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  1. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

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    O. B. Banjoko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  2. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria

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    Ayodeji M. Adebayo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria.Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%.Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1% had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5% were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years, had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0% respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs.Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  3. Assessment of a treatment guideline to improve home management of malaria in children in rural south-west Nigeria

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    Oduola Ayo MJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice household surveys were conducted. The intervention strategy consisted of training a core group of mothers ("mother trainers" in selected communities on the correct treatment of malaria and distributing a newly developed treatment guideline to each household. "Mother trainers" disseminated the educational messages about malaria and the use of the guideline to their communities. Results Knowledge of cause, prevention and treatment of malaria increased with the one-year intervention. Many, (70.4% of the respondents stated that they used the guideline each time a child was treated for malaria. There was a significant increase in the correct use of chloroquine from 2.6% at baseline to 52.3% after intervention among those who treated children at home in the intervention arm compared with 4.2% to 12.7% in the control arm. The correctness of use was significantly associated with use of the guideline. The timeliness of commencing treatment was significantly earlier in those who treated febrile children at home using chloroquine than those who took their children to the chemist or health facility (p Conclusion The use of the guideline with adequate training significantly improved correctness of malaria treatment with chloroquine at home. Adoption of this mode of intervention is recommended to improve compliance with drug use at home. The applicability for deploying artemisinin-based combination therapy at the community level needs to be investigated.

  4. Urban and rural fuelwood situation in the tropical rain-forest area of south-west Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, I.; Baumbach, G. [University of Stuttgart (Germany). Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology; Oluwole, A.F.; Obioh, I.B.; Ogunsola, O.J. [University of Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics

    1998-10-01

    Our study describes a 1995 survey (1120 questionnaires) in the urban and rural rainforests of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, on fuel use for cooking. We assessed the biofuel burning in Africa, in particular, and in tropical countries, in general. Included are discussions of socio-economic conditions, descriptions of the types and numbers of stoves, fuel and combustion characteristics, specific fuel consumption in both the private and commercial sectors, fuel sources and their availability, and health effects caused by cooking with firewood. We determined the weights and/or dimensions of fuel units, wood residues, fireplaces and combustion chambers. The consumptions of firewood (in kg cap{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) obtained by this method are of 515 in urban areas and 573 in rural areas. Wood usage is greater for low-income groups than for better situated householders who utilize kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity for cooking. Agricultural residues are used to start and support wood combustion; animal residues are not used as cooking fuels. (author)

  5. Performance needs assessment of maternal and newborn health service delivery in urban and rural areas of Osun State, South-West, Nigeria.

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    Esan, Oluwaseun T; Fatusi, Adesegun O

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to determine performance and compare gaps in maternal and newborn health (MNH) services in urban and rural areas of Osun State, Nigeria, to inform decisions for improved services. This study involved 14 urban and 10 rural-based randomly selected PHC facilities. Using a Performance Needs Assessment framework, desired performances were determined by key stakeholders and actual performances measured by conducting facility survey. Questionnaire interview of 143 health workers and 153 antenatal clients were done. Performance gaps were determined for the urban and rural areas and compared using Chi-square tests with SPSS version 17. PHC facilities and health workers in Osun State, Nigeria, were found to have significant gaps in MNH service performance and this was worse in the rural areas. Root cause of most of the performance gaps was poor political will of local government authorities. Improved government commitment to MNH is needful to address most of the gaps.

  6. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria

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    Afolabi BM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bamgboye M Afolabi,1 Emmanuel NU Ezedinachi,2 Iwara Arikpo,2 Abiodun Ogunwale,3 Damilola Fatimah Ganiyu,1 Rashidat A Abu,1 Adewunmi A Ajibade1 1Health, Environment and Development Foundation, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Institute of Tropical Disease and Research, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Project Hope, Washington, DC, USA Background: Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. Objective: This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. Results: In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81% were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents (χ2=29.9, P=0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2. Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women

  7. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria.

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    Afolabi, Bamgboye M; Ezedinachi, Emmanuel Nu; Arikpo, Iwara; Ogunwale, Abiodun; Ganiyu, Damilola Fatimah; Abu, Rashidat A; Ajibade, Adewunmi A

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81%) were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents ( χ 2 =29.9, P =0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2). Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women and 67% among singles. Knowledge of contraceptive method was negatively associated with marital status ( t =-2.24, P =0.025) but positively associated with source of information on contraceptives ( t =20.00, P =0.000). Use of contraceptives was positively associated with stage of reproductive age ( t =1.94, P =0.05) and source of information on contraceptives ( t =11.22, P =0.000), but negatively

  8. Impact of nutritional education on nutritional status of under-five children in two rural communities of south-west Nigeria.

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    Sule, S S; Onayade, A A; Abiona, T C; Fatusi, A O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Esimai, O A; Ijadunola, K T

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of nutritional education on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of mothers concerning infants and young children feeding and their children's nutritional status in two semi-urban communities of south-west Nigeria. This is a community intervention study. We recruited 150 mothers of children aged 0-18 months independently from the intervention and control communities through a multi-stage sampling technique. We collected data with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and at six months after intervention from both communities to obtain information on feeding of infants and young children. In addition, we measured weights and heights of recruited children. Intervention involved group counselling of mothers and food demonstrations at designated health facilities. Data analysis for quantitative data was done using Epi-Info software, and for qualitative data, content analysis of major themes was used. Before intervention, recruited mothers and their children from the two communities were comparable in terms of all the parameters assessed (P>0.05 in all cases). After six months of intervention, mothers who had nutritional education demonstrated better knowledge and attitudes to key infant and young children feeding recommendations. There was also limited improvement in feeding practices. Mothers from the intervention community exclusively breastfed their infants longer with mean age at introduction of complementary foods at 5.3 months compared to 4.5 months in the control community (Pchildren longer (Pchildren. In this study, nutritional education of mothers only had positive impact on their level of KAP on infant and young children feeding.

  9. Has Rural Banking Developed Rural Nigeria? | Amadasu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is problem of rural development in Nigeria because of increasing poverty in the rural areas where about 70% of the people live. Reducing poverty means increasing income. Increasing income means increasing bank loans and advances for efficient application to agricultural and industrial activities in the rural Nigeria ...

  10. Mobile Phone Use for Agribusiness by Farmers in Southwest Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated how farmers in Southwest Nigeria use mobile phones for agribusiness, the benefits of the use of mobile phones, and the challenges farmers face using the device. Driven by theory of information and communication technology for development, this study adopted survey and focus group discussion ...

  11. Perception of physiotherapy educators in southwest Nigeria on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to seek opinions regarding the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the models of clinical education used in south-west, Nigeria. Seventy- four (45 males, 29 females) physiotherapy educators participated in this cross-sectional population-based survey. They were recruited from the three ...

  12. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

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    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  13. Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria

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    Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273 canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion, age (young or adult, and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273. There was significant difference (P0.05 between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases in the region.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF OPEN SPACE UTILIZATION ON RESIDENTS’ ATTACHMENT WITH COMMUNITY: A CASE STUDY OF RURAL MARKET SQUARE IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

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    Agboola Oluwagbemiga Paul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Open space such as market square is a communal ground where people carry out their various functional activities. This research work is undertaken in order to fill the knowledge gap in areas of people and place relationship, where improvements are needed to overcome challenges in the provision of facilities, design, and planning. In view of its significance, it becomes imperative to explore the relationship between the utilization of market square and residents’ attachment to the community. Therefore, 382 respondents’ views on market dependence, identity, activities preferences, and attachment to the community were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The findings from Structural Equation Modelling (SEM using AMOS tool version 22 for the tested hypothesized model reveal that residents’ dependence and identity with market square had positive significant impacts on residents’ attachment to the community with standardised path coefficient values of 0.32 and 0.48 respectively. It is therefore suggested that appropriate machinery should be put in place towards improving the quality of the market square to further enhance users’ interaction cum the sustainability of the community in Nigeria.

  15. Genital Ulcers and Sexual Transmitted Disease in Rural Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casual sex was a dominant behavioural pattern. The phenomenon of denial was encountered in females. STDs are not uncommon in rural Nigeria. Integration of Sexual health in rural health, family health, and school health is urgently needed. Key Words: Genital ulcers, STDs, Rural Nigeria Jnl of Medical Investigation and ...

  16. Politics-Administration Interface and Sustenance of Public Service Ethos in South-West Nigeria

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    Salami Issa Afegbua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work examined politics-administration interface and the sustenance of public service ethos in Southwest Nigeria. Public servants and political functionaries in Southwest Nigeria are constantly in a struggle to fix each other in their pre-conceived mould of mental judgment which invariably breeds mutual suspicion, apprehension and setting the stage for conflict which is likely to impact negatively on the performance of public servants in Southwest Nigeria. The article identified the factors influencing the interface of public servants and political office holders in Southwest Nigeria. It also determined the influence of the interface between on public service ethos and finally examined the efforts made towards sustaining public service ethos in Southwest Nigeria. In carrying out this work, primary and secondary data were used. In the case of primary data, survey was carried out and questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents in the Southwest geo-political zone of the country. Purposive random sampling techniques were adopted to determine the target respondents. The study has a sample of five hundred and thirty-five (535, which constitute 50 percent of the total population figure of 1070.  The findings revealed amongst others, that the synergy between political functionaries and public office holders is often characterized by both conflict and cooperation. In addition, there are certain factors influencing the interface of public servants and political office holders in Southwest Nigeria, these factors include: contract awards, consideration in the appointment of top civil servants etc. The study therefore, recommends the need for Southwest Nigeria to strengthen politics-administration interface in such a way that the public services in that region will be more productive. There is also the need for government in the Southwest to clarify the respective roles of political office holders and public servants. The principles

  17. Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... the country's very low human development indicators, particularly in the rural areas, is a serious cause of concern.

  18. Knowledge and utilization of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in primary health care centers in rural southwest, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.

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    Akinleye, Stella O; Falade, Catherine O; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O

    2009-07-09

    Intermittent preventive treatment for prevention of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a key component of malaria control strategy in Nigeria and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the drug of choice. Despite the evidence of the effectiveness of IPTp strategy using SP in reducing the adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy the uptake and coverage in Nigeria is low. This study set out to assess the use of IPTp among pregnant women attending primary health centres in the rural area and determine factors that influence the uptake. A cross-sectional study was carried out between July and August 2007 among 209 pregnant women selected by systematic random sampling from antenatal care attendees at primary health care in a rural Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Information on knowledge of IPT, delivery, adherence and acceptability was obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, range, proportions were used. Chi-square test was used to examine association between categorical variables. All analyses were performed at 5% level of significance. One hundred and nine of 209 (52.2%) respondents have heard about IPTp but only 26 (23.9%) were able to define it. Fifty seven (27.3%) reported to have received at least one dose of IPTp during the index pregnancy and all were among those who have heard of IPTp (52.3%). Twenty one of the 57 (36.8%) took the SP in the clinic. Only three of the twenty-one (14.3%) were supervised by a health worker. Twenty two of the 36 women (61.1%) who did not take their drugs in the clinic would have liked to do so if allowed to bring their own drinking cups. Almost half (43.9%) of those who had used IPTp during the index pregnancy expressed concern about possible adverse effect of SP on their pregnancies. Periodic shortages of SP in the clinics were also reported. In this study, IPTp use among pregnant women was very low and there was poor adherence to the Directly Observed Therapy (DOT

  19. Contraceptive use among hairdressers in South-west Nigeria.

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    Omokhodion, F O; Onadeko, M O; Balogun, O O

    2007-08-01

    Hairdressers and their apprentices are mostly women in their reproductive years. The social environment in hairdressing salons provides the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits among peers and may influence decisions on sexual behavior. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and use of contraceptives among hairdressers. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics and knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among hairdressers in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. A total of 355 hairdressers were interviewed: 60 apprentices (17%) and 295 qualified hairdressers (83%); 110 (31%) single and 240 (67%) married. They were females aged 15 - 49 years (mean 29 +/- 6.9 years). Some 70% of single women had regular sexual partners. A total of 24 single women (21%) had been pregnant and 20 (18%) had abortions. Some 121 (34%) of the study population were currently using contraceptives: 27 single and 94 married respondents. The prevalence of contraceptive use among sexually active single women was 34%. The condom was the most known and used contraceptive method. The major reasons for non-use of contraceptives were fear of side-effects (23%); need for more children (16%); or respondents were not engaged in sexual activity (12%). Contraceptive use among sexually active single hairdressers is lower than the national average. Workplace educational intervention is needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among these young women.

  20. Determinants of Rural Development in Edo State, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 70% of the total population in Nigeria lives in the rural areas, while half of this population is without proper-formal education (World Bank 2005). Data for this study which is on the Determinants of rural Development in Edo State, Nigeria were collected through the primary and secondary sources. Primary data were ...

  1. Labour migration and rural transformation in Nigeria.

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    Onyeonoru, I P

    1994-06-01

    The trends in rural-urban migration in Nigeria responded to changes in political and socioeconomic developments which occurred during the 1980s. Since the 1980s, rural-urban migration trends were rapidly reversed, and migrants returned to rural areas. In 1981, government revenues from oil declined. The oil production and price declines between 1980 and 1986 resulted in a foreign exchange crisis. Import restrictions were imposed, and stabilization measures resulted in scarcities of raw materials and spare parts and declines in industrial capacity. About 50% of import substitution factories went bankrupt. Between 1981 and 1983, about one million workers were estimated to have been laid off, of which 55,000 were federal and state employees. Other estimates indicated one million laid off just in the industrial sector. The government reinforced this urban-rural movement by emphasizing increased food production. In 1992, government wages were increased in order to offset high inflation. In 1986 and 1992, State and Local Government Areas were established as political entities tied to grassroots development; local offices were situated in greater proximity to local populations. In 1986, the objective was to provide infrastructure, promote production, and organize rural areas for development. Several community banks devoted to rural areas were established. Development programs for rural women were initiated. Federal revenue allocations to rural areas increased from 10% to 15%. Inducements were given to attract private formal and informal commerce and industry. The result was less than expected. Obstacles to rural development included the absence of an effective and integrated approach, inadequate funding, and corruption. Provision of good roads and schools did meet objectives and may have induced out-migration. Delays in provision of entitlements exacerbated the ability of return migrants to establish new economic activity. The new political divisions did not conform to

  2. Female genital tract cancers in Sagamu, southwest, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Design: This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Setting: OOUTH is a ...

  3. Rural Urban Interaction to Cope with Climate Change (Nigeria ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Site internet. http://www.nest.org.ng/. Extrants. Rapports. Triggering Rural-Urban Interactions to Cope With Climate Change: An Adaptation Experiment In Aba and its Region, Southeastern Nigeria - Final Technical Report. Rapports.

  4. Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Some respondents observed self-imposed restrictions on exercises, food items, visits and sex in order to ...

  5. The Position and Empowerment of & Women in Rural Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Position and Empowerment of & Women in Rural Nigeria: The Gender ... base on the continued entrenchment and perpetuation of traditional cultures as ... have manifested itself in gender inequality and discrimination that has far reaching ...

  6. Social Media Use by Librarians for Information Dissemination in Three Federal University Libraries in Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Ganiyu Oluwaseyi; Adebayo Idowu, Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated social media use for information dissemination by librarians in federal university libraries in Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive survey method was adopted for the study, while the sample consisted of all 82 librarians in the selected universities. A questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection, while the data…

  7. Social Health Insurance in Nigeria: Policy Implications in A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social health insurance was introduced in Nigeria in 1999 and had since been restricted to workers in the formal public sector. There are plans for scaling up to include rural populations in a foreseeable future. Information on willingness to participate and pay a premium in the programme by rural populations is dearth.

  8. The Concept and Process of Rural Development in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although rural areas in Nigeria habour over eighty percent of the national population, they can only boast of about ten percent of the infrastructure and other indices of development. The billions of dollars, which the three tiers of government and international agencies budget for the development of rural areas are often ...

  9. Patent Medicine Vendors in Rural Areas of Lagos Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the compliance of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) in rural areas of Lagos State, Nigeria with set guidelines to regulate their practice and its implications for malaria control. Methods: A baseline cross-sectional study was conducted as part of an intervention study in two rural local government areas ...

  10. Lecturers' Awareness and Utilization of Instructional Media in the State-Owned Colleges of Education, South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakomogbon, Micheal Ayodele; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke Kofo

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the awareness and utilization of instructional media (IM) based on gender of the lecturers of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was a descriptive type of survey research. All lecturers of Colleges of Education in Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria formed the population. Some 621 lecturers were randomly selected.…

  11. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  12. FEMALE GENITAL TRACT CANCERS IN SAGAMU, SOUTHWEST, NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, P O; Adefuye, B O; Oluwole, A A

    2014-11-01

    To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. OOUTH is a tertiary health institution of the State's university and it takes referrals from within and outside the State. Case records of all female genital tract cancers managed between January 2004 and December 2013 were retrieved and analysed using SPSS version 16.0. There were 2059 women treated forvarious gynaecologic conditions, 179 (8.7%) were cases of female genital tract cancers and 161 records were available for analysis. Cervical cancer constituted the commonest (51.6%), followed by ovarian (35.4%), endometrial (9.9%), and choriocarcinoma (1.9%). There were no cases of vaginal and fallopian tube cancers. The lowest mean age was found in choriocarcinoma (36.60 ± 4.50 years) and highest in vulvar cancer (70.00 ± 2.82 years). The mean ages for cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers were (51.98 ± 12.39), (65.38 ± 7.24), and (54.42 ± 10.51) years respectively. Similarly the least mean parity was found in choriocarcinoma (2.33 ± 1.52), and the highest in vulvar cancer (6.00 ± 1.44). The mean parity for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian were (4.10 ± 1.49),(3.06 ± 1.48), and (3.72 ± 1.68) respectively. These differences are statistically significant, age; F = 7.61, p < 0.0001, and parity; F = 3.27, p= 0.013. Incidence of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers remain high and presentations are at late stages. There is a need to improve on cervical cancer screening, and for the attending physicians to improve on their indices of suspicions as regards endometrial and ovarian cancers.

  13. Rural - Urban differential in housing characteristics in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural - Urban differential in housing characteristics in Nigeria: Empirical evidence. EC Nwogu, IS Iwueze. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: pp. 83-89. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Potentials Of Agro-Tourism For Rural Development In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the potentials of agro-tourism for rural development in Nigeria and made policy recommendations for agro-tourism to flourish. The potentials include the promotion of entrepreneurship and industrialization, economic advancement, education and good health of the citizen. It was recommended that for ...

  15. Nigeria: Positioning Rural Economy for Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals

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    Akinbode Michael Okunola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as nation has over the years engaged in lots of developmental activities without actions which makes achievements to elude the people. Development of societies doesn’t happen in the vacuum. Thus, the adoption of Structural Adjustment Program, SAP, by Nigeria leading to the neglect of the custom periodic National Plan at a time when Nigeria had no structure for development was the beginning of journey to widened inequality and large poverty incidence, depth and severity. To close the gap between the rich and the poor, the Nigeria government had designed and implemented some programs and policies whose implementation has not solved the inherent problems. In year 2000, the world leaders subscribed to the Millennium Development Goals to ensure synergized global approach to solving the poverty menace. Programs designed in Nigeria to achieve the MDGs focused on the urban centers thereby relegating the rural areas which are responsible for the feeding of the teeming population of the urban dwellers. Farming households and the general rural communities do not have access to clean water, quality education and health facilities, good feeder roads, affordable and safe energy as well as other socioeconomic and socio-infrastructural facilities that would ensure sustainable living for the people whose contribution to the national economy cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore looks at the structural actions the Nigeria government should embarked upon to ensure that the rural dweller have access to life. As the government would be developing programs and policies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals whose priority is the end poverty in all forms and everywhere by 2030, this study reveals how to position the rural economy for developmental attention from the policy makers.

  16. An Exploratory Study of the Women Entrepreneurial Motivation in the South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D.Chinonye Okafor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurial motivation is a function of variables that are subject to authors and researchers’ opinions and views. These variables can be classified based on their impact on women entrepreneurial performance, behavior and challenges. This paper is therefore focused on examining the factors that affect women entrepreneurial motivation in the South-West Nigeria. The data used for the study was obtained through primary source. The data gathered was analyzed using the model of correlation analysis. Recommendations were made based on the result obtained from the testing of the hypothesis.

  17. Epidemiology of stroke in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwereji KO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelechi O Enwereji,1 Maduaburochukwu C Nwosu,1 Adesola Ogunniyi,2 Paul O Nwani,1 Azuoma L Asomugha,1 Ezinna E Enwereji3 1Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine/Nursing Sciences, College of Medicine, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria Background: The prevalence and incidence of stroke vary from community to community worldwide. Nonetheless, not much is known about the current epidemiology of stroke in rural Nigeria and indeed Africa. Methods: We carried out a two-phase door-to-door survey in a rural, predominantly low-income, community in Anambra, Southeastern Nigeria. We used a modified World Health Organization (WHO protocol for detecting neurological diseases in the first phase, and a stroke-specific questionnaire and neurological examination in the second phase. An equal number of sex- and age-matched stroke-negative subjects were examined. Results: We identified ten stroke subjects in the study. The crude prevalence of stroke in rural Nigeria was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78–3.00 per 1,000 population. The crude prevalence of stroke in males was 1.99 (95% CI 0.73–4.33 per 1,000, while that for females was 1.28 (95% CI 0.35–3.28 per 1,000 population. The peak age-specific prevalence of stroke was 12.08 (95% CI 3.92–28.19 per 1,000, while after adjustment to WHO world population, the peak was 1.0 (95% CI 0.33–2.33 per 1,000. Conclusion: The prevalence of stroke was found to be higher than previously documented in rural Nigeria, with a slightly higher prevalence in males than females. This is, however, comparable to data from rural Africa. Keywords: Africa, developing country, prevalence

  18. Sustainable Rural Development in Nigeria through Microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Nigeria like many nations in the developing world, extreme poverty remains widespread. ..... change to many of the current relationships of gender and class. ... operations and safety of deposits. Thirdly, funding of real sector activities, especially agricultural and manufacturing production, need to be promoted by MFIs as ...

  19. Rural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Lessons From Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focussed on the lessons that can be garnered from the tenets of Scientific Management. We undertook an X-ray of the tenets of Scientific Management and how these tenets can be adopted to ensure the success of emerging entrepreneurs in the rural areas. Many rural entrepreneurs fail within a short period of ...

  20. Conceptions of the Nature of Science Held by Undergraduate Pre-Service Biology Teachers in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…

  1. Poverty Profile of Rural Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Olabisi Onabanjo ... and more severe among households whose heads were female, having low educational ... Evidence in the Millennium Development Goals ... In departure from several poverty studies (e.g .... gender of the household head (1 if female ; 0.

  2. Modelling the impact of rural migration on tropical deforestation in South-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, Anton; Debonne, N.; Vanmaercke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A major driver of tropical deforestation is rural frontier migration. In this paper an attempt is made to formally describe the human-environment interactions that are manifested in a forested system experiencing a large influx of rural migrants. The Guraferda district in South-West Ethiopia was

  3. Southwest Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Bengtsson et al., 985; Lauren, 1991;. Poleksic & Mitrovic- Tunlundzic, 1994). Van Valen (1962), Palmer & Strobeck. (1986) and Graham et al. (1993) described .... and M. A. Lewis, ed.). ASTMSTP 1179,. American Society for Testing and Materials,. Philadelphia. pp. 136-158. Haylor G. S. (1993). Aspects of the biology and.

  4. Utilization of Adult and Non-Formal Education Programs in Combating Rural Poverty in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihejirika, John Chinedu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept of poverty and its causes in Nigeria and to analyze how adult and non-formal education programs can be utilized to reduce rural poverty in Nigeria. In spite of Nigeria's affluence in human and material resources, it is classified among countries with high level of poverty. Incidentally, the…

  5. Ogun Oru: a traditional explanation for nocturnal neuropsychiatric disturbances among the Yoruba of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, O F; Famuyiwa, O O

    2007-03-01

    This article describes three cases of ;ogun oru' (nocturnal warefare), a condition reported in southwest Nigeria involving an acute night-time disturbance that is culturally attributed to demonic infiltration of the body and psyche during dreaming. Ogun oru is characterized by its occurrence, a female preponderance, the perception of an underlying feud between the sufferer's earthly spouse and a ;spiritual' spouse, and the event of bewitchment through eating while dreaming. The condition is believed to be treatable through Christian prayers or elaborate traditional rituals designed to exorcise the imbibed demonic elements. Ogun oru may be a label applied to medical problems. The differential diagnosis includes mainly parasomnias, for example, sleep terror, sleepwalking and sleep paralysis and, to a lesser extent, nocturnal or sleep epilepsy.

  6. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.

  7. Prevalence and impacts of low back pain among peasant farmers in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede Abidemi Tella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A relationship between low back pain (LBP and poor postures has been previously established with a high prevalence observed in many occupations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of LBP, associated risk factors and impacts on farmers in South-West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and four farmers completed a 36-item closed-ended questionnaire which was translated to Yoruba language with content validity and back translation done afterwards. The questionnaire sought information on demographic data, 12-month prevalence, severity, history, causes and management of LBP, and its impacts on farm activities and the activities of daily living. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics of mean, range, frequency, standard deviation, percentage. Chi2 and Mann-Whitney-U test were used to find association between variables. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of LBP among the respondents was 74.4%. Low back pain was described as moderate in 53.4%. Prolonged bending (51.3% was the most related risk factor. A considerable proportion (65.9% of the respondents were unable to continue some of the previously enjoyed activities. Males had significantly higher (p < 0.05 prevalence, recurrence and duration of LBP than the females. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of LBP among farmers in South-West Nigeria. Age, sex and years of involvement in farming have a significant influence on the prevalence of LBP.

