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  1. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  2. The Economic Impact of Land Use Rights in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Rental Markets In Transition: Evidence From Rural Vietnam." Oxford Bulletin Of Economics And Statistics 70, no. 1: 67- 101. ECONIS, EBSCOhost ...Rental Markets In Transition: Evidence From Rural Vietnam." Oxford Bulletin Of Economics And Statistics 70, no. 1: 67- 101. ECONIS, EBSCOhost ...generating revenue through taxation in a previously non-existent real estate market . Before 1993, Vietnam experienced a long period of land reform

  3. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  4. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...... as a result of relatives moving into public office. Connections to office holders appear to be important for investment because they strengthen de facto land property rights and improve access to off-farm employment and to informal loans. The findings underline the importance of informal networks for economic...... behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment...

  5. Rural Non-Farm Sector and Labor Market in Rural Vietnam: Trends and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen , Trung Hung

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation aims to investigate the Trends and Determinants of the Rural Non-Farm Sector and Labor Market in Rural Vietnam since the global economic crisis occurred in 2007 with the focus on the household's diversification; the involvement of rural individuals in Rural Non-Farm Employment; Rural Labor Market development; and assessment of a specific labor market policy.

  6. Rural Roads and Local Market Development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Ren; van de Walle, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The authors assess impacts of rural road rehabilitation on market development at the commune level in rural Vietnam and examine the variance of those impacts and the geographic, community, and household factors that explains it. Double difference and matching methods are used to address sources of selection bias in identifying impacts. The results point to significant average impacts on the ...

  7. Solar energy and rural development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems have already been present in Vietnam for numerous years. Since 1994 the projects intensified with the launch of the Energy-Solidarity-Vietnam program which has just been concluded in 1999. This paper deals with the different stages of this project: choice of photovoltaic power, the partners engagement, obstacles overcome and the help of the electricity for the economic development. (A.L.B.)

  8. Son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Danièle

    2002-12-01

    This article explores the continuing preference for sons in the context of low fertility in Vietnam. Although the total fertility rate for Vietnam declined from 6.0 children per woman of reproductive age in 1979 to 2.2 children in 1998, demographic evidence shows that son preference remains strong and influences contraceptive and fertility behavior. This study examines the underlying factors for son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam. The methodology includes focus-group discussions, an in-depth study of 25 families, and ethnographic observation. Results indicate that sons are highly desired for their social, symbolic, and economic value. In spite of four decades of socialist policies aimed at reducing gender-based inequalities and at weakening the patriarchal kinship system, the desire for sons continues to drive the family-building process. The article also indicates a gap between discourse and social practice with respect to roles assigned to children on the basis of their sex.

  9. Urban and Rural Dimensions of Income Inequality in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Cam Van Cao; Takahiro Akita

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes urban and rural inequalities in Vietnam by applying two techniques of inequality decomposition by population groups and income sources based on two data sets from the nationwide household surveys in 2002 and 2004. It is found that within-sector inequalities in income distribution are substantially higher than that in expenditure distribution because expenditure level is more dependent on location characteristics of a household, while the determinants of income level seems ...

  10. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  11. Assessing willingness to pay for improved sanitation in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Thanh, Nguyen Hoang; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2013-07-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for the construction of bathrooms with a flush toilet was assessed in households in a rural community in northern Vietnam. We also examined the effects of socio-economic factors on the WTP. The contingent valuation method, an economic survey technique, was used. We used the iterative bidding game technique to elicit household WTP that involved a sequence of dichotomous choice questions followed by a final open-ended question. A total of 370 households that did not have toilets were selected for this study. Respondents to the questionnaire were the primary income earners and decision-makers of their respective household. Of those responding to the questionnaire, 62.1 % reported being willing to pay for the construction of bathrooms with a flush toilet. The mean and median of maximum WTP amounts were Viet Nam Dong (VND) 15.6 million and VND 13.0 million, respectively (minimum VND 2.0 million; maximum VND 45.0 million). Significant correlates of the WTP rate were: (1) gender of the head of household, (2) age of the head of household, (3) economic status of household, (4) type of current toilet, (5) satisfaction with existing toilet, and (6) knowledge of health effects of poor sanitation. The significant determinants of WTP amount were (1) geographic location and (2) economic status of household. About two-third of the households in the study area were willing to pay for an improvement in their current sanitation arrangements. Both WTP rate and WP amount were strongly influenced by the economic status of the households and health knowledge of the study respondents.

  12. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used...... for consumption smoothening. Interest rates fell from 1997 to 2002, reflecting increased market integration. Moreover, the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit...

  13. Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections among women in North rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Pham

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has been shown to be associated with unsafe sex. In Vietnam, misconceptions regarding STI exist, and rural women delay seeking care for STI. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge of STI among women aged 15 to 49 years in a rural district of Vietnam and to evaluate possible associations between socioeconomic factors and STI knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study using face-to-face interviews was carried out between March and May 2006 in a demographic surveillance site in rural Vietnam. In total, 1805 women aged 15–49 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. The interviews were based on a structured questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics of the women and their knowledge about STI. Each correct answer was scored 1, incorrect or do not know answer was scored 0. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine associations between socio-economic conditions and STI knowledge. Intra-cluster correlation was calculated to examine similarities of STI knowledge within clusters. Results Of the 1,805 respondents, 78% (73% married vs. 93% unmarried, p Conclusion The low levels of STI knowledge found among women of reproductive age in a rural district of Vietnam indicate an urgent need of health education interventions, of which, young and unmarried women should be specifically targeted.

  14. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  15. The insoluble question of electric power in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, Eric; Lasserre, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    An economic dragon for the last twenty years or so, Vietnam is faced with a strongly growing demand for electric energy. Though the country is rich of many different resources necessary to producing electricity, most of them are available in limited quantities. According to forecasts for the 2030-2050 period, Vietnam's coal and natural gas resources will not be able to meet the national demand. Consequently, Hanoi's main goals are to develop and invest in hydroelectricity, renewable energies and a civil nuclear programme. For lack of rigorous planning, adequate financing and given the tensions in the South China Sea, Vietnam's electric energy production growth plan seems technically, financially and geo-politically unfeasible without the help of foreign actors, ultimately weakening the Party-State

  16. Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections among women in North rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Pham Thi; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Mogren, Ingrid; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2009-06-06

    The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has been shown to be associated with unsafe sex. In Vietnam, misconceptions regarding STI exist, and rural women delay seeking care for STI. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge of STI among women aged 15 to 49 years in a rural district of Vietnam and to evaluate possible associations between socioeconomic factors and STI knowledge. A cross-sectional population-based study using face-to-face interviews was carried out between March and May 2006 in a demographic surveillance site in rural Vietnam. In total, 1805 women aged 15-49 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. The interviews were based on a structured questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics of the women and their knowledge about STI. Each correct answer was scored 1, incorrect or do not know answer was scored 0. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine associations between socio-economic conditions and STI knowledge. Intra-cluster correlation was calculated to examine similarities of STI knowledge within clusters. Of the 1,805 respondents, 78% (73% married vs. 93% unmarried, p married vs. 76% unmarried, p married vs. 14% unmarried, p unmarried women and women who lived in the highlands or mountainous areas demonstrated very low levels of STI knowledge (regression coefficients -1.3 and -2.5, respectively, p unmarried women should be specifically targeted.

  17. Social Capital, Network Effects and Savings in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    social networks in rural Vietnam can play a role in increasing formal savings where knowledge gaps exist. Networks are defined as active membership of women’s unions and the quality of networks is measured by the level of formal savings observed among group members. We find that membership of high...... quality networks leads to higher levels of saving in formal financial institutions and to higher levels of saving for productive investments as compared with other precautionary or lifecycle motives. Our results suggest that transmitting financial information through formal networks could be effective...... in increasing formal savings at grassroots level. We also conclude that ensuring information disseminated by networks is both accurate and desirable as well as important given that behavioural effects are also found in low-quality networks....

  18. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1 there are seven key factors affecting the satisfaction of the tourists, including: spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage, natural environment, service prices and tourism infrastructure; and (2 revisit intention of tourists is affected by six factors, including: satisfaction, spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage and service prices. Among them, spirituality is a new factor to be thoughtfully considered due to its significant influence on both the tourist satisfaction and revisit intention. From these findings, we proposed some managerial implications for the sustainable development of rural tourism in An Giang Province by enhancing the satisfaction and revisit intention of the tourists after they visit the province.

  19. People's willingness to pay for health insurance in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Curt; Thanh, Nguyen X; Chuc, Nguyen Tk; Emmelin, Anders; Lindholm, Lars

    2008-08-11

    The inequity caused by health financing in Vietnam, which mainly relies on out-of-pocket payments, has put pre-payment reform high on the political agenda. This paper reports on a study of the willingness to pay for health insurance among a rural population in northern Vietnam, exploring whether the Vietnamese are willing to pay enough to sufficiently finance a health insurance system. Using the Epidemiological Field Laboratory for Health Systems Research in the Bavi district (FilaBavi), 2070 households were randomly selected for the study. Existing FilaBavi interviewers were trained especially for this study. The interview questionnaire was developed through a pilot study followed by focus group discussions among interviewers. Determinants of households' willingness to pay were studied through interval regression by which problems such as zero answers, skewness, outliers and the heaping effect may be solved. Households' average willingness to pay (WTP) is higher than their costs for public health care and self-treatment. For 70-80% of the respondents, average WTP is also sufficient to pay the lower range of premiums in existing health insurance programmes. However, the average WTP would only be sufficient to finance about half of total household public, as well as private, health care costs. Variables that reflect income, health care need, age and educational level were significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. Contrary to expectations, age was negatively related to willingness to pay. Since WTP is sufficient to cover household costs for public health care, it depends to what extent households would substitute private for public care and increase utilization as to whether WTP would also be sufficient enough to finance health insurance. This study highlights potential for public information schemes that may change the negative attitude towards health insurance, which this study has uncovered. A key task for policy makers is to win the trust of the

  20. Investigation into sanitation options for rural Kien Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Main

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This project was developed during a three month internship with Habitat for Humanity Vietnam (HFHV supported by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT Engineers Without Borders Australia (EWB Development Scholarship for 2010/2011. During discussions with HFHV staff, several areas of concern with regards to sanitation and hygiene practices in rural Kien Giang Province were raised. These included the widespread use of drop toilets over waterways, poor hygiene practices in impoverished households and in schools, lack of sanitation options for HFHV construction programmes and no facilities for emptying existing septic tanks of accumulated sludge. This article evaluates existing sanitation technologies for introduction into HFHV’s construction programme in Kien Giang Province. It was determined that for onsite disposal of sanitation system products, the double dehydration vault, the composting chamber and the urine collection tank were appropriate technologies. Pit latrines or variations thereof were deemed inappropriate because of the high watertables. Anaerobic reactor systems were deemed inappropriate as they accumulate pathogenic sludge and effluent for which there is currently no appropriate treatment that meets the project design criteria. As onsite disposal system demand may be low due to cultural and social taboos, an investigation and discussion into offsite treatment was also undertaken. It was determined that a co-composting facility would be the most appropriate offsite treatment technology.

  1. Difficulties in getting treatment for injuries in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, H M; Byass, P

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about the health-seeking behaviour of injury patients is important for the improvement of community health services. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe the healthcare-seeking behaviour of injury patients; (2) to examine factors associated with injury patients seeking care at health facilities; and (3) to describe the costs of health care for injury patients. This study took place in Bavi District, northern Vietnam within a longitudinal community surveillance site (FilaBavi). All non-fatal unintentional injuries occurring in a sample of 24,776 people during 2000 were recorded. The injury questionnaire included information on care-seeking behaviour, severity and consequences of injury. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to find associations between sociodemographic factors and utilization of any health services, as well as for each type of health service used, compared with the group who did not use any health services. Of 24,776 persons living in the study area, 1917 reported 2079 new non-fatal debilitating injuries during the four 3-month periods of observation. Health-seeking behaviour relating to the first 1917 injuries was analysed. Self-treatment was most common (51.7%), even in cases of severe injury. There was low usage of public health services (23.2%) among injury patients. Long distances, poor economic status and residence in difficult geographic areas such as highlands and mountains were barriers for seeking health services. A large proportion of household income was spent on treating injury patients. Poor people spent a greater proportion of their income on health care than the rich, and often used less qualified or untrained private providers. These results demonstrate the logistical and financial difficulties associated with the treatment of injuries in rural Vietnam. This suggests the need to make public health subsidies available more efficiently and equitably. Whilst this study looked at the

  2. A Participatory Systemic Approach To Rural Community Development In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social economic political cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory ELLab through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture systems model of the current situation defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.

  3. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This document presents the energy profile of Vietnam: energy organizations and policy; companies: Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Power Company 1, 2 and 3 (PC1, PC2, PC3) and Electricite du Vietnam (electric power), Vinacoal (coal); supplies (resources, electric power, oil, gas and coal); prices; consumption; projects and perspectives. (J.S.)

  4. Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    taken with the eager collaboration of Vietnam's government, have since ... social sciences; and environment and natural resource management) was ... deliberate and increasing openness to the world of trade, investment, and knowl- edge ... Vietnam design trade liberalization and competition policies (in part as preparation.

  5. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Typhus, and Spotted Fever Among Rural and Urban Populations of Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, N.V.; Hoi, L.T.; Thuong, N.T.H.; Toan, T.K.; Huong, T.T.K.; Hoa, T.M.; Fox, A.; Kinh, N.V.; Doorn, H.R. van; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Bryant, J.E.; Nadjm, B.

    2017-01-01

    AbstractRickettsial infections are recognized as important causes of fever throughout southeast Asia. Herein, we determined the seroprevalence to rickettsioses within rural and urban populations of northern Vietnam. Prevalence of individuals with evidence of prior rickettsial infections (IgG

  6. Models to Predict the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Rural Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan; Schuiling-Veninga, Nynke; Nguyen, Thi Bach Yen; Hang, Vu Thi Thu; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare and identify the most appropriate model to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a rural area in Northern Vietnam, using data on hypertension from the communities. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted including all residents in selected communities, aged 34 to 65

  7. Impacts of Electricity Access to Rural Enterprises in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Annemarije; Clancy, Joy S.

    2010-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence to underpin strategies of poverty reduction through income generation in small scale rural enterprises through supplying energy. This paper reports on research findings from a three country study in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam which aimed to provide insights into

  8. Dragons with Clay Feet? : Transition, sustainable land use and rural environment in China and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, M.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.

    2007-01-01

    Dragons with Clay Feet? presents state-of-the-art research on the impact of ongoing and anticipated economic policy and institutional reforms on agricultural development and sustainable rural resource in two East-Asian transition (and developing) economies--China and Vietnam.

  9. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    This document summarizes the main energy facts and data about Vietnam: institutions and energy policy, energy companies (Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), Vinacoal (coal)), energy production (resources, electricity, oil, natural gas, coal), energy prices (motor fuels and electricity), energy consumption, and future energy issues and prospects (exploitation of new fossil fuel resources, building of new refineries and power stations). The main economic, supply and demand, and energy balance indicators are summarized in tables and graphics. (J.S.)

  10. Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Attention in this discussion of Vietnam is directed to the following: people; geography; history; government; the economy (agriculture and industry, trade and balance of payments); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Vietnam. In mid-1983 the population was estimated at 57,610,000 with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. Ethnic Vietnamese constitute almost 90% of the population. Various ethnic groups make up the remaining 10% of the population, with approximately 1.2 million Chinese being the most numerous and concentrated in southern Vietnam. The 2nd largest minority, the Montagnards (mountain tribesmen) comprise 2 main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo Polynesia and Mon-Khmer. The most important political institution in Vietnam is the Vietnamese Communisty Party. All but 4 party Politburo members concurrently hold high positions in the government. The most important powers within the Vietnamese government, as opposed to the Communisty Party, are the executive agencies. Under the overly ambitious initial 5 year plan and the more conservative 1981-85 plan, the Vietnamese have made little progress in raising output and living standards beyond the levels of the 1960s. Guidelines of the 1981-85 plan call for attaining food self sufficiency, strengthening export and consumer industries, as well as the heavy industries that support them, and improving transport and energy production. The US does not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

  11. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? a comparison between China and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoyun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance.

  12. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? a comparison between China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance. PMID:22376290

  13. Land Reform and Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TRUNG THANH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the abstract of my doctoral dissertation entitled “The Impactof Land Reform on Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam” at theJustus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany under the supervision of Prof. Dr.Siegfried Bauer. The study examined the impact of the recent land reform inVietnam on the economy of rural households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam.It was found that the land reform has positive impact on three important aspects ofrural household’s economy, namely crop production, land market participation, andafforestation. However, further improvement in terms of private land rights isneeded for a more sustainable development in the region.

  14. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge. PMID:27699202

  15. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thi Thanh, Xuan; Rheinländer, Thilde; Luu Ngoc, Hoat

    2013-01-01

    -ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design: This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July-November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September......-December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction...

  16. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Shengalia, Bakhuti; Vujicic, Marko

    2011-08-17

    Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private practice. Substantial differences in

  17. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam

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    Witter Sophie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage and contingent valuation (third stage. For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents; in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents; and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants. Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions. It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and

  18. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  19. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

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    Loan Minh Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  20. Maternal vitamin D status and infant outcomes in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

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    Sarah Hanieh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam.A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age.60% (582/960 of women had 25-OHD levels <75 nmol/L at 32 weeks gestation. Infants born to women with 25-OHD deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L had reduced developmental language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L (Mean Difference (MD -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI -5.67 to -1.28. For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02.Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

  1. Maternal vitamin D status and infant outcomes in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD) in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam. A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age. 60% (582/960) of women had 25-OHD levels language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L) (Mean Difference (MD) -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -5.67 to -1.28). For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02). Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

  2. Comparing the development of agricultural technology and information technology in rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaila, Heidi Kristiina

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis on the ownership of different types of technology—both agricultural machinery and information technology—within households in rural areas of Vietnam. We find that there has been little development in the ownership of agricultural machinery, but a rapid...... expansion of information technology, especially phones. Households without phones or internet access are more likely to be poor, female-headed, have less education, and rely more on transfers. When controlling for a number of household characteristics including income, households that already own technology...

  3. Physician shortages in rural Vietnam: using a labor market approach to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Shengelia, Bakhuti; Alfano, Marco; Thu, Ha Bui

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates labor market dynamics for physicians in Vietnam, paying particular attention to geographic distribution and dual job holding. The analysis is based on a survey of a random sample of physicians in 3 regions in 2009-10. We found that the labor market for physicians in Vietnam is characterized by very little movement among both facility levels and geographic areas. Dual practice is also prominent, with over one-third of physicians holding a second job. After taking account of the various sources of income for physicians and controlling for key factors, there is a significant wage premium associated with locating in an urban area. This premium is driven by much higher earnings from dual job holding rather than official earnings in the primary job. There are important policy implications that emerge. With such low job turnover rates, policies to increase the number of physicians in rural areas could focus on initial recruitment. Once in place, physicians tend to remain in their jobs for a very long time. Lastly, findings from an innovative discrete choice experiment suggest that providing long-term education and improving equipment are the most effective instruments to recruit physicians to work in rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

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    Do Manh Cuong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both

  5. The cluster panacea?: Questioning the role of cooperative shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu Ha, Ha; Bush, S.R.; Dijk, van H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of ‘clustering’ as a form of cooperative production to improve the environmental performance of shrimp farmers and facilitating them to upgrade their position in the global value chain. Comparing intensive and extensive shrimp farmer clusters in Ca Mau province, Vietnam,

  6. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

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    Peter Allebeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim: This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women. The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion: Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in

  7. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  8. The impact of economic growth on health care utilization: a longitudinal study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2013-03-16

    In many developing countries, including Vietnam, out-of-pocket payment is the principal source of health financing. The economic growth is widening the gap between rich and poor people in many aspects, including health care utilization. While inequities in health between high- and low-income groups have been well investigated, this study aims to investigate how the health care utilization changes when the economic condition is changing at a household level. We analysed a panel data of 11,260 households in a rural district of Vietnam. Of the sample, 74.4% having an income increase between 2003 and 2007 were defined as households with economic growth. We used a double-differences propensity score matching technique to compare the changes in health care expenditure as percentage of total expenditure and health care utilization from 2003 to 2005, from 2003 to 2007, and from 2005 to 2007, between households with and without economic growth. Households with economic growth spent less percentage of their expenditure for health care, but used more provincial/central hospitals (higher quality health care services) than households without economic growth. The differences were statistically significant. The results suggest that households with economic growth are better off also in terms of health services utilization. Efforts for reducing inequalities in health should therefore consider the inequality in income growth over time.

  9. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Typhus, and Spotted Fever Among Rural and Urban Populations of Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Nguyen Vu; Hoi, Le Thi; Thuong, Nguyen Thi Hong; Toan, Tran Khanh; Huong, Tran Thi Kieu; Hoa, Tran Mai; Fox, Annette; Kinh, Nguyen van; van Doorn, H Rogier; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Bryant, Juliet E; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-05-01

    AbstractRickettsial infections are recognized as important causes of fever throughout southeast Asia. Herein, we determined the seroprevalence to rickettsioses within rural and urban populations of northern Vietnam. Prevalence of individuals with evidence of prior rickettsial infections (IgG positive) was surprisingly low, with 9.14% (83/908) testing positive to the three major rickettsial serogroups thought to circulate in the region. Prevalence of typhus group rickettsiae (TG)-specific antibodies (6.5%, 58/908) was significantly greater than scrub typhus group orientiae (STG)- or spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFG)-specific antibodies ( P < 0.05). The majority of TG seropositives were observed among urban rather than rural residents ( P < 0.05). In contrast, overall antibody prevalence to STG and SFG were both very low (1.1%, 10/908 for STG; 1.7%, 15/908 for SFG), with no significant differences between rural and urban residents. These results provide data on baseline population characteristics that may help inform development of Rickettsia serological testing criteria in future clinical studies.

  10. Quality of life among people living with hypertension in a rural Vietnam community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Duy, Hoa Thi; Le, Ninh Hoang; Khanal, Vishnu; Moorin, Rachael

    2014-08-11

    To respond to growing prevalence of hypertension in Vietnam, it is critical to have an in-depth understanding about quality of life (QOL) among people living with hypertension and related factors. This study aimed to measure QOL among hypertensive people in a rural community in Vietnam, and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and factors related to treatment. This study was conducted in a rural community located 60 km from Ho Chi Minh City. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 275 hypertensive people aged 50 years and above using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to examine mean scores of quality of life. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient were applied to estimate the internal consistency, and the level of agreement between different domains of WHOQOL-BREF, respectively. Independent T-test and ANOVA test followed by multiple linear regression analyses were used to measure the association between QOL domains and independent variables. Both overall WHOQOL-BREF and each domain had a good internal consistency, ranging from 0.65 to 0.88. The QOL among hypertensive patients was found moderate in all domains, except for psychological domain that was fairly low (mean = 49.4). Backward multiple linear regressions revealed that being men, married, attainment of higher education, having physical activities at moderate level, and adherence to treatment were positively associated with QOL. However, older age and presence of co-morbidity were negatively associated with QOL. WHOQOL-BREF is a reliable instrument to measure QOL among hypertensive patients. The results revealed low QOL in psychological domain and inequality in QOL across socio-demographic characteristics. Given the results, encouraging physical activities and strengthening treatment adherence should be considered to improve QOL of hypertensive people, especially for psychological aspect. Actions to improve QOL among hypertensive

  11. Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Brisa; Vetter, Matthias [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany); Bourg, Catherine [Fondation Energies pour le Monde (France); Crehay, Romain [Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The project ''Renewable Energy Sustainable Programs for Intelligent Rural Electrifrication'' RESIREA has been looking for the creation of conditions that make possible the establishment of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) markets in targeted provinces to Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. As a main result of the project, in three different selected provinces (one in each country) have been proposed villages as ''ready to implement''. The ''ready to implement'' villages are specific RET projects resulted from applying developed methodologies. One methodology is a deeply well structured cross-analysis of technical and economic parameters and the results have been integrated in a Geographical Information System GIS. Based on the least-cost methodology, off-grid biomass and photovoltaic PV power supply systems have been designed and asset for the proposed villages. In the case of PV system designs, a detailed study has been carried out by means of simulations tools and extensive field data. The PV system design looks to contribute to an ''easy scale-up'' concept for off-grid power supply systems, especially when rural communities are too diverse. Further expected benefits besides the supply of electricity services are the improvement of the living and health conditions of the populations, the stimulation of local markets for RET and economic activities. (orig.)

  12. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-04-24

    In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS) among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July-November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September-December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15), and their parents (15), focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren (32) and school staff (20) and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most of their time working away from home in the fields

  13. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. Objective: This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design: This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July–November 2008 and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September–December 2010. Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15, and their parents (15, focus group discussions (FGDs with schoolchildren (32 and school staff (20 and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Results: Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most

  14. Prevalence and correlates of hyperglycemia in a rural population, Vietnam: implications from a cross–sectional study

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    Quang Binh Tran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in urban areas, relatively little has been known about its actual prevalence and its associations in rural areas, Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, diabetes and their risk factors in a rural province, Vietnam. Methods A cross–sectional study with a representative sample was designed to estimate the hyperglycemia prevalence, using 75–g oral glucose tolerance test. Potential risk factors for hyperglycemia were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, taken into account influences of socio–economic status, anthropometric measures, and lifestyle–related factors. Results The age and sex–adjusted prevalence rates (95% CI of isolated IFG, isolated IGT, combined IFG–IGT, and diabetes were 8.7 (7.0–10.5, 4.3 (3.2−5.4, 1.6 (0.9−2.3, and 3.7% (2.7–4.7%, respectively. There were still 73% of diabetic subjects without knowing the condition. Blood pressure, family history of diabetes, obesity–related measures (waist circumference, waist–hip ratio, body fat percentage, and abdominal obesity were the independent risk factors for hyperglycemia (IFG, IGT, and diabetes. Conclusions The prevalence of hyperglycemia in rural areas has not been as sharply increased as that reported in urban cities, Vietnam. Blood pressure and obesity–related measures were the most significant predictors for hyperglycemia level and they can be taken into account in building prognosis models to early detection of diabetes in rural Vietnamese populations.

