concomitantly, some As is sequestered in precipitating vivianite. These competing processes reach equilibrium deeper in the channel-fill sequence as groundwater As concentrations stabilize. Using groundwater residence time in channel fill obtained from a numerical flow model and the calculated reaction coefficients, rates of organic carbon oxidation, goethite dissolution, and net As release are estimated at 1.15 mmol C L-1 a-1, 0.18 mmol L-1 a-1, and 4.57 10-4 mmol L-1 a-1, respectively. Fine-grained yet slightly permeable deposits such as channel-fill silts containing reactive organic carbon and As-bearing goethite and phyllosilicates are localized

  5. Characterization of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dhiraj; Poddar, Soumya; Sar, Pinaki

    2014-01-01

    Nine arsenic (As)-resistant bacterial strains isolated from As-rich groundwater samples of West Bengal were characterized to elucidate their potential in geomicrobial transformation and bioremediation aspects. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strains were affiliated with genera Actinobacteria, Microbacterium, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. The strains exhibited high resistance to As [Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 10 mM As(3+) and MIC ≥ 450 mM As(5+)] and other heavy metals, e.g., Cu(2+), Cr(2+), Ni(2+), etc. (MIC ≥ 2 mM) as well as As transformation (As(3+) oxidation and As(5+) reduction) capabilities. Their ability to utilize diverse carbon source(s) including hydrocarbons and different alternative electron acceptor(s) (As(5+), SO4(2-), S2O3(2-), etc.) during anaerobic growth was noted. Growth at wide range of pH, temperature and salinity, production of siderophore and biofilm were observed. Together with these, growth pattern and transformation kinetics indicated a high As(3+) oxidation activity of the isolates Rhizobium sp. CAS934i, Microbacterium sp. CAS905i and Pseudomonas sp. CAS912i. A positive relation between high As(3+) resistance and As(3+) oxidation and the supportive role of As(3+) in bacterial growth was noted. The results highlighted As(3+) oxidation process and metabolic repertory of strains indigenous to contaminated groundwater and indicates their potential in As(3+) detoxification. Thus, such metabolically well equipped bacterial strains with highest As(3+) oxidation activities may be used for bioremediation of As contaminated water and effluents in the near future.

  6. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  7. Risk factors associated with default among tuberculosis patients in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nirmalya; Basu, Mausumi; Das, Sibasis; Mandal, Amitava; Dutt, Debashis; Dasgupta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The treatment outcome "default" under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) is a patient who after treatment initiation has interrupted treatment consecutively for more than 2 months. To assess the timing, characteristics and distribution of the reasons for default with relation to some sociodemographic variables among new sputum-positive (NSP) tuberculosis (TB) patients in Darjeeling District, West Bengal. A case-control study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of Darjeeling from August'2011 to December'2011 among NSP TB patients enrolled for treatment in the TB register from 1(st) Qtr'09 to 2(nd) Qtr'10. Patients defaulted from treatment were considered as "cases" and those completed treatment as "controls" (79 cases and 79 controls). The enrolled cases and controls were interviewed by the health workers using a predesigned structured pro-forma. Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR). 75% of the default occurred in the intensive phase (IP); 54.24% retrieval action was done within 1 day during IP and 75% within 1 week during continuation phase (CP); cent percent of the documented retrieval actions were undertaken by the contractual TB program staffs. Most commonly cited reasons for default were alcohol consumption (29.11%), adverse effects of drugs (25.32%), and long distance of DOT center (21.52%). In the logistic regression analysis, the factors independently associated were consumption of alcohol, inadequate knowledge about TB, inadequate patient provider interaction, instances of missed doses, adverse reactions of anti-TB drugs, Government Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) provider and smoking. Most defaults occurred in the intensive phase; pre-treatment counseling and initial home visit play very important role in this regard. Proper counseling by health care workers in patient provider meeting is needed.

  8. SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTH PARASITES IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES IN BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infestation is a major constraint of livestock and causes great economic loss to animal husbandry by the way of retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of animals to other infections. In view of the parasitism, the present study was aimed to elucidate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in cattle and buffaloes in Bankura district, West Bengal. A total of 1200 fecal samples (200 samples/ species/season were collected directly from the farmers’ end in three different seasons namely winter, summer and rainy seasons. The stool samples were examined initially by direct smear followed by sedimentation and floatation techniques within 24h of collection. All three major parasites i.e. nematode (Toxocara, Strongyloides, Strongyle and Trichuris, cestode (Moniezia and trematode (Paramphistomes and Fasciola were observed and analyzed based on the morphology of eggs. The degree of incidence was superior in buffaloes compared to the cattle irrespective of the seasonal variations. The rainy season showed the highest degree of parasitic occurrence (67.00% compared to winter (52.25 and summer (38.75% seasons. The study of species-wise incidence demonstrated a highest peak of Paramphistomes (32.17% where very few samples were positive for Trichuris sp. (2.42%. Among the sub-divisions, Bishnupur represented the maximum occurrence of helminth parasites (62.05% as compared to Bankura sadar (58.47% and Khatra (40.16%. Significantly (P<0.05 higher percent of trematode and nematodes were prevalent in Bishnupur though the same observation was manifested for cestodal infection in Khatra. It can be concluded that a favorable hot and humid condition during rainy season favors the growth of propagation of developmental stages which would be the reason of peak prevalence. It can also be focused that a micro level agro-climatic disparity may lead to the variation within the study sites.

  9. Hydrogeologic and hydraulic characterization of aquifer and nonaquifer layers in a lateritic terrain (West Bengal, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Sabinaya; Jha, Madan K.; Sharma, Shashi P.

    2018-02-01

    The hydrogeologic and hydraulic characteristics of a lateritic terrain in West Bengal, India, were investigated. Test drilling was conducted at ten sites and grain-size distribution curves (GSDCs) were prepared for 275 geologic samples. Performance evaluation of eight grain-size-analysis (GSA) methods was carried out to estimate the hydraulic conductivity (K) of subsurface formations. Finally, the GSA results were validated against pumping-test data. The GSDCs indicated that shallow aquifer layers are coarser than the deeper aquifer layers (uniformity coefficient 0.19-11.4). Stratigraphy analysis revealed that both shallow and deep aquifers of varying thickness exist at depths 9-40 and 40-79 m, respectively. The mean K estimates by the GSA methods are 3.62-292.86 m/day for shallow aquifer layers and 0.97-209.93 m/day for the deeper aquifer layers, suggesting significant aquifer heterogeneity. Pumping-test data indicated that the deeper aquifers are leaky confined with transmissivity 122.69-693.79 m2/day, storage coefficient 1.01 × 10-7-2.13 × 10-4 and leakance 2.01 × 10-7-34.56 × 10-2 day-1. Although the K values yielded by the GSA methods are generally larger than those obtained from the pumping tests, the Slichter, Harleman and US Bureau Reclamation (USBR) GSA methods yielded reasonable values at most of the sites (1-3 times higher than K estimates by the pumping-test method). In conclusion, more reliable aquifers exist at deeper depths that can be tapped for dependable water supply. GSA methods such as Slichter, Harleman and USBR can be used for the preliminary assessment of K in lateritic terrains in the absence of reliable field methods.

  10. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  11. Characterization of arsenic resistant bacteria from arsenic rich groundwater of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angana; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2013-03-01

    Sixty-four arsenic (As) resistant bacteria isolated from an arsenic rich groundwater sample of West Bengal were characterized to investigate their potential role in subsurface arsenic mobilization. Among the isolated strains predominance of genera Agrobacterium/Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum and Achromobacter which could grow chemolitrophically and utilize arsenic as electron donor were detected. Higher tolerance to As(3+) [maximum tolerable concentration (MTC): ≥10 mM], As(5+) (MTC: ≥100 mM) and other heavy metals like Cu(2+), Cr(2+), Ni(2+) etc. (MTC: ≥10 mM), presence of arsenate reductase and siderophore was frequently observed among the isolates. Ability to produce arsenite oxidase and phosphatase enzyme was detected in 50 and 34 % of the isolates, respectively. Although no direct correlation among taxonomic identity of bacterial strains and their metabolic abilities as mentioned above was apparent, several isolates affiliated to genera Ochrobactrum, Achromobacter and unclassified Rhizobiaceae members were found to be highly resistant to As(3+) and As(5+) and positive for all the test properties. Arsenate reductase activity was found to be conferred by arsC gene, which in many strains was coupled with arsenite efflux gene arsB as well. Phylogenetic incongruence between the 16S rRNA and ars genes lineages indicated possible incidence of horizontal gene transfer for ars genes. Based on the results we propose that under the prevailing low nutrient condition inhabitant bacteria capable of using inorganic electron donors play a synergistic role wherein siderophores and phosphatase activities facilitate the release of sediment bound As(5+), which is subsequently reduced by arsenate reductase resulting into the mobilization of As(3+) in groundwater.

  12. Students' perception of quality of medical education in a medical college in west Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Students' perceived quality of educational service is an important field of educational research. To identify the gaps in the quality of educational services as perceived by students in a medical college in West Bengal, India. In a cross-sectional study, educational quality was measured using validated SERVQUAL instrument between two randomly selected groups of undergraduate medical students (n = 179). This five-point Likert scale questionnaire measured the expectation and perception of students on 26 items under five dimensions of quality of educational services, viz., tangible (physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel), reliability (accuracy and consistency of a department in providing educational services), responsiveness (eagerness to help and commitment), assurance (ability of teaching departments to earn students' confidence), and empathy (ability to communicate care and understanding). Dimension-wise difference in the mean scores for expectation and perception was calculated and was considered as quality gaps in educational services. Significant negative quality gaps were noted in all five dimensions. The highest gap was found in tangible (-1.67) followed by empathy (-1.64) although the mean score of perceived quality in the dimension of empathy was the lowest (2.53). This indicates the need for improvement in physical facilities as well as behavior of teachers and staff toward students. The smallest gap was noted in the dimension of assurance (-1.29), which indicates the students' overall confidence in teaching departments regarding their management or content expertise. These findings underscore students' aspiration for the overall improvement of educational services that can be taken into consideration during development planning.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus sp. strain NBRIEAG-8 from arsenic contaminated site of West Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, Namrata; Singh, Nandita [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Eco-auditing Lab.; Verma, Praveen C.; Singh, Ankit; Mishra, Manisha [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering; Sharma, Neeta [Lucknow Univ., UP (India). Plant Pathology Lab.

    2012-09-15

    Arsenic contaminated rhizospheric soils of West Bengal, India were sampled for arsenic resistant bacteria that could transform different arsenic forms. Staphylococcus sp. NBRIEAG-8 was identified by16S rDNA ribotyping, which was capable of growing at 30,000 mg l{sup -1} arsenate [As(V)] and 1,500 mg l{sup -1} arsenite [As(III)]. This bacterial strain was also characterized for arsenical resistance (ars) genes which may be associated with the high-level resistance in the ecosystems of As-contaminated areas. A comparative proteome analysis was conducted with this strain treated with 1,000 mg l{sup -1} As(V) to identify changes in their protein expression profiles. A 2D gel analysis showed a significant difference in the proteome of arsenic treated and untreated bacterial culture. The change in pH of cultivating growth medium, bacterial growth pattern (kinetics), and uptake of arsenic were also evaluated. After 72 h of incubation, the strain was capable of removing arsenic from the culture medium amended with arsenate and arsenite [12% from As(V) and 9% from As(III)]. The rate of biovolatilization of As(V) was 23% while As(III) was 26%, which was determined indirectly by estimating the sum of arsenic content in bacterial biomass and medium. This study demonstrates that the isolated strain, Staphylococcus sp., is capable for uptake and volatilization of arsenic by expressing ars genes and 8 new upregulated proteins which may have played an important role in reducing arsenic toxicity in bacterial cells and can be used in arsenic bioremediation. (orig.)

  14. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Prakash Kumar Mallick; Pradipta Paul

    2018-01-01

    Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10%...

  15. Magic Moments of Struggle: Women's Memory of the Naxalbari Movement in West Bengal, India (1967-75)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Mallarika Sinha

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on women's memories of participation in the Naxalbari movement in West Bengal. These memories, sourced from women's oral histories and published memoirs, capture not only women's visions of emancipation and camaraderie but their everyday struggles, experiences of fear...... and violence and patriarchal domination within the movement as well. As these memories are refracted by the women's diverse socio-economic and cultural locations, the paper makes an effort to distinguish the multiple meanings of the ‘magic moments of struggle' in the lives of peasant/working-class women, from...... those of middle-class women from smaller towns and upper middle-class metropolitan women....

  16. PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM DURING KHARIF SEASON UNDER RED AND LATERITIC TRACT OF WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    M K MANDAL; M BANERJEE; H BANERJEE; A ALIPATRA; G C MALIK

    2014-01-01

    A FIELD EXPERIMENT WAS CARRIED OUT DURING KHARIF SEASON OF 2010 AND 2011 AT SRINIKETAN RESEARCH FARM, VISVA BHARTI, WEST BENGAL. THE GRAIN YILED AND STOVER YIELD OF MAIZE WERE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER IN CASE OF PURE STAND OF MAIZE THAN EITHER OF ITS INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS WITH LEGUMES, WHILE THE COB YILED WAS HIGHEST IN THE MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN (1:2) INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND IT WAS STATISTICALLY AT PAR WITH THE YIELD OBTAINED IN SOLE MAIZE. THE GRAIN YIELD OF LEGUMES WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH GROUN...

  17. Inventorization of some ayurvedic plants and their ethnomedicinal use in Kakrajhore forest area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soumyajit; Shaw, Rupa; Bala, Sanjay; Mazumdar, Asis

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal Plant resources of forest origin are extensively used in India for various systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Allopathy, Siddha and Ethnic etc. The tribal communities around the Kakrajhore forest in West Medinipur district of West Bengal have their own traditional knowledge based system of curing many diseases using the forest based plant resources similar to ayurveda. The forest comprises of one of the unique treasure and rich source of diversified ethno-botanical wealth and therefore extensive studies is required for proper documentation including ethnomedicinal knowledge of local tribes. The present study was initiated with an aim to inventorize the ayurvedic medicinal plant recourses and explore the traditional knowledge of tribal people of Kakrajhore forest to treat several diseases along with the sustainable management and conservation of medicinal plants. The information on the medicinal plant resources were gathered through floristic inventorization with proper sampling method in the study area (N22°42'57.05″, E86°34'58.02″) during the year 2015. For floristic inventorization the study area of 312 ha was delineated by using GPS Receiver. Then total mapped area was divided by virtual grid of 100m apart in both East-West and North-South direction to allocate 60 sample plots by random sampling. In addition to inventorization, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants found in the study area based on personal interview. Further exploration was carried out to establish linkage with Ayurveda. The present survey has identified 57 numbers of ethno-medicinal plants belonging to 39 families, used for preparing medicinal remedies. The habit of the plants includes 35% trees, 28% shrubs, 23% herbs and 14% climbers. The most frequently utilized plant parts were the Roots & Tuber roots (26%), Stem which includes Bark, Tubers, Bulb, Rhizome, Gum, Wood

  18. Globalisation and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: The Controversy over Teaching of English in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrase, Timothy J.

    2002-09-01

    (Globalisation and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: The Controversy over the Teaching of English in West Bengal) - This article deals with the articulation of educational policy, cultural politics, and social class in the era of globalization. It analyses the policy of the Government of West Bengal to remove the teaching of English from the primary school syllabus in the state in the early 1980s and its subsequent reintroduction from the beginning of the school year in 2000. The author argues that English is a crucial component of the middle classes' cultural capital and is essential to their future employment success, especially in a globalising work environment. This is supported by interviews conducted during 1998/1999 with middle-class Bengalis. For governments of postcolonial, developing societies, this dispute highlights an essential dichotomy between, on the one hand, the ideal of broad-based educational policies and, on the other hand, the need to prepare children for employment at home and abroad in the context of globalisation.

  19. Epidemiological profile of fungal keratitis in urban population of West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suman; Banerjee, Debdulal; Khetan, Archana; Sengupta, Jayangshu

    2009-01-01

    Background Corneal diseases are one of the major causes of visual loss and blindness, second only to cataract. Amongst corneal diseases, microbial keratitis is a major blinding disease. In some countries, fungal keratitis accounts for almost 50% of patients with culture-proven microbial keratitis. Aim This study was conducted to determine the epidemiological characteristics of fungal keratitis in an urban population of West Bengal and identify the specific pathogenic organisms. Methods The charts of patients with microbial keratitis who attended the Cornea Services of Priyamvada Birla Aravind Eye Hospital from January to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Records of patients with 10% KOH mount and culture positive fungal keratitis were analyzed for epidemiological features, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes. Results Of the 289 patients of microbial keratitis included in the study, 110 patients (38.06%) were diagnosed with fungal keratitis (10% KOH mount positive). Of the 110 patients, 74 (67.27%) fitted the study inclusion criteria (10% KOH mount and culture positive). Forty five of 74 patients (60.81%) in the study group were in the older age group (>50 years). Ocular trauma in 35 cases (47.29%) was identified as a high risk factor and vegetative injuries in 17 cases (22.97%) were identified as a significant cause for fungal keratitis. Maximum organism source was from corneal scrapings in 41 cases (55%). The predominant fungal species isolated was Aspergillus sp (55.40%) followed by Candida albicans 14 cases (18.91%) and Fusarium sp. in 8 cases (10.81%). Agricultural activity related ocular trauma was the principal cause of mycotic keratitis and males were more commonly affected. Thirty of 74 cases (40.55%) of the culture positive patients healed with corneal scar formation with medical treatment whereas 44 cases (59.45%) required therapeutic keratoplasty. Conclusion Fungal keratitis is an important cause of microbial keratitis with injury to

  20. Inequity in Hospitalization Care: A Study on Utilization of Healthcare Services in West Bengal, India

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    Montu Bose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Out of eight commonly agreed Millennium Development Goals (MDG, six are related to the attainment of Universal Health Coverage (UHC throughout the globe. This universalization of health status suggests policies to narrow the gap in access and benefit sharing between different socially and economically underprivileged classes with that of the better placed ones and a consequent expansion of subsidized healthcare appears to be a common feature for most of the developing nations. The National Health Policy in India (2002 suggests expansion of market-based care for the affording class and subsidized care for the deserving class of the society. So, the benefit distribution of this limited public support in health sector is important to examine to study the welfare consequences of the policy. This paper examines the nature of utilizationto inpatient care by different socio-economic groups across regions and gender in West Bengal (WB, India. The benefit incidence of public subsidies across these socio-economic groups has also been verified for different types of services like medicines, diagnostics and professional care etc. Methods National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO has collected information on all hospitalized cases (60th round, 2004 with a recall period of 365 days from the sampled households through stratified random sampling technique. The data has been used to assess utilization of healthcare services during hospitalization and the distribution of public subsidies among the patients of different socio-economic background; a Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA has also been carried out. Results Analysis shows that though the rate of utilization of public hospitals is quite high, other complementary services like medicine, doctor and diagnostic tests are mostly purchased from private market. This leads to high Out-of-Pocket (OOP expenditure. Moreover, BIA reveals that the public subsidies are mostly enjoyed by the relatively better

  1. Inequity in hospitalization care: a study on utilization of healthcare services in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Montu; Dutta, Arijita

    2015-01-01

    Out of eight commonly agreed Millennium Development Goals (MDG), six are related to the attainment of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) throughout the globe. This universalization of health status suggests policies to narrow the gap in access and benefit sharing between different socially and economically underprivileged classes with that of the better placed ones and a consequent expansion of subsidized healthcare appears to be a common feature for most of the developing nations. The National Health Policy in India (2002) suggests expansion of market-based care for the affording class and subsidized care for the deserving class of the society. So, the benefit distribution of this limited public support in health sector is important to examine to study the welfare consequences of the policy. This paper examines the nature of utilization to inpatient care by different socio-economic groups across regions and gender in West Bengal (WB), India. The benefit incidence of public subsidies across these socio-economic groups has also been verified for different types of services like medicines, diagnostics and professional care etc. National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) has collected information on all hospitalized cases (60(th) round, 2004) with a recall period of 365 days from the sampled households through stratified random sampling technique. The data has been used to assess utilization of healthcare services during hospitalization and the distribution of public subsidies among the patients of different socio-economic background; a Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA) has also been carried out. Analysis shows that though the rate of utilization of public hospitals is quite high, other complementary services like medicine, doctor and diagnostic tests are mostly purchased from private market. This leads to high Out-of-Pocket (OOP) expenditure. Moreover, BIA reveals that the public subsidies are mostly enjoyed by the relatively better placed patients, both socially and

  2. Oncogenic HPV among HIV infected female population in West Bengal, India

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    Sengupta Sharmila

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of both cervical cancer and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are very high in India. Natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection is known to be altered in HIV positive women and there is an increased possibility of persistence of HPV infections in this population. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of oncogenic HPV among HIV positive and negative female population in West Bengal, India. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, 93 known HIV positive females attending a pre-ART registration clinic and 1106 HIV negative females attending a Reproductive and Child Health Care Clinic were subjected to study. Cervical cell samples collected from the study population were tested for the presence of HPV 16, 18 using specific primers. Roche PCR assay was used to detect other specific HPV genotypes in the cervical cells specimens of HIV positive cases only. Results Prevalence of HPV 16, 18 among HIV positive females (32.2%; n = 30 was higher than HIV negative females (9.1%; n = 101. About 53% (23/43 of cases with oncogenic HPV were infected with genotypes other than 16, 18 either as single/multiple infections. HPV 18 and HPV 16 were the predominant genotypes among HIV positive and HIV negative subjects respectively. Oncogenic HPV was not found to be associated with age and duration of sexual exposure. But the presence of HIV was found to a statistically significant predictor oncogenic HPV. Conclusion The currently available HPV vaccines offer protection only against HPV 16 and 18 and some cross- protection to few associated genotypes. These vaccines are therefore less likely to offer protection against cervical cancer in HIV positive women a high percentage of who were infected with non-16 and non-18 oncogenic HPV genotypes. Additionally, there is a lack of sufficient evidence of immunogenicity in HIV infected individuals. Therefore

  3. COMMUNITY SCREENING FOR PCOS AMONGST ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A SEMIURBAN AREA IN WEST BENGAL

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    Jayanta Pal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adolescent PCOS in many cases is considered to be the forerunner of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in women. Therefore, early detection of PCOS existing in adolescent period and implementation of appropriate lifestyle measures will hopefully have long-term endocrinometabolic beneficial effect. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of PCOS in adolescent girls who are otherwise symptomless and/or having trivial symptoms, which according to such girls and their parents do not mandate any medical attention whatsoever. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 2015 adolescent school girls of West Bengal, India, were enquired about their age of initiation of menarche and current menstrual cyclicity like oligomenorrhoea, hypomenorrhoea or secondary amenorrhoea. They were also examined for clinical features of androgen excess like acne/abnormal hair growth (hirsutism. Girls exhibiting any one such symptom or sign like history oligomenorrhoea, which is persisting two years beyond the initiation of menarche and/or having excessive acne and or hirsutism were primarily labeled as “probable PCOS” and later evaluated by endocrine assessment and sonography. RESULTS Out of 2015 adolescent girls interviewed at school premises, there were as many as 307 adolescent girls who disclosed that they have either oligomenorrhoea and/or were noticed to have acne/hirsutism giving rise to a prevalence rate of 15.23% of probable PCOS by symptom alone. But, when laboratory examinations were completed, the actual prevalence rate came down to 13.1%, because few girls neither had raised serum testosterone, the hallmark of androgen excess disorders nor do they exhibit PCOS morphology in ultrasonography. As many as 84.77% students had no abnormal history or clinical feature to suggest PCOS. But, what worries authors is that, there is raised prevalence of adolescent PCOS in comparison to a similar study carried out at South India where

  4. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

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    Philipp Otter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L, iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L, manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L, phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L, >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L, 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L, 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L were achieved—without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas.

  5. OUTBREAK OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN FREE RANGE BUFFALO AND CATTLE GRAZING AT RIVERSIDE GRASSLAND IN MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Joyjit Mitra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhegic Septicaemia among free ranging buffaloes and cattle reared at the natural grassland at the embankment and surrounding area of Bhagirathi river in 3 blocks of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, postmortem examination, bacteriological study and biochemical tests. Among 154 affected animals (2.16% of total animals at risk buffalo were 85.71% and cattle were 14.28%. A total of 52 affected animals (33.76% died before starting treatment. Among the dead animals, 86.53% was buffalo and 13.46% was cattle. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by vaccination, restriction of animal movement and proper disposal of carcasses.

  6. ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY SOME OF THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES OF PANCHET SOIL CONSERVATION DIVISION, BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Debatri Banerjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indigenous Traditional knowledge (ITK is scientifically and culturally significant. This article focuses on the documentation of ITK of medicinal plants that are used against different diseases by the tribal people of Panchet Soil Conservation Division of Bankura district, West Bengal. A comprehensive survey was carried out between July 2014–January 2016 in 19 different locations of Panchet Soil Conservation Division. Data were obtained through semi–structured questionnaires, participant observation and plant walks with 33 respondents. A total of 12 plants belonging to 11 families were documented for 19 different disorders. Out of 12 plants 10 have been reported as new uses for the first time. It is expected that the documentation of medicinal plant knowledge will further promote bio-prospecting and pharmaceutical research.

  7. Leveraging microfinance to impact HIV and financial behaviors among adolescents and their mothers in West Bengal: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T; Chanani, Sheila; Kim, Jaewhan; Kline, Sean; Gray, Bobbi L

    2013-01-01

    Microfinance can be used to reach women and adolescent girls with HIV prevention education. We report findings from a cluster-randomized control trial among 55 villages in West Bengal to determine the impact of non-formal education on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors for HIV prevention and savings. Multilevel regression models were used to evaluate differences between groups for key outcomes while adjusting for cluster correlation and differences in baseline characteristics. Women and girls who received HIV education showed significant gains in HIV knowledge, awareness that condoms can prevent HIV, self-efficacy for HIV prevention, and confirmed use of clean needles, as compared to the control group. Condom use was rare and did not improve for women. While HIV testing was uncommon, knowledge of HIV-testing resources significantly increased among girls, and trended in the positive direction among women in intervention groups. Conversely, the savings education showed no impact on financial knowledge or behavior change.

  8. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Bengali population of northern West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, P; Bhattacharjee, S; Chaudhuri, T K

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Subcontinent exhibits extensive diversity in its culture, religion, ethnicity and linguistic heritage, which symbolizes extensive genetic variations within the populations. The highly polymorphic Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) family plays an important role in tracing genetic differentiation in human population. In this study, we aimed to analyse the KIR gene polymorphism in the Bengali population of northern West Bengal, India. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the KIR gene polymorphism in the Bengalis of West Bengal, India. Herein, we have studied the distribution of 14 KIR genes (KIR3DL1-3DL3, KIR2DL1-2DL5, KIR2DS1-2DS5 AND KIR3DS1) and two pseudogenes (KIR3DP1 and 2DP1) in the Bengalis. Apart from the framework genes (KIR2DL4, 3DL2, 3DL3 and 3DP1), which are present in all the individuals, the gene frequencies of other KIR genes varied between 0.34 and 0.88. Moreover, upon comparing the KIR polymorphism of the Bengalis with the available published data of other world populations, it has been found that the Indo-European-speaking Bengalis from the region share both Dravidian and Indo-Aryan gene pool with considerable influences of mongoloid and European descents. Furthermore, evidences from previously published data on human leucocyte antigen and Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity support the view. Our results will help to understand the genetic background of the Bengali population, in illustrating the population migration events in the eastern and north-eastern part of India, in explaining the extensive genetic admixture amongst the different linguistic groups of the region and also in KIR-related disease researches. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sources and sinks of CO2 in the west coast of Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Rao, V.D.; Viswanadham, R.; Kumar, N.A.; Kumari, T.R.; Gawade, L.; Ghatkar, S.; Tari, A.

    inthewestcoastof BayofBengal By V. V. S. S. SARMA 1 *, M. S. KRISHNA 1 ,V.D.RAO 1 , R. VISWANADHAM 1 , N. A. KUMAR 1 ,T.R.KUMARI 2 , L. GAWADE 1 ,S.GHATKAR 1 ANDA.TARI 1 1 NationalInstituteofOceanography,CouncilofScientificandIndustrialResearch(CSIR),176Lawsons... Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided...

  10. Diversity, metabolic properties and arsenic mobilization potential of indigenous bacteria in arsenic contaminated groundwater of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dhiraj; Kazy, Sufia K; Gupta, Ashok K; Pal, Taraknath; Sar, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) mobilization in alluvial aquifers is caused by a complex interplay of hydro-geo-microbiological activities. Nevertheless, diversity and biogeochemical significance of indigenous bacteria in Bengal Delta Plain are not well documented. We have deciphered bacterial community compositions and metabolic properties in As contaminated groundwater of West Bengal to define their role in As mobilization. Groundwater samples showed characteristic high As, low organic carbon and reducing property. Culture-independent and -dependent analyses revealed presence of diverse, yet near consistent community composition mostly represented by genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Brevundimonas, Polaromonas, Rhodococcus, Methyloversatilis and Methylotenera. Along with As-resistance and -reductase activities, abilities to metabolize a wide range carbon substrates including long chain and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and HCO3, As3+ as electron donor and As5+/Fe3+ as terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic growth were frequently observed within the cultivable bacteria. Genes encoding cytosolic As5+ reductase (arsC) and As3+ efflux/transporter [arsB and acr3(2)] were found to be more abundant than the dissimilatory As5+ reductase gene arrA. The observed metabolic characteristics showed a good agreement with the same derived from phylogenetic lineages of constituent populations. Selected bacterial strains incubated anaerobically over 300 days using natural orange sand of Pleistocene aquifer showed release of soluble As mostly as As3+ along with several other elements (Al, Fe, Mn, K, etc.). Together with the production of oxalic acid within the biotic microcosms, change in sediment composition and mineralogy indicated dissolution of orange sand coupled with As/Fe reduction. Presence of arsC gene, As5+ reductase activity and oxalic acid production by the bacteria were found to be closely related to their ability to mobilize sediment bound As. Overall observations suggest that

  11. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

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    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  12. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Otter, Philipp; Malakar, Pradyut; Jana, Bana Bihari; Grischek, Thomas; Benz, Florian; Goldmaier, Alexander; Feistel, Ulrike; Jana, Joydev; Lahiri, Susmita; Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the finding...

  13. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    D K Mukhopadhyay; S S Basu; D Roy; N Das; F Akbar; GN Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. Methods: A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/util...

  14. Study of the KIR gene profiles and analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of Rajbanshi population of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Pokhraj; Bhattacharjee, Soumen; Nayak, Chittaranjan; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2013-05-01

    The natural killer (NK) cells have distinct receptors called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) which are responsible for regulating NK cell responses to infections and malignancy. The extensive variations in the number and type of KIR genes can be used as a tool to understand the differentiation of populations and also for tracing genetic background. In this study, we have aimed to analyze the KIR gene polymorphism in the Rajbanshi population of West Bengal, India. To our knowledge this is the first report on the KIR gene polymorphism in the Rajbanshis, a population widely distributed in the Terai and Dooars region of West Bengal, India. Herein, we have studied the gene distribution of 14 KIR genes (KIR3DL1-3DL3, KIR 2DL1-2DL5, 2DS1-2DS5 and 3DS1) and two pseudogenes (KIR3DP1 and 2DP1). The gene frequencies and genotypic frequencies were calculated, based on which statistical analyses were performed. The presence of a considerable number of genotypic profiles suggests substantial diversity in the KIR gene pool of the Rajbanshis in the region studied. Apart from the framework genes (KIR2DL4, 3DL2, 3DL3 and 3DP1) present in all the individuals, the gene frequencies of other KIR genes varied between 0.84 and 0.15. Moreover the KIR polymorphisms of the Rajbanshis were also compared with that of available published data of the populations of other ethnicities. Though the Rajbanshi population showed a tendency to cluster with other Indian population based on KIR gene frequencies, the influence of Tibeto-Burman Lineage on their KIR genotypic profiles cannot be overlooked. Furthermore, evidences from previously published data on Y chromosome haplogroup diversity study on Rajbanshis support the view. Our results will not only help to understand the genetic background of the Rajbanshi population, but also in tracing the population migration events in the North-Eastern part of India and in illustrating the extensive genetic admixture amongst the different

  15. 1 Water Scarcity in Wetland Area within Kandi Block of West Bengal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    habitats representing a variety of shallow, vegetated systems ... turtles and bird species in the region (Burke et al., 2001; IUCN ... rural settlements and 93 villages. It is located ..... well as faunal richness has abruptly changed unexpectedly.

  16. On the Behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica in southern West Bengal, India

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    Mahua Roy Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ganga River Dolphin Platanista gangetica Roxburgh, 1801 is a globally endangered cetacean found in the River system of Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna in Bangladesh and India.  A survey and research were conducted from 2012–2014 to explore the behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Dolphin in the lower, middle and upper stretches of the river Ganga and its tributaries in southern West Bengal.  The study recorded different types of surfacing patterns with respect to their age class as well as on diurnal activity pattern of the individual. The adults and sub-adults were found to have different types of surfacing during different hours of the day.  The morning and afternoon were observed to be feeding hours of the Dolphin.  Multiple potential threats were encountered during the present study such as destructive fishing gears, dumping of solid and municipal waste, industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, construction of water structures, water extraction and reduction of river depth attributed to siltation.  These factors contributed to the present study of the river dolphins in the Ganga, which are localised at certain pockets in good number.  

  17. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

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    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Related to Diabetes Mellitus Among Diabetics and Nondiabetics Visiting Homeopathic Hospitals in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Arya, Jogendra Singh; Choubey, Gurudev; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Chattopadhyay, Rajat; Das, Kaushik Deb; Ghosh, Aloke; Hait, Himangsu; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Banerjee, Tanapa

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of undiagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus and poor knowledge, awareness, and practice has increased premature death, costly complications, and financial burden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2014 on 273 diabetics and 355 nondiabetics in 3 government homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. A self-administered questionnaire assessing knowledge, awareness, and practice related to diabetes was used. A total of 17.5% to 29.3% of the participants were aware of the normal blood sugar level. Lack of insulin, frequent urination, hypertension, and poor wound healing were identified most frequently as the cause, symptom, association, and complications. A total of 35.5% to 46.5% said that diabetes was preventable; 14.1% to 31.9% knew that diabetes was controllable rather than curable. Consumption of planned diet, avoiding sugar, and testing blood sugar were the most frequently identified components of healthy lifestyle, diabetic diet, and diagnostic domain. Diabetics had higher knowledge and awareness than nondiabetics (P diabetes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Concentrations of arsenic and other elements in groundwater of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India: potential cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Dong, Zhaomin; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the concentrations of 23 elements in groundwater from arsenic (As) contaminated areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India to determine the potential human exposure to metals and metalloids. Elevated concentrations of As was found in all five study areas that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10μg/L. The mean As concentrations in groundwater of Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur were 297μg/L, 262μg/L, 115μg/L, 161μg/L and 349μg/L, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Mn were also detected in all areas with mean concentrations were 139μg/L, 807μg/L, 341μg/L, 579μg/L and 584μg/L for Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur, respectively. Daily As intakes from drinking water for adults and the potential cancer risk for all areas was also estimated. Results suggest that mitigation activities such as water treatment should not only be focused on As but must also consider other elements including Mn, B and Ba. The groundwater used for public drinking purposes needs to be tested periodically for As and other elements to ensure the quality of drinking water is within the prescribed national guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory Morbidity among Rice Mill Workers in an Urban Area of Burdwan District, West Bengal: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhab Ch; Naskar, Somnath; Roy, Ramaprasad; Das, Dilip Kr; Das, Soumya

    2018-01-01

    Rice mill workers constitute a special group from the perspective of occupational health. Unprotected dust exposure among them adversely affects their respiratory health, which needs to be evaluated. Adequate evidence is still lacking in many parts of India including West Bengal. Burdwan is one of the main rice-producing districts in the state with abundant rice mills. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and pattern of respiratory morbidity and associated background characteristics of rice mill workers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Burdwan municipality area during July-December 2016. Considering 44.2% prevalence, 95% confidence interval, 15% allowable error, 10% non-response, a sample of 252 directly engaged rice mill workers were selected through multistage random sampling. With prior consent, the subjects were interviewed, clinically examined, and underwent spirometry; relevant records were also reviewed using a pre-designed schedule. Any abnormal spirometry finding was considered as respiratory morbidity. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethics committee. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was 40.73% with obstructive and restrictive respiratory morbidity being 24.60% and 16.13%, respectively. Non-use of any protective measure, duration (years) of working in rice mill and average daily working hours were significant predictors of respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity is quite high in the area. Proper health education and provision of personal protective equipments need to be provided.