  8. Job satisfaction and retention of midwives in rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, A A; Atiyaye, F B; Abubakar, A S; Auta, A; Aboda, A

    2015-10-01

    Nigeria is one of the 57 countries with a critical shortage of human resources for health, especially in remote rural areas and in northern states. The National Midwifery Service Scheme (MSS) is one approach introduced by the Government of Nigeria to address the health workforce shortage in rural areas. Since 2009, unemployed, retired and newly graduated midwives are deployed to primary health care (PHC) facilities in rural areas of Nigeria. These midwives form the mainstay of the health system at the primary health care level especially as it relates to the provision of skilled attendance at birth. This study followed up and explored the job satisfaction and retention of the MSS midwives in three Northern states of Nigeria. this was a descriptive study. Data were collected using a mixed method approach which included a job satisfaction survey, focus group discussions (FGDs) and exit interviews to explore job satisfaction and retention factors. All 119 MSS midwives deployed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency between 2010 and 2012 to the 51 Partnership for Reviving Routine Immunisation- Maternal and Child Health (PRRINN-MNCH) programme targeted PHC facilities were included in the study. MSS midwives were very satisfied with from the feeling of caring for women and children in the community (4.56), with the chance to help and care for others (Mean 4.50), the feeling of worthwhile accomplishment from doing the job (Mean 4.44) and the degree of respect and fair treatment they received from more senior staff and/or supervisor (Mean 4.39). MSS midwives were least satisfied with the lack of existence of a (established) career ladder (Mean 2.5), availability of promotional opportunities within the scheme (Mean 2.66), safety of accommodation (Mean 3.18), and with 'the degree to which they were fairly paid for what they contribute to the health facility' (Mean 3.41). When asked about future career plans, 38% (n=33) of the MSS midwives planned to leave the

  9. Rural-urban migration and urban employment opportunities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpara, E E

    1986-01-01

    The author suggests that most studies of rural-urban migration in the third world today are based on the European experience during the Industrial Revolution. He contends that the assumption that most migrants find wage employment in a rapidly growing modern industrial sector is not valid, particularly in Western Africa, where the pace of industrialization lags behind the rate of urbanization. Data from Nigeria are used to show that many potential migrants are aware of this situation and migrate seeking self-employment in informal sector trading activities.

  10. Daily urinary excretion of uranium in members of the public of Southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höllriegl, Vera; Arogunjo, Adeseye M.; Giussani, Augusto; Michalke, Bernhard; Oeh, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion values of uranium in members of the public of Southwest Nigeria living in areas of low environmental uranium. As several uranium mines are running in Nigeria and the operations could be a risk of contamination for the workers as well as for the members of the public, biomonitoring of urine could provide information about the exposure to uranium for the subjects. Therefore, baseline values of uranium in urine are needed from subjects living in areas without mining activities. Volunteers of both genders (age range 3 to 78 years) were asked to collect 24 h-urine samples. The concentration measurements of uranium in urine were performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, urinary creatinine values were determined for normalization of the renal uranium relative to the creatinine concentrations. The urinary uranium concentrations and their creatinine normalized values ranged from −1 (median 13.8 ng L −1 ) and from 2.52 to 252.7 ng g −1 creatinine (median 33.4 ng g −1 creatinine), respectively, for adult subjects above 15 years of both genders. An increased uranium excretion value of 61.6 ng L −1 (median), and of 76.0 ng g −1 creatinine, respectively, were found in young subjects below 15 years. The median of daily excreted uranium was estimated to be 14.2 ng d −1 for adults and of 45.1 ng d −1 for children, respectively. The uranium excretion from males and females living in Nigeria in a non-mining area was comparable to reference values reported from other countries with low level of environmental uranium. The data can be considered as baseline values of urinary uranium in unexposed subjects in Nigeria. - Highlights: ► Evaluation of urinary uranium excretion in Nigerian volunteers. ► Data correspond to baseline values known for unexposed persons. ► Results are similar to values from other countries with low environmental uranium. ► Data

  11. Daily urinary excretion of uranium in members of the public of Southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoellriegl, Vera, E-mail: vera.hoellriegl@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Arogunjo, Adeseye M., E-mail: amarogunjo@futa.edu.ng [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Giussani, Augusto, E-mail: agiussani@bfs.de [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Michalke, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.michalke@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit BioGeoChemistry and Analytics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Oeh, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.oeh@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion values of uranium in members of the public of Southwest Nigeria living in areas of low environmental uranium. As several uranium mines are running in Nigeria and the operations could be a risk of contamination for the workers as well as for the members of the public, biomonitoring of urine could provide information about the exposure to uranium for the subjects. Therefore, baseline values of uranium in urine are needed from subjects living in areas without mining activities. Volunteers of both genders (age range 3 to 78 years) were asked to collect 24 h-urine samples. The concentration measurements of uranium in urine were performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, urinary creatinine values were determined for normalization of the renal uranium relative to the creatinine concentrations. The urinary uranium concentrations and their creatinine normalized values ranged from < 10.4 to 150 ng L{sup -1} (median 13.8 ng L{sup -1}) and from 2.52 to 252.7 ng g{sup -1} creatinine (median 33.4 ng g{sup -1} creatinine), respectively, for adult subjects above 15 years of both genders. An increased uranium excretion value of 61.6 ng L{sup -1} (median), and of 76.0 ng g{sup -1} creatinine, respectively, were found in young subjects below 15 years. The median of daily excreted uranium was estimated to be 14.2 ng d{sup -1} for adults and of 45.1 ng d{sup -1} for children, respectively. The uranium excretion from males and females living in Nigeria in a non-mining area was comparable to reference values reported from other countries with low level of environmental uranium. The data can be considered as baseline values of urinary uranium in unexposed subjects in Nigeria. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of urinary uranium excretion in Nigerian volunteers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data correspond to baseline values known for unexposed persons. Black

  12. Improving learning infrastructure and environment for sustainable quality assurance practice in secondary schools in Ondo State, South-West, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua; Adelabu, Modupe A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the state of learning environment and infrastructure, together with their effects on teaching and learning activities and the extent to which they are being maintained. The study uses a descriptive survey design paradigm. Respondents consist of 60 principals and 540 teachers that were randomly selected using the multi-stage sampling technique from a pool of 599 public secondary schools in the Ondo State, South-West, Nigeria. Data were collected using the Learning En...

  13. Improvement Of Rural Off-Farm Energy Use In Nigeria: A Prerequisite For Rural Development And Poverty Alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, B

    2002-01-01

    In Nigeria, agricultural production takes place predominantly in the rural areas. The development of those areas, therefore, is necessary for the much-coveted rise in agricultural production and poverty alleviation. Development is a natural ally of improved energy use, both on and off-farm. Energy use in rural Nigeria is rudimentary and unimpressive. This paper discusses the existing pattern of energy use in the off-farm sector of rural areas and suggests ways of improvement to alleviate poverty and propel rural development

  14. Assessing the Sustainability of the Built Environment in Mountainous Rural Villages in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous rural areas such as those in southwest China are developing rapidly. This requires scientific understanding and a framework for assessing the sustainability of the built environment that is suitable to such areas. At present, no such framework exists. This lack of assessment options has contributed to the unsustainable development of these areas, which has caused a series of environmental, social, and economic problems. This article analyzes existing assessment frameworks, reviews the theory on sustainable rural development as it applies to rural southwest China, and proposes a new assessment framework that is more suitable to this region and others like it. This framework is based on a sustainable development model for rural areas that emphasizes endogenous development; addresses the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability; and takes the natural and social conditions of mountainous rural areas into account. Our study tested its applicability to rural southwest China and its sensitivity to local conditions and found them to be better than those of existing assessment frameworks.

  15. Economic burden of heart failure: investigating outpatient and inpatient costs in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogah, Okechukwu S; Stewart, Simon; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Falase, Ayodele O; Adebayo, Saheed O; Olunuga, Taiwo; Sliwa, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a deadly, disabling and often costly syndrome world-wide. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data describing its economic impact in sub Saharan Africa; a region in which the number of relatively younger cases will inevitably rise. Heath economic data were extracted from a prospective HF registry in a tertiary hospital situated in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria. Outpatient and inpatient costs were computed from a representative cohort of 239 HF cases including personnel, diagnostic and treatment resources used for their management over a 12-month period. Indirect costs were also calculated. The annual cost per person was then calculated. Mean age of the cohort was 58.0 ± 15.1 years and 53.1% were men. The total computed cost of care of HF in Abeokuta was 76, 288,845 Nigerian Naira (US$508, 595) translating to 319,200 Naira (US$2,128 US Dollars) per patient per year. The total cost of in-patient care (46% of total health care expenditure) was estimated as 34,996,477 Naira (about 301,230 US dollars). This comprised of 17,899,977 Naira- 50.9% ($US114,600) and 17,806,500 naira -49.1%($US118,710) for direct and in-direct costs respectively. Out-patient cost was estimated as 41,292,368 Naira ($US 275,282). The relatively high cost of outpatient care was largely due to cost of transportation for monthly follow up visits. Payments were mostly made through out-of-pocket spending. The economic burden of HF in Nigeria is particularly high considering, the relatively young age of affected cases, a minimum wage of 18,000 Naira ($US120) per month and considerable component of out-of-pocket spending for those affected. Health reforms designed to mitigate the individual to societal burden imposed by the syndrome are required.

  16. Economic burden of heart failure: investigating outpatient and inpatient costs in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu S Ogah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF is a deadly, disabling and often costly syndrome world-wide. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data describing its economic impact in sub Saharan Africa; a region in which the number of relatively younger cases will inevitably rise. METHODS: Heath economic data were extracted from a prospective HF registry in a tertiary hospital situated in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria. Outpatient and inpatient costs were computed from a representative cohort of 239 HF cases including personnel, diagnostic and treatment resources used for their management over a 12-month period. Indirect costs were also calculated. The annual cost per person was then calculated. RESULTS: Mean age of the cohort was 58.0 ± 15.1 years and 53.1% were men. The total computed cost of care of HF in Abeokuta was 76, 288,845 Nigerian Naira (US$508, 595 translating to 319,200 Naira (US$2,128 US Dollars per patient per year. The total cost of in-patient care (46% of total health care expenditure was estimated as 34,996,477 Naira (about 301,230 US dollars. This comprised of 17,899,977 Naira- 50.9% ($US114,600 and 17,806,500 naira -49.1%($US118,710 for direct and in-direct costs respectively. Out-patient cost was estimated as 41,292,368 Naira ($US 275,282. The relatively high cost of outpatient care was largely due to cost of transportation for monthly follow up visits. Payments were mostly made through out-of-pocket spending. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of HF in Nigeria is particularly high considering, the relatively young age of affected cases, a minimum wage of 18,000 Naira ($US120 per month and considerable component of out-of-pocket spending for those affected. Health reforms designed to mitigate the individual to societal burden imposed by the syndrome are required.

  17. Predicting Malaria occurrence in Southwest and North central Nigeria using Meteorological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbobola, A.; Omotosho, J. Bayo

    2013-09-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem especially in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to changing weather and climate. This study explored the impact of weather and climate and its variability on the occurrence and transmission of malaria in Akure, the tropical rain forest area of southwest and Kaduna, in the savanna area of Nigeria. We investigate this supposition by looking at the relationship between rainfall, relative humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and malaria at the two stations. This study uses monthly data of 7 years (2001-2007) for both meteorological data and record of reported cases of malaria infection. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Of all the models tested, the ARIMA (1, 0, 1) model fits the malaria incidence data best for Akure and Kaduna according to normalized Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and goodness-of-fit criteria. Humidity and rainfall have almost the same trend of association in all the stations while maximum temperature share the same negative association at southwestern stations and positive in the northern station. Rainfall and humidity have a positive association with malaria incidence at lag of 1 month. In all, we found that minimum temperature is not a limiting factor for malaria transmission in Akure but otherwise in the other stations.

  18. Knowledge of acute kidney injury among nurses in two government hospitals in Ondo City, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi A Adejumo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate knowledge of acute kidney injury (AKI among all health-care providers is essential for early diagnosis and management to reduce the associated burden. This study determined the knowledge of AKI among nurses in two government hospitals in Ondo City, Southwest Nigeria. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in two government hospitals in Ondo City using a self-administered pretested questionnaire that assessed knowledge of AKI and associated factors. A total of 156 respondents participated in the study. Majority were between 20 and 40 years of age and were females. Ninety-nine (63.5% had ≤10 years of nursing experience. A total of 106 (67.5% respondents had received formal lectures on AKI in the past. Only 12 (7.7% respondents had good knowledge of AKI, 98 (62.8% had fair knowledge, and the remaining 46 (29.5% had poor knowledge of AKI. There was a significant association between the knowledge of AKI and having received previous AKI lectures (P = 0.03, but knowledge was not associated with the years of nursing experience (P = 0.37. There was a significant association between having received previous AKI lecture and knowledge of AKI. We, therefore, recommend regular in-service training on AKI for practicing nurses.

  19. Radio as a Tool for Rural Development in Nigeria: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several problems are however associated with the use of radio as tool for rural development in Nigeria; some of which are: communication related problems, message related problems, illiteracy, the use of English Language by the electronic media, multiplicity of language in Nigeria, lack of audience feedback, ownership ...

  20. Backward Integration: A Panacea for Rural Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasaq Alabi Olanrewaju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Business is like a marathon race. It involves both mental and psychical alertness, exploring opportunities and taking chances is the strength, risk is the rule of the game and control is the price for the race. To this end, the aim of every business entity is to operate profitably in the industry it belongs, grow and possibly gain the largest share of the industry market. Among the strategies used in gaining control in the business industry is Integration which is the ability to influence or control either or both raw material input (backward integration or the distribution chain (forward integration or better still grow towards possible monopoly (conglomerate. While effort will be made to discuss other types of integration, this paper will focus more on the backward integration programme, its effect on the survival and growth of business entities, advantages and disadvantages to business operation and its role in rural development in Nigeria.

  1. Improving Quality of Care in Primary Health-Care Facilities in Rural Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ugo, Okoli; Ezinne, Eze-Ajoku; Modupe, Oludipe; Nicole, Spieker; Winifred, Ekezie; Kelechi, Ohiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. Objective: To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. Method: A total of 6 states were selected...

  2. The clientele of traditional birth homes in rural southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, C Otutubikey; Ukwayi, J Kinuabeye

    2003-03-01

    Although it is widely documented that traditional birth homes (TBHs) do more than deliver babies, little is known about the other functions in addition to child delivery, which TBHs perform. Drawing on in-depth individual interviews with 13 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and 147 users of TBHs, we profile the characteristics and health conditions of the clientele of TBHs in four rural communities in southeastern Nigeria. We found that TBHs provide their clients, who are mainly less educated women and girls, health services that range from child delivery, child sex selection, and abortion to family planning and cures for vaginal bleeding. Women are attracted to TBHs because the services are low cost, the women require privacy about their conditions, the TBHs are close by, and the women are confident in the abilities of TBHs. Rural women are bound by poverty, culture, and local values in their choices of services. We assert that health interventions to local people will need to be couched within frameworks that are responsive to their socioeconomic and cultural sensitivities if they are to deliver their expected impact.

  3. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF AGROPASTORALISTS IN THE DERIVED SAVANNA OF SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi Ayobami Olafadehan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted by the administration of structured questionnaires to agropastoralists in fifty settlements in the derived savannah of South-west Nigeria in other to highlight the management practices and some of the factors influencing production in the area. The production system is traditional with animals being maintained on free range grazing, browsing and offer of crop-residues. Rangelands were, however, the major source of feed for the cattle. Farmers rarely supplemented their stock with concentrate diet while the most commonly purchased feed supplement was salt. Cattle constituted the major ruminant in the stock (65% while sheep and goats accounted for 23% and 11%, respectively. The most favoured and dominant breed of cattle in the agropastoral herd is the Bunaji (White Fulani (72.10% followed by N’Dama (18.20% and Keteku (9.30%. Female cattle were more in the herd than the male for all the breeds. Labour allocation among the agropastoralists is based on sex with more male tasks than female. All the agropastoralists (100% inherited there stock while few (24% engaged in care-taking of animals for others. Low milk production, soil-eating and diarrhoea were the prevalent diseases among the animals. Majority (84% of the agropastoralists depended on the use of local herbs and self medication for treating their animals as against a few (6% engaging the services of the veterinarian. The system under study vividly typifies a traditional smallholder dairy production system characterized by little or not input. Improved feeding, housing and health management will enhance the productivity of the animals.

  4. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunbiade Ojo M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Using a concurrent mixed method approach, a structured questionnaire was administered to 200 breastfeeding mothers. In-depth interviews were also held with breastfeeding mothers (11, nurses (10 and a focus group discussion session with grandmothers. Results Breastfeeding was perceived as essential to baby's health. It strengthens the physical and spiritual bond between mothers and their children. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered essential but demanding. Only a small proportion (19% of the nursing mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. The survey showed the major constraints to exclusive breastfeeding to be: the perception that babies continued to be hungry after breastfeeding (29%; maternal health problems (26%; fear of babies becoming addicted to breast milk (26%; pressure from mother-in-law (25%; pains in the breast (25%; and the need to return to work (24%. In addition, the qualitative findings showed that significant others played dual roles with consequences on breastfeeding practices. The desire to practice exclusive breastfeeding was often compromised shortly after child delivery. Poor feeding, inadequate support from husband and conflicting positions from the significant others were dominant constraints. The nurses decried the effects of their workload on providing quality supports for nursing mothers. Conclusion Breastfeeding mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Thus

  5. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural

  6. Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in northwest Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, M.R.; Steenstra, F.A.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of donkeys for rural and urban smallholder farmers in northwest Nigeria. We visited 112 smallholder donkey farmers located in rural and urban areas from four states in northwest Nigeriathrough four focus group meetings, interviews with

  7. A quantitative analysis of major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, S O

    1992-11-01

    "This paper discusses some major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria using the logit estimation technique. It utilizes cross-sectional data generated from a national sample survey of internal migration conducted...between January and March 1988.... The empirical results revealed that the significant determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria are income, contact, cost, spoken English, ability to speak two Nigerian languages, distance, marital status, sex and ethnicity. The results further suggest that rural-urban migration is selective of single people and males. Proximity to urban areas where prospective migrants have relatives, friends and townspeople is an important factor." excerpt

  8. LEVERAGING RURAL LIVELIHOODS WITH FOREST CONSERVATION IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS

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    Egbe BASSEY ETOWA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times some economists view Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs extraction and marketing as a better alternative to timber exploitation as a rural livelihood strategy. Harvesting and sale of NTFPs have the potential for accomplishing the dual goals of natural forest conservation and income generation for the rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, realization of these dual goals in Nigeria, require an understanding of how NTFPs functions in the face of marketing, ecological, geographic and institutional constraints. Following a conceptualization of NTFPs, this paper provides a vivid overview of the simultaneous roles of NTFPs in rural livelihood enhancement and forest conservation in Nigeria. It highlights governmental initiatives with respect to conservation, the challenges and prospects of NTFPs as a conservation strategy. Conclusively, the paper suggests that appropriate NTFPs development policies are required to simultaneously address forest depletion and poverty in rural areas of Nigeria.

  9. An overview of the health and management challenges of rural poultry stock in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poultry production in rural areas is considered as an important source of livelihood for most rural communities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting production of rural poultry in three senatorial districts in North Central Nigeria namely Kwara Central, Kwara South and Kwara North.. Materials and Methods: The major factors affecting production of rural poultry were investigated using structured questionnaire to gather data on health and management practices between January to December 2014. Results: The socio-economic characteristics of respondents showed that majority of rural poultry farmers are women and illiterate, that sourced fund from their personal savings, relations and friends. The study also showed that seasonal variation and disease significantly influenced poultry production and its marketability. Conclusion: There is the need to put in place enabling environment to encourage commercialization of rural poultry production in Nigeria and globally. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 79-83

  10. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Clement Abah

    2014-01-01

    The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution ...

  11. A pedagogical appraisal of internet and computer usage among secondary school teachers and students in the Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukayode Solomon Aboderin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The s urvey i nvestigated a nd a ppraised the use of i nternet and computer a mong secondary s chool teachers a nd s tudents i n Southwest Nigeria. Pre -tested structure d questionnaires were a dministered to four hundred a nd fi fty a nd three thousands randomlyselectedrespondents,teachersand studentsrespectively.Almostallthesurveyinstrumentswereappropriately fi l led a nd we re used for a nalysis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The studies re vealed tha t ma jori ty of the respondentsarefemale.41.1%and55%oftheteachershadaccesstointernetandcomputerrespectively,while 51% and 46.9%ofthestudentshadaccesstointernetandcomputerrespectively.Inaddition,majorityofteachersusedthe netvia school cybercafé while that of students reached internet via mobile phones. However, 38.7% and 64.5% of the re s pondents (teachers a nd students had a ccess to computer by using their school computer l aboratory. Ve ry l ow inde xe s wererecordedforvariablesthatcontributedtoteachingandlearningprocessesintheschool.Theratingresults derived from summationof weightedvalues(SWVallattested to this claim. The study concluded that using of internet and computerhadcontributedtopersonalcognitiveinterestsratherthanenhancingtheteaching and learning activities in secondary schools in the Southwest of Nigeria.

  12. Maternal complication prevention: evidence from a case-control study in southwest Nigeria

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    Kayode O. Osungbade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of strengthening maternal health services as a preventive intervention for morbidities and complications during pregnancy and delivery in developing countries cannot be over-emphasised, since use of prenatal health services improves maternal health outcomes. Aim: This study investigated differences in risk factors for maternal complications in booked and unbooked pregnant women in Nigeria, and provided evidence for their prevention. Setting: The study was carried out in a postnatal ward in a secondary health facility. Methods: This was a case-control study involving booked and unbooked pregnant women who had delivered. Consecutive enrolment of all unbooked pregnant women (cases was done, and one booked pregnant woman (control was enrolled and matched for age with each of these. Both groups were interviewed using a questionnaire, whilst records of delivery were extracted from the hospital files. Findings were subjected to logistical regression at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Booked women had a lower median length of labour (10 hours compared to unbooked women (13 hours. More women in the booked control group (139; 35.1% than in the unbooked case group (96; 23.6% reported at least one type of morbidity during the index pregnancy (p = 0.0004. Booking status was associated with a likelihood of spontaneous vaginal delivery. Young maternal age, low education, rural residence and low socio-economic status were associated with less likelihood of using prenatal services. Young maternal age, low education and intervention in the delivery were associated with a likelihood of experiencing a complication of delivery. Conclusion: Strengthening antenatal and secondary healthcare services as short- and mediumterm measures might be cost-effective as a preventive strategy in complications of pregnancy,whilst socio-economic dimensions of health are accorded priority in the long term.

  13. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  14. Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in South-West Nigeria. ... of the facilities enjoyed community participation in planning and management. There ... None of the facilities had a functional 2-way referral system in place.

  15. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Clement Abah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution of the rural settlements were analysed using the nearest neighbour statistical analysis while descriptive statistics such as graphs and tables were used to present data. Rural settlements in Otukpo are randomly distributed and may be tending towards clustering. This is indicated by an Rn index value of 0.96 from the nearest neighbour analysis. Most of the settlements (59% have a distance of two to three kilometres between them. There is an inadequacy of functional facilities and poor access to services in the rural settlements in Otukpo. Respondents in rural settlements in Otukpo are faced with the risk of agricultural occupational loss (22%, water shortages (42%, flooding (29%, land based conflicts (16%, health hazards (12%, erosion (26%, and migration (57%. With evidence of climate change ascertained globally including Nigeria, the study concludes that rural settlements in Otukpo and elsewhere are vulnerable to the effects of climate change which is evident in literature. Government should plan appropriately to optimize standard of living and provide basic functional facilities and services for rural settlements.

  16. Public-private sector partnership in household waste management as perceived by residents in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebilo, Eugene E; Animasaun, Emmanuel D

    2012-08-01

    In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability.

  17. Water Supply Deficiency and Implications for Rural Development in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwocha, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…

  18. Prevalence of Hypertension in Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria: Rural versus Urban Communities Study

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    Effiong Ekong Akpan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hypertension in rural communities compared to that of the urban communities. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors (if any in both urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Subjects and Method. This was a cross-sectional study of urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State for the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors. Two urban cities and two rural communities were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts of the state. Hypertension was defined based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension. Results. Nine hundred and seventy-eight (978 participants were recruited from rural areas and five hundred and ninety (590 from urban centers. The rural populace had higher systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure than the urban populace (P<0.001, < 0.002, < 0.001, resp.. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in the rural populace than in the urban populace [44.3% (95% CI 41.1–47.4% versus 28.6% (95% CI 24.9–32.3%]. Age, BMI, and proteinuria were independent predictors of hypertension occurrence. Conclusion. There is an epidemiologic change in the prevalence of hypertension in the rural communities of Nigeria.

  19. The economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cai; Lin, Li; Jun, Dong; Jianhui, He; Keying, Zhao; Wenlong, Cui; Ying, Song; Tao, Wei

    2013-05-10

    This study was conducted in order to estimate the economic burden of diabetes in a given year in rural Yunnan province of China, including direct, indirect and intangible costs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural southwest China in early 2011 among 9396 consenting individuals aged ≥ 18 years. Information on participants' demographic characteristics, and economic consequences and related aspects of diabetes were obtained using a standard questionnaire. Fasting blood sugar level was also measured for each individual. Years of life lost (YLL) due to diabetes was estimated using medical death certificates. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness method was used to estimate the economic burden of diabetes. The overall prevalence and YLL of diabetes was 6.5% and 1168.1 years in the study population, respectively. Total cost of illness related to diabetes was estimated to be $46.8 million. Mean unit direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, morbidity costs, mortality costs, intangible costs, and cost of illness were $863.2, $44.6, $59.7, $7797.7, $936.2, and $9686.6, respectively. Direct costs accounted for the largest proportion of the economic costs of diabetes. Age was positively associated with direct costs whereas negatively associated with indirect costs. Patients aged 45-59 years incurred the highest intangible costs. Both indirect and intangible costs increased with level of education. Diabetes is a major public health problem in terms of morbidity and economic burden in rural southwest China. The region should increase investment in the further control of diabetes, and improvement of patient quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mobile phone usage in rural communities in Kwara state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rise in mobile telephony has continued to bridge the wide disparity between urban and rural dwellers, although there are suggestions that mobile phones have not been optimally utilized by rural dwellers. In view of this, the main aim of this study was to examine mobile phone usage in rural communities of Kwara State, ...

  1. Factors Influencing Nutritional Adequacy among Rural Households in Nigeria: How Does Dietary Diversity Stand among Influencers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerele, D; Sanusi, R A; Fadare, O A; Ashaolu, O F

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the influence of food consumption diversity on adequate intakes of food calories, proteins and micronutrients among households in rural Nigeria within the framework of panel data econometrics using a nationally representative data. We found that substantial proportion of households suffered deficiency of calories, proteins and certain micronutrients; with higher percentage of sufferer households occurring in the post-planting season. The different measures of dietary diversity (constructed and used for analysis) consistently indicate significant and positive influence of dietary diversity on the likelihood of adequate consumption of food nutrients. While higher level of income, education and non-farm enterprise engagement may strongly stimulate adequate nutrient intakes, increases in the number of adolescents would substantially diminish it. Although our findings call for renewed attention on diet diverseness, we stress the complementary/synergistic roles of education and rural income improvement, especially through non-farm enterprise diversification in tackling multiple nutritional deficiencies in rural Nigeria.