  15. Suitability of instant noodles for iron fortification to combat iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong Thi; Brouwer, Inge D; de Wolf, Corine A; van der Heijden, Lidwien; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2007-09-01

    Anemia is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in Vietnam. Food fortification is considered one of the most sustainable long-term strategies to control iron-deficiency anemia in Vietnam. The success of a food-fortification program depends on the choice of the food vehicle. The aim of the present study was to identify an appropriate vehicle for iron fortification to be used in a school-feeding program aimed at improving the iron and anemia status of schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Children 6 to 8 years of age in two primary schools in Tam Nong District, Phu Tho Province, and their parents were included in this study. The study consisted of three substudies: a food-consumption study with 24-hour recalls of two nonconsecutive days; a food-beliefs study, with focus group discussions, a pile-sorting test, and a food attributes and differences exercise; and a food-acceptance study using noodles and biscuits fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA). The average number of meals consumed daily was 3.2 +/- 0.4, and the average intakes of energy and iron were 1,218 +/- 406 kcal and 7.5 +/- 4.0 mg, respectively. Compared with biscuits and instant rice soup, instant noodles were consumed more frequently and in larger portion sizes and are more acceptable as children's food in the culture of the local people. The iron level of the fortified product did not affect the mean consumption of noodles, but a higher level of iron was associated with a lower mean consumption of biscuits (p noodles; however, during preparation at least 70% of the iron is leaked into the soup. Instant noodles are a suitable vehicle for iron fortification for use in school-based intervention to improve iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

  16. Health-related quality of life, and its determinants, among older people in rural Vietnam

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    Hoi Le V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of people in Vietnam aged 60 and above has increased rapidly in recent decades. However, there is a lack of evidence, particularly in rural settings, on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL within the context of socioeconomic changes and health-sector reform in the country. This study assesses the level and determinants of HRQoL in a rural district in order to provide evidence for designing and implementing appropriate health policies. Methods In 2007, 2,873 people aged 60+ living in 2,240 households randomly selected from the FilaBavi demographic surveillance site (DSS were interviewed using a generic EQ-5D questionnaire to assess their HRQoL. Socioeconomic characteristics of the people and their households were extracted from the DSS's re-census that year, and the EQ-5D index was calculated based on the time trade-off tariff. Multilevel-multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to measure the affect of socioeconomic factors on HRQoL. Results The EQ-5D index at old age was found to be 0.876 (95%CI: 0.870-0.882. Age between 60-69 or 70-79 years, position as household head, working until old age, literacy, and belonging to better wealth quintiles are determinants of higher HRQoL. Ageing has a primary influence on the deterioration of HRQoL at older ages, mainly due to reduction in physical rather than mental functions. Educational disparity in HRQoL is low, and exists mostly between basic and higher levels of education. Being a household head and working at old age are advantageous for attaining better quality of life in physical rather than psychological terms. Economic conditions affect HRQoL through sensory rather than physical utilities. Long-term living conditions more likely affect HRQoL than short-term economic conditions. Conclusions HRQoL at old age is at a high level, and varies substantially according to socioeconomic factors. Its determinants should be addressed in social and

  17. Burden of premature mortality in rural Vietnam from 1999 – 2003: analyses from a Demographic Surveillance Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Do

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the burden of disease contributes towards evidence-based allocation of limited health resources. However, such measures are not yet commonly available in Vietnam. Taking advantage of the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance Site (FilaBavi DSS in Vietnam, this study aimed to establish the feasibility of applying the Years of Life Lost (YLL technique in the context of a defined DSS, and to estimate the importance of the principal causes of premature mortality in a rural area of Vietnam between 1999 and 2003. Methods Global Burden of Disease methods were applied. Causes of death were ascertained by verbal autopsy. Results In five years, 1,240 deaths occurred and for 1,220 cases cause of death information from verbal autopsy was available. Life expectancy at birth was 71.0 (95% confidence interval 69.9–72.1 in males and 80.9 (79.9–81.9 in females. The discounted, but not age weighted YLL per 1,000 population was 85 and 55 for males and females, respectively. The leading causes of YLL and death counts were cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms, unintentional injuries, and neonatal causes. Males contributed 54% of total deaths and 59% of YLL. Males experienced higher YLL than women across all causes. Filabavi mortality estimates are considerably lower than 2002 WHO country estimates for Vietnam. Also the FilaBavi cause distribution varies considerably from the WHO result. Conclusion The combination of localised demographic surveillance, verbal autopsy and the application of YLL methods enable new insights into the magnitude and importance of significant public health issues in settings where evidence for planning is otherwise scarce. Local mortality data vary considerably from the WHO model-based estimates.

  18. Common mental disorders among women, social circumstances and toddler growth in rural Vietnam: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Tran, T; Nguyen, T T; Nguyen, H; Tran, T D

    2015-11-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) and adverse social circumstances are widespread among mothers of infants and toddlers in resource-constrained settings. These can undermine early childhood development through compromised caregiving and insufficient access to essential resources. The aim was to examine the effect of maternal CMD and social adversity in the post-partum year on toddler's length-for-age index in a rural low-income setting. A population-based prospective cohort study of women in Ha Nam province, Vietnam who completed baseline assessments in either late pregnancy or 4-6 weeks post partum and were followed up, with their toddlers, 15 months later. CMD were assessed at both points by psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interviews for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Diagnoses. Anthropometric indices were calculated from toddler's age, sex, weight and length using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Social adversities were assessed by study-specific questions and locally validated psychometric instruments. The hypothesized model of factors governing toddler's length-for-age Z score (LAZ) was tested using path analysis. In total, 211/234 (90.1%) mother-toddler pairs provided complete data. Baseline prevalence of CMD among women was 33.6% and follow-up was 18.5%. The mean LAZ among toddlers was -1.03 and stunting prevalence (LAZ toddler LAZ via maternal CMD at follow-up (regression coefficient = -0.05, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.01). Maternal CMD at follow-up was associated significantly with toddler LAZ (regression coefficient = -0.15, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.05). Poorer quality of marital relationship, mothers' experiences of childhood abuse and toddler LAZ via maternal CMD. Maternal post-natal CMD are associated with child growth measured by LAZ in this resource-constrained setting. Social adversities affect child growth indirectly through increasing the risk of maternal CMD. Interventions to reduce stunting in

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buu, T.N.; Huyen, M.N.T.; Lan, N.N.T.; Quy, H.T.; Hen, N.V.; Zignol, M.; Borgdorff, M.W.; van Soolingen, D.; Cobelens, F.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis case notification rates (CNRs) for young adults in Vietnam are increasing. To determine whether this finding could reflect emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype, we studied all new sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients registered for treatment in 3

  20. Extramarital Sex Among Vietnamese Married Men: Results of a Survey in Urban and Rural Areas of Northern and Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Research on extramarital sex (EMS) is commonly conducted from a perspective that implicitly understands this behavior as a violation of the marital relationship. In contrast, Vietnamese cultural norms have, at some points in history, condoned if not outright encouraged EMS in the name of preserving family lineage. Yet little is known about the prevalence of EMS among contemporary Vietnamese men and its association with marriage quality. This is a notable gap, given the enormous sociocultural and ideological shifts the country has experienced over the past several decades. Drawing upon a sample of 126 married men (Mean age = 45.56; SD = 10.52) surveyed in urban (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) and rural areas (Ha Tay and Can Tho) in Vietnam, we examined the relationship between EMS and geographic region, demographic characteristics, sexual values, quality of marriage, and sexual satisfaction within marriage. Our results show that geographic location had a strong impact on EMS, while most marital relationship quality variables did not impact the odds of EMS for married men in Vietnam.

  1. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Around half of the Mekong Delta’s rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily based on semi-structured interviews in rural communes of Can Tho City. We come to the conclusion that the programme has a positive effect regarding the safer disposal of human excreta as well as surface water quality, but a marginal impact on poverty reduction as it only reaches better-off households already having access to clean water. The paper shows how the outcome of rural water supply and sanitation policies are strongly influenced by the local ecological, technological, and social settings, in particular by stakeholders’ interests. The authors challenge the assumption that water supply and sanitation should be integrated into the same policy in all circumstances. ----- Etwa die Hälfte der ländlichen Bevölkerung des Mekong-Deltas hat nicht das ganze Jahr über Zugang zu sauberem Wasser. Zusammen mit unzureichender Hygiene und mangelnder sanitärer Grundversorgung erhöht diese Situation das Krankheitsrisiko. Auf globaler Ebene sind Mikrokreditprogramme eine gefragte Strategie, um diese Probleme zu behandeln. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse eines solchen Mikrokreditprogramms für ländliche Wasser- und sanitäre Grundversorgung im Mekong-Delta in Vietnam im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie, die auf halbstrukturierten Interviews im Raum Can Tho City basiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Programm eine positive Wirkung in Bezug auf die sichere Entsorgung von Fäkalien und die Qualität des Regenwassers

  2. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Banout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam. This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971. Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  3. Maternal health care professionals' perspectives on the provision and use of antenatal and delivery care: a qualitative descriptive study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graner, Sophie; Mogren, Ingrid; Duong, Le Q; Krantz, Gunilla; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2010-10-14

    High quality maternal health care is an important tool to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Services offered should be evidence based and adapted to the local setting. This qualitative descriptive study explored the perspectives and experiences of midwives, assistant physicians and medical doctors on the content and quality of maternal health care in rural Vietnam. The study was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Four focus group discussions with health care professionals at primary health care level were conducted. The data was analysed using qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Two main themes emerged: "Contextual conditions for maternal health care" and "Balancing between possibilities and constraints". Contextual conditions influenced both pregnant women's use of maternal health care and health care professionals' performance. The study participants stated that women's uses of maternal health care were influenced by economical constraints and cultural norms that impeded their autonomy in relation to childbearing. Structural constraints within the health care system included inadequate financing of the primary health care, resulting in lack of human resources, professional re-training and adequate equipment. Contextual conditions strongly influenced the performance and interaction between pregnant women and health care professionals within antenatal care and delivery care in a rural district of Vietnam. Although Vietnam is performing comparatively well in terms of low maternal and child mortality figures, this study revealed midwives' and other health care professionals' perceived difficulties in their daily work. It seemed maternal health care was under-resourced in terms of staff, equipment and continuing education activities. The cultural setting in Vietnam constituting a strong patriarchal society and prevailing Confucian norms limits women's autonomy and reduce their possibility to make independent decisions about their

  4. Press coverage of the Persian Gulf War: historical perspectives and questions of policy beyond the shadow of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Kimberly Ann

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Widely held views of military-press relations in the United States rest upon an incomplete image of the past. This became overwhelmingly evident during the recent Gulf War with its generalizations about the experience of the Vietnam War. This thesis seeks to correct such failings through a brief discussion of the role the First Amendment guarantee of freedom of the press has played regarding U.S. national security interests, followed...

  5. Justification of Intimate Partner Violence in Rural Bangladesh: What Survey Questions Fail to Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Lenzi, Rachel; Yount, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents qualitative findings from a project designed to develop better methodological tools for clarifying women’s and men’s attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural Bangladesh and their perceptions of norms about IPV in their communities. Cognitive interviews and focus-group discussions were used to explore respondents’ subjective understanding of standard survey questions meant to elicit attitudes about IPV. We find that the proportion of participants who justi...

  6. The Agrarian Question and the Neoliberal Rural Transformation in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the neoliberal turn in Latin America the rural economy and society has experienced a great transformation. Corporate capital and transnational agro-industries have taken hold of agriculture radically transforming the economic and social relations of production leading to the precarization and feminisation of rural labour as well as the intensification of work. Peasant farmers were further squeezed having to increasingly find off-farm incomes, largely through precarious wage labour activities, so as to make a living thereby furthering the process of proletarianization. The ‘new rurality’ and ‘territorial’ approaches tried to take account of these transformations but they are found wanting. Instead, a political economy view to the agrarian question is found more promising. A counter-movement to neoliberalism has emerged spearheaded by indigenous peoples and the rural poor, sometimes linked to the transnational peasant movement ‘Via Campesina’. Their main aim is to construct an alternative agrarian system based on ‘food sovereignty’ which is promising but also controversial. Resumen: La Cuestión Agraria y la Transformación Rural Neoliberal en Latinoamérica  Desde el giro neoliberal en América Latina la economía y sociedad rural han experimentado una gran transformación. El capital corporativo y las agroindustrias transnacionales se han apoderado de la agricultura transformando radicalmente las relaciones económicas y sociales de producción que llevan a la precarización y feminización de la mano de obra rural, así como a la intensificación del trabajo. Los campesinos enfrentan condiciones cada vez más difíciles teniendo que buscar con mayor frecuencia ingresos fuera de la finca, principalmente a través de actividades salariales precarias, con el fin de ganarse la vida impulsando con ello el proceso de proletarización. Los enfoques de la ‘nueva ruralidad’ y ‘territoriales’ trataron de explicar estas

  7. Willingness to use and pay for options of care for community-dwelling older people in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hoi Le

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of people in Vietnam who are 60 years and over has increased rapidly. The emigration of young people and impact of other socioeconomic changes leave more elderly on their own and with less family support. This study assesses the willingness to use and pay for different models of care for community-dwelling elderly in rural Vietnam. Methods In 2007, people aged 60 and older and their family representatives, living in 2,240 households, were randomly selected from the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance Site. They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs, willingness to use and to pay for day care centres, mobile care teams, and nursing centres. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the FilaBavi repeated census. Percentages of those willing to use models and the average amount (with 95% confidence intervals they are willing to pay were estimated. Multivariate analyses were performed to measure the relationship of willingness to use services with ADL index and socioeconomic factors. Four focus group discussions were conducted to explore people's perspectives on the use of services. The first discussion group was with the elderly. The second discussion group was with their household members. Two other discussion groups included community association representatives, one at the communal level and another at the village level. Results Use of mobile team care is the most requested service. The fewest respondents intend to use a nursing centre. Households expect to use services for their elderly to a greater extent than do the elderly themselves. Willingness to use services decreases when potential fees increase. The proportion of respondents who require that services be free-of-charge is two to three times higher than the proportion willing to pay full cost. Households are willing to pay more than the elderly for day care and nursing

  8. Consideration of rainwater quality parameters for drinking purposes: A case study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minju; Kim, Mikyeong; Kim, Yonghwan; Han, Mooyoung

    2017-09-15

    Rainwater, which is used for drinking purposes near Hanoi, Vietnam, was analysed for water quality based on 1.5 years of monitoring data. In total, 23 samples were collected from different points within two rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs). Most parameters met the standard except micro-organisms. Coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected when the rainwater was not treated with ultraviolet (UV) light; however, analysis of rainwater after UV sterilisation showed no trace of micro-organisms. The RWHSs appear to provide drinking water of relatively good quality compared with surface water and groundwater. The superior quality of the rainwater suggests the necessity for new drinking rainwater standards because applying all of the drinking water quality standards to rainwater is highly inefficient. The traditionally implemented standards could cause more difficulties for developing countries using RWHSs installed decentralized as a source of drinking water, particularly in areas not well supplied with testing equipment, because such countries must bear the expense and time for these measures. This paper proposes the necessity of rainwater quality guideline, which could serve as a safe and cost-effective alternative to provide an access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal health care professionals' perspectives on the provision and use of antenatal and delivery care: a qualitative descriptive study in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krantz Gunilla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High quality maternal health care is an important tool to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Services offered should be evidence based and adapted to the local setting. This qualitative descriptive study explored the perspectives and experiences of midwives, assistant physicians and medical doctors on the content and quality of maternal health care in rural Vietnam. Method The study was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Four focus group discussions with health care professionals at primary health care level were conducted. The data was analysed using qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Result Two main themes emerged: "Contextual conditions for maternal health care" and "Balancing between possibilities and constraints". Contextual conditions influenced both pregnant women's use of maternal health care and health care professionals' performance. The study participants stated that women's uses of maternal health care were influenced by economical constraints and cultural norms that impeded their autonomy in relation to childbearing. Structural constraints within the health care system included inadequate financing of the primary health care, resulting in lack of human resources, professional re-training and adequate equipment. Conclusion Contextual conditions strongly influenced the performance and interaction between pregnant women and health care professionals within antenatal care and delivery care in a rural district of Vietnam. Although Vietnam is performing comparatively well in terms of low maternal and child mortality figures, this study revealed midwives' and other health care professionals' perceived difficulties in their daily work. It seemed maternal health care was under-resourced in terms of staff, equipment and continuing education activities. The cultural setting in Vietnam constituting a strong patriarchal society and prevailing Confucian norms limits women's autonomy and

  10. Suitability of instant noodles for iron fortification to combat iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Wolf, de C.A.; Heijden, van der L.J.M.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in Vietnam. Food fortification is considered one of the most sustainable long-term strategies to control iron-deficiency anemia in Vietnam. The success of a food-fortification program depends on the choice of the food

  11. Developing adaptive capacity in times of climate change in central rural Vietnam: exploring smallholders’ learning and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Thi Hong Phuong

    2017-01-01

    Climate change already affects Vietnam in virtually all sectors. Agriculture in small communities is particularly vulnerable to current and projected climate change impacts. Many of the smallholder farmers in Vietnam have limited adaptive capacity to deal with these impacts. Increasingly social

  12. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  13. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  14. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-01-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  15. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely lacking. The district lacked a disease

  16. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective: This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results: 1 Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2 Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3 Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4 Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5 Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological

  17. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Pharris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01, higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22, and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66 were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: We found low testing uptake (6% among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider

  18. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharris, Anastasia; Nguyen, Thi Kim Chuc; Tishelman, Carol; Brugha, Ruairí; Nguyen, Phuong Hoa; Thorson, Anna

    2011-01-11

    To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01), higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22), and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66) were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. We found low testing uptake (6%) among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider-initiated testing of those who believe that they are at-risk of

  19. JUSTIFICATION OF WIFE BEATING IN RURAL BANGLADESH: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSES TO SURVEY QUESTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Yount, Kathryn M.; Lenzi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Understanding attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) in cultural context is important for developing interventions to reduce IPV and its effects. This paper presents qualitative findings from research conducted in rural Bangladesh to understand men’s and women’s responses to attitudinal questions about IPV. Both men and women often responded as if the questions were about their personal behavior. A few women said that their opinion did not matter. Women’s responses were more sensitiv...

  20. Perception of Climate Risk among Rural Farmers in Vietnam: Consistency within Households and with the Empirical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Alison C; Anderson, C Leigh

    2017-03-01

    Rural farmers in Vietnamese communes perceive climate risk and potential impacts on livelihood within a complex context that may influence individual and household decisions. In a primary survey of 1,145 residents of the Thach Ha district of Ha Tinh province, we gathered data regarding perception about stability in climate, potential risks to livelihood, demographic characteristics, orientation toward risk, and interest in expanding economic activity. Temporal analysis of meteorological and economic indicator data forms an empirical basis for comparison with human perception. We ask the basic question: Are rural farmers' perceptions of climate consistent with the historical record and reproducible within households? We find that respondents do perceive climate anomalies, with some anchoring on recent extreme events as revealed by climate observational data, and further that spouses disproportionately share perceptions relative to randomly simulated pairings. To put climate-related risk perception in a larger context, we examine patterns across a range of risks to livelihood faced by farmers (livestock disease, pests, markets, health), using dimension reduction techniques. We find that our respondents distinguish among potential causes of low economic productivity, with substantial emphasis on climate-related impacts. They do not express uniform concern across risks, but rather average patterns reveal common modes and distinguish climate concern. Still, among those expressing concern about climate-related risks to livelihood we do not find an association with expressed intention to pursue changes in economic activity as a risk management response. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Thi Quynh Lien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L. Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L. A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01 and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001.

  2. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  3. Justification of wife beating in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative analysis of gender differences in responses to survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Yount, Kathryn M; Lenzi, Rachel

    2012-10-01

    Understanding attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) in cultural context is important for developing interventions to reduce it or mitigate its effects. This article presents qualitative findings from research conducted in rural Bangladesh to understand men's and women's responses to attitudinal questions about IPV. Both men and women often responded as if the questions were about their personal behavior. A few women said that their opinion did not matter. Women's responses were more sensitive than men's to contextual nuances in the questions, and men more often than women described their own attitudes as consistent with community norms.

  4. Factors associated with antenatal care adequacy in rural and urban contexts-results from two health and demographic surveillance sites in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal Care (ANC) is universally considered important for women and children. This study aims to identify factors, demographic, social and economic, possibly associated with three ANC indicators: number of visits, timing of visits and content of services. The aim is also to compare the patterns of association of such factors between one rural and one urban context in northern Vietnam. Methods Totally 2,132 pregnant women were followed from identification of pregnancy until birth in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Information was obtained through quarterly face to face interviews. Results Living in the rural area was significantly associated with lower adequate use of ANC compared to living in the urban area, both regarding quantity (number and timing of visits) and content. Low education, living in poor households and exclusively using private sector ANC in both sites and self employment, becoming pregnant before 25 years of age and living in poor communities in the rural area turned out to increase the risk for overall inadequate ANC. High risk pregnancy could not be demonstrated to be associated with ANC adequacy in either site. The medical content of services offered was often inadequate, in relation to the national recommendations, especially in the private sector. Conclusion Low education, low economic status, exclusive use of private ANC and living in rural areas were main factors associated with risk for overall inadequate ANC use as related to the national recommendations. Therefore, interventions focussing on poor and less educated women, especially in rural areas should be prioritized. They should focus the importance of early attendance of ANC and sufficient use of core services. Financial support for poor and near poor women should be considered. Providers of ANC should be educated and otherwise influenced to provide sufficient core services. Adherence to ANC content guidelines must be improved through enhanced

  5. Vietnam Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, George

    1990-01-01

    Reflections of an Associated Press special correspondent on a return visit to Vietnam 15 years after the war. Discusses the social and economic impact of the war on Vietnam. Examines the plight of the Vietnamese who served in the U.S. military, discussing the problems of Amerasians. Recounts the efforts of U.S. veterans to rebuild Vietnam. (RW)

  6. Is Nonfarm Diversification a Way Out of Poverty for Rural Households? Evidence from Vietnam in 1993-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Thai Hung; Bui Anh Tuan; Dao Le Thanh

    2010-01-01

    school. Using the four high quality household living standards surveys available to date this paper reveals that Vietnam’s rural labour force has been markedly diversifying toward nonfarm activities in the doi moi (renovation) reform period. The employment share of the rural nonfarm sector has increased from 23 percent to 58 percent between the years 1993 and 2006. At the individual level, the results indicate that participation in the rural nonfarm sector is determined by a set of individual...

  7. Comparison of the Media Coverage of the Vietnam War to the Media Coverage of the Invasions of Grenada and Panama: A Question of Legacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    television report that the raids had ’demolished the myth ’ that allied military strength controlled South Vietnam" (Hammond, 1988, p. 345). This new...last week with considerable fanfare" (Time, November 14 1983). 3. "There is an aura of scary smugness about Bush these days, a schoolboyish delight...articles were either favorable or unfavorable to the military. This singular fact seems to dispel the myth that the media lambasted the military in

  8. Misuse of antenatal care and its association with adverse outcomes of pregnancy in a Southern rural area of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thi-Thuy-Dung; Nguyen, The-Dung; Goyens, Philippe; Robert, Annie

    2018-04-01

    Researchers in Vietnam reported a high percentage of pregnant women attending ANC at least once, but an insufficient utilization of ANC services remains. The evidence demonstrating how the utilization of these services affect pregnancy outcome is not documented in Vietnam. We investigated the association between the misuse of ANC services and pregnancy outcome, and assessed other determinants associated with ANC services utilization. We conducted a prospective community-based study in Trang Bom district, Dong Nai, during 12 consecutive months. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Women were followed up to delivery. Misuse of ANC services, related factors and its association with adverse events were assessed using logistic regression. Out of 3301 pregnant women, 91% initiated an ANC visit within first trimester, 95% attended at least three ANC visits, but a low percentage of pregnant women underwent blood and urine tests at least once (20% and 39%, respectively). Factors significantly associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes were lack of blood test and urine test, parity ≥ 3, ANC visits ANC attendance, and women with a low number of ANC visits. Despite a high percentage of early entry into ANC and of at least three ANC visits, misuse of ANC services still exists and contributes to adverse outcomes. There is a need to increase the awareness of women on the benefits of ANC services by educating young women as well as women with several children. Health workers should be encouraged to propose suitable ANC services to pregnant women.

  9. The utility of injury narratives for prioritising future prevention activities in small and medium enterprises in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Willetts, Joanna L; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet

    2013-04-01

    Injuries are a leading cause of work-related disability and death in rapidly developing countries such as Vietnam. The authors' objective was to demonstrate the utility of detailed injury narratives, derived from a household survey, in providing information on the determinants of work-related injuries to inform potential intervention targets. In a cross-sectional survey administered to 2615 households of a rapidly developing community of Vietnam where many workers engage in both agriculture and industrial work, the authors collected information about self-reported work-related injuries, annual hours worked in each industry and narrative text describing the circumstances of each injury. The authors used a customised coding taxonomy to describe injury scenarios. Several intervention themes emerged, including the implementation of machine guarding, the use of cut resistant gloves and safety glasses which would benefit the small- and medium-sized enterprises. Calculation of incidence rates using full-time equivalents, stratified by work group, provided some unexpected observations of the risks of working in agriculture; workers who work in agriculture in addition to another industry are at an increased risk of fatigue or overexertion and other consequences of working too hard in their agricultural activities. A lack of aggregate injury statistics makes it difficult for the owners of small- and medium-sized enterprises to recognise a priori the most effective safety interventions. This analysis of detailed injury narratives with an appropriate taxonomic basis offers the ability to focus on the level of cause, activity and source and may inform the choice of various potential interventions at the workplace or enterprise level.