  1. Anthropometric characteristics and evaluation of nutritional status amongst female brick field workers of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, M; Sahu, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the body composition and hand grip strength as indirect measures of nutritional status of 162 female workers and the status of the serum oxidative stress enzymes of 35 female workers engaged in the manual brick making units of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India. Results show that the waist-hip ratio values (mean 0.79 vs. 0.83; p=0.0034) are significantly greater amongst the brick carriers than the moulders. The body density (mean 1067.0 vs. 1056.0kg/m(3); pright (mean 379.52 vs. 267.72N; pwomen are poorly nourished. The hand grip strength is quite high in both groups of workers but consecutively decreases with the passage of time. Reduced levels of GSH and GST indicate that there is a higher level of reactive oxygen species inducing oxidative stress in the body. The probable causes of this state might be the intake of less nutritious food, polluted environment, excess ambient temperature and improper workstation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of remote sensing, GIS and MCA techniques for delineating groundwater prospect zones in Kashipur block, Purulia district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Kundu, Anindita

    2018-03-01

    Demand of groundwater resources has increased manifold with population expansion as well as with the advent of modern civilization. Assessment, planning and management of groundwater resource are becoming crucial and extremely urgent in recent time. The study area belongs to Kashipur block, Purulia district, West Bengal. The area is characterized with dry climate and hard rock terrain. The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater potential zone for the assessment of groundwater availability using remote sensing, GIS and MCA techniques. Different thematic layers such as hydrogeomorphology, slope and lineament density maps have been transformed to raster data in TNT mips pro2012. To assign weights and ranks to different input factor maps, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique has been used. The weights assigned to each factor have been computed statistically. Weighted index overlay modeling technique was used to develop a groundwater potential zone map with three weighted and scored parameters. Finally, the study area has been categorized into four distinct groundwater potential zones—excellent 1.5% (6.45 sq. km), good 53% (227.9 sq. km), moderate 45% (193.5 sq. km.) and poor 0.5% (2.15 sq. km). The outcome of the present study will help local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating proper planning and management of groundwater resources in different hydrogeological situations.

  3. Study on work load and work-related musculoskeletal disorders amongst male jute mill workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2012-01-01

    Work-related problems, many of which could be prevented with proper ergonomic techniques are particularly common in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work stress and the development of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) of workers employed in the jute mills of India. About 219 male workers engaged in different departments of three jute industries in 24-Parganas (North) and Hooghly districts of West Bengal, India volunteered for this study. Questionnaires along with direct observation of work postures were conducted. Physical parameters such as body weight, height; physiological parameters like heart rate response, blood pressure and psycho-physiological parameters such as perceived exertion rating were studied during different tasks performed by them. It was observed that the 'hacklers' are mostly stressed. Analyses of working postures (OWAS) suggested that their adopted awkward postures were very stressful. A large number of hacklers (92.5% suffer from intense pain in different body parts as compared to workers in other departments of the jute industries. Workers report that the pain even lasts many hours after work. Since most of the workers perform repetitive tasks, so both the workplace as well as the work-rest schedule must be reorganized.

  4. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

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    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10% mortalities, despite the use of antibiotics. Acclimatization of seeds was practiced by the majority of farmers before stocking. Different feeds including slaughter-house wastes and dead poultry were supplied. Multiple stocking and harvesting were a common practice. Major problems identified were insufficient feed, disease, transport, poor seed quality and lack of financial support. The survival percentage was poor, as 88% of the farmers recorded <40–50% survival at harvest. Dropsy was the most common disease and had a significant impact on economy. Antibiotics or other aquadrugs were frequently used for treatment, although the success varied. In general, the C. gariepinus farming has helped to recycle the wastes generated in and around metropolitan Kolkata and adjacent municipalities into wealth, but it suffers from management issues and huge economic losses. This calls for immediate attention from researchers, administrators and extension personals.

  5. A physiological exploration on operational stance and occupational musculoskeletal problem manifestations amongst construction labourers of West Bengal, India.

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    Chatterjee, Arijit; Sahu, Subhashis

    2018-03-29

    A huge number of labourers engaged in construction industry in India both in organized and unorganized sectors. The construction labourers most often work for an extended period of time and they are compelled to uphold altered static and dynamic operational stance in awkward positions during the complete period of work which raises the demand on the musculoskeletal system and may lead to work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). This study is intended to explore the operational stance and occupation related musculoskeletal manifestations amongst the construction labourers. One sixty four male labourers from different construction sites of West Bengal was randomly taken for this study. A modified Nordic questionnaire on MSD and the 12 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) were administered on the construction labourers. Rapid Entire Body Assessment [REBA] and Ovako Work Analysis System [OWAS] methods were applied to analyze the operational stance. Finally, discomfort levels of the specific operational stance were calculated by the use of risk level and BPD scale. From the study it was revealed that most of the construction labourers habitually in awkward operational stance and were affected by altering musculoskeletal manifestations like pain in low back, neck, and wrist. It has been also found that there is a significant (pconstruction labourers in unorganized sectors.

  6. The hydrocarbon potential of the West Bengal basin of Eastern India and Western Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.V.; Lenengerger, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Within the Bengal Basin is an extensively developed Eocene shelf system with fair to good potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. The best quality data available to evaluate this play are from the Bogra Shelf area of Bangladesh. Within this general area Stanvac participated in the drilling of 13 wells in the late 1950's, including critical wells on the Bogra Shelf. This well data, combined with modern excellent quality seismic data, has allowed definition of a geological and geophysical constrained hydrocarbon system model. Potential source, reservoir and seal units can be identified or postulated from both well and seismic data within the Eocene depositional systems tracts. The most promising potential source rock unit identified on the Bogra Shelf to date are Upper Jalangi (Early Ecocene) shales containing oil-prone kerogens that average 4.7% TOC. Four wells, structurally up-dip of the defined play area, have good oil shows in thermally immature Jalangi sands indicating possible up dip migration. Reservoir strata have not been penetrated on the Bogra Shelf. Based basin modelling and seismic data, however, a foraminiferal grain stone facies within the Middle Eocene Sylthet Limestone carbonate buildups could provide a suitable reservoir. The tight micritic facies within the Sylhet Limestone and the overlying late Eocene Kopilli Shale form the updip, lateral and top seals for these stratigraphic traps. Exploration risks associated with this play include the following: (1) Limited drainage areas for the identified leads; (2) Carbonate build-ups may be perched on impermeable strata, precluding vertical charging; (3) presence, and up-dip limit of reservoir is speculative. (author)

  7. Biogeochemical Controls on the Release and Accumulation of Mn and As in Shallow Aquifers, West Bengal, India

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    Michael A. Vega

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSManganese and arsenic concentrations are elevated in Murshidabad groundwater.Manganese release appears to be independent of dissolved organic matter quality.Mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions impact fate of manganese.Arsenic concentrations are related to dissolved organic matter quantity and quality.The prevalence of manganese (Mn in Southeast Asian drinking water has recently become a topic of discussion, particularly when concurrent with elevated arsenic (As. Although Mn groundwater geochemistry has been studied, the link between dissolved organic matter (DOM quality and Mn release is less understood. This work evaluates characteristics of DOM, redox chemistry, and the distribution of Mn within Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. Shallow aquifer samples were analyzed for cations, anions, dissolved organic carbon, and DOM properties using 3-dimensional fluorescence excitation emission matrices followed by parallel factor modeling analyses. Two biogeochemical regimes are apparent, separated geographically by the river Bhagirathi. East of the river, where Eh and nitrate (NO3− values are low, humic-like DOM coexists with high dissolved Mn, As, and Fe. West of the river, lower dissolved As and Fe concentrations are coupled with more protein-like DOM and higher NO3− and Eh values. Dissolved Mn concentrations are elevated in both regions. Based on the distribution of available electron acceptors, it is hypothesized that groundwater east of the Bhagirathi, which is more reducing and enriched in dissolved Fe and Mn but depleted in NO3−, is chemically dominated by Mn(IV/Fe(III reduction processes. West of the river where NO3− is abundant yet dissolved Fe is absent, NO3− and Mn(IV likely buffer redox conditions such that Eh values are not sufficiently reducing to release Fe into the dissolved phase. The co-occurrence of humic-like DOM with dissolved As, Fe, and Mn in the more reducing aquifers may reflect complex formation

  8. Air Pollution over North-West Bay of Bengal in the Early Post-Monsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2013-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO). This reanalysis is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model radiatively coupled with GOCART aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. Our main finding is that, in October, in the absence of aerosol sources in north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB), MERRAero showed increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin. The Ganges basin is characterized by significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation: this has resulted in declining air quality. MERRAero data for the period 2002-2009 was used to study AOT trends over north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mmmonth. Different aerosol components showed strong increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB. The following factors contributed to the increasing AOT trend over the area in question in October: an increasing number of days when prevailing winds blew from land to sea, resulting in a drier environment and an increase in air pollution over north-west BoB; wind convergence was observed over north-west BoB causing the accumulation of aerosol particles over that region, when prevailing winds blew from land to sea. MERRAero aerosol reanalysis can be used on a global scale.

  9. Association of calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR) polymorphism with kidney stone disease in the population of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Pubali; Guha, Manalee; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Mukherjee, Sourav; Bankura, Biswabandhu; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Maity, Biswanath; Das, Madhusudan

    2017-07-30

    Kidney Stone Disease (KSD) is a complex urologic disorder with strong genetic constituent. Earlier association studies have indicated that the genetic polymorphisms are the potential cause of stone materialization; however unfortunately, the actual genetic signature is still unknown. Therefore, present study was aimed to investigate the potential contribution of two important polymorphisms of calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR): (i) rs1801197 (Leu447Pro) and (ii) rs1042138 (3'UTR+18C>T) in renal stone formation. Accordingly, we enrolled 152 patients registered with calcium-rich stone in kidney (case) and 144 corresponding age, sex and ethnicity matched healthy individuals (controls). Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded as well as peripheral blood sample was collected from each individual. Serum creatinine and urinary calcium level was found high in patients, compared to controls. Out of two studied polymorphisms, we have not found any significant association against the rs1042138 with KSD, nonetheless, significant high frequency (p=0.001; Odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI: 1.28-2.55) of risk allele T against the rs1801197 (T>C) in patient was noted. Moreover, significant association with KSD was noted by genotypic analysis of rs1801197 (Leu447Pro) in our population. Interestingly, male patients carrying TT genotype was found to be at high risk of stone formation, while no such association was observed in female patients. Altogether, present study indicated that the rs1042138 might not be used as a useful marker for susceptibility of kidney stone formation, whereas, the rs1801197 could definitely be considered as one of the risk factors for KSD in Indian population at least in West Bengal in particular. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Size-fractionation of groundwater arsenic in alluvial aquifers of West Bengal, India: the role of organic and inorganic colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Nath, Bibhash; Sarkar, Simita; Chatterjee, Debashis; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Fe mineral phases are known to influence the mobility of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Arsenic can be associated with colloidal particles containing organic matter and Fe. Currently, no data is available on the dissolved phase/colloidal association of As in groundwater of alluvial aquifers in West Bengal, India. This study investigated the fractional distribution of As (and other metals/metalloids) among the particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases in groundwater to decipher controlling behavior of organic and inorganic colloids on As mobility. The result shows that 83-94% of As remained in the 'truly dissolved' phases (i.e., 0.05 μm size) colloidal particles, which indicates the close association of As with larger Fe-rich inorganic colloids. In smaller (i.e., <0.05 μm size) colloidal particles strong positive correlation is observed between As and DOC (r(2)=0.85), which highlights the close association of As with smaller organic colloids. As(III) is mainly associated with larger inorganic colloids, whereas, As(V) is associated with smaller organic/organometallic colloids. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the association of As with DOC and Fe mineral phases suggesting the formation of dissolved organo-Fe complexes and colloidal organo-Fe oxide phases. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirms the formation of As-Fe-NOM organometallic colloids, however, a detailed study of these types of colloids in natural waters is necessary to underpin their controlling behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors associated with default among retreatment tuberculosis patients on DOTS in Paschim Medinipur district (West Bengal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, S S; Dutt, D

    2014-07-01

    In India in 2010, 14.1% of retreatment of TB patients' treatment outcome was 'default'. Since 2002, in Paschim Midnapur District (West Bengal), it has been around 15-20%. To determine the timing, characteristics and risk factors associated with default among retreatment TB patients on DOTS. It was a case control study, conducted in six TB units (TU) of Paschim Midnapur District, which were selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected from treatment records of TUs/DTC. Data was also collected through interviews of the patients using the same pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire from 87 defaulters and 86 consecutively registered non-defaulters registered in first quarter, 2009 to second quarter, 2010. Median duration of treatment taken before default was 121 days (inter-quartile range of 64-176 days). Median number of doses of treatment taken before default was 36 (inter -quartile range of 26-63 doses). No retrieval action was documented in 57.5% cases. Retrieval was done between 0-7 days of missed doses in 29.9% cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated the following important risk factors for default at 95% confidence interval: male-sex limit: [aOR 3.957 (1.162-13.469)], alcoholic inebriation[ aOR6.076 (2.088-17.675)], distance from DOT centre [aOR 4.066 (1.675-9.872)], number of missed doses during treatment [aOR 1.849 (1.282-2.669)] and no initial home visit [aOR 10.607 (2.286 -49.221)]. In Paschim Midnapur district, default of retreatment TB occurs mostly after a few doses in continuation phase. Initial home visit, patient provider meeting, retrieval action, community-based treatment as per RNTCP guidelines are required to uplift the programme.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a phosphate solubilizing heavy metal tolerant bacterium from River Ganga, West Bengal, India

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    Dipak Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphates solubilizing bacterial (PSB strains were isolated from the jute mill effluent discharge area of the Ganga river water at Bansberia, West Bengal, India. Experimental studies found that the strain KUPSB16 was effective in solubilization of phosphate with phosphate solubilization index (SI = 3.14 in Pikovskaya’s agar plates along with maximum solubilized phosphate production of 208.18 g mL-1 in broth culture. Highest drop in pH value was associated with maximum amount of phosphate solubilization by the PSB strain KUPSB16 where pH decreased to 3.53 from initial value of 7.0±0.2. The isolated PSB strains were tested for tolerance against four heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn at concentrations 1-15 mM. The results showed that most of the PSB isolates grew well at low concentrations of heavy metals and their number gradually decreased as the concentration increased. Isolated PSB strain KUPSB16 was tested for its multiple metal resistances. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for Cd2+, Cr6+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in tris-minimal broth medium were 4.2, 5.5, 3.6 and 9.5 mM respectively. The MIC values for the metals studied on agar medium was higher than in broth medium and ranged from 4.8-11.0 mM. The isolated bacterial strain KUPSB16 was subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization and identified as the species of the genus Bacillus. The phosphate solubilizing bacterium possessing the properties of multiple heavy metal tolerance in heavy metal contaminated areas might be exploited for bioremediation studies in future.

  13. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  14. Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Kumar, Amit; Dave, Richa; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Shukla, Mridul Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields.

  15. Nicotine dependence and its correlates among the adult tobacco users in a slum of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India

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    Indranil Saha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco kills half of its users, with smoking and smokeless tobacco killing nearly 6 million people worldwide – one death every 6 s in each year. Use of tobacco over time causes a physical and psychological addiction due to the presence of nicotine. To find out the level of nicotine dependence among adult (18 years and above tobacco users and the factors responsible for it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 128 current tobacco users in an urban slum of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India. Study tools comprised of predesigned, pretested, semi-structured schedule, containing Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND questionnaire. Data were collected by interview after getting consent from the participants. Chi-square test, unpaired student t-test, ANOVA, correlation coefficient, and linear regression was calculated. SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Inc, Chicago, IL, USA. was used for analysis. Results: High level of nicotine dependence was maximally seen among increased in age group, prolonged duration of use and daily users. Age, duration of tobacco use and habit of tobacco use had a significant positive correlation with FTND score while starting age of tobacco had a significant negative correlation. Then in multivariable linear regression, starting age of tobacco use, habit of tobacco use and duration of tobacco use emerged as a significant predictor of FTND score and could explain 27.3% of total variation in FTND score. Conclusions: Suitable plan for quitting may be developed based on the FTND score of an individual, the most important determinant of quitting.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Darjeeling district of West Bengal

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    Sibasis Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is a significant problem both in individual as well as community level. Different studies around globe revealed that these diagnostic delays are attributed to both patient delay and health system-related delay. Aims: This study aims to assess the magnitude of delay in diagnosis and the association with sociodemographic profile among new sputum-positive pulmonary TB patients in Darjeeling district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 374 TB patients from October 2011 to March 2012 using a predesigned pretested schedule by face-to-face interview. Statistical Analysis: Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR, adjusted ORs. Results: Patient delay, health system delay and total diagnostic delay were 27 days, 20.1 days, and 20.6 days; mean delays were 23.64, 5.71, and 29.46 days, and median delays were 25, 5, and 32 days, respectively. Risk factors associated with patient delay were female gender, rural residence, illiteracy, smoking, alcohol consumption, taking two, or more alternate treatments; for health system delay were female sex, rural residence, time to reach health facility, time spent per visit; and for total diagnostic delay were female sex, alcoholism, and seeking more than two alternate treatment. Conclusions: The risk factors for delay identified may be the subject of future interventions.

  17. Lessons Learned From Developing a Sustainable Arsenic-Safe Water Program in West Bengal, India Over a Period of Eight Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Liaw, J.; Hira, A.; Guha, P.; Pal, S. S.; Hore, T.; Smith, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen, and causes many cancers and noncancer diseases. Recent findings have shown that exposure to arsenic in drinking water as a child or before birth can cause illness and death even as an adult. In the West Bengal region of India, more than six million people are drinking crystal clear but arsenic-contaminated water from tubewells. Project Well, a non-profit organization based in California, has provided safe drinking water to villages in West Bengal since 2001 through modern modified dugwells, currently numbering 163. Along the way, Project Well has faced the challenge of persuading people to stop consuming good-tasting, arsenic-laced water and instead drink chlorinated water, which is safe but may have the smell of chlorine. Additionally, West Bengal receives abundant annual rainfall, and hence it is difficult to convince people to pay for treated water. From its inception, the Project Well program was set up with a tracking system to assess the efficacy of the modern dugwells, which has helped identify where technical improvements were needed. Continuous interaction with community-based user groups has also helped overcome many constraints and make the program sustainable. Project Well monitoring records from August 2010 show that out of 163 modern dugwells, 48 percent were being used, providing water for 2948 villagers; 23 percent were closed; 6 percent were dry (11 districts of West Bengal were in a drought); 6 percent required maintenance; and 7 percent were not used. Arsenic concentrations in the modern dugwells were measured every year during peak season when the water table was low and the median arsenic concentration of operational dugwells over the eight years between 2002 and 2010 was 15 ppb (the permissible limit in India is 50 ppb). Each year, about 6 to 10 percent of the dugwells have arsenic levels above 50 ppb during the summer season, when the water level is low. Bacterial counts, i.e., total coliform and fecal coliform, are

  18. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-10-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, {HCO}3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and {SO}4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( {HCO}3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( {HCO}3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality

  19. VISUAL OUTCOME OF OCULAR INJURY IN PAEDIATRIC POPULATION PRESENTING AT TERTIARY EYE CARE CENTRE IN WEST BENGAL

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    Somnath Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ocular trauma is an important worldwide cause of visual morbidity. It includes a spectrum of simple ocular surface foreign bodies, minute corneal abrasions to devastating perforating injuries causing blindness. Children are particularly susceptible to ocular trauma. Identification of the cause of injuries among children may help in determining the most effective measures to prevent visual loss. The purpose of this study is to analyse visual status at the time of presentation and to find the time gap between the occurrence of trauma and presentation, intervention and visual outcome in paediatric ocular trauma at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Kolkata, West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 children (age 0-14 yrs. who attended outpatient department and emergency of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology and got admitted were included in the study. Detailed history regarding mode of injury, type of injury, time of injury and time elapsed to attend the hospital from the onset of injury noted. Recording of visual acuity and detailed clinical examination done. Appropriate medical and surgical treatment given as per the standard protocol after assessing the type of injury. Visual outcome assessed by doing follow up at presentation at 1 month and 6 month after injury. RESULTS Our study showed that 37% of the children who presented to us had visual acuity between 2/60 and Perception of light (PL positive. 7% had vision between 6/6 and 6/12. PL was denied in 5% patients. Majority (44% of the children who suffered ocular trauma presented to our hospital between 25-48 hrs. of injury. 88 out 100 patients who were hospitalised were operated within the first 24 hours. At one month after injury, 28% had visual acuity between 6/60 and 3/60 and six months after injury, 25% had visual acuity between 6/18 and 6/36. CONCLUSION Close supervision at home, school and playground, public awareness and education regarding the hazardous nature of

  20. Diverse gene cassettes in class 1 integrons of facultative oligotrophic bacteria of River Mahananda,West Bengal, India.

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    Ranadhir Chakraborty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study a large random collection (n=2188 of facultative oligotrophic bacteria, from 90 water samples gathered in three consecutive years (2007-2009 from three different sampling sites of River Mahananda in Siliguri, West Bengal, India, were investigated for the presence of class 1 integrons and sequences of the amplification products. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Replica plating method was employed for determining the antibiotic resistance profile of the randomly assorted facultative oligotrophic isolates. Genomic DNA from each isolate was analyzed by PCR for the presence of class 1 integron. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Numerical taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were done to ascertain putative genera of the class 1 integron bearing isolates. Out of 2188 isolates, 1667 (76.19% were antibiotic-resistant comprising of both single-antibiotic resistance (SAR and multiple-antibiotic resistant (MAR, and 521 (23.81% were sensitive to all twelve different antibiotics used in this study. Ninety out of 2188 isolates produced amplicon(s of varying sizes from 0.15 to 3.45 KB. Chi-square (χ(2 test revealed that the possession of class 1 integron in sensitive, SAR and MAR is not equally probable at the 1% level of significance. Diverse antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, aadA1, aadA2, aadA4, aadA5, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA16, dfrA17, dfrA28, dfrA30, dfr-IIe, blaIMP-9, aacA4, Ac-6'-Ib, oxa1, oxa10 and arr2 were detected in 64 isolates. The novel cassettes encoding proteins unrelated to any known antibiotic resistance gene function were identified in 26 isolates. Antibiotic-sensitive isolates have a greater propensity to carry gene cassettes unrelated to known antibiotic-resistance genes. The integron-positive isolates under the class Betaproteobacteria comprised of only two genera, Comamonas and Acidovorax of family Comamonadaceae, while isolates under class Gammaproteobacteria fell under the families

  1. Gestational diabetes: How risky are the mothers of rural Bengal,India

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali Sain

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of gestational diabetes in antenatal mothers can improve both pregnancy and fetal outcome. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the magnitude of gestational diabetes by selective screening using “American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk approach strategy” and distribution of risk factors of gestational diabetes among the mothers attending the antenatal clinic of Singur Rural Hospital. Pregnant women with gestational age between 24-28...

  2. Gestational diabetes: How risky are the mothers of rural Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali Sain; Prianka Mukhopadhyay; Tushar Kanti Saha; Ritu Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of gestational diabetes in antenatal mothers can improve both pregnancy and fetal outcome. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the magnitude of gestational diabetes by selective screening using “American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk approach strategy” and distribution of risk factors of gestational diabetes among the mothers attending the antenatal clinic of Singur Rural Hospital. Pregnant women with gestational age between 24-28 weeks were interv...

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MAN-BITING POPULATION OF FILARIAL VECTOR Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae BETWEEN TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL AREAS OF BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available West Bengal, India is endemic for filariasis and the number of patients infected with bancroftian filariasis is increasing. There are no observation on the potential vector of filariasis from the tribal areas that make up considerable part in this state. This study investigate population of Cx. quinquefasciatus in tribal and non-tribal areas of Bankura district. Species composition of mosquitoes, per man-hour density, hourly densities of night biting Cx. quinquefasciatus, number of Cx. quinquefasciatus biting per man per day and per man per night. Preferential biting site and peak period of filarial transmission were recorded from both the study areas. Infection rate, infectivity rate of man-landing vector population and annual transmission potential were observed to be 0.31%, 0.00% and 0.00 in tribal areas and 0.73%, 0.23% and 359.71 in non-tribal areas respectively.

  4. PCR AND ELOCTRON MICROSCOPY BASED DIAGNOSIS OF AN OUTBREAK OF HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN BUFFALO AND ITS CONTROL IN A FARM OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Mintu Chowdhury

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhagic Septicemia was investigated in Cattle Re-Settlement Project Farm, Ganganagar, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India in the month of December, 2013. Out of 102 nos. of buffalo, 25 animals were affected and 17 were died within 12 - 72 hours. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of history, clinical signs, post mortem findings, histopathological examination, bacteriological study, biochemical tests, biological test, PCR assay and finally by Electron microscopical examination. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for the isolate. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by therapeutic measures, immunization, restriction of movement of animals and proper disposal of carcasses.

  5. Surveillance of bluetongue virus antibody in goats using a recombinant VP7-based indirect ELISA in the coastal saline area of West Bengal, India

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    Raj K. Singh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the serological surveillance of bluetongue virus (BTV group-specific antibody in goats of the coastal saline (Sunderban area of West Bengal, India. A recombinant viral protein 7 (rVP7-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the antibody in sera. The bacterially expressed rVP7 was purified by affinity chromatography. The diagnostic performance of the assay was assessed by comparing it to the commercially available previously validated competitive ELISA. Using the control and 1 202 test sera, the cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity as well as other performance characteristics e.g. the Youden index, efficiency, positive and negative predictive value and prevalence were estimated. Field-collected goat sera (n = 1 202 were tested and a serological prevalence rate of 47% was observed in the study area.

  6. Role of microRNAs in senescence and its contribution to peripheral neuropathy in the arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debmita; Bandyopadhyay, Apurba; Sarma, Nilendu; Basu, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Tarit; Roy, Sib Sankar; Giri, Ashok K

    2018-02-01

    Arsenic induced senescence (AIS) has been identified in the population of West Bengal, India very recently. Also there is a high incidence of arsenic induced peripheral neuropathy (PN) throughout India. However, the epigenetic regulation of AIS and its contribution in arsenic induced PN remains unexplored. We recruited seventy two arsenic exposed and forty unexposed individuals from West Bengal to evaluate the role of senescence associated miRNAs (SA-miRs) in AIS and their involvement if any, in PN. The downstream molecules of the miRNA associated with the disease outcome, was also checked by immuoblotting. In vitro studies were conducted with HEK 293 cells and sodium arsenite exposure. Our results show that all the SA-miRs were upregulated in comparison to unexposed controls. miR-29a was the most significantly altered, highest expression being in the arsenic exposed group with PN, suggesting its association with the occurrence of PN. We looked for the expression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), a specific target of miR-29a associated with myelination and found that both in vitro and in vivo results showed over-expression of the protein. Since this was quite contrary to miRNA regulation, we checked for intermediate players β-catenin and GSK-3β upon arsenic exposure which affects PMP22 expression. We found that β-catenin was upregulated in vitro and was also highest in the arsenic exposed group with PN while GSK-3β followed the reverse pattern. Our findings suggest that arsenic exposure alters the expression of SA-miRs and the mir-29a/beta catenin/PMP22 axis might be responsible for arsenic induced PN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Adherence to anti-retroviral therapy & factors associated with it: A community based cross-sectional study from West Bengal, India

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    Sobha Pahari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Failure to adhere to anti-retroviral therapy (ART can lead to a range of unfavourable consequences impacting upon people living with HIV (PLH and society. It is, therefore, paramount that ART adherence is measured in a reliable manner and factors associated with adherence are identified. Lack of such data from West Bengal necessitated undertaking the current study. Methods: Participants were included during August-October, 2011 from three Drop-In-Centres (DICs from the three districts of West Bengal, India. ART-adherence was calculated by using formula based on pill-count and records collected from ART-card in possession of each of the 128 consenting adult PLH. Information on self-reported adherence, socio-demography, and adherence influencing issues was also collected through interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the 128 PLH, 99 (77% and 93 (73% PLH had ≥90 per cent and ≥95 per cent adherence, respectively to ART. Conversely, subjective reporting captured much higher proportion of PLH as ′well adherent′; a finding having implications for ongoing ART programme. Factors, independently associated with poor adherence (<90%, were ′7 th to 12 th month period of ART intake′ (adjusted OR=9.5; 90% CI 1.9 - 47.3; p0 =0.02 and ′non-disclosure of HIV status to family members′ (adjusted OR=4; 90% CI 1.3 - 13; P=0.05. Results at 95 per cent adherence cut-off were similar. Interpretation & conclusions: Enabling environment, which would encourage people to disclose their HIV status and in turn seek adherence partners from families and beyond and ongoing adherence-counselling appear to be important issues in the programme. Relevance of these study findings in wider context is conceivable.

  8. INCIDENCE & CAUSES OF NEONATAL HYPOGLYCEMIA AFTER CESAREAN SECTION IN A RURAL SETUP OF WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Rudradev; Anirban; Abhijit; Maitreyi; Banani; Srimanta; Loknath; Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycaemia a major cause of morbidity and mortality may lead to permanent brain damage. This is more common in babies delivered by Caesar ean Section. AIMS: A clinico - statistical study was performed among newborns delivered by Caesarean Section for a period of 1 year to find out: 1. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia at 48 hrs of birth. 2. Risk factors of neonatal hypoglycemia in case of cesarean section. 3. Incidence of neonat...

  9. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathy, ABO and rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bikash Mondal; Soumyajit Maiti; Biplab Kumar Biswas; Debidas Ghosh; Shyamapada Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It could be formed a fatal scenario in concern of lacking of actual information. Beside this, ABO and Rh blood grouping are also important matter in transfusion and forensic medicine and to reduce new born hemolytic disease (NHD). Materials and Methods: The spectrum and prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies, ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups was screened among patients who visited B.S. Medical College...

  10. Gestational diabetes: How risky are the mothers of rural Bengal, India

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    Sonali Sain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of gestational diabetes in antenatal mothers can improve both pregnancy and fetal outcome. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the magnitude of gestational diabetes by selective screening using “American Diabetes Association (ADA risk approach strategy” and distribution of risk factors of gestational diabetes among the mothers attending the antenatal clinic of Singur Rural Hospital. Pregnant women with gestational age between 24-28 weeks were interviewed using a predesigned schedule adapted from American Diabetes Association and WHO guidelines and their clinical and obstetrical examination was done. Mothers identified with at least 1 risk factor were advised for screening by Glucose Challenge test (GCT. Those with a positive result were confirmed by Glucose Tolerance Test. Out of 625 antenatal mothers, majority i.e. 60.32% of the mothers were exposed to low risk for developing gestational diabetes. Among 248 (39.68% mothers who had at least one risk factor, 20.56% were GCT positive amounting to 8.16% of the total population. 11.69% of the mothers with positive risk factors were GTT positive amounting to 56.86% of GCT positive mothers. This accounted for 4.64% of the total study population. Thus this method of preliminary screening for risk factors of gestational diabetes undertaken in all antenatal mothers followed by confirmatory testing in those found to be risk factor positive can provide a feasible alternative in increasing the yield for detection of gestational diabetes articularly in a low resource setting.

  11. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 collected from a rural coastal island of the Bay of Bengal (Bhola, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohel, Mohammad; Kistler, Magdalena; Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Reid, Jeffrey S; Salam, Abdus

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on the chemical characterization of fine aerosol particles (PM 2.5 ) collected from a rural remote island of the Bay of Bengal (Bhola, Bangladesh) from April to August, 2013. PM 2.5 particle-loaded filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions, and selected saccharides (levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol, and mannitol). The average PM 2.5 mass was 15.0 ± 6.9 μg m -3 . Organic carbon and elemental carbon comprised roughly half of the analyzed components. Organic carbon was the predominant contributor to total carbon (TC) and accounting for about 28% of PM 2.5 mass. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) was inferred to be ~ 26% of OC. The sum of ions comprised ~ 27% of PM 2.5 mass. The contribution of sea salt aerosol was smaller than expected for a sea-near site (17%), and very high chloride depletion was observed (78%). NssSO 4 2- was a dominant ionic component with an average concentration of 2.0 μg m -3 followed by Na + , NH 4 + , and nssCa 2+ . The average concentration of arabitol and mannitol was 0.11 and 0.14 μg m -3 , respectively, while levoglucosan and its stereoisomers (mannosan and galactosan) were bellow detection limit. NH 4 + /SO 4 2- equivalent ratio was 0.30 ± 0.13 indicating that secondary inorganic aerosol is not the main source of SO 4 2- . Enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that SO 4 2- and NO 3 - were enriched in atmospheric particles compared to sea aerosol and soil indicating their anthropogenic origin. Higher OC/EC ratio (3.70 ± 0.88) was a good indicator of the secondary organic compounds formation. Other ratios (OC/EC, K + /EC, nssSO 4 2- /EC) and correlation analysis suggested mixed sources for carbonaceous components. Arabitol and mannitol both showed strong correlation with EC having R 2 value 0.89 and 0.95, respectively. Air mass trajectories analysis showed that concentrations of soil and anthropogenic species were lower for air masses

  12. Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural Farmers in West-Akim District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural. Farmers in West-Akim District. Esther Yeboah Da11so-Wired11. Abstract. The study is on the rural transportation problem in Ghana and its consequences on the rural people, especially those who live in off road villages (villages that do not have access to regular transportation ...

  13. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors for cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice in rural and urban areas of North Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Sreejata; Mandal, Sukanta

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women worldwide. A multitude of risk factors aggravate the disease. This study was conducted to: (1) determine the prevalence and (2) make a comparative analysis of the socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors of cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice between rural and urban women of North Bengal, India. Community-based cross-sectional study. A survey (first in North Bengal) was conducted among 133 women in a rural area (Kawakhali) and 88 women in an urban slum (Shaktigarh) using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were informed of the causes (including HPV), signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer and treatment, and the procedure of the PAP test and HPV vaccination. The prevalence of risk factors like multiparity, early age of marriage, use of cloth during menstruation, use of condom and OCP, early age of first intercourse was 37.2%, 82%, 83.3%, 5.4%, 15.8% and 65.6% respectively. Awareness about the cause, signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer, PAP test and HPV vaccination was 3.6%, 6.3%, 3.6%, 9.5% and 14.5% respectively. Chi-square testing revealed that in the study population, significant differential at 5% exists between rural and urban residents with respect to number of children, use of cloth/sanitary napkins, family history of cancer and awareness regarding causes of cervical cancer. Regarding KAP, again using chi-square tests, surprisingly, level of education is found to be significant for each element of KAP in urban areas in contrast to complete absence of association between education and elements of KAP in rural areas. A large number of risk factors were present in both areas, the prevalence being higher in the rural areas. The level of awareness and role of education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban areas. This pilot study needs to be followed up by large scale programmes to re-orient awareness campaigns, especially in

  14. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

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    Pallabi Dasgupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173. Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%, followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  15. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  16. Radiotracer technique to quantify change in filtration velocity as a measure of dilution effect by artificial recharge in an arsenic infested aquifer at Ashoknagar, Habra - II block, 24 Paragana district, West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.P.; Sharma, Suman

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotopes are frequently employed as tracers for various applications in industry, agricultural, medicine and hydrology. In hydrology, radiotracers are commonly applied to investigate several hydrological parameters of aquifers such as hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity and direction of flow etc. They impart valuable insight into the understanding of the hydrological systems. Application of radioisotopes in determination of groundwater flow velocity is now a well established technique. In this paper, groundwater filtration velocity was determined in an arsenic infested alluvium aquifer at Ashoknagar, Habra, West Bengal for determining the dilution effect due to arsenic free water. In some parts of West Bengal, generally shallow aquifers up to 80 m deep are contaminated due to geogenic arsenic. Researchers have different views about origin and mobility of arsenic in the groundwaters of West Bengal. For the removal of Arsenic from the groundwater various methods have been suggested and implemented such as ion-exchange, co-precipitation, adsorption, membrane separation and dilution etc. Dilution of the Arsenic concentration by artificial recharge of arsenic free water from the constructed pits in the contaminated aquifer is one such simple method. Efficacy of this method was studied by measuring filtration velocity in the contaminated aquifer at the Ashoknagar, Habra - II Block, North 24 Paragana district, West Bengal. Radioactive 82 Br in the form of aqueous ammonium bromide was used as a tracer to measure filtration velocity of the groundwater. Point dilution technique in a single well was applied. Filtration velocity provided relevant information about the arsenic dilution in the groundwater by the artificial recharge and its value will be used as a model parameter. (author)

  17. Glycoproteins in circulating immune complexes are biomarkers of patients with Indian PKDL: A study from endemic districts of West Bengal, India.