  2. Corporate Culture and University Goal Achievement in South-West Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Rasaq L.; Sheu, Adaramaja A.; Kayode, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between culture and university goal achievement in South west geo-political zone, Nigeria. Specifically, the purpose was to find out the nature of the corporate culture and university goal achievement as well as to determine the relationship between corporate culture and university goal achievement in South…

  3. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

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    Yaya Yaliso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96% respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women. The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4% sisters who had died, 819 (32% occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769 per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia.

  4. Sexual and reproductive health information sources preferred by out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and

  5. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  6. The Current State of Reproductive Health in Rural Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and most deaths occur in the northern part of the country. Concerns about the persistence of the problem prompted some Nigerian academics to partner with their American colleagues to establish a postgraduate fellowship programme that builds the ...

  7. Water balance of a small catchment with permeable soils in Ile-Ife area, southwester Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2000-01-01

    Three - year and annual catchment water balances were drawn for a small l catchment (44 ha.) in southwestern Nigeria. The equation: P - Q - E T - Δs = O was not resolved. Rather, the terms on the left did not sum to zero. The residual, which are between 4% and 5% of total rainfall, were consistently negative. A probable source of error is the use of Thornthwaite's potential evaporation in estimating catchment evapotranspiration. Potential evapotranspiration is higher than actual evapotranspiration in the study area due to the limited evaporation opportunity during the approximately five - mouth dry season. Given that the study catchment had runoff patterns that are simi liar to those of larger rivers in the region the computed catchment water balance indicated that 37% of annual rainfall may be taken as the runoff coefficient for the region. This suggests that the engineer's coefficient (0.35 - 0.45) used in assessment of surface water resources in southwestern Nigeria, is reasonable

  8. Domestic Water Utilization and Its Determinants in the Rural Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria Using Multivariate Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    T. O. Ogunbode; I. P. Ifabiyi

    2017-01-01

    Investigation into water utilization and its determinants in the rural areas is salient to a result-oriented management of this resource. Thus, a research was conducted to assess the pattern of domestic water uses and its determinant in the rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was applied to select 124 villages from 25 out of the 33 LGAs in Oyo State, Nigeria with 5 villages from each. Ten structured questionnaire were administered in each of the selected village...

  9. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Methodology: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. Results: A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resista...

  10. The economic burden of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in rural South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Cui, Wenlong; He, Jianhui; Wu, Xinan

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases attributed to smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a given year (2011) in rural southwest China. A prevalence-based, disease-specific attributable-risk approach was used to estimate the economic burden of chronic diseases attributable to both smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 17 158 consenting adults aged ≥18 years was used to derive prevalence of smoking and exposure to SHS, as well as direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases. In the study population, the prevalence rates of smoking and exposure to SHS are 73.1 and 38.2% for males and 1.4 and 43.4% for females, respectively. The total costs of illness are $25.85 million for COPD, $18.80 million for asthma, $37.25 million for CHD, $17.91 million for stroke, $264.35 million for hypertension and $17.11 million for peptic ulcer. The estimated costs attributable to smoking and exposure to SHS are $95.51 million and $79.35 million, accounting for 7.15 and 5.94% of local healthcare costs, respectively. Of the total costs of tobacco, direct costs and indirect costs are $94.66 million and $0.85 million for smoking, and $78.22 million and $1.36 million for exposure to SHS. Smoking contributes more cost of illness than exposure to SHS in men, whereas exposure to SHS contributes more cost of illness than smoking in women. Smoking and exposure to SHS produce substantial economic burden as well as have a considerable public health impact in rural southwest China.

  11. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-West, Charles Ibiene; Isodje, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. Yet evidence continues to indicate poor treatment outcomes which have been attributed to poor quality of care. This study aims to identify some of the systemic problems in order to inform policy decisions for improved quality of services and treatment outcomes in Nigeria. A comparative assessment of the quality of TB care in rural and urban health facilities was carried out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0. The level of significance was set at p facility infrastructures were more constrained in the urban than rural settings. Both the urban and rural facilities lacked adequate facilities for infection control such as, running water, air filter respirators, hand gloves and extractor fans. Health education and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) were limited in rural facilities compared to urban facilities. Although anti-TB drugs were generally available in both settings, the DOTS strategy in patient care was completely ignored. Finally, laboratory support for diagnosis and patient monitoring was limited in the rural facilities. The study highlights suboptimal quality of TB care in Rivers State with limitations in health education and HCT of patients for HIV as well as laboratory support for TB care in rural health facilities. We, therefore, recommend that adequate infection control measures, strict observance of the DOTS strategy and sufficient laboratory support be provided to TB clinics in the State.

  12. Job satisfaction: rural versus urban primary health care workers' perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (pfactors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.

  13. Local Government and the Failure of Rural Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It explains political participation as the legitimating of leadership through consent, and the involvement of citizens in the governmental process of policy making and implementation. The paper notes that rural development is the focus of development attention on rural areas to ensure balanced development between the ...

  14. FLOCK-BASED SURVEILLANCE FOR LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN COMMERCIAL BREEDERS AND LAYERS, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Omolanwa, Ayoyimika; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris; Aiki-Raji, Oluladun Comfort

    2017-01-01

    Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the epidemiological characteristics of AI needed for the development of prevention and control strategies in such countries. As part of routine AI monitoring in southwest Nigeria, a competitive ELISA was used for detecting influenza A virus antibodies in the sera of 461 commercial breeder and layer birds obtained from different flocks in Oyo State, Nigeria while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 subtype-specific antigens. Suspensions prepared from cloacal swabs were tested for AI virus RNA using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that influenza A virus antibody prevalence was 12.8% and 9.3% for breeders and layers, respectively while HI assay revealed 22.0%, 2.0% and 78.0% prevalence of LPAIV H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 antibodies respectively. All cloacal swab suspensions were negative for AIV RNA. Since LPAI infections result in decreased or complete cessation of egg production in breeder and layer birds, increased infection severity due to co-infection with other poultry viruses have occasionally been transmitted to humans, the detection of LPAIV H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 antibodies in these birds is of both economic and public health significance. These findings underscore the need for continuous flock monitoring as part of early warning measure to facilitate rapid detection and sustainable control of AI in Nigerian poultry.

  15. Influence of internet exposure on sexual behaviour of young persons in an urban district of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulogun, Oyedunni Sola; Ogbu, Ifeyinwa Arinze; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of young people exposed to pornographic materials through the internet in Nigeria is increasing. However, the influence of the exposure on their sexual behaviour has not been fully explored. This study therefore explored the effects of internet exposure on the sexual behaviour of young persons in Ibadan North Local Government Area of southwest Nigeria. A survey of 413 young persons was done using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions on internet exposure and its influence on behaviour. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Mean age of males was 21.7 ± 3.4 years while that of females was 20.9 ± 3.2 years. Forty-nine percent of the respondents used the internet for the first time between the ages of 15-19 years. Main source of information about the internet was friends (63.3%) and 99.3% accessed the internet from cybercafé. Seventy-two percent had ever stumbled on pornographic sites. Reactions included glancing through before closing (45.2%), closure of the sites (38.5%), and minimizing page to view later (12.5%). Post-exposure influence on behaviour included engagement in oral sex (48.3%), body tattoo (18.3%), having multiple sexual partners (11.6%) and homosexuality (5.0%). More males (95% CI OR =1.245-6.465) and frequent users (95% CI OR =1.168-3.497) were likely to report a change in sexual behaviour. Internet use was common among the young persons. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to sexual content on internet targeting young persons especially the males and cybercafé operators are advocated.

  16. Assessment of common interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilesanmi, Rose Ekama; Olabisi, Prisca

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interventions used by nurses to prevent pressure ulcers in 3 hospitals in south west Nigeria and perceived barriers to effective nursing pressure ulcer prevention interventions. One hundred ninety-three nurses were purposively selected from neurological, orthopedic, intensive care, and accident and emergency units of participating hospitals. Study sites were 3 teaching hospitals in south west Nigeria (Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; University College Hospital, Ibadan; and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife). Data were collected via a structured questionnaire designed for this study. It included 3 sections: demographic information, practices used for pressure ulcer prevention, and perceived barriers to prevention. Sections of the questionnaire that queried interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention were evaluated for face and content validity. Reliability was evaluated via internal consistency; the split half reliability was 0.82. Similar practices regarding pressure ulcer prevention were found across the 3 hospitals. The most commonly used intervention was patient repositioning every 2 hours; the least used intervention was completion of a validated pressure ulcer risk scale. Nurses described using interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention such as massaging bony prominences and application of talcum powder. Nurses identified 2 principal factors that act as barriers to successful prevention of pressure ulcers: inadequate manpower and inadequate supply of linens on the wards. Nurses use a combination of evidence-based interventions, along with interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention. We recommend development of national standards for pressure ulcer prevention in Nigeria that are based on current best evidence and consistent with current international guidelines.

  17. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  18. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olawale O; Fagade, Obasola E; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-09-12

    This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resistance was: tetracycline 81%, sulphamethoxazole 67%, streptomycin 56%, trimethoprim 47 %, ciprofloxacin 42%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), strB (61%), catA1 (25%), cmlA1 (13%), tetA (21%) and tetB (17%). Class 1 and 2 integrons were found in five (14%) and six (17%) isolates, respectively, while one isolate was positive for both classes of integrons. Seven out of eight isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin and MIC ≤ 32 mg/L to nalidixic acid contained qnrS genes. Our findings provided additional evidence that the poultry production environment in Nigeria represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes such as qnrS that may spread from livestock production farms to human populations via manure and water.

  19. Incentives Packages And Employees’ Attitudes To Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitivesociety, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way indetermining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect ofincentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive researchmethod was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaireswhich were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected governmentparastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematicsampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentagesupported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningfulmanner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packagesand employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied withthe present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates thatthere is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable andindependent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers shouldendeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earnemployees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  20. Incentives Packages and Employees’ Attitudes to Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitive society, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way in determining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of incentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive research method was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaires which were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected government parastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematic sampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentage supported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packages and employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied with the present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable and independent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers should endeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  1. The effects of environmental parameters on zooplankton assemblages in tropical coastal estuary, South-west, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waidi O. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the distribution and assemblage structure of zooplankton in relation to environmental parameters of tropical coastal estuarine ecosystem impounding Bight of Benin, Nigeria. The estuarine water samples were collected between January and December, 2014 from three sampling zones (Brushpark, Open water and Wetland then were fixed in 4% formalin. A total of twenty-eight (28 species belonging to four (4 groups were recorded in this study. These groups were rotifera, copepoda, cladocerans and ostracodas, and were all widely distributed in the three investigated zones. Higher richness, dominance and abundance indices were recorded in Zone I when compared to both Zones II and III. Cluster analysis showed five distinct species communities. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed a distinct smattering positive and negative correlation on the distribution of zooplankton indicating that the relative abundance of any species was dependent on specific environmental variables.

  2. Antenatal care visits' absenteeism at a secondary care medical facility in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloko, Olakunle; Ogunbode, Olayinka Oladunjoye; Roberts, Olumuyiwa; Arowojolu, Ayodele Olatunji

    2016-11-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) is a specialised pattern of care organised for pregnant women with the goal of maintaining good health and promoting safe delivery of healthy infants. It is an indispensable part of effective maternity care services. This study identified the factors responsible for absenteeism from ANC follow-up visits. It was a hospital-based prospective cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at a faith based secondary healthcare facility in Ibadan, Nigeria. Relevant data were retrieved using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires and antenatal health record cards. The major reasons identified for absenteeism were delay in receiving hospital services due to long queues at service points and understaffing. The pregnant women aged 35 years and above were the most likely to miss the visits. Therefore, there is the need for hospital administrators and health care givers to make the services patient-friendly.

  3. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic subjects in south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji O. Oyelade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is rarely sought for and generally underdiagnosed even in diabetics in developing countries like Nigeria. PAD is easily detected and diagnosed by the ankle-brachial index, a simple and reliable test. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of PAD in diabetic subjects aged 50–89 years and the value of ankle-brachial index measurement in the detection of PAD. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 219 diabetic subjects aged 50–89 years was carried out. The participants were administered a pre-tested questionnaire and measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI was done. The ankle-brachial index < 0.90 was considered equivalent to peripheral arterial disease. Results: The overall prevalence of PAD was 52.5%. The prevalence of symptomatic PAD was 28.7% whilst that of asymptomatic PAD was 71.3%. There were a number of associations with PAD which included, age (p < 0.05, sex (p < 0.05, and marital status (p < 0.05. The use of the ankle-brachial index in the detection of PAD was clearly more reliable than the clinical methods like history of intermittent claudication and absence or presence of pedal pulses. Conclusion: The prevalence of PAD is relatively high in diabetic subjects in the southwestern region of Nigeria. Notable is the fact that a higher proportion was asymptomatic. Also the use of ABI is of great value in the detection of PAD as evidenced by a clearly more objective assessment of PAD compared to both intermittent claudication and absent pedal pulses.

  4. Enacted and implied stigma for dementia in a community in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, Akindele O; Fagbola, Motunrayo A; Olakehinde, Olaide; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2016-07-01

    Dementia is a chronic progressive disease that mostly affects the elderly. There is often a stigma surrounding dementia patients because of poor awareness about the disease. In Nigeria, this stigma and related attitudes have not been fully explored. In this study, we assessed the attitude of people towards demented individuals in a transitional community in Nigeria. The study used a mixed methods approach. Focused group discussions exploring the concept of dementia were conducted among six community groups, and quantitative data was obtained from an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 313 respondents were selected with a cluster sampling technique. Only 212 respondents (67.7%) were aware of dementia. 'Memory loss disease', 'ageing disease', 'disease of insanity', 'brain disorder', 'disease of forgetfulness', and 'dull brain' are the common names used to describe dementia in the community. Enacted stigma was evident as 36% of respondents felt dementia was associated with shame and embarrassment in the community. Implied stigma was evident in another third that opined that demented individuals would prefer not to know or let others know that they have the disease. Also, 28% were of the opinion that people do not take those with dementia seriously. Of the 22 (10.4%) that reported having received structured information about dementia, 16 (72.7%) got the information from health facilities. Qualitative data revealed the presence of enacted stigma in the community as some referred to affected individuals by derogatory names such as 'madman'. Some statements from the focus group discussion participants also gave useful insights into the scorn with which demented individuals are sometimes treated. The presence of enacted and implied stigma related to dementia within the community calls for concern. More research efforts are needed to unravel the burden of stigma within communities and best practice for stigma-reducing interventions. © 2015 The Authors

  5. How decentralisation influences the retention of primary health care workers in rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, Seye; Olanipekun, Titilope; Igbokwe, Uchenna; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Ihebuzor, Nnenna; Aina, Muyi

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, the shortage of health workers is worst at the primary health care (PHC) level, especially in rural communities. And the responsibility for PHC - usually the only form of formal health service available in rural communities - is shared among the three tiers of government (federal, state, and local governments). In addition, the responsibility for community engagement in PHC is delegated to community health committees. This study examines how the decentralisation of health system governance influences retention of health workers in rural communities in Nigeria from the perspective of health managers, health workers, and people living in rural communities. The study adopted a qualitative approach, and data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The multi-stakeholder data were analysed for themes related to health system decentralisation. The results showed that decentralisation influences the retention of rural health workers in two ways: 1) The salary of PHC workers is often delayed and irregular as a result of delays in transfer of funds from the national to sub-national governments and because one tier of government can blame failure on another tier of government. Further, the primary responsibility for PHC is often left to the weakest tier of government (local governments). And the result is that rural PHC workers are attracted to working at levels of care where salaries are higher and more regular - in secondary care (run by state governments) and tertiary care (run by the federal government), which are also usually in urban areas. 2) Through community health committees, rural communities influence the retention of health workers by working to increase the uptake of PHC services. Community efforts to retain health workers also include providing social, financial, and accommodation support to health workers. To encourage health workers to stay, communities also take the initiative to co-finance and co

  6. Distribution of Iron in Rural Groundwater of Benue State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... absence of any other alternative.Some form of treatment like filtering and or Reverse Osmosis if can be afforded may be required to reduce the risk to health over time. The study has demonstrated the need for groundwater quality monitoring and management in the rural areas to ensure the safety of water being provided.

  7. Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradeyo Adebanjo Otitoju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies in South-west Nigeria. Multistage random technique was employed to select the location and the respondents. Descriptive statistics and principal component analysis (PCA were the analytical tools engaged in this study. The constraints to climate variability and change examined before did not use PCA but generalized factor analysis. Hence, there is need to examine these constraints extensively using PCA. Uncovering the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies among crop framers is important to give a realistic direction in the development of farmer-inclusive climate policies in Nigeria. The PCA result showed that the principal constraints that the farmers faced in climate change adaptation were public, institutional and labour constraint; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraint; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraint; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm job and credit constraint; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraint. These findings pointed out the need for both the government and non-government organizations to intensify efforts on institutional, technological and farmers’ friendly land tenure and information systems as effective measures to guide inclusive climate change adaptation policies and development in South-west Nigeria.

  8. Self-reported adherence rates in glaucoma patients in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Olukorede Onakoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nigerian glaucoma patients have an aversion to surgery and often rely on medical therapy to prevent disease progression. For medical therapy to be effective, the drugs have to be used as prescribed. Compliance has been reported to be low in the previous Nigerian studies. Aims: To evaluate the adherence rates of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients on medical therapy using patient self-report. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional design was used to assess consecutive POAG patients attending a glaucoma clinic in a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Self-reported adherence was evaluated by trained interviewers. Comprehensive clinical assessment including intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, visual field assessment, and dilated binocular funduscopy using the slit lamp and + 78D fundus lens was done. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using MedCalc Statistical Software. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients reported adherence rates ranging from 10% to 100% with a mean adherence rate of 82.33% ± 19.25%. Only 31 respondents (27.2% reported 100% adherence. Duration of the disease was the only significant factor on multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: The development of strategies to improve compliance and persistence in glaucoma patients is crucial for the reduction of disease progression and blindness.

  9. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment.

  10. The burden of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in rural communities in southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Okundia, Patrick Otamere

    2015-01-01

    The African region of the world is experiencing a double epidemic of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among adult residents of rural communities in southern Nigeria. A community based descriptive cross-sectional study. Adults aged 18 years and above residing in the rural communities who attended a free medical outreach programme were screened for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Of the 845 participants, 349 (41.3%) were aged 50-69 years, 263 (31.1%) were males, and 305 (36.1%) were farmers. Overweight and obesity were found in 184 (21.8%) and 90 (10.6%) of them respectively. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 37.6% (males 43.7%, females 35.1%, p = 0.018) while that of diabetes mellitus was 4.6% (males 1.9%, females 5.8%, p = 0.012). Predictors of hypertension were age ≥ 40 years (OR = 5.04, CI: 2.99 - 8.48), overweight/obesity (OR = 1.56, CI: 1.15 - 2.13) while females are less likely to develop hypertension (OR = 0.72, CI: 0.53 - 0.98). The significant predictor of diabetes mellitus was overweight/obesity (OR = 3.53, CI: 1.78 - 6.98). The rising prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus is assuming an epidemic level in rural communities in southern Nigeria. There is an urgent need for intensive health education and community surveillance programmes targeted at rural communities in order to achieve prevention and control of these non-communicable diseases in Nigeria.

  11. A multilevel analysis of individual and community effect on chronic childhood malnutrition in rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Olalekan A

    2009-04-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is the second most important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria after infections. The purpose of this article was to develop and test a model of childhood malnutrition that includes individual-level characteristics along with contextual characteristics defined at the community level. Multilevel logistic regression analysis. A total of 4007 children resident in 96 rural villages in Nigeria. Stunting: height-for-age that is less than the international reference value by >2 standard deviations (SDs). Independent of other factors, children born to underweight mothers were 1.32-times more likely to be stunted [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.64]. For each additional month of breastfeeding the odds of being stunted increased by 4% (aOR 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.06). Each SD increase in the household wealth index and maternal health-seeking behaviour index decreased the odds of being stunted by 16% (aOR 0.84; 95% CI 0.76-0.94) and 29% (aOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.60 -0.82), respectively. The study has provided evidence that both individual and community characteristics are important predictors of childhood malnutrition in rural Nigeria; and that scholars trying to understand variation in childhood malnutrition should pay attention to the characteristics of both children and place of residence.

  12. "A life of living death": the experiences of people living with chronic low back pain in rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwesi-Chidobe, Chinonso N; Kitchen, Sheila; Sorinola, Isaac O; Godfrey, Emma L

    2017-04-01

    This study explored the experiences of people living with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP) in a rural Nigerian community. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with purposively sampled participants until data saturation. Questions explored back pain beliefs, coping/management strategies and daily activities. Thematic analysis of transcripts was performed using the Framework approach. Themes showed that back pain beliefs were related to manual labour/deprivation, infection/degeneration, spiritual/cultural beliefs and rural-urban divide. These beliefs impacted on gender roles resulting in adaptive or maladaptive coping. Adaptive coping was facilitated by positive beliefs, such as not regarding CLBP as an illness, whereas viewing CLBP as illness stimulated maladaptive coping strategies. Spirituality was associated with both adaptive and maladaptive coping. Maladaptive coping strategies led to dissatisfaction with health care in this community. CLBP-related disability in rural Nigeria is strongly influenced by beliefs that facilitate coping strategies that either enhance or inhibit recovery. Interventions should therefore target maladaptive beliefs while emphasizing behavioural modification. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP) is highly prevalent and responsible for much pain and disability in rural Nigeria. No qualitative study has investigated the experiences of people living with CLBP in rural Nigeria or any other rural African context. Qualitative study of peoples' experiences of living with CLBP in rural Nigeria has the potential of exposing complex socio-cultural and psychological factors associated with CLBP which has potential implications for designing effective interventions. The results of this study may inform the development of complex interventions for reducing the disability associated with CLBP in rural Nigeria and other rural African contexts.

  13. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease ( P 1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  14. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease (P  1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  15. Feasibility and quality of cardiovascular disease prevention within a community-based health insurance program in rural Nigeria: an operational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Marleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. W.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Odusola, Aina O.; Rosendaal, Nicole T. A.; Bindraban, Navin R.; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Lange, Joep M. A.; Akande, Tanimola M.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of providing guideline-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention care within the context of a community-based health insurance program (CBHI) in rural Nigeria. A prospective operational cohort study was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in rural Nigeria,

  16. Caesarean delivery-related blood transfusion: correlates in a tertiary hospital in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlusi, Fatimat M; Rabiu, Kabiru A; Durojaiye, Idayat A; Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Ottun, Tawaqualit A; Oshodi, Yusuf A

    2018-01-10

    Caesarean delivery carries a risk of major intra-operative blood loss and its performance is often delayed by non-availability of blood and blood products. Unnecessary cross-matching and reservation of blood lead to apparent scarcity in centres with limited supply. This study set out to identify the risk factors for blood transfusion in women who underwent caesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric unit with a view to ensuring efficient blood utilization. A prospective cohort analysis of 906 women who had caesarean deliveries at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January and December, 2011. A comparison was made between 188 women who underwent blood transfusion and 718 who did not. Data were obtained on a daily basis by investigators from patients, clinical notes and referral letters using structured pre-tested data collecting form. Socio-demographic characteristics; antenatal, perioperative and intraoperative details; blood loss; transfusion; and puerperal observations were recorded. EPI-Info statistical software version 3.5.3 was used for multivariable analysis to determine independent risk factors for blood transfusion. Of the 2134 deliveries during the study period, 906 (42.5%) had caesarean deliveries and of which 188 (20.8%) were transfused. The modal unit of blood transfused was 3 pints (41.3%). The most common indication for caesarean section was cephalo-pelvic disproportion (25.7%).The independent risk factors for blood transfusion at caesarean section were second stage Caesarean Section (aOR = 76.14, 95% CI = 1.25-4622.06, p = 0.04), placenta previa (aOR = 32.57, 95% CI = 2.22-476.26, p = 0.01), placental abruption (aOR = 25.35, 95% CI = 3.06-211.02, p blood transfusion (aOR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.09-0.61, p = 0.0024). The overall risk of blood transfusion in cesarean delivery is high. Paturients with the second stage Caesarean section, placenta previa, abruptio placentae and

  17. Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: a pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Warth, Benedikt; Ogara, Isaac M; Abia, Wilfred A; Ezekiel, Victoria C; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Sulyok, Michael; Turner, Paul C; Tayo, Grace O; Krska, Rudolf; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2014-05-01

    A pilot, cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in eight rural communities in northern Nigeria to investigate mycotoxin exposures in 120 volunteers (19 children, 20 adolescents and 81 adults) using a modern LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach. First morning urine samples were analyzed and urinary biomarker levels correlated with mycotoxin levels in foods consumed the day before urine collection. A total of eight analytes were detected in 61/120 (50.8%) of studied urine samples, with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1 and fumonisin B1 being the most frequently occurring biomarkers of exposure. These mycotoxin biomarkers were present in samples from all age categories, suggestive of chronic (lifetime) exposures. Rough estimates of mycotoxin intake suggested some exposures were higher than the tolerable daily intake. Overall, rural consumer populations from Nasarawa were more exposed to several mixtures of mycotoxins in their diets relative to those from Kaduna as shown by food and urine biomarker data. This study has shown that mycotoxin co-exposure may be a major public health challenge in rural Nigeria; this calls for urgent intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of common otolaryngological diseases among children in rural primary schools in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaegbe, Onyinyechi C; Umedum, Nnaemeka G; Chime, Ethel N; Orji, Foster T

    2016-10-01

    Despite a global improvement in health care delivery, rural areas in developing countries still have poor access to specialist care. This study aims to assess the occurrences of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders among rural primary school children in south-eastern Nigeria. Two rural primary schools were selected randomly from one of the rural regions of South Eastern State of Nigeria. All the pupils of the schools who gave consent were recruited. A structured study proforma investigating the pupils' biodata, otolaryngological symptoms, ear, nose and throat examination findings, was used to evaluate each pupil in the presence of the teachers. A total of 246 children participated in the study. 145(58.9%) were males while 101(41.1%) were females with a mean age of 8.5 ± 2.4 years. The commonest symptoms reported were nasal discharge (20%) followed by nasal obstruction (11.1%), itching of the ears (11.1%) and sneezing bouts (10%), while 3.7% had subjective hearing impairment. The commonest ENT finding was cerumen auris (43%) and this was observed in 43.4% of males and 42.4% of females, 11% had abnormal tympanic membranes and 20% had grades 3/4 tonsils(Brodsky grading). ENT disorders are still common in children in the rural areas of developing countries. To avoid the morbidity associated with these preventable and easily manageable disorders, community health workers should be trained to manage common ENT disorders and mobile clinics with scheduled visits made available in areas where ENT services remain inaccessible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Mbah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was assessed to determine the effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria during November 2014 to June 2015. Interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. Results indicate that majority (76.3% of the respondents were males, middle aged and married. Major causes of rural-urban youth migration indicated by the respondents include inadequate employment opportunities in rural areas (M=3.6, search for better education (M=3.5, inadequate social infrastructure such as schools (M=3.4, poor medical care services in rural areas (M=3.4, looking for money through labour (M=3.4, apprenticeship programme (M=3.2, etc. Findings of the study also indicate that reduction of agricultural labour force (M=3.5, low agricultural productivity (M=3.3, high cost of labour (M= 3.3, reduction on demand for locally grown foods (M=2.9, decrease in dependency ratio in the rural areas (M=2.7, reduction on number of mouths to feed (M=2.7, among others were major effects of rural-urban youth migration among farm families. The study recommends that Nigerian government should provide adequate physical and social infrastructure in rural areas in order to encourage youths to remain in agriculture, reduce rural-urban youth migration as well as sustain agriculture for enhanced food security.