  10. Assessing evidence for avian-to-human transmission of influenza A/H9N2 virus in rural farming communities in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Le Nguyen Minh; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; My, Pham Ha; Huong, Tran Thi Kieu; Chi, Nguyen Thi Yen; Hau Thu, Trang Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Duong, Mai Thuy; Tho, Nguyen Dang; Hoang, Nguyen Dang; Thanh, To Long; Diep, Nguyen Thi; Duong, Nguyen van; Toan, Tran Khanh; Tung, Trinh Son; Mai, Le Quynh; Iqbal, Munir; Wertheim, Heiman; van Doorn, H Rogier; Bryant, Juliet E; The Vizions Consortium

    2017-08-01

    Rural farming communities in northern Vietnam do not routinely practice vaccination for influenza A viruses (IAV) for either humans or poultry, which enables us to study transmission intensity via seroepidemiology. Using samples from a longitudinal cohort of farming households, we determined the number of symptomatic and asymptomatic human infections for seasonal IAV and avian A/H9 over 2 years. As expected, we detected virologically confirmed acute cases of seasonal IAV in humans, as well as large numbers of subclinical seroconversions to A/H1pdm [55/265 (21 %)], A/H3 [95/265 (36 %)] and A/H9 [24/265 (9 %)]. Five of the A/H9 human seroconverters likely represented true infections rather than heterosubtypic immunity, because the individuals seroconverted solely to A/H9. Among co-located poultry, we found significantly higher seroprevalance for A/H5 compared to A/H9 in both chickens and ducks [for northern study sites overall, 337/1105 (30.5 %) seropositive for A/H5 and 123/1105 (11.1 %) seropositive for A/H9].

  11. 2The role of controlling behaviour in intimate partner violence and its health effects: a population based study from rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krantz Gunilla

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in North America and other high-income regions support the distinction between extreme "intimate terrorism" and occasional "situational couple violence", defined conceptually in terms of the presence or absence of controlling behaviour in the violent member of the couple. Relatively little research has been conducted on the different forms intimate partner violence may take in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these expressions of intimate partner violence in one low-income country, Vietnam, adhere to patterns observed in western industrialised countries as well as to investigate the resulting health effects. Methods This cross-sectional study collected structured interview data from 883 married women aged 17–60, using the Women's Health and Life Experiences questionnaire developed by WHO. Intimate partner violence was assessed by past-year experience of physical or sexual violence and control tactics were assessed using six items combined into a scale. Three different health parameters constituted the dependent variables. Bi- and multivariate analyses, including effect modification analyses, were performed. Results Of the participants, 81 (9.2% had been exposed to physical or sexual violence during the past 12 months; of these, 26 (32.1% had been subjected to one or more controlling behaviours by their partners. The risk of ill health associated with combined exposure was elevated eight to 15 times, compared to a two-fourfold risk increase after exposure to only one of the behaviours, i.e. violent acts or control tactics. Conclusion Physical or sexual violence combined with control tactics acted synergistically to worsen health in rural Vietnamese women. The occurrence of such violence calls for altered policies, increased research and implementation of preventive and curative strategies. The unacceptability of intimate partner violence as a part of normal Vietnamese family life

  12. High prevalence of Beijing and EAI4-VNM genotypes among M. tuberculosis isolates in northern Vietnam: sampling effect, rural and urban disparities.

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    Van Anh Thi Nguyen

    Full Text Available A total of 221 isolates of M. tuberculosis were sampled from hospitals and the general population in the northern plain of Vietnam, one of the most populated region of the country. Genotypic composition and diversity were characterized, and we investigated how they are affected by sampling (hospital vs. general population, correcting for potential confounding effects (location, age and gender of the patients. Spoligotyping and 12 MIRU-VNTR typing were used as first line. Then 15 MIRU-VNTR standard set was used, making 21 MIRU-VNTR typing for the clustered isolates. Result showed that 8 lineages and 13 sub-lineages were circulating in the region. The most predominant lineages were Beijing (38.5% and EAI (38.5%. Others appeared with small proportions H (1.4%, LAM (1.8%, T (8.1%, X (0.9%, MANU (2.3%, and Zero (0.4%. Higher clustering rate was found in the hospital samples (17.9% in urban and 19.2% in rural areas compared to the population ones (0%. The typical Vietnamese EAI4-VNM sub-lineage of EAI lineage accounted for 67% of EAI strains and was associated with older ages. Beijing genotypes were associated with younger, urban population and were characterized by high clustering rates. These characteristics strongly suggest that Beijing strains are invading the population, replacing the local EAI-VNM4, thus predicting a more serious tuberculosis situation in the future in the absence of more effective control strategies.

  13. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D but not dietary vitamin D intake is associated with hemoglobin in women of reproductive age in rural northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen S. Michalski

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Low vitamin D status may be linked to reduced hemoglobin concentrations, but the role of diet in this association was not evident in this population of WRA in Vietnam where dietary vitamin D intake was very low.

  14. 'Any body is better than nobody?' Ethical questions around recruiting and/or retaining health professionals in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C; McDonald, F

    2011-01-01

    The literature on recruiting and/or retaining health professionals in rural areas focuses primarily on the development of recruitment and retention strategies and assessing whether such strategies are effective. The objective of this article is to argue that it is important for all stakeholders involved in rural recruitment and/or retention processes to consider their decisions and actions from an ethics perspective. Recruitment and/or retention processes are not value neutral and it is important to understand their ethical dimensions. From the literature, elements of the recruitment and/or retention strategies that have been employed were identified and organised in respect of levels of governance (namely, the levels of health system/government, community, and individual health professionals). The elements identified in these levels were subjected to analysis to identify their ethical dimensions and to determine whether a clash or complement of values arose at each level of governance or between governance levels. There is very little literature in this area that considers the ethical dimensions of rural recruitment and/or retention processes. However, all policies and practices have ethical dimensions that need to be identified and understood as they may have significant implications for recruitment and/or retention processes. This article recommends the application of an ethics perspective when reflecting on rural recruitment and/or retention strategies. The collective decisions of all involved in rural recruitment and/or retention processes may fundamentally influence the 'health' (broadly understood) of rural communities.

  15. Formal and informal credit in four provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption smoothen......This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption...

  16. Decentralized forest governance in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Nam, T.; Burgers, P.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in decentralized forest governance in Vietnam is developing a mechanism that would support both reforestation and poverty reduction among people in rural communities. To help address this challenge, Forest Land Allocation (FLA) policies recognize local communities and individuals

  17. Primary Education in Vietnam and Pupil Online Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thi; Naguib, Raouf N. G.; Das, Ashish K.; Papathomas, Michail; Vallar, Edgar A.; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Santos, Gil Nonato; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Nguyen, Viet Anh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the disparities in social awareness and use of the internet between urban and rural school children in the North of Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 525 pupils, aged 9-11 years old, randomly selected from seven urban and rural schools, who are internet users, participated in the…

  18. The Making of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War," a set of units which cover legal, cultural, and historical questions of the war in greater depth than do survey textbooks. Examples of the 12 topics are "Introduction to Vietnam: Land, Culture, and History" and "Taking Sides: The War at Home." (GEA)

  19. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  20. Protective effect of pregnancy in rural South Africa: questioning the concept of "indirect cause" of maternal death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Garenne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measurement of the level and composition of maternal mortality depends on the definition used, with inconsistencies leading to inflated rates and invalid comparisons across settings. This study investigates the differences in risk of death for women in their reproductive years during and outside the maternal risk period (pregnancy, delivery, puerperium, focusing on specific causes of infectious, non-communicable and external causes of death after separating out direct obstetrical causes. METHODS: Data on all deaths of women aged 15-49 years that occurred in the Agincourt sub-district between 1992 and 2010 were obtained from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS located in rural South Africa. Causes of death were assessed using a validated verbal autopsy instrument. Analysis included 2170 deaths, of which 137 occurred during the maternal risk period. FINDINGS: Overall, women had significantly lower mortality during the maternal risk period than outside it (age-standardized RR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.63-0.89. This was true in most age groups with the exception of adolescents aged 15-19 years where the risk of death was higher. Mortality from most causes, other than obstetric causes, was lower during the maternal risk period except for malaria, cardiovascular diseases and violence where there were no differences. Lower mortality was significant for HIV/AIDS (RR = 0.29, P<0.0001, cancers (RR = 0.10, P<0.023, and accidents (RR = 0, P<0.0001. INTERPRETATION: In this rural setting typical of much of Southern Africa, pregnancy was largely protective against the risk of death, most likely because of a strong selection effect amongst those women who conceived successfully. The concept of indirect cause of maternal death needs to be re-examined.

  1. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Duc Thang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam.Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted.LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action Plan include the 75% reduction of the global

  2. Universal service in Vietnam: An institutional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Applying institutional theory to look at the Program 74 (a universal service policy) in Vietnam, this paper concludes that the Vietnamese universal service policy was strongly affected by formal institutional factors (the international agreements and the directives of the Communist Party of Vietnam...... - CPV), in which the international agreements played a leading role and the CPV’s directives played a guarantee role. The formulation and implementation of the universal service policy in Vietnam were mainly concentrated on action at levels 2 and 3 (formal and informal institutional arrangement......, and formal institutional environment). The paper recommends that nations favouring a top-down approach not based on a market-oriented regime should deregulate and emphasize the role of provincial governments as well as encourage private sectors/social organizations and rural users to be more involved...

  3. Questioning the effectiveness of planned conflict resolution strategies in water disputes between rural communities and mining companies in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Landeo, Milagros; Zwarteveen, Margreet

    2016-01-01

    Disputes between mining companies and surrounding communities over the access to, control of and distribution of water form an important part of the socio-environmental conflicts that large mining operations in Peru are producing. In order to mitigate environmental impacts, solve conflicts and deal with opposition to mining operations, governmental actors and mining companies make use of a combination of legal and technical strategies. This article questions the effectiveness of these strateg...

  4. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  5. The Vietnam War and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the author's contribution to the Center for Social Studies Education curriculum on the Vietnam War. Focuses on "How the War Was Reported," a unit which raises four questions concerning the responsibilities of the government and the press for keeping the public informed. Encourages use of the curriculum in teaching about the…

  6. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2000, the Foreign Policy Research Institute's (FPRI's) sixth History Institute convened with more than 40 high school and college history teachers to seek answers to the question: "How should we teach the history of the Vietnam War to our children today?" Not surprisingly, no simple answers were forthcoming. This conference…

  7. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy...

  8. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  9. Motivation or demotivation of health workers providing maternal health services in rural areas in Vietnam: findings from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Nguyen Thi Hoai; Wilson, Andrew; McDonald, Fiona

    2015-12-02

    Motivation is an important driver for health professionals to maintain their professional competencies, continue in the workforce and make a positive contribution to their workplace. While there is some research about the motivation of health workers in low- to middle-income countries, maternal morbidity and mortality remains high and this can be lowered by improving the quality of maternal health services and the training and maintenance of the skills of maternal health workers. This study examines the impact of motivation on maintenance of professional competence among maternal health workers in Vietnam using mixed methods. The study consisted of a survey using a self-administered questionnaire of 240 health workers in five districts across two Vietnamese provinces and in-depth interviews with 43 health workers and health managers at the commune, district and provincial level to explore external factors that influenced motivation. The questionnaire includes a 23-item motivation instrument based on the Kenyan health context, modified for Vietnamese language and culture. The 240 responses represented an estimated 95% of the target sample. Multivariate analysis showed that three factors contributed to the motivation of health workers: access to training (β = -0.14, P = 0.03), ability to perform key tasks (β = 0.22, P = 0.001) and shift schedule (β = -0.13, P = 0.05). Motivation was higher in health workers self-identifying as competent or who were enabled to provide more maternal care services. Motivation was lower in those who worked more frequent night shifts and those who had received training in the last 12 months. The interviews identified that the latter was because they felt the training was irrelevant to them, and in some cases, they do not have the opportunity to practice their learnt skills. The qualitative data also showed other factors relating to service context and organisational management practices contributed to

  10. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  11. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  12. Infant motor development in rural Vietnam and intrauterine exposures to anaemia, iron deficiency and common mental disorders: a prospective community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach D; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie A; Tran, Ha T; Nguyen, Trang T; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Fisher, Jane

    2014-01-08

    Antenatal anaemia, iron deficiency and common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of antenatal exposures to these risks and infant motor development. A cohort of women who were pregnant with a single foetus and between 12 and 20 weeks pregnant in 50 randomly-selected rural communes in Ha Nam province was recruited. Participants provided data twice during pregnancy (early and late gestation) and twice after giving birth (8 weeks and 6 months postpartum). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used at all four data collection waves to detect CMD (score ≥ 4). Maternal anaemia (Hb anaemia was 21.5% in early pregnancy and 24.4% in late pregnancy. There was 4.1% iron deficiency at early pregnancy and 48.2% at late pregnancy. Clinically significant symptoms of CMD were apparent among 40% women in early pregnancy and 28% in late pregnancy. There were direct adverse effects on infant BSID-M scores at 6 months of age due to antenatal anaemia in late pregnancy (an estimated mean reduction of 2.61 points, 95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.57 to 4.65) and CMD in early pregnancy (7.13 points, 95% CI 3.13 to 11.13). Iron deficiency and anaemia in early pregnancy were indirectly related to the outcome via anaemia during late pregnancy. Antenatal anaemia, iron deficiency, and CMD have a negative impact on subsequent infant motor development. These findings highlight the need to improve the quality of antenatal care when developing interventions for pregnant women that aim to optimise early childhood development in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Vietnam Report No. 2415

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This report contains articles about Vietnam. Some topics include military affairs and public security, international relations, party activities and government, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry and construction...

  14. Vietnam Report No. 2382

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on Vietnam. Some topics discussed are military affairs and public security, international relations, trade, aid, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry, construction, transportation...

  15. Census in North Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  16. Physics in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-01-01

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology

  17. Physics in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-03-15

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology.

  18. Vietnam Report 2014

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vudddn

    entrepreneurship and business development, we believe that GEM Vietnam .... indicators have the highest levels: the dynamics of the domestic market ...... either by selling, shutting down or otherwise discontinuing an owner/management.

  19. 'I do want to ask, but I can't speak': a qualitative study of ethnic minority women's experiences of communicating with primary health care professionals in remote, rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinn, Shannon; Duong, Thuy Linh; Foster, Kirsty; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2017-10-30

    Ethnic minority groups in Vietnam experience economic, social and health inequalities. There are significant disparities in health service utilisation, and cultural, interpersonal and communication barriers impact on quality of care. Eighty per cent of the population of Dien Bien Province belongs to an ethnic minority group, and poor communication between health professionals and ethnic minority women in the maternal health context is a concern for health officials and community leaders. This study explores how ethnic minority women experience communication with primary care health professionals in the maternal and child health setting, with an overall aim to develop strategies to improve health professionals' communication with ethnic minority communities. We used a qualitative focused ethnographic approach and conducted focus group discussions with 37 Thai and Hmong ethnic minority women (currently pregnant or mothers of children under five) in Dien Bien Province. We conducted a thematic analysis. Ethnic minority women generally reported that health professionals delivered health information in a didactic, one-way style, and there was a reliance on written information (Maternal and Child Health handbook) in place of interpersonal communication. The health information they receive (both verbal and written) was often non-specific, and not context-adjusted for their personal circumstances. Women were therefore required to take a more active role in interpersonal interactions in order to meet their own specific information needs, but they are then faced with other challenges including language and gender differences with health professionals, time constraints, and a reluctance to ask questions. These factors resulted in women interpreting health information in diverse ways, which in turn appeared to impact their health behaviours. Fostering two-way communication and patient-centred attitudes among health professionals could help to improve their communication with

  20. Environmental considerations in Vietnam's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation is at the centre of an environmental debate in Vietnam, whose rapidly growing economy in recent years has resulted in rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This article reviewed the actual state of Vietnam's energy system, with consideration of the country's energy policies and their impact on the environment. Vietnam's energy resources consist of a vast network of rivers that hold potential for hydroelectric power; reserves that are proven to have oil, natural gas and coal; and, other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. The energy sector plays a major role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Since its economic reform, coal and crude oil exports have brought in foreign money to the national revenue. Vietnam exploits four commercial types of energy, namely coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity. These traditional energy sources play a major role in providing energy for the rural and mountainous regions in the country. The increase in energy demand in Vietnam is currently greater than that of its gross national product. The energy intensity in Vietnam is 1.5 times greater than that of Thailand, and twice the average world consumption. Energy demands are increasing at a regular rate due to a low rate of energy efficiency and to growth in industrialization and modernization. In addition, the government provides subsidies to the already low price of energy. It was concluded that although Vietnam has a low rate of energy consumption compared to other regions of the world, there exists a serious imbalance between energy use and economic and social growth. This imbalance could have a negative impact on fossil resources and the environment, especially if the high demand for energy is maintained. Presently, all negative impacts on the environment are related to the energy sector. An environmental assessment and strategic proposals to manage this problem locally and globally, have constituted the

  1. Inequality decomposition and geographic targeting with applications to China and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2005-06-01

    How far are income-related inequalities in the health sector due to gaps between poor and less poor areas, rather than due to differences between poor and less poor people within areas? This note sets out a method for answering this question, and illustrates it with two empirical examples. The disproportionate accrual of health subsidies to Vietnam's better-off is found to be largely due to the fact that richer provinces have larger per capita subsidies, while pro-rich inequalities in health insurance coverage in rural China are found to be largely due to the fact that better-off villages have been more successful at preventing the collapse of their insurance schemes. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Urbanization, Agricultural Intensification, and Habitat Alteration in Vietnam: Modeling Transitional Development and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.; Saksena, S.; Spencer, J.; Finucane, M.; Sultana, N.

    2012-12-01

    Our overarching hypothesis is that new risks, in this case the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, emerge during transitions between stages of development. Moreover, these risks are not coincidental but occur precisely because of the in-between nature of the coupled human-natural system at the point when things are neither traditional nor modern but resemble the state of chaos, release and reorganization. We are testing this hypothesis in Vietnam using demographic, social, economic, and environmental data collected in national censuses and analyzed at commune and district levels to identify communes and districts that are traditional, modern, and transitional (peri-urban). Using data from the 2006 agricultural census that capture both the changing nature of the built environment (types of sanitation systems) and the loss of and diversification of agriculture systems (percent of households whose major source of income is from agriculture, and percent of land under agriculture, forests, and aquaculture), and a normalized difference vegetation index from 2006 Landsat images we created a national scale urbanicity map for Vietnam. Field work in the summer of 2011 showed this map to be an accurate (approximately 85%) approximation of traditional (rural), transitional (periurban), and modern (urban) communes. Preliminary results suggest that over 7% of the country's land area and roughly 15% of its population resides in periurban neighborhoods, and that these areas do have a statistically significant greater incidence of AVI as measured in chicken deaths than traditional and modern communes (Table 1). Transitional neighborhoods such as these force planners to ask two questions. To what extent does the dichotomy of urban/rural makes sense in the context of Vietnam, when large areas and parts of the population are caught between the two? Second, how can planners and policy makers effectively provide for basic public goods and services in these contexts?Classification of places

  3. Diabetes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence for diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes in Vietnam are low relative to other parts of the world, but they are increasing at alarming rates. These changes have occurred in the setting of economic and cultural transitions. The aim of this study was to provide relevant information depicting the diabetes burden in Vietnam. Literature was reviewed using PubMed and local Vietnamese sources, including papers published in the Vietnamese language. In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 5.4% and prediabetes 13.7%. In 2005, the prevalence of obesity was 1.7%. There is a dual burden of over- and undernutrition observed in Vietnam. Diabetes is associated with an increased waist-to-hip ratio despite normal body mass index. Nutritional transitions occurred with increased protein, fat, and fast foods, and with decreased fresh fruits and vegetables. Tobacco use is very high in Vietnam with 66% of adult men currently smoking. Challenges include endocrinology training, health care coverage, patient education, and lack of coordination among government and specialist agencies. Diabetes is a growing problem in Vietnam and is associated with obesity, changes in dietary patterns, and other cultural transitions. More research is needed to better understand this health care problem and to devise targeted interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    credible links to policymakers and development practitioners. VERN research findings appear in the coun- try's Human Development Report and its results informed trade policy, includ- ing preparation for Vietnam's accession to the World Trade Organization. Better use of resources. IDRC support since the early 1990s has.

  5. Climate Change and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    suggests, such action may come at a cost against competing priorities like modernization and economic development. In that context, it bears inquiring...program including India, 29 Rajaram Panda , “Vietnam and the World: Focus on the U.S. and India

  6. Distributional impacts of the 2008 global food price spike in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Tarp, Finn

    macro-data, this paper investigates how global price changes appear to have impacted on rural welfare in Vietnam during 2006-12. In this paper we study the case of rice in Vietnam, in the context of the 2008 food price spike. We analyse the responses of domestic producer and consumer prices, and discuss......Agriculture and food cultivation production remains a key sector in the Vietnamese economy in terms of productive activities, income generation, and national export earnings. Higher world market prices should therefore in principle have a beneficial impact on rural farmers. This is based however...... the policy actions taken by the government to help reduce the impact on consumers, as well as to continue to encourage production. We also look at the distributional impact of the resulting domestic price changes, using data from a specialist rural household survey to look at production response. Vietnam...

  7. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is b......-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software"--promoting hygiene behaviour changes known to effectively prevent hygiene related diseases.......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...

  8. Barriers to accessing and using health insurance cards among methadone maintenance treatment patients in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Le Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-07-17

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients face unique costs associated with their healthcare expenditures. As such, it is important that these patients have access to health insurance (HI) to help them pay for both routine and unforeseen health services. In this study, we explored factors related to health insurance enrollment and utilization among MMT patients, to move Vietnam closer to universal coverage among this patient population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1003 patients enrolled in MMT in five clinics in Hanoi and Nam Dinh provinces. Patients were asked a range of questions about their health, health expenditures, and health insurance access and utilization. We used multivariate logistic regressions to determine factors associated with health insurance access among participants. The majority of participants (nearly 80%) were not currently enrolled in health insurance at the time of the study. Participants from rural regions were significantly more likely than urban participants to report difficulty using HI. Family members of participants from rural regions were more likely to have overall poor service quality through health insurance compared with family members of participants from urban regions. Overall, 37% of participants endorsed a lack of information about HI, nearly 22% of participants reported difficulty accessing HI, 22% reported difficulty using HI, and more than 20% stated they had trouble paying for HI. Older, more highly educated, and employed participants were more likely to have an easier time accessing HI than their younger, less well educated, and unemployed counterparts. HIV-positive participants were more likely to have sufficient information about health insurance options. Our study highlights the dearth of health insurance utilization among MMT patients in northern Vietnam. It also sheds light on factors associated with increased access to and utilization of health insurance among this underserved population. These

  9. Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam. La subvention permettra au Collège d'agriculture et de foresterie de l'Université de Huê de se pencher sur des questions reliées à la gestion des ressources communes et à la pauvreté dans ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  10. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  11. Communication about HIV and death: Maternal reports of primary school-aged children's questions after maternal HIV disclosure in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Mitchell, Joanie; Lubbe, Anina M; Stein, Alan; Tomlinson, Mark; Bland, Ruth M

    2017-01-01

    Children's understanding of HIV and death in epidemic regions is under-researched. We investigated children's death-related questions post maternal HIV-disclosure. Secondary aims examined characteristics associated with death-related questions and consequences for children's mental health. HIV-infected mothers (N = 281) were supported to disclose their HIV status to their children (6-10 years) in an uncontrolled pre-post intervention evaluation. Children's questions post-disclosure were collected by maternal report, 1-2 weeks post-disclosure. 61/281 children asked 88 death-related questions, which were analysed qualitatively. Logistic regression analyses examined characteristics associated with death-related questions. Using the parent-report Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), linear regression analysis examined differences in total CBCL problems by group, controlling for baseline. Children's questions were grouped into three themes: 'threats'; 'implications' and 'clarifications'. Children were most concerned about the threat of death, mother's survival, and prior family deaths. In multivariate analysis variables significantly associated with asking death-related questions included an absence of regular remittance to the mother (AOR 0.25 [CI 0.10, 0.59] p = 0.002), mother reporting the child's initial reaction to disclosure being "frightened" (AOR 6.57 [CI 2.75, 15.70] p=financial support to the family may facilitate or inhibit discussions about death post-disclosure. Communication about death did not have immediate negative consequences on child behaviour according to maternal report. In sub-Saharan Africa, given exposure to death at young ages, meeting children's informational needs could increase their resilience. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  13. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  14. IS VIETNAM THE NEW ASIAN TIGER? SCOREBOARD ANDMACROECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS FORFOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Homlong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Followingeconomies like China and India,alsoVietnamhas managed toincreaseits attractiveness for foreign direct investmentsin recent years. In contrast tomany European economies Vietnam had overcome the financial and economiccrisisin 2008 quicklyand turned back to high growth rates already in 2010/11.Nevertheless many European economies and companies still regard Vietnam as anunstable and fragile economy. Therefore the questions arisewhich generalinvestment conditions are of importance for companies that are investing abroad,and which factors make Vietnam attractive asa business locationfor foreigncompanies? After a presentation of stylized facts about Vietnam and a discussionof location theories and location factors, we develop a scoring method to evaluategeneral investment conditions. Eight of the member states of the European Unionin Central and Eastern Europeare used as reference groups to test the scoreboardrating tool, before it is applied for Vietnam.

  15. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  16. Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumpt...