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    Priyank Jaiswal

    Full Text Available Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL occurs as dermal consequence of previous Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL infection and serves as an important reservoir for transmission of VL. Diagnosis of PKDL is often challenging for its symptomatic resemblance to other co-endemic diseases like Leprosy or Vitiligo. Parasitological examination by slit-skin smear and culture are the standard methods but lack high sensitivity. Thus, for efficient control of VL, reliable diagnostic and prognostic assay of PKDL are required.Previously, glycoproteins (9-OAcSA have been reported as promising biomarkers of Indian VL patients. However, till date, the status of glycans in Indian PKDL patients remains unexplored. Accordingly, in this study, the glyco-profile of PKDL Circulating Immune Complexes (CICs as compared to other cross diseases like Vitiligo and Leprosyhas been investigated. Further, a novel Glyco CIC assay has been developed for efficient Indian PKDL patient diagnosis.In the present study, 90 PKDL patients were enrolled from 3 VL endemic districts of West Bengal during 2015-16. Glycosylation profile of isolated CICs from sera of PKDL patients were initially analyzed through gradient SDS gel electrophoresis followed by PAS silver double staining, which revealed the presence of several glycan rich PKDL specific proteins of varying molecular weights. To further characterize the glyco-profile of acid dissociated affinity purified immuno-reactive antigens present in the CICs, glycosylation was demonstrated in these purified CIC antigens by DIG glycan differentiation kit with or without glycosidase as well as neuraminidase treatment. Diagnostic evaluation of the newly developed colorimetric Glyco CIC assay through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis revealed excellent (0.99 AUC value as compared to other conventional serodiagnostic assays like PEG CIC, Parasite ELISA (IgG and IgM. Additionally, longitudinal monitoring of 18 PKDL patients further

  18. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmila Mallik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders

  19. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system. PMID:23115416

  20. Study of the Genetic Diversity of the Ornamental Fish Badis badis (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822 in the Terai Region of Sub-Himalayan West Bengal, India

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    Tanmay Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf chameleon fish or Badis badis, a lesser known ornamental freshwater fish, has recently been included in the Indian threatened category of fish list. There are insufficient studies with regard to the assessment of genetic background of this ichthyofauna, especially in the western sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal, India, popularly known as the Terai. The present study is the first attempt to investigate the present status of the genetic background of this species in the Mahananda and Balason rivers, major streams of this region. Twenty-one selective RAPD primers generated 53 and 60 polymorphic fragments in the Mahananda and Balason populations, respectively. The proportion of polymorphic loci, Nei’s genetic diversity (H, and Shannon’s index (H′ were 0.4416, 0.1654±0.2023, and 0.2450±0.2907, respectively, in Mahananda river population and were 0.5041, 0.1983±0.2126, and 0.2901±0.3037, respectively, in Balason river population. Inbreeding coefficient and degree of gene differentiation were also calculated. The H and H′ were found to be 0.1601±0.1944 and 0.2363±0.2782, respectively, in overall Mahananda-Balason river system. Our study revealed considerable lack of genetic variation among the individuals of Badis badis. The genetic data obtained from the present study lend support to the view that there is a scope of stock improvement for this ichthyofauna.

  1. A comprehensive screening program for β-thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India, dealing with 21 137 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kallol Kumar; Chatterjee, Tridip; Mondal, Ujjalendu Bikash

    2016-11-01

    We here present a report of population screening programs (January 2012-December 2015) conducted by the Thalassemia Control Unit, Imambara Sadar Hospital, Chinsurah, Hooghly in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India for prevention of thalassemia. We screened β-thalassemia (β-thal) heterozygotes and homozygotes, and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A)-β-thal compound heterozygotes. Among 21 137 cases, we found 1968 heterozygotes and 192 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. Results were evaluated with standard hematological analyses including red cell indices, hemoglobin (Hb) typing and quantification. The participants of the screening program were divided into six groups (children, pre-marriage cases, post-marital cases, family members of affected individuals, family members of carriers and pregnant women). While considering the average frequency of carriers, many reports recorded both related individuals (family members of trait and affected individuals) as well as unrelated individuals such as school children and pregnant women. These would have to be considered separately and only the unrelated individuals taken to estimate carrier frequencies in this article that would give more realistic data on carrier frequency of unrelated individuals.

  2. Evaluation of indigenous rhizobacterial strains with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer towards growth and yield of mustard (Brassica campestris under old alluvial soil zone of West Bengal, India

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    Shampa Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment had been carried out in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm of The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India during the two consecutive winter seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to study the effect of indigenous rhizospheric bacterial strains on growth, physiology and yield of mustard variety. Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia sp. and their mixture were used as seed inoculants for mustard cultivation. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Results revealed that indigenous inoculation (with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer significantly increased (p < 0.05 the yield of mustard as compared to uninoculated control (full recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. A combination treatment of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer also increased plant height, plant biomass and other yield components compared to control. The comprehensive approach of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agriculturally important crops should be carried out to explore the hidden potential of PGPR and to promote the quality and yield of crop under field conditions. Keywords: Indigenous rhizobacteria, Mustard, PGPR, Yield

  3. Quantification of human polyomavirus JC virus load in urine and blood samples of healthy tribal populations of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, S; Bera, N K; Dutta, C; Bhattacharjee, S

    2015-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) is a widespread human virus with profound pathogenic potential. A study was undertaken to quantify JCV load in urine and peripheral blood samples of immunocompetent, apparently healthy tribal individuals of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India for the first time. One hundred and thirteen samples of urine or blood were collected from different tribal groups of this region. For the quantitative estimation of the viral load in each sample, real-time polymerase chain reaction method using the SYBR Green dye was employed. The viral load estimated was found in the range between 3.5 × 102 and 2.12 × 106 copies/ml of samples having a mean and median viral copy numbers of 8.67 × 105 and 9.19 × 105 copies/ml of sample respectively. The mean viral DNA load in urine samples of the studied immunocompetent population was found to be higher than that found in a study conducted in the USA, but lower than similar groups of Italy and healthy adult women in the USA. However when compared with median values of viral DNA loads in urine samples of immunocompetent human subjects of Kuwait, Portugal, and Switzerland the observed viral DNA load was found to be substantially higher.

  4. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-12-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system.

  5. Impact of reduction dose, time and method of application of chemical fertilizer on mung bean under old alluvial soil, West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted with mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek consecutively for three years (2009, 2010, and 2011 in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Burdwan University, West Bengal, India. In the first two years, varietals screening of mung bean under recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (20:40:20 were performed with five varieties with a local variety of mung bean during February to May of 2009. In the second year, one experiment was conducted with six different reduced dose of chemical fertilizer. In the third year, five different method and time of application of biofertilizer were applied to study the effects on agronomic traits and growth attributes of mung bean. The variety PDM-54 a significant higher seed yield along with other yield contributing factors, which was found to be superior to other varieties. In 2010, seed yield was found to be the best for 30% less nitrogenous and 25% less phosphate fertilizer along with recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. In 2011, the best yield was given by the treatment of basal @ 0.75 kg ha-1 + 1.5 kg ha-1 soil application after 21 days + 0.75 kg ha-1 as soil application + best dose of previous year.

  6. A study on self concept and adjustment of auxiliary nursing and midwifery (revised) students in a selected school of nursing, Purulia, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ruby; Mukhopadhyay, Asiah; Mallik, Sarmila; Sarkar, Sharmila; Debnath, Ashis; Patra, Paramita

    2012-07-01

    Nursing students are exposed to different types of stress, with which they have to make adjustments. Self concept Influences their capability of adjustment. The study was done to find out the levels of self concept in different dimensions and levels of adjustment in different spheres of the auxiliary nursing and midwifery (revised) [ANM(R)] students, to find out the association between their self concept and adjustment with different sociodemographic factors and to assess the correlation between self concept and adjustment of these students. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on the ANM(R) students of School of Nursing, Purulia, West Bengal from October 2008 to January 2009 with sample size 50. Chi-square test was done to find out statistical association. Majority of students (64%) had self concept above average category (145-192). Considering levelsof adjustment, majority of the students (56%) fell in the above average category (5572). Mean score of adjustment was highest in the health dimension (9.96) and lowest in the area of education (6.88). No significant association was found between self concept and age, education and family income. The associations of marital status and type of family with self concept are statistically significant. No significant association was found between adjustment and sociodemographic characteristics. Positive correlation was found between self concept and adjustment (correlation co-efficient r = 0.6109). This study has various implications for nursing administration, nursing education, nursing practice and nursing research.

  7. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sudipta; Kundu, Goutam; Maiti, Shyamal Kumar; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Mukhopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST). In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired) and control group (normal children). In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  8. HELMINTHIASIS IN A BENGAL TIGER (PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS - A CASE REPORT

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    Shivaji Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During post mortem examination of a wild male adult Bengal Tiger of Pirkhali of Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India,Toxocara cati and Taenia hydatigena was observed in the stomach and intestine.

  9. Mobility and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus into rural areas of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, E.; Schim van der Loeff, M.; Enel, C.; Holmgren, B.; Dray-Spira, R.; Pison, G.; Piau, J. P.; Delaunay, V.; M'Boup, S.; Ndoye, I.; Coeuret-Pellicer, M.; Whittle, H.; Aaby, P.

    2003-01-01

    In eastern and southern Africa, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic appeared first in urban centres and then spread to rural areas. Its overall prevalence is lower in West Africa, with the highest levels still found in cities. Rural areas are also threatened, however, because of the

  10. Modelling the impact of rural migration on tropical deforestation in South-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, Anton; Debonne, N.; Vanmaercke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A major driver of tropical deforestation is rural frontier migration. In this paper an attempt is made to formally describe the human-environment interactions that are manifested in a forested system experiencing a large influx of rural migrants. The Guraferda district in South-West Ethiopia was

  11. Effect of Monsoon on spatio-temporal variation of groundwater chemistry and stable isotopic signatures: insights for concomitant arsenic mobilization in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, S.; Datta, S.; Nath, B.; Neidhardt, H.; Roman-Ross, G.; Berner, Z.; Hidalgo, M.; Chatterjee, D.; Sarkar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale groundwater abstraction was hypothesized to be one of the important factors controlling release and distribution of arsenic (As) in aquifers of Bengal Basin. In this study, we studied the groundwater/surface water geochemistry of two different geomorphic domains within the Chakdaha Block, West Bengal, to identify potential influences of groundwater withdrawal on the hydrochemical evolution of the aquifer. This has been done as a function of different water inputs (monsoon rain, irrigation and downward percolation from surface water impoundments) to the groundwater system and associated As mobilization. A low-land flood plain (with relatively more reducing aquifer) and a natural levee (less reducing aquifer) have been chosen for this purpose. The stable isotopic signatures of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) falls sub-parallel to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), with precipitation and subsequent evaporation seems to be the major controlling factor on the water isotopic composition. This shows a contribution of evaporation influenced water, derived from various surface water bodies, pointing at large-scale groundwater withdrawal helping drawdown of the evaporated surface water. In case of flood plain wells, the stable isotope composition and the Cl/Br molar ratio in local groundwater have revealed vertical recharge within the flood plain area to be the major recharge process, especially during the post-monsoon season. However, both evaporation and vertical mixing are visibly controlling the groundwater recharge in the natural levee area. A possible inflow of organic carbon to the aquifer during the monsoonal recharge process is noticeable, with an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from 1.33 to 6.29 mg/L on passing from pre- to post-monsoon season. Concomitant increase in AsT, Fe(II) and HCO3- during the post monsoon season, being more pronounced in the flood plain samples, indicates a possible initial episode of reductive

  12. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  13. Polymorphisms in voltage-gated sodium channel gene and susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to insecticides in three districts of northern West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moytrey; Ballav, Sudeep; Maji, Ardhendu K; Basu, Nandita; Sarkar, Biplab Chandra; Saha, Pabitra

    2018-01-01

    The control and prevention of dengue largely depends on vector control measures, environmental management, and personal protection. Dengue control programmes are facing great challenges due to development of insecticide resistance among vector mosquitoes. Information on susceptibility status to different insecticides is important for national programmes to formulate vector control strategies. We have studied the larval susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to temephos and adult susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, and 5% malathion as per WHO protocols in the northern districts of West Bengal. Polymorphisms in the VGSC gene were studied by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Ae. albopictus larval population showed sensitive [Resistance Ratio (RR99)resistance (510) to temephos at different study sites. Adult bioassay results revealed that Ae. albopictus was highly resistant to DDT [Corrected Mortality (CM) 98%), except in Dhupguri where a low level of resistance to deltamethrin (CM = 96.25%) was recorded. None of the six important kdr mutations (S953P, I975M/V, L978, V980G, F1474C, D1703Y) were found in the VGSC of studied mosquitoes, but we identified 11 synonymous and 1 non-synonymous mutation in the VGSC gene. The higher susceptibility level to deltamethrin and malathion, along with the absence of important kdr mutations indicates that these two insecticides are still effective against Ae. albopictus in the study areas. The susceptibility status of temephos should be monitored closely as low to moderate levels of resistance were observed in few sites. A similar study is recommended for monitoring and early detection of insecticide resistance in other parts of the country.

  14. Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individuals in West Bengal, India

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    Chattopadhyay Santanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains that express CagA is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The biological function of CagA depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by a cellular kinase. The phosphate acceptor tyrosine moiety is present within the EPIYA motif at the C-terminal region of the protein. This region is highly polymorphic due to variations in the number of EPIYA motifs and the polymorphism found in spacer regions among EPIYA motifs. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphism at the C-terminal end of CagA and to evaluate its association with the clinical status of the host in West Bengal, India. Results Seventy-seven H. pylori strains isolated from patients with various clinical statuses were used to characterize the C-ternimal polymorphic region of CagA. Our analysis showed that there is no correlation between the previously described CagA types and various disease outcomes in Indian context. Further analyses of different CagA structures revealed that the repeat units in the spacer sequences within the EPIYA motifs are actually more discrete than the previously proposed models of CagA variants. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that EPIYA motifs as well as the spacer sequence units are present as distinct insertions and deletions, which possibly have arisen from extensive recombination events. Moreover, we have identified several new CagA types, which could not be typed by the existing systems and therefore, we have proposed a new typing system. We hypothesize that a cagA gene encoding higher number EPIYA motifs may perhaps have arisen from cagA genes that encode lesser EPIYA motifs by acquisition of DNA segments through recombination events.

  15. Evaluation of Janani-Sishu Suraksha Karyakram in a Community Development Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, India: A Mixed Methods Approach

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    Satabdi Mitra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Government of India launched Janani-Sishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK for cost-free care during pregnancy and infancy. Objectives: To assess awareness and utilization of JSSK services, estimate expenditures incurred to avail care and find out influencing factors for implementing JSSK. Methodology: A cross-sectional evaluation study using mixed methods was conducted during April-September 2015 in Gangajalghati block of Bankura district, West Bengal. From its thirty subcentres (lots, 120 mothers and pseudo-cohort of 120 infants were selected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling. Beneficiary mothers and caregivers of infants were interviewed through house-to-house visits using semi-structured questionnaire. ANMs and ASHAs were selected by simple random sampling and involved in Focus Group Discussion. In-depth interview was conducted for Block Medical Officer of Health, Deputy CMOH-III of Bankura and Medical Superintendent cum Vice-Principal of BankuraSammilani Medical College and Hospital to explore factors of utilization. Result: Only 13.3% and 3.3% lots were acceptable for awareness and 16.7% and 13.3% for utilization for mothers and infants respectively. Overall coverage was 9.2% and 7.5% for awareness and 20.5% & 10.75% in utilization for services, while Out of Pocket Expenditure was estimated to be INR 690, 651 and 250, 545 (median, IQR for mothers and infants respectively. Indirect costs were INR 540, 618 and 300, 460. Inadequate fund flow, manpower shortage, unavailability of referral transport timely, and poor prescribing for hospital supply medicines undermine the credibility of JSSK. Conclusion: Improved IEC and supervision, adequate fund and timely transport availability would forward this flagship programme of the Government.

  16. Source and chemical species characterization of PM10 and human health risk assessment of semi-urban, urban and industrial areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Suraj; Rabha, Rumi; Chowdhury, Mallika; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-09-01

    Levels of particulate matter of size ten micron (PM 10 ) in outdoor air, potential PM 10 -bound seven metals - manganese, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, nickel and cobalt - and twelve water-soluble organic and inorganic ionic components - fluoride, acetate, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, oxalate, sodium, potassium and calcium - were investigated during two different season. Atmospheric PM 10 samples were collected concurrently from three different sites, i.e., Durgapur (Industrial), Berhampore (Urban) and Bolpur (Semi-urban), West Bengal, India, during summer (April-June 2014) and winter (December 2014-February 2015). Average PM 10 levels were found to be in the range of 189.58-219.96 μg/m 3 at the semi-urban site, 293.41-324.27 μg/m 3 at the urban site and 316.93-344.69 μg/m 3 at the industrial site during summer and winter season respectively. Data on metals and water soluble ions were analyzed statistically (Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis) for their source identification and apportionment in the study areas. Principle component analysis models, from three different sites, identified four different factors which share common sources, viz., soil & road re-suspension, motor vehicle and traffic, waste dumping, biomass aerosols, and construction. The pollution load and health risk assessments of selected metals were undertaken in three different sites, within children and adults of the study areas, and were found to be within the safe range. Furthermore, an attempt has also been made to provide basic information on pollution, their sources and exposure pathways for humans in the vicinity of semi-urban, urban and industrial regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity to House Dust Mites Allergens with Atopic Asthma and Its Relationship with CD14 C(-159T) Polymorphism in Patients of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amlan; Dutta, Shampa; Podder, Sanjoy; Mondal, Priti; Laha, Arghya; Saha, Nimai Chandra; Moitra, Saibal; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2018-01-10

    India is the home to around 15-20 million asthmatics, and asthma prevalence is increasing in Indian metropolitan area, including Kolkata, West Bengal. Complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors are involved in asthma. Genome-wide search for susceptible loci regulating IgE response (atopy) have identified a candidate gene CD14 which is most important in the context of allergic responses of respiratory system. This study was aimed to investigate the role of house dust and house dust mites in development of bronchial asthma and to explore the possible association of candidate gene CD14 with disease manifestation among Kolkata patient population. Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 8 aeroallergens, including house dust and house dust mites and total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE were measured. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was done in patients and nonasthmatic control (n = 255 in each) to characterize a functional polymorphism, C(-159)T, of CD14, a positional candidate gene for allergy. We identified house dust as the most common aeroallergen sensitizer among atopic patients in Kolkata followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) mites. Patient's sera contain significantly higher IgE level than that of control. Allergen-specific IgE antibody test revealed that 76.36% patients had specific IgE antibody against D. pteronyssinus mite. There was a significant difference in the distribution of alleles and genotypes for CD14 polymorphism with an increase in disease severity. So, in Kolkata, house dust mite is a common aeroallergen and D. pteronyssinus is predominant among mites. The present study revealed that bronchial asthma has a genetic background. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 μg/L with maximum observed level of 3200 μg/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 μg/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  19. A typhoid fever outbreak in a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal, India, 2007: Evidence for foodborne and waterborne transmission

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    Pal Nishith

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2007, a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal reported an increase in fever cases. We investigated to identify the agent, the source and to propose recommendations. Methods We defined a suspected case of typhoid fever as occurrence of fever for ≥ one week among residents of ward 1 of South Dumdum during February – May 2007. We searched for suspected cases in health care facilities and collected blood specimens. We described the outbreak by time, place and person. We compared probable cases (Widal positive >= 1:80 with neighbourhood-matched controls. We assessed the environment and collected water specimens. Results We identified 103 suspected cases (Attack rate: 74/10,000, highest among 5–14 years old group, no deaths. Salmonella (enterica Typhi was isolated from one of four blood specimens and 65 of 103 sera were >= 1:80 Widal positive. The outbreak started on 13 February, peaked twice during the last week of March and second week of April and lasted till 27 April. Suspected cases clustered around three public taps. Among 65 probable cases and 65 controls, eating milk products from a sweet shop (Matched odds ratio [MOR]: 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4–16, population attributable fraction [PAF]: 53% and drinking piped water (MOR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.5–21, PAF-52% were associated with illness. The sweet shop food handler suffered from typhoid in January. The pipelines of intermittent non-chlorinated water supply ran next to an open drain connected with sewerage system and water specimens showed faecal contamination. Conclusion The investigation suggested that an initial foodborne outbreak of typhoid led to the contamination of the water supply resulting in a secondary, waterborne wave. We educated the food handler, repaired the pipelines and ensured chlorination of the water.

  20. A typhoid fever outbreak in a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal, India, 2007: evidence for foodborne and waterborne transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Hutin, Yvan; Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Pal, Nishith; Sen, Tapas; Murhekar, Manoj

    2009-04-27

    In April 2007, a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal reported an increase in fever cases. We investigated to identify the agent, the source and to propose recommendations. We defined a suspected case of typhoid fever as occurrence of fever for > or = one week among residents of ward 1 of South Dumdum during February - May 2007. We searched for suspected cases in health care facilities and collected blood specimens. We described the outbreak by time, place and person. We compared probable cases (Widal positive > or = 1:80) with neighbourhood-matched controls. We assessed the environment and collected water specimens. We identified 103 suspected cases (Attack rate: 74/10,000, highest among 5-14 years old group, no deaths). Salmonella (enterica) Typhi was isolated from one of four blood specimens and 65 of 103 sera were > or = 1:80 Widal positive. The outbreak started on 13 February, peaked twice during the last week of March and second week of April and lasted till 27 April. Suspected cases clustered around three public taps. Among 65 probable cases and 65 controls, eating milk products from a sweet shop (Matched odds ratio [MOR]: 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4-16, population attributable fraction [PAF]: 53%) and drinking piped water (MOR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.5-21, PAF-52%) were associated with illness. The sweet shop food handler suffered from typhoid in January. The pipelines of intermittent non-chlorinated water supply ran next to an open drain connected with sewerage system and water specimens showed faecal contamination. The investigation suggested that an initial foodborne outbreak of typhoid led to the contamination of the water supply resulting in a secondary, waterborne wave. We educated the food handler, repaired the pipelines and ensured chlorination of the water.

  1. Perception, awareness and practice of research-oriented medical education among undergraduate students of a medical college in Kolkata, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhankar; Adhikari, Anjan; Haldar, Dibakar; Biswas, Payel

    2016-01-01

    The addition of research-oriented medical education (ROME) to the existing curriculum could promote logical thinking, rapid literature search and a better understanding of research methodology. Creation of research temperament could lead to innovations in healthcare. We assessed the perception, awareness and practice of ROME among undergraduate students. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 234 students of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata selected by the simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pre-designed, pre-tested, validated questionnaire by direct interviews. The mean (SD) perception score was 44.2 (5.03). Students from outside West Bengal (p=0.05), women (p=0.03) and students whose parents were doctors (p=0.01) had significantly higher scores. Students in the second and fourth semesters had a better perception than those in the sixth and eighth semesters. Awareness of research fellowships granted to undergraduate students such as the Indian Council of Medical Research-Short-term studentship (ICMR-STS) was low among the second semester students (13.9%), but more than half (59.3%) of the students in the eighth semester were aware (difference across semesters, pAwareness about journals, conferences and 'research bodies promoting student research' was low. Students in the senior semesters spent more time on research (6th semester 72.2% and 8th semester 88.9%) than those in the junior semesters (2nd: 66.7% and 4th: 77.8%; difference across semesters, p=0.03). About 3% of students participated in extracurricular research and/or had presented work at a conference. There is a good perception about the need for research but a lack of awareness of the why and how, as well as hardly any practice of ROME among medical students of this medical college.

  2. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients from Malda district, West Bengal- A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golui, Debasis; Guha Mazumder, D N; Sanyal, S K; Datta, S P; Ray, P; Patra, P K; Sarkar, S; Bhattacharya, K

    2017-10-01

    Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients was established in Malda district of West Bengal. Out of 182 participants examined, 80 (43.9%) participants showed clinical features of arsenicosis, characterized by arsenical skin lesion (pigmentation and keratosis), while 102 participants did not have any such lesion (control). Experimental results of the twenty eight soils (own field) of the participants showed the mean Olsen extractable and total arsenic concentration of 0.206 and 6.70mgkg -1 , respectively. Arsenic concentration in rice grain ranged from 2.00 to 1260μgkg -1 with the mean value of 146μgkg -1 . The hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of As by human through consumption of rice varied from 0.03 to 3.52. HQ exceeds 1.0 for drinking water and rice grain grown in the study area in many cases. As high as 77.6% variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by the solubility-free ion activity model. Toxic limit of extractable As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard, associated with consumption of rice grain by human, was established. For example, the permissible limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.43mgkg -1 for rice cultivation, if soil pH and organic carbon content were 7.5% and 0.50%, respectively. However, the critical limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.54mgkg -1 , if soil pH and organic carbon were 8.5% and 0.75%, respectively. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of arsenic in soils with respect to soil properties and human health under modeling-framework was established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insecticide susceptibility status and major detoxifying enzymes' activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse), vector of dengue and chikungunya in Northern part of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Minu; Saha, Dhiraj

    2017-06-01

    Mosquitoes belonging to Aedes genus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus transmit many globally important arboviruses including Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV). Vector control with the use of insecticide remains the suitable method of choice to stop the transmission of these diseases. However, vector control throughout the world is failing to achieve its target results because of the worldwide development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. To assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus from northern part of West Bengal, the susceptibility of eight different Aedes albopictus populations were tested against a commonly used larvicide (temephos) and some adulticides (malathion, deltamethrin and lambda cyhalothrin) along with the major insecticide detoxifying enzymes' activity in them. Through this study, it was revealed that most of the populations were found susceptible to temephos except Nagrakata (NGK) and Siliguri (SLG), which showed both a higher resistance ratio (RR 99 ) and a lower susceptibility, thereby reflecting the development of resistance against temephos in them. However, all tested adulticides caused 100% mortality in all the population implying their potency in control of this mosquito in this region of India. Through the study of carboxylesterase activity, it was revealed that the NGK population showed a 9.6 fold higher level of activity than susceptible population. The same population also showed a lower level of susceptibility and a higher resistance ratio (RR 99 ), indicating a clear correlation between susceptibility to temephos and carboxylesterase enzymes' activity in this population. This preliminary data reflects that the NGK population is showing a trend towards resistance development and with time, there is possibility that this resistance phenomenon will spread to other populations. With the recurrence of dengue and chikungunya, this data on insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus could help the

  5. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

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    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  6. Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success

  7. Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344

  8. Human-Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human-bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011-2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human-bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse.

  9. A survey of rural poultry management in the West Mamprusi District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une enquête sur l'exploitation de volaille rurale dans le District de West Mamprusi et le District de Ga Rural du Ghana Résumé Quatre - vingt - seize ... La majorité de personnes interrogées étaient officiellement sans instruction (46 %) ou ne sont pas allées au-delà de l'école primaire (78 %). Les volailles étaient largement ...

  10. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Baiquni, Muhammad; Ritohardoyo, Su; Setiadi, Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in th...

  11. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

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    Arkendu Halder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005 samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum, rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent.

  12. Assessment of toxic metals in groundwater and saliva in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India: A pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Adhikari, Jishnu; Chatterjee, Debankur; Iglesias, Monica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Shomar, Basem; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2015-10-01

    Communities in many parts of the world are unintentionally exposed to arsenic (As) and other toxic metals through ingestion of local drinking water and foods. The concentrations of individual toxic metals often exceed their guidelines in drinking water but the health risks associated with such multiple-metal exposures have yet to receive much attention. This study examines the co-occurrence of toxic metals in groundwater samples collected from As-rich areas of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. Arsenic in groundwater (range: 12-1064 µg L(-1); mean ± S.D: 329±294 µg L(-1)) was the most important contaminant with concentrations well above the WHO guideline of 10 µg L(-1). Another important toxic metal in the study area was manganese (Mn) with average concentration of 202±153 µg L(-1), range of 18-604 µg L(-1). The average concentrations (µg L(-1)) of other elements in groundwater were: Cr (5.6±5.9), Mo (3.5±2.1), Ni (8.3±8.7), Pb (2.9±1.3), Ba (119±43), Zn (56±40), Se (0.60±0.33), U (0.50±0.74). Saliva collected from the male participants of the area had mean concentrations of 6.3±7.0 µg As L(-1) (0.70-29 µg L(-1)), 5.4±5.5 µg Mn L(-1) (0.69-22 µg L(-1)), 2.6±3.1 µg Ni L(-1) (0.15-13 µg L(-1)), 0.78±1.0µg Cr L(-1) (groundwater. The clustering of salivary As and Mn in principal component analysis further indicated influence of the common exposure source. Zinc and selenium comprised a separate component presumably reflecting the local deficiencies in intakes of these essential elements from drinking water and foodstuff. Thus the study reveals that the concentration of other metals beside As must be monitored in drinking water before implementation of any policies to provide safe water to the affected communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical simulation of mesoscale surface pressure features with trailing stratiform squall lines using WRF -ARW model over Gangetic West Bengal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Soma; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the simulation of mesoscale surface pressure patterns like pre-squall mesolow, mesohigh and wake low associated with leading convective line-trailing stratiform (TS) squall lines over Gangetic West Bengal (GWB). For this purpose, a two way interactive triple nested domain with high resolution WRF model having2 km grid length in the innermost domain is used. The model simulated results are compared with the available in-situ observations obtained as a part of Severe Thunderstorm: Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM) programme, reflectivity products of Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) Kolkata and TRMM rainfall. Three TS squall lines (15 May 2009, 5 May 2010 and 7 May 2010) are chosen during pre-monsoon thunderstorm season for this study. The model simulated results of diurnal variation of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction at the station Kharagpur in GWB region reveal a sudden fall in temperature, increase in the amount of relative humidity and sudden rise in wind speed during the arrival of the storms. Such results are well comparable with the observations though there are some leading or lagging of time in respect of actual occurrences of such events. The study indicates that the model is able to predict the occurrences of three typical surface pressure features namely: pre-squall mesolow, meso high and wake low. The predicted surface parameters like accumulated rainfall, maximum reflectivity and vertical profiles (temperature, relative humidity and winds) are well accorded with the observations. The convective and stratiform precipitation region of the TS squall lines are well represented by the model. A strong downdraft is observed to be a contributory factor for formation of mesohigh in the convective region of the squall line. Wake low is observed to reside in the stratiform rain region and the descending dry air at this place has triggered the wake low through adiabatic

  14. The profile and treatment outcomes of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis re-treatment cases, in a district medical college of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a high tuberculosis (TB burden county like India with different regional demography, knowledge about patient profile has a pivotal role in determining and identifying the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among TB re-treatment cases. Aim: The aim was to describe the demography and clinical characteristics of TB re-treatment cases and to evaluate the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among those patients. Settings and Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out at chest medicine outdoor from February, 2011 to 2014 in a district medical college of West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Sputum smear positive re-treatment pulmonary TB patients attending our chest medicine outdoor during the 3 years study period were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics on the basis of previous treatment history and records at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up during the 8 months treatment period (Category II treatment regimen under Revised National TB Control Program. At the end of the study period, treatment outcomes were analyzed and factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were identified. Statistical Analysis: All variables were described by proportions, and differences between independent groups were compared using the Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test, as applicable. Results: Among 74 patients, re-treatment was successful in 75.7% of relapse case, 66.7% of loss to follow-up cases and 53.8% of failure cases. Re-treatment failure was higher (38.5% in treatment failure cases compare to relapse cases (10.8% and initial loss to follow-up cases (16.7%. Young age, male, unmarried, employed who work outside appears to be the risk factors for loss to follow-up. Low body mass index, treatment from the private sector, history of alcoholism, radiological cavitory lesion, larger duration of previous treatment, lesser gap from previous treatment has

  15. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Das, Dilip K; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh K

    2015-11-01

    A study on the sorption kinetics of Cd from soil solution to soils was conducted to assess the persistence of Cd in soil solution as it is related to the leaching, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of Cd. The kinetics of Cd sorption on two non-contaminated alkaline soils from Canning (22° 18' 48.02″ N and 88° 39' 29.0″ E) and Lakshmikantapur (22° 06' 16.61″ N and 88° 19' 08.66″ E) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India, were studied using conventional batch experiment. The variable soil suspension parameters were pH (4.00, 6.00, 8.18, and 9.00), temperatures (308, 318, and 328 K) and Cd concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)). The average rate coefficient (kavg) and half-life (t1/2) values indicate that the persistence of Cd in soil solution is influenced by both temperature and soil suspension pH. The concentration of Cd in soil solution decreases with increase of temperature; therefore, Cd sorption on the soil-solution interface is an endothermic one. Higher pH decreases the t 1/2 of Cd in soil solution, indicating that higher pH (alkaline) is not a serious concern in Cd toxicity than lower pH (acidic). Based on the energy of activation (Ea) values, Cd sorption in acidic pH (14.76±0.29 to 64.45±4.50 kJ mol(-1)) is a surface control phenomenon and in alkaline pH (9.33±0.09 to 44.60±2.01 kJ mol(-1)) is a diffusion control phenomenon The enthalpy of activation (ΔH∓) values were found to be between 7.28 and 61.73 kJ mol(-1). Additionally, higher positive energy of activation (ΔG∓) values (46.82±2.01 to 94.47±2.36 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that there is an energy barrier for product formation.

  16. Deposition of chromium in aquatic ecosystem from effluents of handloom textile industries in Ranaghat–Fulia region of West Bengal, India

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    Tanmay Sanyal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of chromium (Cr was determined in water, sediment, aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish in aquatic ecosystems receiving effluents from handloom textile industries in Ranaghat–Fulia region of West Bengal in India. Cr was determined in the samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analyzed functionally by Genetic Algorithm to determine trend of depositions of Cr in the sediment and water. Area plot curve was used to represent accumulation of Cr in biota. The results indicate that the aquatic ecosystems receiving the effluents from handloom textile factories are heavily contaminated by Cr. The contamination is hardly reflected in the concentration of Cr in water, but sediment exhibits seasonal fluctuation in deposition of Cr, concentration reaching to as high as 451.0 μg g−1 during the peak production period. There is a clear trend of gradual increase in the deposition of Cr in the sediment. Aquatic weed, insect and mollusk specimens collected from both closed water bodies (S1 & S2 and riverine resources (S3 & S4 showed high rate of accumulation of Cr. Maximum concentration of Cr was detected in roots of aquatic weeds (877.5 μg g−1. Fish specimens collected from the polluted sites (S3 & S4 of river Churni showed moderate to high concentration of Cr in different tissues. Maximum concentration was detected in the liver of Glossogobius giuris (679.7 μg g−1 during monsoon followed by gill of Mystus bleekeri (190.0 μg g−1 and gut of G. giuris (123.7 μg g−1 during summer. Eutropiichthys vacha showed moderately high concentration of Cr in different tissues (65–99 μg g−1 while Puntius sarana showed relatively low concentration of Cr (below detection limit to 18.0 μg g−1 in different tissues except in gill (64.4 μg g−1.