  20. Public perception of climate change and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esther O Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 James O Bamidele,2 Olusola O Odu,2, Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,3 Olugbenga L Abodurin,3 Wasiu O Adebimpe,1 Edward A Oladele,4 Adeleye A Adeomi,3 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Ebenezer O Ojofeitimi31Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Faculty of Clinical Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria; 4SIDHAS Project, Family Health International, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Climate change (CC has received extensive media attention recently, and it is currently on the international public health agenda. A study of knowledge and attitudes to climate change, most especially from rural Nigerian communities, is important for developing adaptation strategies. This is a study of public perceptions of CC and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria.Methods: This was a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study of 1,019 rural respondents using a multistage sampling method. The research instrument used was a pretested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. χ2, Cramér's V, and Kendall's τ-c statistics were employed in addition to fitting the data to a logistic regression model to explore associations found significant on bivariate analysis.Results: Mean age of respondents was 36.9 (±12.4 years. About 911 (89.4% of respondents opined that there has been a change in climate in the last 10 years. Supernatural reasons were prominent among respondent-reported causes of CC. Identified risky behavior contributing to CC included smoking (10.7%, bush burning (33.4%, and tree felling (41.0%. Poor knowledge of causes but good knowledge of effects of CC were found in this study. About two-thirds of

  1. Economic burden and cost determinants of coronary heart disease in rural southwest China: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, C; Fang, Y; Linxiong, W; Shulan, Z; Golden, A R

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the economic burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a given year (2010), including direct and indirect costs, and examine the impact of contextual and individual socio-economic (SES) predictors on the costs of CHD among adults in rural southwest China. Cross-sectional community survey. In total, 4595 adults (aged ≥18 years) participated in this study. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach was used to estimate the economic burden of CHD. Information on demographic characteristics of the study population and the economic consequences of CHD was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to model the variation in costs of CHD. In the study population, the overall prevalence of CHD was 2.9% (3.5% for males, 2.3% for females). The total cost of CHD was estimated to be US$17 million. Inpatient hospitalizations represented the main component of direct costs of CHD, and direct costs accounted for the greatest proportion of the economic burden of CHD. Males were more likely to have a higher economic burden of CHD than females. A positive association was found between the individual's level of education and the economic burden of CHD. Residence in a higher-income community was associated with higher costs related to CHD. This study found that both contextual and individual SES were closely associated with the costs of CHD. Future strategies for CHD interventions and improved access to affordable medications to treat and control CHD should focus on less-educated individuals and communities with lower SES. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    nigrodigitatus and other environmental segments were collected from five sites along Taylor Creek, southern Nigeria, and some ... The ecological distribution of the log (BCF) values was, for all the heavy metals, ..... Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.

  3. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    been recognized as one of the most serious threats to the estuarine ... rainforest belt of South-Eastern Nigeria is also the ..... The Cross River Basin: Soil characteristics, Geology, Climate, Hydrology ... intertidal fauna of South Atlantic coastline,.

  4. Perception of pregnant women towards midwives: attitude and practice during child delivery in health institutions in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemo F. Oluyemisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to ascertain pregnant women’s perceptions of the attitudes and practice of midwives during labour in a mission teaching hospital and a state hospital in Ogbomoso, Southwest Nigeria, and to determine whether or not a relationship exists between patients’perceptions of midwives practice during delivery and the occurrence of neonatal deaths.Methods: The survey was conducted by administering the questionnaire adapted from Caring Behaviour Inventory (CBI to a random sample of five hundred and seventy nine respondent mothers who gave birth in either a Mission teaching hospital or a state hospital in Ogbomoso, Southwest Nigeria. This standardised questionnaire collects demographic data and patient perceptions of nursing attitudes and practice, ranking patients’ responses to a series of statements about the midwives on a four point Likert scale. Data was analysed using Pearson product moment correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses.Results: Our study revealed that there was a positive response on the attitude and practise of midwives during delivery by the respondents. Secondly, there was a positive impression on the influence of the attitude and practice of midwives during delivery by the respondents.Conclusions: There was no evidence of a relationship between patients’ perceptions of midwives practice during delivery and the occurrence of neonatal deaths.

  5. Perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students in Southwest Nigeria: validation of a 5-item gender scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekitan, Afe Taiwo; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Osalusi, Bamidele; Adeleye, Olufunke; Ale, Ayotunde

    2017-08-29

    Our study focused on the perception of victims of rape and the relationship with the perception of social roles for gender among college students in southwest Nigeria using a 5-item gender social scale and a perception of victims of rape questionnaire. The study was done among 312 college students in Southwest Nigeria and explored the perception of victims of rape and gender social roles. The aim was to determine the relationship between perception of rape victims and view of gender social roles. We used a perception of rape victims questionnaire and a validated 5-item gender social roles scale to assess the views of participants. The findings revealed that females had better perception of victims of rape than males. Females also had more positive views of females' social roles involving gender. However, there was poor perception on work-related social roles and the traditional concept of headship in the varied situations described on the 5-item gender social scale. Old stereotypes of typically blaming victims of rape were not common beliefs among college students. There were no significant correlations between perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students. Seemingly, the perception of victims of rape does not have a significant relationship with the concept of gender social roles.

  6. Effect of a classroom-based intervention on the social skills of pupils with intellectual disability in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Yetunde C; Omigbodun, Olayinka O

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that social skill interventions and classroom supports are effective for pupils with intellectual disability. Such interventions have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of developing mental disorders, majority of which have their onset during the period of youth. Most young people with intellectual disability in low-resource settings do not have access to interventions that would enable or enhance their participation in society. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a social skills training for pupils with intellectual disability attending a special school in Southwest Nigeria. Thirty pupils with mild to moderate intellectual disability participated in the study. Utilising the Explore social skills curriculum, teachers were trained to give lessons to the participants 3-4 times a week for 8 weeks in their classrooms. Social skills level of participants was assessed with the Matson evaluation of social skills for individuals with severe retardation (MESSIER) at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Paired t tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis Test were used to assess for pre and post intervention changes in social skills scores and analysis of changes in social skills across socio-demographic variables at p social skills impairment, 2 (6.7 %) had none or minimal impairments and 10 (30 %) had severe impairments. At the end of the intervention, there was a 20 % reduction in the number of participants in the severe social skills impairment category and 13.3 % increase in the number of participants in the 'none or minimal' social skills category. The mean pre and post- intervention total social skills scores were 126.63 ± 17.91 and 135.97 ± 20.81 respectively with a mean difference of 9.34 (t = 3.71; p = 0.001). The social skills of pupils with intellectual disability who participated in this study improved significantly during the 8 weeks the Explore social

  7. Improving Quality of Care in Primary Health-Care Facilities in Rural Nigeria: Successes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugo, Okoli; Ezinne, Eze-Ajoku; Modupe, Oludipe; Nicole, Spieker; Winifred, Ekezie; Kelechi, Ohiri

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. A total of 6 states were selected across the 6 geopolitical zones of the country. However, assessments were carried out in 40 facilities in only 5 states. Selection was based on location, coverage, and minimum services offered. The facilities were divided randomly into 2 groups. The treatment group received quality-of-care assessment, continuous feedback, and improvement support, whereas the control group received quality assessment and no other support. Data were collected using the SafeCare Healthcare Standards and managed on the SafeCare Data Management System-AfriDB. Eight core areas were assessed at baseline and end line, and compliance to quality health-care standards was compared. Outcomes from 40 facilities were accepted and analyzed. Overall scores increased in the treatment facilities compared to the control facilities, with strong evidence of improvement ( t = 5.28, P = .0004) and 11% average improvement, but no clear pattern of improvement emerged in the control group. The study demonstrated governance support and active community involvement offered potential for quality improvement in primary health-care facilities.

  8. Perception of intimate pelvic examination by gynaecological clinic attendees in rural Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouj, Umeora; Igberase, G O; Eze, J N; Ejikeme, B N

    2011-09-01

    Intimate gynaecological examinations are part of the necessary retinue in gynaecological consultation and management. To evaluate women's perception of digital and speculum vaginal examinations in rural Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective descriptive study. Gynaecologic clinic attendees in a Mission hospital in rural Nigeria were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire over a 3-year period. Four hundred and eighty-six women with a mean age of 35.2 ± 8.1 years were interviewed. They presented mainly for infertility (36.8%), menstrual abnormalities (31.1%) and early pregnancy complications (10.7%). Over a quarter of the women felt embarrassed at vaginal examination and 37.2% found it a bit painful or felt discomfort. In spite of the discomfort, 73.7% believed vaginal examination was necessary and over 95% indicated readiness to undergo such examination in future if necessary. Performing intimate gynaecological examination should be a carefully planned procedure with patient's consent, and performed conscientiously taking patient's feelings and emotions into consideration, to engender confidence.

  9. Costs of cardiovascular disease prevention care and scenarios for cost saving: a micro-costing study from rural Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Marleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Nelissen, Heleen E.; Boers, Alexander C.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Tan, Siok Swan; Redekop, William; Adenusi, Peju; Lange, Joep M. A.; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    To assess the costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention care according to international guidelines, in a primary healthcare clinic in rural Nigeria, participating in a health insurance programme. A micro-costing study was conducted from a healthcare provider perspective. Activities per

  10. Resolution pattern of jaundice among children presenting with severe malaria in rural South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonuga, O A; Osonuga, A; Osonuga, A A; Osonuga, I O

    2012-07-01

    To compare the pattern of jaundice resolution among children with severe malaria treated with quinine and artemether. Thirty two children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study from two hospitals with intensive care facilities. They were divided into two groups; 'Q' and 'A', receiving quinine and artemether, respectively. Jaundice was assessed by clinical examination. Sixteen out of 32 children recruited (representing 50%) presented with jaundice on the day of recruitment. The mean age was (7.00°C2.56) years. On day 3, four patients in 'A' and six patients in 'Q' had jaundice. By day 7, no child had jaundice. The study has shown that both drugs resolve jaundice although artemether relatively resolves it faster by the third day.

  11. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    Geoelectric study of the groundwater potential of Ilara-Mokin in Ondo State Southwestern Nigeria was carried out using electrical resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding) method with the view to providing adequate information on the different sub-surface geoelectric layers, structural configuration of the concealed basement ...

  12. Assessment of Information and Communication Technology for Selective Dissemination of Information and Current Awareness Services: A Case Study of University Libraries in the South-West Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturday U. Omeluzor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – To assess the use of information and communication technology (ICT for selective dissemination of information (SDI and current awareness services (CAS in university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria. Methods – A descriptive research design was adopted. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire administered to a population consisting of 379 librarians, with 353 usable questionnaires retrieved. Results – Findings revealed that most university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria do not use ICT in delivery of SDI and CAS. It is evident in this study that despite the known positive effects of ICT in library services, traditional methods were predominantly used for SDI and CAS to the library users. The study revealed that erratic Internet services, insufficient training, inadequate ICT skills, and low support for ICT were hindrances towards ICT use for SDI and CAS. Conclusions – The integration of ICT features in library services for the delivery of CAS and SDI has been a challenge in university libraries in South-West Nigeria. Only a few libraries and a low percentage of librarians had adopted the use of ICT in the delivery of CAS and SDI, while a larger number of libraries resorted to the use of traditional methods. The level of ICT literacy among the librarians in this study is low, as a higher percentage of librarians did not have adequate ICT skill to use available online resources on the Internet and other ICT tools to deliver SDI and CAS in South-West, Nigeria. This is not unconnected to the fact that the training and technical support received by the librarians is inadequate, and the level of support that academic libraries received from their university managements in South-West Nigeria in terms of funding for ICT development is inadequate, which led to low Internet services.

  13. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at

  14. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  15. Perceived effectiveness of graphic health warnings as a deterrent for smoking initiation among adolescents in selected schools in southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adebiyi

    2016-03-01

    Introduction of graphic health warnings, especially with an imagery depicting cancer and impotence may influence non-smokers to remain abstinent. Therefore, this study provides a template for a future policy-relevant study on graphic health warning in Nigeria.

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Nigeria: A comparative study of rural and urban residences based on the 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Emmanuel Olorunleke; Auta, Asa; Khanal, Vishnu; Bamidele, Olasunkanmi David; Akuoko, Cynthia Pomaa; Adefemi, Kazeem; Tapshak, Samson Joseph; Zhao, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) is a major public health intervention aimed at ensuring safe pregnancy outcomes. In Nigeria, the recommended minimum of four times ANC attendance is underutilized. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with underutilization of ANC services with a focus on the differences between rural and urban residences in Nigeria. We analyzed the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey dataset with adjustment for the sampling weight and the cluster design of the survey. The prevalence of underutilization of ANC was assessed using frequency tabulation while associated factors were examined using Chi-Square test and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of underutilization of ANC was 46.5% in Nigeria, 61.1% in rural residence and 22.4% in urban residence. The North-West region had the highest prevalence of ANC underuse in Nigeria at 69.3%, 76.6% and 44.8% for the overall, rural and urban residences respectively. Factors associated with greater odds of ANC underuse in rural residence were maternal non-working status, birth interval urban residence, mothers professing Islam, those who did not read newspaper at all, and those who lacked health insurance, had greater odds of ANC underuse. In both rural and urban residence, maternal and husband's education level, region of residence, wealth index, maternal age, frequency of watching television, distance to- and permission to visit health facility were significantly associated with ANC underuse. Rural-urban differences exist in the use of ANC services, and to varying degrees, factors associated with underuse of ANC in Nigeria. Interventions aimed at addressing factors identified in this study may help to improve the utilization of ANC services both in rural and urban Nigeria. Such interventions need to focus more on reducing socioeconomic, geographic and regional disparities in access to ANC in Nigeria.

  17. Sociodemographic Correlates of Choice of Health Care Services in Six Rural Communities in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemocho Audu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Household expenditure on health has increasingly remained a major source of health care financing in Nigeria despite the introduction of several social health scheme policies provided by the government for meeting the health care costs of patients. Recognizing these limitations, this study assessed the type of health care services people commonly use in various illnesses and the sociodemographic correlates of the preferred health care services by household heads in six rural communities of North Central Nigeria. A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study design was used to study 154 household heads in the settlements using a multistage sampling method. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate independent predictors that had significant chi-square at P<0.05. The leading causes of illness experienced by respondents were medical conditions (42.0% and 41.7% of them sought treatment from patent medicine vendors. The dominant reasons for health-seeking preferences were financial access (53.7% and proximity (48.6%. Age had a higher impact (Beta = 0.892 on the health-seeking preferences of the respondents as compared to their occupation and religion (Beta = 0.368 and −0.746, resp.. Therefore, in order to meet the health care of patients, it is pertinent that the unmet needs of patients are properly addressed by appropriate agencies.

  18. Improving the Distribution of Rural Health Houses Using Elicitation and GIS in Khuzestan Province (the Southwest of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Valinejadi, Ali; Sakipour, Sara; Hemmat, Morteza; Zarei, Javad; Askari Majdabadi, Hesamedin

    2017-08-27

    Rural health houses constitute a major provider of some primary health services in the villages of Iran. Given the challenges of providing health services in rural areas, health houses should be established based on the criteria of health network systems (HNSs). The value of these criteria and their precedence over others have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study was conducted to propose a model for improving the distribution of rural health houses in HNSs. The present applied study was conducted in Khuzestan province in the southwest of Iran in 2014-2016. First, the descriptive and spatial data required were collected and entered into ArcGIS after modifications, and the Geodatabase was then created. Based on the criteria of the HNS and according to experts' opinions, the main criteria and the sub-criteria for an optimal site selection were determined. To determine the criteria's coefficient of importance (ie, their weight), the main criteria and the sub-criteria were compared in pairs according to experts' opinions. The results of the pairwise comparisons were entered into Expert Choice and the weight of the main criteria and the sub-criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The application layers were then formed in geographic information system (GIS). A model was ultimately proposed in the GIS for the optimal distribution of rural health houses by overlaying the weighting layers and the other layers related to villages and rural health houses. Based on the experts' opinions, six criteria were determined as the main criteria for an optimal site selection for rural health houses, including welfare infrastructures, population, dispersion, accessibility, corresponding routes, distance to the rural health center and the absence of natural barriers to accessibility. Of the main criteria proposed, the highest weight was given to "population" (0.506). The priorities suggested in the proposed model for establishing rural

  19. Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    northern Hausa- Fulani, the southwestern Yoruba , and the southeastern Ibo have traditionally been the most politically active and dominant. Almost...Obasanjo, a Yoruba from southwestern Nigeria. The APP and AD nominated Chief Olu Falae, a Yoruba , as their joint candidate for President. A former...country’s development will be hindered until it can reverse its perceived “ culture of impunity for political and economic crimes.”64 Upon taking office

  20. Improving Quality of Care in Primary Health-Care Facilities in Rural Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugo, Okoli; Ezinne, Eze-Ajoku; Modupe, Oludipe; Nicole, Spieker; Kelechi, Ohiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. Objective: To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. Method: A total of 6 states were selected across the 6 geopolitical zones of the country. However, assessments were carried out in 40 facilities in only 5 states. Selection was based on location, coverage, and minimum services offered. The facilities were divided randomly into 2 groups. The treatment group received quality-of-care assessment, continuous feedback, and improvement support, whereas the control group received quality assessment and no other support. Data were collected using the SafeCare Healthcare Standards and managed on the SafeCare Data Management System—AfriDB. Eight core areas were assessed at baseline and end line, and compliance to quality health-care standards was compared. Result: Outcomes from 40 facilities were accepted and analyzed. Overall scores increased in the treatment facilities compared to the control facilities, with strong evidence of improvement (t = 5.28, P = .0004) and 11% average improvement, but no clear pattern of improvement emerged in the control group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated governance support and active community involvement offered potential for quality improvement in primary health-care facilities. PMID:28462280

  1. Challenges in horizontal integration of eye care services into the pre-existing rural primary care structure: an operations research perspective from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chinyere Nkemdilim Ezisi; Boniface Ikenna Eze; Obiekwe Okoye; Chimdi Memnofu Chuka-Okosa; Jude Obinna Shiweobi

    2017-01-01

    Background . The provision of population-wide, accessible, affordable, acceptable and evenly distributed qualitative eye care services remains a recurrent challenge to eye care organizations worldwide. Objectives . To report the challenges encountered in setting up eye care service in a pre-existing primary health care facility in rural Nigeria and also audit the common causes of eye disorders in rural setting southeast of Nigeria. Material and methods . The study was an operations ...

  2. LOCAL INSTITUTIONS’ MICRO CREDIT DELIVERY AND EFFECTS ON RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS’ POVERTY IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Onyedikachi ANYIRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of local institutions’ micro credit delivery on rural farm household poverty status in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204 rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, poverty indices, and paired t-test. The study revealed reveals that the religious association granted the highest amount of credit (N91,950.0 to their members more than any other local institutions in the study area, while the mean amount demanded was N 128,491.3. The average annual contribution of members in different local association was N36357.35 with a low percentage cash contribution index of 10.59%. The result of the poverty indicators of the rural farm households in local institutions showed that the poverty line (mean monthly household expenditure of the farm households was N16 N20648.94 per month or N 247787.28 per annum. The incidence of poverty otherwise called the head count ratio was 0.4863 while the coefficient of poverty gap (poverty depth was 0.2458. The result of the paired t-test showed that the local institutions’ micro credits impacted significantly on the mean annual farm income and monthly expenditures of the rural farm households in the study area. It was however, recommended that the autonomous local institutions should be integrated into the current poverty alleviation programme of the government and making them channels for loan delivery with a view to strengthening the financial capacity of its members as well as achieving the Millennium development goals of reducing poverty by half.

  3. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more

  4. Predictors of women's utilization of primary health care for skilled pregnancy care in rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonofua, Friday; Ntoimo, Lorretta; Ogungbangbe, Julius; Anjorin, Seun; Imongan, Wilson; Yaya, Sanni

    2018-04-18

    Although Primary Health Care (PHC) was designed to provide universal access to skilled pregnancy care for the prevention of maternal deaths, very little is known of the factors that predict the use of PHC for skilled maternity care in rural parts of Nigeria - where its use is likely to have a greater positive impact on maternal health care. The objective of this study was to identify the factors that lead pregnant women to use or not use existing primary health care facilities for antenatal and delivery care. The study was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted in Esan South East and Etsako East LGAs of Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 1408 randomly selected women of reproductive age were interviewed in their households using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed with descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. The results showed antenatal care attendance rate by currently pregnant women of 62.1%, and a skilled delivery of 46.6% by recently delivered women at PHCs, while 25% of women delivered at home or with traditional birth attendants. Reasons for use and non-use of PHCs for antenatal and delivery care given by women were related to perceptions about long distances to PHCs, high costs of services and poor quality of PHC service delivery. Chi-square test of association revealed that level of education and marital status were significantly related to use of PHCs for antenatal care. The results of logistic regression for delivery care showed that women with primary (OR 3.10, CI 1.16-8.28) and secondary (OR 2.37, CI 1.19-4.71) levels education were more likely to receive delivery care in PHCs than the highly educated. Being a Muslim (OR 1.56, CI 1.00-2.42), having a partner who is employed in Estako East (OR 2.78, CI 1.04-7.44) and having more than five children in Esan South East (OR 2.00, CI 1.19-3.35) significantly increased the odds of delivery in PHCs. The likelihood of using a PHC facility was less for women who had more

  5. Stigmatization of people with mental illness among inhabitants of a rural community in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audu, Ishaq A; Idris, Suleiman H; Olisah, Victor O; Sheikh, Taiwo L

    2013-02-01

    Despite the fact that mental illness is a common problem in society, people's perception of the mentally ill and community attitude towards them is still rather poor, making their rehabilitation and reintegration into society an uphill task. To examine the stigmatization of people with mental illness within a rural community and identify the socio-demographic variables involved. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a multi-stage random sampling technique to obtain data through an interviewer-administered questionnaire to 325 adult inhabitants of a rural community in Nigeria. The results showed widespread ignorance about causation, mode of transmission and remedies available for mental illness, with only 0.9% of respondents attributing mental illness to brain disease. The others attributed it to spiritual attack, punishment for evil doing and illicit psychoactive substance use, among other things. Negative views about the mentally ill were also widely expressed resulting in discriminatory practices. Stigmatization of people with mental illness is still rampant in our community. There is a need for adequate public education about the causes and mode of transmission of mental illness and the treatment options available in the community.