  17. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  18. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  19. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  20. Armor in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    battles a-Riuot the insurgent enemy, especially with armor. French contingents were present in Tndo Chinh P-w early as 1852, but it was not until 1884...committed to Vietnam were straight infantry. These troons er•A tran -norted in hn4±{ copters and usually airlifted to the battle zone; however, once...0STAINf0 FROM VKTNAM NATIONAL MAP SERVICE (NOS) PHU-YEN OCTOBER 19665 OARLAC ......... KKAN1+ HOA QLWA- DUC TUYEN- DUC PHUOC- NINH_ C;ry OF -10 T CAM RANK TAY

  1. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  2. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Teen Pregnancy in Vietnam: Results from Two National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study asked two broad questions: (1 what is the prevalence of teen pregnancy in contemporary Vietnam; and (2 what selected social, family, and individual factors are associated with teen pregnancy in Vietnam? The study utilized Vietnam Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth surveys conducted in 2003 and 2008 to answer the two research questions within the context of fast political, economic, and social change in Vietnam in the last two decades. Results of this study show that the prevalence of pregnancy among Vietnamese teenagers in the surveys was stable at 4%, or 40 pregnancies per 1000 adolescent girls aged 14 to 19. Age, experience of domestic violence, and early sexual debut were positively correlated with higher odds of teenage pregnancy for both survey cohorts; however, being an ethnic minority, educational attainment, sexual education at school, Internet use, and depressive symptoms were significantly related to teenage pregnancy only in the 2008 cohort.

  3. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  4. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thieng; Newman, Ian M

    2014-07-18

    Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas

  5. Histoire et sociétés du Vietnam classique

    OpenAIRE

    Papin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Programme de l’année 2008-2009 : I. Histoire rurale de la propriété foncière au Vietnam du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle. — II. Étude des sources de l’histoire villageoise du bassin du fleuve Rouge à l’époque moderne.

  6. Classroom Performance Evaluation: Stages and Perspectives for Professional Development of Secondary Teachers in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huy Q.; Roberts, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined classroom performance evaluation of secondary teachers in Vietnam. Specially, it sought to determine the possibility of applying supervision into the evaluation for teaching development. Data were collected from interviews with 34 (n=34) participants: ten evaluators and 24 teachers in different school contexts: rural areas,…

  7. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  8. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  9. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  10. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  11. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-21

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis based on published diagnostic test characteristics used in each published cross-sectional survey. The utilization of coproscopic-based examination of Taenia eggs in stool, although highly specific for genus-level detection, has poor sensitivity and led to an underestimation of the prevalence of human taeniasis. Similarly, post-mortem-based surveys of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs also led to the underestimation of prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. On the other hand, the low specificity of immunodiagnostic methods, in particular Ab-ELISA, led to a likely overestimation of T. solium cysticercosis in humans. Due to the use of imperfect diagnosis tests combined with poor descriptions of sampling methods, our ability to draw solid conclusions from these data is limited. We estimate that the true prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in rural 'hotspots', is as high as 13% for each, in humans. Taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis occurs in 60 of the 63 provinces of Vietnam. Most of the information relating to the distribution and prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is limited to commercial abattoir surveys. In Vietnam, Taenia asiatica appears to be confined to the north where it occurs sympatrically with T. solium and

  12. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  13. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  14. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  15. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...... their children's subjectivities in ways that diminish their personhood. The analysis identifies Buddhist notions of karma, everyday ethics of reciprocity, and party-state discourses of productivity as particularly important forces structuring such social responses to human impairment....

  16. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan

    2000-01-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  17. VIETNAM AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: POTENTIALS ANDCHALLENGES ON THE LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Homlong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several years Vietnam has been receiving attention as an attractive businesslocation for foreign companies. But in spite of overall positive economicdevelopments, foreign companies in Vietnam also experience challenges, e.g.connected to bureaucracy and corruption. Another issue that is of crucialimportance for foreign companies in foreign markets are the conditions on thelabor market. This paper investigates questions about the potentials andchallenges for foreign companies on the Vietnamese labor market, and of howattractive Vietnam’s labor market is compared to India and China.Educationlevels, productivity, wage levels, and number of strikes are among theindicators that are used to compare the attractiveness of Vietnam’s labor market tothe labor markets of China and India. Furthermore the results of almost 30interviews conducted withcompanies from Austria, Germany and Switzerland ontheir experiences with doing business in Vietnam are used to shed light on thestrengths and weaknesses of the labor market in Vietnam.

  18. 77 FR 20273 - Vietnam Veterans Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... showing a generation of veterans the respect and support of a grateful Nation. The Vietnam War is a story... with honor, and on March 29, 1973, the last of our troops left Vietnam. Yet, in one of the war's most... commemorate the 50-year anniversary of the Vietnam War. [[Page 20276

  19. Bio-politics and the promotion of traditional herbal medicine in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2006-01-01

    traditional herbal medicine came to be recruited as an important component of national efforts to promote the public health of urban and rural populations in Vietnam. Importantly, this has entailed a rejection of a colonial biopolitics that sought to marginalize ‘quackery’ in favour of a postcolonial bio......-politics that aims to promote the ‘appropriate’ use of traditional herbal medicines. While the Vietnamese case bears many parallels to other countries in this respect, notably China, Vietnam's ancient history of medicine, postcolonial isolation and extensive health delivery network have resulted in a unique strategy......It is often suggested that, in the past 50 years, Vietnam has experienced a traditional medicine ‘revival’ that can be traced back to late President Ho Chi Minh's 1955 appeal ‘to study means of uniting the effects of oriental remedies with those of Europe’. In this article, I demonstrate how...

  20. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The WUNB is the provincial branch of the Vietnam Women's Union, a unique country-wide ... It also serves to monitor and evaluate their performance. ... Vu Thi Tan explains, detailed information is needed for the union to carry out its work.

  1. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  2. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

    The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of

  3. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  4. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  5. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...reach the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...Major Exports to Vietnam aircraft, mining equipment, electronic machinery, steel wire, raw cotton, plastics Source: Mark E. Manyin, The Vietnam

  6. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  7. Training human resource for NPP in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trung Tinh; Dam, Xuan Hiep

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam will establish the first NPP in the near future. With us the first important thing is the human resource, but now there is no university in Vietnam training nuclear engineers. In EPU (Electric Power University), now we are preparing for training nuclear engineers. In this paper, we review the nuclear man power and the way to train the high quality human resource for NPP and for other nuclear application in Vietnam. (author)

  8. Seasonal characteristics and current sources of OCPs and PCBs and enantiomeric signatures of chiral OCPs in the atmosphere of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weitao; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Shaopeng; Wei, Chaoshuai; Chaemfa, Chakra; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Yu, Kefu

    2016-01-15

    Passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed concurrently at 15 locations (nine urban sites and six rural sites) in Vietnam and exposed for approximately 6 weeks from June 26, 2012 to August 26, 2012 and from December 8, 2012 to February 8, 2013. The concentration, composition and enantiomeric signatures of the target compound and Air Mass Backward Trajectories of the 15 sampling sites are presented and discussed in this study. Relatively clean air mass from ocean and similar concentrations and composition of POPs between the south and north of Vietnam indicate that local emissions is most likely the major source of POPs in Vietnam. Technical DDT and technical HCH were widely used in Vietnam and corresponding quantitative data suggests the sporadic use. The preferential degradation of (+)-α-HCH was found in all sampling sites, which could be a regional characteristic of Vietnam. High trans-/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) ratios indicate the current use of technical chlordane for termite control. PCA estimated that main source of PCBs present in the atmosphere of Vietnam was uncontrolled discarded e-waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. What Students Need to Know about the Vietnam War. Footnotes. Volume 14, Number 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This essay is based on the author's talk at the FPRI Wachman Center's History Institute for Teachers on "What Students Need to Know about America's Wars, Part 2: 1920-Present," held May 2-3, 2009. Observing that the Vietnam War was the longest and most contested conflict in American history and that it called into question many…

  10. Master of Business Administration (MBA) Student Outcomes in Vietnam: Graduate Student Insights from a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chau Thi Minh; Vickers, Margaret H.; Fernandez, Santha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Exploratory insights into the graduate student experiences of offshore MBA programmes in Vietnam are presented. Students are considered key stakeholders in the higher education (HE) debate, and their views were sought in light of recent shifts in HE worldwide, associated business education changes, nagging questions around the quality of…

  11. Institutional aspects of integrating irrigation into urban wastewater management: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, F.P.; Vliet, van B.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater flows of metropolitan cities and their downstream use for irrigation are often associated with technical systems. However, an engineering approach on its own will leave questions unanswered at the socio-technical and institutional level. Research was carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam, on the

  12. Institutional aspects of integrating irrigation into urban wastewater management: the case of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.G.; Huibers, Frans P.; van Vliet, Bas J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater flows of metropolitan cities and their downstream use for irrigation are often associated with technical systems. However, an engineering approach on its own will leave questions unanswered at the socio-technical and institutional level. Research was carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam, on the

  13. Rural Elementary School Teachers' Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Wood, Lawrence; Hough, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey responses from more than 500 third-grade teachers, this study addressed three research questions relating to technology integration and its impact in rural elementary schools. The first analyses compared rural with non-rural teachers, revealing that the rural teachers had more positive attitudes toward technology integration. Then…

  14. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  15. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  16. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    inflows, should be understood in the broader frame of regional contingencies, and not be simplistically explained as investors' discontent (i.e., in order to pressure Vietnamese authorities into implementing a more orthodox neo-liberal agenda). And in a post-crisis regional economic reorganisation...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  17. Systematic review on irrational use of medicines in China and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenhui; Vu, Huyen; Xie, Zening; Chen, Wen; Tang, Shenglan

    2015-01-01

    Irrational use of medicines has been an issue concerned all over the world and the outlooks in developing countries are more severe. This study aimed to assess the different patterns of irrational use of medicines and its influential factors in China and Vietnam. A systematic review was performed on both published and grey literatures in English, Chinese and Vietnamese languages between 1993 and 2013 based on the WHO framework. Quality assessment was conducted on the basis of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Key indicators were analyzed to compare the irrational use of medicines in two countries. A total of 67 published works about China and 29 about Vietnam were included, the majority of which were cross-sectional prescription studies in both China and Vietnam. Irrational use of medicines was found in both the countries but issues with polypharmacy as well as overuse of antibiotics were more severe in Vietnam while overuse of injections was unique to China. Various patterns of irrational use were also indicated between urban and rural areas, and among different levels of hospitals. Rarely does literature focus on the analysis of influential factors of irrational use of medicines. While lack of proper knowledge from both providers and patients were the most recognized influential factors in both countries, economic incentives from pharmaceutical companies in China, and weak control and regulation over prescriptions in Vietnam were the main factors attributed to this issue. Severe irrational use of medicines has been abundantly evidenced in both China and Vietnam, highlighting the importance of policy interventions on the issue. However, limited evidence on the appropriateness or its compliance (conformity) to guidelines of prescription has been found. In addition, convincing evidence on the underlying explanation of this issue is lacking, although economic incentives, health insurance coverage, and knowledge of service providers and users have been implied

  18. Systematic review on irrational use of medicines in China and Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Mao

    Full Text Available Irrational use of medicines has been an issue concerned all over the world and the outlooks in developing countries are more severe. This study aimed to assess the different patterns of irrational use of medicines and its influential factors in China and Vietnam.A systematic review was performed on both published and grey literatures in English, Chinese and Vietnamese languages between 1993 and 2013 based on the WHO framework. Quality assessment was conducted on the basis of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Key indicators were analyzed to compare the irrational use of medicines in two countries.A total of 67 published works about China and 29 about Vietnam were included, the majority of which were cross-sectional prescription studies in both China and Vietnam. Irrational use of medicines was found in both the countries but issues with polypharmacy as well as overuse of antibiotics were more severe in Vietnam while overuse of injections was unique to China. Various patterns of irrational use were also indicated between urban and rural areas, and among different levels of hospitals. Rarely does literature focus on the analysis of influential factors of irrational use of medicines. While lack of proper knowledge from both providers and patients were the most recognized influential factors in both countries, economic incentives from pharmaceutical companies in China, and weak control and regulation over prescriptions in Vietnam were the main factors attributed to this issue.Severe irrational use of medicines has been abundantly evidenced in both China and Vietnam, highlighting the importance of policy interventions on the issue. However, limited evidence on the appropriateness or its compliance (conformity to guidelines of prescription has been found. In addition, convincing evidence on the underlying explanation of this issue is lacking, although economic incentives, health insurance coverage, and knowledge of service providers and users

  19. Experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam - recent status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    Status of research works on experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam is reviewed. Vietnam institutions and main instruments for nuclear research are listed. The results on physics and technology of nuclear reactor, neutron physics, nuclear reactions, radiological safety are mentioned. (N.H.A). 6 tabs, 4 figs

  20. Perspectives on the Teaching of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1986-01-01

    Too often seen through the lens of the United States experience in the Vietnam War, this article offers an alternative approach to teaching Vietnam through the development of a cultural and historical perspective. Provides a brief summary of literature on Vietnamese cultural history which is appropriate to high school students. (JDH)

  1. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  2. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50 U...

  3. Current situation of radiation protection in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Toan Ngoc

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam was one of the earliest countries, who applied ionizing radiation in medicine, since 1923, Dr. Marie Curie had supplied radium sources to Hanoi cancer hospital for radiotherapy. However, we did not give sufficient attention to radiation protection involving, e.g. technology, legislation, until 1980s. Recently with the strong support from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Vietnam government nuclear technology has been strongly and widely developed in different branches and radiation protection situation in Vietnam has been improved step by step. Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the prime minister on January 3th, 2006 confirms that nuclear power plant will be put in operation by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the strategy, the first priority should be given to radiation protection and nuclear safety. This paper presents shortly some activities of radiation safety in Vietnam. The requirements for developing this field in Vietnam are also discussed. (author)

  4. A Probabilistic Typhoon Risk Model for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A.; Smith, D. F.; Brolley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Annually, the coastal Provinces of low-lying Mekong River delta region in the southwest to the Red River Delta region in Northern Vietnam is exposed to severe wind and flood risk from landfalling typhoons. On average, about two to three tropical cyclones with a maximum sustained wind speed of >=34 knots make landfall along the Vietnam coast. Recently, Typhoon Wutip (2013) crossed Central Vietnam as a category 2 typhoon causing significant damage to properties. As tropical cyclone risk is expected to increase with increase in exposure and population growth along the coastal Provinces of Vietnam, insurance/reinsurance, and capital markets need a comprehensive probabilistic model to assess typhoon risk in Vietnam. In 2017, CoreLogic has expanded the geographical coverage of its basin-wide Western North Pacific probabilistic typhoon risk model to estimate the economic and insured losses from landfalling and by-passing tropical cyclones in Vietnam. The updated model is based on 71 years (1945-2015) of typhoon best-track data and 10,000 years of a basin-wide simulated stochastic tracks covering eight countries including Vietnam. The model is capable of estimating damage from wind, storm surge and rainfall flooding using vulnerability models, which relate typhoon hazard to building damageability. The hazard and loss models are validated against past historical typhoons affecting Vietnam. Notable typhoons causing significant damage in Vietnam are Lola (1993), Frankie (1996), Xangsane (2006), and Ketsana (2009). The central and northern coastal provinces of Vietnam are more vulnerable to wind and flood hazard, while typhoon risk in the southern provinces are relatively low.

  5. Rural nurse job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A

    2008-01-01

    The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by

  6. Reduction in childhood malnutrition in Vietnam from 1990 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Tuyen, Le Danh; Ngoc, Tran Xuan; Duong, Phan Hoai; Khoi, Ha Huy

    2007-01-01

    Reduction in childhood malnutrition in Vietnam between 1990 and 2004 was assessed using data from 5 national surveys. The prevalence of malnutrition, including stunting, declined significantly for underweight from 45% in 1990 to 26.6% in 2004. While the average reduction was 1.3% per year in the period from 1990 to 2000, it was 1.8% per year in the period from 2000 to 2004. The prevalence of stunting declined from 56.5% in 1990 to 30.7% in 2004, with an average reduction of 2% per year in the period from 1990 to 2000 and 1.5% per year in the period from 2000 to 2004. There were clear differences in the decrease in malnutrition prevalence between urban, rural and mountainous areas, the reduction being highest in the urban regions and lowest in the mountainous areas. Regression analysis showed that the nutrition status of the child is positively related to better household living conditions and to the educational level of the father, but not the mother. Stunting is higher in children whose parents are farmers and higher in households with more children. Stunting prevalence is lower in households with safe water access and hygienic toilets. In future , the dramatic reduction is childhood malnutrition as seen in the period 1990 to 2004 might not continue. More comprehensive apptoaches will be needed to lower childhood malnutrition in Vietnam further.

  7. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Arbitrary mangrove-to-water ratios imposed on shrimp farmers in Vietnam contradict with the aims of sustainable forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Urs; Kell, Shelagh; Nguyen, Tuan Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 35 % of mangrove forests have been lost between 1980 and 2005-among other reasons due to expansion of aquaculture production systems. In Vietnam, where the total mangrove area decreased from 269,150 ha in 1980 to 157,500 ha in 2000, regulation of such systems in the form of 'mangrove-to-water surface ratio' has had limited success to halt these losses. In this study, a survey of 40 Vietnamese households was conducted in mangrove production forests in Rach Goc commune, Ngoc Hien district, Ca Mau province to understand whether fixed limits on minimal mangrove coverage influence farmers' decisions on mangrove protection. Results of the survey suggest that rural households greatly depend on the incomes generated from shrimp (and crab) farming but that they do not have a share in economic incentives from timber harvests due to lack of full ownership. A strong relationship between mangrove coverage and per pond area income was also revealed. Because farmers are not aware of applicable laws in terms of mangrove-to-water ratios, mangrove coverage tends to shift in favour of higher pond areas. Overall, the findings indicate that regulations in the form of universal mangrove-to-water ratios do not consider the realities of local households, nor are they economically or environmentally useful-rather, they appear to be arbitrary limitations that are not respected by affected communities. The findings question the efficiency of efforts put into stricter enforcement.

  9. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience a l...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  10. Audio computer-assisted self interview compared to traditional interview in an HIV-related behavioral survey in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Linh Cu; Vu, Lan T H

    2012-10-01

    Globally, population surveys on HIV/AIDS and other sensitive topics have been using audio computer-assisted self interview for many years. This interview technique, however, is still new to Vietnam and little is known about its application and impact in general population surveys. One plausible hypothesis is that residents of Vietnam interviewed using this technique may provide a higher response rate and be more willing to reveal their true behaviors than if interviewed with traditional methods. This study aims to compare audio computer-assisted self interview with traditional face-to-face personal interview and self-administered interview with regard to rates of refusal and affirmative responses to questions on sensitive topics related to HIV/AIDS. In June 2010, a randomized study was conducted in three cities (Ha Noi, Da Nan and Can Tho), using a sample of 4049 residents aged 15 to 49 years. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three interviewing methods: audio computer-assisted self interview, personal face-to-face interview, and self-administered paper interview. Instead of providing answers directly to interviewer questions as with traditional methods, audio computer-assisted self-interview respondents read the questions displayed on a laptop screen, while listening to the questions through audio headphones, then entered responses using a laptop keyboard. A MySQL database was used for data management and SPSS statistical package version 18 used for data analysis with bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Rates of high risk behaviors and mean values of continuous variables were compared for the three data collection methods. Audio computer-assisted self interview showed advantages over comparison techniques, achieving lower refusal rates and reporting higher prevalence of some sensitive and risk behaviors (perhaps indication of more truthful answers). Premarital sex was reported by 20.4% in the audio computer-assisted self-interview survey

  11. A dengue outbreak on a floating village at Cat Ba Island in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Viet, Thanh; Choisy, Marc; Bryant, Juliet E; Vu Trong, Duoc; Pham Quang, Thai; Horby, Peter; Nguyen Tran, Hien; Tran Thi Kieu, Huong; Nguyen Vu, Trung; Nguyen Van, Kinh; Le Quynh, Mai; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2015-09-22

    A dengue outbreak in an ecotourism destination spot in Vietnam, from September to November 2013, impacted a floating village of fishermen on the coastal island of Cat Ba. The outbreak raises questions about how tourism may impact disease spread in rural areas. Epidemiological data were obtained from the Hai Phong Preventive Medical Center (PMC), including case histories and residential location from all notified dengue cases from this outbreak. All household addresses were geo-located. Knox test, a spatio-temporal analysis that enables inference dengue clustering constrained by space and time, was performed on the geocoded locations. From the plasma available from two patients, positive for Dengue serotype 3 virus (DENV3), the Envelope (E) gene was sequenced, and their genetic relationships compared to other E sequences in the region. Of 192 dengue cases, the odds ratio of contracting dengue infections for people living in the floating villages compared to those living on the island was 4.9 (95 % CI: 3.6-6.7). The space-time analyses on 111 geocoded dengue residences found the risk of dengue infection to be the highest within 4 days and a radius of 20 m of a given case. Of the total of ten detected clusters with an excess risk greater than 2, the cluster with the highest number of cases was in the floating village area (24 patients for a total duration of 31 days). Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology of the two DENV3 strains (genotype III) from Cat Ba with DENV3 viruses circulating in Hanoi in the same year (99.1 %). Our study showed that dengue transmission is unlikely to be sustained on Cat Ba Island and that the 2013 epidemic likely originated through introduction of viruses from the mainland, potentially Hanoi. These findings suggest that prevention efforts should be focused on mainland rather than on the island.

  12. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Thanh Xuan, Le Thi; Ngoc Hoat, Luu

    2012-01-01

    on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the complex socio-economic and cultural determinants of health in multi-ethnic population groups. These lessons learned can improve......Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned...... for future RHSP.A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government...

  13. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  14. Intervention in Vietnam: President Eisenhower's Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaton, James

    1995-01-01

    For a period of thirty years, from 1945 to 1975, the United States employed countless numbers of financial, material, and human resources toward Vietnam in an effort to shape and control that country's political destiny...

  15. Vietnam | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of its success, local fishery associations secured fishing management rights in 2009, a first in Vietnam. ... We continue to support online education through regional research to improve the quality of distance education. Total IDRC Support ...

  16. Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ... of pregnancy and new motherhood improved their interactions with health workers. ... Return to main page: Overcoming eHealth challenges with social and ...

  17. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  18. Empowering Rural Women through Mobile Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, P.; Jiji, G. Wiselin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a gender issue to the rural finance practitioners. It highlights the questions that need to be asked and addressed to the gender mainstream. It will also be useful to gender experts to wish to increase their understanding on specific gender issues in rural finance through mobile services. It focuses on rural microfinance…

  19. Understanding responsible innovation in small producers’ clusters in Northern Vietnam : A grounded theory approach to globalization and poverty alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD thesis explores new economic dynamics within poor small producers’ clusters in craft villages in northern Vietnam; a country in full economic swing after market economy reforms and opening up to the world. The central research question of the thesis - positioned in current debates about

  20. Potential Economic Impacts of the Vietnam-Korea Free Trade Agreement on Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Hoan Phan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic impacts of the Vietnam-Korea free trade agreement on Vietnam, by using general equilibrium modeling. The results show that Vietnam-Korea FTA will increase aggregate welfare for both countries in the long run. The most important gains accrue from better allocation of resources consequent to trade liberalization. All the sectoral differences and changes are consistent with the trade profiles of the two countries, and the long-run results are more pronounced than those of the short-run. In comparison with other ASEAN countries, the CGE analysis suggests that Vietnam's agriculture exports to Korea would especially rise in the long run. However, there will be strong competition in this sector among ASEAN members. Thus, an earlier conclusion of a comprehensive FTA with Korea is expected to be a good strategy for Vietnam, so as to avoid the direct competition with ASEAN members in the future.

  1. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  2. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  3. The development of peer educator-based harm reduction programmes in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nick; Gibbie, Tania M; Higgs, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Injecting drug use remains an important risk factor for transmission in Vietnam, with an estimated 50% of the 290 000 people living with HIV/AIDS reporting injecting drug use as a risk factor. Despite this, effective harm reduction interventions are generally lacking. This paper describes the implementation of peer-based harm reduction programmes in two rural provinces of Vietnam. Peer educators were trained in basic HIV prevention, including harm reduction. After significant preparation work with the Provincial AIDS Committees of Bac Giang and Thanh Hoa and other relevant national, provincial and local authorities, the interventions were commenced. Harm reduction interventions were delivered through outreach as well as on-site. This included needle and syringe distribution and collection. Community advocacy occurred throughout the life of the project. Local authorities and peers believed that while there was a general reduction in stigma and discrimination, legal barriers associated particularly with the carrying of injecting equipment remained. This impacted upon the ability of peer educators to work with their clients. Peer-based delivery of harm reduction intervention is acceptable. Harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programmes, are feasible and acceptable in these two rural Vietnamese provinces. Community acceptance and uptake of these interventions is key to successful expansion across the region. Active participation by families of drug users seems crucial. This initiative demonstrates that despite a difficult policy environment, peer-delivered needle and syringe programmes are feasible within a rural Asian environment as long as there is adequate local political and community support.

  4. Allergic rhinitis in northern vietnam: increased risk of urban living according to a large population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâm Hoàng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms among adults in Vietnam. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factor patterns and co-morbidities of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms in one urban and one rural area in northern Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from August 2007 to January 2008 in urban Hoankiem and rural Bavi in Hanoi among adults aged 21-70 years. Of 7008 randomly selected subjects, 91.7% participated in Bavi and 70.3% in Hoankiem. Results Allergic rhinitis ever or chronic nasal symptoms were reported by 50.2%. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis ever was considerably higher in Hoankiem compared to Bavi, 29.6% vs 10.0% (p Conclusions Allergic rhinitis ever was considerably more common in the urban area. Nasal blocking and runny nose was each reported by about one third of the studied sample with no major urban-rural difference. Further, exposure to air pollution at work was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis ever, nasal blocking and runny nose.