  17. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  18. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D K; Basu, S S; Roy, D; Das, N; Akbar, F; Sarkar, G N

    2016-03-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/utilization of 80% was considered as minimum acceptable norm. The weighted sample size was calculated from each village of the block. The sociodemographic, economic information of the household along with the availability and use of LLIN was collected through interview and observation. In total, 7320 individuals including 840 children ≤ 5 yr were visited. Overall coverage of adequate LLIN was 65.4% (± 1.5%) and for children ≤ 5 yr, it was 60.5% (± 1.3%). Overall, 66.1% (± 1.4%) people of all ages and 63.7% (± 1.4%) children ≤ 5 yr slept under LLINs in the night before the survey. Out of 26 sub-centres, distribution of LLINs in 10 sub-centres was below the accepted norm, whereas utilization was sub-optimal in 19 sub-centres. In only 18.2% (± 0.5%) households, LLINs remained hanging during daytime. Poverty, caste, education, perception regarding malarial morbidity and preventive action of LLIN were associated significantly with the distribution of LLIN. Similarly, poverty (AOR = 2.14), threat perception regarding malarial morbidity (AOR = 1.51) and mortality (AOR = 2.52) were positively associated with the use of LLIN. Full utilization of bednets by under-fives of the households was higher in villages with sub-centres. Around two-third population of the study area was effectively covered with LLIN. Higher proportion of socially marginalized people received LLIN. Threat perception regarding malaria was directly associated with both receipt and use of LLIN. Behaviour change communication on utilization along

  19. Energy supply and use in a rural West African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Nathan G.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Over three billion people live in the rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Often rural households have many unmet energy needs, including cooking, lighting, heating, transportation, and telecommunication. Designing solutions to meet these needs requires an understanding of the human, natural, and engineered systems that drive village energy dynamics. This paper presents the results of a novel study of energy supply and use over a one year period in an isolated rural village of 770 people in Mali. Quantitative data and narrative descriptions from this study portray village energy supply and use. Annual village energy use is 6000 MJ cap −1 yr −1 . Domestic energy needs account for 93% of village energy use. Wood is the primary energy source and provides 94% of the village energy supply. Approximately 98% of the wood is used for domestic consumption. The uses of wood in the home are cooking (52.2%), heating water (22.2%), space heating (19.1%), and other activities (6.5%). This paper also reports variations in energy usage over the period of a year for a broad range of domestic, artisan, transport, and public energy uses. -- Highlights: ► Village energy supply and use is driven by human, natural, and engineered systems. ► Village energy use varies by 250% between the hot and cold seasons. ► Domestic wood consumption accounts for 92% of village energy. ► Solar PV cells and batteries supply power to pumps, lights, and personal electronics. ► Every household uses multiple energy sources to meet basic needs.

  20. Diarrhoeal Health Risks Attributable to Water-Borne-Pathogens in Arsenic-Mitigated Drinking Water in West Bengal are Largely Independent of the Microbiological Quality of the Supplied Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing discussion about the possibility of arsenic mitigation measures in Bengal and similar areas leading to undesirable substitution of water-borne-pathogen attributable risks pathogens for risks attributable to arsenic, in part because of uncertainties in relative pathogen concentrations in supplied and end-use water. We try to resolve this discussion, by assessing the relative contributions of water supply and end-user practices to water-borne-pathogen-attributable risks for arsenic mitigation options in a groundwater arsenic impacted area of West Bengal. Paired supplied arsenic-mitigated water and end-use drinking water samples from 102 households were collected and analyzed for arsenic and thermally tolerant coliforms [TTC], used as a proxy for microbiological water quality, We then estimated the DALYs related to key sequelae, diarrheal diseases and cancers, arising from water-borne pathogens and arsenic respectively. We found [TTC] in end-use drinking water to depend only weakly on [TTC] in source-water. End-user practices far outweighed the microbiological quality of supplied water in determining diarrheal disease burden. [TTC] in source water was calculated to contribute <1% of total diarrheal disease burden. No substantial demonstrable pathogen-for-arsenic risk substitution attributable to specific arsenic mitigation of supplied waters was observed, illustrating the benefits of arsenic mitigation measures in the area studied.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE DEVELOPMENT REGION WEST, ROMANIA

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    Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural communities are characterised mainly by an ageing population, by a decrease of birth rate and by a dependence on agriculture, particularly subsistence agriculture and demi-subsistence agriculture. The policy of rural development of the European Union aims at solving the issues of rural areas through the exploitation of their potential and by ensuring the proper services and infrastructure. Income sources are scarce because of the few jobs and this has major implications on life quality in the rural communities. Therefore, local authorities should be concerned with the development of their own localities and with the improvement of their inhabitants’ life quality and implement successfully some development programmes or projects. The goal of the present paper is to present the most favourable ways of development for the rural communities in the development Region West, Romania, an area confronted with such issues as shortage of jobs and low incomes and where there are discrepancies between the economic developments of the counties making it up. Based on the analyses carried out and on study cases, the authors present the main aspects of the rural areas in the region, pointing out the fact that local authorities should be concerned with the development of their own localities and implement successfully development projects.The authors have reached the conclusion that the development of non-agricultural activities determines the diversification and increase of jobs and, implicitly, the increase of life quality in rural communities.

  2. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water on patients having various clinical manifestations of fluorosis in an endemic village of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal K Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs and symptoms of

  3. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water on patients having various clinical manifestations of fluorosis in an endemic village of west bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal K; Sundarraj, Shunmuga N

    2013-01-01

    Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was (18.26%), (18

  4. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  5. AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) to Estimate the Pattern and Correlates of Alcohol Consumption among the Adult Population of West Bengal, India: A Community Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Arkaprabha

    2017-04-01

    Pattern of alcohol consumption substantially changed in India with in last 20 to 25 years. Excessive alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for various morbidity and mortality. So, scientific study to identify alcohol consumption patterns and its correlates will be helpful to formulate preventive strategies. To estimate the pattern of alcohol consumption and to determine its correlates, among the adult population of the state of West Bengal in India. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult population of the state of West Bengal at Gram Panchayat (GP) level. Ninety-nine (n=99) adult (≥ 18 years) men and women of Guchati GP at Paschim Medinipur district, was selected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. The study participants were interviewed using a pre-designed and pre-tested schedule. It was estimated that the prevalence of low risk drinking or abstinence (Zone I) was 65.5% (95% CI 55.5% to 75.5%) and the prevalence of alcohol use in excess of low-risk (Zone II) was 17.6% (95% CI 7.6% to 27.6%), and the prevalence of harmful and hazardous drinking (Zone III) was 8.5% (95% CI 0% to 18.5%) and the prevalence alcohol dependence (Zone-IV) was 8.4% (0% to 18.4%). Logistic regression model shows that "gender" (p = 0.00) and "employment status" (p = 0.01) added significantly to the model with adjusted odds ratio of 82.27 (95% CI 18.17-372.58) and 0.13 (0.03-0.66). There is a need for comprehensive screening and treatment programme to deal with the problems of Alcohol Use Disorders among adults to achieve good health and well being for sustainable development.

  6. Does Women Empowerment Predict Contraceptive Use? A Study in a Rural Area of Hooghly District, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Aparajita Dasgupta Dasgupta; Kajari Bandyopadhyay; Lina Bandyopadhyay; Bobby Paul; Sitikantha Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Background: India launched the world’s first national family planning programme in 1952. Unfortunately, considerable numbers of eligible couples in India are still not using any method of contraception in spite of the fact that knowledge related to contraceptives are not lacking. Studies reported that the status of the women in the family and largely in the community, represented by a measure ‘women empowerment’ plays a role in determining contraceptive use. However, there is dearth of litera...

  7. Prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors: A cross-sectional study among rural adolescents in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Pal

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Poverty is found to be an important factor of undernutrition among the adolescents. So there is a require to implement well-thought poverty reduction actions along with providing mass education regarding nutrition and health with a special focus on economically and socially deprived sections of the society.

  8. Quality of life among menopausal women: A community-based study in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Karmakar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The results support that menopause causes both physical and psychiatric problems. Education, creating awareness and providing suitable intervention to improve their QOL are important which should be imparted to menopausal women at both individual and community level.

  9. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in the research area is still low. The results of the combined value of the characteristic size of the hilly topography of poverty are 84 per cent and 83.7 per cent flat topography caused by low levels of income, quality of houses, agricultural land ownership, livestock ownership, ownership of valuables

  10. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  11. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Gopal Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Aims: Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Settings and Design: Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Materials and Methods: Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based approach. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609 was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82 P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524 P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both and TT (8% and 7%, respectively were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473 a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged <30 years [OR 3.779 (1.684-6.547 P = 0.001]. However, none were carrier of heterozygous GA allele of Kolkata population as compared with 29% north Bengal tea-garden workers aged above 31 years. Conclusions: A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk

  12. DMOs and Rural Tourism: A Stakeholder Analysis the Case of Tucker County, West Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Arbogast

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural destination management organizations (DMOs are faced with considerable challenges as they attempt to promote economic prosperity through tourism. This study sought to identify rural destination management challenges in Tucker County, West Virginia; identify the roles and activities of the destinations DMOs in addressing these challenges; and develop a perceived destination management framework. DMO challenges include maintaining authenticity and sense of place; economic diversification; seasonality, low wage jobs, and lack of employees; connecting resorts to small businesses and communities; and establishing a common vision, identity, and coordination of activities. While the majority of tourism literature calls for DMOs to play a dual marketing and management role, this paper makes an important contribution by identifying the need for a Convention and Visitors Bureau and a separate organization with a specific mission to sustainably develop and manage tourism and coordinate activities of the stakeholder network.

  13. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population

  14. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Gordon, E-mail: gordon.gong@ttuhsc.edu [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Basom, Janet [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Mattevada, Sravan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Onger, Frederick [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  15. Institutional options for rural energy access: Exploring the concept of the multifunctional platform in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The concept of the multifunctional platform for rural energy access has increasingly been supported by donors in five West African countries since 1994. While it is often referred to as a highly successful concept, recent reviews and interviews with local stakeholders in Mali and Burkina Faso...... in the dominant discourse of development, and how including concerns, such as poverty alleviation, gender equity, local democracy, decentralisation and the environment, have attracted donors outside the energy sector. The paper thus argues that, while the integration of multiple technical functions, preconceived...... practical programmes provides an argument for building development aid on existing structures instead of inventing new complicated concepts and approaches....

  16. Estimation of Flood-Frequency Discharges for Rural, Unregulated Streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Flood-frequency discharges were determined for 290 streamgage stations having a minimum of 9 years of record in West Virginia and surrounding states through the 2006 or 2007 water year. No trend was determined in the annual peaks used to calculate the flood-frequency discharges. Multiple and simple least-squares regression equations for the 100-year (1-percent annual-occurrence probability) flood discharge with independent variables that describe the basin characteristics were developed for 290 streamgage stations in West Virginia and adjacent states. The regression residuals for the models were evaluated and used to define three regions of the State, designated as Eastern Panhandle, Central Mountains, and Western Plateaus. Exploratory data analysis procedures identified 44 streamgage stations that were excluded from the development of regression equations representative of rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.5-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year flood discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression using data from the remaining 246 streamgage stations. Drainage area was the only significant independent variable determined for all equations in all regions. Procedures developed to estimate flood-frequency discharges on ungaged streams were based on (1) regional equations and (2) drainage-area ratios between gaged and ungaged locations on the same stream. The procedures are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia that have drainage areas within the limits of the stations used to develop the regional equations (from 0.21 to 1,461 square miles in the Eastern Panhandle, from 0.10 to 1,619 square miles in the Central Mountains, and from 0.13 to 1,516 square miles in the Western Plateaus). The accuracy of the equations is quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 21.7 to 56.3 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 2.0 to 70

  17. Rural-Urban Differences in Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Diagnostic Prevalence in Kentucky and West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Christian, W Jay; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2016-06-01

    Older adults living in rural areas may face barriers to obtaining a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD). We sought to examine rural-urban differences in prevalence of ADRD among Medicare beneficiaries in Kentucky and West Virginia, 2 contiguous, geographically similar states with large rural areas and aged populations. We used Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Public Use Files data from 2007 to 2013 to assess prevalence of ADRD at the county level among all Medicare beneficiaries in each state. Rural-Urban Continuum Codes were used to classify counties as rural or urban. We used Poisson regression to estimate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios. Primary analyses focused on 2013 data and were repeated for 2007 to 2012. This study was completely ecologic. After adjusting for state, average beneficiary age, percent of female beneficiaries, percent of beneficiaries eligible for Medicaid in each county, Central Appalachian county, percent of age-eligible residents enrolled in Medicare, and percent of residents under age 65 enrolled in Medicare in our adjusted models, we found that 2013 ADRD diagnostic prevalence was 11% lower in rural counties (95% CI: 9%-13%). Medicare beneficiaries in rural counties in Kentucky and West Virginia may be underdiagnosed with respect to ADRD. However, due to the ecologic design, and evidence of a younger, more heavily male beneficiary population in some rural areas, further studies using individual-level data are needed to confirm the results. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  18. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

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    Yaya Yaliso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96% respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women. The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4% sisters who had died, 819 (32% occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769 per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia.

  19. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from schools'…

  20. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

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    Partha Sarathi Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to detect the clinical signs, postmortem lesions of embryonated duck plague (DP infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: After postmortem of suspected carcasses, samples were collected for virus isolation and identification through specific pathogen free (Khaki Campbell embryonated duck eggs. PCR was also done as confirmatory test after doing postmortem of duck embryos. DP specific nested PCR was standardized for better confirmation of the disease. Sensitivity of nested primers was also tested for DP virus. Results: Gross, postmortem and histopathological changes were prominent in dead embryos. First set of primer was able to detect 602 bp fragments of DNA polymerase gene of duck enteritis virus from infected CAM. Subsequently, a DP specific nested PCR which was very much sensitive for very small amount of viral genome was successfully standardized. After NCBI blast nucleotide sequence of nested PCR product (Accession No. HG425076 showed homology with the sequences data available in GenBank. Conclusion: The study concludes that PCR assay is very much helpful to diagnose DP disease and developed nested PCR is a double confirmatory diagnostic tool for DP.

  1. Illustrated accounts of coccinellid predators of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) on mulberry in India, with description of a new species of Scymnus Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, J; Lalitha, N

    2018-02-20

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), is a major pest of mulberry (Morus alba L.), the sole host of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), which is a source of livelihood to millions of sericulture farmers in India. Several predators, mainly Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), have been reported to feed on M. hirsutus on mulberry. Coccinellid predators of M. hirsutus collected on mulberry from different parts of India are illustrated here with brief diagnostic notes to facilitate their identification. An account of mycophagous species of coccinellids commonly found on mulberry and misreported as predators of mulberry pests is also given with illustrations. Scymnus (Pullus) latifolius sp. nov., a promising predator of M. hirsutus, hitherto misidentified and reported as Scymnus pallidicollis Mulsant, is described and illustrated from West Bengal, India, with detailed biological notes. Keiscymnus taiwanensis Yang Wu, 1972 is reduced to a new junior synonym of Scymnus pallidicollis Mulsant, 1853 (syn. nov.). Illeis bielawskii Ghorpade, 1976 is found to be a valid species and removed from synonymy with I. bistigmosa Mulsant, 1850 (stat. rev.).

  2. Perspectives on Obesity and Its Treatment: Health Care Providers and the General Public in Rural West Virginia and Urban Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menez, Steven; Cheskin, Lawrence; Geller, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the perspectives of the general public and health care providers (HCPs) on obesity and its treatment in rural West Virginia (WV) and Baltimore, MD. Method: Surveys were completed in both locations by the general public (WV: "n" = 200; Baltimore: "n" = 171) and HCPs (WV: "n" = 25;…

  3. Estimating magnitude and frequency of peak discharges for rural, unregulated, streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.; Atkins, John T.; Tasker, Gary D.

    2000-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 100-year discharge with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 267 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions of the State, designated East, North, and South. Exploratory data analysis procedures identified 31 gaging stations at which discharges are different than would be expected for West Virginia. Regional equations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression using data from 236 gaging stations. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions.Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated, streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracy of estimating equations is quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.7 to 44.7 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.6 to 20.0 years).

  4. Community-Based Diabetes Screening and Risk Assessment in Rural West Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjita Misra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project utilized a cross-sectional study design to assess diabetes risk among 540 individuals from 12 counties using trained extension agents and community organizations in West Virginia. Individuals were screened for diabetes using (1 the validated 7-item diabetes risk assessment survey and (2 hemoglobin A1c tests. Demographic and lifestyle behaviors were also collected. The average age, body mass index, and A1c were 51.2±16.4, 31.1±7.5, and 5.8±0.74, respectively. The majority were females, Non-Hispanic Whites with no prior diagnosis of diabetes. Screenings showed that 61.8% of participants were at high risk for diabetes. Family history of diabetes (siblings or parents, overweight or obese status, sedentary lifestyle, and older age were commonly prevalent risk factors. Higher risk scores computed from the 7-item questions correlated positively with higher A1c (r=0.221, P<0.001. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, higher diabetes risk was predicted by obesity, older age, family history of hypertension, and gestational diabetes. Females were 4 times at higher risk than males. The findings indicated that community-based screenings were an effective way to assess diabetes risk in rural West Virginia. Linking diabetes screenings with referrals to lifestyle programs for high risk individuals can help reduce the burden of diabetes in the state.

  5. Blood transfusion practice in a rural hospital in Northern Ghana, Damongo, West Gonja District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubio, Chrysantus; Tierney, Geraldine; Quaye, Theophilus; Nabilisi, James Wewoli; Ziemah, Callistus; Zagbeeb, Sr Mary; Shaw, Sandra; Murphy, William G

    2012-10-01

    Blood transfusion in rural sub-Saharan Africa presents special challenges. Transfusions are primarily given for emergencies--life-threatening blood loss or anemia; blood is usually collected from family or replacement donors; and facilities to store an adequate reserve in a hospital bank are constrained. We report the everyday and organizational practices in a medium-sized district hospital in Northern Ghana. Information and data on blood transfusion practices at West Gonja Hospital, Damongo, were available from the laboratory reports, from day books and workbooks, and from direct observation in the following four areas: blood collection and blood donors; blood donation testing; blood storage and logistics; and clinical transfusion practice, adverse events, and follow-up. The hospital serves a rural community of 86,000. In 2009, a total of 719 units of whole blood were collected, a rate of 8.36 units per 1000 population. All donors were family or replacement donors. Positivity rates for infectious disease markers were 7.5% (64/853) for hepatitis B surface antigen, 6.1% (50/819) for hepatitis C virus, 3.9% (33/846) for human immunodeficiency virus, and 4.7% (22/468) for syphilis. Supply of laboratory materials was sometimes problematic, especially for temperature-critical materials. Difficulties in sample labeling, storage of blood and laboratory supplies, and disposal of waste were also incurred by operational, material, and financial constraints. Follow-up for outcomes of transfusion is not currently feasible. The operational, demographic, and financial environment pertaining in a rural hospital in Northern Ghana differs substantially from that in which much of current blood transfusion practice and technology evolved. Considerable effort and innovation will be needed to address successfully the challenges posed. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Urban-rural difference in the determinants of dietary and energy intake patterns: A case study in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Satoko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Gunawan, Budhi; Raksanagara, Ardini; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored differences in the determinants of individual dietary/energy intake patterns between urban and rural areas. To examine whether the associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake patterns differ between urban and rural areas in West Java, Indonesia. A 3-day weighed food record, interviews, and anthropometric measurements were conducted in Bandung (urban area; n = 85) and Sumedang (rural area; n = 201). Total energy intake and intake from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were calculated. Food items were grouped into dietary categories based on the main ingredients to calculate their share of total energy intake. The associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake were examined by fitting regression models. Models that also included education and body mass index (BMI) were fitted to adult samples only. In Sumedang, the total energy intake and energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and grain/tubers were significantly associated with age and occupation. In Bandung, energy intake from grain/tubers and vegetables/legumes was related to sex and occupation, while other indicators showed no associations. Among adults, BMI was associated with the total energy intake and educational level was associated with energy intake from vegetables/legumes (both only in Sumedang). The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and dietary/energy intake patterns differs in rural versus urban areas in West Java. These results suggest that different strategies are needed in rural and urban areas to identify and aid populations at risk of diet-related diseases.

  7. Practice and Exploration of New Rural Construction in West Bank of Taiwan Strait Led by Spark Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaocan

    2013-01-01

    According to practice and exploration of spark program for 26 years in Quanzhou, the main model and their effects of new rural construction in west bank of Taiwan Strait led by spark science and technology were expounded. Six spark program systems were established, consisting of policy support guide, science and technology project lead, experts’ intelligence support, spark science and technology training, sci-tech information service and spark program demonstration. Five spark projects were...

  8. Institutional options for rural energy access: Exploring the concept of the multifunctional platform in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The concept of the multifunctional platform for rural energy access has increasingly been supported by donors in five West African countries since 1994. While it is often referred to as a highly successful concept, recent reviews and interviews with local stakeholders in Mali and Burkina Faso indicate that the high aspirations to be found in project descriptions and early evaluations are only partly reflected in activities on the ground. This paper illustrates how the multipurpose aspects of the platform have made the concept a nexus of potential achievements that are highly valued in the dominant discourse of development, and how including concerns, such as poverty alleviation, gender equity, local democracy, decentralisation and the environment, have attracted donors outside the energy sector. The paper thus argues that, while the integration of multiple technical functions, preconceived organisational set-ups and local fuel production have in fact had limited or even adverse effects on the outcome of the multifunctional platform programme, these virtues have proved essential in presenting the concept at the policy level. This analysis of the dilemma between mobilizing funding and implementing practical programmes provides an argument for building development aid on existing structures instead of inventing new complicated concepts and approaches.

  9. Farmer-managed natural regeneration enhances rural livelihoods in dryland west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. 'Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  10. Update on causes of premature death in people with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yang; Chen, Deng; Tian, Linyu; Mu, Jie; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ling; Deng, Ying; He, Jun; Li, You; He, Li; Zhou, Dong

    2016-06-01

    This longitudinal prospective study updated a previous report on premature mortality and focused on the risk factors among patients with convulsive epilepsy in resource-poor settings. The present cohort size (7,231) and follow-up (mean 33.4 months) were expanded. The basic epidemiologic aspects of this cohort were similar to the original report (case fatality: 3.26% vs. 2.97%, respectively; injury contributed more than half of the deaths). Cox regression analysis suggested that male patients, late ages of onset (>45 years old), short duration of epilepsy (2 per month) were independent risk factors for overall premature death. Male patients with late ages of onset and high seizure frequency had a higher risk of injury-specific death. This study emphasizes the preventable nature of injuries that are leading putative causes of death among people with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China. Education on specific populations and efficient seizure control are of paramount importance in reducing the risk of premature mortality. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Intensification of Aila (May 2009) due to a warm core eddy in the north Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Maneesha, K.; Murty, T.V.R.

    A very severe cyclonic storm "Aila" hit West Bengal on 26 May 2009. The storm intensified when it encountered with a warm core (SST = 31 degrees C) anti-cyclonic eddy (ACE4) in the north Bay of Bengal. The storm intensity increased by 43 percent due...

  12. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  13. Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Second, baroclinic Kelvin waves generated in the Bay of Bengal at periods shorter than about 120 ... significant energy remains trapped to the Indian west coast. .... ary condition, enables us to isolate the response of the West India Coastal ...

  14. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saud, T.; Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P.; Pathak, H.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  15. Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural Farmers in West-Akim District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is on the rural transportation problem in Ghana and its consequences on the rural people, especially those who live in off road villages (villages that do not have access to regular transportation systems). The study specifically discusses the failure of the existing road transport network to provide sufficient services ...

  16. "Doing Gender," Ensuring Survival: Mexican Migration and Economic Crisis in the Rural Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…

  17. Physical growth and diets of school children: Trends from 2001 to 2015 in rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in physical growth and diets of school children in rural West Java, Indonesia, between 2001 and 2015, a period of rapid socioeconomic change. In 2001 and 2015, anthropometric measurements (height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, skin-fold thickness), food consumption surveys, and questionnaires on socioeconomic status were completed by fourth-grade school children in a rural village in West Java. Height increments of 5.9 cm for boys and 4.7 cm for girls during this 14-year period were calculated as 4.21 cm per decade for boys and 3.36 cm per decade for girls, which is equivalent to height increments observed during rapid economic development periods in other countries. Weights also increased by 3.8 kg for boys and 2.0 kg for girls during this period. Variations in weight status significantly increased in 2015; while 98% of the children were within the 'normal' range in 2001, the prevalence of overweight increased from 2.4% in 2001 to 13.7% in 2015 and that of thinness was 4.3% in 2015. Energy, protein, and fat intakes significantly increased in 2015. In 2015, a significant correlation between nutritional intake and weight status was observed, especially among boys. Socioeconomic changes between 2001 and 2015 caused increased heights and weights and greater variation in weight status, especially among boys. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1 examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2 describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey technique, observation, and structured interviews to collect data. The processing and analysis of data was carried out by a quantitative method using a multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the factors significantly affecting the poverty among rural communities around gold mine areas were material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness (R2 = 0.715. However, the mostly dominant factor affecting the poverty was powerlessness (t = 19.715. Meanwhile, the distribution of poverty based on topographic sites showed that the poverty occurred in villages with plain topography (Goa Village, terrain topography (Maluk Village, wave topography (Belo Village, and hilly topography (Sekongkang Bawah Village. The poverties occurred in all the villages were mostly affected by powerlessness with t values of 3.489, 13.921, 11.828, and 6.504, respectively. This condition was due to minimum access and communication by local communities to local government and the gold mining company of PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara

  19. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.

  20. Developing performance excellence guidance for rural tourism (case study: wangun lestari village, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopy, Maulana; Sitinjak, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    In response to Indonesian Ministry of Tourism objective to develop and improve the performance of tourism destination, specifically on rural tourism, Where there is no well-prepared implementation yet by the local government due to constrained human resources and lack of management knowledge and stakeholders. This research aims to develop an integrated rural tourism concept at Wangun Lestari Tourism Village. The Guideline of Rural Tourism Development of Ministry of Tourism, Malcolm Baldrige’s Performance Excellence, SWOT Analysis, and Value Proposition Analysis will be used to help to design the Rural Tourism program. The result of this research is a comprehensive concept of Leadership, Strategic Planning, Customer Management System, Knowledge Management, Workforce Engagement, Operation Focus and also Evaluation Metric for Wangun Lestari Tourism Village.

  1. Making basic health care accessible to rural communities: a case study of Kiang West district in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanneh, Edward Saja; Hu, Allen H; Njai, Modou; Ceesay, Omar Malleh; Manjang, Buba

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on lack of access to basic health care, which is one of the hindrances to the development of the poor, and subjects them to the poverty penalty. It also focuses on contributing to the Bottom of the Pyramid in a general sense, in addition to meeting the health needs of communities where people live on less than $1 a day. Strengthened multistakeholder responses and better-targeted, low-cost prevention, and care strategies within health systems are suggested to address the health burdens of poverty-stricken communities. In this study, a multistakeholder model which includes the government, World Health Organization, United Nations Children Emergency Fund, and the Medical Research Council was created to highlight the collaborative approach in rural Gambia. The result shows infant immunization and antenatal care coverage were greatly improved which contributes to the reduction in mortality. This case study also finds that strategies addressing health problems in rural communities are required to achieve 'Millennium Development Goals'. In particular, actual community visits to satellite villages within a district (area of study) are extremely vital to making health care accessible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsuvivatwong Virasakdi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Methods Years of life lost (YLL rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Results Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2–8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Conclusion Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  3. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2006-10-14

    Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Years of life lost (YLL) rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2-8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  4. An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the discovery of an efficient base composition for making bengal lights that is obtained with potassium chlorate and thiourea. Combining this mixture with appropriate flame coloring can produce several impressive bengal lights. (DDR)

  5. Maternal health care initiatives: Causes of morbidities and mortalities in two rural districts of Upper West Region, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sumankuuro

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities have received much attention over the years in sub-Saharan Africa; yet addressing them remains a profound challenge, no more so than in the nation of Ghana. This study focuses on finding explanations to the conditions which lead to maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities in rural Ghana, particularly the Upper West Region.Mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the medical and non-medical causes of maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities in two rural districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana. Survey questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were employed to collect data from: a 80 expectant mothers (who were in their second and third trimesters, excluding those in their ninth month, b 240 community residents and c 13 healthcare providers (2 district directors of health services, 8 heads of health facilities and 3 nurses.Morbidity and mortality during pregnancy is attributed to direct causes such urinary tract infection (48%, hypertensive disorders (4%, mental health conditions (7%, nausea (4% and indirect related sicknesses such as anaemia (11%, malaria, HIV/AIDS, oedema and hepatitis B (26%. Socioeconomic and cultural factors are identified as significant underlying causes of these complications and to morbidity and mortality during labour and the postnatal period. Birth asphyxia and traditional beliefs and practices were major causes of neonatal deaths.These findings provide focused targets and open a window of opportunity for the community-based health services run by Ghana Health Service to intensify health education and promotion programmes directed at reducing risky economic activities and other cultural beliefs and practices affecting maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  6. Epidemiology of pollution-induced airway disease: urban/rural differences in East and West Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders was assessed in 9-11 year-old children in Leipzig and Halle in East Germany, as well as in Munich, West Germany. Both East German cities are heavily polluted due to private burning of coal and industrial emissions, while Munich has low smoke emissions but heavy road traffic. All fourth grade pupils in Munich were compared with those in Leipzig and Halle. Non-specific airway disease (bronchitis), cough, and autumn/winter nasal symptoms were most prevalent in Leipzig and Halle. Hay fever and skin test reacitivity to aeroallergens were higher in West Germany compared with east Germany. Furthermore, the prevalence of asthma was also higher in the West German study area. Increased skin prick test reactivity in the West explained the increased prevalence of asthma. Longitudinal analysis showed increased respiratory symptoms on days with high mean levels of sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, as well as on days with a high peak level of 10 μ respirable particles (PM10) in East Germany. The effects of these pollutants were additive. Exposure to heavy road traffic in Munich was related to decreased pulmonary function and non-specific airway symptoms, but not to allergic sensitization and asthma. (au)

  7. Sexual abuse and access to justice for rural women in West Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More specifically, this project will involve the African Network for Integrated Development (ANID) and its partners taking a participatory research-action approach, and combining qualitative and quantitative methods to produce a knowledge base regarding sexual abuse and the constraints on access to justice in rural areas.

  8. Foraging Is Determinant to Improve Smallholders’ Food Security in Rural Areas in Mali, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sognigbe N’Danikou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the enabling factors for household food security (HFS most often used simplified econometric models looking into the links with a selected set of variables. In this research, a livelihood approach of HFS was used and aimed at determining the most significant livelihood assets for HFS in dryland agricultural systems. Elements of the five livelihood assets were assessed through questionnaire surveys with a random sample of 180 households, and six focus group discussions in three communities along the rural-urban continuum, in Southern Mali. The coping strategy index approach was used to evaluate household food security status. Non-parametric and parametric statistical tests were combined, as appropriate, to identify the most significant determinants of HFS status. Findings indicated that most determinant factors of HFS were the diversity of wild and cultivated food plants, and hunting (natural capital; access to clean water and irrigation (infrastructural capital; and off-farm employment (financial capital. HFS also improved along the urban-rural continuum and rural households with high natural capital seemed to be more food secure. Findings call for important investment to expand the natural capital (e.g., domestication of new crops and agricultural diversification and infrastructural capital (irrigation facilities, clean water of the rural households.

  9. Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rates of stunting, underweight and microcephaly were noted in all learners, especially those with FAS or PFAS. Five (18%) mothers of affected children were deceased by the time of assessment. Conclusion. We describe very high rates of FAS/PFAS in an isolated rural part of the Western Cape that is not located in a ...

  10. Objective mapping of observed sub-surface mesoscale cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal by stochastic inverse technique with tomographically simulated travel times

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Sadhuram, Y.; Sridevi, B.; Maneesha, K.; SujithKumar, S.; Prasanna, P.L.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    of Bengal during south-west monsoon season and explore possibility to reconstruct the acoustic profile of the eddy by Stochastic Inverse Technique. A simulation experiment on forward and inverse problems for observed sound velocity perturbation field has...

  11. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population.

  12. Diffusion of Policy Discourse into Rural Spheres Through Co-Management of State Forestlands: Two Cases from West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hideyuki

    2008-07-01

    In the context of state forestland management in tropical regions, the implementation of a co-management approach has been widely advocated in order to include the voices of local people and accommodate their interests in management decision-making. Most co-management literatures, however, underestimate the significance of statutory authority held by state to control forestlands and resources. By clarifying the implications of state ownership of forestland, this article aims to critically examine co-management processes with reference to Foucault’s notion of power and subject. Case studies were conducted at two co-management pilot sites in Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Findings demonstrate that co-management processes actually materialize shared decision-making arrangements between state forest bureaucracy and rural people through the application of equity approaches, such as deliberation, negotiation, and experimentation. At the same time, these processes can also function to diffuse state policy discourse in rural spheres, which makes rural subjects who accept and practice the policy discourse. The research also reveals that the diffusion process is complex and does not necessarily make a durable subject unless they are pertinently organized. The results of this research indicate that co-management of state forestlands is a double-edged process for local people who risk becoming a proxy of state bureaucracy in the implementation of state policy. Proponents of co-management should, therefore, critically examine whether new institutional arrangements, which are developed through co-management, truly reflect values and needs of local people and assist them to develop a pertinent subject to deal with it.

  13. A tale of two land uses in the American West: rural residential growth and energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Montag, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a spatiotemporal land use map for a rural county in the western United States. Sublette County, Wyoming has undergone recent land use change in the form of heightened rural residential development on private land and increased energy development on both public and private land. In this study we integrate energy production data, population census data, ownership parcel data, and a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper scenes (over a 25-year period) to create a map that illustrates the changing landscape. Spatial change on the landscape is mapped at 30 square meters, congruent with a Landsat pixel. Sublette County has a wealth of wildlife and associated habitat which is affected by both types of growth. While we do not attempt to quantify the effect of disturbance on wildlife species, we believe our results can provide important baseline data that can be incorporated into land use planning and ecological-wildlife research at the landscape scale.

  14. PERFORMANCES COMPARISON BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL PIG FARMING SYSTEMS IN MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA PROVINCE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desni Triana Ruli Saragih

    2015-10-01

    were no differences in household members, experience, average pig owned, working hours, selling period, litter size and number of farrowing. There are nine point of pig farming improvement that should be done to sustain pig farming systems in Manokwari Papua. Education may be improved by provide informal and skillful education. Pig ownership should be increased. Working hours must be increased. Pig keeping in the pens should be done by farmers. Managing pigs with additional time is important so that pigs will be maintained well. Litter sizes both in urban and rural are low, therefore further improvements are needed. Recording pig productivities must be done by every farmer. (Key words: Arfak pig farmers, Pig performance, Rural pig farming, Urban pig farming

  15. Utilizing Chair Massage to Address One Woman's Health in Rural Ghana West Africa: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meryanos, Cathy J

    2016-12-01

    There is limited access to health care in rural Ghana and virtually no rehabilitative services available. This situation presents a unique opportunity to utilize chair massage in addressing women's health in rural Ghana, particularly when it comes to muscle pain and fatigue from heavy labor. The objective of this case report is to determine the results of chair massage as a strategy to reduce neck, shoulder, and back pain, while increasing range of motion. The patient is a 63-year-old Ghanaian female, who was struck by a public transport van while carrying a 30-50 pound load on her head, two years prior. The accident resulted in a broken right humerus and soft tissue pain. A traditional medicine practitioner set the bone, however there was no post-accident rehabilitation available. At the time of referral, she presented complaints of shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain. In addition, she was unable to raise her right hand to her mouth for food intake. The results of this case report include an increase in range of motion, as well as elimination of pain in the right shoulder, elbow, and hand. Visual assessments showed an approximate increase of ROM within the ranges of 45-65 degrees in the right arm, as well as 10-15 degrees in 4th and 5th fingers. There was also a decrease in muscle hypertonicity in the thoracic and cervical areas, and a profound increase in quality of life for the patient. This case report illustrates how therapeutic chair massage was utilized to address a common health concern for one woman in rural Ghana. It also demonstrates that pre-existing musculoskeletal disorders and pain may be eliminated with massage intervention. Massage therapy may be important to ameliorating certain types of health problems in remote rural villages in low income countries.

  16. Destination Development for Rural Tourism Area in Wanayasa, Puwakarta, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajang Gunawijaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This purpose of this paper is to elaborate the understanding of destination development of rural tourism in Wanayasa, Purwakarta, Jawa Barat. It has a rich potential for the rural tourism prosperity. Then author incorporates destination development through Butler‘s Area Life Cycle. Research was conducted in August 2015 with qualitative approaches i.e. interview and focus group discussion to 120 respondents which comprises representation from several different group. In addition, some of data also produced from secondary sources such as government regulation and official website. Findings show that Wanayasa possessed their ability in developing aspect of internal factors, attractions and accommodation facilities. Apart from that quality, it is obvious that their rural tourism development is lack of destination management and chaotic strategy marketing formulation as a result of disorganized planning processes. With those conditions, it will be tough for them to formulate the true competitive advantage as a basic foundation of their tourism development. This paper illustrates a detailed analysis of the destination‘s strengths and weaknesses, and a more distinctive understanding of what facilitates a destination‘s competitive position.

  17. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

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    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  18. Colorectal Cancer: A Study of Risk Factors in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Bhattacharya, Saikat; Basu, Rivu; Bera, Pranati; Halder, Aniket

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Age, sex, living place (urban or rural), smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary pattern, obesity are considered as risk factors for Colorectal cancer. Our study was done to evaluate the association between these risk factors and colorectal cancer in the population of North Bengal.