  6. Transport-Related Social Exclusion amongst Older People in Rural Southwest England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergold, Ian; Parkhurst, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Rural dwelling and older age are both associated with a higher risk of social exclusion, with accessibility identified as having an important facilitating role. The interactions between transport-related exclusion and older age, particularly in a rural context, are considered though analysis of quantitative and qualitative data collected from over…

  7. Rural-urban migration in Nigeria: consequences on housing, health-care and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnnie, P B

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the results of an on-going longitudinal study in selected high-density areas of Port Harcourt metropolis involving 240 respondents from 4 groups. When respondents in the 1st cohort (watchnights, laborers, and messengers) were asked what motivated them to move from rural areas to the city, 94% said to get better jobs and increase their earnings. 98% of the clerks migrated to Port Harcourt for better jobs and to find employment. All 40 school leavers confirmed that they had moved to the city to find jobs. In spite of the various statutory provisions and policy statements relating to housing in Nigeria there still exists an acute and noticeable shortage both in rural and urban housing. There not only exists a dearth of residential accommodation in these urban centers, but there is also a seemingly atrocious disparity in housing conditions between a large majority of poor urban dwellers and a negligible number of urban residents who are reasonably wealthy. With the growing number of persons migrating from the rural areas to the urban centers, there are also likely to be problems of overcrowding which would exacerbate the problems of communicable diseases and pollution. In terms of the allocation of medical personnel, equipment, and drugs, there is a disproportionately skewed distribution in favor of urban dwellers. 1 important cause of urban employment problems is the phenomenal growth in urbanization and the inability of these urban centers to be able to utilize or absorb the urban labor that was created through the process of urbanization. The other problem is the extremely slow pace of industrialization as compared to urbanization . A serious malady responsible for urban unemployment is the staggering rate at which young school leavers migrate to the city. Nigeria as a nation state has assumed the most dangerous dimensions of capitalism by deliberately erecting inequality and poverty in society. 1 way by which the state, controlled by the

  8. Socioeconomic disparities in type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence and self-management behaviors in rural southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cai; Rong, Su; Dingyun, You; Wenlong, Cui

    2016-11-01

    This study examines how socioeconomic factors are associated with prevalence and self-management of diabetes among ethnic minority groups in the rural Yunnan province, which has the most ethnic minority groups per province in southwest China. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2014 in a rural southwest population consisting of 5532 consenting individuals aged ⩾35years. Information about participants' demographic characteristics, as well as diabetes diagnosis, treatment, and self-management behaviors, were obtained using a standard questionnaire. Fasting blood sugar levels were recorded for each individual. A socioeconomic position (SEP) index was constructed using principal component analysis. The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in the study population was 4.8%. In persons with diabetes, 23.1% regularly self-monitored blood glucose, 43.2% adhered to taking prescribed anti-diabetic drugs or insulin injections, and 63.1% took at least one measure to control blood glucose. Individual educational level was found to be negatively associated with the prevalence of diabetes, whereas individuals with greater household assets and higher SEP were more likely to be suffered from diabetes. Persons with diabetes with greater household assets, higher level of education, and higher SEP had a greater probability of regularly self-monitoring blood glucose, compliance to prescribed medicines, and taking measures to control diabetes. Access to medical services was positively associated with regularly self-monitoring blood glucose and compliance to prescribed medicines. Socioeconomic disparities in diabetes prevalence and self-management do exist. Future interventions to further control diabetes and improve diabetes management must be tailored to address socioeconomic factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perception and Attitude of a Rural Community Regarding Adult Blindness in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Victoria A; Adepoju, Feyi G; Owoeye, Joshua F A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the perception and attitudes of a rural community regarding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of blindness in adults. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in a rural community in Kwara State, Nigeria using semi-structured questionnaire. All adults aged 40 years or older who were residents for a minimum of 6 months in the community were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, knowledge, attitude, perception, and use of the eye care facility. A total of 290 participants were interviewed. The male-to-female ratio was 1:2. Consumption of certain types of food was an important cause of blindness as perceived by 57.9% of the respondents, followed by supernatural forces (41.7%) and aging (19%). Sixty percent of respondents thought blindness could be prevented. Age (P = 0.04) and level of education (P =0.003) significantly affected the beliefs on the prevention of blindness. Most respondents (79.3%) preferred orthodox eye care, but only 65% would accept surgical intervention if required. The level of education significantly affected the acceptance of surgery (P = 0.04). Reasons for refusing surgery were, fear (64%), previous poor outcomes in acquaintances (31%), belief that surgery is not required (3%), and cost (2%). About 65% used one form of traditional eye medication or the other. Over half (56.6%) believed that spectacles could cure all causes of blindness. Of those who had ocular complaints, 57.1% used orthodox care without combining with either traditional or spiritual remedies. This rural Nigerian community had some beliefs that were consistent with modern knowledge. However, the overall knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of this community need to be redirected to favor the eradication of avoidable blindness. Although an eye care facility was available, use by the community was suboptimal. Age and the level of education affected their overall perception and attitudes.

  10. Wet nitrogen deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ouping; Zhang, Shirong; Deng, Liangji; Zhang, Chunlong; Fei, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    Understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of the flux of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the variability of N deposition across urban-intensive agricultural-rural transects. A continuous 2-year observational study (from January 2015 to December 2016) was conducted to determine wet N deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China. Significantly spatial and temporal variations were found in the research area. Along the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect, the TN and NH 4 + -N deposition first increased and then decreased, and the NO 3 - -N and dissolved organic N (DON) deposition decreased continuously. Wet N deposition was mainly affected by the districts of agro-facilities, roads and build up lands. Wet NH 4 + -N deposition had non-seasonal emission sources including industrial emissions and urban excretory wastes in urban districts and seasonal emission sources such as fertilizer and manure volatilization in the other districts. However, wet NO 3 - -N deposition had seasonal emission sources such as industrial emissions and fireworks in urban district and non-seasonal emission sources such as transportation in the other districts. Deposition of DON was likely to have had similar sources to NO 3 - -N deposition in rural district, and high-temperature-dependent sources in urban and intensive agricultural districts. Considering the annual wet TN deposition in the intensive agricultural district was about 11.1% of the annual N fertilizer input, N fertilizer rates of crops should be reduced in this region to avoid the excessive application, and the risk of N emissions to the environment.

  11. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

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    Deribew Amare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Results Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7% and non-literates (83.6%. Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7% belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS. Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4 were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5% of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. Conclusion The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate

  12. Eye Injuries Among Primary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria: Rural vs Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Nonso Ejikeme; Umeh, Rich Enujioke; Onwasigwe, Ernest Nnemeka

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were children children had evidence of injury to the eye or its adnexa. Eyelid scar was the commonest (5.34%) followed by eyebrow scar (2.10%). Canthal scar was the next (0.32%). Two girls had monocular blindness from eye trauma (0.16%). One had leucoma, while the other had a dislocated lens. All the monocular blind children of this study were from the urban area. The home was the commonest environment for an eye injury (69.39%) followed by the school (20.41%). The farm was next in frequency (7.14%), especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child's playmate was the commonest (55.10%) followed by self (27.55%). Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%). These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%), RTA (2.04%), siblings (2.04%), and others (1.02%). The primary agents that caused an eye injury were sticks/wood, 29 (29.60%); stone, 21 (21.43%); pieces of metal, 19 (19.39%); fall, 10 (10.20%); fight/fist blow, 9 (9.918%); plastic, 2 (2.04%); fingernails, 2 (2.04%); farm tools/fruits, 2 (2.04%); and RTA, glass, and headbutt, each 1.02%. Farm implements/fruits as well as fingernails appear to be fairly common primary agents that cause an eye injury in the rural Enugu, Nigeria. In terms of prevalence, there was no significant difference between the urban and rural areas. The findings from this study showed a high prevalence of eye injury among primary school children. In terms of

  13. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsuvivatwong Virasakdi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Methods Years of life lost (YLL rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Results Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2–8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Conclusion Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  14. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2006-10-14

    Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Years of life lost (YLL) rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2-8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  15. Malaria and anaemia in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Dim, Cyril C; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S; Iloghalu, Emeka I; Ugwu, Angela O

    2014-06-01

    Several strategies are used in the care of pregnant women accessing antenatal care in primary health centres in Nigeria, with the aim of reducing the burden of malaria and anaemia. The objective of the study was to appraise the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria where malaria preventive strategies are in place. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 300 pregnant women receiving antenatal care in randomly selected primary health centres in the Nkanu West local government area (LGA), Enugu state, Nigeria from August to September 2010. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 92.0% (276/300) (mild in 86.7% [260/300] and moderate in 15.3% [16/300]). The prevalence of anaemia was 49.3% (148/300) (mild in 29.3% [88/300] and moderate in 20% [60/300]). There were no severe cases of malaria parasitaemia or anaemia. The educational status and occupation of participants were significantly associated with the occurrence of peripheral parasitaemia and anaemia respectively (pprevalence of malaria and anaemia is very high in the Nkanu West LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in pregnancy should be intensified in rural settings of Enugu state and Nigeria as a whole. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. ANALYSIS REGARDING THE THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE OF MANAGEMENT HELD BY RURAL ENTREPRENEURS IN SOUTHWEST OLTENIA REGION

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    Victor TIŢA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investing in human capital and social infrastructure represents the most important concern for the greatentrepreneurs in Romania, aiming to use the complete potential of women and men. The studies in this paper wereperformed in 2012 on a sample of 207 rural entrepreneurs, men and women, where there were pursued withmanagement experts, their knowledge of the values, behavior and entrepreneurial motivations, about managementknowledge and experience about mutual perceptions of business people. The information obtained was processedand stored electronically in order to improve the deficiencies found in rural areas, and to identify their trends in thelabor market. Differences between regions of training, knowledge, perception, adaptation and acceptance ofentrepreneurship training through courses made this research to be beneficial in order to take appropriatemeasures to increase the effectiveness of entrepreneurship in rural SW Oltenia.

  17. RURAL FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

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    A.U. Ofuoku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmer perception of their environment is a factor of climate change. Adaptation to climate change requires farmers to realize that the climate has changed and they must identify useful adaptations and implement them. This study analyzed the per-ception of climate change among rural farmers in central agri-cultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Climate change studies often assume certain adaptations and minimal examination of how, when, why, and conditions under which adaptations usually take place in any economic and social systems. The study was conducted by survey method on 131 respondents using struc-tured interview schedule and questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model to test that education, gender, and farming experience influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results showed that the farmers were aware of climate change. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from intensified agriculture, population explosion, increased use of fossil fuel, loss of in-digenous know practice to gas flaring. The effects of climate change on crops and livestocks were also identified by the rural farmers. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates, using different crop varieties, installing fans in livestock pens, and applying irrigation. Almost half of them did not adapt to climate change. The linear regression analysis revealed that education, gender, and farming experience influ-enced farmers’ perception of climate change. The major barriers to adaptation to climate change included lack of information, lack of money, and inadequate land.

  18. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

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    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  19. Sexual Practices That May Favor the Transmission of HIV in a Rural Community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, A J; Oladepo, O; Adeniyi, J D; Ches, W R

    1993-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have been documented as a primarily urban phenomenon in Nigeria. The risk of spread to rural communities, where the largest portion of the population still lives, exists. This article presents a qualitative research study that was designed to explore sexual practices in a rural Nigerian community that held potential risk for introducing HIV into the community and for enabling HIV transmission should an infected person enters local sexual networks, in the small town of Ago-Are, Oyo State. Seven key informant interviews, in-depth interviews and observations with five commercial sex workers (CSWs), and focus group discussions (FGD) with married and single male and female residents were held. CSWs were found to be the most likely route whereby HIV could enter the community, both because of their own mobility, being resident in the community on average only nine months, and because of the mobility of their main clients, migrant farm laborers and commercial drivers. This did not preclude local patronage, which was more discrete. Another possible point of entry for HIV was through casual sexual relations during ceremonies, holidays and festivals, when towns' people working in the large urban centers came home. Within the community, extramarital sexual relations were posited as a likely route for spread within the community. The continued existence of a taboo against sexual intercourse while a mother is breastfeeding, frequent informal divorces and a tendency toward polygamy were identified by FGD members as factors that encourage extra-marital sex. The strong role that social and religious associations play in the community was identified as an ideal mechanism for health education to prevent HIV/AIDS.

  20. Social context surrounding HIV diagnosis and construction of masculinity: a qualitative study of stigma experiences of heterosexual HIV positive men in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoror, Titilayo Ainegbesua; Falade, Catherine Olufunke; Walker, Ebunlomo Mary; Olorunlana, Adetayo; Anaele, Agaptus

    2016-06-13

    Though research has documented experiences of stigma and its effects on the lives of women living with HIV/AIDS, there is limited research on heterosexual positive HIV men experience of stigma in Nigeria. This study explored how social context surrounding HIV diagnosis impacts stigma experiences of heterosexual HIV positive men and their construction of masculinity in southwest Nigeria. Using purposive sampling, 17 heterosexual HIV positive men were recruited through community based organization to participate in two hours focus group discussions or 45 min in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded. Without using the word stigma, discussions and interviews were guided by four questions that explored participants' experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Interviews and discussions were conducted in three languages: English, Yoruba and Pidgin English. Thematic data analysis approach was in coding transcribed data, while social constructivist thinking guided data analysis. Participants ranged in age from 30 to 57 years old, and all were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Findings indicated that participants' experiences of stigma might be moderated by the social context surrounding their HIV diagnosis, and whether they have met the socio-cultural construction of masculinity. Participants whose diagnosis were preceded by immediate family members' diagnosis were less likely to report experiencing HIV stigma and more likely to report "not feeling less than a man" and educating others about HIV/AIDS. Contrarily, participants whose diagnosis was preceded by their own sickness were more likely to report isolation, sigma and feeling of being less than a man. All participants reported limiting their sexual intimacy, and those with children reported adjusting how they performed their role as fathers. Social context surrounding HIV diagnosis impact how heterosexual HIV positive men experience HIV related stigma and how they perceive themselves as men, which may influence their

  1. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis from SouthWest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olumuyiwa Samuel; Mendonça, Nuno; Adeleke, Olufemi Ezekiel; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2017-06-01

    Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating problem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported. This study screened for presence of transferable resistance genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as integron among multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. mirabilis . A total of 108 P. mirabilis strains collected from five tertiary hospitals in SouthWest Nigeria were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility study using disc-diffusion method. Transferable resistance genes and MGEs were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and amplicons sequenced. Varied resistance was observed against all the antibiotics tested. About 56% of the isolates were MDR including those from 0-12 years old children. PCR analysis revealed the presence of aac(6')-Ib (33.3%), plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [qnrA (36.7%), acc(6')-Ib-cr (5%)], TEM (48.3%), CTX-M (6.7%) and integrons class 1 (58.3%) and class 2 (26.7%). Sequencing analysis revealed bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-15 associated with IS Ecp1 and eight different arrays of gene cassettes: aadA1, aadA1-qacH, aadB-aadA2, aadA5, dfrA7, dfrA15, dfrA17, dfrA17-aadA5 . Transferable resistance genes in association with MGEs are present in Nigerian P. mirabilis thus their potential in disseminating resistance.

  2. Design considerations of a total energy power system for a rural health centre in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chendo, M A.C. [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Physics; Salawu, R I [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual total energy (hybrid) system design considerations are presented for a Rural Health Centre in a remote village in Nigeria. The design uses a spectrally selective beam splitting technique. The system provides both electrical and thermal energy with electrical needs of the centre being provided by the photoquantum convertor while the hot water and sterilization requirements are met by the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid in the thermally decoupled loop. A critical analysis of the electrical and thermal energy requirements of the health centre including its laboratories, water supply, refrigeration, lighting, etc. and its technoeconomic aspects is also discussed. With appropriate sizing of panels, storage, choice of the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid and other accessories, the PV/PT system using moderately concentrated sunlight is attractive for such application in areas with no national grid lines and normally considered uneconomical for electrification by the extension of the national grid or by the provision of generators which require constant supply of fuel and servicing. (author).

  3. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.

  4. Theatre of Rural Empowerment: The Example of Living Earth Nigeria Foundation's Community Theatre Initiative in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betiang, Liwhu

    2010-01-01

    About 60% of Nigerians live in rural areas with poor access roads and health facilities, near-absent communication media, unemployment, alienation and disempowerment by the political leadership. This scenario has excluded the rural Nigerian from meaningful participation in development action. A bottom-up participatory approach to…

  5. Neuropharmacological profile and chemical analysis of fresh rhizome essential oil of Curcuma longa (turmeric) cultivated in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemitan, Idris A; Elusiyan, Christianah A; Onifade, Ayoola O; Akanmu, Moses A; Oyedeji, Adebola O; McDonald, Armando G

    2017-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) is commonly used as spice and also used to treat fever, cough and febrile convulsions in Nigeria. This study determined the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. longa and evaluated its neuropharmacological activity in mice. Essential oil of C. longa (EOCL) fresh rhizome was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition determined by GC-MS. Acute toxicity (LD 50 ) profile of the essential oil was determined orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.); and the EOCL (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated for its behavioural, anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities using appropriate models in Albino mice (Vom Strain, Jos, Nigeria). Analysis of the oil showed the presence of 23 compounds with turmerone (35.9%) being the major component. The LD 50 values obtained for the mice were 2154 mg/kg, p.o., and 693 mg/kg, i.p. The EOCL (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) caused significant (p longa species was turmerone; the oil was slightly toxic orally but moderately toxic intraperitoneally in mice; exhibited significant anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities in mice.

  6. Anemia in pregnancy and its associated factors among primary care clients in Sagamu, Southwest, Nigeria: A facility-based study

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    Oluwafolahan Olugbenga Sholeye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Nigeria, anemia in pregnancy is one of the leading causes of poor pregnancy outcomes. This study, therefore, determined the prevalence of anemia and its associated factors, among pregnant primary care clients in Sagamu, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 400 pregnant, primary care clients in Sagamu, selected through multi-stage sampling. Data were collected with the aid of an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire, a stadiometer, measuring tape, and a hemoglobinometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.00. Relevant descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated. Participation was fully voluntary. Results: The mean age of respondents was 25.4 ± 4.2 years. Most respondents (51.8% were traders. About a third (32.5% of respondents were anemic; of these, 72.1% were mildly anemic, while 27.1% were moderately anemic. Anemia was associated with household food security (P = 0.044 and level of food insecurity (P = 0.001 but not with age, occupation, educational status, household size, number of previous pregnancies, body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, snacking, vegetable intake, and food avoidance (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Anemia in pregnancy is still high among respondents and associated with household food insecurity. Interventions targeted at improving household food security, dietary intake, and socioeconomic conditions will significantly reduce the prevalence and severity of anemia in pregnancy.

  7. Family caregiver's experiences of providing care to patients with End-Stage Renal Disease in South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyegbile, Yemisi Okikiade; Brysiewicz, Petra

    2017-09-01

    To describe the experiences of family caregivers providing care for patients living with End-Stage Renal Disease in Nigeria BACKGROUND: Family caregiving is where an unpaid volunteer, usually a close family member, attends to the needs of a loved one with a chronic, disabling illness within the home. Much research has been conducted in the area of family caregiving in high-income countries. However, the same cannot be said for many of the low-resource, multicultural African countries. Qualitative descriptive study. This qualitative descriptive study used manifest content analysis to analyse data from semi-structured, individual interviews, with 15 purposively selected family caregivers. Two tertiary institutions providing renal care in South-Western Nigeria: the research setting for this study. Five categories were identified, and these included disconnectedness with self and others, never-ending burden, 'a fool being tossed around', obligation to care and promoting a closer relationship. Experiences associated with the caregiving of patients diagnosed with End-Stage Renal Disease evoked a number of emotions from the family caregivers, and the study revealed that caregiving imposed some burdens that are specific to low-resource countries on participants. Nurses need to engage family caregivers on disease-specific teachings that might promote understanding of the disease process and role expectation. Family caregivers may benefit from social support services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Empowering Promotores de Salud as partners in cancer education and research in rural southwest Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupertino, Ana Paula; Saint-Elin, Mercedes; de Los Rios, Johana Bravo; Engelman, Kimberly K; Greiner, K Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Nápoles, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    To describe community-based participatory processes used to develop promotore training on cancer research, and to assess the feasibility of training promotores from rural communities to disseminate cancer research information. Prospective, cohort design. Rural communities in the state of Kansas. 34 Spanish-speaking promotores attended an information session; 27 enrolled and 22 completed training. With input from a community advisory board, the authors developed a leadership and cancer curriculum and trained Spanish-speaking promotores to disseminate information on cancer research. Promotores completed pretraining and post-training surveys in Spanish to assess demographic characteristics and changes in knowledge of cancer, cancer treatment and cancer research studies, and intent to participate in cancer research. Cancer knowledge, awareness of cancer clinical trials, interest in participating in cancer clinical research studies. Compared to pretraining, after training, promotores were more likely to correctly define cancer, identify biopsies, describe cancer stages, and report ever having heard of cancer research studies. Completion rates of the training and willingness to participate in cancer research were high, supporting the feasibility of training promotores to deliver community-based education to promote cancer research participation. Nursing professionals and researchers can collaborate with promotores to disseminate cancer education and research among underserved rural Latino communities in Kansas and elsewhere. Members of these communities appear willing and interested in improving their knowledge of cancer and cancer clinical trials.

  9. Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, O. [Ekiti State University (Nigeria)

    2014-07-01

    The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg{sup -1}, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg{sup -1} and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg{sup -1}, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg{sup -1}, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg{sup -1} and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice of modern contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozumba, B C; Obi, S N; Ijioma, N N

    2005-04-01

    The contraceptive information and services offered to single women in most developing countries is compromised by stigma attached to premarital sex. This study was to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria, using a cross-sectional survey of 279 and 295 single women in Ngwo (rural) and Enugu (urban) community. The mean age of the population was 21.3 years. Contraceptive awareness was more among the urban than rural respondents (90.2% vs 34.1%). The major sources of contraceptive knowledge were mass media (68%) and peer groups (86.3%) for the urban and rural respondents, respectively. Most respondents in both groups had positive attitude towards contraception. More urban than rural respondents (68.3% vs 12.5%) began sexual activity during adolescence and the level of contraceptive use during first coitus were 48.4% and 13.7%, respectively. Of the currently sexually active respondents, 32.5% (rural) and 59.7% (urban) were using a form of modern contraception. Condoms, followed by oral pills were the most popular contraceptive method because they can easily procure them over the counter. Poor contraceptive information, highly critical behavior of family planning providers towards unmarried women seeking contraception and attitude of male partners militate against contraceptive practice. There is need to promote information and education on contraception among single women, their male partners and family planning providers.

  11. Effects Of Membership Of Cooperative Organisations And Determinants On Farmer-Members Income In Rural Anambra State Nigeria

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    Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.

  12. Eye Injuries among Primary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria: Rural vs Urban

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    Nonso Ejikeme Okpala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL eye examination form. Training on visual acuity measurement was done for each of the class teachers. A total of 1,236 children <15 years of age were studied and analyzed. Slightly more females, 652 (52.8%, than males, 584 (47.2%, constituted the sample population giving a female/male ratio of 1.1:1. A total of 98 (7.93% children had evidence of injury to the eye or its adnexa. Eyelid scar was the commonest (5.34% followed by eyebrow scar (2.10%. Canthal scar was the next (0.32%. Two girls had monocular blindness from eye trauma (0.16%. One had leucoma, while the other had a dislocated lens. All the monocular blind children of this study were from the urban area. The home was the commonest environment for an eye injury (69.39% followed by the school (20.41%. The farm was next in frequency (7.14%, especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child's playmate was the commonest (55.10% followed by self (27.55%. Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%. These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%, RTA

  13. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

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    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  14. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Adebajo, Sylvia; Adeyemi, Adedayo; Ogungbemi, Kayode Micheal

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria. We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban

  15. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day, sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers, sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner, and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5% of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001 and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04. Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02, and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007. More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005. More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04 and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001 areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04 and

  16. Interpretation of high resolution airborne magnetic data (HRAMD of Ilesha and its environs, Southwest Nigeria, using Euler deconvolution method

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    Olurin Oluwaseun Tolutope

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data of Ilesha and its environs within the basement complex of the geological setting of Southwestern Nigeria was carried out in the study. The study area is delimited by geographic latitudes 7°30′–8°00′N and longitudes 4°30′–5°00′E. This investigation was carried out using Euler deconvolution on filtered digitised total magnetic data (Sheet Number 243 to delineate geological structures within the area under consideration. The digitised airborne magnetic data acquired in 2009 were obtained from the archives of the Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA. The airborne magnetic data were filtered, processed and enhanced; the resultant data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative magnetic interpretation, geometry and depth weighting analyses across the study area using Euler deconvolution filter control file in Oasis Montag software. Total magnetic intensity distribution in the field ranged from –77.7 to 139.7 nT. Total magnetic field intensities reveal high-magnitude magnetic intensity values (high-amplitude anomaly and magnetic low intensities (low-amplitude magnetic anomaly in the area under consideration. The study area is characterised with high intensity correlated with lithological variation in the basement. The sharp contrast is enhanced due to the sharp contrast in magnetic intensity between the magnetic susceptibilities of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks. The reduced-to-equator (RTE map is characterised by high frequencies, short wavelengths, small size, weak intensity, sharp low amplitude and nearly irregular shaped anomalies, which may due to near-surface sources, such as shallow geologic units and cultural features. Euler deconvolution solution indicates a generally undulating basement, with a depth ranging from −500 to 1000 m. The Euler deconvolution results show that the basement relief is generally gentle and flat, lying within the basement terrain.

  17. Preparation and use of plant medicines for farmers' health in Southwest Nigeria: socio-cultural, magico-religious and economic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Agrarian rural dwellers in Nigeria produce about 95% of locally grown food commodities. The low accessibility to and affordability of orthodox medicine by rural dwellers and their need to keep healthy to be economically productive, have led to their dependence on traditional medicine. This paper posits an increasing acceptance of traditional medicine country-wide and advanced reasons for this trend. The fact that traditional medicine practitioners' concept of disease is on a wider plane vis-à-vis orthodox medicine practitioners' has culminated in some socio-cultural and magico-religious practices observed in preparation and use of plant medicines for farmers' health management. Possible scientific reasons were advanced for some of these practices to show the nexus between traditional medicine and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that the psychological aspect of traditional medicine are reflected in its socio-cultural and magico-religious practices and suggests that government should fund research into traditional medicine to identify components of it that can be integrated into the national health system. PMID:20089149

  18. Preparation and use of plant medicines for farmers' health in Southwest Nigeria: socio-cultural, magico-religious and economic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntade Adegboyega E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agrarian rural dwellers in Nigeria produce about 95% of locally grown food commodities. The low accessibility to and affordability of orthodox medicine by rural dwellers and their need to keep healthy to be economically productive, have led to their dependence on traditional medicine. This paper posits an increasing acceptance of traditional medicine country-wide and advanced reasons for this trend. The fact that traditional medicine practitioners' concept of disease is on a wider plane vis-à-vis orthodox medicine practitioners' has culminated in some socio-cultural and magico-religious practices observed in preparation and use of plant medicines for farmers' health management. Possible scientific reasons were advanced for some of these practices to show the nexus between traditional medicine and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that the psychological aspect of traditional medicine are reflected in its socio-cultural and magico-religious practices and suggests that government should fund research into traditional medicine to identify components of it that can be integrated into the national health system.