  5. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless Kaiser, Anica; Kabat, Daniel H; Spiro, Avron; Davison, Eve H; Stellman, Jeanne Mager

    2017-12-01

    Relatively little has been written about the military women who served in Vietnam, and there is virtually no literature on deployed civilian women (non-military). We examined the experiences of 1285 American women, military and civilian, who served in Vietnam during the war and responded to a mail survey conducted approximately 25 years later in which they were asked to report and reflect upon their experiences and social and health histories. We compare civilian women, primarily American Red Cross workers, to military women stratified by length of service, describe their demographic characteristics and warzone experiences (including working conditions, exposure to casualties and sexual harassment), and their homecoming following Vietnam. We assess current health and well-being and also compare the sample to age- and temporally-comparable women in the General Social Survey (GSS), with which our survey shared some measures. Short-term (Vietnam experience as "highly stressful" than were career (>20 years; 12%) and civilian women (13%). Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ 2 (8) = 643.72, p Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  6. Reluctant Rural Regionalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

  7. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  8. Geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus collected from used tires in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Yukiko; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Kawada, Hitoshi; Son, Tran Hai; Hoa, Nguyen Thuy; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in environmental and geographical zones, e.g., urban-rural, coastal-mountainous, and north-south, was investigated throughout Vietnam. Immature stages were collected from used tires along roads. The effects of regions, seasons, and the degree of urbanization on the density and the frequency were statistically analyzed. Aedes aegypti predominated in the southern and central regions, while Ae. albopictus predominated in the northern region, which may be related to climatic conditions (temperature and rainfall). Larval collection from used tires may be suitable to assess rapidly the current distribution of dengue mosquitoes for estimating health risks and implementing vector control measures.

  9. Factors associated with drug use among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Vu, Thinh Toan; Pham, Ha Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 291 male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs) recruited through social mapping technique in Hanoi, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with drug use among MMTDs using Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model. Among 291 MMTDs, 17.18% reported drug use sometime in their lives, 96% of whom were drug injectors. Being depressed, being originally borne in urban cities, currently residing in rural areas, having a longer time living apart from their wives/lovers, using alcohol, following Buddhism, and reporting lower motivation of HIV prevention predict significantly higher odds of uptaking drugs.

  10. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  11. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  12. Project Politics, Priorities and Participation in Rural Water Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Koppen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Governments, NGOs and financers invest considerable resources in rural domestic water supplies and irrigation development. However, elite capture and underuse, if not complete abandonment, are frequent. While the blame is often put on 'corrupt, lazy and indisciplined' communities, this article explores the question of how the public water sector itself contributes to this state of affairs. Four case studies, which are part of the research project Cooperation and Conflict in Local Water Governance, are examined: two domestic water supply projects (Mali, Vietnam; one participatory multiple use project (Zambia; and one large-scale irrigation project (Bolivia. It was found that accountability of water projects was upward and tended to lie in construction targets for single uses with already allocated funding. This rendered project implementers dependent upon the village elite for timely spending. Yet, the elite appeared hardly motivated to maintain communal schemes, unless they themselves benefited. The dependency of projects on the elite can be reduced by ensuring participatory and inclusive planning that meets the project’s conditions before budget allocation. Although such approaches are common outside the water sector, a barrier in the water sector is that central public funds are negotiated by each sector by profiling unique expertise and single livelihood goals, which trickle down as single use silos. The article concludes with reflections on plausible benefits of participatory multiple use services for equity and sustainability.

  13. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  14. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Tan Van; Blizzard, Christopher Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Truong, Ngoc Le Van; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark Raymond; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA) for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy. Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1%) aged 25-64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men) and 69.1% (women) met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men) and 28.0 (women) Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET)-hours/week (largely from work activities) were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added) was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes. Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25-64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses.

  15. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Van Bui

    Full Text Available Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy.Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1% aged 25-64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men and 69.1% (women met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men and 28.0 (women Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET-hours/week (largely from work activities were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes.Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25-64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses.

  16. Wind energy in Vietnam: Resource assessment, development status and future implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the technical potential of wind energy in Vietnam and discuss strategies for promoting the market penetration of wind energy in the country. For the wind resource assessment, a geographical information system (GIS)- assisted approach has been developed. It is found that Vietnam has a good potential for wind energy. About 31,000 km 2 of land area can be available for wind development in which 865 km 2 equivalents to a wind power of 3572 MW has a generation cost less than 6 US cents/kWh. The study also proves that wind energy could be a good solution for about 300,000 rural non-electrified households. While wind energy brings about ecological, economic and social benefits, it is only modestly exploited in Vietnam, where the main barrier is the lack of political impetus and a proper framework for promoting renewable energy. The priority task therefore is to set a target for renewable energy development and to find instruments to achieve such a target. The main instruments proposed here are setting feed-in tariff and providing investment incentives

  17. The Environmental Pollution In Vietnam Source Impact And Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Anh Hoang; Nam Xuan Chu; Trung Van Tran

    2017-01-01

    Currently the environmental problems is one of the urgent problems for all countries in the world. Vietnam is among of 10 countries with the most polluted air in the world the health of people is affected by the non-guaranteed air quality in Vietnam. According to the EPI in 2015 Vietnam ranked 79 in the total of 132 countries in the overall environmental assessment. However the air pollution index Vietnam ranked 123. On the burden of disease due to environment Vietnam ranked 77. Therefore the...

  18. Rural Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  19. Hardships and personal strategies of Vietnam War nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell-Desch, E A

    2000-08-01

    This study describes hardships faced in Vietnam and personal strategies used to deal with these hardships as defined by 24 female military nurses who served during the war. Purposive sampling was used, and data were generated using four core questions and in-depth interviews. The research methodology was phenomenology, incorporating data analysis procedures of Colaizzi, Lincoln and Guba, and Van Manen. Eight hardship and nine personal strategy themes were identified. This study found that caring for young, severely injured, and disfigured soldiers was a significant hardship and that nurses struggled with the moral dilemmas inherent in mass casualty situations, triage policies, and the practice of returning recovered soldiers to combat. Most nurses relied on personally proven and familiar strategies to reduce or buffer the effects of emotional hardships, whereas some discovered and used new strategies.

  20. The Independence of Vietnam Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    In the field of peaceful purposes, the activity of nuclear agencies is often divided into 2 systems: the nuclear application system and the safety system. Depending on the magnitude of atomic energy application development, the responsibility of the safety system was assigned to a few agencies in each country. In Vietnam, the nuclear safety responsibility is assigned primarily to the radiation and nuclear safety agency. However, the provisions of the normative system of law prevailing in other sectors such as investment, construction, electricity or environmental protection, many agencies are responsible for ensuring safety in each sector, leading to a conflict of interest among those agencies. This is the weakness in the management system of Vietnam compared to other countries with nuclear power development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state of Vietnam's legal framework in nuclear safety regulation and its dependence of regulatory body aspects and promoting the way to overcome it

  1. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  2. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Pless Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Short-term (20 years; 12% and civilian women (13%. Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ2 (8 = 643.72, p < .001. Career military women were happier than women in the general population (48% were “very happy”, as compared to 38%. Civilian women who served in Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  3. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  4. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  5. Household opportunity costs of protecting and developing forest lands in Son La and Hoa Binh Provinces, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ngoc Lan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam has pilot-tested a payment for forest environmental services (PFES program in an effort to restore and protect forest areas, some of which have been severely degraded by the excessive cutting of trees by small-scale farmers planting annual crops on steep, sloping lands. The pilot program implemented in southern Vietnam seems to be successful, yet the program in northern Vietnam has not produced the desired rates of planting and maintaining forest areas. The reasons for these mixed results include differences in socio-economic characteristics and also the production and marketing opportunities available to rural households in the project areas. To gain insight regarding program participation, we examine the household-level opportunity costs of planting and ­maintaining small plots of forest trees in northern Vietnam. We find that small-scale farmers in Hoa Binh Province, with limited financial resources, prefer the annual revenue stream provided by crops such as maize and cassava, rather than waiting for 7 years to obtain revenue from a forest planting. Farmers in Son La Province, with limited access to markets, prefer annual crops because they are not able to sell bamboo shoots and other forest products harvested from their small plots. In both provinces, the payments offered for planting and maintaining forest trees are smaller than the opportunity costs of planting and harvesting annual crops. Thus, most households likely would choose not to participate in the PFES program, at current payment rates, if given the opportunity to decline.

  6. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  7. Health issues in nursing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristy, S J

    1995-01-01

    Major health concerns are not currently addressed in Vietnam as the country strives to upgrade its economic status. The current standard of medical care is rudimentary at best, as is the education and practice of Vietnamese nurses. The Ministry of Health in Vietnam has directed the Medical College of Hanoi to commence a 4-year degree in nursing in 1994. Historical, practical, political, economic, social, and cultural issues affect the development of nursing as a profession. Assistance from the West is sought by the Medical College in Hanoi.

  8. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages t...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  9. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Michael; Stengel, Caroline; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Hung Viet, Pham; Sampson, Mickey L.; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Fredericks, David

    2007-01-01

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 μg/L in Cambodia (average 217 μg/L) and 1-845 μg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 μg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 μg/L (average 159 μg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 μg/g (average 7 μg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 μg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 μg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority

  10. Strategy in the Vietnam War: Western Concepts, Eastern Conflict and the Roots of Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weland, James

    1990-01-01

    Critiques U.S. military assumptions concerning the war in Vietnam. Discusses the North Vietnamese strategic approach to gaining control of South Vietnam. Traces the history of the Vietnam War, analyzing specific U.S. military operations in Vietnam and reasons for their failure. Contends that U.S. strategic ethnocentrism lead to defeat in Vietnam.…

  11. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  12. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2012-10-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP. A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis. Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP. It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the

  13. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Vietnam : Les communes du Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... Les communes du Vietnam progressent grâce à l'information Au Vietnam, un système de suivi communautaire de la pauvreté s'appuie sur des enquêtes officielles afin de mieux cibler les pauvres. Les données supplémentaires permettent d'améliorer la vie des collectivités, celle des femmes en particulier.

  14. “New Wine in an Old Bottle”? – Anniversary Journalism and the Public Commemoration of the End of the War in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sanko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available April 30th, 2015 marked the 40th anniversary of the end of the war in Vietnam. This article discusses the role of Vietnamese journalism in the coverage of this commemorative date as well as the history and events it is linked with. It addresses the question of how coming to terms with the past plays out in the journalistic field of an increasingly globally connected and economically continuously growing Vietnam. By means of qualitative content analysis and expert interviews with Vietnamese media professionals the paper characterizes the nature of anniversary journalism on this particular event and elaborates on its meaning for the construction of cultural memory in Vietnam. In that context, it also touches upon transnational relations with and controversies of remembrance in Vietnamese diasporic communities. The study found that anniversary journalism in Vietnam goes beyond the mere coverage of a single commemorated day along state ideological lines and constitutes part of a larger context of cultural memory in Vietnam and the diaspora. It is itself subject to change over time and of tensions between state, economic, professional and personal interests in a vastly changing, but still state-controlled media environment. Such tensions can result in ambiguities, vagueness and the coexistence of a variety of narratives in the reporting. Despite slight liberation tendencies, however, anniversary journalism on the contentious meaning of April 30th does not represent a transnational forum for negotiating the past in Vietnam and its diaspora.

  15. The effect of participatory community communication on HIV preventive behaviors among ethnic minority youth in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam, socially marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities in mountainous areas are often difficult to engage in HIV research and prevention programs. This intervention study aimed to estimate the effect of participatory community communication (PCC on changing HIV preventive ideation and behavior among ethnic minority youth in a rural district from central Vietnam. Methods In a cross-sectional survey after the PCC intervention, using a structured questionnaire, 800 ethnic minority youth were approached for face-to-face interviews. Propensity score matching (PSM technique was then utilized to match these participants into two groups-intervention and control-for estimating the effect of the PCC. Results HIV preventive knowledge and ideation tended to increase as the level of recall changed accordingly. The campaign had a significant indirect effect on condom use through its effect on ideation or perceptions. When intervention and control group statistically equivalently reached in terms of individual and social characteristics by PSM, proportions of displaying HIV preventive knowledge, ideation and condom use were significantly higher in intervention group than in matched control counterparts, accounting for net differences of 7.4%, 12.7% and 5%, respectively, and can be translated into the number of 210; 361 and 142 ethnic minority youth in the population. Conclusions The study informs public health implications both theoretically and practically to guide effective HIV control programs for marginalized communities in resources-constrained settings like rural Vietnam and similar contexts of developing countries.

  16. Participatory simulation of land-use changes in the northern mountains of Vietnam: the combined use of an agent-based model, a role-playing game, and a geographic information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castella, J.C.; Trung, N.H.; Boissau, S.

    2005-01-01

    In Vietnam, the remarkable economic growth that resulted from the doi moi (renovation) reforms was based largely on the rural households that had become the new basic unit of agricultural production in the early 1990s. The technical, economic, and social changes that accompanied the

  17. New Species of Orchids from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of herbarium specimens collected in course of field exploration works in Vietnam during 2005-2007 revealed ten species of orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions are provided for each discovered species, which are named as Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O. trichophora and Sunipia nigricans.

  18. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  19. The Vietnam Vet's Battle--Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wayne E.; Radcliff, Jo Ann

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to survey the employment situation of returning Vietnam veterans. The picture appears to be one of frustration. There are a number of programs available but a communications gap seems to exist between the programs and the veterans. (Author)

  20. Vietnam: A Failure of Strategy and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    AND LEADERSHIP SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES AUTHOR: MAJOR D. M. CROUSORE, USMC...Q__ Date: ’::?:D l:foell 0<..01~ (/ i Executive Summary Title: VIETNAM: A FAILURE OF STRATEGY AND LEADERSHIP Author: Major D. M

  1. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01


    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect

  2. Treatment Failure for Malaria in Vietnam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-05

    WHO malaria expert, Dr. Charlotte Rasmussen, discusses anti-malarial drug resistance in Vietnam.  Created: 6/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/5/2017.

  3. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  4. Counting Women's Work in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... These gender equality indicators are shedding light on girls' and women's ... Young people do a tremendous amount of unpaid care work at the ages when ... Read the report "Counting Women's Work in Vietnam" · View the ...

  5. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  6. The 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn

    This monograph documents the 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam. The initialization and calibration of the model is based on a financial 2003 SAM framework and an auxiliary 2002-3 data set. The recursive nature of the solution of the Merged Model is discussed with reference to the four main sectors...

  7. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad

  8. On nuclear manpower development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung Van Duan

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam began to be interested in education and training on nuclear sciences and related subjects since the early 1960's. A department of Nuclear Physics and Engineering was established in 1970 at the Hanoi University of Technology (HUT), which is the biggest interdisciplinary technological education centre of the country. In Vietnam there are several institutions where exist programmes of education on nuclear sciences and nuclear engineering. But HUT has been being since 1970 the only institution that has underway programme of education on nuclear engineer degree. Although the Department was renamed and its education programme was adjusted, but the objectives of its education programme have been being followed without changes. These objectives are as follows: 1) To develop peaceful applications of atomic energy in Vietnam; 2) To train up engineers on nuclear instrumentation for supporting the first objective; and 3) To prepare initial manpower for introduction of Nuclear Power in Vietnam. Nuclear community of Vietnam is still not so large. Total number of its members increased until 1986, and then decreases up to now. Present average age of members of the community is of 45. In 15 coming years at least 500-700 young people must be educated on programmes on nuclear engineer degree and on nuclear bachelor degree. This is a very difficult task for a developing country such as Vietnam. From a point of view of development, the above-mentioned number is too small, and it must be much more. This makes the task much more difficult. In addition, education on nuclear engineering in the country at present is in a hard situation because of lacking in experienced people, as well as in teaching material and equipment, and, because of weakness of the education programme. So, it may be impossible to achieve success in realization of the task without a large and effective international cooperation in education on nuclear science and engineering. That is why the Asian Network for

  9. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1 2800 μg folic acid 2 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3 MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and

  10. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  11. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  12. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued... Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for transactions which are not inconsistent with the purposes of...

  13. Benefits and Limitations of Text Messages to Stimulate Higher Learning Among Community Providers: Participants' Views of an mHealth Intervention to Support Continuing Medical Education in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Lora L; Larson Williams, Anna; Le, Bao Ngoc; Herman, Augusta R; Viet Nguyen, Ha; Albanese, Rebecca R; Xiong, Wenjun; Shobiye, Hezekiah Oa; Halim, Nafisa; Tran, Lien Thi Ngoc; McNabb, Marion; Hoang, Hai; Falconer, Ariel; Nguyen, Tam Thi Thanh; Gill, Christopher J

    2017-06-27

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2015 to evaluate a mobile continuing medical education (mCME) intervention that provided daily text messages to community-based physicians' assistants (CBPAs) in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. Although the intervention failed to improve medical knowledge over a 6-month period, a companion qualitative study provided insights on the views and experiences of intervention participants. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among participants randomized to receive text messages containing either simple medical facts or quiz questions. Trained interviewers collected data immediately following the conclusion of the trial in December 2015. Using semi-structured question guides, respondents were queried on their views of the intervention, positive and negative, and perceived impacts of the intervention. During analysis, after learning that the intervention had failed to increase knowledge among participants, we also examined reasons for lack of improvement in medical knowledge. All analyses were performed in NVivo using a thematic approach. A total of 70 CBPAs engaged in one of 8 FGDs or an IDI. One-half were men; average age among all respondents was 40 years. Most (81%) practiced in rural settings and most (51%) focused on general medicine. The mean length of work experience was 3 years. All respondents made positive comments about the intervention; convenience, relevance, and quick feedback (quiz format) were praised. Downsides encompassed lack of depth of information, weak interaction, technology challenges, and challenging/irrelevant messages. Respondents described perceived impacts encompassing increased motivation, knowledge, collegial discussions, Internet use to search for more information, and clinical skills. Overall, they expressed a desire for the intervention to continue and recommended expansion to other medical professionals. Overreliance on the text messages, lack of

  14. Household food insecurity, diet, and weight status in a disadvantaged district of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thuy Ngoc; Gallegos, Danielle; Ramsey, Rebecca

    2015-03-08

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, economic and socially acceptable access to safe, sufficient, and adequately nutritious food in order to meet their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. For high income countries and those experiencing the nutrition transition, food security is not only about the quantity of available food but also the nutritional quality as related to over- and under-nutrition. Vietnam is currently undergoing this nutrition transition, and as a result the relationship between food insecurity, socio-demographic factors and weight status is complex. The primary objective of this study was to therefore measure the prevalence of household food insecurity in a disadvantaged urban district in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam using a more comprehensive tool. This study also aims to examine the relationships between food insecurity and socio-demographic factors, weight status, and food intakes. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling. Adults who were mainly responsible for cooking were interviewed in 250 households. Data was collected on socioeconomic and demographic factors using previously validated tools. Food security was assessed using the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) tool and households were categorized as food secure or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Questions regarding food intake were based on routinely used and validated questions in HCMC, weight status was self-reported. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87, showing the ELCSA had a good internal reliability. Approximately 34.4% of households were food insecure. Food insecurity was inversely related to total household income (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.04 - 0.22) and fruit intakes (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.31 - 4.22). There was no association between weight and food security status. Despite rapid industrialization and modernization, food insecurity remains an important

  15. Access to Obstetric Care and Children's Health, Growth and Cognitive Development in Vietnam: Evidence from Young Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Tina; Preen, David B; Newnham, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Background The impact of birth with poor access to skilled obstetric care such as home birth on children's long term development is unknown. This study explores the health, growth and cognitive development of children surviving homebirth in the Vietnam Young Lives sample during early childhood. Methods The Young Lives longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Vietnam with 1812 children born in 2001/2 with follow-up at 1, 5, and 8 years. Data were collected on height/weight, health and cognitive development (Peabody Picture Vocabulary test). Statistical models adjusted for sociodemographic and pregnancy-related factors. Results Children surviving homebirth did not have significantly poorer long-term health, greater stunting after adjusting for sociodemographic/pregnancy-related factors. Rural location, lack of household education, ethnic minority status and lower wealth predicted greater stunting and poorer scores on Peabody Vocabulary test. Conclusions Social disadvantage rather than homebirth influenced children's health, growth and development.

  16. Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion Among the Adult Population in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Van Anh, Tran Thi; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Linh, Tran Nu Quy; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-10-01

    The Law on Tobacco Control and the Law on Advertisement prohibit the advertising of any tobacco product in Vietnam. Tobacco promotion and marketing are alsostrictly prohibited. However, the violation of tobacco adverting and promotion is still common in Vietnam. This article aims at describing the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion among the population aged 15+ years in Vietnam based on the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 from the view of the community, identifying any possible associations between the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion and other individual factors, and discussing its possible public health implications. A cross-sectional study with the nationwide scale. Secondary data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 was explored and analyzed. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regressions were applied in the data analysis. The most common type of adults' exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion was points of sale (8.6%); 9.8% adults exposure to one source of tobacco advertising and 4.0% of them exposed to one source of tobacco promotion. Around 13.3% of Vietnamese adults were exposed to tobacco advertisement, while 2.0% were exposed to tobacco promotion, 5.3% were exposed to both tobacco advertising and promotion, and 16.6% were exposed to tobacco advertising or promotion. Gender, educational level, age, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, location (urban, rural), and current smoking status were associated with the exposure to tobacco advertising, tobacco promotion, tobacco advertising and promotion, and tobacco advertising or promotion. Although there are comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam, adults aged 15+ years still reported their exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion. There should be a strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam.

  17. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  18. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  19. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  20. Improving quality of foreign direct investment attraction in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Phuc Hanh; Đao Van Hùng; Nguyen Thac Hoat; Dao Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) enterprises are playing a key role in Vietnam's economy. By the end of 2016, there are more than 21,398 FDI projects in force, with the total registered capital of nearly 293 billion USD. One hundred six countries and territories have invested in 19 industries in 68 provinces and cities of Vietnam. These investments have added a large amount of capital to the economy, which has basically been used effectively, contributing to the economic growth of Vietnam. In ...

  1. Suspended futures : the Vietnamization of South Vietnamese history and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Long Thanh

    2011-01-01

    In 1969, President Richard Nixon announced the "Vietnamization" of the Vietnam War, a handover of responsibility for winning the war from the U.S. to its allies, the South Vietnamese. Vietnamization articulated the challenges of achieving political freedom and historical agency for South Vietnamese people. Conceptualizing this term in the early 21st century, I seek to address the ways the war (and its subjects) is called into the present to speak about the representability and addressability ...

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Unit Cohesion in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    winning” the war in Vietnam. One only needs to turn to cinema to see the divide and portrayal of the Vietnam conflict. Movies like, Platoon...disapproved of post-war (World War II) re-colonization, especially the French efforts in Indochina that included Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. He offered...the political process, and result in a communist government; this became known as the Domino Theory. The United States replaced the French and

  3. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  4. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    , is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing......D study focuses on answering two main research questions: 1) What is the importance of environmental income in assessments of poverty and poverty dynamics in rural forest reliant communities? and 2) What are the impacts of infrastructural development, in the form of rural roads, on rural household income......Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods...

  5. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  6. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  7. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  8. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  9. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I M

    1986-01-01

    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  11. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  12. Experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam - recent status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    It is really difficult to determine the exact date for the starting of nuclear physics research in Vietnam. Serious research on experimental nuclear physics began only since 1972 with the installation of such nuclear instrument like microtron accelerator, neutron generator, etc. During the past 20 years, hundred of research works have been published in local and foreign scientific journals. In the 5th national conference in Physics held in Hanoi in October 1993, at the Nuclear Physics section, 62 reports were presented reflecting the situation of nuclear physics research in the recent years, especially in the past five years. This review introduces its main results and formulates some perspectives of development in the late nineties in Vietnam. (K.A.). 27 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vietnam Land Policy - Adjusting to Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    the Late- Socialist Period," Pacific Affairs: vol 84, no. 3, (2011): 439-440, accessed 30 September 2013, EBSCO Discovery Service . 37 U.S...Society,” Contemporary Southeast Asia vol 31, no. 1 (2009): 21, accessed 15 October 2013, EBSCO Discovery Service . 81 Legal Information... EBSCO Discovery Service . Fforde, Adam. "Vietnam in 2012: The End of the Party." Asian Survey 53, no. 1 (2013): 101-108. Accessed 30

  15. Income Inequality and Migration in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Tien Dung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...

  16. Vietnam on the path of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svolik, S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchange of information, experience sharing, an external view on the condition of equipment and activities in nuclear power plants, recommendations for improvement, transfer of best practice and benchmarking - that is the benefit of sharing at various levels by the specialists and experts from nuclear power plants around the world. One of the events was the national workshop on quality assurance and control during the construction and commissioning of a nuclear power plant in Vietnam. (author)

  17. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  18. Macroeconomic Forces and Stock Returns in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Van Hang

    2008-01-01

    Capital market development, especially the appearance of Vietnamese equity market recently has a strategic importance in the economic growth and structural reform process of Vietnam (Chun et al, 2003). This dissertation focuses on the impacts of macroeconomic forces on stock market returns in Vietnamese stock market which has not been investigated in detail before, and thereby to contribute further literature on this new emerging stock market. Specifically, the research will intensively inves...

  19. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  20. The food system transformation in Vietnam : challanges for the horticultural sector posed by exports and changing consumer preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    On the background of the food system transformation in developing countries, this cumulative dissertation answers the following research question in three articles: What are the determinants and implications of the food system transformation in the horticultural sector in Vietnam? The first article is entitled ?Quality Assurance Programs and International Market Access: Empirical Evidence from the Vietnamese Horticultural Industry?. It is based on a sample of 50 registered fruit and vegeta...

  1. VIETNAM IN 1948: AN INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Cheng Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the year 1948 in an effort to determine whether 1948 can be considered the starting point of the Cold War in Vietnam. Historical periodisation is a tricky affair, and it is often difficult to pinpoint the genesis of events. By reconstructing the political and military developments in 1948 from the indigenous perspective as well as from regional and international perspectives that directly impinged on Vietnam, I hope to ascertain whether Vietnam’s war of liberation was indeed transformed into a “Cold War” from 1948 onwards—in other words, whether it was in 1948 that the Vietnamese struggle assumed an ideological complexion that shifted from nationalist/anti-colonial sentiment to include communist/anti-capitalist sentiment as well. Before we embark on our consideration of the year 1948, it is useful to recount in broad brush-strokes some key developments in Vietnam leading up to 1948. In order to put the year 1948 in context, it is also necessary to consider in some detail two key developments in 1947.