  19. The Political Economy of English Education in Muslim Bengal: 1871-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Aminur

    1992-01-01

    Examines explanations for lack of progress by Muslims in English education in East Bengal, colonial British India (now Bangladesh). Argues that urban-based, elitist English education failed to provide opportunities to rural Muslim farmers, and that, after the British formulated educational policies meeting Muslim needs, that community responded…

  20. Generalized Skew Coefficients of Annual Peak Flows for Rural, Unregulated Streams in West Virginia

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    Atkins, John T.; Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Generalized skew was determined from analysis of records from 147 streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia. The analysis followed guidelines established by the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data described in Bulletin 17B, except that stations having 50 or more years of record were used instead of stations with the less restrictive recommendation of 25 or more years of record. The generalized-skew analysis included contouring, averaging, and regression of station skews. The best method was considered the one with the smallest mean square error (MSE). MSE is defined as the following quantity summed and divided by the number of peaks: the square of the difference of an individual logarithm (base 10) of peak flow less the mean of all individual logarithms of peak flow. Contouring of station skews was the best method for determining generalized skew for West Virginia, with a MSE of about 0.2174. This MSE is an improvement over the MSE of about 0.3025 for the national map presented in Bulletin 17B.

  1. Solid waste characterization in Ketao, a rural town in Togo, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-07-01

    In Africa the majority of solid waste data is for big cities. Small and rural towns are generally neglected and waste data from these areas are often unavailable, which makes planning a proper solid waste management difficult. This paper presents the results from two waste characterization projects conducted in Kétao, a rural town in Togo during the rainy season and the dry season in 2010. The seasonal variation has a significant impact on the waste stream. The household waste generation rate was estimated at 0.22 kg person(-1) day(-1) in the dry season and 0.42 in the rainy season. Likewise, the waste moisture content was 4% in the dry season while it was 33-63% in the rainy season. The waste consisted mainly of soil and dirt characterized as 'other' (41%), vegetables and putrescibles (38%) and plastic (11%). In addition to these fractions, considerable amounts of material are either recycled or reused locally and do not enter the waste stream. The study suggests that additional recycling is not feasible, but further examination of the degradability of the organic fraction is needed in order to assess whether the residual waste should be composed or landfilled.

  2. Skeletal fluorosis in relation to drinking water in rural areas of West Azerbaijan, Iran.

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    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Yaseri, Mehdi; Jalilzadeh, Mohsen; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-12-11

    Skeletal fluorosis resulting from high fluoride level in drinking water is a major public health problem. The present study evaluated the association between exposures to drinking water fluoride and skeletal fluorosis in 5 villages of Poldasht County, Iran. All the data and information on the prevalence of bone diseases were obtained from the Health Record Department, Poldasht Health Centre. To obtain the odds ratio of bone disease problem in different risk factors, when considering the cluster effect of rural area, logistic regression in a multilevel model was used. Results showed that skeletal fluorosis of people who live in areas with high fluoride concentration is 18.1% higher than that of individuals who live in areas with low fluoride concentration. Skeletal fluorosis (54.5%) was observed in the age group of 71 years and above, and was more commonly found in females than males. According to Unadjusted, individuals who consume ≤3 unit milk and dairy products per week have almost the same level of bone diseases as compared to those that consume more than 3 units. This study indicated that, skeletal fluorosis is a general health problem in these rural areas because the results revealed that high percentage of the studied population had symptoms of skeletal fluorosis.

  3. Ferromanganese micronodules from Bengal Fan

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    Chauhan, O.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    The occurrence of ferromanganese micronodules, hitherto unreported from any fan-valley system of the world, has been recorded from over 0.22 million km sup(2) area located in the middle fan region of the Bay of Bengal. Their abundance is higher...

  4. The economic burden of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in rural South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Cui, Wenlong; He, Jianhui; Wu, Xinan

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases attributed to smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a given year (2011) in rural southwest China. A prevalence-based, disease-specific attributable-risk approach was used to estimate the economic burden of chronic diseases attributable to both smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 17 158 consenting adults aged ≥18 years was used to derive prevalence of smoking and exposure to SHS, as well as direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases. In the study population, the prevalence rates of smoking and exposure to SHS are 73.1 and 38.2% for males and 1.4 and 43.4% for females, respectively. The total costs of illness are $25.85 million for COPD, $18.80 million for asthma, $37.25 million for CHD, $17.91 million for stroke, $264.35 million for hypertension and $17.11 million for peptic ulcer. The estimated costs attributable to smoking and exposure to SHS are $95.51 million and $79.35 million, accounting for 7.15 and 5.94% of local healthcare costs, respectively. Of the total costs of tobacco, direct costs and indirect costs are $94.66 million and $0.85 million for smoking, and $78.22 million and $1.36 million for exposure to SHS. Smoking contributes more cost of illness than exposure to SHS in men, whereas exposure to SHS contributes more cost of illness than smoking in women. Smoking and exposure to SHS produce substantial economic burden as well as have a considerable public health impact in rural southwest China.

  5. High blood pressure and associated risk factors as indicator of preclinical hypertension in rural West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Modou; Agbla, Schadrac C.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Hennig, Branwen J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is fast becoming a major public health problem across sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) and associated risk factors as indicator of preclinical hypertension in a rural Gambian population. We analyzed data on 6160 healthy Gambians cross-sectionally. Attention was given to 5 to <18-year olds (N = 3637), as data from sub-Saharan Africa on this young age group are scarce. High BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) above the 95th percentile for age-sex specific height z scores in <18-year olds employing population-specific reference values. Standard high BP categories were applied to ≥18-year olds. In <18-year olds, the multivariable analysis gave an adjusted high BP prevalence ratio of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92–0.98; P = 0.002) for age and 1.13 (95% CI 1.06–1.19; P < 0.0001) for weight-for-height z score (zWT-HT); sex and hemoglobin were not shown to affect high BP. In adults age 1.05 (95% CI 1.04–1.05; P < 0.0001), body mass index z score 1.28 (95% CI 1.16–1.40; P < 0.0001), hemoglobin 0.90 (95% CI 0.85–0.96; P < 0.0001) and high fasting glucose 2.60 (95% CI 2.02–3.36; P < 0.0001, though the number was very low) were confirmed as risk factors for high BP prevalence; sex was not associated. The reported high BP prevalence and associated risk factors in adults are comparable to other studies conducted in the region. The observed high BP prevalence of 8.2% (95% CI 7.4–9.2) in our generally lean young Gambians (<18 years) is alarming, given that high BP tracks from childhood to adulthood. Hence there is an urgent need for further investigation into risk factors of pediatric high BP/hypertension even in rural African settings. PMID:28353557

  6. Dietary beliefs among informal caregivers regarding common childhood diseases in rural north-west India

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    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary practices among infants and children are predictor of their growth and development. India being a huge of diverse cultures, diversity in beliefs and practices regarding diet during childhood illnesses is expected. Harmful beliefs and practices can contribute to malnutrition among children. These beliefs can have adverse consequences in already sick children. Aims and Objectives: To assess the dietary knowledge, beliefs and practices of rural care givers during childhood illnesses. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 271 rural informal (parent / family member caregivers in one of the sub-health centres which was selected using simple random sampling technique. In the context of this study, the word informal care-giver was used for parent/family member of the child, preferably a mother with a child / children aged less than five years. The survey tool was an open ended and pretested questionnaire which was developed by public health expert’s familiar with the culture of the study setting and was pilot tested before administration. For the purpose of recruiting the study participants a house to house survey was conducted and the data thus collected was analyzed in percentages. Results: Informal Caregivers had low knowledge of common childhood illnesses as well as the reasons of their causation. Majority of them consulted a doctor in the event of child’s illness. 53.81% reduced feeding and 31.93% diluted diet during child’ illness but significantly 77.85% didn’t change breastfeeding practice during illness. As far as the beliefs regarding dietary practices were concerned, it found that egg, meat, chicken and jaggery were labelled hot foods while curd, butter milk and vegetables were labelled as cold foods. Rice water and khichadi were preferred in diarrhoea but spicy food and milk were restricted. Ginger and Tulsi tea were preferred in respiratory infections while ice-cream and

  7. Dietary beliefs among informal caregivers regarding common childhood diseases in rural north-west India

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    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary practices among infants and children are predictor of their growth and development. India being a huge of diverse cultures, diversity in beliefs and practices regarding diet during childhood illnesses is expected. Harmful beliefs and practices can contribute to malnutrition among children. These beliefs can have adverse consequences in already sick children. Aims and Objectives: To assess the dietary knowledge, beliefs and practices of rural care givers during childhood illnesses. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 271 rural informal (parent / family member caregivers in one of the sub-health centres which was selected using simple random sampling technique. In the context of this study, the word informal care-giver was used for parent/family member of the child, preferably a mother with a child / children aged less than five years. The survey tool was an open ended and pretested questionnaire which was developed by public health expert’s familiar with the culture of the study setting and was pilot tested before administration. For the purpose of recruiting the study participants a house to house survey was conducted and the data thus collected was analyzed in percentages. Results: Informal Caregivers had low knowledge of common childhood illnesses as well as the reasons of their causation. Majority of them consulted a doctor in the event of child’s illness. 53.81% reduced feeding and 31.93% diluted diet during child’ illness but significantly 77.85% didn’t change breastfeeding practice during illness. As far as the beliefs regarding dietary practices were concerned, it found that egg, meat, chicken and jaggery were labelled hot foods while curd, butter milk and vegetables were labelled as cold foods. Rice water and khichadi were preferred in diarrhoea but spicy food and milk were restricted. Ginger and Tulsi tea were preferred in respiratory infections while ice

  8. BLOOD PROTEIN TRANSFERRIN POLYMOROPHISM IN BLACK BENGAL GOAT

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    Rajesh Paul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with an aim to explore the polymorphism of a blood protein tranferrin using starch gel electrophoresis technique in a total of unrelated 199 Black Bengal goats available in four different districts of West Bengal, India. Banding patterns of transferrin in starch gel revealed six phenovariants TfAA, TfAB, TfBC, TfBB, TfAC and TfCC comprising of three allelomorphs, TfA, TfB and TfC. The genotype frequencies were found to be observed 0.211, 0.347, 0.136, 0.106, 0.136 and 0.065 for six genotypes and the allelic frequencies were 0.452, 0.347 and 0.201 for three alleles, respectively. Result of Chi-square test revealed that the population under study was in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. There were polymorphism in Transferrin protein and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the three alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Black Bengal goat.

  9. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W

    2010-06-01

    Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.

  10. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

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    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  11. Malnutrition, Overweight, and Obesity among Urban and Rural Children in North of West Azerbijan, Iran

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    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. Methods. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902 of children under 5 years old to assess the nutritional status in Salmas district and performed from 16 until 30 October, 2011, with the cooperation of the Office of Community Nutrition Improvement and the United Nations Children’s Fund. ENA (Emergency Nutrition Assessment and Spss software were used for data analysis. Results. 49.6% of children were boys and 50.4% were girls. The prevalence of malnutrition based on underweight, stunting, and wasting was estimated to be 2.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4% among children, respectively. Stunting was more common in rural areas and this difference was significant (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this area stunting, overweight and obesity were the most important priorities that health officials must pay more attention to. ENA software has a special ability to determine the samples and clusters and is a simple, rapid, and accurate method, especially in epidemiological studies in the country, and can be a convenient tool and its use is suggested for the same studies.

  12. Volcanic risk perception in rural communities along the slopes of mount Cameroon, West-Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njome, Manga S.; Suh, Cheo E.; Chuyong, George; de Wit, Maarten J.

    2010-11-01

    A study of volcanic risk perception was carried out in rural communities around the Mount Cameroon volcano between August and December 2008. The results indicate that risk perception reflects the levels of threat to which a resident population has been exposed to previously. Results of 70 responses to questionnaires show that local knowledge of hazards is high. Most respondents correctly indicated that earthquake and lava flow activities would affect resident population most in the future. By contrast, respondent's ability to adapt and protect themselves from the effects of future eruptions is poor, and inhabitants would likely shift responsibility for their protection to the requisite experts. This study confirms that there is little knowledge of any existing emergency plan, little or no educational outreach activities, but a high perceived need for information about and implementation of such actions. Knowledge about natural threats is found to be directly related to past exposure to volcanic hazard, and is significantly higher for people living along the southern than those along the northern slopes of Mt. Cameroon. The data also show that the media remains the most accessible channel for hazard communication, and that the internet is a growing information source that should be used to reach out to the younger generation. It is clear from the results of this study that major education and information efforts are required to improve the public's knowledge, confidence in the government, and growing self-reliance, in order to improve both collective and individual capacity to face future volcanic emergencies.

  13. Malnutrition, overweight, and obesity among urban and rural children in north of west Azerbijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Saeidlou, Sakineh; Babaei, Fariba; Ayremlou, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902 of children under 5 years old to assess the nutritional status in Salmas district and performed from 16 until 30 October, 2011, with the cooperation of the Office of Community Nutrition Improvement and the United Nations Children's Fund. ENA (Emergency Nutrition Assessment) and Spss software were used for data analysis. 49.6% of children were boys and 50.4% were girls. The prevalence of malnutrition based on underweight, stunting, and wasting was estimated to be 2.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4% among children, respectively. Stunting was more common in rural areas and this difference was significant (P obesity were the most important priorities that health officials must pay more attention to. ENA software has a special ability to determine the samples and clusters and is a simple, rapid, and accurate method, especially in epidemiological studies in the country, and can be a convenient tool and its use is suggested for the same studies.

  14. The use of antenatal care in two rural districts of Upper West Region, Ghana.

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    Joshua Sumankuuro

    Full Text Available Despite decades of implementation of maternity healthcare programmes, including a focus on increasing the use of antenatal care (ANC and concomitant birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR, the uptake of ANC continues to be below expectations in many developing countries. This has attendant implications for maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rates. Known barriers to ANC use include cost, distance to health care services and forces of various socio-cultural beliefs and practices. As part of a larger study on BPCR in rural Ghana, this paper reflects on the use of ANC in the study areas from rights-based and maternal engagement theoretical perspectives, with a focus on the barriers to ANC use.Mixed methods approach was adopted to collect data from 8 study communities from individual in-depth interviews with 80 expectant mothers and 13 health care professionals, and 24 focus groups comprising 240 community members. The qualitative data followed a thematic analytical method, while the quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics.The average number of ANC visits were 3.34±1.292, and the majority of expectant mothers (71.3% enrolled for ANC at the 8th week or later, with the longest delay recorded at the 6th month of gestation. Traditional norms significantly influenced this delay. Likewise, overall use of ANC during pregnancy was shaped by cultural factors related to perceptions of pregnancy, gender-based roles and responsibilities and concerns that ANC would result in an overweighed baby and culturally inappropriate delivery at a health care facility.Greater understanding of the sociocultural barriers to ANC is essential if proposed changes in community-specific health education programs are to facilitate early commencement and increased use of ANC.

  15. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in rural south-west China: prevalence, intensity and risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofid, Layla S; Bickle, Quentin; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Du, Zun-Wei; Patrick, Edward

    2011-05-01

    Only few studies in rural China have explored the epidemiology of intestinal helminth infections and identified risk factors for transmission. The study was carried out in Simao and Mengla counties, where single fecal samples were collected from 317 school-aged children and from 94 inhabitants of a single village. Fecal specimens were examined with the Kato-Katz thick smear method and examined for helminth eggs. Data regarding socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors were collected using questionnaires. In Simao County the overall soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) prevalence was 40.2% (2.7, 5.4 and 35.7% for ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, respectively). The STH infection rates were significantly higher in Mengla County, with an overall prevalence of 68.3% (19.0, 34.6 and 47.3% for ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, respectively). Females were less likely to be infected with Trichuris trichiura (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.15-0.56) and with hookworms (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.93) than males. Hookworm infections were more prevalent among those 12 years of age or older (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.2-7.1). Children of mothers with educational attainment of secondary school or higher had a protective effect against T. trichiura (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06-0.54) and hookworm (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.51) infections. In the village survey, hookworm was the most prevalent species (62.8%) with infection seen in those 50 years of age and older. Based on recommended intervention strategies by the World Health Organization, Simao County should opt for school-based deworming once each year, while Mengla County should implement a similar strategy biannually, but should include the elderly population.

  16. Rural protein insufficiency in a wildlife-depleted West African farm-forest landscape.

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    Björn Schulte-Herbrüggen

    Full Text Available Wildlife is an important source of protein for many people in developing countries. Yet wildlife depletion due to overexploitation is common throughout the humid tropics and its effect on protein security, especially for vulnerable households, is poorly understood. This is problematic for both sustainable rural development and conservation management.This study investigates a key dimension of protein security in a cash-crop farming community living in a wildlife-depleted farm-forest landscape in SW Ghana, a region where protein-energy malnutrition persists. Specifically, we monitored protein sufficiency, defined as whether consumption met daily requirements, as benchmarked by recommended daily allowance (RDA. We focus on whether more vulnerable households were less likely to be able to meet their protein needs, where vulnerability was defined by wealth, agricultural season and gender of the household head. Our central hypothesis was: (a vulnerable households are less likely to consume sufficient protein. In the context that most plant proteins were home-produced, so likely relatively accessible to all households, while most animal proteins were purchased, so likely less accessible to vulnerable households, we tested two further hypotheses: (b vulnerable households depend more on plant protein to cover their protein needs; and (c vulnerable households are less likely to earn sufficient cash income to meet their protein needs through purchased animal sources.Between 14% and 60% of households (depending on plant protein content assumptions consumed less than the RDA for protein, but neither protein consumption nor protein sufficiency co-varied with household vulnerability. Fish, livestock and food crops comprised 85% of total protein intake and strongly affected protein sufficiency. However, bushmeat remained an important protein source (15% of total consumption, especially during the post-harvest season when it averaged 26% of total protein

  17. Effect of maternal death on child survival in rural West Africa: 25 years of prospective surveillance data in The Gambia.

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    Susana Scott

    Full Text Available The death of a mother is a tragedy in itself but it can also have devastating effects for the survival of her children. We aim to explore the impact of a mother's death on child survival in rural Gambia, West Africa.We used 25 years of prospective surveillance data from the Farafenni Health and Demographic surveillance system (FHDSS. Mortality rates per 1,000 child-years up to ten years of age were estimated and Kaplan-Meier survival curves plotted by maternal vital status. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine factors associated with child survival.Between 1st April 1989 and 31st December 2014, a total of 2, 221 (7.8% deaths occurred during 152,906 child-years of follow up. Overall mortality rate was 14.53 per 1,000 child-years (95% CI: 13.93-15.14. Amongst those whose mother died, the rate was 25.89 (95% CI: 17.99-37.25 compared to 14.44 (95% CI: 13.84-15.06 per 1,000 child-years for those whose mother did not die. Children were 4.66 (95% CI: 3.15-6.89 times more likely to die if their mother died compared to those with a surviving mother. Infants whose mothers died during delivery or shortly after were up to 7 times more likely to die within the first month of life compared to those whose mothers survived. Maternal vital status was significantly associated with the risk of dying within the first 2 years of life (p-value <0.05, while this was no longer observed for children over 2 years of age (P = 0.872. Other factors associated with an increased risk of dying were living in more rural areas, and birth spacing and year of birth.Mother's survival is strongly associated with child survival. Our findings highlight the importance of the continuum of care for both the mother and child not only throughout pregnancy, and childbirth but beyond 6 weeks post-partum.

  18. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among the Rural Primary School Students in the West of Ahvaz County, Iran, 2015

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    Jasem Saki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitic infections are among the most important global health problems, especially in the developing countries. They are among the most common forms of infectious diseases in the world. According to the report of the world health organization (WHO, about 3.5 billion people worldwide are infected by a kind of parasite, and 450 million people each year become ill due to complications caused by parasites. Objectives Due to a lack of accurate statistics on the prevalence of the parasite in primary school children in rural areas of West of Ahvaz, Iran, the current study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasites in the mentioned group. Methods The current descriptive epidemiologic analysis was conducted on 306 rural primary school students in the Western regions of Ahvaz County in 2015. Collected samples were transferred to the laboratory of parasitology in the school of medicine, and underwent a direct and sedimentary formalin-ether test. Results Out of the 306 students under study, 180 (58.8% were male and 126 (41.2% female. Of these students 88 (28.8% were with 1 or more intestinal parasites, which Giardia lamblia, with the prevalence of 61 (19.9% subjects had the highest rate, followed by Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, and Entamoeba coli with the prevalence of 12 (3.9%, 9 (2.9%, and 6 (1.9%, respectively, . Six (1.9% students showed coinfection by the 2 parasites. There was a significant relationship between the prevalence of the parasite and the variables of age, the source of drinking water, and the method of washing vegetables and fruits, but no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of the parasite, and parents’ level of education and children’s gender. There was no case of infection with the worms. Conclusions Similar to other recent studies, only protozoan infection was observed in the current study. Giardia lamblia had the highest infection rate

  19. A preliminary observation of the adverse effects of phenobarbital among patients with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yang; Liu, Ling; Tian, Linyu; Mu, Jie; Chen, Deng; Chen, Tao; Deng, Ying; He, Jun; Li, You; He, Li; Zhou, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the adverse effect (AE) profile of phenobarbital (PB) among patients with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) from resource-poor areas. Patients with ACE were enrolled into an epilepsy management project in rural West China. Information was obtained from monthly follow-up questionnaires. The demographic and clinical features of the patients with AE were firstly described. After that, the occurrence rate was estimated for each subtype of AE at three different severity levels (mild, moderate, and serious). Survival analysis was used to determine the potential risk factors of AEs. A total of 7231 patients (3780 men) were included in the present cohort. During the follow-up time period (average 33.4months), the most common AEs were drowsiness (moderate: 4.4%, serious: 0.68%), dizziness (moderate: 3.7%, serious: 0.5%), and headache (moderate: 2.9%, serious: 0.41%). In the confirmed AE groups (moderate and serious severity levels), the symptoms tended to be transient, with durations of less than 3months. Polytherapy was an independent risk factor for AEs and had an increasing risk when the severity of the AE increased (Hazard Ratio 1.12, 1.55, and 2.52 for mild AE, moderate AE, and serious AE, respectively). Receiving a high dosage of PB (>180mg/day) indicated a slightly elevated risk (Hazard Ratio 1.22 and 1.27 for mild AE and moderate AE, respectively). Phenobarbital demonstrates overall tolerability, and serious AEs were not common. Patients receiving a high dose of PB or polytherapy are at increased risk of developing AEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strengthening Rural Decentralisation: A Study on the Role of International Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Sujit Kumar Paul

    2014-11-01

    Institutions (PRIs in West Bengal are very strong bodies, which function as real institutions of self-governance. In West Bengal, the planning process of grass-root level has some stages from proposal to implementation. After introduction of 3-tier Panchayat system in 1978, the Government of West Bengal brought about need-based reforms in the system from time to time from the very beginning. Encouraged by the State Government’s strong commitment to rural decentralisation, Department for International Development (DFID, Government of UK came forward to support the ongoing rural decentralisation initiatives and upscale the bottom-up planning process. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the role of DFID for strengthening decentralisation in rural Bengal.

  1. Numerical modelling of groundwater flow to understand the impacts of pumping on arsenic migration in the aquifer of North Bengal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of regional-scale groundwater flow of North Bengal Plain have been carried out with special emphasis on the arsenic (As)-rich alluvium filled gap between the Rajmahal hills on the west and the Garo hills on the east. The proposed concern of this modelling arose from development that has led to large water table declines in the urban area of English Bazar block, Malda district, West Bengal and possible transport of As in the near future from the adjacent As-polluted aquifer. Groundwater occurs under unconfined condition in a thick zone of saturation within the Quaternary alluvial sediments. Modelling indicates that current pumping has significantly changed the groundwater flowpaths from pre-development condition. At the present pumping rate, the pumping wells of the urban area may remain uncontaminated till the next 25 yrs, considering only pure advection of water but some water from the As-polluted zone may enter wells by 50 yrs. But geochemical and other processes such as adsorption, precipitation, redox reaction and microbial activity may significantly retard the predicted rate by advective transport. In the rural areas, majority of the water pumped from the aquifer is for irrigation, which is continuously re-applied on the surface. The near-vertical nature of the flowpaths indicates that, where As is present or released at shallow depths, it will continue to occur in pumping wells. Modelling also indicates that placing all the pumping wells at depths below 100 m may not provide As-free water permanently.

  2. The importance of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in rural West African subsistence--suggestion of a cautionary approach to international market export of baobab fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Christine; Prehsler, Sarah; Hartl, Anna; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission recently authorized the import of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp as a novel food. In rural West Africa the multipurpose baobab is used extensively for subsistence. Three hundred traditional uses of the baobab were documented in Benin, Mali, and Senegal across 11 ethnic groups and 4 agroecological zones. Baobab fruits and leaves are consumed throughout the year. The export of baobab fruits could negatively influence livelihoods, including reduced nutritional intake, change of power relations, and access rights. Capacity building and certification could encourage a sustainable and ethical trade of baobab fruits without neglecting baobab use in subsistence.

  3. Renewable energy scenario and disregarded petition of rural populace of an Indian island: A critical survey and concept of an inexpensive artifact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Tamal; Nath, Saswata; Chakraborty, Tanmoy

    2011-07-01

    This study attempts to establish the challenges associated to solar energy scenario in rural living of south-east of Indian province namely West Bengal and to suggest an inexpensive solar artifact with an aim to cater to the areas which are scarcely electrified and primarily in countryside. Stockpile of fossil fuels are depleting and there is an urgent need of promoting renewable energy products that can pertinently be supported by this clean energy. Renewable energy is alternate source of energy or non-conventional energy such as, solar energy, water energy, wind energy, biomass and bio-gas energy, tidal energy, Geo-thermal energy, hydrogen energy. Scope of this article converges on disregarded demand scenario of rural inhabitants and fostering inexpensive appropriate solar technology based product. For subsequent investigation a critical socio-technical survey has also been conducted in the rural Sundarban area of Southern part of West Bengal, with an aim to acquire the glimpse of the presently operating government project on solar technology and to identify the demand and solar product there for.

  4. Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong Kin, Liam; Sek Chuen, Chow; Jaffar, Shukri

    2012-01-01

    Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5%) school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5%) young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2%) boys and 296 (53.8%) girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2% were anaemic, 54.9% iron deficient and 16.9% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5% comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6%) and hookworm infection (13.5%). It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032) compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.38-4.60; p = 0.002), non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 2.06-2.31; p = 0.013), low household income (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14-3.59; p = 0.015), T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.21-3.81; p = 0.008) and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.04-2.55; p = 0.032) were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI% = 1.33-2.58; pchildren. It is crucial that a comprehensive primary health care programme for these communities that includes periodic de-worming, nutrition supplement, improved household economy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children.

  5. Association between Anaemia, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Neglected Parasitic Infections and Socioeconomic Factors in Rural Children of West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong Kin, Liam; Sek Chuen, Chow; Jaffar, Shukri

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5%) school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5%) young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2%) boys and 296 (53.8%) girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2% were anaemic, 54.9% iron deficient and 16.9% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5% comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6%) and hookworm infection (13.5%). It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032) compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.38–4.60; p = 0.002), non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 2.06–2.31; p = 0.013), low household income (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14–3.59; p = 0.015), T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.21–3.81; p = 0.008) and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.04–2.55; p = 0.032) were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI% = 1.33–2.58; peconomy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children. PMID:22413027

  6. An integrated village maternity service to improve referral patterns in a rural area in West-Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisjahbana, A; Williams, C; Dharmayanti, R; Hermawan, D; Kwast, B E; Koblinsky, M

    1995-06-01

    The Regionalization of Perinatal Care, an intervention study carried out in Tanjungsari, a subdistrict in rural West Java, aimed to develop a comprehensive maternal health program to improve maternal and perinatal health outcomes. The main inputs included training at all levels of the health care system (informal and formal) and the establishment of birthing homes in villages to make services more accessible. Special attention was given to referral, transportation, communication and appropriate case management, A social marketing program was conducted to inform people of the accessible birthing homes for clean delivery, located near the women, and with better transportation and communications to referral facilities should complications arise. The study design was longitudinal, following all pregnant women from early pregnancy until 42 days postpartum in an intervention and a comparison area. The population was +/- 90,000 in the intervention area and 40,000 in the comparison area. Inclusion criteria were all mother and infant units delivered between June 1st, 1992 and May 31st, 1993. Analysis showed the following results: Most women sought antenatal care (> 95%). In Tanjungsari, nearly 90% sought such care from professional providers as versus 75% in the control area of Cisalak. Most women with bleeding or bleeding and edema during pregnancy sought professional assistance in both the study and control areas. However, fever for more than 3 days received more attention in the study area versus control area (93 vs. 69%). Greater than 85% of deliveries in both areas were conducted by TBAs. However, in the study area, nearly one-third of those with intrapartum complications (17%) delivered in a health facility compared to one-tenth in the control area. This meant a hospital delivery, primarily with assistance of a doctor or doctor/midwife combination. Overall referral rates by TBAs were low -13% of women with complications in Tanjungsari and 6% in Cisalak. More women

  7. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William

    2015-04-03

    McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. During the 6 month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n = 80); a student online PA interest survey (n = 465); a PA and nutrition survey among 5(th) (10-11 years) and 8(th) graders (13-14 years) with questions adapted from the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (n = 442, response rate = 82.2%); six semi-structured school and community focus groups (n = 44); school site visits (n = 11); and BMI screening (n = 550, response rate = 69.7%). One third of children in McDowell County meet the national PA minimum of 60 minutes daily. At least 40% of 5(th) and 8(th) graders engage in electronic screen activity for 3 hours or more every day. The prevalence of obesity in 5(th) graders is higher in McDowell County than the rest of WV (~55% vs. 47% respectively). SWOT analyses of focus group data suggest an overall interest in PA but also highlight a need for increase in structured PA opportunities. Focus group data also suggested that a central communication (e.g. internet-based) platform would be beneficial to advertise and boost participation both in current and future programs. Schools were commonly mentioned as potential facilities for public PA participation throughout the county, both with regards to access and convenience. School site visits suggest that schools need more equipment and resources for before, during, and after school programs. An overwhelming majority of participants in the McDowell CHOICES needs assessment were interested to participate in more PA programs throughout the county as well as to improve opportunities for the provision of such programs. Public schools were widely recognized as the hub

  8. Salinity maxima associated with some sub-surface water masses in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Murty, C.S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    The distribution of some sub-surface water masses in the western bay of Bengal during the south-west monsoon period is presented. Based on the salinity maxima and sigma t values the existence of waters of Persian Gulf and Red Sea origin could...

  9. THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY GO TO RURAL EDUCATION IN BRAZIL: Case Study in West of Paraná mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Bem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rural school crisis is a concrete fact, manifested in almost all Brazilian regions because of the continuous process of closing of schools located in rural areas. Several authors as Mennucci (2006, Werebe (1994, Maia (1992, highlighted the neglect of educational policies in relation to rural areas. However, one of the objectives of this research is to demonstrate that historically were formed two policies for rural education: one for the large property and one for the small farm. To deepen the theoretical analysis and to corroborate the proposed hypothesis, we conducted an empirical investigation having how spatial area the mesoregion of the Western Paraná. A crise da escola rural é um fato concreto, manifestado em praticamente todas as regiões brasileiras em virtude do processo continuo de fechamento dos estabelecimentos escolares localizados no espaço rural. Vários autores como Mennucci (2006, Werebe (1994, Maia (1992, destacaram o descaso das políticas educacionais em relação às zonas rurais. Todavia, um dos objetivos da presente pesquisa é demonstrar que historicamente foram se constituindo duas políticas para a educação rural: uma destinada à grande propriedade e outra para a pequena propriedade agrícola. Para aprofundarmos a análise teórica e corroborar com a hipótese formulada, realizamos uma investigação empírica tendo como recorte espacial a mesorregião Oeste do Paraná.

  10. Socio-culturele structuur en innovatie : een structuur-vergelijkend onderzoek naar adoptie van family planning in de periode 1969 - 1973 door Sundanese echtparen in twee rurale gemeenschappen op West-Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van B.

    1985-01-01

    This publication contains a comparative study of socio- cultural influences on the process of family planning adoption during the period 1969-1973 in two rural communities in the regency of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. One community, to be called Cianyar, is a ward in an agrarian village, while

  11. The Urban-Rural Gap: Project-Based Learning with Web 2.0 among West Virginian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Debbie; Kale, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the digital divide in West Virginia, schools are urged to integrate emerging information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as Web 2.0 and alternative pedagogies to develop students' twenty-first-century skills. Yet, the potential effects of the digital divide on technology integration have not necessarily been part of planning…

  12. Blood pressure patterns in rural, semi-urban and urban children in the Ashanti region of Ghana, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Redekop, William K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    High blood pressure, once rare, is rapidly becoming a major public health burden in sub-Saharan/Africa. It is unclear whether this is reflected in children. The main purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure patterns among rural, semi-urban, and urban children and to determine the

  13. Rural Junior Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments and Their Attitude and Achievement in Mathematics in West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…

  14. Estimating the magnitude of annual peak discharges with recurrence intervals between 1.1 and 3.0 years for rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.; Newell, Dawn A.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 1.5- and 2-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 236 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions in West Virginia designated as East, North, and South. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.2-, 1.3-, 1.4-, 1.5-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.0-, 2.5-, and 3-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions. Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracies of estimating equations are quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.4 to 52.4 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.1 to 3.4 years).

  15. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  16. Influence des transformations minéralogiques sur la mobilité de l'arsenic dans les milieux anoxiques - Application au cas des eaux souterraines du delta du Bengale

    OpenAIRE

    Burnol , André

    2009-01-01

    Natural wide-scale poisoning is today affecting the populations that rely on drinking water from aquifers of the Bengal delta. The aim of this thesis is therefore to obtain a better understanding of arsenic mobility within these aquifers by describing, based on the study site at Chakdaha in West Bengal (India), interactions between the mineralogical transformations and the microbial processes. The interactions between iron-reducing or sulfate-reducing bacteria and As-doped ferrihydrite were s...

  17. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William

    2015-01-01

    Background McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. Methods During the 6?month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n?=?80); a student online PA interest survey (n?=?465); a PA and nutr...

  18. Utilizing Chair Massage to Address One Woman’s Health in Rural Ghana West Africa: a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meryanos, Cathy J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is limited access to health care in rural Ghana and virtually no rehabilitative services available. This situation presents a unique opportunity to utilize chair massage in addressing women’s health in rural Ghana, particularly when it comes to muscle pain and fatigue from heavy labor. The objective of this case report is to determine the results of chair massage as a strategy to reduce neck, shoulder, and back pain, while increasing range of motion. Case Presentation The patient is a 63-year-old Ghanaian female, who was struck by a public transport van while carrying a 30–50 pound load on her head, two years prior. The accident resulted in a broken right humerus and soft tissue pain. A traditional medicine practitioner set the bone, however there was no post-accident rehabilitation available. At the time of referral, she presented complaints of shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain. In addition, she was unable to raise her right hand to her mouth for food intake. Results The results of this case report include an increase in range of motion, as well as elimination of pain in the right shoulder, elbow, and hand. Visual assessments showed an approximate increase of ROM within the ranges of 45–65 degrees in the right arm, as well as 10–15 degrees in 4th and 5th fingers. There was also a decrease in muscle hypertonicity in the thoracic and cervical areas, and a profound increase in quality of life for the patient. Discussion This case report illustrates how therapeutic chair massage was utilized to address a common health concern for one woman in rural Ghana. It also demonstrates that pre-existing musculoskeletal disorders and pain may be eliminated with massage intervention. Massage therapy may be important to ameliorating certain types of health problems in remote rural villages in low income countries. PMID:27974948

  19. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Mosome

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng. Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was ‘What are the adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?’ Data were analysed by means of open coding. Results: The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  20. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Mosome

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng.Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was ‘What are the adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?’ Data were analysed by means of open coding.Results: The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  1. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosome, Connie; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2011-11-17

    Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents' views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was 'What are the adolescents' views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?' Data were analysed by means of open coding. The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  2. High rate of malnutrition in young children aged 0 to 59 months and lack of intervention in rural west Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana Sop, Marie Modestine; Nolla, Nicolas; Djeukeu Assongni, Williams; Gouado, Inocent; Mananga, Mananga Marlyne-Josephine; Tetanye, Ekoe

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Micronutrients deficiencies are public health problem in Cameroon and with physiological and economic consequences. National prevalences of stunting (69%) among Cameroonian children as reports in the last ESDC-MIC are very high. In rural area in real context, no strategies exist either at the health centers or the community. The aim: This work aimed at determining by anthropometric measurements (aged, weights and heights), the nutritional status of children aged 0 to 59 months in Bangang rural community in Cameroon, in order to prepare nutrition education and intervention mostly focused on food based approaches. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted in six health areas in Bangang rural community in western region of Cameroon. Four hundred and forty (440) children (214 boys, 226 f girls) aged 0 to 59 months were randomly selected for anthropometric measurements (heights and weights) NCHS/WHO international growth reference. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on food consumption, food frequency, socio-economic and demographic status of mothers. Statistical analyses of results were done using ENA Smart and SPSS software. Results: Using NCHS (1976), standard of reference and z-scores, stunting, wasting and underweight rates were respectively: 42.22% (114) (with 18.52% (28) moderate), 3.33% (09) (with 1.85% (05) moderate) and 6.67% (18) (with 5.18% (14) moderate) of children. From BMI classification of nutrition status done according to WHO criteria, 3.38 %, 55.40 %, and 41.22 % of the mothers were underweight, normal and overweight respectively. The most frequents consumed food were cereals and tubers (93.24 %) whose nutrients are poorly bioavailable. The daily intakes of food sources of proteins, minerals, vitamins, were generally poor. Only 3% and 2% of fruits and animal food were consumed in family respectively. No skill on nutrition was observed in families and in health and community centers. No anthropometric

  3. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sasthi Narayan; Roy, Sunetra Kaviraj; Rahaman, Md Abdur

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43), upper social class (14.89), sedentary lifestyle (17.00), and positive family history. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and ..... quickly to the physical environment at shal- low depths, thus giving high ..... waste water; American Public Health Association, Water and Waste Product ...