  19. Bacterial pathogen spectrum of acute diarrheal outpatients in an urbanized rural district in Southwest China

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    Yongming Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To conduct a one-year pathogen surveillance of acute diarrheal disease based on outpatient clinics in township hospitals in rural Hongta District of Yunnan Province, China. Methods: Fecal specimens of acute diarrhea cases and relevant epidemiological information were collected. Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas shigelloides and diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC were examined. Results: Among the 797 stool specimens sampled, 198 samples (24.8% were positive in pathogen isolation, and 223 strains were isolated. The order of isolation rates from high to low were DEC, Aeromonas, P. shigelloides, Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio. The overall positive rate in middle school students and preschool children was relatively high; while the overall positive rate of less than 1-year-old infants and above 55 years olds was relatively low. The isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Some cases had the same or very close onset time, and the isolates had similar PFGE patterns, suggesting a possible outbreak once occurred but was not detected by the current infectious disease reporting system. Conclusions: Pathogen infection and transmission in rapidly urbanized rural areas is a serious issue. There is a great need for a more sensitive and accurate mode of monitoring, reporting and outbreak identification of diarrheal disease. Keywords: Diarrheal disease, Diarrheogenic pathogen, Molecular typing, Surveillance, Bacterial pathogen

  20. Improving malaria recognition, treatment and referral practices by training caretakers in rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Theodora A

    2010-05-01

    A caretaker training programme was carried out in Ugwuogo-Nike, a rural area in south-east Nigeria, based on formative research within the community. A training of trainers workshop was organized for 30 leaders of women groups who subsequently trained other mothers in their group. Community information activities, which lasted for a period of eight months, included the use of posters, drama group and jingles. The programme was evaluated using the quantitative and qualitative methods that were employed at baseline, which included community survey and focus group discussions (FGDs). For the community survey, households with children under five years of age were identified and provided the sampling frame, from which 300 households were chosen using the systematic sampling method. The target population for the FGDs were caretakers of children under five years. Post-intervention evaluation of the programme showed significant (pmanagement of malaria and referral practices for severe malaria. Those who correctly reported that mosquitoes were the cause of malaria rose markedly from 39.7% to 88.7%. Knowledge of symptoms of mild and severe malaria also increased significantly. Only 1.5% of caretakers were aware of the correct dose of anti-malarial before intervention, but this increased to 41.5%. The impact of intervention brought about a dramatic change in the practice of taking severely ill children, especially those with convulsion, to a traditional healer. A minority (6.7%) of caretakers took a severely ill child to a traditional healer as against 60% pre-intervention. There was also a significant increase in use of formal health facilities for the treatment of severely ill children. The study findings support the view that training of mothers to recognize, treat appropriately and refer severe cases of malaria is feasible and may lead to a reduction in the incidence of severe disease.

  1. Assessment of primary health care in a rural health centre in Enugu South east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Chinawa, Josephat; T Chinawa, Awoere

    2015-01-01

    Primary health care (PHC) is a vital in any community. Any health centre with a well implemented PHC program can stand the test of time in curbing under five mortality and morbidity. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the activities in a health centre located in a rural area in Enugu state and to determine the pattern and presentation of various diseases in the health centre. This is retrospective study undertaken in a primary health care centre in Abakpa Nike in Enugu east LGA of Enugu State of Nigeria from December 2011 to December 31(st) 2013. Data retrieved were collected with the aid of a structured study proforma and analyzed using SPSS Version 18. Total number of children that attended immunization program in the health centre over 20 months period was 25,438 (12,348 males and 13090 females), however only 17745 children (7998 males and 9747 females) were actually registered in the hospital records. None of the children was immunized for DPT2 and OPV(0) and HBV(1) in the course of this study. The dropout rate using DPT1, 2 and 3 (DPT1-DPT2/DPT3) was very high (494%). The mean immunization coverage rate was 8.3%. Family planning activities, integrated management of childhood illnesses program were also carried out in the health centre but at very low level. The major fulcrum of events in the health centre which include immunization coverage, IMCI, and management of common illnesses were simply non operational. However the health centre had a well knitted referral system.

  2. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Rural Suburbs of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

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    Egenti NB

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The feeding of an infant with breast milk only, to the exclusion of all other feeds - liquids or solids, including water - except prescribed medications; within the first half year of life is referred to as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. Despite its numerous benefits, not many mothers practiced it because of one barrier or the other. This study estimated the prevalence of EBF established the major barriers thereof and determined the link between socio-demographic characteristics and the practice of EBF among women living in the rural suburbs of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was descriptive cross-sectional in design. Results: Among the 370 subjects, 49% practiced EBF. None of the respondents made PNC visit specifically for the purpose of learning or asking questions about breastfeeding. Nonetheless, 18.5% received breastfeeding education during PNC visit. A large proportion of the subjects did not practice EBF because they were not aware (21.1% of it. Medical reasons, which included HIV positive mothers and those with breast disease constituted the least barriers (1.3%. EBF was prominently linked with maternal education, type of work, delivery place, skilled attendance at birth, husband’s education, and occupation (p<0.05. Conclusion: Capacity building for healthcare personnel on breast feeding, establishment of facilities as close to the communities as possible with their active participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of EBF practice is recommended. Emphasis should be laid on the need for breastfeeding during antenatal period and then postnatal just before discharge.

  3. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

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    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  4. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a rural Southwest Island of Japan: the Kumejima study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuko; Tomidokoro, Atsuo; Sawaguchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Hiroshi; Iwase, Aiko; Araie, Makoto

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an adult population on a rural southwest island of Japan. Population-based, cross-sectional study. All residents of Kumejima Island, Japan, 40 years of age and older. Of the 4632 residents 40 years of age and older, 3762 (response rate, 81.2%) underwent a detailed ocular examination including measurement of the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with a Landolt ring chart at 5 m. The age- and gender-specific prevalence rates of low vision and blindness were estimated and causes were identified. Low vision and blindness were defined, according to the definition of the World Health Organization, as a BCVA in the better eye below 20/60 to a lower limit of 20/400 and worse than 20/400, respectively. The prevalence of bilateral low vision was 0.58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.89). The primary causes of low vision were cataract (0.11%), corneal opacity (0.08%), retinitis pigmentosa (RP; 0.06%), and diabetic retinopathy (0.06%). The prevalence of bilateral blindness was 0.39% (95% CI, 0.23-0.65). The primary causes of blindness were RP (0.17%) and glaucoma (0.11%). The primary causes of monocular low vision were cataract (0.65%), corneal opacity (0.16%), age-related macular degeneration (0.16%), and diabetic retinopathy (0.11%), whereas those of monocular blindness were cataract (0.29%), trauma (0.25%), and glaucoma (0.22%). Logistic analysis showed that female gender (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 7.37; 95% CI, 2.20-24.71) and lower body weight (P = 0.015; OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99) were associated significantly with visual impairment. The prevalences of low vision and blindness in the adult residents of an island in southwest Japan were 1.5 to 3 times higher than the prevalences reported in an urban city on the Japanese mainland. The prevalence of visual impairment caused by RP on this island was much higher than on the mainland, suggesting a genetic characteristic of the population

  5. Social context surrounding HIV diagnosis and construction of masculinity: a qualitative study of stigma experiences of heterosexual HIV positive men in southwest Nigeria

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    Titilayo Ainegbesua Okoror

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though research has documented experiences of stigma and its effects on the lives of women living with HIV/AIDS, there is limited research on heterosexual positive HIV men experience of stigma in Nigeria. This study explored how social context surrounding HIV diagnosis impacts stigma experiences of heterosexual HIV positive men and their construction of masculinity in southwest Nigeria. Methods Using purposive sampling, 17 heterosexual HIV positive men were recruited through community based organization to participate in two hours focus group discussions or 45 min in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded. Without using the word stigma, discussions and interviews were guided by four questions that explored participants’ experiences of living with HIV/AIDS. Interviews and discussions were conducted in three languages: English, Yoruba and Pidgin English. Thematic data analysis approach was in coding transcribed data, while social constructivist thinking guided data analysis. Results Participants ranged in age from 30 to 57 years old, and all were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Findings indicated that participants’ experiences of stigma might be moderated by the social context surrounding their HIV diagnosis, and whether they have met the socio-cultural construction of masculinity. Participants whose diagnosis were preceded by immediate family members’ diagnosis were less likely to report experiencing HIV stigma and more likely to report “not feeling less than a man” and educating others about HIV/AIDS. Contrarily, participants whose diagnosis was preceded by their own sickness were more likely to report isolation, sigma and feeling of being less than a man. All participants reported limiting their sexual intimacy, and those with children reported adjusting how they performed their role as fathers. Conclusions Social context surrounding HIV diagnosis impact how heterosexual HIV positive men experience HIV

  6. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sediments of surface - water dams in southwest Nigeria - a baseline survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isinkaye, M.O.; Farai, I.P.

    2008-01-01

    The radionuclide contents of sediment samples collected from 20 surface-water dams in southwestern Nigeria have been determined by low-level gamma-spectroscopy. The average concentration of 40 K in each of the dams varied between 110.9±11.9 Bq kg-1 and 1025.9±36.8 Bq kg -1 with an overall mean (±SD) of 549.3 ± 247.6 Bq kg -1 while that of 238 U varied from 17.1±3.6 to 51.9±8.7 Bq kg -1 with an overall mean (±SD) of 27.6±8.5 Bq kg -1 and that of 232 Th varied from 26.2 ±3.6 Bq kg -1 to 130.1±23.7 Bq kg -1 with overall mean (±SD) of 62.0±26.1 Bq kg -1 . The variability of the values shows the wide disparity in the measured activity concentrations. The mean radium equivalent of 158.9 Bq kg -1 was calculated for the sediments in the dams. No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. (authors)

  7. Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria

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    Mafimisebi Taiwo E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation.

  8. Dietary practices and nutritional status of under-five children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria.

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    Senbanjo, Idowu O; Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O; Afolabi, Wasiu A O

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. However, data establishing whether this difference in prevalence of undernutrition could be ascribed to difference in dietary practices are few. The aim of this study was to compare dietary practices and nutritional status of children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative-analytical study conducted using the multistage sampling technique to select the study cases. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, including 150 each from rural and urban communities. Data collected include demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometric measurements of the participants. Food intake data were collected using 24-h dietary recall. Malnutrition in children was determined by calculating the prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-age (underweight), and low weight-for-height (wasting) using the World Health Organization cutoff points. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (25.3% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.516), use of formula feeds (48.7% vs. 44%; P = 0.077), and mean age of child at introduction of semisolid foods (7.54 ± 4.0 months vs. 8.51 ± 7.3 months; P = 0.117) were not significantly different between urban and rural communities. The diversity of food choices and frequencies of consumption were similar between urban and rural communities. However, prevalence levels of underweight and stunted children were significantly higher in rural than that of urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, P rural communities.

  9. Vulnerability and Sensitivity of Women and the Aged to Hydrological Extremes in Rural Communities of South Eastern Nigeria

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    Mbajiorgu, Constantine; Ezenne, Gloria I.; Ndulue, Emeka L.

    2017-04-01

    Annual rainfall total of Southeastern Nigeria varies widely from year to year and across the seasons. Southeastern Nigeria is marked with two distinctive seasons, namely: the rainy season (occurs March through November) and the dry season (December through February). Highest daily rainfall of this area occurs in the months of July through September. Climate change has brought about either prolonged rainy or dry season in this region. Flash floods are common features in Southeastern Nigeria during the rainy (wet) season, but the unprecedented floods of 2012 represent the worst with 21 million people displaced, 597,476 houses destroyed or damaged, over 363 people killed and an estimated loss of USD 19.6 billion. Hydrological extremes such as these affect men and women differently because of the different roles socio-culturally assigned to them. Women are more vulnerable and sensitive to floods and drought because of their conventional gender responsibilities. This study assesses how women and the elderly of rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria are affected by hydrological extremes, their vulnerability to the effects as well as risk reduction approaches to cope with and/or adapt to the impacts of climate change. In the study area, women are predominantly the providers of food, water and fuel, and climate change has adverse impacts on all three. Women in these rural communities practice subsistence farming during the rainy season. Their farm lands are submerged during flood events destroying their crops and they are helpless during prolonged dry seasons. Inadequacy of hydrological data makes it difficult to predict and forecast hydrological extremes in the region. Several other factors exacerbate vulnerability of women and the aged to the impacts of hydrological extremes, such as rural poverty, limited livelihood options, education, lack of basic services, and socio-cultural norms. The poverty level affects their resilience and recovery from any flood disaster. It

  10. Family functionality and parental characteristics as determinants of sexual decision-making of in-school youths in a semi-urban area of Southwest Nigeria.

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    Adebayo, Ayodeji M; Ajuonu, Ezidinma J; Betiku, Benson O

    2016-11-01

    Though research findings have indicated that family characteristics have a bearing on sexual behavior, there is a paucity of published literature on the role of family functionality and parental characteristics on adolescent sexual decision-making. This study was designed to assess the role of family function and parental influence on sexual behavior of in-school youths in secondary schools in a sub-urban area of Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary school students using semi-structured interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Information was obtained on the sexual behavior and parent-child characteristics. Family functionality was assessed using family APGAR standardized instrument. Association was established using χ2-test for qualitative variables and t-test for quantitative variables at p=0.05. Mean age of respondents was 14.8±2.2 years. Majority were from monogamous family setting (70.7%) and lived with their families (75.6%). About a quarter (26.8%) was from dysfunctional families and 9.2% had ever had sexual intercourse. Recent sexual engagement in the preceding 1 month was reported (47.4%). The mean score for parental monitoring, father-child communication, mother-child communication, and parental disapproval of sex were 10.4±2.2, 9.3±2.3, 9.8±2.4, and 10.4±2.3, respectively. There was a significant association between parental monitoring (t=3.9, p≤0.001), mother-child communication (t=3.03, p=0.003), and parental disapproval of sex (t=5, p≤0.001); and sexual experience. This study showed that parental influence had a vital role in the sexual behavior of young persons. Advocacy and health education interventions are needed among parents regarding their role in the sexual behavior of in-school youths.

  11. The frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria

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    Oseni Bashiru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : ABO incompatibility in maternal-fetal relationship has been shown to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDNB; a survey which is not yet done in this locality. Aim: Frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria. Settings and Designs : A total of 260 subjects comprising 130 postpartum mothers within the age range of 22-35 years having good obstetrics history and normal delivery, with their 130 neonate babies were used for the study. Materials and Methods : ABO cell and serum groupings were carried out on the subjects using standard antisera and cells with appropriate controls. Direct Coomb′s Test was carried out on neonate red cells. Antibody quantitation by double dilution on the maternal serum using red cells containing corresponding antigen to the antibody was determined. A titer, which is the reciprocal of the highest dilution showing agglutination by Indirect Coombs Test, was determined. Another batch of sera was pretreated with 2-mecarptoethanol before determining the titer. Statistical Analysis: The distribution study results obtained were compared in percentages, whereas the antibodies quantitation was expressed as titers using the mode of the titers for compariso-agglutininsn. Results and Conclusions : Thirty-eight percent (50 mothers were ABO incompatible with their babies, whereas 62% (80 mothers were compatible. The distribution of blood groups in the compatible population showed blood group O (45%; A (30%; B (20%; and AB (5%. Mothers O, A, and B carrying incompatible babies had a frequency of 24% each, whereas mothers AB had 28%. Serologist differences occur in maternal ABO antibodies of corresponding incompatible baby ABO antigens. A high incidence of ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility observed without detection of immune agglutinins is indicative of a rare incidence of HDNB due

  12. Nutrition intervention program and childhood malnutrition: a comparative study of two rural riverine communities in bayelsa state, Nigeria.

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    Sawyer, W; Ordinioha, B; Abuwa, Pnc

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition is high in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, in spite of the region's oil wealth and nutrition intervention programs have been found to be effective in similar circumstance. This study is to assess the nutrition intervention program, implemented by UNICEF in some rural communities of Bayelsa State, one of the six States in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out in 2009 in Toruorua and Gbaranbiri, two rural riverine communities, in Baylesa State. Toruorua benefited from the nutrition intervention program of UNICEF between 1999 and 2008, while Gbaranbiri did not benefit. A comparative, cross-sectional study design was used, with the data collected using anthropometry and semi-structured questionnaire, administered on 105 respondents, chosen with the cluster sampling technique, popularized by UNICEF, from each of the study communities. Data were analyzed using EPI-INFO version 2002, Microsoft Excel software, and manually. Differences between the study communities were tested using the student's t-test for means, and Chi-square test for proportions. Significant values were set at P childhood malnutrition.

  13. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State.

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    Salwa Dawaki

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively.The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population.Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants' knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis

  14. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in rural south-west China: prevalence, intensity and risk factor analysis.

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    Mofid, Layla S; Bickle, Quentin; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Du, Zun-Wei; Patrick, Edward

    2011-05-01

    Only few studies in rural China have explored the epidemiology of intestinal helminth infections and identified risk factors for transmission. The study was carried out in Simao and Mengla counties, where single fecal samples were collected from 317 school-aged children and from 94 inhabitants of a single village. Fecal specimens were examined with the Kato-Katz thick smear method and examined for helminth eggs. Data regarding socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors were collected using questionnaires. In Simao County the overall soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) prevalence was 40.2% (2.7, 5.4 and 35.7% for ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, respectively). The STH infection rates were significantly higher in Mengla County, with an overall prevalence of 68.3% (19.0, 34.6 and 47.3% for ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, respectively). Females were less likely to be infected with Trichuris trichiura (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.15-0.56) and with hookworms (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.93) than males. Hookworm infections were more prevalent among those 12 years of age or older (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.2-7.1). Children of mothers with educational attainment of secondary school or higher had a protective effect against T. trichiura (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06-0.54) and hookworm (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.51) infections. In the village survey, hookworm was the most prevalent species (62.8%) with infection seen in those 50 years of age and older. Based on recommended intervention strategies by the World Health Organization, Simao County should opt for school-based deworming once each year, while Mengla County should implement a similar strategy biannually, but should include the elderly population.

  15. Prevalence and determinants of airflow limitation in urban and rural children exposed to cooking fuels in South-East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguonu, Tagbo; Obumneme-Anyim, Ijeoma N; Eze, Joy N; Ayuk, Adaeze C; Okoli, Chinyere V; Ndu, Ikenna K

    2018-03-15

    Background Biofuels and other cooking fuels are used in households in low- and middle-income countries. Aim To investigate the impact of cooking fuels on lung function in children in urban and rural households in South-East Nigeria. Methods The multi-stage sampling method was used to enroll children exposed to cooking fuel in the communities. Lung function values FEV1, FVC and the FEV1/FVC ratio, were measured with ndd EasyOne R spirometer. Airflow limitation was determined with FEV1/FVC Z-score values at -1.64 as the lower limit of normal (LLN5). The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 software was used to calculate the lung function indices. Results The median age (range) of the 912 children enrolled was 10.6 years (6-18). Altogether, 468 (51.6%) children lived in rural areas. Seven hundred and thirty-seven (80.7%) were directly exposed to cooking fuels (418/737, 56.5% in rural areas). Wood and kerosene were the dominant fuels in rural and urban households. The respective mean Z-scores of the exposed children in rural and urban were zFEV1 -0.62, FVC -0.21, FEV1/FVC -0.83 and zFEV1 -0.57, zFVC -0.14, FEV1/FVC -0.75. Few (5.2%, 38/737) of the children had airflow limitation. Most of them (60.5%, 25/38) lived in the rural community; the lowest FEV1/FVC Z-scores were those of exposed to a combination of fuels. Conclusion Exposure to cooking fuels affects lung function in children with airway limitation in a small proportion, Control measures are advocated to reduce the morbidity related to cooking fuels exposure.

  16. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population.

  17. HIV/AIDS and the long-distance truck drivers in south-west Nigeria: A cross-sectional survey on the knowledge, attitude, risk behaviour and beliefs of truckers

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    Glory O. Atilola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objectives: According to the last HIV surveillance survey conducted in 2008, the overall National HIV prevalence in Nigeria stands at 4.6%. Recent studies and estimates by UNAIDS/WHO show higher prevalences in some selected states in Nigeria. The focus of this study is to determine the prevalence, risk behaviour, attitude and knowledge of HIV among long-distance heavy-truckers from a cross-sectional survey conducted in the south-west Nigeria. Methods: Four major truck terminals (devoted to long-distance trips in south western Nigeria were identified. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a total sample size of 451 truckers who consented to be interviewed. A questionnaire (in English, Hausa and Yoruba languages for data collection on the socio-demographic, risk behaviour, attitude and knowledge of HIV from the truckers was also designed. The multiple logistic regressions analysis was used to assess the association between some selected variables and factors. Results: Only 164 (36.4% participants out of the study population of 451 were tested for HIV (due to limited test facilities and consent and the prevalence of HIV antibodies among the truckers was found to be 2.4% (4/164 with all the infected individuals being within 21–30 years of age. 309 (68.1% of the respondents admitted that they were at risk of contracting HIV while a total of 249 (55.3% admitted that they had more than one sexual partners. In addition, while 392 (86.9% said it was important for them to know their HIV status, 88 (19.5% said that they would commit suicide should they test positive for HIV. Conclusion: Although the HIV prevalence rate observed among the tested participants (2.4% was lower than the overall national prevalence (4.6%, the result calls for concern as it showed that the population of truckers is a potential high risk group in Nigeria. Also, the mobile nature of this high-risk group has made getting HIV/AIDS awareness messages across to them a

  18. Mobile surgical services in primary care in a rural and remote setting: Experience and evidence from Yala, Cross River State, Nigeria

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    Emmanuel Monjok

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical conditions account for 11 to 15% of the global burden of disease. Yet, surgical services are very scarce in the rural areas of Nigeria where approximately 60 to 80% of the population resides. Among other basic contributing factors is the shortage of surgical workforce, since Nigeria’s few surgeons practise in the urban centre of the major cities. One way to respond to this acute shortage of surgeons is the training of generalist medical doctors to undertake surgery in rural areas. The introduction of mobile surgical services in rural populations as part of the existing primary health care activities in the Local Government Areas (districts can reduce surgical morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. This can be done by the generalist physician with training and experience in surgery using local health staff and simple surgical equipment. A number of recommendations are made.

  19. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

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    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  20. Reliability of Self-Reported Mobile Phone Ownership in Rural North-Central Nigeria: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menson, William Nii Ayitey; Olawepo, John Olajide; Bruno, Tamara; Gbadamosi, Semiu Olatunde; Nalda, Nannim Fazing; Anyebe, Victor; Ogidi, Amaka; Onoka, Chima; Oko, John Okpanachi; Ezeanolue, Echezona Edozie

    2018-03-01

    mHealth practitioners seek to leverage the ubiquity of the mobile phone to increase the impact and robustness of their interventions, particularly in resource-limited settings. However, data on the reliability of self-reported mobile phone access is minimal. We sought to ascertain the reliability of self-reported ownership of and access to mobile phones among a population of rural dwellers in north-central Nigeria. We contacted participants in a community-based HIV testing program by phone to determine actual as opposed to self-reported mobile phone access. A phone script was designed to conduct these calls and descriptive analyses conducted on the findings. We dialed 349 numbers: 110 (31.5%) were answered by participants who self-reported ownership of the mobile phone; 123 (35.2%) of the phone numbers did not ring at all; 28 (8.0%) rang but were not answered; and 88 (25.2%) were answered by someone other than the participant. We reached a higher proportion of male participants (68/133, 51.1%) than female participants (42/216, 19.4%; Pphones in rural and low-income areas in north-central Nigeria is higher than actual access. This has implications for mHealth programming, particularly for women's health. mHealth program implementers and researchers need to be cognizant of the low reliability of self-reported mobile phone access. These observations should therefore affect sample-size calculations and, where possible, alternative means of reaching research participants and program beneficiaries should be established. ©William Nii Ayitey Menson, John Olajide Olawepo, Tamara Bruno, Semiu Olatunde Gbadamosi, Nannim Fazing Nalda, Victor Anyebe, Amaka Ogidi, Chima Onoka, John Okpanachi Oko, Echezona Edozie Ezeanolue. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 01.03.2018.

  1. Engaging Communities in Commodity Stock Monitoring Using Telecommunication Technology in Primary Health Care Facilities in Rural Nigeria

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    Ugo Okoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: With several efforts being made by key stakeholders to bridge the gap between beneficiaries and their having full access to free supplies, frequent stock-out, pilfering, collection of user fees for health commodities, and poor community engagement continue to plague the delivery of health services at the primary health care (PHC level in rural Nigeria. Objective: To assess the potential in the use of telecommunication technology as an effective way to engage members of the community in commodity stock monitoring, increase utilization of services, as well as promote accountability and community ownership. Methods: The pilot done in 8 PHCs from 4 locations within Nigeria utilized telecommunication technologies to exchange information on stock monitoring. A triangulated technique of data validation through cross verification from 3 subsets of respondents was used: 160 ward development committee (WDC members, 8 officers-in-charge (OICs of PHCs, and 383 beneficiaries (health facility users participated. Data collection made through a call center over a period of 3 months from July to September 2014 focused on WDC participation in inventory of commodities and type and cost of maternal, neonatal, and child health services accessed by each beneficiary. Results: Results showed that all WDCs involved in the pilot study became very active, and there was a strong cooperation between the OICs and the WDCs in monitoring commodity stock levels as the OICs participated in the monthly WDC meetings 96% of the time. A sharp decline in the collection of user fees was observed, and there was a 10% rise in overall access to free health care services by beneficiaries. Conclusion: This study reveals the effectiveness of mobile phones and indicates that telecommunication technologies can play an important role in engaging communities to monitor PHC stock levels as well as reduce the incidence of user fees collection and pilfering of commodities (PHC level in

  2. Stock density and fruit yield of African walnut, Plukenetia conophora Mull-Arg (Syn. Tetracarpidium conophorum in tropical lowland rainforests of southwest Nigeria

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    TO Amusa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the huge socio-economic potentials of the African walnut, Plukenetia conophora Mull-Arg, there is a dearth of information on stock density and yield studies under different site conditions. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the stock density and fruit yields of P. conophora in three different habitats (i.e. less disturbed natural forest, recently disturbed natural forest and plantation forest within Omo Forest Reserve (OFR and Shasha Forest Reserve (SFR of Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to carry out inventory survey. Fruit yields were determined by collecting fruit falls through double sampling approach. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data at P = 0.05. Stock densities of P. conophora were 5.33+1.7stands/ha, 14.67+2.05stands/ha and 16.00+2.94stands/ha in OFR, while they were 7.33+0.47stands/ha, 14.67+1.25stands/ha and 10.67+04.7stands/ha in SFR for recently disturbed forest, less disturbed forest and plantation forest respectively. There were significant differences in number and distribution of species by forest types, but not between forest reserves. The mean yield of P. conophora/ha/yr was estimated at 7,800.00kg for OFR and 6,534.00kg for SFR. Yields from plantation area contributed more in OFR, while yields from less disturbed natural forest area were higher in SFR. Yields from recently disturbed natural forest were consistently lower in the two reserves. These results show that P. conophora thrives better in plantation and old re-growth forests. This information is pertinent towards improving the management of the species, increase its productivity and enhance benefits in a more sustainable manner to the rural populace.

  3. Pattern of skin disorders in a rural community in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expertise that are required, and is useful for planning and increasing access to healthcare in general and improved dermatology care.4 Capacity building and training of community health care workers will ultimately result in earlier identification of skin diseases and prompt referrals where necessary. In Nigeria, most studies ...