  2. Social phobia and PTSD in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsillo, S M; Heimberg, R G; Juster, H R; Garrett, J

    1996-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychological disorder experienced by Vietnam veterans. However, there are many other disorders and problems of adjustment, like social anxiety and social phobia, that have not been fully investigated in this population. This study examined the prevalence of social phobia and the comorbidity of social phobia and PTSD, and tested out a theory of the etiology of social anxiety in trauma victims. Forty one Vietnam combat veterans were interviewed and completed self-report measures assessing PTSD and social phobia. Adversity of homecoming was also assessed. Using a conservative multi-method assessment approach, 32% of the sample were found to be positive for both social phobia and PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were significantly more likely to carry an additional diagnosis of social phobia as compared to veterans without PTSD. Adversity of homecoming and shame about one's experience in Vietnam were significant predictors of current level of social anxiety over and above the effects of pre-military anxiety and severity of combat exposure. These observations suggest that social anxiety and social phobia may be significant problems among individuals with PTSD. Further, these findings offer preliminary support for the theory that posttrauma environment may impact upon the later development of social anxiety.

  3. 17 GLOBALIZATION AND DEEPENING RURAL POVERTY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between globalization phenomenon and deepening rural poverty situation in ... with low asset base, which translates to insufficient land, livestock possession, capital .... more general question of inequality and social stratification, although the ...

  4. Access to Productive Resources: The Catalyst to Rural Women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, rural women in post-apartheid South Africa are experiencing hardships in laying hold of such resources. The pertinent questions the article seeks to interrogate are: who should determine the resource needs of rural women? Are the one size fit all programmes ideal for alleviating rural women's poverty. This article ...

  5. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  6. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  7. Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.

    2016-01-01

    The laws in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam promote equality for all citizens and refer to ‘persons’ rather than ‘men’ or ‘women’. However, because of traditional gender norms, transgender people in Vietnam are facing severe stigma and discrimination in public, in schools, at home and in the

  8. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  9. Vietnam : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was launched in January 2006 by the Ministry of Health (MoH) with funds from the Danish Embassy in Vietnam and technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). This learning note documents the development process of the caretakers' program with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored. Lessons learned and challenge...

  10. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly

  11. Lessons for Hospital Autonomy : Implementation in Vietnam from International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Health; Health Strategy and Policy Institute; World Bank; World Health Organization

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Vietnam sees hospital autonomy policy as important and consistent with current development trends in Vietnam. It is based on government policies as laid out in government Decree on financial autonomy of revenue-generating public service entities; and to 2006, it is replaced by decree on professional, organizational, human resource management and financial autonomy of reve...

  12. Primary English Language Education Policy in Vietnam: Insights from Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of English in primary education curricula is a phenomenon occurring in many non-English-speaking countries in Asia, including Vietnam. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in Vietnam issued guidelines for the piloting of an English as a foreign language (EFL) primary curriculum in which English is taught as a…

  13. Using Literature in a Course on the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jonathan

    1989-01-01

    Courses in Vietnam War history should incorporate Vietnamese, French, and English literary response to the war as complements to the history texts. Possibilities include an account of the French colonial experience, a required text in translation from the viewpoint of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and Vietnamese expatriate texts. (MSE)

  14. Health economics of screening for hypertension in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.

  15. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  16. Fostering Response to Vietnam War Literature through the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a unit on the literature of the Vietnam War (part of a college course called "Twentieth Century War Literature") which uses the arts to enhance student learning. Discusses activities and assignments in which students create visual representations, conduct research, and prepare oral reports on the Vietnam War literature they…

  17. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  18. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  19. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  20. 77 FR 76170 - Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Not Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... during the Vietnam War. After careful review of the IOM report, the Secretary determines that the... served in deep-water naval vessels off the coast of Vietnam during the Vietnam War are referred to as... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam...

  1. Rural African women and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadaki, K

    1994-01-01

    70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of

  2. Infant growth disparity in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaktskjold Arild

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys in Vietnam have indicated that wasting and stunting have been prevalent among children, but the country is undergoing rapid socio-economic changes and little has been known about the relative situation in the different areas of the country. In 2006, the WHO introduced new growth standards applicable to all infant and child populations, which facilitates for improved assessments of the prevalence of growth impairment, independent of time, place and ethnicity. The aim of our study was to assess the growth of singleton infants delivered at term in three main birth clinics in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam by using the new WHO standards as reference, and the association between growth and some maternal, birth and health factors. Methods A cohort of 237 singleton infants born in the period May-July 2005 in three main delivery clinics in the Khanh Hoa province were observed prospectively. Their anthropometrical measures a year later were compared to the WHO sex-specific growth standards for weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, and BMI-for-age. These measures were analysed as dependent outcomes using multiple linear regression models including the following independent factors: urban vs. rural birth, 1-minute Apgar score, weight and length at birth, duration of lactation, ever had diarrhoea, dengue fever, pneumonia or dysentery, and maternal age, height, gestational duration and parity. Results Compared to the standard distributions, 79% were below the median for weight-for-length; 18.0% were within the 5th percentile for length-for-age, 9.6% for weight-for-age, 20.3% for weight-for-length, and 19.8% for BMI. A lower length- and weight-for-age were statistically associated with being born rurally. Conclusions In this delivery-clinic based sample of children in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam, the proportions within the WHO-standard 5th percentiles for length-for-age, weight-for-length and BMI in late

  3. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  4. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  5. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  6. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  7. Interface between urban and rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2007-01-01

      Counterurbanisation combined with recent trends in agricultural technology has resulted in a ‘multifunctional countryside regime', raising new questions on the relation between nature and land use in rural areas and between very different values and interests developing in these areas. Indicators...... for new trends in rural landscapes have been related to a model for urban pressure on rural areas in Denmark however without any convincing results. A model for the historical development of a typical Danish village has been made, to see if the socially differentiated process of counterurbanisation can...... be related to the differentiation in the development of different types of village developments. Such a model can elucidate the potentials of a multifunctional landscape as a basis for a varied and and attractive fulfilment of human needs in an urban-rural continuum....

  8. In-Migration and Housing Choice in Ho Chi Minh City: Toward Sustainable Housing Development in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducksu Seo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation of Vietnam’s Doi Moi policy in 1986, the rate of urbanization has rapidly increased with a great influx of immigrants from rural areas. With such migration becoming a large acceleration factor for urban growth, the shortage of housing has become a critical problem in the cities. The Vietnamese government encouraged self-built housing and public–private partnerships to produce different types of housing stock. There are few available academic studies about housing choice in Vietnam to help understand movement dynamics and to foster sustainable housing development. The purpose of this study is to analyze housing choice and moving determinants in Ho Chi Minh City, and thereby establish recommendations for sustainable housing development in Vietnam. For an empirical study, a citizen questionnaire survey was conducted in HCMC and an in-depth analysis was carried out. The results indicate that the row house type for single-family housing is strongly preferred, but a preference for apartments is also observed for future planning. The factors influencing housing choice and movement are family income, housing ownership, housing typology, and commuting environment. These phenomena suggest that the government should prudently consider affordable housing development in many districts. The results of this study will help to establish policies for sustainable housing development in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

  9. The Rural Institutions in Colombia: Reflections for Analysis and Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Ropero Beltran

    2016-01-01

    The rural question is one of the great challenges for institutions in Colombia. The discussion regarding institutional efficiency and effectiveness for the rural sector should be brought forward based on circumstantial aspects that in turn mediate social the social, political, cultural, environmental, economic and productive in the Colombian agriculture, including trade agreements and post-conflict eventually included. The new rurality as an approach to rural development poses a different vie...

  10. Analysis of selected social determinants of health and their relationships with maternal health service coverage and child mortality in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieving a fair and equitable distribution of health in the population while progressing toward universal health coverage (UHC is a key focus of health policy in Vietnam. This paper describes health barriers experienced by women (and children by inference in Vietnam, and measures how UHC, with reference to maternal health services and child mortality rates, is affected by selected social determinants of health (SDH, termed ‘barriers’. Methods: Our study uses a cross-sectional design with data from the 2011 Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The study sample includes 11,663 women, aged 15–49 years. Weighted frequency statistics are cross-tabulated with socioeconomic characteristics of the population to describe the extent and distribution of health barriers experienced by disadvantaged women and children in Vietnam. A subset of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years (n=1,383 was studied to assess the impact of barriers to UHC and health. Six multiple logistic regressions were run using three dependent variables in the previous two years: 1 antenatal care, 2 skilled birth attendants, and 3 child death in the previous 15 years. Independent predictor variables were: 1 low education (incomplete secondary education, 2 lack of access to one of four basic amenities. In a second set of regressions, a constructed composite barrier index replaced these variables. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were used to report regression results. Results: In Vietnam, about 54% of women aged 15–49 years in 2011, had low education or lacked access to one of four basic amenities. About 38% of poor rural women from ethnic minorities experienced both barriers, compared with less than 1% of rich urban women from the ethnic majority. Incomplete secondary education or lack of one of four basic amenities was a factor significantly associated with lower access to skilled birth attendants (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14

  11. Prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in Vinh Long, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoai Danh; Nguyen, Huu Bao Han; Tran, Diep Tuan

    2015-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children. It affects not only the subjects but also their families and society. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in South Vietnam, especially Vinh Long province. Children were chosen randomly from primary schools in Vinh Long from February to March in 2009 in a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of ADHD using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV for parents/caregivers and teachers. ADHD Rating Scale-IV was based on DSM-IV for diagnosis of ADHD. A total of 600 children were chosen and 1200 reports were collected from parents/caregivers and teachers. The prevalence rate of ADHD was 7.7%. The rates of the predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive type and combined type were 1.7%, 5% and 1%, respectively. The difference in sex was not significant across all subtypes. The prevalence of ADHD in urban children was 2.2-fold that in rural children. The prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in Vinh Long, southern Vietnam, is in the same range as other regions in the world. Therefore, awareness of ADHD needs to be raised, to ensure suitable psychiatric care for children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. The integration of traditional and advanced design in the formation of sustainable New Rural Housing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai Tran, Van

    2018-04-01

    Socio-economic growth in Vietnam greatly depends on the new rural development process in this country; the work is considered a strategic position in national development. Thus, the study of the principles of the architectural design of new rural housing solutions in accordance with the New Rural Environment as required by the Vietnam Ministry of Construction has become urgent. Climate change has become a global concern, so the creation of significant impacts by architectural designs to respond to climate change and make the living environment of rural people better is a major demand. Experience has shown that the dogmatic application of current urban-type housing does not reach the requirements of New Rural Housing. This research intends to show that the solutions of the traditional Vietnamese rural house, which retains the advantages of traditional architecture with excellent characteristics that have been challenged over thousands of years, when combined with advanced design methodologies and technologies, will be the appropriate solution for ‘New Rural Housing’.

  13. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  14. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  15. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  16. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  17. Application of nuclear energy in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive isotopes were introduced to medical treatment in Vietnam very early by M. Curie in 1923. A research reactor has been in operation since 1963 serving up to now an effective base for radioisotope production and nuclear analysis. After reunification of the country, the nuclear technique applications are developing faster and getting widespread. The twenty-year period from 1976 to 1995 was relatively limited by activity of R and D institutions. Nowadays, their interaction with companies demonstrates a dynamic commercialization of nuclear techniques in Vietnam. Investment from government as well as from the private sector has been increased significantly for the last ten years to nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The radiographic NDT is getting a familiar technique to industry, particularly, in construction of strategy-important industrial and civil projects. NCS are upgraded in different factories, such as mining, ore processing and cement industries. Tracer techniques have shown benefit in oil offshore exploring and in sedimentation management of rivers and harbours. Isotope techniques are playing a competitive role for environmental monitoring and underground water management in the country. Radiation processing is transferred to a commercial scale emphasizing on sterilization of medical products and food preservation. There are still some problems such as public acceptance of radioactive techniques or a lack of both infrastructure and manpower to meet the national demands. However, the government of Vietnam has recently approved the national strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy, which not only highlights the development of isotope and radiation applications in near future, but also clearly emphasizes the need of nuclear electrical generation by 2017-2020 for the national energy security

  18. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  19. Why do adult women in Vietnam take iron tablets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting iron supplementation programs has been a major strategy to reduce iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. However, only a few countries have reported improvements in the anemia rate at a national level. The strategies used for control of nutrition problems need regular review to maintain and improve their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors in compliance with taking iron tablets, where daily doses of iron (60 mg and folic acid (400 μg were distributed in rural Vietnamese communes. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Nghe An province, Vietnam in January, 2003. The study population was adult women aged less than 35 years who delivered babies between August 1st 2001 and December 1st 2002 (n = 205, of which 159 took part in the study. Data for the study were collected from a series of workshops with community leaders, focus group discussions with community members and a questionnaire survey. Results Improvements in the rate of anemia was not given a high priority as one of the commune's needs, but the participants still made efforts to continue taking iron tablets. Two major factors motivated the participants to continue taking iron tablets; their experience of fewer spells of dizziness (50%, and their concern for the health of their newborn baby (54%. When examining the reasons for taking iron tablets for at least 5–9 months, the most important factor was identified as 'a frequent supply of iron tablets' (OR = 11.93, 95% CI: 4.33–32.85. Conclusion The study found that multiple poor environmental risk factors discouraged women from taking iron tablets continuously. The availability (frequent supply of iron tablets was the most effective way to help adult women to continue taking iron tablets.

  20. Pedagogical Study into Tertiary Learning Styles in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Ramsay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical studies for tertiary students in Vietnam are limited and no comparative benchmarking studies with other Asian tertiary students found. As a means to fill this gap and provide a better understanding the following study using Biggs (1987c Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ, a 42-item self-report survey consisting of ratings on a 5-point scale to questions relating to respondents' study motivations and their usual study patterns was conducted with 355 respondents. Findings were consistent with Hong Kong students and supports studies carried out in other countries by Kemper et al. (1989, Kemper and Gow (1991, Niles (1995, Volet and Renshaw (1996, Ramburuth (2001 and Hua, Williams and Hoi (2007. Despite learning in a “rote” manner during their formative years, students have adapted to deeper learning approaches although there is a still a slight but insignificant bias to surface learning. They desire to achieve and get good marks although strategy is limiting their progress. According to Biggs, this is commonly caused by a language problem.

  1. Gender wage gap in Vietnam 1993 - 98

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1992–93 and 1997–98 to examine changes in the gender wage gap. The intertemporal decomposition of Juhn et al. (1991) indicates that changes in observed variables, skill prices and wage inequality have tended to narrow the gap, but the gap effect has tended to widen it, with the net effect being one of little change. This finding is in contrast with that for the EEC but in line with the experience of China. Improving education about equity p...

  2. John Dumbrell, Rethinking the Vietnam War.

    OpenAIRE

    Gratale, Joseph Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the conclusion of the Vietnam War in the early 1970s, the USA has been involved in a number of wars and military interventions throughout the world.  From the US invasion of Grenada in 1983 and the Persian Gulf War of 1991, to the US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century, the USA has found a variety of justifications and rationales in pursuing its national interests through the implementation of war.  In spite of the frequency and impacts of US military interventions ov...

  3. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  4. Gender wage gap in transistion in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2001-01-01

    The impact of sectoral location on the gender earnings gap is important in the context of Vietnam’s transition into a market-oriented economy. More and more women are seeking employment in the private sector either in response to retrenchment in the public sector or in response to increasing economic opportunities in the private sector. We apply the Appleton et al. (1999) decomposition technique to the Vietnam Living Standards Survey data collected in 1992- 93 and 1997-98, to decompose the ge...

  5. Effects of a 12-month exercise program on cardiorespiratory health indicators of Vietnam War veterans resident in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rebecca M; Leicht, Anthony S; Spinks, Warwick L

    2008-06-01

    To measure the effect of a combined aerobic and resistance exercise program on key cardiovascular disease risk factors (i.e. body composition or anthropometry and cardiorespiratory function) of Australian male, Vietnam War veterans living in the tropics. Twelve-month exercise program with assessments at commencement, 3, 6 and 12 months. North Queensland regional centre. Australian male, Vietnam War veterans (n = 164) resident in north Queensland. Measurement of heart rate, blood pressure, skinfold and girth measurements, exercise heart rate response and estimated aerobic capacity to determine whether the implementation of a simple aerobic and resistance exercise program could positively change selected cardiovascular disease risk factors in Vietnam Veterans. Significant improvements were reported for systolic blood pressure (131.1 (SD 15.7) reduced to 122.7 (12.4) mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (82.7 (9.1) reduced to 76.3 (10.3) mmHg), resting heart rate (73 (11) reduced to 69 (11) bpm), sum of skinfolds (127.5 (40.3) reduced to 99.5 (32.1) mm), waist girth (103.2 (12.0) reduced to 100.5 (12.1) cm), hip girth (105.3 (9.6) reduced to 103.7 (10.4) cm) and aerobic capacity (2.17 (0.39) increased to 2.36 (0.34) L min(-1)). Participation in a combined aerobic and resistance training program elicited significant anthropometric and cardiorespiratory benefits that might lead to a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease for male Vietnam War veterans resident in rural and regional areas.

  6. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  7. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  8. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  9. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  10. Formation of Skål International Club in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Quang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a project plan of Skål International Vietnam as a new joining club, with the purpose of forming a new Skål International club in Vietnam. The idea was born in September, 2011 during the 72nd Skål International World Congress in Turku, Finland, where the author – a Young Skål had invited to attend . Vietnam situated in the peninsula of South-East Asia, the country holds great potentials of nature, culture and human power for tourism growth. In spite of joining an Inter...

  11. Environmental Radionuclides in Surface Soils of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Hiep, H.T.; Quang, N.H.; Luyen, T.V.; Binh, T.V.; Ngo, N.T.; Long, N.Q.; Bac, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    A database on 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in surface soils was established to provide inputs for the assessment of the collective dose to the population of Vietnam and to support soil erosion studies using 137 Cs as a tracer. A total of 292 soil samples were taken from undisturbed sites across the territory and the concentrations of radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry method. The multiple regression of 137 Cs inventories against characteristics of sampling locations allowed us to establish the distribution of 137 Cs deposition density and its relationship with latitude and annual rainfall. The 137 Cs deposition density increases northward and varies from 178 Bq m -2 to 1,920 Bq m -2 . High rainfall areas in the northern and central parts of the country have received considerable 137 Cs inputs exceeding 600 Bq m -2 , which is the maximum value that can be expected for Vietnam from the UNSCEAR global pattern. The mean activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are 45, 59 and 401 Bq kg- 1 , respectively, which entail an average absorbed dose rate in air of 62 nGy h -1 , which is about 7% higher than the world average. (author)

  12. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  13. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective: This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design: This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1 skilled antenatal care and (2 skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities. Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results: In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011 and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011. The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions: Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups.

  14. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  15. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  16. Land Politics under Market Socialism: The State, Land Policies, and Rural–Urban Land Conversion in China and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Linh Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes a comparative analysis of rural–urban land conversion policies in China and Vietnam, and examines the ideology of the state in land policymaking under a market socialism environment. It argues that land policies in both countries include ambiguous boundaries, which allow the socialist state to legitimize its politico-administrative power in land management and retain strong intervention capacity in the land market. In addition to similarities, land policies in China and Vietnam show significant differences in terms of the ownership of rural land and related legislation on land expropriation and transactions. Together, these distinctions cause divergent impacts on the interests and motivations of multiple stakeholders in rural land conversion. It is further observed that the state in both countries is characterized by dynamic, complex, and self-coordinated institutional systems, in which multiple levels of government have different driving forces and strategies in land development. The internal structure of authority in rural–urban land conversion between the multiple levels of government is readjusted by the regulatory land control of the central government.

  17. The coal mining industry in Vietnam and its challenges; Steinkohlenbergbau in Vietnam und seine Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Per Nicolai; Pateiro Fernandez, Jose B.; Ahmad, Shakeel [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I; Cramer, Thomas; Deissmann, Guido [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Fuchsschwanz, Marcus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geotechnik

    2010-04-15

    The province of Quang Ninh in the north of Vietnam is the most important coal mining region in the country. The NBCC (Nui Beo Coal Company) operates several open-cast mines. Large quantities of overburden have to be removed and dumped in the immediate environment. The creation of these heaps up to 300 m high is accompanied by many environmental problems. In particular ground and surface waters are contaminated by ''acid mine drainage''. Furthermore, large emissions chiefly in the form of dust occur as a result of the working and dumping depending on the season. In addition the stability of the heaps is sometimes greatly endangered. In the German-Vietnamese Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam (RAME) the aspects of coal mining with an effect on the environment are dealt with in various sub-associations and protective measures worked out jointly. (orig.)

  18. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  19. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  1. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  2. The other "Irish question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, H

    1992-05-01

    The influence of the Roman Catholic Church on Irish society makes it difficult for sex and health educators and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. Divorce, abortion, consensual sex between consenting adult men, and contraception for those under 18 years is banned in Ireland. Public opinions and recent court decisions do appear to bring a measure of hope for more lenient attitudes. The trends vary from the recent Supreme Court case of the 14-year old rape victim being permitted an abortion because she was suicidal to a radio talk show host, Father Michael Cleary who suspected she was "set-up" to test the ban on abortion. Father Cleary also outraged health educators by stating inaccurately that condoms did not prevent AIDS. It is estimated that 500 Irish women have abortions each year in Britain; there have been 262 reported AIDS cases and estimates of up to 10,000 HIV infected out of a population of 3.5 million. An AIDS education campaign was mounted in 1987, but in the 37-minute Department of Health video only 1 minute was devoted to condoms and no sex was promoted as the only safe sex. Access is limited to consenting pharmacies and clinics for people 18 years of older; rural chemists may exercise discretion and refuse sales. In 1991, the government proposed lowering the age to 17 years for condom availability and assigning the regional health boards, the responsibility of determining who sells contraceptives. A university lecturer reported that inaction on this bill was close to "criminal inactivity." Challenges in February 1991 were made by the Irish Family Planning Association (IFPA) in setting up a condom sales kiosk in Dublin. The IFPA was fined, but opinion polls indicated that 57% supported condom availability for 16 year olds. On Valentines Day in 1992, condom vending machines, which are illegal, were installed in pubs and nightclubs, police action has been cautious. A new health minister is concerned about AIDS prevention and the republic's first woman President

  3. The International Alcohol Control Study in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and, -policies that restrict the physical availability of alcoholic beverages or ... This study will provide internationally comparative data on Vietnam's alcohol policy ... among policymakers, there is substantial potential for the research results to ...

  4. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia

    This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international

  5. Making Polluter Pay Legislation Work - A Study of Vietnam's Decree ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impacts Of Environmental Regulations On The Food Processing Industry In. Vietnam' by Le ... Natural. Resources and Urban Economics & Management, Hanoi National Economics. University ... fast and is recognised as one of the country's ...

  6. Dendrobium roseiodorum (Orchidaceae): a new species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathapattayanon, A.; Yukawa, T.; Seelanan, T.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of revisionary work of Dendrobium section Formosae, we found some misinterpretations of Dendrobium kontumense. Dendrobium schildhaueri is placed as a synonym of D. kontumense and D. roseiodorum, a new species from Vietnam, is described.

  7. The China Factor in U.S.-Vietnam Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Sailors Who Sacrificed Their Lives in the Truong Sa Islands,” Voice of Vietnam News, 10 May 2010; “Old Problem , New Threats,” Bangkok Post, 30 May 2011...Pacific Trade Policies for the Vietnam Ministry of Industry and Trade, 70 percent of Vietnam’s imports from China consist of essential materials used in...the production of exported goods, including materials and equipment, steel, chemicals, and petroleum, as well as fabric, garment, and footwear

  8. Legal Framework of the Water Sector in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Loan

    2010-01-01

    Since 1986 and especially during the early 90s, environmental protection has become a constitutional principle in Vietnam as regulated by Articles 17 and 29 of the 1992 Constitution. The first Law on Environmental Protection, passed by the National Assembly on December 27, 1993 created a foundation for environmental legislation becoming an important field in Vietnam’s legal system. In the following, in January 1999, Vietnam enacted its very first Law on Water Resources (No. 08/1998/QH10) aimi...

  9. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); IJzendoorn, Rien; Alink, Lenneke R.A.

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were ...

  10. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang

    2014-01-01

    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  11. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AND FIRMS’ VALUATION IN VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Trang Thu

    2009-01-01

    Valuation is the central focus in fundamental analysis. This dissertation considers the usefulness of financial statements in predicting market values of companies in Vietnam stock market by adopting the valuation model constructed by Chung et al., (2001). The overview of Vietnam stock market; some definitions about financial statements, valuation; description of several basis valuation models and empirical evidence including the description of valuation model developed by Chung et al., (2001...

  12. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dell; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  13. Tax corruption and private sector development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Doan, Quang Hung; Tran-Nam, Binh

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to examine the impact of tax corruption on private sector development in Vietnam. It is motivated by two separate but related considerations. First, despite the seriousness of the phenomenon of corruption, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research of corruption, particularly tax corruption, in Vietnam. Secondly, ineffective control of corruption is viewed as a cause of Vietnam’s recent total factor productivity (TFP) slowdown or its poor industrial policy, both of wh...

  14. Success factors for sustainable private business operation of decentralised rural electrification with PV - Results from the project "DELTA PRO RES" in the lower Delta Mekong countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gölz, S.; Vogt, G.; Maigne, Y.; Mozas, K.

    2006-01-01

    The project Delta PRO RES is the response to the wave of electricity sector reform in developing countries in South East Asia which provides opportunities for a new approach: bankable rural electrification. The project prepares the ground for this future track by developing a methodology and markets to increase rural access to energy with decentralized renewable energy systems in the Lower Delta Mekong countries Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. Private entrepreneurship and venture capital inves...