  5. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasthi Narayan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Results: Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43, upper social class (14.89, sedentary lifestyle (17.00, and positive family history. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  6. Media influenced imitative hanging: a report from West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N; Brahma, A; Banerjee, S; Biswas, M K

    2007-01-01

    Media influences behaviour, especially of the young children and adolescents in various ways. The present study examined the media coverage of a judicial hanging and its immediate social effect. In a qualitative study the media coverage of a case of a judicial hanging was thoroughly discussed and the media influence, for over a period of ten weeks of the incident, in terms of suicide and copying of hanging among children, was collected and analysed. Eighteen cases were reported as an aftermath of this hanging: 1 suicide and 17 imitative hanging in children with 5 deaths. This report calls for attention that media should be cautious and responsible in presenting the news items that have potential social impact.

  7. Effect of vertical stability and circulation on the depth of the chlorophyll maximum in the Bay of Bengal during May-June, 1996

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Jyothi, D.; Shastri, P.N.M.; Supraveena, Y.

    A two-gyre circulation system consisting of an anticyclonic gyre (ACG) in the northwestern Bay of Bengal and a cyclonic gyre (CG) west of the Andaman Islands is shown by the hydrographic data collected during May-June, prior to the southwest monsoon...

  8. Social Motivation And Peoples Participation In Development Of Rural Development In District Of West Of Nias Province North Sumatra

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    Sismudjito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the problem of social related to the development. Some of the province in Indonesia which is North Sumatera consisting of 8 cities and 25 districts. Most of the populated shows a number poverty are still relatively high. According to the Susenas in North Sumatera Province particulary West of Nias is the county that classified as having a number of high poverty and decrease in the number of poverty was only 1 each year. To that local governments West of Nias make the implementation of the building area shaped participative which stems from the social motivation sociated in the West of Nias. In this study formulated to the problem is the social motivation and community participation is a factor objectify the construction of underdevelopment area.This research using a combination of a quantitative approach and qualitative approach by the combined method. This method can be done in together turns even combined with starting from the framework exploration then inditifity and classifying data with sourched from the questionnaires development and depth interviews. In this research also used technique of population and research sample. Management of the data could be done by 3 statistics techniques 1 Product Moment Correlation 2 Partial Correlation 3 Analysis of the line.The result of research suggests that through the work of social motivation and community participation can positive affect towards underdeveloped area. The level of community participation appears through an increase participation degrees towards the development of underdeveloped area. The working of community participation could a achieved development in its area with shows a sense of empathy from members of society So it can be concluded that the high participation facilitate the realization of the development of underdeveloped area.

  9. Urban and rural fuelwood situation in the tropical rain-forest area of south-west Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, I.; Baumbach, G. [University of Stuttgart (Germany). Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology; Oluwole, A.F.; Obioh, I.B.; Ogunsola, O.J. [University of Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics

    1998-10-01

    Our study describes a 1995 survey (1120 questionnaires) in the urban and rural rainforests of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, on fuel use for cooking. We assessed the biofuel burning in Africa, in particular, and in tropical countries, in general. Included are discussions of socio-economic conditions, descriptions of the types and numbers of stoves, fuel and combustion characteristics, specific fuel consumption in both the private and commercial sectors, fuel sources and their availability, and health effects caused by cooking with firewood. We determined the weights and/or dimensions of fuel units, wood residues, fireplaces and combustion chambers. The consumptions of firewood (in kg cap{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) obtained by this method are of 515 in urban areas and 573 in rural areas. Wood usage is greater for low-income groups than for better situated householders who utilize kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity for cooking. Agricultural residues are used to start and support wood combustion; animal residues are not used as cooking fuels. (author)

  10. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    history of the Fan. After India's soft collision with the Eurasian plate, these events may have played a critical role in shaping various morphological features since late Eocene in the Bay of Bengal. The present 12 kHz Echo sounder data collected along...

  11. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  12. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

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    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  13. The Big Sky Model: A Regional Collaboration for Participatory Research on Environmental Health in the Rural West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Holian, Andrij; Adams, Earle; Jones, David; Knuth, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The case for inquiry-based, hands-on, meaningful science education continues to gain credence as an effective and appropriate pedagogical approach (Karukstis 2005; NSF 2000). An innovative community-based framework for science learning, hereinafter referred to as the Big Sky Model, successfully addresses these educational aims, guiding high school and tribal college students from rural areas of Montana and Idaho in their understanding of chemical, physical, and environmental health concepts. Students participate in classroom lessons and continue with systematic inquiry through actual field research to investigate a pressing, real-world issue: understanding the complex links between poor air quality and respiratory health outcomes. This article provides background information, outlines the procedure for implementing the model, and discusses its effectiveness as demonstrated through various evaluation tools. PMID:20428505

  14. On watermass mixing ratios and regenerated silicon in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, V.S.; Sudhakar, U.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    Regeneration of silicon on mixing in the Bay of Bengal have been computed from six water masses [Bay of Bengal low saline water (BBLS), Bay of Bengal subsurface water (BBSS), northern southeast high salinity water (NSEHS), north Indian intermediate...

  15. Assessing the functional disability of rural elderly population from North-West India using activity of daily living scale: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with both physical impairment and functional disability. One of the areas of concerns is a derangement in the activities of daily living (ADL where the elderly people are unable to perform their basic personal care tasks. The present study was planned with the aim to evaluate functional impairment among rural elderly using ADL scale. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional population-based survey using multistage randomized sampling technique from August 2015 to October 2015 in Miran Sahib Health Zone of R S Pura health block in Jammu District in North-West India. The study involved 418 elderly individuals above 60 years of age. Results: A higher proportion of elderly (378/418; 90.43% were classified as functionally independent. Among the study participants 9.54% (40/418 were found to have some had some impairment. Among the elderly impaired individuals, 5.26% (22/418 were moderately impaired while 2.64% (11/418 were severely impaired. However, importantly only a small proportion (7/418; 1.67% of elderly individuals was completely dependent on others. Conclusion: The total impairment prevalence reported among the geriatrics in the current study was 9.5%. With the increase in the geriatric population expected in near future, this number will be significant. Policies with a clear focus on geriatric health-care need to be developed to reduce the dependency among elderly.

  16. Factors Associated with Use of Guideline in Home Management of Malaria among Children in Rural South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Akerele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dosage regimen for artemether-lumefantrine which is the standard of care for malaria in most of Sub-Saharan countries requires use of treatment guidelines and instructions to enhance caregivers' performance in the treatment of malaria. As part of a larger study evaluating its effectiveness in a rural local government area in southwestern Nigeria, 552 caregivers whose children had fever two weeks preceeding the survey were recruited. Information was collected with interviewer administered questionnaire. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted using the gllamm approach in Stata to determine the factors associated with use of guideline. Age and educational background of caregiver were significantly associated with guideline use. Caregivers aged 26–30 years were 4 times more likely to use guideline than those aged >40 years. Caregivers with primary education were 4 times more likely to use guideline compared with caregivers with no formal education. Between-village variance was 0.00092 ± 0.3084. Guideline use reduced with increasing age and lower education.

  17. Assessment of a treatment guideline to improve home management of malaria in children in rural south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduola Ayo MJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice household surveys were conducted. The intervention strategy consisted of training a core group of mothers ("mother trainers" in selected communities on the correct treatment of malaria and distributing a newly developed treatment guideline to each household. "Mother trainers" disseminated the educational messages about malaria and the use of the guideline to their communities. Results Knowledge of cause, prevention and treatment of malaria increased with the one-year intervention. Many, (70.4% of the respondents stated that they used the guideline each time a child was treated for malaria. There was a significant increase in the correct use of chloroquine from 2.6% at baseline to 52.3% after intervention among those who treated children at home in the intervention arm compared with 4.2% to 12.7% in the control arm. The correctness of use was significantly associated with use of the guideline. The timeliness of commencing treatment was significantly earlier in those who treated febrile children at home using chloroquine than those who took their children to the chemist or health facility (p Conclusion The use of the guideline with adequate training significantly improved correctness of malaria treatment with chloroquine at home. Adoption of this mode of intervention is recommended to improve compliance with drug use at home. The applicability for deploying artemisinin-based combination therapy at the community level needs to be investigated.

  18. Community knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon: The case of Ekondotiti and Mbonge health districts in the South-west Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Njih, Irine Ngani-Nformi; Pluschke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2018-01-01

    Background Although leprosy is one of the oldest diseases known to humanity, it remains largely misunderstood. Misconceptions about leprosy lead to stigma towards people with the disease. This study aimed at exploring the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional community survey of 233 respondents aged 15–75 years, free from leprosy, and living in two rural health districts of the South-west Region of Cameroon. A questionnaire designed to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about leprosy was used. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of negative attitudes. Results About 82% of respondents had heard about, and 64.4% knew someone with leprosy. Information on leprosy was mainly from community volunteers (40.6%), friends (38.0%), and the media (24%). Only 19.7% of respondents knew the cause of leprosy, and a considerable proportion linked it to a spell (25.3%), unclean blood (15.5%) and heredity (14.6%). About 72% knew that leprosy is curable and 86.3% would advise medical treatment. Attitudes towards leprosy patients were generally negative. Only 42% would shake hands, 32.6% would share the same plate, and 28.3% and 27% respectively, would allow their child to play or marry a person with leprosy. Furthermore, only 33.9% approved of participation of leprosy patients, and 42.9% of their employment. Independent predictors of negative attitudes were: the belief that leprosy is a curse; is caused by a germ; and having seen a leprosy patient. The negative attitudes were dampened by: the beliefs that leprosy is a punishment, is hereditary and is due to poor personal hygiene. Conclusion An awareness intervention using community volunteers and the media, with information on the cause of leprosy, its clinical manifestations and curability, and sensitization messages correcting the misconceptions and beliefs regarding leprosy, could improve the community

  19. Reconstructing the sedimentation history of the Bengal Delta Plain by means of geochemical and stable isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidhardt, Harald; Biswas, Ashis; Freikowski, Dominik; Majumder, Santanu; Chatterjee, Debashis; Berner, Zsolt A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the sedimentation history of the central floodplain area of the Bengal Delta Plain in West Bengal, India. Sediments from two boreholes were analyzed regarding lithology, geochemistry and the stable isotopic composition of embedded organic matter. Different lithofacies were distinguished that reflect frequent changes in the prevailing sedimentary depositional environment of the study area. The lowest facies comprises poorly sorted fluvial sediments composed of fine gravel to clay pointing at high transport energy and intense relocation processes. This facies is considered to belong to an early Holocene lowstand systems tract that followed the last glacial maximum. Fine to medium sands above it mark a gradual change towards a transgressive systems tract. Upwards increasing proportions of silt and the stable isotopic composition of embedded organic matter both indicate a gradual change from fluvial channel infill sediments towards more estuarine and marine influenced deposits. Youngest sediments are composed of clayey and silty overbank deposits of the Hooghly River that have formed a vast low-relief delta-floodplain. Close to the surface, small concretions of secondary Mn-oxides and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides occur and mark the fluctuation range of the unsaturated zone. These concretions are accompanied by relatively high contents of trace elements such as Zn, Ni, Cu, and As. To sum up, the outcomes of this study provide new insights into the complex sedimentation history of the barely investigated central floodplain area of West Bengal

  20. Effect of number of rooms and sibs on nutritional status among rural Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2011-12-01

    In developing countries including rural India, undernutrition among preschool children is one of the main barriers of the national development. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of underweight and stunting and their socio-demographic predictors among preschool children in India and West Bengal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of underweight and stunting and the impact of two socio-demographic indicators, namely number of living rooms (NLR) and number of sibs (NS), on them among 1-5 year old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Centres. This cross sectional study was undertaken at 30 randomly selected ICDS centre of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 children, aged 1-5 years were studied. The overall (age and sex combined) rates of underweight and stunting were 54.40% and 39.20%, respectively. NLR was significantly associated with the prevalence of underweight (chi2 = 4.34, df = 1, p or = 2 NLR. Moreover, girls with > or = 3 NS had significant higher rate of underweight (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.32-3.146) or stunting (OR = 1.69, C.I = 1.09-2.63) than those with Gender discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of NRL and NS. Moreover, logistic regression were also undertaken with underweight and stunting status (yes/ no) as dependent variables and NLR and NS (combined) as independent variables to identify their effects, when considered together, on undernutrition. Results showed that NS had significant impact on underweight (Wald = 8.28, p < 0.001) rather than NLR among girls. Results also demonstrated that NLR had significant impact on stunting (Wald = 6.874, p < 0.01) rather than NS.

  1. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  2. Extraction of Rose Bengal into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Vecernik, J.; Krtil, J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the extraction of Rose Bengal (RB)into chloroform. A radiometric method with the aid of 131 Ilabelled RB was used. The efficiency of the extraction in dependence on pH and RB concentration was studied. For the interpretation of the extraction data the values of pK 1 and pK 2 of RB were determined spectrophotometrical-ly and potentiometrically. A mechanism for the RB extraction into chloroform on the basis of IR measurements is proposed. (author)

  3. Change in the intensity of low-salinity water inflow from the Bay of Bengal into the Eastern Arabian Sea from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene: Implications for monsoon variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahesh, B.S.; Banakar, V.K.

    A 100–400 km wide region of the coastal Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS), off the west-coast of India, is characterized by a low-salinity tongue formed by the inflow of low-salinity surface water from the Bay of Bengal (BoB). This low-salinity tongue...

  4. Sedimentology and arsenic pollution in the Bengal Basin: insight into arsenic occurrence and subsurface geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew; McArthur, John

    2014-05-01

    The Bengal delta system is a geologically recent feature overlying a deeply incised palaeo-surface formed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This surface is a series of terraces and valleys created by river incision (Goodbred & Kuehl 2003). The terraces were weathered, forming a thin, indurated laterite deposit (Goodbred & Kuehl 2000) at depths greater than 50 m. McArthur et al. (2008) define this as a palaeosol and have identified it at depths greater than 30 m though out Bangladesh and West Bengal. It has been observed that arsenic concentrations at these sites are lower than the rest of the delta. It has been assumed that the surface morphology at sites where there is a palaeosol are similar and can therefore be characterised by remote sensing, in the form of Google Earth images. Sites were selected in Bangladesh and West Bengal, from work by McArthur et al. (2011); Hoque et al. (2012), where groundwater chemistry and sedimentology data are available making it possible to determine if the subsurface is a palaeo-channel or palaeo-interfluve. Arsenic concentration data have been inputted into Google Earth and the palaeo-channels marked where the arsenic concentration is greater than 10 µg/L, and palaeo-interfluves where arsenic concentration is less than 10 µg/L. The surface morphologies in these domains have been examined for similarities, and it was shown that avulsion scars and abandoned river channels are found where arsenic concentrations are greater than 10 µg/L. Conversely the surrounding areas that are devoid of channel scars have arsenic concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Using the correlation between avulsion features being representative of palaeo-channels and high arsenic concentrations, sites were selected that had a similar surface morphology to the type localities. A comparison of these images and arsenic concentrations showed that the postulate is valid for over 80 percent of cases. Where this is not valid, this could indicate that the subsurface

  5. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.

    Hydrographic and XBT data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Centre (IODC) are used to understand the process of temperature inversions occurring in the Bay of Bengal. The following aspects of the inversions are addressed: i) annual...

  6. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay...

  7. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  8. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  9. Primary production in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Radhakrishna, K.

    Primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, phaeophytin, phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon (POC) were studied at 14 stations in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977. Column primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, and phaeopigments varied from 0...

  10. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea is reviewed for the first time. All available information for over 50 years is consolidated in this review. To begin with, information on peripheral or related aspects of climate...

  11. Salt balance and mixing in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Basic fields of temperature salinity, density and currents in the Bay of Bengal are investigated using data archieved at the National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC) Washington, D.C. and the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC...

  12. Canonical sound speed profile for the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sastry, J.S.; De Figueiredo, R.J.P.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, an algorithm has been presented for computing sound channel parameters in the western and southern Bay of Bengal. The estimated canonical sound speed profile using these parameters has been compared with computed...

  13. The dynamics of arsenic in four paddy fields in the Bengal delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Jacqueline L.; Norton, Gareth J.; Islam, M. Rafiqul; Dasgupta, Tapash; White, Rodger P.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao Fangjie

    2011-01-01

    Irrigation with arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Bengal Delta may lead to As accumulation in the soil and rice grain. The dynamics of As concentration and speciation in paddy fields during dry season (boro) rice cultivation were investigated at 4 sites in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Three sites which were irrigated with high As groundwater had elevated As concentrations in the soils, showing a significant gradient from the irrigation inlet across the field. Arsenic concentration and speciation in soil pore water varied temporally and spatially; higher As concentrations were associated with an increasing percentage of arsenite, indicating a reductive mobilization. Concentrations of As in rice grain varied by 2-7 fold within individual fields and were poorly related with the soil As concentration. A field site employing alternating flooded-dry irrigation produced the lowest range of grain As concentration, suggesting a lower soil As availability caused by periodic aerobic conditions. - Research highlights: → Irrigation with As-contaminated groundwater resulted in a gradient of As concentration in the soil. → Arsenic concentration in paddy standing water decreased as arsenite was oxidised to arsenate. → Soil pore water As increased with the %arsenite, suggesting reductive mobilisation. → Alternative flooded-dry conditions led to lowest range of As concentration in rice grain. - Spatial variations of arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and waters do not correlate to within-field variations of arsenic concentrations in rice grain.

  14. Chronic airflow limitation in a rural Indian population: etiology and relationship to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biswajit Chakrabarti1, Sabita Purkait2, Punyabrata Gun2, Vicky C Moore3, Samadrita Choudhuri4, MJ Zaman5,6, Christopher J Warburton1, Peter MA Calverley7, Rahul Mukherjee3 1Aintree Chest Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 2Moitri Swasthya Kendra, Shramajibi Swasthya Udyog, Chengail, West Bengal, India; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine and Physiology, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK; 4National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal; 5Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College, London, UK; 6The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia; 7Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK Purpose: Respiratory conditions remain a source of morbidity globally. As such, this study aimed to explore factors associated with the development of airflow obstruction (AFO in a rural Indian setting and, using spirometry, study whether underweight is linked to AFO. Methods: Patients > 35 years old attending a rural clinic in West Bengal, India, took a structured questionnaire, had their body mass index (BMI measured, and had spirometry performed by an ancillary health care worker. Results: In total, 416 patients completed the study; spirometry was acceptable for analysis of forced expiratory volume in 1 second in 286 cases (69%; 16% were noted to exhibit AFO. Factors associated with AFO were: increasing age (95% confidence interval (CI 0.004–0.011; P = 0.005, smoking history (95% CI 0.07–0.174; P = 0.006, male gender (95% CI 0.19–0.47; P = 0.012, reduced BMI (95% CI 0.19–0.65; P = 0.02, and occupation (95% CI 0.12–0.84; P = 0.08. The mean BMI in males who currently smoked (n = 60; 19.29 kg/m2; standard deviation [SD] 3.46 was significantly lower than in male never smokers (n = 33; 21.15 kg/m2 SD 3.38; P < 0.001. AFO was observed in 27% of subjects with a BMI <18.5 kg/m2, falling to 13% with a BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 (P = 0.013. AFO was observed in 11% of housewives, 22% of farm

  15. Performance needs assessment of maternal and newborn health service delivery in urban and rural areas of Osun State, South-West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluwaseun T; Fatusi, Adesegun O

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to determine performance and compare gaps in maternal and newborn health (MNH) services in urban and rural areas of Osun State, Nigeria, to inform decisions for improved services. This study involved 14 urban and 10 rural-based randomly selected PHC facilities. Using a Performance Needs Assessment framework, desired performances were determined by key stakeholders and actual performances measured by conducting facility survey. Questionnaire interview of 143 health workers and 153 antenatal clients were done. Performance gaps were determined for the urban and rural areas and compared using Chi-square tests with SPSS version 17. PHC facilities and health workers in Osun State, Nigeria, were found to have significant gaps in MNH service performance and this was worse in the rural areas. Root cause of most of the performance gaps was poor political will of local government authorities. Improved government commitment to MNH is needful to address most of the gaps.

  16. Preference in place of delivery among rural Indian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashoke Gorain

    Full Text Available India accounts for the highest number of maternal and child deaths globally. A large body of empirical research suggests that improvement in the coverage of institutional delivery is essential to reduce the burden of maternal and child death. However the dynamics of choice of place of delivery is poorly understood. Using qualitative survey data consisting of twelve focus group discussions, conducted in a rural setting of West Bengal, India, this study aims to understand the reasons behind preferring home or institution for delivery. Findings reveal that some women who underwent an institutional delivery preferred to deliver their baby at home. On the other hand, of women who delivered their baby at home, 60% wanted to deliver their babies in institutions but could not do so, primarily due to the unwillingness of family members and misreporting of the onset of true labour pain. With the help of Accredited Social Health Activists, the village level health workers, there is need for an intervention that focuses on educating household members (essentially targeting husbands and mother-in-laws about birth preparedness, and identification of true labour pain.

  17. An outbreak of Koro among 19 workers in a jute mill in south Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suddhendu Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Koro is a culture-bound syndrome that is characterized by the belief of retraction of genitals into the abdomen. It was initially reported in Asian countries, as having a usual acute and brief course. Two case clusters have been described in this article. Both occurred in the same jute mill in southern West Bengal among the workers. The case clusters depict unique socioeconomic factors and interesting health-seeking behavior toward koro. All the cases had a self-limiting course and reasonably good outcome. The case cluster yet again confirms that koro is not as rare as it is thought of and social and economic factors continue to play an important role in the etiology of the disease.

  18. Strong variability in bacterioplankton abundance and production in central and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.; Paul, J.T.; Sardessai, S.; Jyothibabu, R.; Gauns, M.

    to low or no nutrient injections into the surface, primary production in Bay of Bengal is reportedly low. As a consequence, the Bay of Bengal is considered as a region of low biological productivity. Along with many biological parameters, bacterioplankton...

  19. Source of marine turbidites on the Andaman-Nicobar Islands: Nicobar Fan, Bengal Fan or paleo-Irrawaddy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A.

    2017-12-01

    Marine turbidites from an axially fed submarine fan are intermittently exposed across the entire chain of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands. Known as the Andaman Flysch (AF) and loosely assigned to the Paleogene, it has been proposed that these rocks are sourced from the Himalaya and thus provide a unique window into early stages of orogenesis. Where the turbidites came from has been subject to debate; they are either Bengal Fan or forearc deposits cut off from the Bengal Fan and possibly sourced from the Irrawaddy delta. Following recent IODP drilling in the eastern Indian Ocean (Expeditions 354 and 362) it is now possible resolve this by comparing the provenance of AF turbidites with the Bengal and Nicobar Fans. The Andaman Flysch can be traced as detached outcrops all along the western side of the main islands of Andaman over a strike length of more than 200 km. Exposures along the east coast are confined to South Andaman Island. Petrographic and geochemical data show a common continental crust signal with minor contributions from arc material. But, there are also differences whereby west coast sandstones show significantly higher quartz content and less feldspars and rock fragments. Staurolite is also present in all samples from the western side, but is absent from east coast samples. Both detrital zircon U-Pb and Bulk rock Nd data record the presence of arc material likely from Myanmar. Detrital zircon data from the Nicobar Fan match the Andaman turbidites and indicate sources from the Greater and Tethyan Himalaya mixed with sediment from the Burmese arc. Transfer of Irrawaddy derived sediment to the Nicobar Fan is ruled out as sediment transfer across the fore-arc to the west was restricted by the then exposed Yadana and M8 highs in the north and the Sewell and Alcock Rises to the south. Sediment isopachs of the Martaban back arc basin, the main north-south-oriented depocentre in the Andaman Sea related to the development of the Thanlwin -Irrawaddy delta system

  20. Population dynamics of HIV-2 in rural West Africa: comparison with HIV-1 and ongoing transmission at the heart of the epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, Thushan I.; van Tienen, Carla; Onyango, Clayton; Jabang, Abdoulie; Vincent, Tim; Loeff, Maarten F. Schim van der; Coutinho, Roel A.; Jaye, Assan; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Whittle, Hilton; Cotten, Matthew; Hué, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    To compare the population dynamics of HIV-2 and HIV-1, and to characterize ongoing HIV-2 transmission in rural Guinea-Bissau. Phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses using HIV-2 gag and env, and HIV-1 env sequences, combined with epidemiological data from a community cohort. Samples were obtained

  1. Rowing the Weaves of Community Participation: Good Practices in Early Childhood Development (ECD) Program in Rural Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the rural community participation within the context of an integrated early childhood development program initiated by the government of Indonesia in partnership with UNICEF and AusAID in Central Lombok (2008-2010). Based on purposive interviews with relevant stakeholders, as well as an analysis of past documents, researchers'…

  2. Production technology of 131I-rose bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hradilek, P.; Miklik, M.; Kopicka, K.; Kronrad, L.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the production equipment and production process used for Rose Bengal labelled with 131 I designed for use in nuclear medicine. The apparatus was installed in the semi-hot cell laboratory of the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez. The processed activity is around 20 GBq, the average yield of the ion exchange reaction between non-radioactive Rose Bengal and 131 I-labelled sodium iodide is 90%. The unreacted active sodium iodide is separated and the resulting product is diluted and processed into a drug presentation, sterilized and after random control is distributed in 14 days intervals to medical workplaces. (M.D.)

  3. Rapid labelling of rose bengal and iothalamate with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Rapid and simple methods for tagging rose bengal and iothalamate with radioactive iodine are proposed. In both cases, the reaction takes place in a penicillintype vial. In the first method, Chloramine-T, was added to a vial containing rose bengal and radioiodide. Tagging iothalamate requires heating a mixture of iothalamate and radioactive iodine in the autoclave. A high radiochemical yield was obtained in the two procedures. This obviated the need of separating the small amount of free radioiodine present in the final product. (author)

  4. Fast radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polyhalogenated dyes based on aromatic ring systems such as fluorosceins have been used for the evaluation of hepatobiliary function since 1909. In 1955 rose bengal was radioiodinated and a radiocontrastdye become a radiopharmaceutical. In the present study an improved method, based on the chloramine-T method, has been developed for labelling rose bengal. This method was chosen for its short reaction time, its mild conditions and its high yield. The optimum values of the reaction parameters have been determined, and resulted in a slightly higher yield, within a shorter time and without breakdown products being present

  5. Environmental gamma radiation measurements over the Bay of Bengal around Kalpakkam and in Chennai Harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surya Prakash, G.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Rajagopal, V.; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    DAE site Kalpakkam, encompassing several operating nuclear facilitates is enclosed in a strip of land between the Bay of Bengal on the east and Buckingham Canal on the west. Approximately about 50% of the Emergency Prone Zone (EPZ) area around the plant lies in the Bay of Bengal. The radiation levels around Kalpakkam nuclear complex is monitored by Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) at Kalpakkam. The survey has been carried out up to 16 km in the land areas. Though radioactivity levels in the seawater and the food produce derived from the sea are monitored and reported by ESL, data on the ambient radiation levels over the sea has not been reported. The paper describes the campaign based ambient gamma radiation level measurements done during the past few years. The radiation level measurements done at selected locations varied between 8 and 115 nGyh -1 (0.8 and 11.5 μRh -1 ) during the first campaign and 14 and 170 nGyh -1 (1.4 and 17 μRh -1 ) during the second campaign. The average dose rate observed from both the campaigns was 62 nGyh 1 (6.2 μRh -1 ). During the campaign period we are looked in to any interference from the 41 Ar released from the MAPS reactor also. The third campaign at the Chennai harbor (∼ 60 km north of Kalpakkam) the observed radiation levels were between 15 nGyh -1 (1.5 μRh -1 ) and 12.2 nGyh -1 (12.2 μRh -1 ). This paper discussed the details of the techniques and the measurement

  6. The biology of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.

    This article focusses on the variability in physics and chemistry of the region and investigate its influence on the biology. This article is largely based on the recent observations made during the India JGOFS and BOBPS (Bay of Bengal Process Study...

  7. Forcing mechanisms of the Bay of Bengal circulation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.; Sengupta, D.; Gadgil, S.

    A state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model, set up for the North Indian Ocean and driven by climatological wind stress simulates most of the observed features of the near-surface circulation of the Bay of Bengal. The prominent features...

  8. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , the southwest monsoon in summer and the northeast monsoon in winter. The wind stress associated with these winds cause mass drift of oceanic waters leading to upwelling and downwelling. The upwelling features in the Bay of Bengal with a special mention about...

  9. Late Quaternary sedimentation in eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Mascarenhas, A; Paropkari, A; Rao, Ch.M.

    This study presents variations in various size measures, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, clay mineralogy and major and trace elements in a core (5.40 m long, 2713 m depth) from the eastern Bay of Bengal. On a CM diagram, the sediments of the core...

  10. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    Analyses of about 6000 km of processed magnetic data in the central Bay of Bengal using Analytical Signal Processing and Werner Deconvolution techniques revealed that the depth to top of the magnetic basement varies between 5 and 12 km from the sea...

  11. Bay of Bengal Process Studies (BOBPS) Final Report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Sardessai, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Bhosle, N.B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Ramesh, R.; Sharada, M.K.; Sarin, M.M.; Sarupria, J.S.; Muraleedharan, U.

    E, and 4 were along western boundary - were covered. In all 35 parameters were measured. Several new insights are emerging out of the BOBPS data analysis. We now understand why Bay of Bengal is a biologically low productive basin. This is largely due...

  12. Nitrous oxide in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D

    Extensive observations on nitrous oxide (N@d2@@O) in the atmosphere and waters of the western Bay of Bengal during March-April 1991 yield surface saturations and atmospheric fluxes ranging from 89.3 to 213.9% (mean 125.2%), and from 0.10 to 10...

  13. Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bandgap of 2.93 eV is calculated using UV–visible ... Keywords. Wide bandgap; dye-sensitized solar cells; CeO2; rose bengal dye. 1. ... and renewable energy, its high-cost production and installa- tion excludes direct commercial use. It is an urgent require- .... surface leads to oxygen vacancies and defects, whose influ-.

  14. The Relationship between Maternal Diseases during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: a Nested Case-Control Study in Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province (West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is considered as one of the important health indicators in evaluating prenatal care as well as determining scale of infants' health in the society. The study aimed to investigate maternal diseases during pregnancy and its impact on LBW in rural areas of Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nested case-control study method in rural areas of Kurdistan province- Iran in 2015-2016. In this study, 182 infants less than 2,500gr as case and 364 infants weighing 2,500 g and more as control were entered the study. Information about case and control groups was extracted by investigating records of pregnant women care. Data was analyzed using software Stata-12 with point and interval estimation of odds ratio (OR using conditional logistic regression. Results: The results of single-variable analysis of conditional logistic regression showed that there is a statistical relationship between blood pressure during pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia, mother's thyroid problems, oral and dental problems, and history of bleeding during pregnancy in case and control groups (P

  15. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Srithong, Kannapatch; Manokulanan, Pratumpan; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Aung, Myo Nyein

    2012-01-01

    The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI) assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand. A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were "not sure". Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males. The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.

  16. Hepatic steatosis is associated with cardiometabolic risk in a rural Indian population: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Shah, Ravi V; Spahillari, Aferdita; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Das, Kaushik; Santra, Amal; Hembram, Jaba Ranjan; Bhattacharya, Dilip; Freedman, Jane E; Lima, Joao; Das, Ranendra; Bhattacharyya, Pinakpani; Das, Saumya; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-12-15

    While adiposity and hepatic steatosis are linked to cardiovascular risk in developed countries, their prevalence and impact in low-income countries are poorly understood. We investigated the association of anthropomorphic variables and hepatic steatosis with cardiometabolic risk profiles and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large rural Indian cohort. In 4691 individuals in the Birbhum Population Project in West Bengal, India, we performed liver ultrasonography, carotid ultrasound and biochemical and clinical profiling. We assessed the association of hepatic steatosis and anthropomorphic indices (BMI, waist circumference) with CVD risk factors (dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension) and subclinical CVD (by carotid intimal-medial thickness). Rural Indians exhibited a higher visceral adiposity index and pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia at a lower BMI than Americans. Individuals with any degree of hepatic steatosis by ultrasound had a greater probability of dysglycemia (adjusted odds ratio, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.31-2.12, P<0.0001) and pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.63, P=0.009). We observed a positive association between liver fat, adiposity and carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) in an unadjusted model (β=0.02, P=0.0001); the former was extinguished after adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors. In a large population of rural Indians, hepatic steatosis and waist circumference were associated with prevalent cardiometabolic risk and subclinical CVD at lower BMI relative to multi-ethnic Americans, though the association of the former with subclinical CVD was extinguished after adjustment. These results underscore the emerging relevance of hepatic steatosis and adiposity in the developing world, and suggest efforts to target these accessible phenotypes for cardiometabolic risk prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: a comparative study of The Gambia, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-03-30

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d'Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007-2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data.

  18. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Kannapatch Srithong,1 Pratumpan Manokulanan,1 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,2 Myo Nyein Aung1,31Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 3Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo, JapanBackground and purpose: The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community.Methods: Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand.Results: A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. Whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males.Conclusion: The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.Keywords: health education, gender differences, ethnic minority, diabetes, Karen

  19. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids from the coastal marine fish of Bay of Bengal and their therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Rabindranath; Dhara, Tushar K; Bhadra, Ranjan; Majumder, Gopal C; Sen, Parimal C

    2010-12-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) significantly present in marine fish oil emerge as preventive agents for combating many health problems specially in chronic or metabolic disorders. The fish in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal has remained unexplored with respect to EPA/DHA enriched PUFA content in its oils, although it may be a potential source in harnessing the health benefit. In this study, seven varieties of the coastal fish were analysed for the content of EPA/DHA. The one locally known as lotte, (Harpadon nehereus) though has low content of total lipids, was found to have high EPA/DHA in its oil. The phospholipids rich fraction was extracted from the total fish oil. The EPA/DHA enriched PUFA was isolated to investigate the potential use for health benefits. EPA/DHA is found to act as protective agent against mercury poisoning studied in cell culture as well as in animal mode. It is found to be highly preventive in diabetes. The lotte is available in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal adjoining West Bengal, India in large scale and it is the first report showing EPA/DHA enriched PUFA in these fish oil that can be availed to harness in important health benefits.

  20. Grasslands in India: Problems and perspectives for sustaining livestock and rural livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy K. Roy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, grazing-based livestock husbandry plays an important role in the rural economy as around 50% of animals depend on grazing. Pasturelands over an area of 12 Mha constitute the main grazing resources that are available. Temperate/alpine pastures are spread across elevations higher than 2000 m in the Eastern and Western Himalayas including the Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim states. Nearly 30 pastoral communities in hilly or arid/semi-arid regions in northern and western parts of India, as well as 20 in temperate/hilly regions, depend on grazing-based livestock production. Due to overgrazing coupled with poor management and care, these grazing lands have deteriorated to a large extent and need amelioration or rehabilitation. Appropriate technologies have been developed, refined and tested in various research and academic institutions. These technologies need to be implemented on a large scale in different parts of the country for augmenting forage resources, enhancing livestock production and sustaining livelihood options in an eco-friendly manner.