  4. Promotion of breast feeding in the community: impact of health education programme in rural communities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A

    1996-03-01

    Breast feeding has been recognized as a child survival strategy, while breast feeding programmes have been increasingly implemented in many communities. This study assesses the effectiveness of a breast feeding education programme launched through the primary health care programme in the rural communities of Nigeria. Late trimester pregnant women were enrolled into the study and given a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about breast feeding. Women in the study group (n = 126) received breast feeding counselling before and after delivery, while those in control group (n = 130) did not receive any counselling. Both groups were monitored after delivery and followed with the KAP questionnaire. The results of the study showed marked improvements in the intervention group for colostrum feeding (p = 0.0000). Moreover, 31.6% of the mothers in the intervention group practised timely initiation of breast feeding compared to 5.6% of the controls, and the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months was 39.8% in the intervention group compared to 13.9% for the controls. Multivariate analysis showed that the intervention was a powerful and the only significant predictor of the increase in breast feeding behaviours (p = 0.0000), and that an early initiation of breast feeding is a strong predictor of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months of age. It is concluded that breast feeding promotion in rural communities is feasible and can lead to behavioural changes.

  5. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Kenneth N; Udoidung, Nsima I; Opara, Dominic C; Okon, Okpok E; Edosomwan, Evelyn U; Udoh, Anietie J

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA), weight-for-height (WH) and weight-for-age (WA) Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols. The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (Prural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (Pmalnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  6. The relationship between lung function and indoor air pollution among rural women in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Aniedi Umoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burning of biomass is widely used by the rural poor for energy generation. Long term exposure to biomass smoke is believed to affect lung function and cause respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Women with long term occupational exposure to burning firewood were recruited from a rural fishing community in Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on symptoms of chronic bronchitis and spirometery was performed to measure lung function. Data obtained from the subjects was compared with that from healthy controls. Results: Six hundred and eighty six women were recruited for this study made up of 342 subjects and 346 controls. Sixty eight (19.9% of the subjects had chronic bronchitis compared with eight (2.3% of the controls (χ2 = 54.0, P < 0.001. The subjects had lower values for the lung function as well as the percentage predicted values (P < 0.05. Fish smoking and chronic bronchitis were significantly associated with predicted lung volumes. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to biomass smoke is associated with chronic bronchitis and reduced lung functions in women engaged in fish smoking.

  7. Mapping knowledge management resources of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) among people living in rural and urban settings of Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Oladimeji Akeem; Ameen, Hafsat Abolore; Durowade, Kabir Adekunle; Akande, Tanimola Makanjuola

    2014-01-01

    Lack of access to information and knowledge about mother and child health was identified as a major contributor to poor maternal and child health in Nigeria. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) has recognized mapping the knowledge management of Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) as one of the major strategies to be deployed in improving the health of these vulnerable groups. The main aim of this study is to map the knowledge management resources of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) in rural and urban settings of Ilorin West LGA of Kwara state Nigeria. It is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a comparative analysis of findings from urban and rural settings. Epi-mapping was used to carve out the LGA and map responses. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant at 95% confidence level. The study showed that traditional leader was responsible for more than half of the traditional way of obtaining information by rural (66.7%) and urban (56.2%) respondents while documentation accounts for the main MNCH knowledge preservation for the rural (40.6%) and the urban (50%) dwellers. Traditional leaders (32.2%) and elders (46.7%) were the main people responsible for dissemination of knowledge in rural areas whereas elders (35.9%) and Parents (19.9%) were the main people responsible in urban areas. It was concluded that traditional and family institutions are important in the knowledge management of MNCH in both rural and urban settings of Nigeria.

  8. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Opara, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Methods:This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA, weight-for-height (WH and weight-for-age (WA Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols.Results:The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7% had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (P<0.001. The prevalence of stunting (HAZ < -2, underweight (WAZ < -2 and wasting (WHZ < -2 for rural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (P<0.05 higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides were each significantly (P<0.05 associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Since intestinal parasitic infections are associated with malnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  9. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoli I, Dr. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. O...

  10. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuehi OM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Olufunke M Ebuehi, IA AkintujoyeReproductive and International Health Unit, Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria.Methods: A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1 statistical software.Results: Almost half (48.8% of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6% of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%, “providing antenatal services” (16.5%, “performing caesarean section” (13.0%, “providing family planning services” (8.2%, and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%. About 6/10 (61.0% respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7% respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%, normal delivery (36.1%, “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%, “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%, and family planning services (1.9%. Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%, “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%,

  11. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested.

  12. Assessments of Wind-Energy Potential in Selected Sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria: Implications for Renewable/Sustainable Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  13. A community survey of the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban south western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Ojo, Ololade Olusola; Ariyibi, Ebenezer Kayode; Kolawole, Tolutope Fasanmi; Ogunleye, Ayodele Idowu

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid fuels for cooking is associated with indoor pollution and lung diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban South Western, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study of households in urban (Ado-Ekiti) and rural (Ido-Ekiti) local council areas from April to July 2010. Female respondents in the households were interviewed by trained interviewers using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 670 households participated in the study. Majority of rural dwellers used single source of energy for cooking (55.6%) and urban dwellers used multiple source of energy (57.8%). Solid fuel use (SFU) was higher in rural (29.6%) than in urban areas (21.7%). Kerosene was the most common primary source of energy for cooking in both urban and rural areas (59.0% vs.66.6%) followed by gas (17.8%) and charcoal (6.6%) in the urban areas, and firewood (21.6%) and charcoal (7.1%) in the rural areas. The use of solid fuel was strongly associated with lack of ownership of dwellings and larger household size in urban areas, and lower level of education and lower level of wealth in the rural areas. Kerosene was associated with higher level of husband education and modern housing in urban areas and younger age and indoor cooking in rural areas. Gas was associated with high income and modern housing in the urban areas and high level of wealth in rural areas. Electricity was associated with high level of education, availability of electricity and old age in urban and rural areas respectively. The use of solid fuel is high in rural areas, there is a need to reduce poverty and improve the use of cleaner source of cooking energy particularly in rural areas and improve lung health.

  14. The impact of micro financing on poverty levels of rural women farm households in Abia state, Nigeria; implication for policy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZEH Innocent

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the impact of micro-finance on poverty level of rural women farm households in Abia State, Nigeria: Implication for policy intervention. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to +select the local government areas, communities and respondents in the three (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia agricultural zones of the State. The sample size was 240 (120 a piece for rural women farmer borrowers and non borrowers. Instrument of data collection was a set of structured and pre-tested questionnaire administered on both groups of rural women farmers. The result indicated that incidence of poverty or head count ratio was 0.558 for the rural women farmers borrowers and 0.933 for the rural women farmer non borrowers; poverty gap otherwise known as income short fall was 0.4547 for the rural women farmer borrowers and 0.6995 for the rural women farmer non borrowers. The result of the paired t-test showed that micro-finance impacted significantly on annual farm income, farm size and fertilizer use level of rural women farmer borrowers at given levels of significance. It was however, recommended that increased subsidy policy on agro-inputs and increased funding by the micro-finance will significantly aim at reducing the poverty levels of these women.

  15. Impact of health education intervention on insecticide treated nets uptake among nursing mothers in rural communities in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoran Olorunfemi E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ITN use is generally poor in Nigeria among all categories of people. Although use of ITNs has been shown to reduce malarial morbidity and mortality, this measure needs to be supported by an adequate healthcare system providing ITN possibly at the household level. This study was therefore designed to determine the effect of health education on the uptake of ITN among nursing mothers in rural communities in Nigeria. Methods The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples for this study and a semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. The intervention consisted of a structured educational programme based on a course content adapted from the national malaria control programme. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups and were followed up for a period of 3 months when the knowledge and uptake of ITN was reassessed. Result There was no significant difference (P >0.05 observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of socio-dermographic characteristics such as age, marital status, religion, and income. The ITN ever users in experimental group were 59 [29.5%] and 138 [72.6%] in pre and post intervention period, respectively (p value =0.0001. These proportions of ITN ever users were 55 [27.5%] and 57 [31.6%] in control group, during the pre and post intervention periods (p = 0.37. Post health education intervention, degree of change in knowledge of ITN re-treatment [37.0%] and mounting [33.5%], readiness to use if given free [30.5%] and belief in efficacy [36.9%] improved significantly in the experimental group while there was no significant change in the control group [p = 0.84, 0.51, 0.68 &0.69 respectively]. Majority [89%] of the respondents were willing to buy

  16. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS' INCOME, REMITTANCE AND PRICES IN RURAL NIGERIA AMID POLICY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis affected almost all aspect of human life. This paper explored effects of the global financial crisis on farmers' income, remittance and prices of food staples and highlighted certain government policy responses. The study was conducted in Nigeria. Secondary data were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, equivalent variation and Shannon index analysis. Results showed the global financial crisis affected the agrarian households/sector in Nigeria. The increase in prices meant more nominal income to farmers but grossly reduced their welfare due to decrease in real income as result of high inflation trend. Recommendations include that government should continue to sustain agrarian programs aimed at helping poor farmers to increase their capacity in production to meet the growing demand and changes. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

  17. Sexual risk behaviours and HIV knowledge of migrant farm workers in a rural community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoaje, E T; Adebiyi, A O; Adebayo, M A

    2011-03-01

    Migration has been associated with a higher risk of STI/HIV but few studies have assessed the sexual risk behaviour of migrant farm workers in Nigeria. An exploratory survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual risk behaviours of migrant farmers in Saki West Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviours and history of STI symptoms. Overall 518 respondents were interviewed, slightly over half were aware of HIV/AIDS; awareness was significantly lower among the females, those aged 15-24 years and those with no formal education. Majority (80.7%) were sexually experienced, the mean age at sexual debut was 19.4 +/- 5.2 years and 18.4 +/- 4.2 years for males and females respectively. Sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners in the past year was reported by 24.6% (males, 35.7%, versus females, 10.4%, p casual partner was reported by 9.1% (12.8% males versus 4.4% females). Only 18.2% used a condom during the last casual sexual contact. Level of awareness of HIV is unacceptably low and sexual risk behaviours are prevalent among these workers. Appropriate sexual health and HIV prevention interventions should be instituted.

  18. Features and risk factors of nonfatal injury among the rural children: a survey of seven schools in a mountain area in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Quan Shi

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the patterns and risk factors of nonfatal injuries among rural mountain-area children in southwest China.A stratified sampling method was used to recruit rural children aged 8 to 17 years (mainly 9-14 years from 7 schools. Self-reported injuries during the past 12 months and relevant concerns were collected from June to December 2012 by using a structured questionnaire in a class interview.The mean age of the 2,854 children was 12.2 ± 1.5 years. The probability of annual injury was 16.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 15.3-18.1%, with slightly higher injury risk for boys than girls (17.7% vs. 16.0%; P>0.05. The top 3 causes of injuries were falls (37.3%, animal-related incidents (20.6%, and burns (14.9%. The main injury risk factors included being involved in a violent episode (odds ratio [OR] 1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.66, P = 0.007, maltreatment by parents or guardians (1.42, 1.17-1.72, P<0.001, and being from a single-child family (1.30, 1.10-1.66, P = 0.039. Older age was a protective factor (0.81, 0.76-0.87, P<0.001.The incidence of nonfatal injury among rural children was high, and falls were the leading cause. Younger children and boys from poor-care and poor-living environments were at increased risk of injury, which requires urgent attention. Injury prevention programs targeting these issues are needed in this mountain area and similar rural regions of China.

  19. A Review of the Impact of ICT in Rural Education in Nigeria | David ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experts in education suggest that networks and digital communication technologies will cause an even more dramatic prototype for E-learning, since learning over the Internet is neither time bound nor place bound. This paper reviews some of these techniques that could aid rural education. AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. De-agrarianisation and rural employment in Igboland, south-eastern Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukwuezi, B.

    1999-01-01

    This working paper provides research findings emanating from the De-Agrarianisation and Rural Employment (DARE) Research Programme, coordinated by the African Studies Centre, Leiden. The aim of the Programme was to examine, from a multidisciplinary perspective, the changes in size and significance

  1. Measurement of the Post-War Innovativeness of Rural Farmers in East Central State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odokara, E. O.

    1973-01-01

    A report of an attempt to measure the innovativeness of rural farmers in agriculture, health, savings and socio-political relations following the Nigerian civil war is described. Measurements determined adult education courses had been effective in raising participants' level of innovativeness. (AG)

  2. Culture and the right of the rural woman in Nigeria: an overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In traditional societies, it is a determinant factor in role assignment, career choice and social relationship; though its impact on gender rights varies among societies. ... Initiation of legislative actions, media advocacy and social engineering in order to liberate the rural woman from cultural ostracism are also recommended.

  3. Migration and Care for the Aged in Rural Nigeria | Eboiyehi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, ageing parents relied on adult children for care and support. However, this structure is gradually breaking down due to rural-urban migration of adult children. This paper examined the consequences of ruralurban migration of adult children on agedcare and support and coping mechanisms employed by the ...

  4. Sources of healthcare financing among surgical patients in a rural Niger Delta practice in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienye, P O; Brisibe, S F; Eke, R

    2011-01-01

    The environmental degradation following crude oil exploration in the Niger Delta has resulted in poverty for local rural dwellers. For those who are ill, if herbal treatments and/or self-medication with orthodox drugs are unsuccessful, the only alternative is expensive medical treatment in clinics. Surgical patients in a rural clinic may have to stay beyond than the normal 7 days if they are unable to pay their hospital bill; because this limits bed availability, there is an impacts on the hospital's economic management. This study aimed to determine the pattern of hospital bill payment among rural surgical patients in a rural Nigerian community, including the sources of finance for bill payment, in order to determine ways to resolve this issue. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural community in the Niger Delta area (Bethesda Clinic Ngo) over 5 years (2005-2009). In the 5 year study period, 3712 patients were seen, of which 229 were surgical patients who consented to the study. Their ages ranged from 4 to 97 years (mean 45.6 ± 13.5 years) and most were fish farmers (79.91%), secondary-school leavers (56.33%) and of the Christian religion (86.03%). The association of these characteristics with a greater than 7 day hospital stay was statistically significant (p sources of finance for the hospital bill were multiple but mainly personal savings (71.18%). Few (3.06%) had knowledge of the National Health Insurance Scheme, but when informed about it 84.28% were willing to enroll. The sources of finance for payment of hospital bills were multiple but the most common were personal savings and family members.

  5. Knowledge and Risk Factors for Glaucoma among Adults in a Rural Community of Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria

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    Kabir Adekunle Durowade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Glaucoma is becoming an increasingly important public health problem and presents a greater public health challenge because the blindness it causes is irreversible. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in Oke-ose community, Kwara State in North-Cental Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study which assessed the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in a rural community of Kwara State. The respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. RESULTS: Less than half 94(47.0% respondents were aware of glaucoma. Only 11(5.5% respondents had some knowledge of symptoms and 18(9.0% had knowledge of the risk factors. Socio-economic status, age of respondents and educational status and family history of glaucoma among the respondents significantly influenced the awareness and knowledge of the disease (p<0.05. Among the respondents, a total of 22(11.0% and 37(18.5% were diabetic and hypertensive respectively. Only five (2.5% of respondents had high risk perception of glaucoma. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk factors for glaucoma coupled with the poor risk perception and poor knowledge of the disease require urgent community directed eye care interventions to reduce the devastating effects of glaucoma. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 375-380

  6. Factors Associated with Use of Guideline in Home Management of Malaria among Children in Rural South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Akerele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dosage regimen for artemether-lumefantrine which is the standard of care for malaria in most of Sub-Saharan countries requires use of treatment guidelines and instructions to enhance caregivers' performance in the treatment of malaria. As part of a larger study evaluating its effectiveness in a rural local government area in southwestern Nigeria, 552 caregivers whose children had fever two weeks preceeding the survey were recruited. Information was collected with interviewer administered questionnaire. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted using the gllamm approach in Stata to determine the factors associated with use of guideline. Age and educational background of caregiver were significantly associated with guideline use. Caregivers aged 26–30 years were 4 times more likely to use guideline than those aged >40 years. Caregivers with primary education were 4 times more likely to use guideline compared with caregivers with no formal education. Between-village variance was 0.00092 ± 0.3084. Guideline use reduced with increasing age and lower education.

  7. Extensive diversity in the allelic frequency of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface proteins and glutamate-rich protein in rural and urban settings of southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funwei, Roland I; Thomas, Bolaji N; Falade, Catherine O; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2018-01-02

    Nigeria carries a high burden of malaria which makes continuous surveillance for current information on genetic diversity imperative. In this study, the merozoite surface proteins (msp-1, msp-2) and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) of Plasmodium falciparum collected from two communities representing rural and urban settings in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria were analysed. A total of 511 febrile children, aged 3-59 months, whose parents/guardians provided informed consent, were recruited into the study. Capillary blood was obtained for malaria rapid diagnostic test, thick blood smears for parasite count and blood spots on filter paper for molecular analysis. Three-hundred and nine samples were successfully genotyped for msp-1, msp-2 and glurp genes. The allelic distribution of the three genes was not significantly different in the rural and urban communities. R033 and 3D7 were the most prevalent alleles in both rural and urban communities for msp-1 and msp-2, respectively. Eleven of glurp RII region genotypes, coded I-XII, with sizes ranging from 500 to 1100 base pairs were detected in the rural setting. Genotype XI (1000-1050 bp) had the highest prevalence of 41.5 and 38.5% in rural and urban settings, respectively. Overall, 82.1 and 70.0% of samples had multiclonal infection with msp-1 gene resulting in a mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2.8 and 2.6 for rural and urban samples, respectively. Msp-1 and msp-2 genes displayed higher levels of diversity and higher MOI rates than the glurp gene. Significant genetic diversity was observed between rural and urban parasite populations in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The results of this study show that malaria transmission intensity in these regions is still high. No significant difference was observed between rural and urban settings, except for a completely different msp-1 allele, compared to previous reports, thereby confirming the changing face of malaria transmission in these communities. This study provides

  8. Utilization of clean and safe delivery service package of health services extension program and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayou, Negalign Berhanu; Gacho, Yohannes Haile Michael

    2013-07-01

    In Ethiopia, 94% of births take place at home unattended by trained persons. The government introduced an innovative strategy, Health Services Extension Program in 2003. Clean and safe delivery service is a component of maternal and child healthcare package of the program. However, little is known about the status of uptake of the service. This study thus aimed to assess utilization of clean and safe delivery service and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in rural kebeles of Kefa Zone from January 21(st) to February 25(th), 2009 using a sample of 229 mothers. Kafa Zone is located 465 kilometres away from Addis Ababa to southwest of Ethiopia. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16. OR and 95% CI were calculated. Phistory of abortion, knowledge of danger signs and antenatal care attendance. Educating women and improving their knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and labor is recommended. Health extension workers should consider antenatal care visits as opportunities for this purpose.

  9. Lack of protection against rabies in neighbourhood dogs in some peri-urban and rural areas of Ogun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Adebiyi, A I; Ohore, O G; Cadmus, S I B

    2014-12-01

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonosis that causes severe destruction to the central nervous system and remains underreported in developing countries like Nigeria. The increasing close contact between dogs and their owners or neighbours suggest a need for investigation of the protective level of rabies virus (RABV) antibodies in dogs. Sera from 150 apparently healthy neighbourhood dogs from some peri-urban and rural areas of Ogun and Oyo states, southwestern Nigeria were analyzed for the presence of RABV antibodies using the indirect ELISA technique. These dogs were kept as pets, used for hunting or sold for human consumption. The results showed that none of the dogs had optimal RABV antibody titres, 25 (16.7%) had sub-optimal antibody titres while 125 (83.3%) were negative. Detection of sub-optimal RABV antibody levels in these unvaccinated dogs suggests that they might have been exposed to rabies or rabies-related viruses. Data obtained from interviews conducted revealed that 21.3% of the dog owners were informed about rabies but neglected vaccination while 44.7% were uninformed. We conclude that these dogs lacked protective levels of RABV antibodies and thus constitute a public, health threat. This finding underscores the need for dog anti-rabies vaccination campaigns covering peri-urban and rural areas as well as the promotion of large scale public enlightenment programmes on rabies in Nigeria.

  10. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... India, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo ... but knowledge of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) was poor in both areas. ... proportions of rural women utilized nutritional counseling (p=0.005) and treatment of ...

  11. A model of biogas plant for rural development in Nigeria and other African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbamalu, J.E.; Egarievwe, S.U.

    1992-01-01

    About 70-80% of Nigerians live in the rural areas, and a majority of families in Africa depend on fuel-wood as a source of energy for most of their domestic heating purposes. With the ever-increasing desert encroachment and land clearing for large scale farming, human settlements and other purposes, the supply of fuel wood is becoming a problem. To improve the standard of living of the rural households, prevent indiscriminate cutting of trees, increase fertilizer production and improve pollution control and sanitary conditions, readily available and inexpensive energy must be provided. This paper presents a model in which biogas can be generated locally and supplied in villages. The cost evaluation of the model biogas plant is highlighted. The effects of some operating parameters on biogas production is also presented

  12. Development and evaluation of a patient centered cardiovascular health education program for insured patients in rural Nigeria (QUICK - II

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    Osibogun Akin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sub Saharan Africa, the incidence of hypertension and other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is growing rapidly. Poor adherence to prescribed prevention and treatment regimens by patients can compromise treatment outcomes. Patient-centered cardiovascular health education is likely to improve shortcomings in adherence. This paper describes a study that aims to develop a cardiovascular health education program for patients participating in a subsidized insurance plan in Nigeria and to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness in patients at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods/Design Design: The study has two parts. Part 1 will develop a cardiovascular health education program, using qualitative interviews with stakeholders. Part 2 will evaluate the effectiveness of the program in patients, using a prospective (pre-post observational design. Setting: A rural primary health center in Kwara State, Nigeria. Population: For part 1: 40 patients, 10 healthcare professionals, and 5 insurance managers. For part 2: 150 patients with uncontrolled hypertension or other cardiovascular risk factors after one year of treatment. Intervention: Part 2: patient-centered cardiovascular health education program. Measurements: Part 1: Semi-structured interviews to identify stakeholder perspectives. Part 2: Pre- and post-intervention assessments including patients' demographic and socioeconomic data, blood pressure, body mass index and self-reporting measures on medication adherence and perception of care. Feasibility of the intervention will be measured using process data. Outcomes: For program development (part 1: overview of healthcare professionals' perceptions on barriers and facilitators to care, protocol for patient education, and protocol implementation plan. For program evaluation (part 2: changes in patients' scores on adherence to medication and life style changes, blood pressure, and other physiological and self

  13. Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. Methods The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer; etiology, early warning signs, treatment modes and early detection measures; was assessed among women in two randomly selected health districts in Akinyele Local Government in Ibadan. The assessment was performed with the use of a self-structured validated questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 420 women randomly selected from the two health districts. The various aspects of facts about breast cancer were scored and added together to determine respondents' level of knowledge Results The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer was 55.4 SD 5.4 (range of scores obtainable was 26–78, while the mean score for knowledge of early detection of breast cancer was 24.8 SD 2.3 (range of scores obtainable was 12–36. The leading source of information about breast cancer was "elders, neighbors and friends" and 63(15.4% acknowledged this source, while only 18 (4.4% respondents acknowledged health workers as source. Only 54 (13.3% claimed to have heard about breast self- examination (BSE however, and the leading source of information about BSE were health workers. Nine (2.2% of respondents claimed this source. Conclusion This study revealed that respondents lacked knowledge of vital issues about breast cancer and early detection measures. It also revealed that health workers were not forthcoming with information to the public thereby constituting a challenge to community health

  14. Effect of rural transportation system on agricultural productivity in Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Ezekiel Olukayode Idowu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Food farming in Oyo North, Nigeria is characterised by an increasing use of Intermediary Mode of Transportation (IMT to ease inputs and outputs mobility and farm access. To assess the influence on food farmer’s productivity, a random sample of 230 respondents was selected and data collected on their socio-economic and farm specific characteristics. Descriptive statistics, Herfindhal Index and Technical Efficiency Approach were used to analyse the data. The results indicate that majority of food farmers were in their middle age with mean age of 50 years and most of them used one plot at a location between 5 and 10km to their village of residence. They acquired land by inheritance and practiced intensive crop diversification as risk management strategy. The transportation modes used in addition to walking include bicycle, motorcycle, and car with increasing trend in the use of motorcycle. The mean Technical Efficiency (TE of food farmers was 0.82 with significant inefficiency effects. The inefficiency analysis indicates positive effect of distance, crop diversification and un-tarred type of road on farmer’s productivity, while poor level of education among farmers, use of bicycle; trekking and weekly working time negatively affect farmer’s efficiency. The negative effect of trekking and use of bicycle and the excess working time suggest the adoption of more IMT of motorized type to optimize farming time and increase farmer’s productivity.

  15. Soil Assessment along Toposequences in Rural Northern Nigeria: A Geomedical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hartmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Case numbers of endemic Ca-deficiency rickets (CDR have been reported to be alarmingly rising among children of subsistence farms in developing countries within the last 30 years. Fluoride toxicities in the environment are known to not be related to the disease. To investigate if, instead, CDR is caused by a nutrient deficiency in the environment, subsistence farms in an endemic CDR area near Kaduna, northern Nigeria, were investigated for bedrock, slope forms, soil types, and soil characteristics. The natural environment was investigated according to the World Reference Base, soil texture was analysed by pipette and sieving, and plant-available macronutrients were determined using barium-chloride or Ca-acetate-lactate extraction. The analyses showed that granite and slope deposits were the dominant parent materials. The typical slope forms and soil types were Lixisols and Acrisols on pediments, Fluvisols in river valleys, and Plinthosols and Acrisols on plains. Compared with West African background values, all of the soils had normal soil textures but were low in macronutrients. Comparisons to critical limits, however, showed that only the P concentrations were critically low, which are typical for savanna soils. A link between nutrient deficiency in soils and CDR in the Kaduna area was therefore considered unlikely.

  16. Empirical analysis of electromagnetic profiles for groundwater prospecting in rural areas of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Opoola, A. O.; Adesokan, H. A.