  15. Factors influencing business of mobile telecommunication service providers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thanh Hai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Information and Communications in Vietnam, as of November 2015, the number of mobile subscribers is over 120 million ones, accounting for over 86% of the total number of telephone subscribers. With a total population of over 92 million Vietnam citizens, a stable national economy and a large populations of young consumers in the country, mobile communication industries still have a huge potentials for future development. Telecommunication service providers in Vietnam are facing fierce competition. Subscribers are expecting OTT (Over the Top applications, good quality service and handset subsidy. This study investigated whether legal frameworks, OTT applications, quality of service and handset subsidy are important components of mobile telecommunication service in Vietnam. This study used quantitative method to distribute surveys to mobile subscribers. Findings found that all four factors significantly influence mobile business in Vietnam. Thus, telecommunication service providers in Vietnam must continuously innovate to enhance operational competitiveness, improve business efficiency, expand business scale, and improve its position in the market in order to ensure sustainable development. Moreover, Vietnamese government needs to develop a legal framework to help mobile telecommunication service providers enhance the common interests and benefits of the entire society.

  16. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  17. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  18. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  19. Ask a Question | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming Weeds Research and Technology Bioenergy and Biofuels Biotechnology Production Technology and Resources Sustainable Rural Communities What is Rural? Visual Arts and Agricultural History Abraham Lincoln

  20. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John

    2008-12-01

    Geographic and ecological analysis may provide investigators useful ecological information for the control of shigellosis. This paper provides distribution of individual Shigella species in space, and ecological covariates for shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Data on shigellosis in neighborhoods were used to identify ecological covariates. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to obtain joint posterior distribution of model parameters and to construct smoothed risk maps for shigellosis. Neighborhoods with a high proportion of worshippers of traditional religion, close proximity to hospital, or close proximity to the river had increased risk for shigellosis. The ecological covariates associated with Shigella flexneri differed from the covariates for Shigella sonnei. In contrast the spatial distribution of the two species was similar. The disease maps can help identify high-risk areas of shigellosis that can be targeted for interventions. This approach may be useful for the selection of populations and the analysis of vaccine trials.

  1. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles...

  2. Rural Finance and Microfinance Development in Transition Countries in Southeast and East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Llanto, Gilberto M.; Fukui, Ryu

    2006-01-01

    Microfinance is an emerging important financial subsector in Asian transition countries. Its role is to improve financial access of the poor and small economic players and thus help them to build assets, thereby contribute to poverty alleviation. This paper provides an overview of rural finance and microfinance development in transition countries in Southeast and East Asia—Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Mongolia—focusing on the institutional evolution and the inter-relation between ...

  3. Rural Design Ethics Based on Four Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Zhu, Li

    2017-12-01

    China has a large rural area with a large population, whose architectural features, natural landscape, organizational structure and industrial structure are very different from that of cities. In the past, the contradictory between city and rural areas in China had negative effects on rural construction, resulting in a slow development. The excessive focus on city design has led to the neglect of rural design. Blindly using the concept and method of city design to renewed the countryside is a kind of destruction to the countryside, and also wastes a lot of construction resources. Design is influenced by ethical concepts, which needs to pay more attention to the culture tendency and society. Urban design makes theoretical investigation aiming at the ethical questions that emerged from city, then summarizes the design strategies of the city. While Chinese rural design has only begun to enter people’s horizon, and there is very little discussion about it. Due to the lack of ethical value guidance, Chinese rural design and construction has many problems at different levels of ecology, culture and industry. Therefore this paper primarily explores the domestic and foreign design ethics, attempting to provide a new perspective for Chinese rural design, aiming at finding a realistic and forward-looking solution for Chinese rural design concerning to the complex relation between city and rural areas.

  4. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Le Van [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  5. Multidimensional and multiscalar analisis of territorial rural development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Of late, there have been several political, practical and analytical changes to our understanding of rural development. Diverse efforts have emerged in the analysis and discussion of spatial dynamics such as “rurality”, territories, in the construction of a territorial perspective of rural development. These changes in the forms of identification and measurement of rural development lead us to question the validity and effectiveness of applied methods, inviting us to establish methodologies and analytical criteria coherent with the multiple manifestations and scales of development. This article offers a multidimensional and multi-scalar analytical model for territorial rural development, using our methodology tested in four rural territories of Brazil.

  6. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  7. Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomers, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

  8. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  9. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping Duty..., by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe...

  10. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless the...

  11. Integrated rural development programs: a skeptical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttan, V W

    1975-11-01

    In examining integrated rural development programs the question that arises is why is it possible to identify several relatively successful small-scale or pilot rural development projects yet so difficult to find examples of successful rural development programs. 3 bodies of literature offer some insight into the morphology of rural development projects, programs, and processes: the urban-industrial impact hypothesis; the theory of induced technical change; and the new models of institutional change that deal with institution building and the economics of bureaucratic behavior. The urban-industrial impact hypothesis helps in the clarification of the relationships between the development of rural areas and the development of the total society of which rural areas are a part. It is useful in understanding the spatial dimensions of rural development where rural development efforts are likely to be most successful. Formulation of the hypothesis generated a series of empirical studies designed to test its validity. The effect of these studies has been the development of a rural development model in which the rural community is linked to the urban-industrial economy through a series of market relationships. Both the urban economy's rate of growth and the efficiency of the intersector product and factor markets place significant constraints on the possibilities of rural area development. It is not possible to isolate development processes in the contemporary rural community in a developing society from development processes in the larger society. The induced technical change theory provides a guide as to what must be done to gain access to efficient sources of economic growth, the new resources and incomes that are necessary to sustain rural development. Design of a successful rural development strategy involves a combination of technical and institutional change. The ability of rural areas to respond to the opportunities for economic growth generated by local urban

  12. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Nhan B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of decayed, missing, filled (DMF and sound teeth (St and to determine the relative risk of teeth in different dental regions for D, M, and F, of adults living in urban and rural areas in Southern Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional DMF and St data of 2965 dentate subjects aged 20 to 95 living in urban and rural areas in three provinces were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and an oral examination. The sample was stratified by age, gender, residence and province. Results The percentage of subjects having missing teeth was high for all ages while it was low for subjects with decayed and filled teeth. The mean number of missing teeth increased gradually by age from approximately 1 in each jaw at the age of 20 to 8 at the age of 80. The number of decayed teeth was relative low at all ages, being highest in molars at young ages. The mean number of filled teeth was extremely low at all ages in all dental regions. Every additional year of age gives a significantly lower chance for decay, a higher chance for missing, and a lower chance for filled teeth. Molars had a significantly higher risk for decay, missing and filled than premolars and anterior teeth. Females had significantly higher risk for decayed and filled teeth, and less chance for missing teeth than males. Urban subjects presented lower risk for decay, but approximately 4 times greater chance for having fillings than rural subjects. Low socio-economic status (SES significantly increased the chance for missing anterior and molar teeth; subjects with high SES had more often fillings. Conclusions The majority of adults of Southern Vietnam presented a reduced dentition

  13. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  14. Behavioral and quality-of-life outcomes in different service models for methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nong, Vuong Minh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-02-02

    Integrating HIV/AIDS and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services with existing health care delivery system is critical in sustaining efforts to fight HIV/AIDS in large injection-driven epidemics. However, efficiency of different integrative service models is unknown. This study assessed behavioral and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of MMT in four service delivery models and explored factors associated with these outcomes of interest. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two HIV epicenters in Vietnam: Hanoi and Nam Dinh Province. All patients in five selected MMT clinics were invited to participate, and 1016 were interviewed (80-90% response rate). Respondents had a mean age of 35.8, taken MMT for average 16.5 months and 3.3% on MMT for 36-60 months. The MMT integrated with rural district health center (DHC) has the highest prevalence of concurrent drug use (11.3%). The percentage of condom use (last sexual intercourse) with primary and casual partners was lowest in the MMT at urban DHCs. Patients at the rural DHC reported very high proportions of pain/discomfort (37.8%), anxiety/depression (43.1%), and mobility (13.3%). In regression models, poorer HRQOL outcomes were found in MMT models in the rural areas or without general health care, and among those patients who were HIV positive, reported concurrent drug use, and had higher numbers of previous drug rehabilitation episodes. Mobility and anxiety/depression are factors that increased the likelihood of concurrent drug use among MMT patients. Outcomes of MMT were diverse across different integrative service models. Policies on rapid expansion of the MMT program in Vietnam should also emphasize on the integration with comprehensive health care services including psychological supports for patients.

  15. Evaluation of qualitative value for money of public-private partnership projects in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Thi Thuy Hang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that in the period of 2011-2020 projects under the model of public- private partnership (PPP in Vietnam will continue to increase in both number and volume of financing. Despite the substantial volumes of the already performed investments, many practitioners in the field question the viability of Vietnamese PPP projects, in the road sector in particular. Enhancing the viability of these projects is, therefore, vital in the context of the ongoing economic growth. This research is proposing a qualitative value for money assessment, in order to examine the factors influencing PPP projects’ viability in Vietnam. Employing the method of Structural Equation Modeling, the following two aspects will be included in the analysis: 1 financial performance & economic environment; 2 technical capacity & legal environment. The former encompasses “financial interest”, “profitability”, “economic policy” and “demand of service”; while the latter covers “service quality”, “flexibility of contracts”, “legal framework” and “statutory compliance”.

  16. THE VALUE CHAIN OF EXPORTED WHITELEG SHRIMP: CASE STUDY IN KHANH HOA PROVINCE, VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tram Anh Thi Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on systematic mapping and verification of benefit distribution among stakeholders in the value chain of white-leg shrimp in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. The question is, can reorganization of small farmer groups enhance participation and efficiency of the value chain? Convenient sampling and face-to-face interview method were employed in 2014 and 2015 to solicit information from 100 shrimp producers, 10 middlemen and 3 exporters. Males account for 98 percent of small independent producers. There is an involvement of middlemen (middlemen type #1 and middlemen type # 2 in the chain. The middlemen are the drivers in the chain and engage in risk shifting on producers. The distribution of shrimp materials by middlemen type #1 to the processing plant is based on shrimp size. An alternate design to assist collective bargaining by unified small farm *groups shows in order to attain a sustainable value chain for white-leg shrimp, one should improve vertical integration and coordination among the market participants; and seek government intervention to build the image of Vietnam seafood in international markets.

  17. Strong propensity for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in Vietnam: behavioural data and sexual network modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Liljeros, Fredrik; Thanh, Hoang Huy; Thorson, Anna

    2014-01-15

    Survey data from men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asian cities indicate ongoing and drastic increases in HIV prevalence. It is unknown which behavioural factors are most important in driving these epidemics. We aimed to analyse detailed sexual behaviour data among MSM in Vietnam and to model HIV transmission using improved assumptions on sexual network structure. Vietnam. Internet-using men who had ever had sex (any type) with a man, aged ≥18 years and living in Vietnam. The study was cross-sectional, population-based and performed in 2012, using online respondent-driven sampling. The Internet-based survey instrument was completed by 982 participants, of which 857 were eligible. Questions included sociodemography and retrospective sexual behaviour, including number of unprotected anal sex (UAS) acts per partner. Estimated basic reproductive number over 3 months as a function of transmission risk per UAS act; frequency distributions of number of UAS partners and UAS acts during last 3 months. 36% (CI 32% to 42%) reported UAS at least once during the last 3 months. 36% (CI 32% to 41%) had ever taken an HIV test and received the result. UAS partner numbers and number of UAS acts were both highly skewed and positively correlated. Using a weighted configuration model, taking into account partner numbers, frequency of UAS and their correlations, we estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) over 3 months. The results indicated rapid transmission over a wide range of values of per-act transmissibility. Men with multiple partners had unexpectedly high UAS frequency per partner, paired with low HIV testing rates. The study highlights the importance of collecting data on frequency of UAS acts and indicates the need to rapidly scale-up HIV prevention services and testing opportunities for MSM in Vietnam.

  18. Identifying and Improving the image of Vietnam Tourism as a Tourism destination among Finnish tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh

    2012-01-01

    This writing attempts to identify the images of Vietnam as a tourism destination for Finnish tourists and suggests marketing solution for Vietnamese traveling company to improve the images of Vietnam by enhancing marketing activities in the Finnish market. Saigontourist Transportation Corporation (STC), Vietnam which is a commissioner of this thesis project, has provided updated information about the current situation of tourism in Vietnam as well as marketing activities of company durin...

  19. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  20. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  1. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  2. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...

  3. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  4. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  5. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  6. Postnatal depressive symptoms amongst women in Central Vietnam: a cross-sectional study investigating prevalence and associations with social, cultural and infant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Linda; Dunne, Michael P; Van Vo, Thang; Anh, Phuong Nguyen Thi; Khawaja, Nigar G; Cao, Thanh Ngoc

    2015-09-30

    This study investigated the prevalence and socio-cultural correlates of postnatal mood disturbance amongst women 18-45 years old in Central Vietnam. Son preference and traditional confinement practices were explored as well as factors such as poverty, parity, family and intimate partner relationships and infant health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in twelve randomly selected Commune Health Centres from urban and rural districts of Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. Mother-infant dyads one to six months postpartum were invited to participate. Questionnaires from 431 mothers (urban n = 216; rural n = 215) assessed demographic and family characteristics, traditional confinement practices, son preference, infant health and social capital. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and WHO5 Wellbeing Index indicated depressive symptoms and emotional wellbeing. Data were analysed using general linear models. Using an EPDS cut-off of 12/13, 18.1% (n = 78, 95% CI 14.6-22.1) of women had depressive symptoms (20.4% urban; 15.8% rural). Contrary to predictions, infant gender and traditional confinement were unrelated to depressive symptoms. Poverty, food insecurity, being frightened of family members, and intimate partner violence increased both depressive symptoms and lowered wellbeing. The first model accounted for 30.2% of the variance in EPDS score and found being frightened of one's husband, husband's unemployment, breastfeeding difficulties, infant diarrhoea, and cognitive social capital were associated with higher EPDS scores. The second model had accounted for 22% of the variance in WHO5 score. Living in Hue city, low education, poor maternal competence and a negative family response to the baby lowered maternal wellbeing. Traditional confinement practices and son preference were not linked to depressive symptoms among mothers, but were correlates of family relationships and wellbeing. Poverty, food insecurity, violence, infant ill health, and

  7. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  8. 77 FR 32873 - Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War Proclamation 8830--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012... Anniversary of the Vietnam War By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As we observe the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War, we reflect with solemn reverence upon the valor of a...

  9. "Never Forget the Sacrifice:" A Visit to Chu Van An High School in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a 1993 study tour of Vietnam by educators. Discusses the role of a secondary school during the struggle against French colonialism and the U.S.-Vietnam War. Argues that educators must acknowledge the humanity of the Vietnamese as the first step in designing Vietnam-related social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  10. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  11. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  12. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  13. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  14. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The Department has determined... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68...

  15. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') that meets the statutory... INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published on August 12, 2003.\\1\\ On...

  16. 77 FR 20356 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). These... on fish fillets from Vietnam.\\1\\ On October 3, 2011 the Department published a notice of initiation...

  17. 78 FR 40100 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period August 1... Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

  18. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  19. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  20. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  1. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity. Although Vietnam is

  2. The drink driving situation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2012-01-01

    To identify the extent and nature of the problem and the main contributing factors to drink driving crashes; determine the current mechanisms in place, particularly in terms of legislation and its enforcement; and identify baseline data and relevant stakeholders. The situational assessment was based on the collection of secondary data from available reports and documents, in-depth interviews with key representatives at a central level, and field surveys in provinces. Vietnam has experienced phenomenal growth in motor vehicles, especially motorcycles, in the last decade (400%). This initially led to an increase in deaths from road crashes, but since 2006 the number has stayed fairly level according to police statistics. However, comparisons with health data suggest that the number of deaths is much higher and there are clearly a number of problems with the relevant data systems. Data on the percentage of drivers exceeding legal limits are not available, but police statistics indicated that drinking alcohol was a contributory factor in 7 percent of motor vehicle crashes. This is likely to be an underestimate, because the police and health services do not have the equipment to measure the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels of all drivers in crashes. Motorcycle riders and young people are in the high-risk groups. There are strict BAC limits starting at over zero and severe punishments for drunk drivers involved in serious crashes. However, the police do not have adequate manpower or equipment to conduct regular and frequent roadside checking for drivers who have been drinking. There have also been a number of education programs on road safety including drinking and driving, but these have not included sustained and intensive campaigns targeting the high-risk groups. The National Traffic Safety Committee (NTSC) is responsible for coordinating the relevant agencies but there is still a problem with lack of information sharing between agencies. This study completed

  3. Maternal mortality in Vietnam in 1994-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, D T; Hanenberg, R; Vach, T H; Vinh, D Q; Sokal, D

    1999-12-01

    This report presents the first population-based estimates of maternal mortality in Vietnam. All the deaths of women aged 15-49 in 1994-95 in three provinces of Vietnam were identified and classified by cause. Maternal mortality was the fifth most frequent cause of death. The maternal mortality ratio was 155 deaths per 100,000 live births. This ratio compares with the World Health Organization's estimates of 430 such deaths globally and 390 for Asia. The maternal mortality ratio in the delta regions of these provinces was half that of the mountainous and semimountainous regions. Because a larger proportion of the Vietnamese population live in delta regions than elsewhere, the maternal mortality ratio for Vietnam as a whole may be lower than that of the three provinces studied. Maternal mortality is low in Vietnam primarily because a relatively high proportion of deliveries take place in clinics and hospitals, where few women die in childbirth. Also, few women die of the consequences of induced abortion in Vietnam because the procedure is legal and easily available.

  4. Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Saboori, Behnaz; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam during the period 1981–2011. To realize the goals of this study, a pollution model was established applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The results revealed that the pollution haven hypothesis does exist in Vietnam because capital increases pollution. In addition, imports also increase pollution which indicates that most of Vietnam's imported products are energy intensive and highly polluted. However, exports have no effect on pollution which indicates that the level of exports is not significant enough to affect pollution. Moreover, fossil fuel energy consumption increases pollution while renewable energy consumption has no significant effect in reducing pollution. Furthermore, labor force reduces pollution since most of Vietnam's labor force is in the agricultural and services sectors which are less energy intensive than the industrial sector. Based on the obtained results, the EKC hypothesis does not exist because the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and long run. - Highlights: • The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam is investigated. • The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology was utilized. • The EKC hypothesis does not exist

  5. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  6. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES IN LATVIA IMPLEMENTING TELEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, Alise; Baltiņa, Iveta; Ādamsone, Liena; Judrupa, Ilze; Šenfelde, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Population decline is taking place in rural areas in Latvia as well as in rural areas in Europe. There is a question of utmost importance - will people choose to live in the rural area doing remote work or will they choose the job in the towns. Increased pace of population declining is forecasted in the event of steady decreasing working places and services. Growing service costs per inhabitant may infl uence lowering of accessibility of some services in the territory. Till nowadays measureme...

  8. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  9. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  10. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  11. Culturally adaptive storytelling intervention versus didactic intervention to improve hypertension control in Vietnam: a cluster-randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa L; Allison, Jeroan J; Ha, Duc A; Chiriboga, Germán; Ly, Ha N; Tran, Hanh T; Nguyen, Cuong K; Dang, Diem M; Phan, Ngoc T; Vu, Nguyen C; Nguyen, Quang P; Goldberg, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Novel, large-scale, effective, and sustainable interventions to control hypertension in Vietnam are needed. We report the results of a cluster-randomized feasibility trial at 3 months follow-up conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, designed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" intervention, "We Talk about Our Hypertension," and a didactic intervention. The storytelling intervention included stories about strategies for coping with hypertension, with patients speaking in their own words, and didactic content about the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors including salt reduction and exercise. The didactic intervention included only didactic content. The storytelling intervention was delivered by two DVDs at 3-month intervals; the didactic intervention included only one installment. The trial was conducted in four communes, equally randomized to the two interventions. The mean age of the 160 study patients was 66 years, and 54% were men. Most participants described both interventions as understandable, informative, and motivational. Between baseline and 3 months, mean systolic blood pressure declined by 8.2 mmHg (95% CI 4.1-12.2) in the storytelling group and by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI 1.4-9.5) in the didactic group. The storytelling group also reported a significant increase in hypertension medication adherence. Both interventions were well accepted in several rural communities and were shown to be potentially effective in lowering blood pressure. A large-scale randomized trial is needed to compare the effectiveness of the two interventions in controlling hypertension. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02483780.

  12. Status of Technical and Vocational Education in Rural Institutions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at assessing the state of technical and vocational education in rural institutions in Delta State. Three research questions guided the study. A sample size of fifty (50) principals from 50 rural institutions in Delta State was used for the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The study reveals that ...

  13. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  14. Efficiency and productivity of hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Linh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative efficiency and productivity of hospitals during the health reform process. Data envelopment analyses method (DEA) with the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model was used to calculate efficiency scores. Malmquist total factor productivity index approach was then employed to calculate productivity of hospitals. Data of 101 hospitals was extracted from databases of the Ministry of Health, Vietnam from the years 1998 to 2006. There was evidence of improvement in overall technical efficiency from 65 per cent in 1998 to 76 per cent in 2006. Hospitals' productivity progressed around 1.4 per cent per year, which was mainly due to the technical efficiency improvement. Furthermore, provincial hospitals were more technically efficient than their central counterparts and hospitals located in different regions performed differently. The paper provides an insight in the performance of Vietnamese public hospitals that has been rarely examined before and contributes to the existing literature of hospital performance in developing countries

  15. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  16. Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Delta de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Delta de Saussure, 1855 from Vietnam is presented. A total of four species are recorded: D. campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, D. esuriens esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, and D. pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775. Of these, D. campaniforme campaniforme was first recorded from Vietnam by de Saussure et al., 1904, under the name Eumenes esuriens and is now reconfirmed to occur in Vietnam after more than 100 years, and D. conoideum is newly recorded from Vietnam. A key to species based on morphological characters is given with illustrations, and distributional records in Vietnam are also provided.

  17. Political Awareness of Sixth Graders in a Rural Kentucky County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, J. Allen; Conner, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Presents charts depicting responses of rural sixth grade students to factual and opinion questions about political awareness. Concludes that students have limited knowledge and awareness of the various levels of government and of matters related to government. (Author/KC)

  18. Unpacking the relationship between rural healthcare, mobility and access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available , from the remoteness and spatial dispersion of rural communities. A variety of qualitative and quantitative instruments were employed to gather data to respond to the study hypotheses and research questions. The findings indicate a symbiotic...

  19. Vietnam: opportunities in a developing oil and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, T.

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this report is to act as an introduction to Vietnam and its oil industry opportunities for manufacturing, contracting, service and supplies companies which are seeking entry into other markets. The chapters of the report present an overview of the country, its recent history and formative events; in addition, the country's economy, industries and rebuilding process are reviewed. Detailed attention is given to trade, investment and finance, as these factors directly influence all business ventures in Vietnam, and are essential considerations in the assessment of the overall business environment. The appendices contain an extensive list of organisational contacts in Vietnam, the U.K. and elsewhere, and other useful information to support these activities. (author)

  20. Recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Sy An

    2008-01-01

    The author presented recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam. The author concentrated some valuable and helpful studies such as functional tests, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, bone, thyroid, lung, kidney and gastrointestinal tract scintigraphy for diagnosis. The results of RIA and IRMA concerning with thyroid diseases, cancer, microalbuminuria and TSH in blood spot on paper for screening of congenital hypothyroidism in new born babies were also given. The report also mentioned results of liver cancer and palliative bone metastasis treatments in Vietnam. A new technique using gamma probe in surgery for breast cancer was presented. The author introduced some modern teleradiotherapeutic modalities such as cyberknif, gamma knife, gamma rotating systeme and linac recently installed in Vietnam. (author)

  1. The Influence of Chinese Master Taixu on Buddhism in Vietnam

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    Elise A. DeVido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available From the 1920s, Vietnamese Buddhist reformers revitalized their religion, inspired in great part by the Chinese monk Taixu’s blueprint to modernize and systematize sangha education and temple administration, and by his idea ofrenjian fojiao, “Buddhism for this world,” emphasizing the centrality of education, modern publishing, social work, and Buddhist lay groups to Buddhism’s future in the modern world. This article first discusses the Chinese Buddhist revival, then the activities of Buddhist reformers in Vietnam 1920s–60s, and the flows of Buddhist personnel and materials between Vietnam and China. This article explores how renjian fojiao was interpreted and realized in Vietnam, especially its influence upon Thich Nhat Hanh as he developed his ideas on “Engaged Buddhism.”