  1. Rural electrification programme with solar energy in remote region - a case study in an island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Snigdha; Chakrabarti, Subhendu [Indian Statistical Inst., Economic Research Unit, Kolkata (India)

    2002-01-01

    In the programme of total electrification, centralized supply of power generated by conventional methods using exhaustible resources is proving to be uneconomic and, more importantly, unmanageable so far as supply to rural areas, particularly remote places, are concerned. On the other hand, the decentralized approach based on supply of power produced with renewable energy resources available locally is, for various reasons, gradually being recognized as a viable alternative for such remote places. The present paper attempts to examine, from a broad-based socio-economic and environmental point of view, the feasibility of decentralized solar photovoltaic (SPV) system as a source of power compared to that from conventional sources in a remotely located island. The study, based on a sample survey, conducted in an island called 'Sagar Dweep' in West Bengal, India, shows that within a short spell of time of four years, there have been noticeable improvements and significant impact on education, trade and commerce, entertainment, health etc. as a result of supply of power from SPV power plants. Productivity level of some agricultural activities as well as women's participation in different economic activities (at night) other than household work have shown definite signs of betterment. The SPV system is also superior to other conventional systems on consideration of its environmental effects. Thus, on the whole, there seems to be a strong case for the locally installed SPV system in spite of its current unfavourable position in respect of the direct cost of production. (Author)

  2. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (∼  1 km2 to the meso-scale (∼  100 km2, and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation. This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  3. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Barry; Merritt, Wendy; Cornish, Peter; Syme, Geoffrey J.; Roth, Christian H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (˜ 1 km2) to the meso-scale (˜ 100 km2), and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation). This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  4. Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

    2011-08-01

    The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km2. Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km2 of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO2. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

  5. Effect of health education on knowledge, attitude and practices of personal hygiene among secondary school students in rural Sokoto, North West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, A O; Nwogu, E E; Ibrahim, M T O; Hassan, R

    2012-01-01

    Personal hygiene related diseases are serious public health problems in developing countries. To assess the effect of health education on knowledge, attitude, and practices of personal hygiene among rural secondary school students in Sokoto state, north western Nigeria. A quasi-experimental controlled study with pretest and post-test design was carried out. A total 120 subjects per group were selected by multistage sampling technique. Two pre-tested instruments, structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and observer's checklist for personal hygiene practices were used for data collection. Health education intervention was carried out one week after baseline data collection and repeated after four weeks for the intervention group only. Postintervention data collection was carried out in both intervention and control groups three months after the 2nd intervention. However, for ethical consideration, the control group was also provided with the health education intervention similar to that provided to the intervention group. A total of 120 and 116 subjects in the intervention and control groups respectively participated in all phases of the study. The mean knowledge score (%) of the study subjects was high and similar (73.18 +/- 25.82; 77.06 +/- 21.79; p = 0.21) in both the intervention and control groups at baseline, but differed very significantly (91.16 +/- 11.03; 81.74 +/- 21.78; p Personal hygiene health education is therefore recommended to be taught in secondary schools.

  6. The influence of proximity on the potential demand for vegetable oil as a diesel substitute: A rural survey in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvine, Dorian; Dabat, Marie-Helene; Gazull, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Bio-energy demand is known to be influenced by geographical origin and social equity. This paper aims to highlight the influence of the proximity between biomass production and energy consumption on the demand for alternative bio-fuels. In the context of Burkina Faso, we explore potential demand for vegetable oil (Jatropha Curcas) as a diesel substitute among engine owners. Survey data are based on a between-groups design: one group of respondents experiencing a local supply chain, while the other a global one. Results show that proximity has a significant effect on potential demand itself and on the formation and strength of beliefs regarding vegetable oil. In a local supply chain context, the demand is superior and seems to be guided more by a certain economic and technical rationality. Conversely, the prospect of a vegetable oil produced outside the village restrains demand and this latter is more determined by contextual factors and social interaction. Our analysis confirms that demand does not only depend on technical and economic factors such as price but also on the integration of the biomass production and processing in the socioeconomic life of local rural populations. Understanding demand construction and assessing underlying beliefs are key success factors for bio-energy projects. (authors)

  7. Neuro-fuzzy inference system Prediction of stability indices and Sodium absorption ratio in Lordegan rural drinking water resources in west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takdastan, Afshin; Mirzabeygi Radfard, Majid; Yousefi, Mahmood; Abbasnia, Abbas; Khodadadia, Rouhollah; Soleimani, Hamed; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Naghan, Davood Jalili

    2018-06-01

    According to World Health Organization guidelines, corrosion control is an important aspect of safe drinking-water supplies. Water always includes ingredients, dissolved gases and suspended materials. Although some of these water ingredients is indispensable for human beings, these elements more than permissible limits, could be endanger human health. The aim of this study is to assess physical and chemical parameters of drinking water in the rural areas of Lordegan city, also to determine corrosion indices. This cross-sectional study has carried out with 141 taken samples during 2017 with 13 parameters, which has been analyzed based on standard method and to estimate the water quality indices from groundwater using ANFIS. Also with regard to standard conditions, results of this paper are compared with Environmental Protection Agency and Iran national standards. Five indices, Ryznar Stability Index (RSI), Langlier Saturation Index (LSI), Larson-Skold Index (LS), Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI), and Aggressive Index (AI) programmed by using Microsoft Excel software. Owing to its simplicity, the program, can easily be used by researchers and operators. Parameters included Sulfate, Sodium, Chloride, and Electrical Conductivity respectively were 13.5, 28, 10.5, and 15% more than standard level. The amount of Nitrate, in 98% of cases were in permissible limits and about 2% were more than standard level. Result of presented research indicate that water is corrosive at 10.6%,89.4%,87.2%,59.6% and 14.9% of drinking water supply reservoirs, according to LSI, RSI, PSI, LS and AI, respectively.

  8. Trends and determinants of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural Guinea-Bissau, West Africa--a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mane, Maram; Fisker, Ane B; Ravn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    mortality between 1996-2000 followed by 14% increase in mortality [Hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.32; p = 0.08] between 2001-2003, and then in the last period from 2004-2007 a 25% decline (HRR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.64-0.87; p ...BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting mortality of women of reproductive age (WRA) in developing countries. The trend and patterns of their mortality may be important for documenting the health status of the population in general. METHODS: We used a prospective open cohort of women aged 12...... to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project's rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality...

  9. Rural versus Urban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøning, Signe Wedel

    and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....

  10. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta living in urban and semi-rural North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Debenham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170 were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  11. Impact of nutritional education on nutritional status of under-five children in two rural communities of south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, S S; Onayade, A A; Abiona, T C; Fatusi, A O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Esimai, O A; Ijadunola, K T

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of nutritional education on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of mothers concerning infants and young children feeding and their children's nutritional status in two semi-urban communities of south-west Nigeria. This is a community intervention study. We recruited 150 mothers of children aged 0-18 months independently from the intervention and control communities through a multi-stage sampling technique. We collected data with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and at six months after intervention from both communities to obtain information on feeding of infants and young children. In addition, we measured weights and heights of recruited children. Intervention involved group counselling of mothers and food demonstrations at designated health facilities. Data analysis for quantitative data was done using Epi-Info software, and for qualitative data, content analysis of major themes was used. Before intervention, recruited mothers and their children from the two communities were comparable in terms of all the parameters assessed (P>0.05 in all cases). After six months of intervention, mothers who had nutritional education demonstrated better knowledge and attitudes to key infant and young children feeding recommendations. There was also limited improvement in feeding practices. Mothers from the intervention community exclusively breastfed their infants longer with mean age at introduction of complementary foods at 5.3 months compared to 4.5 months in the control community (Pchildren longer (Pchildren. In this study, nutritional education of mothers only had positive impact on their level of KAP on infant and young children feeding.

  12. Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during cyclone Phailin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.; Nair, T.M.B.; Nherakkol, A.; Jeyakumar, C.

    , 1073–1083, 2014 www.ann-geophys.net/32/1073/2014/ doi:10.5194/angeo-32-1073-2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during Cyclone Phailin M. M. Amrutha1, V. Sanil Kumar1, T. R. Anoop1, T. M..., 1073–1083, 2014 www.ann-geophys.net/32/1073/2014/ M. M. Amrutha et al.: Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during Cyclone Phailin 1075 Figure 1. Track of the Cyclone Phailin from 8 October 2013 03:00 UTC to 13 October 2013 06:00 UTC. S(f )= αg 2...

  13. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Jiang, Hong Wei; Gunawan, Budhi; Dewanti, Linda; Honda, Ryo; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Abdoellah, Oekan S; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-10-02

    Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1) household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2) risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3) associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242), their mothers (n = 242), and their fathers (n = 225) in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural) in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI) and by converting skinfold thickness (ST) data using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) formula (BF%-ST). Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23) and child stunting (height-for-age z-score child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were "Modern" and "High-animal products". After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the "High-animal products" dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21-1.04) than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the "High-animal products" dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia.

  14. Arsenic in groundwaters of rural India: its geochemistry and mitigation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debashis; Majumder, Santanu; Kundu, Amit; Barman, Sandipan; Chatterjee, Debankur; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2016-04-01

    During the last few decades, arsenic (As) has been recognized as the most threatening contaminant in natural waters (especially groundwater). It has become a menace to the health of millions of people worldwide. Many large and small communities experience As contamination in groundwater and/or drinking water supplies in south-east Asia and the problem is grave in West Bengal and Bangladesh (Bengal Delta Plain, BDP) both in terms of human exposure as well as spatial coverage. It is frequently observed that As concentration in contaminated wells exceeds both WHO guideline value (10 mg/l) and stipulated National standard (50 mg/l) for both Bangladesh and India. Dissolved forms of As in the BDP water include arsenite (~50-70%), arsenate (~30-50%) and ultra-trace amount of monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid. Arsenite and arsenate species can interchange depending on redox potential (Eh), pH and biological processes. The prevailing local geomorphological features (surface water, sanitation, agricultural activity) can also influence the mobilization of As in addition to the dominant geological factors. Therefore, the local sedimentology and hydrogeology should also be given importance prior to implement or consider any policy to mitigate the As contamination of groundwater. Conventional treatment techniques to remove As from groundwater are costly and difficult to practice in rural areas of the BDP. There are several techniques available for groundwater As removal. Iron and Alum coagulation, softening [mediated by calcite or Mg(OH)2 formation], by reverse osmosis, using zero-valent iron and nanoparticulate zero-valent iron, several natural/synthetic metal oxides, naturally found minerals like siderite, hematite, using iron doped activated carbons, development of bio-physicochemical techniques, using granular TiO2 adsorbent are some of the many proposed removal techniques investigated by various researchers. Instead of using hazardous chemicals (e.g. chlorine

  15. Preparation of Labelled I131 Rose-Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayani, Mbutyabo; Chabouri, Galaal.

    1978-01-01

    Rose bengal purified on a Sephadex G-25 column has been labelled with iodine-131. The exchange reaction has been undertaken in an ether - alcohol medium. The influence of different factors (iodine concentration, Psup(h), purity and chemical form of the substratum, reaction rate) on the labelling yield has been studied. Radiochemical yield of 90% have been obtained in some conditions instead of the normal 80% reported in the literature

  16. Earth Observation and Geospatial techniques for Soil Salinity and Land Capability Assessment over Sundarban Bay of Bengal Coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sumanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee food security and job creation of small scale farmers to commercial farmers, unproductive farms in the South 24 PGS, West Bengal need land reform program to be restructured and evaluated for agricultural productivity. This study established a potential role of remote sensing and GIS for identification and mapping of salinity zone and spatial planning of agricultural land over the Basanti and Gosaba Islands(808.314sq. km of South 24 PGS. District of West Bengal. The primary data i.e. soil pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC and Sodium Absorption ratio (SAR were obtained from soil samples of various GCP (Ground Control Points locations collected at 50 mts. intervals by handheld GPS from 0–100 cm depths. The secondary information is acquired from the remotely sensed satellite data (LANDSAT ETM+ in different time scale and digital elevation model. The collected field samples were tested in the laboratory and were validated with Remote Sensing based digital indices analysisover the temporal satellite data to assess the potential changes due to over salinization. Soil physical properties such as texture, structure, depth and drainage condition is stored as attributes in a geographical soil database and linked with the soil map units. The thematic maps are integrated with climatic and terrain conditions of the area to produce land capability maps for paddy. Finally, The weighted overlay analysis was performed to assign theweights according to the importance of parameters taken into account for salineareaidentification and mapping to segregate higher, moderate, lower salinity zonesover the study area.

  17. Predictors of early breastfeeding initiation among mothers of children under 24 months of age in rural part of West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Tsedeke Wolde; Adeba, Emiru; Sufa, Alem

    2015-10-21

    The World Health Organization recommends initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after childbirth. In developing countries alone, early initiation of breastfeeding could save as many as 1.45 million lives each year by reducing deaths mainly due to diarrheal disorders and lower respiratory tract infections in children. The current study aimed to determine the rate and the predictors of breastfeeding initiation in East Wollega Zones of West Ethiopia. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014 among 594 mothers who had children less than 24 months. Multi stage cluster sampling method was used to select the study population. Eligible mothers were invited to interview using pretested questionnaires to gather data regarding sociodemographics, health-related variables, breastfeeding initiation, and current breastfeeding practices. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for confounding variables. A sample of 593 mothers was included in the study. Breastfeeding was initiated by 83.1 % of mothers within the first hour of childbirth. Being a housewife (AOR (95 % CI) = 2.48 (1.54- 3.99)) and infant received colostrum (AOR (95 % CI) =2.22 (1.08-4.55)) were significant positive predictors for early breastfeeding initiation as revealed by logistic regression. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the mothers who had no radio and/or TV in the household (AOR (95 % CI = 0.55 (0.35-0.88)), were not exposure to health information (AOR (95 % CI) = 0.44 (0.25-0.75)), and infants were provided with prelacteal feeds (AOR (95 % CI)=0.30 (0.14-0.65)) were less likely to initiate breastfeeding. The rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding was high. Breastfeeding promotion program is essential to encourage the practice of timely initiation of breastfeeding, and reduce the practice of providing prelacteal

  18. Characterization of the village goat production systems in the rural communities of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar Farai; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces. The study further investigated the use of phenotypic attributes to classify goats to breeds or populations. Data was collected from 142 households in 26 villages of the Eastern Cape (n = 2 villages), KwaZulu-Natal (n = 6 villages), Limpopo (n = 13 villages), and North West (n = 5 villages) provinces through a survey. Individual interviews and focus group discussions revealed that the mean goat herd size per household was least in Limpopo at 13.2 ± 12.40 and highest in Eastern Cape (34.18 ± 28.36). Flocks had more (p Goats were kept mainly for meat, for selling, and for ritual ceremonies. The goat production system was mainly scavenging. Goat health was a major challenge across households and villages. Qualitative traits such coat, horn, ears, and wattle characteristics were recorded for populations of village goats (n = 319) and a feral Tankwa breed (n = 50). The dominant coat pattern was plain (74.53%) with black as the most common coat color (31.98%). Across breeds, a majority (88.08%) of the goats had horns, and 7.59% had wattles while 56.64% had beard. Adult goats (goats formed their own cluster separated from commercial meat type breeds and the Venda and Zulu ecotypes. The discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90.41% of the Zulu goats and 82.93% of the Xhosa village populations. None of the Savanna goats were correctly classified. The study demonstrated diversity in village goat

  19. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida de Lucio

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries.We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene.The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393 and 4.6% (18/393, respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%, BIII (28.2%, and BIV (32.0%. Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4% isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A, resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study.Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G. duodenalis genetic variants. Importantly

  20. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Sekiyama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1 household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2 risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3 associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242, their mothers (n = 242, and their fathers (n = 225 in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF% was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI and by converting skinfold thickness (ST data using Durnin and Womersley’s (1974 formula (BF%-ST. Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI ≥ 23 and child stunting (height-for-age z-score <−2 within households. Maternal-child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were “Modern” and “High-animal products”. After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the “High-animal products” dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21–1.04 than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the “High-animal products” dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia.

  1. The extraction behaviour of the Rose Bengal labelled with 131I in the presence of cationic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Krtil, J.; Kuban, V.

    1989-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of the Rose Bengal in the presence of not only Septonex, but also other cationic surfactants (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium bromide) was studied. The extraction constants of the ion associates of the Rose Bengal with cationic surfactants were determined radiometrically with the aid of Rose Bengal labelled with 131 I. (author) 8 refs.; 1 tab

  2. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  3. Wind stress, curl and vertical velocity in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon, 1984

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Heblekar, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Wind distribution observed during southwest monsoon of 1984 has used to derive the mean wind stress for the season at every 1 degree square grid and curl over the Bay of Bengal. Two regions of maximum wind stress are present over the Bay of Bengal...

  4. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  5. Enhanced particle fluxes in Bay of Bengal inducEd. by injection of freshwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.; Honjo, S.; Ramaswamy, V.; Bartsch, M.; Manganini, S.J.; Desai, B.N.

    deployed three sediment-trap moorings (two traps in each mooring) in the northern, central and southern parts of the Bay of Bengal, respectively. The Bay of Bengal is suitable for such a study, because some of the world's largest rivers supply pulses...

  6. Extraction method for the determination of inorganic iodides in Rose Bengal labelled with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Krtil, J.; Vecernik, J.

    1982-01-01

    An extraction method for the determination of inorganic iodides in Rose Bengal preparations labelled with 131 I is described. The method is based on the quantitative extraction of Rose Bengal into chloroform from acidic medium while the inorganic iodides remain in the aqueous phase. The method is simple, rapid, and reproducible. (author)

  7. A comparative study of vertical stabilities in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.

    Stabilities in the upper 300 m in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are computed and presented seasonwise. The water column in the Bay of Bengal is more strongly stratified than that in the Arabian Sea. These studies suggest that the vertical...

  8. The West Bank: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-20

    78 percent Muslim, 9.6 percent Christian, 11 percent Jewish and I percent other. The Muslim population was distributed in urban and rural aleas ...to cluster in the mountains and hill country as a refuge from depredations by Beduins in the plains. Village feuds and the pressures of Turkish tax...modern living patterns, industry, and co-merce--well developed in the coastal areas--were, by comparison, primitive in the mountainous West Bank

  9. The last glacial cycle documented on the Lower Bengal Fan - chronological and paleoclimate implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Dekens, P.; Reilly, B.; Lantzsch, H.; Selkin, P. A.; Das, S. K.; Williams, T.; Martos, Y. M.; Adhikari, R. R.; Gyawali, B. R.; Jia, G.; Fox, L. R.; Ge, J.; Manoj, M. C.; Savian, J. F.; Meynadier, L.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Klaus, A.

    2016-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 set out in February to March 2015 to drill seven sites along an east west oriented core transect of 320 km length at 8°N in the Bengal Fan (France-Lanord et al., 2015). Sediments show complex intercalation of turbiditic and hemipelagic deposits, documenting the interaction of fan evolution and paleoceanographic history. Hemipelagic sequences represent a several meter thick top layer of Late Quaternary sediment. Deposits are either rich in biogenic opal/clay or in carbonate. We studied physical, optical, geochemical, grain-size, and stable isotopic properties of this top layer to establish a time frame, estimate sedimentary properties, and assess the development of the region during the last glacial cycle. For this purpose, we sampled Site U1452C-1H continuously for the uppermost 480 cm in 2-cm increments. Preliminary results indicate the Toba Ash 1 (74 ka) is a distinct time marker in most physical property data sets. Records of wet-bulk density as well as color reflectance b* (the red-green component) and L* (the lightness) show a dominant precession cyclicity. Hence, we are able to provide an insolation-tuned chronology for the last 200 ka (MIS1 - 7). These records agree well with d18O records retrieved from Chinese caves. An independent age model is derived from records of relative paleointensity (RPI), including the assessment of the Laschamp Event ( 40 ka), and on RPI tuning to global templates. We will compare both chronologies and evaluate their chronological and paleoclimatic implications. We will also present preliminary grain-size and paleoceanographic proxy data (sea-surface temperature, sea-surface salinity, and Mg/Ca) as well as color endmember modeling to reconstruct ice volume, marine biological productivity, nutrient supply, and deep-water circulation. The sedimentologic, oceanographic and climatic conditions are linked to changes in monsoonal strength and terrestrial input, which will also be studied using sedimentary proxies

  10. The tectonic origin of the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talwani, M.; Desa, M.; Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.

    direction for the Indian plate.  4. The 85°E Ridge was initially evolved as a fracture zone, and subsequently associated with volcanism.   5. The oceanic crust of the Western Basin of the Bay of Bengal is older than the crust of the Eastern Basin and Bangla... it a northern extension of the 86°E fracture zone, while Sar et al. [2009] suggested it could have a continental origin. Gibbons et al. [2013] inferred that the 85°E Ridge and the Kerguelen Fracture Zone formed as conjugate flanks of a 'leaky...

  11. Cationic Phosphorus Dendrimer Enhances Photodynamic Activity of Rose Bengal against Basal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    In the last couple of decades, photodynamic therapy emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, it still meets limitations due to unfavorable properties of photosensitizers such as poor solubility or lack of selectivity. Dendrimers, polymers widely studied in biomedical field, may play a role as photosensitizer carriers and improve the efficacy of photodynamic treatment. Here, we describe the evaluation of an electrostatic complex of cationic phosphorus dendrimer and rose bengal in such aspects as singlet oxygen production, cellular uptake, and phototoxicity against three basal cell carcinoma cell lines. Rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex in molar ratio 5:1 was compared to free rose bengal. Obtained results showed that the singlet oxygen production in aqueous medium was significantly higher for the complex than for free rose bengal. The cellular uptake of the complex was 2-7-fold higher compared to a free photosensitizer. Importantly, rose bengal, rose bengal-dendrimer complex, and dendrimer itself showed no dark toxicity against all three cell lines. Moreover, we observed that phototoxicity of the complex was remarkably enhanced presumably due to high cellular uptake. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex has a potential in photodynamic treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  12. Basic studies on the hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 123I-rose bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Ito, Yasuhiko; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Muranaka, Akira; Konno, Katsunobu.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the values of 123 I-rose bengal. sup(99m)Tc-labels for the hepatobiliary radiopharmaceutical are not fully satisfied because of greater urinary excretion, especially in cases of hyperbilirubinemia. 123 I is a lower gamma ray energy emitter more suitable for imaging and has a short half life with 13 hours. Commercially obtained rose bengal was purified using Sephadex G-25 column on gelfiltration. 123 I-rose bengal was prepared using iodine exchange reaction between nonradioactive rose bengal and Na 123 I. Radiochemical purity of 123 I-rose bengal was examined by paper chromatography. Biological distribution of 123 I-rose bengal in rabbits at 1 hours after intravenous injection indicated that the tracer was cleared from the blood to the liver, thereafter excreted into the small intestine through the common bile duct. Hepatic uptake and excretion of activity has been measured for 60 minutes using a scintillation camera in conjunction with a VTR system. There existed no significant relative to those of 131 I-rose bengal. Serial scintigraphic images showed satisfactorily better images even in a rabbit with complete obstructive jaundice. (author)

  13. Exploitation of labour: A study of Migrant labourers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Migrant workers, who constitute a major work force, in the unorganized sector, face various psychological stresses and arrive in an aggravated mental position due to their habit of using different varieties of intoxicants. The researcher’s attempt in this paper is to find out the connection of addiction- related stress and social disintegration of the migrant workers with the wide web of exploitation of labour through an empirical analysis. The intoxicants are the only medium for the migrants to leave the sufferings behind them for a time being. This paper highlights the push factors as the fabricated trap to exploit the migrants physically, socially and mentally for surplus production with cheap labour.

  14. Strategy and policy in mobilizing resources for employability enhancement (West Bengal, India)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Nibedita; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Gregar, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Employability enhancement is a burning topic in present world. To sustain in this competitive world every human needs the capacity to adopt themselves through their own skills, efficiency and knowledge. This paper tries to investigate the prominence of employability and its current practices in that

  15. A study on fertility perception: An experience from West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Nath Jha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Correct Knowledge regarding different components of fertility among Eligible Couples to be enhanced by intervention through Information, Education and Communication (Interpersonal Communication and Mass Media.

  16. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2017-06-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes may require careful management based on water pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, bicarbonate, sodium, fluoride, metals content and SAR values.

  17. Issues around childhood disclosure of HIV status - findings from a qualitative study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Detels, R; Javanbakht, M; Panda, S

    2016-07-01

    Informing the children living with HIV (CLH) about their disease (disclosure) is important from the perspective of disease treatment and overall psychosocial development. There are no published studies that qualitatively explored HIV disclosure-related issues among CLH in India. Our aim was to provide insights into the perceptions of informal caregivers of CLH regarding childhood disclosure. Children were defined as those aged maturity or was of marriageable age. Disclosure of HIV status to children is an emotional issue, both for the caregiver and the child. Like most low-or middle-income countries, no standardized, age-appropriate disclosure guidelines exist in India. Our findings advocate adoption of a multi-faceted approach, including increased availability of social and familial support, for childhood HIV disclosure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Variation in blood pressure among adolescent schoolchildren in an urban slum of Kolkata, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Muktisadhan; Bandyopadhyay, Lina

    2017-11-01

    High blood pressure in childhood is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The roots of essential hypertension in adults may be initiated in childhood. This study was conducted to investigate blood pressure profiles of adolescent schoolchildren in the practice field area of the Urban Health Centre, Chetla, Kolkata. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension in adolescent schoolchildren, to compare the blood pressure between boys and girls, and to study the association between selected variables and blood pressure. The study was conducted among adolescent schoolchildren aged 10-19 years in two randomly selected secondary schools situated in the practice field area of the Urban Health Centre, Chetla, Kolkata. All students aged 10-19 years present on the day of the visit were included in the study; the sample was 129. A predesigned questionnaire was used to carry out the study. Measurements of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were made using standardised physical instruments following standard operative guidelines. The data were collected and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 10.1% (11.1% in boys and 8.8% in girls). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 20.2% (16.7% in boys and 24.6% in girls). Hypertension was found to be significantly associated with physical exercise (p<0.05) and salt intake (p<0.05); BMI was also significantly associated with both systolic blood pressure (p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05). There was a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with BMI (r=0.303, p<0.05; r=0.262, p<0.05), age (r=0.326, p<0.05; r=0.267, p<0.05) and height (r=0.322, p<0.05; r=0.174, p<0.05). There was a negative correlation between hypertension and physical exercise (r=-0.313, p<0.05) and a positive correlation between hypertension and salt intake (r=0.298, p<0.05). The prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension together in adolescents was 30.3%. To avoid the consequences and sequelae of hypertension, prevention should start from childhood by encouraging physical exercise, promoting low salt intake, advising on maintaining normal body weight, and checking up on blood pressure at regular intervals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Sedimentation under variable shear stress at lower reach of the Rupnarayan River, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan Kumar Maity

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lower reach of the Rupnarayan River has been deteriorated and incapacitated due to continuous sedimentation (26.57 million m3 shoaling in last 25 years. Attempts have been made to explain the causes and mechanisms of sedimentation in connection to the seasonal fluctuation of shear stress. River depth and water velocity was measured by echo-sounder and current meter respectively. Textural analysis of grains was done by sieving technique. Available and critical shear stress (N/m2 have been calculated following Du Boys (1879, Shield (1936 and Van Ledden (2003 formula. The lack of available energy to transport a particular grain size during low tide (in dry season is the main reason behind the rapid sedimentation in this area. Most of the places (>75% having negative deviation of shear stress (available shear stress lesser than critical shear stress, during low tide are characterized by deposition of sediments. The presence of mud (silt and clay above the critical limit (15% in some of the sediment samples generates the cohesive property, restricts sediments entrainment and invites sedimentation.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF BOVINE FROZEN SEMEN SAMPLES IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 860 French mini straws (0.25 ml of frozen semen from 215 bulls from three different farms namely frozen semen bull station (FSBS, Harighata Farm (98, FSBS, Salboni (93 and Sperm Station, Beldanga (24 were evaluated for bacterial load by standard plate count (SPC technique using soyabean casein digest agar and 1% plain agar media. Following incubation at 37°C for 72 hrs average colony forming unit (CFU was estimated and bacteria were identified. Different micro-organisms identified in frozen semen samples were Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp. other than Bacillus anthracis and Streptococcus spp. Several of these bacteria have been identified in association with breeding failure in cattle and warrants precautionary and preventive measures for successful breeding program.

  1. Safe Injection Practices in Primary Health Care Settings of Naxalbari Block, Darjeeling District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sudip Banik; Ray, Kuntala

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe injection can transmit many diseases to patients, injection providers and healthy people of community. To find out critical steps whether executed according to recommended best practice methods, availability of equipments in health facilities for safe injection practices and some important steps of waste disposal methods. This facility-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 30 Auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM) & 27 nursing staffs (NS) to assess certain aspects of their practice while administrating injection and disposal of the disposables. Health facilities were also observed to asses necessary equipments of safe injection and waste disposal methods. Among the health workers 93.3% ANM and 100% NS took sterile syringe from sterile unopened packet, all of the study subjects washed hand before giving injection, 13.3% of ANMs and 8% of NS are fully vaccinated against Hep B, 53.3% of ANM and all NS are practices non recapping. Only 13.33% sub centres along with PHC & BPHC had at least one puncture resistant leak proof container, 86.7% sub centres, PHC are free from loose needles. Transport for off side treatment is the method of waste disposal in case of 73.3% cases sub centres, PHC & BPHC. There is need to educate, train and motivate service providers in proper methods of giving injection along with improve the adequacy of supply of required equipments.

  2. Electrical resistivity tomography survey for delineating uncharted mine galleries in West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillol, J.M.; Sen, N.

    1999-01-01

    The history of subsidence, fires, flooding and other kinds of environmental hazards related to shallow coal workings in India goes back to colonial times some 300 years ago. As coal production accelerated in modern times, so did the environmental and socio-economic drawbacks related to exploitation. In the mid-1980s, a hydropneumatic sand-stowing method was developed to fill in abandoned galleries but their exact location had to be known. Unfortunately, most of these old workings are uncharted and consequently large tracts of land cannot be stabilized. A research program making use of integrated surface, borehole and cross-hole geophysical methods was undertaken over a five-year span to try to solve this problem. Surface geophysical methods, being cheaper and faster than their cross- and downhole counterparts, were used to cover larger areas on an exploratory basis, while cross-hole methods were employed to locate more accurately one or a network of galleries to be perforated by drillhole(s) and used as a conduit for sand stowing. The authors report the results of one of the cross-hole geophysical methods: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). A pole-dipole configuration is used and both cross-hole and surface-borehole methodologies are tested. Forward modelling and inversion of synthetic data making use of downhole and surface physical and geometrical parameters are presented first. This phase is followed by the inversion of real data. It is concluded that ERT is not applicable for the detection of dry voids, but is effective in a waterlogged environment which is estimated to represent 85--90% of the cases. In waterlogged galleries, ERT is applicable in both cross-hole and surface-downhole modes, the latter allowing a larger surface coverage at low cost. ERT is thus a reliable geophysical tool to image water-filled voids and an adequate technique to address environmental and geotechnical problems

  3. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Background Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. Design A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. Results The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. Conclusion We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the brickfields. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the quality of life of female brickfield workers. PMID:24499742

  4. Changes in socio-economic and health condition of rehabilitated slum dwellers in Kolkata, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Askari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancerous spread of slum has been a rampant problem in urban areas worldwide. The acute shortage of housing facilities compels the poor to live in slums. Proper rehabilitation is considered as a very essential remedial measure to provide better living environment to slum peoples. This study is an essential attempt to gauge the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program, which studies the changes in socio-economic and health condition of rehabilitated slum dwellers since they got rehabilitated. In order to do so, a household survey was carried comprising 240 households in two rehabilitated sites in the city of Kolkata (ward no. 107 and 114 during the month of July, 2014. The results conforms a strand of a belief that in-situ rehabilitation or rehabilitation within short distance is more effective. A rehabilitation too far away area disrupts the existing social, economic and political ties of neighborhoods. Measures have also been proposed to overcome such problems and to make the slum dwellers an integral part of urban society.

  5. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Sett

    2014-02-01

    : We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the brickfields. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the quality of life of female brickfield workers.

  6. ETHNO-MEDICOBOTANY OF SOME TRIBAL COMMUNITIES OF BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Manasi Mandal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and documentation of the status of medicinal plants and associated knowledge was conducted in Taldangra block situated at south-western part of Bankura district. Data was collected and evaluated with a questionnaire survey, semi-structured interviews, field observations and vegetation surveys. 16 medicinal plant species used to treat 40 different ailments were recorded. Leaves are the most commonly collected plant parts for medicinal purposes. Much of the ethno-medicinal knowledge is concentrated in elderly members of the community. The medicinal plants are facing threats from agricultural expansion, wood extraction and overgrazing as informed by the local authorities. Consequently, medicinal plant resources are declining with time. The study aims to assess the contribution of nonconventional medicinal plants towards community health care. A total of 62 knowledge holders from the tribal community were interviewed and medicinal uses for 16 plants were recorded. The study illustrates that medicinal plant diversity is important for community health care, which in turn, ensures conservation, awareness creation towards sustainable utilization and management of these medicinal plants diversity

  7. Impact Of Nutrition Education On Urral School Children Of Burdwan, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas A.B

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A nutrition education programme was conducted for 324 children of two (boys and girls Secondary schools in a village of Burdwan district. Lesson plans and evaluation parameters were formulated based on pre- determined learning objectives. The main methods of training were lectures and discussions using simple and relevant aids. Impact of training was evaluated by pre- training and post- training assessments of knowledge, attitude and dietary practice of students. Results revealed that poor pre- training mean score of knowledge was increased significantly following training but declined thereafter, although final mean score was significantly higher than basal knowledge status. Mean score of attitude also increased significantly but did not decline. Inconsistency of results regarding change in dietary practices observed was recognized as a short coming of isolated training of children only, because dietary habit of a community depends on various factors.

  8. Rapidly Fatal Silicosis Among Jewellery Workers Attending a District Medical College of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchadhyayee, Prabodh; Saha, Kaushik; Saha, Indranil; Ta, Rupam Kumar; Ghosh, Santanu; Saha, Arnab; Barma, Pratik; Mitra, Mrinmoy

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis is a slowly progressive chronic occupational lung disease, developed after a prolong period of exposure to high concentration of silica dust. In this longitudinal study, we enrolled old and new silicosis patients (n=19; 8 jewellery polishers, 11 from other occupations) seen at our Pulmonary Medicine Department from June 2009 to December 2012 to document the course of illness as per their occupational exposure. Six of the eight jewellery polishing workers had developed silicosis within five years of exposure, while six of the 11 other workers with other occupational exposure had developed silicosis after exposure of 10 years or more. Mean duration of exposure was significantly less among jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers (3.4 +/- 1.7 versus 9.3 +/- 4.1; p=0.001). Mean duration of illness (months) (14.9 +/- 5.8 versus 28.5 +/- 16.5; p=0.040) were significantly less among the jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers. At the end of the study period, all eight jewellery polishing workers with silicosis had died while four of the 11 patients with other occupational exposure had died. Silicosis among jewellery polishing workers was found to be more severe and progressive compared to silicosis due to other occupational exposures, in our study.

  9. An evaluation of low back pain among female brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among brick field workers and to explore attributed causes of LBP, investigate the relationship between LBP and psychophysical and psychosocial factors and measure the impact of LBP. A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire along with Body Part Discomfort scale were administered to brick field workers (N = 148). Working posture of the participants was assessed using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) method. The study showed that 70 % of the female workers reported LBP due to awkward working posture for prolonged period of time. This was mainly reported by brick moulders. 45 % reported LBP due to manual material handling (MMH) and 40 % due to awkward lifting of heavy objects (brick). The study shows that the LBP is more prevalent (OR 1.59 and 95 % CI 0.411-6.207). 78 % of the female workers want the job rotation to relieve from their job monotony. LBP occurred among female workers due to awkward posture, repetitive work and MMH. This study also stated that psychosocial cause of LBP is inadequacy income, monotony work, job dissatisfaction. Working posture analysis REBA suggests that all the working postures are high-risk level.

  10. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the brickfields. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the quality of life of female brickfield workers.