  2. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  3. Mental health literacy: knowledge of depression among undergraduate students in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thai, Quynh Chi; Nguyen, Thanh Huong

    2018-01-01

    Mental health literacy (MHL) refers to an individuals' knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, and prevention. This study aims to investigate the MHL of depression among public health and sociology undergraduate students in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to September 2015. Data was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to 350 undergraduate students (213 public health majors; 137 sociology majors). Questions about MHL of depression were adapted from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health Literacy and Stigma. Question topics included recognition of depression, help-seeking intentions, first-aid support, and knowledge about interventions to help people with depression. Chi squared tests were conducted to compare proportional statistics across groups for multiple measures. With regard to recognition of mental disorders, 32.0% of the respondents used the accurate label "depression" for the vignette. Among those who correctly identified depression, 82.1% would seek help. The corresponding statistic was 81.1% from those who did not recognize depression. Both groups would seek help from counselor, psychologist, family members, and close friends. First-aid support suggested by the respondents in both groups were informal sources ( to listen to her problem in an understanding way, to encourage her to be more physically active , etc.). The interventions considered most helpful by the respondents were self-help strategies such as learning how to relax , getting physically active , doing exercise early in the morning , and reading a self - help book . Joining a group of individuals with similar problems was chosen to be a helpful intervention among those who did not recognize depression (p depression believed that people with depression should be admitted to hospital for psychiatric treatment (p depression among undergraduate students in Vietnam. The

  4. Culturally adaptive storytelling method to improve hypertension control in Vietnam - "We talk about our hypertension": study protocol for a feasibility cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jeroan J; Nguyen, Hoa L; Ha, Duc A; Chiriboga, Germán; Ly, Ha N; Tran, Hanh T; Phan, Ngoc T; Vu, Nguyen C; Kim, Minjin; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-01-14

    Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. At present, the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are either on the rise or at alarming levels in Vietnam; inasmuch, the burden of CVD will continue to increase in this country unless effective prevention and control measures are put in place. A national survey in 2008 found that the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) was approximately 25 % among Vietnamese adults and it increased with advancing age. Therefore, novel, large-scale, and sustainable interventions for public health education to promote engagement in the process of detecting and treating HTN in Vietnam are urgently needed. A feasibility randomized trial will be conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a novel community-based intervention using the "storytelling" method to enhance the control of HTN in adults residing in four rural communities. The intervention will center on stories about living with HTN, with patients speaking in their own words. The stories will be obtained from particularly eloquent patients, or "video stars," identified during Story Development Groups. The study will involve two phases: (i) developing a HTN intervention using the storytelling method, which is designed to empower patients to facilitate changes in their lifestyle practices, and (ii) conducting a feasibility cluster-randomized trial to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of the intervention compared with usual care in HTN control among rural residents. The trial will be conducted at four communes, and within each commune, 25 individuals 50 years or older with HTN will be enrolled in the trial resulting in a total sample size of 100 patients. This feasibility trial will provide the necessary groundwork for a subsequent large-scale, fully powered, cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of our novel

  5. Factors associated with job satisfaction among district hospital health workers in Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Duong, Huong Thao; Vu, Toan Thinh

    2017-04-01

    In many developing countries, including Vietnam, little is known about job satisfaction among lower level-health staff. The purpose of this study was to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among district hospital health staff. In a cross-sectional quantitative study, 128 health staff from a rural district hospital in Northern Vietnam were approached for data collection. Regression techniques were adopted to assess factors associated with several types of job satisfaction. Overall job satisfaction was moderately high, ranging from 69% to 91%. Across all dimensions, health workers showed their highest satisfaction with co-worker relationships, while, in comparison, it was much lower for their supervisor's style and relationship. However, they claimed their lowest satisfaction with compensation and benefits. In final multivariate models, females and those satisfied with knowledge, skills and job performance were most likely to be satisfied with relationships with co-workers. Staff who were married, received a low pay, who were not satisfied with supervisor style and relationships and who were not satisfied with staff training, development opportunities were least likely to be satisfied with compensation and benefits. The study findings highlight an important need for designing an intervention program that considers organizational factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  7. The Role of Vietnam in The ASEAN Regional Security Cooperation: From Mechanism Construction to Dispute Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunxia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the integration of ASEAN, Vietnam recognized that the strategic role of ASEAN is in its diplomacy. At the same time, to further improve the status in the region and in the international community, Vietnam has actively been participating in ASEAN affairs. Vietnam not only promoted the integration process of ASEAN, but also promoted the political security cooperation of ASEAN, in which Vietnam has advantages and wants to play a leading role. On the one hand, Vietnam promotes the construction of political security cooperation mechanisms, such as ARF, ADMM+, and so on; on the other hand, Vietnam took the South China Sea as a common concern, actively appeals for a common ASEAN position, to maximize its own benefit. Vietnam will further enhance and consolidate its status and role in ASEAN in the future.

  8. Attachment and Aspiration: What Influences Rural Youths' Educational and Residential Plans? White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Caitlin; Hambrick, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Building on recent research, ICF sought to explore how socioeconomic status and attachment to place influence rural youths' educational and residential preferences across a wider geographic region. Our research questions included: What are rural high school students' educational and residential plans? And what factors influence rural youths' plans…

  9. Location and Lifestyle: The Comparative Explanatory Ability of Urbanism and Rurality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, George D.; Peek, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    The article focuses on 2 questions pivotal to the issue of rural-urban differences: 1) "Do attitudinal differences remain among the rural and urban residents independent of differences generated by other potent variables?"; and 2) "Will any increase in the predictive utility of rurality be generated by use of a composite definition (residence plus…

  10. Evidence of previous but not current transmission of chikungunya virus in southern and central Vietnam: Results from a systematic review and a seroprevalence study in four locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Quan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited.In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey. The seroprevalence survey tested for CHIKV IgG in population serum samples from individuals of all ages in 2015 from four locations in Vietnam.The four locations were An Giang province (n = 137, Ho Chi Minh City (n = 136, Dak Lak province (n = 137, and Hue City (n = 136. The findings give us evidence of some CHIKV activity: 73/546 of overall samples were seropositive (13.4%. The age-adjusted seroprevalences were 12.30% (6.58-18.02, 13.42% (7.16-19.68, 7.97% (3.56-12.38, and 3.72% (1.75-5.69 in An Giang province, Ho Chi Minh City, Dak Lak province, and Hue City respectively. However, the age-stratified seroprevalence suggests that the last transmission ended around 30 years ago, consistent with results from the systematic review. We see no evidence for on-going transmission in three of the locations, though with some evidence of recent exposure in Dak Lak, most likely due to transmission in neighbouring countries. Before the 1980s, when transmission was occurring, we estimate on average 2-4% of the population were infected each year in HCMC and An Giang and Hue (though transmision ended earlier in Hue. We estimate lower transmission in Dak Lak, with around 1% of the population infected each year.In conclusion, we find evidence of past CHIKV transmission in central and southern Vietnam, but no evidence of recent sustained transmission. When transmission of CHIKV did occur, it appeared to be widespread and

  11. Ruralization of students’ horizons: insights into Australian health professional students’ rural and remote placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Merylin; Waller, Susan; Chambers, Helen; Farthing, Annie; Barraclough, Frances; Pit, Sabrina W; Sutton, Keith; Muyambi, Kuda; King, Stephanie; Anderson, Jessie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Health workforce shortages have driven the Australian and other Western governments to invest in engaging more health professional students in rural and remote placements. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of the lived experiences of students undertaking placements in various nonmetropolitan locations across Australia. In addition to providing their suggestions to improve rural placements, the study provides insight into factors contributing to positive and negative experiences that influence students’ future rural practice intentions. Methods Responses to open-ended survey questions from 3,204 students from multiple health professions and universities were analyzed using two independent methods applied concurrently: manual thematic analysis and computerized content analysis using Leximancer software. Results The core concept identified from the thematic analysis was “ruralization of students’ horizons,” a construct representing the importance of preparing health professional students for practice in nonmetropolitan locations. Ruralization embodies three interrelated themes, “preparation and support,” “rural or remote health experience,” and “rural lifestyle and socialization,” each of which includes multiple subthemes. From the content analysis, factors that promoted students’ rural practice intentions were having a “positive” practice experience, interactions with “supportive staff,” and interactions with the “community” in general. It was apparent that “difficulties,” eg, with “accommodation,” “Internet” access, “transport,” and “financial” support, negatively impacted students’ placement experience and rural practice intentions. Conclusions The study findings have policy and practice implications for continuing to support students undertaking regional, rural, and remote placements and preparing them for future practice in nonmetropolitan locations. This study

  12. Ruralization of students' horizons: insights into Australian health professional students' rural and remote placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tony; Cross, Merylin; Waller, Susan; Chambers, Helen; Farthing, Annie; Barraclough, Frances; Pit, Sabrina W; Sutton, Keith; Muyambi, Kuda; King, Stephanie; Anderson, Jessie

    2018-01-01

    Health workforce shortages have driven the Australian and other Western governments to invest in engaging more health professional students in rural and remote placements. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of the lived experiences of students undertaking placements in various nonmetropolitan locations across Australia. In addition to providing their suggestions to improve rural placements, the study provides insight into factors contributing to positive and negative experiences that influence students' future rural practice intentions. Responses to open-ended survey questions from 3,204 students from multiple health professions and universities were analyzed using two independent methods applied concurrently: manual thematic analysis and computerized content analysis using Leximancer software. The core concept identified from the thematic analysis was "ruralization of students' horizons," a construct representing the importance of preparing health professional students for practice in nonmetropolitan locations. Ruralization embodies three interrelated themes, "preparation and support," "rural or remote health experience," and "rural lifestyle and socialization," each of which includes multiple subthemes. From the content analysis, factors that promoted students' rural practice intentions were having a "positive" practice experience, interactions with "supportive staff," and interactions with the "community" in general. It was apparent that "difficulties," eg, with "accommodation," "Internet" access, "transport," and "financial" support, negatively impacted students' placement experience and rural practice intentions. The study findings have policy and practice implications for continuing to support students undertaking regional, rural, and remote placements and preparing them for future practice in nonmetropolitan locations. This study may, therefore, further inform ongoing strategies for improving rural placement experiences and

  13. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE TRADE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIETNAM AND CHINA; VIETNAM AND UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON USING GRAVITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Thi Dinh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the determinants of trade relationship between two largest trading partners of Vietnam, United States and China. Using gravity model for time series data from 1986 to 2015, the study found that economic growth rate plays a crucial role in stimulating the trade flow. Both trade relationships fit with the practical approach of Heckscher-Ohlin theory, stating that trade flow increases between countries with different income levels. The most important finding of this study lines on the results regarding the impact of trade agreements. While United States-Vietnam bilateral agreement creates trade, the trade agreement between ASEAN and China produced trade diversion. As China expands its markets among ASEAN countries, Vietnam should diversify its export markets to improve its export flow.

  15. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh

    2001-01-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray 60 Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55). Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect- orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  16. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  17. Application for airborne particulate matter as a demonstration using k0-NAA method in Dalat nuclear research institute of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Truong Y; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2004-01-01

    The airborne particulate samples have been collected using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM 2.5 and PM 2-5-10 in two typical sites of industrial (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. The concentration of trace elements in the samples has been determined by the k 0 -NAA procedure developed in Dalat NRI. In order to check the developed k 0 -NAA procedure for the airborne particulate matter, two standard reference materials (SRMs) Urban Particulate NIST-1648 and Vehicle Exhaust Particulates NIES-8 were analyzed and the obtained results have been compared and interpreted in term of deviation between experimental results and the certified values. (author)

  18. [Contributions and difficulties of the social approach in psychiatry: apropos of the American forces and veterans in Vietnam. 2. Psychosociological, psychiatric and medico-legal aspects in veterans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet, P

    1987-10-01

    In many veterans, the post-Vietnam era is that of "post-traumatic stress disorder" (P.T.S.D.), chronic or delayed, practically corresponding to the traumatic neurosis, dominated at all times by the intrusive-repetitive syndrome. This phenomenon is considered as concerning at least 800,000 persons. Acting out, in fact less common than it was feared, may be associated with it, as well as delinquency, likely more frequent than in the general population, alcoholism and substance abuse. Regarding the latter, the notion of a "legacy of Vietnam" is very questionable. Its decrease, which is sometimes spontaneous, puts the question of dependency, including opiates. The evidence of a possible P.T.S.D. behind these miscellaneous behavior disorders which evoke more an antisocial personality, is ticklish. With regard to epidemiology, the part of psychiatric sequels of Vietnam is so much the more difficult to appreciate as the affective and social support provided to these people at the time of their return "into the world" is often poor. A partial induction of such troubles, inspired with ideological or utilitarian purposes, is not excluded.

  19. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  20. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  1. Hospital clinical pharmacy services in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Huong T L; Pham, Van T T; Ba, Hai L; Dong, Phuong T X; Cao, Thao T B; Nguyen, Hanh T H; Brien, Jo-Anne

    2018-04-07

    Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation. Setting Thirty-nine hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 22 provincial and 17 district hospitals. Method A mixed methods study was utilized. An online questionnaire was sent to the hospitals. In-depth interviews were conducted with pairs of nominated pharmacists at ten of these hospitals. The questionnaire focused on four areas: facilities, workforce, policies and clinical pharmacy activities. Main outcome measure Proportion of clinical pharmacy activities in hospitals. Themes in clinical pharmacy practice. Results 34/39 (87%) hospitals had established clinical pharmacy teams. Most activities were non-patient-specific (87%) while the preliminary patient-specific clinical pharmacy services were available in only 8/39 hospitals (21%). The most common non-patient-specific activities were providing medicines information (97%), reporting adverse drug reactions (97%), monitoring medication usage (97%). The patient specific activities varied widely between hospitals and were ad hoc. The main challenges reported were: lack of workforce and qualified clinical pharmacists. Conclusion While most hospitals had hospital-based pharmacy activities, the direct patient care was limited. Training, education and an expanded work forces are needed to improve clinical pharmacy services.

  2. Rural Tourism: Development, Management and Sustainability in Rural Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-José Villanueva-Álvaro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the economic driving forces of Spain: the consolidation of existing tourist destinations and new market niches encourage an upward trend of tourism. The economic impacts produced by tourism are one of the major concerns of the authorities; the question is whether it is possible to continue growing without compromising our environment. This work attempts to answer this issue by analysing one of the tourism segments with higher growth in recent years: rural tourism. Using a model of partial least squares (PLS, we will analyse the environmental impacts from the point of view of the supply and its relationships with the environmental management conducted. We will also analyse the rural establishments from a global point of view and, depending on their category, explain the factors which determine the sustainable behaviour of providers, and identify that the establishments of low categories have a more sustainable conduct.

  3. Timely immunization completion among children in Vietnam from 2000 to 2011: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the beginning of 2014, there have been nearly 6,000 confirmed measles cases in northern Vietnam. Of these, more than 86% had neither been immunized nor was their vaccination status confirmed. Objective: To establish the likelihood that children under five in Vietnam had ‘timely immunization completion’ (2000–2011 and identify factors that account for variations in timely immunization completion. Design: Secondary data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS, which sampled women aged 15–49 from the 1999 Vietnamese Population and Housing Census frame, were analyzed. Multilevel analysis using Poisson regression was undertaken. Results: Proportions of children under five who had timely immunization completion were low, especially for HBV dose 2 and HBV dose 3, which decreased between 2000 and 2011. Among seven vaccines used in the National Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI in 2000, 2006, and 2011, measles dose 1 had the highest timely immunization completion at 65.3%, 66.7%, and 73.6%, respectively, and hepatitis B dose 1 had the lowest at 17.5%, 19.3%, and 45.5%, respectively. Timely immunization completion was less common among children whose mothers had relatively less household wealth, were from ethnic minorities, lived in rural areas, and had less education. At the community level, the child's region of residence was the main predictor of timely immunization completion, and the availability of hospital delivery and community prenatal care in the local community were also determinants. Conclusion: The EPI should include ‘timely immunization completion’ as a quality indicator. There should also be greater focus and targeting in rural areas, and among women who have relatively low education, belong to minority groups, and have less household wealth. Further research on this topic using multilevel analysis is needed to better understand how these factors interact.

  4. Control of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Quang Tri province, Vietnam: voices from the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Penny C; Hunter, Cynthia; Truong, Bui; Bunning, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is caused by the haemagglutinin 5, neuraminidase 1 (H5N1) influenza A virus. Around 80% of households in rural Vietnam raise poultry, which provides food security and nutrition to their households and beyond. Of these, around 15-20% are semi-commercial producers, producing at least 28% of the country's chicken. Through learning the experiences of these semi-commercial farmers, this study aimed to explore the local understandings and sociocultural aspects of HPAI's impact, particularly the aetiology, diagnosis, and the prevention and control methods in one Vietnamese rural province. This study was conducted in Quang Tri province, Vietnam. Quang Tri province has eight districts. Five of these districts were at high risk of HPAI during the study period, of which three were selected for the present study. Within these three districts, six communes were randomly selected for the study from the list of intervention communes in Quang Tri province. Six out of the 26 intervention communes in Quang Tri were therefore selected. Participants were randomly selected and recruited from lists of semi-commercial farmers, village animal health workers, village human health workers and local authorities so that the study population (representative population) included an amount of variability similar to that of the wider population. A key benefit of this village-level control program was the residential proximity of animal and human health professionals. Participants were well aware of the typical clinical signs for avian influenza and of the reporting process for suspect cases. However there was extensive room for improvement in Quang Tri province regarding access to the HPAI vaccine, essential medical equipment for animal use, and available financial support. This qualitative research study provided an important insight for in-country policy makers and international stakeholders. It is vital that there are continued efforts to prevent and

  5. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  6. Recreational images of a rural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkers, P.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    What images have recreationists of a rural landscape? To answer this question, a study was undertaken concerning the key elements in a destination image. Emphasis was put on the image as a product, as contrasted with the process by which an image is formed. Interviews were held with recreationists

  7. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited....

  8. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  9. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Cost of Illness of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Kane, Sumit; Le, Diep M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Li, Shu Chuen

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the total financial burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for Vietnam by quantifying the direct medical, the direct nonmedical, and indirect costs among patients with various stages of chronic HBV infection. Direct medical cost data were retrieved retrospectively from

  11. Mangrove restoration in Vietnam : Key considerations and a practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam mangrove rehabilitation has a long history and gained momentum after the war that destroyed huge forested areas, especially in the Mekong Delta. In addition, in various places mangrove have been and still are being planted specifically as a way to protect shorelines and sea-dykes from

  12. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); L.R.A. Alink (Lenneke R.A.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and

  13. Developing the Profession of School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…

  14. Youth Transition to Employment in Vietnam: A Vulnerable Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuyet

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that educational attainment is one of the significant factors affecting youth transition to work. The process of capital accumulation through education is suggested as the key marker of social inclusion and exclusion. This paper compares the educational attainment among youth in Vietnam with their status in employment. It uses…

  15. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, Do Huu; Phuong, Cam Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...

  16. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  17. Two new species of Nemouridae (Plecoptera) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochetti, Romolo; Ceci, Massimo

    2017-05-23

    Two new species belonging to the family Nemouridae, Nemoura kontumensis sp. nov. and Amphinemura konplongensis sp. nov. are described from the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Remarks on the affinities with related species are given.

  18. Consumer’s Evaluation and Choice of Beer in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Yang, Yingkui

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the consumer’s evaluation and choice for beer characteristics is critical for marketers, nutritionist and health educators. We used multi-profile best-worst scaling to understand how consumers evaluate beer attributes in Vietnam context. We found that beer brand, price and packaging...

  19. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  20. Regional Labor Market Integration, Shadow Wages and Poverty in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Le Dang; Oostendorp, Remco H.

    2017-01-01

    Poor workers suffer from low returns to their most abundant resource, labor. In this paper we show that labor market integration strongly affects these returns for poor workers in Vietnam. Using seven representative household surveys, it is shown that while regional labor markets have become

  1. Vietnam's evolving poverty map : patterns and implications for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lanjouw, Peter; Marra, Marleen; Nguyen, Cuong

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses small area estimation techniques to update Vietnam's province and district-level poverty map to 2009. It finds that poverty rates continue to be highest in the northern and central mountainous regions, where ethnic minorities make up a large fraction of the population. Poverty has fallen in most provinces and districts over this decade, but the pace of poverty reduction has...

  2. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent...

  3. Utilities of Patients with Hypertension in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to inform potential cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam by providing utilities and predictors of utilities in patients with hypertension. Methods Hypertensive patients up to 80 years old visiting the hospital were invited to participate in a

  4. Authoring Teacher Development in a Graduate Seminar in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry is to explore stories of teacher development experienced by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in a graduate seminar in Vietnam. The author was the instructor for the course, entitled "Literature and Language Teaching." Three types of data were collected: course documents, a professional…

  5. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed...Economic Zone FTA Free Trade Agreement GDP Gross Domestic Product IMET International Military Education and Training MIA Missing in Action

  6. A new alpheid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from South Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyên Van Xuân,

    2001-01-01

    A new alpheid shrimp, Thuylamea camelus gen. nov. & spec. nov., from Dong Hoa, a coastal community of Can Gio district, and northwest of Vung Tau (Cap St. Jacques), Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new genus appears not to be closely related to any of the previously described genera. It

  7. Dilemmas in Examining Understanding of Nature of Science in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherley-Greene, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The two authors, Thi Phuong Thao-Do and Chokchai Yuenyong, explored the Nature of Science as it is understood in Vietnam, a fast-developing "ancient" and modern country which continues to be shaped by uniquely Asian social norms and values. Upon reviewing their paper, I observed strong parallels to the country, the United Arab Emirates,…

  8. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Chaine Annamatique represents the last of the three orogenic episodes that shook Indochina and forms most of Vietnam's boundary with Laos, In south Vietnam the mountains which have a north-south trend are formed of granites, gneisses and mica schists and are inseparable from the anti-hercynian formations. Iron ore, gold, lead, copper, tin, wolfraun, bismuth and molybdenium minerals are found. Plans had been made in 1960 to prospect for uranium but no information is available on whether that work was ever done. The only evidence of occurrences of nuclear raw materials is that titaniferous sands occur in several coastal regions and that uranium was once listed as having been produced in Forth Vietnam. Although the geology of Vietnam is not very conducive to the formation and preservation of uranium deposits it is possible that because of the granite terrain and presence of other metalliferous minerals, the Speculative Potential should be stated as in category 2 i.e. from 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  10. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  11. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  12. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  13. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  14. Conceptualizing responsible innovation in craft villages in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.; de Haan, J.A.C.; Roome, N.; de Groot, G.A.; Nguyen Thi, Huong; van den Hoven, J.; Doorn, N.; Swierstra, T.; Koops, B.-J.; Romijn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research by the authors has explored small-scale innovations in poor craft producers’ clusters in villages in the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam. Although these innovations resulted in value creation and increased incomes, they also often gave rise to negative environmental or social

  15. Facilitating Alcohol Control Law Development in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... years, both for commercial products and for unrecorded alcohol products, such as homemade spirits. ... related to alcohol taxation and pricing; -alcohol affordability in Vietnam and the likely ... New partnership to support Ebola research teams ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  16. Digitaria Effusa (Gramineae), a new species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    During an agrostological survey in the Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, Mr. J.B. Hacker (St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia) collected a remarkable undescribed species of Digitaria. Among the Asian taxa it is peculiar because of its montane provenance coupled with a combination of an inflorescence with

  17. Hydrodynamic modelling of tidal inlets in Hue, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, N.T.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Wegen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Application of an one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamic simulation of a complex lagooninlet system in Vietnam is presented. Model results help to get a better understanding on the behaviour of the system. Based on the numerical model results and analytic solutions, stability of tidal

  18. Composition of the oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Kruk, C.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The essential oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were found to be thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (confirmed by 1H-NMR, 73.6%), and B-caryophyllene (8.9%), accounting e for more than 82% of the oil. Selina-4,11-diene (11.0%) was also

  19. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  20. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  1. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXCHANGE RATE POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Dong Phung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of effectiveness of exchange rate policy in contemporary Vietnam, along with the assessment of the mechanism of this policy from 1989 to the present day. The author analyzes constraints of implementing the exchange rate policy in the past and gives recommendations aimed at improving its efficiency nowadays.

  2. Using a Simulation and Literature To Teach the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses teaching about the Vietnam War. Focuses on selecting literature and how to implement the "mines and booby traps simulation," which demonstrates the experience of an infantry soldier. Describes follow-up activities to the simulation, the connections students made between the simulation and literature, and the importance of simulation…

  3. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slunge, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.slunge@economics.gu.se [Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Tran, Trang Thi Huyen, E-mail: trang2k@yahoo.com [University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  4. Towards a sustainable plan for new tube houses in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.A.; Bokel, R.M.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Hein, Carola

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the history of cities can easily be seen through their urban patterns, landscapes and housing typologies. Most recently, the economic reform in 1986 has resulted in huge impact on the Vietnamese society. The rapid economic growth and privatisation of the market has resulted in the

  5. Student Plagiarism in Higher Education in Vietnam: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Ba, Khang; Do Ba, Khai; Lam, Quoc Dung; Le, Dao Thanh Binh An; Nguyen, Phuong Lien; Nguyen, Phuong Quynh; Pham, Quoc Loc

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses and compares the prevalence of plagiarism across different student and assignment characteristics at a university in Vietnam, using the similarity index reported by the text-matching software Turnitin as a proxy measure of plagiarism on a sample of 681 student papers. The findings present a level of match higher than reported…

  6. Administrative co-management in special use forests of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, Nguyen Kim

    2017-01-01

    To protect its natural heritage and biodiversity, Vietnam has established a system of ‘special use forest’ (SUFs) which is “the backbone of the national protected areas”. The ineffective management of SUFs based solely on the state leads to a decline in biodiversity and density of the forests.

  7. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.L.; de Vries, P.J.; Nga, T.T.T.; Giao, P.T.; Hung, L.Q.; Binh, T.Q.; Nam, N.V.; Nagelkerke, N.; Kager, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh

  8. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J.; Nga, Tran T. T.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh

  9. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-01-01

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries

  10. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.

  11. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  12. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Clement Abah

    2014-01-01

    The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution ...

  13. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in Łódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in Łódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in Łódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  14. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  15. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  16. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  17. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  18. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  19. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  20. Self-efficacy reduces the impact of social isolation on medical student's rural career intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Pit, Sabrina Winona; McLachlan, Craig S

    2018-03-20

    Social isolation in medical students is a subjective experience that may influence medical career decision making. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intentions following a rural clinical placement, however its impact on social isolation during a rural clinical placement has not been previously modeled. The objective of this study is to explore whether self-perception of social isolation is associated with rural career intent in rural medical students. Secondly, to determine whether self-efficacy influences the association between social isolation and rural career intent. 2015 data, from a cross-sectional survey of the National Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) study. Among 619 medical students attending rural clinical schools (RCS), rural career intent was assessed. This included intended rural location for either postgraduate medical specialist or generalist training or completion of that training. Self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice were based on a validated scale consisting of six questions. Social isolation was measured asking students whether they felt socially isolated during their RCS placement. 31.3% of surveyed students self-reported feeling socially isolated during their rural placement. Social isolation was associated with reduced rural career intent after controlling for gender, rural background, RCS preference, RCS support and wellbeing. In step-wise logistic regression the association between social isolation and rural intent disappeared with the inclusion of rural self-efficacy. Social isolation during a rural clinical placement is commonly reported and is shown to reduce rural career intent. High levels of rural clinical self-efficacy reduce the effects of social isolation on future rural workforce intentions.