  11. VISUAL OUTCOME OF TRAUMATIC PAEDIATRIC CATARACT AT A TERTIARY EYE CARE CENTRE IN WEST BENGAL

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    Smiti Rani Srivastava

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic cataract is common presentation of penetrating and blunt ocular trauma in children. Ocular trauma is the leading cause of unilateral blindness all over the world. The incidence of ocular trauma varies in different parts of the world. From India, the reported incidence is 20.53%. Traumatic cataract causes significant blindness in paediatric populations particularly in developing countries. The aim of the study is to evaluate the final visual outcome of the patients with traumatic cataract. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective study of 100 children from 4 to 16 years of age presenting in Outpatient Department of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Kolkata, with traumatic cataract between April 2015 to March 2017. Detailed history, systemic and local examinations and relevant investigations done followed by medical and surgical intervention and patients were followed up till six months and final visual acuity recorded. RESULTS There was a male predilection with a male-to-female ratio 2.85:1.56 (56% patients sustained penetrating trauma, while 44 (44% were inflicted with blunt injury. Commonest causative agent was trauma with organic foreign bodies in 20 eyes (20% followed by stones in 14 eyes (14%. Anterior segment was more involved than posterior segment. Final best corrected visual acuity after six months was better than or equal to 6/18 in 64 eyes (64%. The major early postoperative complications include anterior uveitis in 26 (26% and corneal oedema in 8 (8% patients, while late postoperative complication was posterior capsular uveitis in 36% patients. CONCLUSION Paediatric traumatic cataract can cause ocular morbidity. Timely and proper medical and surgical intervention can result in good visual outcome. The parents, caretakers and teachers have an important role to play in prevention by recognising hazardous situation and taking preventing measures.

  12. Child work in agriculture in West Bengal, India: assessment of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata; Ghosh, Tirthankar; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2013-01-01

    Children are universally considered to be the most important asset for any nation. The main aims of the present study were 1) to investigate the causation of discomfort related to working postures 2) to assess the physiological strain among the child farmers and 3) to assess the thermal stress during work in an agricultural field. For this study, 120 child agricultural workers and 120 control subjects aged 10-16 years were selected randomly, and a detailed posture analysis was performed among them by REBA and OWAS methods. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Physiological assessment of workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Child agricultural workers suffered from pain especially in the low back (98%), knees (88%), hands (82%), shoulder (77%) and neck (68%). Among the agricultural activities in potato cultivation, the child potato workers, felt discomfort during spading (99%), sprinkling water (90%) and picking crops (87%). The post-activity heart rate of the child agricultural workers was 170.1 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 129.0 and 67.0 mm/Hg respectively. Most of the agricultural activities in potato cultivation were strenuous ones that affect the children, who suffered from acute pain and discomfort for a long period of time, which mainly hampers and restricts their education.

  13. Profile Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In A Clinic In The Suburb Of Kolkata (West Bengal

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    Jaiswal A K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Records of new STD patients attending the Base Hospital, Barrackpore, near Kolkata between 1991 and 2000 were analysed to examine the pattern of STDs among them. Among 567 new STD patients examined, syphilis predominated, followed by gonorrhoea, chancroid, genital warts, lymphogramuloma venereum and herpes genitalis. Non- gonococcal urethritis constituted 4.2% of study population. The overall HIV seropositivity showed a rising treads in the recent past.

  14. A study to assess the usage of MCR footwear in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Vivek; Sarkar, Debajit; Das, Sukumar; Mahato, Mukunda; Srinivas, Govindrajulu

    2015-09-01

    The routine use of appropriate footwear is an important intervention to prevent disability in leprosy. We conducted a study to assess utilisation of MCR footwear and observe the condition of footwear. Fifty-six persons affected by leprosy who had been provided MCR footwear in the preceding 3 years were paid home visit and administered a semi-structured interview schedule. Although a total of 30 participants reported using special footwear currently, only 10 reported usage during participation in social events. On observation, 16 pairs were found to be in an unusable condition owing to foot deformity and another 14 pairs in poor condition. In order to ensure greater utilisation of special footwear, the National Programme may seek local solutions through engagement of cobblers and shoemakers with appropriate training in customisation. Persons affected by leprosy should be empowered to appreciate the benefits of special footwear and to take care of themselves, including taking responsibility for using their footwear.

  15. Prevalence of ischemic heart disease among urban population of Siliguri, West Bengal

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    Mandal Sukanta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and the associated risk factors among the urban population of Siliguri. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of the population aged ≥40 years old in the Municipal Corporation area of Siliguri. Study variables were age, sex, occupation, addiction, food habit, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram change. Results: Out of 250 individuals who took part in this study, 29 (11.6% had ischemic heart disease (IHD and 118 (47.2% had hypertension. Males had a higher (13.5% prevalence of IHD than females (9.4%. About 5% of the patients had asymptomatic IHD. IHD among the study population is significantly associated with hypertension and smoking.

  16. Butterflies of the Rice Research Station and adjoining locality in Chinsurah, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Mandal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinsurah is a small town on the western bank of the Hugli River, a distributary of the river Ganges.  A survey from November 2006 to June 2014 with photographic documentation on the butterfly community in Chinsurah revealed the presence of a total of 70 species representing 53 genera in five families; most dominant family was the Nymphalidae having 34.3% of the total species.  Six species are legally protected; one species under Schedule I; three species under Schedule II; and two species under Schedule IV of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972.  Rare species like Pareronia avator (Moore, Mahathala ameria (Hewitson and Melanitis zitenius (Herbst were recorded in this rapidly degrading habitat.  This study may help in planning conservation strategies in urban areas and sustainable development as well. 

  17. Comparison of avifaunal diversity in and around Neora Valley National Park, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S. Roy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic intervention has led to conversion of much of the global diversity by means of habitat alterations. The present study was carried out to investigate the importance of habitat quality and habitat heterogeneity for the diversity, distribution and abundance of avifauna in and around Neora Valley National Park (NVNP during April-May 2010. A total of 73 bird species belonging to 25 families were recorded during the present study applying a modified point count method. Forest edges were found to be most diverse with a total count of 54 bird species having an abundance of 172.53 number of birds ha-1. Study areas with human settlements was represented by a total species count of 24 with an abundance of 130.39 number of birds ha-1 while a total species count of 22 with an abundance of 69.32 number of birds ha-1 was recorded from thick vegetation assemblage with close canopy cover. This site specific occurrence pattern for avifauna was reflected in the study of diversity indices. The highest Shannon-Wiener general diversity score of 3.77 was recorded for bird species from forest edges. Study areas with dense canopy closure were found to support more habitat specialist bird species while areas having human settlements harboured more opportunistic bird species. An overall negative influence of human settlements on bird diversity, distribution and abundance was evidenced from the present study and needs further investigation. Moreover, intensive studies will certainly enrich our knowledge of avian diversity and distribution pattern from the present study location.

  18. Hydroclimatic mechanisms of cholera transmission in the Bengal Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, a deadly waterborne disease, remains a major threat in many areas of the world, including the Bengal Delta region. In this region, cholera outbreaks have two annual peaks; the first occurs during the dry season in the spring, and the second occurs in the fall following the wet season. However, the large-scale hydroclimatic processes underlying the propagation of the disease have not been well understood. Akanda et al. show that cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta region propagate from the coast to inland and from spring to fall following two distinct transmission cycles. The first outbreak begins in the spring near the coast when northward movement of plankton-rich seawater and increasing salinity promote the growth of cholera-causing bacteria in rivers, which are used for irrigation, sanitation, and consumption. The second outbreak begins in the fall, after summer floods and monsoons affect sanitation conditions that aid in bacterial transmission by contaminating waters over much of Bangladesh. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/ 2010WR009914, 2011)

  19. Some cogent observations on amoebic hepatopathies using radioactive rose bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B N; Jha, B K

    1975-08-01

    Amoebic hepatopathies in this paper refers to three clinical syndromes described as hepatic amoebiasis, liver abscess and amoebic hepatitis. Forty-six patients with clinical symptomatology suggestive of amoebic hepatopathy were investigated with /sup 131/I rose bengal. Size, shape, position and parenchymal functions of their livers were estimated by assessing rose bengal blood clearance rate and scanning procedures. It was observed that there was true hepatomegaly and hepatic dysfunction in cases of hepatic abscess but not in amoebic hepatitis patients. Furthermore, hepatic abscess cases always had a ''cold'' area in their liver scans even at very early stage. On the other hand, amoebic hepatitis patients had normal size, shape and function of the liver--which was further confirmed by liver biopsy in five of them. These livers were palpable because of their low anatomical position (Ptosis). All the cases of hepatic abscess (except two) were treated by antiamoebic drugs without resorting to aspiration and serial scans showed complete resolution. Hence it is seen that aspiration in managing these cases (irrespective of the size) in early stages is not indicated at all. Thirty per cent of these patients developed jaundice and again size of the abscess was not critical. Surprisingly, amoebic hepatitis cases also showed improvement to oral anti-amoebic drugs. Liver, if at all involved in these cases, was due to chronic bowel disorders and treatment of bowel gives them symptomatic relief. However, no direct evidence could be brought out to prove existence of amoebic hepatitis by these techniques.

  20. An Intrathermocline Eddy and a tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Shroyer, Emily; Murty, V. S. N.

    2017-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal, subjected to monsoonal forcing and tropical cyclones, displays a complex field of ocean eddies. On 5 December 2013 a sub-surface vortex or Intrathermocline Eddy (ITE) composed of water characteristic of the Andaman Sea was observed within the thermocline of the western Bay of Bengal. We propose that the ITE was the product of Tropical Cyclone Lehar interaction on 27 November 2013 with a westward propagating surface eddy from the eastern Bay of Bengal. While Lehar?s interact...

  1. Human wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions through participatory approach in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are an important source of natural resources upon which rural economies depend. They have increasingly been valuable for their goods and services, and the intrinsic ecological value they provide to local populations, as well as people living outside the periphery of the wetlands. Stakeholders' participation is essential to the protection and preservation of wetlands because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of this study was to determine whether gender, educational status, mouzas (which are constituents of a block according to the land reform of the West Bengal Government in India, and wetland functions have any influence on the annual income of the local community. Considering a floodplain wetland in rural India, the focus was extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of people's involvement through cluster analysis of the male and female populations. Using the statistical software R-2.8.1, an ANOVA (analysis of variance table was constructed. Since the p value (significance level was lower than 0.05 for each case, it can be concluded that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have a significant influence on annual income. However, S-PLUS-2000 was applied to obtain a complete scenario of the pattern of wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have significant impacts on annual income, while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and female populations.

  2. Distribution of some biochemical compounds in the sediments of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Dhople, V.M.

    Surficial sediment samples collected from the continental shelf and slope of the Bay of Bengal were studied for the distribution of organic carbon and its constituent fractions such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. Organic carbon...

  3. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  4. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Rao, R.R.; Neetu, S.; Hegde, A.

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable...

  5. Zooplankton biomass and composition in the western Bay of Bengal during late sw monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.; Nair, V.R.; Nair, S.R.S.; Rao, T.S.S.

    and neritic regions of the southwestern Bay of Bengal. Other groups like chaetognaths, ostracods, amphipods, euphausiids, fish eggs, fish larvae, polychaetes, cladocerans, planktonic molluscs, etc. contributed to a lesser percentage of the general composition...

  6. Surface layer conditions of the atmosphere over western Bay of Bengal during Monex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Rao, L.V.G.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on surface meteorological data and wave data collected from 2 stations in the western Bay of Bengal in July 1979, surface layer (SL) conditions of the atmosphere for different situations of surface circulations and the associated sea surface...

  7. Seasonal cycle of physical forcing and biological response in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Nuncio, M.; Narvekar, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.; Jyothibabu, R.; Jayaraj, K.A.

    supported an efficient nutrient supply by cold core eddies. It resulted in the highest mean column integrated chlorophyll as well as primary productivity. Perennially low surface chlorophyll in the Bay of Bengal was largely controlled by the physical...

  8. Is the biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal light limited?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Kumar, A.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.

    Recent measurements of chlorophyll, primary productivity (PP) and nutrients along the central Bay of Bengal (BOB) during summer, fall and spring intermonsoons showed that the northern bay becomes less productive compared to the south in summer...

  9. Biochemical composition and caloric potential of zooplankton from Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Proximate composition and variations in protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and organic carbon in zooplankton from 42 stations in the Bay of Bengal are reported. Average percentages of moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and carbon were 85...

  10. Sound field computations in the Bay of Bengal using parabolic equation method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Effect of the cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal on acoustic propagation was analysed by parabolic equation (PE) method. Source depth, frequency and propagation range considered respectively for the two numerical experiments are 150 m, 400 Hz, 650...

  11. Circulation and distribution of some hydrographical properties during the late winter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    Charts showing dynamic topography, mass distribution, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and inorganic phosphate in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal for the late winter period were analysed and presented. The near surface circulation has...

  12. Estimates of vertical velocities and eddy coefficients in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Vertical velocities and eddy coefficients in the intermediate depths of the Bay of Bengal are calculated from mean hydrographic data for 300 miles-squares. The linear current density (sigma- O) versus log-depth plots show steady balance between...

  13. High new production in the Bay of Bengal: Possible causes and implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of new production (sup(15) N tracer technique), the component of primary production that sustains on extraneous nutrient inputs to the euphotic zone, in the Bay of Bengal is reported. Experiments done in two different seasons...

  14. Geomorphology and geology of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    -slope region. The 'Bengal Fan' is a major physiographic feature. The Andaman Sea consists of several seamounts, valleys and fracture zones. Reefal structures occur around the Andaman Islands and on the outer shelf off Visakhapatnam. Lithogenic sediments (clayey...

  15. Detection of Bay of Bengal eddies from TOPEX and insitu observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ali, M.M.; Sharma, R.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    Oceanic eddies are characterised by gradients in the sea surface height (SSH) and temperature both at the surface and the subsurface. However, since the Bay of Bengal waters are more stratified, the gradients in SST may not develop though...

  16. Marine magnetic studies in the northern Bay of Bengal, preliminary results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Murty, P.S.N.; Rao, D.G.; Mittal, G.S.; Drolia, R.K.

    The bathymetric and total magnetic intensity data collected along six E-W tracks were analysed and presented as stacked anomaly profiles. A first order basement configuration model was generated across the Bay of Bengal. The model studies indicate...

  17. Distribution of calanoid copepods in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.

    The distribution of calanoid copepods from the northern Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal is discussed in relation to thermocline. The inshore offshore zonation of a neritic, shelf an oceanic communities was traced based on the species composition...

  18. 'Rakter dosh'--corrupting blood: The challenges of preventing thalassemia in Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sreeparna

    2006-11-01

    Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that has been receiving increasing attention in India. However, prevention of thalassemia in India continues to be difficult despite efforts of public health professionals and the government. Using West Bengal as a case study, this paper attempts to unravel some of the barriers to the prevention campaign and the consequent under utilization of the program. Lack of access, low awareness, low-risk perception and poverty are all important proximate constraints; however, one of the greatest barriers to the program is rooted in cultural notions of blood, marriage, identity, personhood and kinship in Bengali society. Blood is so deeply valued in the Bengali kinship system that this genetic mutation is perceived to be corrupting the blood (rakter dosh). Being a thalassemia carrier (i.e., having thalassemia minor) renders an individual unfit as a suitable marriage partner because of beliefs related to purity of blood, its association with the continuity of the lineage, and subsequent transmission of desirable traits to future generations. The risk of non-marriage affects women disproportionately, and parents are not inclined to test their daughters because of the possibility of not being able to marry them off to eligible suitors. The stigma associated with having thalassemia minor (TMI) is a deterrent to the disclosure of thalassemia status as well as to testing. Using anthropological theories and ethnographic methods, this paper focuses on the gendered process by which the diagnosis of a thalassemia carrier 'spoils' identities, thereby creating a disjuncture between the goals of the prevention program and people's need for social conformity, and ultimately between medical desirability and social desirability. The paper also suggests policies for enhancing the utilization of the program. Finally the conclusions from this study have potential applications for public health prevention programs that confront problems of stigma in

  19. Influence of environmental settings on the prevalence of Trichodesmium spp. in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hegde, S.; Anil, A.C.; Patil, J.S.; Mitbavkar, S.; Venkat, K.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    ) Influence of physical pro- cesses and freshwater discharge on the seasonality of phytoplankton regime in the Bay of Bengal. Cont Shelf Res 20:313–330 Gordon AL (2001) Interocean exchange. In: Sidler G, Church J, Gould J (eds) Ocean circulation and climate...: acanil@nio.org Influence of environmental settings on the prevalence of Trichodesmium spp. in the Bay of Bengal Sahana Hegde, Arga Chandrashekar Anil*, Jagadish S. Patil, Smita Mitbavkar, Venkat Krishnamurthy, Vissa V. Gopalakrishna National Institute...

  20. I-131 rose bengal excretion test is not dead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antico, V.F.; Denhartog, P.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.; Houle, S.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and thirty I-131 Rose Bengal Excretion Studies (RBI) were performed on 84 patients over nine years. In 90% (56/60) of cases with biliary atresia, the 72-hour RBI was less than or equal to 7%. In only 12.5% (3/24) of cases with neonatal hepatitis was the 72-hour RBI less than or equal to 7%. The accuracy of the test was 91% with a specificity of 88%. Thirty patients later were studied following a Kasai procedure. The RBI test reliably predicted the patency of the anastomosis. The authors conclude that the 72-hour RBI is a reliable test in the diagnosis of biliary atresia and in the documentation of biliary patency following surgery, provided adequate care is taken in stool collection and measurement

  1. Wind Atlas of Bay of Bengal with Satellite Wind Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadi, Navila Rahman

    footstep towards offshore wind energy analysis for this region. Generally, it is difficult to find offshore wind data relative to the wind turbine hub heights, therefore a starting point is necessary to identify the possible wind power density of the region. In such scenario, Synthetic aperture radars (SAR......The objective of this study is to obtain appropriate offshore location in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh for further development of wind energy. Through analyzing the previous published works, no offshore wind energy estimation has been found here. That is why, this study can be claimed as the first......) have proven useful. In this study, SAR based dataset- ENVISAT ASAR has been used for Wind Atlas generation. Furthermore, a comparative study has been performed with Global Wind Atlas (GWA) to determine a potential offshore wind farm. Additionally, the annual energy production of that offshore windfarm...

  2. Rural Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  3. Assessment of Rose Bengal vs. Riboflavin Photodynamic Therapy for Inhibition of Fungal Keratitis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Alejandro; Miller, Darlene; Cabot, Florence; Taneja, Mukesh; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Alawa, Karam; Amescua, Guillermo; Yoo, Sonia H.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the in vitro effect of rose bengal and riboflavin as photosensitizing agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) on fungal isolates that are common causes of fungal keratitis Design Experimental study Methods Three isolates (Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans) recovered from patients with confirmed fungal keratitis were used in the experiments. Isolates were grown on Sabouraud-Dextrose agar, swabbed and prepared in suspension, and one milliliter aliquots were inoculated onto test plates in triplicate. Test plates were separated into 5 groups: Group 1 - no treatment, Group 2 - 0.1% rose bengal alone, Group 3 - 518 nm irradiation alone, Group 4 - riboflavin PDT (riboflavin + 375 nm irradiation), and Group 5 - rose bengal PDT (rose bengal + 518 nm irradiation). Irradiation was performed over a circular area using either a green LED array (peak wavelength: 518 nm) or a UV-A LED array (peak wavelength: 375 nm). Test plates were irradiated with an energy density of 5.4 J/cm2. Later, plates were placed in a 30° C incubator and observed for growth. Results Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of all three fungal isolates in the irradiated area. All other groups exhibited unrestricted growth throughout the plate. Conclusions Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of three types of fungi. No other experimental groups, including riboflavin-mediated PDT, had any inhibitory effect on the isolates. The results might be useful for the treatment of patients suffering from corneal infection. PMID:24792103

  4. Sanctified madness: the God-intoxicated saints of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinis, A

    1985-01-01

    The saintly madman is a familiar character in South Asia. To outer appearances he is no different from a lunatic, but the mad saint comes to be revered because his idiocy is popularly believed to arise from a different cause than ordinary madness. The common psychopath neglects social conventions because his consciousness is dimmed by incapacity; the saintly madman also breaches convention, but does so because his heightened consciousness has liberated him from the bonds of convention that entrap ordinary people. In the terms of Hinduism, he has tasted the divine nectar of God-realization and has returned to the human realm intoxicated by the experience. In this paper two popular God intoxicated saints of Bengal are discussed. The question is posed whether 'God intoxication' can be considered a culture-bound syndrome of Bengal. The concept of 'culture bound syndrome' is found to be too narrow to encompass the most significant issues to arise from reflection on the characteristics of the God intoxicated. These larger issues have to do with the relationship between cultural practices and models and mental states (whether deviant, as implied by the term 'syndrome' although deviance does not always carry the negative connotation implicit in 'syndrome', or normal). It is suggested that all cultures culture a limited range of mental states and thus the questions posed by the notion of culture bound syndromes are subsumed by larger questions about the relationship of all mind-states to the socio-cultural environment which conditions them. The conclusion is that God intoxication is indeed a uniquely Bengali mental condition, with variants throughout South Asia and kinship to other mystical states, but that the concept of 'syndrome' is not useful.

  5. Variability in ozone and its precursor gases over the Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Chinmay; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, Sethuram; Naja, Manish; Ojha, Narendra

    2013-04-01

    O3 and precursor gases were measured during a ship campaign over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during 28 October -17 November, 2010. The measurements revealed the large spatial heterogeneity in trace gas levels over the BoB during post-monsoon months. The heterogeneity was attributed to unique transport patterns over north and south BoB during this period. Four distinct types of air-masses influenced by heavy pollution from nearby source regions (49% time over North-West Myanmar, East Bangladesh and North-East India), mixed type (25% time over Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam and 75% time over East BoB), affected by long-range transport of pollutants (59% time over continental South Myanmar, Vietnam and Hong-Kong region of China) and pristine marine (99% time over oceanic regions) were identified. Among these, the continental air masses were fresher compared to marine air masses. High O3 and CO levels were observed in air masses coming from South-East Asia. O3, C4H10 and alkenes were highest in air masses arriving from eastern IGP, Bangladesh, Myanmar via the North BoB. The C2H2 to CO slope of 0.004 and C3H8 to CO slope of 0.003 indicated predominance of biofuel/biomass burning in air masses from South-East Asia. The i-C4H10 to n- C4H10 value of 0.62 indicated contributions of urban/industrial sources in air masses arriving from Bangladesh, India and North-West Myanmar. 'Potential Source Contribution Function' analysis indicated fire impacted South of Myanmar and Thailand regions as potential contributors to high CO levels above 260 ppbv measured on 14 November. Observed enhancements in surface CO during 2-3 November were attributed to the faster transport of continental pollutants associated with cyclonic winds. The O3 e-fold time of 2.3 days indicated the higher rate of O3 destruction over the BoB due to higher precursor levels. Principle component analysis indicated that transport from continental source regions played a major role in determining the chemical composition

  6. Tobacco use and self-reported morbidity among rural Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-09-01

    Aim To measure the prevalence of self-reported morbidity and its associated factors among adults (aged ⩾15 years) in a select rural Indian population. Self-reporting of smoking has been validated as population-based surveys using self-reported data provide reasonably consistent estimates of smoking prevalence, and are generally considered to be sufficiently accurate for tracking the general pattern of morbidity associated with tobacco use in populations. However, to gauge the true disease burden using self-reported morbidity data requires cautious interpretation. During 2010-2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted under the banner of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Birbhum, an initiative of the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, India. With over 93.6% response rate from the population living in 12 300 households, this study uses the responses from 16 354 individuals: 8012 smokers, and 8333 smokeless tobacco users. Smokers and smokeless tobacco users were asked whether they have developed any morbidity symptoms due to smoking, or smokeless tobacco use. Bivariate, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed to attain the study objective. Findings Over 20% of smokers and over 9% of smokeless tobacco users reported any morbidity. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated using logistic regression shows that women are less likely to report any morbidity attributable to smoking (OR: 0.69; CI: 0.54-0.87), and more likely to report any morbidity due to smokeless tobacco use (OR: 1.68; CI: 1.36-2.09). Non-Hindus have higher odds, whereas the wealthiest respondents have lower odds of reporting any morbidity. With a culturally appropriate intervention to change behaviour, youth (both men and women) could be targeted with comprehensive tobacco cessation assistance programmes. A focussed intervention could be designed for unprocessed tobacco users to curb hazardous effects of

  7. Physiological and behavioral risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Mazumdar, Sumit; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of physiological and behavioral risk factors of diabetes in rural India is poorly understood. Using data from a health and demographic surveillance site of Birbhum district in West Bengal, India, this study aims to assess the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 7674 individuals aged ≥18 years participated in a cross-sectional study. Venous plasma glucose method was used for measuring and reporting glucose concentrations in blood, categorized as individuals with diabetes, pre-diabetes or impaired, and normoglycemic. Aside from a set of physiological and behavioral risk factors, a range of socioeconomic confounders of diabetes was computed. Bivariate analysis with χ(2) test, and multivariate ordered logit regression methods were deployed to attain the study's objective. Overall 2.95% and 3.34% of study participants were diagnosed as individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes or impaired, respectively. Compared to the poorest, the richest have higher probability (β: 0.730; 95% CI 0.378 to 1.083) of being diagnosed with diabetes. As compared to people with normal body mass index, overweight/obese people are more prone to being diagnosed with diabetes (β: 0.388; 95% CI 0.147 to 0.628). With a decreasing level of physical activity, people are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes. To curb the level of diabetes, this study recommends a culturally sensitive, focused intervention for the adoption of physical activity with more traditional dietary practices, to control the level of overweight/obesity. Attention should be paid to relatively older patients with diabetes or adults with pre-diabetes.

  8. A study of the zinc deficiency in a section of rural people in Bengal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    in India is due to lipid toxicity of unsaturated fats used for cooking [8]. ... suffer from chronic energy deficiency due to low fat intake. This condition is ..... pancreatic diabetes, Experimental Clinical ... The preferred metabolic pathway from linoleic.

  9. Oxygen-independent direct deoxyribonucleic acid backbone breakage caused by rose bengal and visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peak, M J; Peak, J G; Foote, C S; Krinsky, N I

    1984-01-01

    An oxygen enhancement ratio of 10 for the induction of backbone single-strand breaks (SSBs) in purified deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by monochromatic 365 nm UV radiation was obtained. Similarly, a dose reduction factor of 10 was observed when the DNA was irradiated in the presence of 0.1 M diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (DABCO). To determine whether this breakage of DNA was due to the action of a reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, we used the photosensitizing dye Rose Bengal and visible light as a system for generating singlet oxygen. Treatment of the DNA with Rose Bengal and 545 nm monochromatic light enhanced the rate of induction of SSBs six times, compared with the rate we obtained when the light was used alone. Elimination of oxygen or addition of 0.1 M DABCO during the 545 nm irradiation in the presence of Rose Bengal did not alter the enhancement of SSBs in the DNA caused by Rose Bengal and 545 nm radiation. The induction of SSBs in the DNA caused by irradiation of the DNA by 545 nm light in the presence of Rose Bengal was not enhanced by the use of D/sub 2/O instead of H/sub 2/O as a solvent. The results indicate that Rose Bengal plus visible light can cause biological damage without the intermediacy of reactive oxygen species, i.e. Rose Bengal and visible light can react directly with biological material, in reactions that appear to be type I photosensitized processes, independent of singlet oxygen as an intermediate.

  10. Microbial Assessment of Chevon of Black Bengal Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parvin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the microbial load of Black Bengal goat meat during handling and selling in different markets of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Total 27 samples were collected from three different places of the city, including KR market, Seshmore and Mesua Bazar. These samples were subjected to determine Total Viable Count (TVC, Total Coliform Count (TCC and Yeast Mold Count (YMC by using standard protocols. In raw meat, mean value of TVC were highest in Seshmore market (5.24±0.42 log cfu/g at 0 hour but having no significant differences with other two places. In case of TCC and YMC highest count were in meat of Mesua Bazar. In case of TCC, difference were observed (P<0.05 among the markets. At 5 hours all the bacterial counts were increased having significant differences with the initial count and in most of the cases the bacterial count crossed the acceptable limit. This was may be due to the unhygienic practices of butchers. Consumers were not conscious. Suggestion has been given to improve the knowledge on hygiene among the meat producers to reduce microbial load.

  11. The Rural Alabama Pregnancy and Infant Health (RAPIH) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, J. D.; And Others

    The impact of the Rural Alabama Pregnancy and Infant Health (RAPIH) Program was evaluated in relation to prenatal care, birth outcome measures, and several child health and home environment outcomes. Begun in 1983, RAPIH targets poor rural blacks in three of west-central Alabama's poorest counties, where economic conditions and infant mortality…

  12. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Jonathan P.

    1983-01-01

    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  13. Acid-base, optical and extraction properties of Rose Bengal in the presence of surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Krtil, J.; Kuban, V.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the optical and acid-base characteristics of Rose Bengal in the presence of cationic (Septones - SPX, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide - CTMAB and hexadecylpyridinium bromide - CPB), anionic (sodium dodecylsuulfate - SDS) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants in submicellar and micellar concentrations were studied spectrophotometrically. The conditional dissociation constants of Rose Bengal pK ai * depend on the kind and concentration of cationic surfactant. Changes in pK ai * values are described in terms of formation of ion associates of the dye with the surfactant of the composition QHB and Q 2 B. The extraction constants of the ion associates in chloroform were determined radiometrically with the aid of Rose Bengal labelled with 131 I. (author). 4 figs., 3 tabs., 22 refs

  14. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Arsenic Groundwater Contamination in Bengal: a Coupled Geochemical and Geophysical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, L.; Ansari, A. A.; Dietrich, M.; Latscha, A.; LeBeux, A.; Chatterjee, D.; Mallik, S. B.

    2001-05-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a problem of great concern in Ganges delta region, and could be one of the largest natural calamity in the world. In the present study, a contamination plume located in the Lalpur area (Chakdaha Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India) was studied. A coupled geochemical and geophysical approach was employed to understand the mechanism of arsenic mobilisation from the sediments to groundwater, as a first step towards a global explanation of the phenomenon for other contaminated areas in the Ganges delta. The groundwater As concentration, in the 10 km x 10 km studied area, ranges from 10 to 500 ppb. In situ chemical speciation of arsenic was carried out and various geochemical parameters were measured in representative contaminated wells to interpret the mobilization mechanism in terms of redox kinetics. Through geophysical investigations, subsurface lithology, sediment depositional and geomorphological characteristics were determined and correlated with the arsenic contamination processes. From a geomorphological viewpoint, the contaminated area is located in an abandoned paleochannel of the Hooghly river, interpreted as the active site of deposition of fine sediments which were preserved as clay pockets at certain depths. These clay pockets are rich in organic matter, which may be the driving force for redox potential change and thus, may have driven the mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. The clay pockets rich in organic matter presumably represent the major reservoir where arsenic is sitting and getting released due to redox mechanism. They are sampled at present. A piezometric depression cone characterized by a radial groundwater flow is located underneath the highly populated Lalpur area. The arsenic plume appears to migrate from the Hooghly river towards the cone of depression following the water flowpath, and this shall be verified in forthcoming field campaigns. As (III) constitutes 42 % of the total As

  16. Expedition 354 on the Bengal fan: a Neogene record of Himalayan erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Klaus, A.; Galy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling in the Bengal fan generated a comprehensive record of Himalayan erosion over the Neogene and Quaternary. It documents the interplay between Himalayan tectonic and the monsoon. The fan is predominantly composed of detrital turbiditic sediments originating from Himalayan rivers, and transported through the delta and shelf canyon, supplying turbidity currents loaded with a wide spectrum of grain sizes. Turbiditic deposition makes that record at a given site is discontinuous which was the reason for an E-W transect approach. Exp. 354 drilled seven sites along a 320 km E-W transect at 8°N allowing the restitution of an almost complete record of Himalayan erosion at the scale of the Neogene. In spite of the transect's extension, a long absence of deposition was observed between 0.6 to 1.2 Ma indicating that turbiditic depocenter was derived more to the West for ca. 600 kyr. Turbidites have clear Himalayan origin with close mineralogical and isotopic analogy with those of the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments. Geochemistry shows relatively stable compositions throughout the Neogene and Quaternary and reveal a very weak regime of chemical weathering with no significant variation through time. Concentrations in mobile elements such as Na and K relative to Al are significantly higher than in modern sediments suggesting that weathering is amplified in the modern time. Low weathering of the sediments at 8°N indicates that erosion was dominated by physical processes and that transport is rapid enough to prevent evolution of particles in the floodplain. In the modern Himalaya, low weathering is achieved primarily by landslides and rapid transfer through the floodplain, i.e. limited recycling of sediment deposited in the floodplain. Both processes are favoured by the seasonality and the intensity of the monsoon. Although relatively stable, source tracers such as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, and detrital carbonate compositions show organised variations with time

  17. Indigenous uses of ethnomedicinal plants among forest-dependent communities of Northern Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Antony Joseph; Biswakarma, Saroj; Pala, Nazir A; Shukla, Gopal; Vineeta; Kumar, Munesh; Chakravarty, Sumit; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2018-01-26

    Traditional knowledge on ethnomedicinal plant is slowly eroding. The exploration, identification and documentation on utilization of ethnobotanic resources are essential for restoration and preservation of ethnomedicinal knowledge about the plants and conservation of these species for greater interest of human society. The study was conducted at fringe areas of Chilapatta Reserve Forest in the foothills of the eastern sub-Himalayan mountain belts of West Bengal, India, from December 2014 to May 2016. Purposive sampling method was used for selection of area. From this area which is inhabited by aboriginal community of Indo-Mongoloid origin, 400 respondents including traditional medicinal practitioners were selected randomly for personal interview schedule through open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire covered aspects like plant species used as ethnomedicines, plant parts used, procedure for dosage and therapy. A total number of 140 ethnomedicinal species was documented, in which the tree species (55) dominated the lists followed by herbs (39) and shrubs (30). Among these total planted species used for ethnomedicinal purposes, 52 species were planted, 62 species growing wild or collected from the forest for use and 26 species were both wild and planted. The present study documented 61 more planted species as compared to 17 planted species documented in an ethnomedicinal study a decade ago. The documented species were used to treat 58 human diseases/ailments including nine species used to eight diseases/ailments of domestic animals. Stomach-related problems were treated by maximum number of plants (40 species) followed by cuts and wounds with 27 plant species and least with one species each for 17 diseases or ailments. Maximum number of 12 diseases/ailments was cured by Melia azedarach followed by Centella asiatica and Rauvolfia serpentina which were used to cure 11 diseases/ailments each. The list of 140 plant species indicates that the Chilapatta Reserve Forest

  18. An intrathermocline eddy and a tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gordon, A.L.; Shroyer, E.; Murty, V.S.N.

    RepoRts | 7:46218 | DOI: 10.1038/srep46218 www.nature.com/scientificreports An Intrathermocline Eddy and a tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal Arnold L. Gordon1, Emily Shroyer2 & V. S. N. Murty3 The Bay of Bengal, subjected to monsoonal forcing..., India. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to A.L.G. (email: agordon@ldeo.columbia.edu) Received: 17 October 2016 Accepted: 13 March 2017 Published: 12 April 2017 OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2Scientific RepoRts | 7...

  19. Lithogenic fluxes in the Bay of Bengal measured by sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; VijayKumar, B.; Parthiban, G.; Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.

    -Sea Research I, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 793410, 1997 0 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd PII: S0967-0637(96)00117-3 All tights reserved. Printed in Great Britain 09674x37/97 917.00+0.00 Lithogenic fluxes in the Bay of Bengal measured by sediment traps V. RAMASWAMY,* B... of amorphous silica in marine sediments. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 50, 215-225. Emmel, F. J. and Curray, J. R. (1984) The Bengal submarine fan, northeastern Indian Ocean. Geo-Marine Letters, 3, 119-124. Goldberg, E. D. and Griffin, J. J. (1970...

  20. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: Fatty acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reemtsma, T.; Ittekkot, V.; Bartsch, M.; Nair, R.R

    ) 55-71 55 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam \\[RA\\] River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: fatty acids T. Reemtsma a, V. Ittekkot a, M. Bartsch a and R.R. Nair b alnstitut fiir Biogeochemie und Meereschemie..., R.R., 1993. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: fatty acids. Chem. Geol., 103: 55-71. Total particulate matter flux and organic carbon and fatty acid fluxes associated with settling particles collected during...