    2006-04-01

    The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 m was carried out in ten villages in the Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatized undifferentiated biotite/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite/quartz vein (P) underlie the study area. A total of 31 EM profiles was made to accurately locate prospective borehole sites in the field. Four main groups with different behavioural patterns were categorized from the EM profiles. Group 1 is characterized by a high density of positive (HDP) or a high density of negative (HDN) real and imaginary curves, Group 2 by parallel real and imaginary curves intersecting with negligible amplitude (PNA), Group 3 by frequent intersection of a high density of negative minima (FHN) real and imaginary curves, and Group 4 by separate and approximately parallel (SAP) real and imaginary curves. Qualitative pictures of the overburden thickness and the extent of fracturing have been proposed from these behavioural patterns. A comparison of the borehole yield with the overburden thickness and the level of fracturing shows that the borehole yield depends more on the fracture density than on the overburden thickness. The asymmetry of the anomaly was also found to be useful in the determination of the inclination of the conductor/fracture.

  17. Cardiovascular epidemiological transition in a rural habitat of Nigeria: the case of mangu local government area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeahialam, B N; Ogbonna, C; Otokwula, A E; Joseph, D E; Chuhwak, E K; Isiguzoro, I O

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological transition is at various stages in different places. The true situation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is largely unknown. Having studied this rural habitat 17 years ago, we returned there to study several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors to see if any change had occurred. The communities studied in 1991 as part of the national CVD survey were returned to in 2008 and re-studied descriptively in a cross-sectional manner. All adults 15 years and above, apart from demographic and personal data had blood pressure (BP) and some blood indices determined. Over the period, some changes occurred. The mean (SD) age increased from 34.1(16.9) to 45.5(18.2) years suggesting an ageing population. More people in 2008 than 1991 lived most of their last 5 years in the urban areas suggesting some influence of urbanisation. Significantly fewer people smoked and drank after 17 years. However mean (SD) of Body Mass Index rose [20.7(2.8) to 23.7(4.5) kg/m²], as well as SBP and DBP. Prevalence of hypertension rose from 7.4% to 20.9%. Both total and HDL cholesterol rose, although atherogenic index dropped. Mean (SD) blood sugar interestingly dropped from 5.0(2.9) to 4.6(1.0) mmol/l. Epidemiological transition is evident in this rural SSA habitat, and proactive steps to stem the tide and curb the consequences of CVD should be instituted.

  18. The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Louisa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Durable lining (DL is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations. Methods In Angola (n=60, prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS (n=20 using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178, three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires. Results In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98% expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%. After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94% or insecticide-treated nets (78%. In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility. Conclusions The high level

  19. The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Durable lining (DL) is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations. Methods In Angola (n=60), prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS) (n=20) using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178), three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting) were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires. Results In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98%) expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%). After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94%) or insecticide-treated nets (78%). In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility. Conclusions The high level of acceptability

  20. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, Ia

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women's perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26-35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2-4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: "taking normal delivery" (56.7%), "providing antenatal services" (16.5%), "performing caesarean section" (13.0%), "providing family planning services" (8.2%), and "performing gynaecological surgeries" (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), "special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits" (1.9%), "concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong" (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: "TBA services are cheaper" (50.9%), "TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment" (34.0%), "TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services" (13.2%), "TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers" (43.4%), and "TBA service is the only maternity service that I know" (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past

  1. A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, Olorunfemi E

    2012-07-30

    Teenagers younger than 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their twenties and mortality rates for their infants are higher as well. This study was therefore designed to determine the recent prevalence and identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in a rural town in Nigeria. This study is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women attending the primary health care in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State within a 2 months period were recruited into the study. A total of 225 pregnant women were recruited into the study. The prevalence of teenage pregnancy was 22.9%. Teenagers [48.2%] reported more unwanted pregnancy when compared with the older age group [13.6%] [OR = 5.91, C.I = 2.83-12.43]. About half 33 [41.1%] of the teenage pregnant women and 28.6% of the older pregnant women did not know how to correctly use condom to prevent pregnancy [OR = 0.57, C.I = 0.29-1.13]. Predictors of teenage pregnancy were low social class (OR = 2.25, C.I = 1.31-3.85], Religion (OR = 0.44, C.I = 0.21-0.91], being a student (OR = 3.27, C.I = 1.02-10.46) and having a white collar job (OR = 0.09, C.I = 0.01-0.81). The study concludes that employment in an established organization (white collar job) is highly protective against teenage pregnancy while students are becoming increasingly prone to early pregnancy. Government should structure employment in low income countries in such a way as to give a quota to adolescents who are unable to continue their education.

  2. A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoran Olorunfemi E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Teenagers younger than 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their twenties and mortality rates for their infants are higher as well. This study was therefore designed to determine the recent prevalence and identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in a rural town in Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women attending the primary health care in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State within a 2 months period were recruited into the study. Results A total of 225 pregnant women were recruited into the study. The prevalence of teenage pregnancy was 22.9%. Teenagers [48.2%] reported more unwanted pregnancy when compared with the older age group [13.6%] [OR = 5.91, C.I = 2.83-12.43]. About half 33 [41.1%] of the teenage pregnant women and 28.6% of the older pregnant women did not know how to correctly use condom to prevent pregnancy [OR = 0.57, C.I = 0.29-1.13]. Predictors of teenage pregnancy were low social class (OR = 2.25, C.I = 1.31-3.85], Religion (OR = 0.44, C.I = 0.21-0.91], being a student (OR = 3.27, C.I = 1.02-10.46 and having a white collar job (OR = 0.09, C.I = 0.01-0.81. Conclusion The study concludes that employment in an established organization (white collar job is highly protective against teenage pregnancy while students are becoming increasingly prone to early pregnancy. Government should structure employment in low income countries in such a way as to give a quota to adolescents who are unable to continue their education.

  3. Depression in elderly people living in rural Nigeria and its association with perceived health, poverty, and social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyewu, Olusegun; Yusuf, Abdulkareem Jika; Ogundele, Adefolakemi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between late-life depression, poverty, social network, and perceived health is little studied in Africa; the magnitude of the problem remains largely unknown and there is an urgent need to research into this area. We interviewed community dwelling elderly persons of two rural areas in Nigeria using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30). Those who scored 11 and above on the GDS-30 were further interviewed using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMSS). Diagnosis of depression was based on the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD-10) and GMSS-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMMS-AGECAT). A total of 458 community dwelling elderly persons participated in the study of which 57% were females. Mean age of the participants was 73.65(±7.8) years (95% CI 72.93-74.37). The mean GDS-30 and MMSE scores were 4.15(±4.80) and 21.73(±4.67), respectively. A total of 59 and 58 participants had depression based on ICD-10 criteria and GMSS-AGECAT, respectively. Agreement between ICD-10 and AGECAT diagnoses was κ = 0.931. By multiple logistic regression analysis, late-life depression was significantly associated with financial difficulties (Odds ratio 4.52 and bereavement Odds ratio 2.70). Late-life depression in this cohort is associated with health and socio-economic factors that are worth paying attention to, in a region of economic deprivation and inadequate healthcare.

  4. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from shallow wells in two rural communities in Benue state, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terngu, A.J.; Hyacinth, O.A.; Rufus, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams) in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health -related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2- 1600.0 ILS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0 - 55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001- 0.210 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53 mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82 mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0 mg/L; while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 1 07.4-1375 LS/cmp, H 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2- 1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi), the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. (author)

  5. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water from Shallow Wells in Two Rural Communities in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaahan, Terngu J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health-related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2-1600.0 µS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0-55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.210mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0mg/L, while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 107.4-1375 µS/cm, pH 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2-1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi, the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. It is concluded that, while ground water abstraction may be a safety measure against guinea worm infestation it, nevertheless presents other health challenges to the rural population in the area, as the quality of the ground water is generally low.

  6. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

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    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  7. Epidemiologic features and intervention effect of fall injury among rural school-aged children in southwest China: a short-term cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiuquan; Wang, Tao; Nie, Chan; Wang, Haiyan; Luo, Lirong; Qi, Yonghong; Jiang, Zhixia

    2018-05-24

    Falls are the top one type in all unintentional injuries. In this study, we aim to explore the epidemiological characteristics of falls and assess the intervention effect. Our research had interviewed 2854 rural children in southwest China. Then, we used School-Family-Individual (SFI) comprehensive education model to conduct an intervention among 1506 children and follow up them for one year. The changes in injury knowledge and incidence rate before and after intervention were compared. We found the fall injury was 37.32% (178/477) and ranked top one in the total injuries. After intervention, the children's fall-injuries-related knowledge was significantly increased by 15.29 percent (P < 0.001). While falls incidence significantly decreased after- intervention (6.24% vs. 3.93%; P < 0.001). From the results we concluded that the falls rate was high and was the prior reason of all injuries. SFI intervention model can effectively reduce the incidence of the fall injury.

  8. Prevalence Of Hypertension And Awareness Of The Causes And Effects Of Hypertension In Rural And Urban Communities Of Enugu State Nigeria

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    Chinyere Okeke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries face the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases and of the later hypertension is the most common. It is a major public health challenge with an ever increasing global prevalence which inherently increases the global disease burden whereas awareness of this disease and its determinants are poor. It contributes to about 500000 deaths every year. This was a cross-sectional descriptive community survey carried out in urban and rural communities of Enugu southeast Nigeria. A multi-staged sampling technique was used to recruit 260 participants and data was collected by administering questionnaires. Blood pressure measurement and weight of all the subjects were done. These were analysed using EPI info statistical software version 6.04. The result shows that the prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural areas was 15.4 and 13.8 respectively but was not statistically significantly different. About 17.6 and 23 were perceived hypertensives for urban and rural areas respectively. From the study 17 and 44.5 of urban and rural respondents respectively have suffered from hypertension related illnesses stroke kidney disease heart disease and eye problem. Approximately 45 of urban respondents and 83.7 of rural respondents believed that hypertension can be cured. The source of information and general knowledge of hypertension in urban and rural area was statistically significant pamp88040.05. In the urban area their method of cure include drugs and lifestyle modification while in the rural areas drugs and spiritual means was their way of curing the disease. Prevalence and awareness of hypertension is higher in the urban areas however both communities are grossly unaware of the hypertensive associated diseases. Proper health education is recommended to reduce the prevalence of complications of the disease change the trend and ultimately reduce the death in our environment.

  9. Challenges in horizontal integration of eye care services into the pre-existing rural primary care structure: an operations research perspective from Nigeria

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    Chinyere Nkemdilim Ezisi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . The provision of population-wide, accessible, affordable, acceptable and evenly distributed qualitative eye care services remains a recurrent challenge to eye care organizations worldwide. Objectives . To report the challenges encountered in setting up eye care service in a pre-existing primary health care facility in rural Nigeria and also audit the common causes of eye disorders in rural setting southeast of Nigeria. Material and methods . The study was an operations research study conducted at Akpuoga-Nike between February and April 2011. Demographic and ophthalmic clinical data were collected. Health system-, community- and patient-determined challenges were catalogued and analyzed using Epi Info Statistical software for Windows, version 6. Univariate analysis was performed for data distribution testing. Analytical statistics were performed, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results . A total of 481 (males, 144 (29.9%; females, 377(70.1% patients aged 42.3 ± 20.2 SD years (range 4–80 years were seen. The leading eye disorders were refractive error – 28.9%, and cataract – 16.4%. The operations challenges encountered included difficulties with community sensitization/advocacies, inadequate infrastructure and mobile equipment, as well as lack of eye care manpower, consumables and funding deficits. Conclusions . Health system-related issues were the main challenges encountered. Recruitment of an adequate number of rural eye care workforce, provision of needed material resources, adequate funding and engendering community participation in rural eye care delivery through grass roots advocacy and health service public education would overcome the challenges.

  10. Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest Nigeria: opportunity ... The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Teachers' knowledge and attitudes towards seizure disorder: a comparative study of urban and rural school teachers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, M U; Ikpeme, E E; Utuk, E-Oe

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge and attitude of school teachers with regard to seizure disorder has an important impact on continuation of schooling of children with seizure disorder. Though school teachers in both rural and urban settings are exposed to the same training, their perception of seizure disorder could be influenced by the environment in which they reside. To determine the knowledge and attitudes of school teachers towards children with seizure disorder, and the influence of urban residence on perception of seizure disorder by the teachers. A self-administered questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes to seizure disorder were filled by school teachers drawn from both urban and rural settings in Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. One-hundred and thirty-two urban school teachers and an equal number of their rural counterparts completed the questionnaire. There were significantly more female teachers in the urban schools whereas the rural schools were dominated by male teachers with male to female ratio of 1:5.6 and 1.2:1, respectively. Majority of the urban (60.6%) and rural (57.6%) school teachers were National Certificate of Education holders. Thirty-eight (28.8%) of urban respondents versus eight (6.1%) of rural respondents thought seizure disorder was caused by evil spirits whereas 60 (45.5%) urban respondents compared to 80 (60.6%) of rural respondents felt seizure disorder was infectious. Majority of the respondents from both urban and rural schools (68.2% and 63.6% respectively) believed that the foam from the mouth of a convulsing child with seizure disorder is the infecting agent. However, 62.1% of urban respondents as well as 45.5% of rural respondents would advise that children with seizure disorder be admitted into special schools. There was no significant difference in the mean overall knowledge and attitudes of school teachers to seizure disorder in the two settings ( P = 0.33 for knowledge and 0.28 for attitudes). Teachers' high level of education however, had a positive

  12. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.

  13. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach.

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    Ikechi Gareth Okpechi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP is a common global cardiovascular (CV disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1; BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2, and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3. RESULTS: Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%, hypertension (31.4%, cigarette smoking (13.3%, use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%, physical inactivity (64.2% and being overweight or obese (33.7%. Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05; while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05. The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.

  14. Road safety practices among commercial motorcyclists in a rural town in Nigeria: implications for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, O E; Eme, Owoaje; Giwa, O A; Gbolahan, O B

    This cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Igboora. All the commercial motor parks in Igboora were visited and all the commercial motorcyclists who consented to participate in the study were interviewed. Information on the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, and the practice of road safety measures was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 299 motorcyclists were interviewed. All (100%) of them were males. The mean age of the respondents was 27.4 +/- 7.4 years. One hundred eighty-two (60.7%) of the motorcyclists had the correct knowledge of the purpose of Highway Code. Only 70 (23.3%) could recognize more than half of the currently used road safety codes and 47 (15.7%) obey these road safety codes more than half of the time they see it. Only 183 (61.2%) of them had a driving license and 72 (24.1%) were able to produce these licenses on demand. All (100%) of the respondents did not use any protective helmet. Those who have longer years of working experience, higher level of education and higher knowledge of the safety codes practice it more regularly (r = 0.198, p = 0.001, chi2= 9.31, p = 0.025, and r = 0.28, p = 0.001 respectively). One hundred thirty-six (45.5%) have been involved in at least one accident in the preceding year. The overall incidence of road traffic accident was 2.16 per 1,000. There was however on statistically significant association between the practice of road safety codes and the occurrence of road traffic accidents (chi2= 0.176, p = 0.916). The study shows that the practice of road safety measures was low in this rural Nigerian community and was not associated with the incidence of road traffic accidents. Introducing road safety education particularly targeted at educating the motorcyclists on the importance and practice of road safety measures would lead to an increase in the practice of the safety measures and hopefully a reduction in the incidence

  15. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

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    Okoli IC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall percentage anti-microbial resistance of the isolates against cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (72–92% were very high. The organisms were highly sensitive to other antibiotics, especially gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The 59.5% overall mean percentage resistance recorded at the urban area was significantly higher than the 46.8% recorded at the rural area (p<0.05. With the exception of the figures for cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, resistance values obtained against the other antibiotics at the urban sites were statistically higher than those obtained at the rural sites (p<0.05. Zero resistance was recorded against the fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at all the rural sites except at Enyiogwugwu where a 28.6% resistance was obtained against norfloxacin. Since free-range chickens rarely receive antibiotic medication, it is concluded that the highly resistant E. coli organisms isolated from them may be reflecting consequences of human drug use in the study areas.

  16. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

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    Ugochukwu U. Onyeonoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization's STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. Results In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0% were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. Conclusions Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  17. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Ukegbu, Andrew U.; Chukwuonye, Innocent I.; Madukwe, Okechukwu O.; Moses, Akhimiem O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization’s STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. RESULTS In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system. PMID:27721654

  18. Urban-Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ukegbu, Andrew U; Chukwuonye, Innocent I; Madukwe, Okechukwu O; Moses, Akhimiem O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization's STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  19. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7-58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25-0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07-2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers' attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. The study exposed the existence of high probability of pesticide exposure, the low safe use of

  20. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailay Abrha Gesesew

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model.Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7-58% knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4. Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25-0.67, methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07-2.16 was found to be independent predictor of the farmers' attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9% and inhalation (90.4% as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain.The study exposed the existence of high probability of pesticide exposure, the low safe use

  1. Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Oshiname Frederick O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7% correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%, bush burning

  2. Resilience of an Earthquake-Stricken Rural Community in Southwest China: Correlation with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke; Han, Ziqiang; Wang, Dongming

    2018-02-27

    Disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities have given growing attention to building community resilience, but the effects of such efforts on community resilience are still under-investigated, especially in China where the concept of community resilience has only just emerged. Using the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit Assessment Survey, data on self-perceived community resilience were collected in 2017 from a post-disaster Chinese rural community in Yingxiu Town, which was the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake (Magnitude = 8.0) in the year 2008. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the correlations between residents' DRR behaviors and perceived community resilience with the control of their socio-demographic characteristics including age, ethnicity, gender, education, income level, employment status and marital status. Results indicate that residents who volunteered for DRR activities received geological disaster education, participated in evacuation drills, and reported higher income levels had a perception of higher community resilience. Practice research is suggested to help clarify the cause and effect of DRR work on the enhancement of community resilience to disasters in China and abroad. Attention is also called to the development of a Chinese indigenous community resilience concept and assessment instrument.

  3. Healthcare-seeking behavior, treatment delays and its determinants among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in rural Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

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    Ukwaja Kingsley N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria ranks fourth among 22 high tuberculosis (TB burden countries. Although it reached 99% DOTS coverage in 2008, current case detection rate is 40%. Little is known about delays before the start of TB therapy and health-seeking behaviour of TB patients in rural resource-limited settings. We aimed to: 1 assess healthcare-seeking behaviour and delay in treatment of pulmonary TB patients, 2 identify the determinants of the delay in treatment of pulmonary TB. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult new pulmonary TB patients notified to the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP by three rural (two mission/one public hospitals. Data on health-seeking and delays were collected using a standardised questionnaire. We defined patient delay as the interval (weeks between the onset of cough and the first visit to any health provider, and health system delay as the time interval (weeks between patient's first attendance to any health provider, and the onset of treatment. Total delay is the sum of both delays. Multiple linear regression models using nine exposure variables were built to identify determinants of delays. Results Of 450 patients (median age 30 years enrolled, most were males (55%, subsistent farmers (49%, rural residents (78%; and 39% had no formal education. About 84% of patients reported first consulting a non-NTP provider. For such patients, the first facilities visited after onset of symptoms were drug shops (79%, traditional healers (10%, and private hospitals (10%. The median total delay was 11 (IQR 9–16 weeks, patient delay 8 (IQR 8–12 and health system (HS delay 3 (IQR 1–4 weeks. Factors associated with increased patient delay were older age (P Conclusion Overall, TB treatment delays were high; and needs to be reduced in Nigeria. This may be achieved through improved access to care, further education of patients, engagement of informal care providers, and strengthening of existing public

  4. Nigeria: Hydrocarbon Curse Fueling Instability in Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Christians and Muslims. 12 The largest ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani in theNorth, the Ibo in the Southeast, and the Yoruba in the Southwest. 13 Nigeria...0). AllAfrica.com. "Nigeria: The Fading Culture of Party System in Nigeria." http://allafrica.com/stories/200803190577.htm I (accessed February 9

  5. Community knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon: The case of Ekondotiti and Mbonge health districts in the South-west Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Njih, Irine Ngani-Nformi; Pluschke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2018-01-01

    Background Although leprosy is one of the oldest diseases known to humanity, it remains largely misunderstood. Misconceptions about leprosy lead to stigma towards people with the disease. This study aimed at exploring the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional community survey of 233 respondents aged 15–75 years, free from leprosy, and living in two rural health districts of the South-west Region of Cameroon. A questionnaire designed to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about leprosy was used. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of negative attitudes. Results About 82% of respondents had heard about, and 64.4% knew someone with leprosy. Information on leprosy was mainly from community volunteers (40.6%), friends (38.0%), and the media (24%). Only 19.7% of respondents knew the cause of leprosy, and a considerable proportion linked it to a spell (25.3%), unclean blood (15.5%) and heredity (14.6%). About 72% knew that leprosy is curable and 86.3% would advise medical treatment. Attitudes towards leprosy patients were generally negative. Only 42% would shake hands, 32.6% would share the same plate, and 28.3% and 27% respectively, would allow their child to play or marry a person with leprosy. Furthermore, only 33.9% approved of participation of leprosy patients, and 42.9% of their employment. Independent predictors of negative attitudes were: the belief that leprosy is a curse; is caused by a germ; and having seen a leprosy patient. The negative attitudes were dampened by: the beliefs that leprosy is a punishment, is hereditary and is due to poor personal hygiene. Conclusion An awareness intervention using community volunteers and the media, with information on the cause of leprosy, its clinical manifestations and curability, and sensitization messages correcting the misconceptions and beliefs regarding leprosy, could improve the community

  6. Modeling of geoelectric parameters for assessing groundwater potentiality in a multifaceted geologic terrain, Ipinsa Southwest, Nigeria - A GIS-based GODT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Omobude, Osayande Bright

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of groundwater potentiality zones is a vital scheme for effective management of groundwater resources. This study developed a new multi-criteria decision making algorithm for groundwater potentiality modeling through modifying the standard GOD model. The developed model christened as GODT model was applied to assess groundwater potential in a multi-faceted crystalline geologic terrain, southwestern, Nigeria using the derived four unify groundwater potential conditioning factors namely: Groundwater hydraulic confinement (G), aquifer Overlying strata resistivity (O), Depth to water table (D) and Thickness of aquifer (T) from the interpreted geophysical data acquired in the area. With the developed model algorithm, the GIS-based produced G, O, D and T maps were synthesized to estimate groundwater potential index (GWPI) values for the area. The estimated GWPI values were processed in GIS environment to produce groundwater potential prediction index (GPPI) map which demarcate the area into four potential zones. The produced GODT model-based GPPI map was validated through application of both correlation technique and spatial attribute comparative scheme (SACS). The performance of the GODT model was compared with that of the standard analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model. The correlation technique results established 89% regression coefficients for the GODT modeling algorithm compared with 84% for the AHP model. On the other hand, the SACS validation results for the GODT and AHP models are 72.5% and 65%, respectively. The overall results indicate that both models have good capability for predicting groundwater potential zones with the GIS-based GODT model as a good alternative. The GPPI maps produced in this study can form part of decision making model for environmental planning and groundwater management in the area.

  7. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

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    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  8. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Hypertension Screening and Treatment in Adults with Hypertension in Rural Nigeria in the Context of a Health Insurance Program.

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    Nicole T A Rosendaal

    Full Text Available High blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. We evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension care provided within the Kwara State Health Insurance (KSHI program in rural Nigeria.A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of population-level hypertension screening and subsequent antihypertensive treatment for the population at-risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD within the KSHI program. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted in the KSHI scenario compared to no access to hypertension care. We used setting-specific and empirically-collected data to inform the model. We defined two strategies to assess eligibility for antihypertensive treatment based on 1 presence of hypertension grade 1 and 10-year CVD risk of >20%, or grade 2 hypertension irrespective of 10-year CVD risk (hypertension and risk based strategy and 2 presence of hypertension in combination with a CVD risk of >20% (risk based strategy. We generated 95% confidence intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the reference scenario.Screening and treatment for hypertension was potentially cost-effective but the results were sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions with a wide range of uncertainty. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the first and second strategy respectively ranged from US$ 1,406 to US$ 7,815 and US$ 732 to US$ 2,959 per DALY averted, depending on the assumptions on risk reduction after treatment and compared to no access to antihypertensive treatment.Hypertension care within a subsidized private health insurance program may be cost-effective in rural Nigeria and public-private partnerships such as the KSHI program may provide opportunities

  9. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The effect of health insurance and health facility-upgrades on hospital deliveries in rural Nigeria: a controlled interrupted time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brals, Daniëlla; Aderibigbe, Sunday A; Wit, Ferdinand W; van Ophem, Johannes C M; van der List, Marijn; Osagbemi, Gordon K; Hendriks, Marleen E; Akande, Tanimola M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-09-01

    Access to quality obstetric care is considered essential to reducing maternal and new-born mortality. We evaluated the effect of the introduction of a multifaceted voluntary health insurance programme on hospital deliveries in rural Nigeria. We used an interrupted time-series design, including a control group. The intervention consisted of providing voluntary health insurance covering primary and secondary healthcare, including antenatal and obstetric care, combined with improving the quality of healthcare facilities. We compared changes in hospital deliveries from 1 May 2005 to 30 April 2013 between the programme area and control area in a difference-in-differences analysis with multiple time periods, adjusting for observed confounders. Data were collected through household surveys. Eligible households ( n = 1500) were selected from a stratified probability sample of enumeration areas. All deliveries during the 4-year baseline period ( n = 460) and 4-year follow-up period ( n = 380) were included. Insurance coverage increased from 0% before the insurance was introduced to 70.2% in April 2013 in the programme area. In the control area insurance coverage remained 0% between May 2005 and April 2013. Although hospital deliveries followed a common stable trend over the 4 pre-programme years ( P = 0.89), the increase in hospital deliveries during the 4-year follow-up period in the programme area was 29.3 percentage points (95% CI: 16.1 to 42.6; P health insurance but who could make use of the upgraded care delivered significantly more often in a hospital during the follow-up period than women living in the control area ( P = 0.04). Voluntary health insurance combined with quality healthcare services is highly effective in increasing hospital deliveries in rural Nigeria, by improving access to healthcare for insured and uninsured women in the programme area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and

  11. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  12. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriela B; Foster, Nicola; Brals, Daniella; Nelissen, Heleen E; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A; Hendriks, Marleen E; Boers, Alexander C; van Eck, Diederik; Rosendaal, Nicole; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Wit, Ferdinand W; Hankins, Catherine A; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI) in rural Nigeria. We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted) is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730). Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible interval 21

  13. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively

  14. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B Gomez

    Full Text Available While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI in rural Nigeria.We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730. Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible

  15. Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Tamiru Dessalegn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. Results More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94] and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]. The majority (67.02% of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child’s age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47 and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73 and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88], but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]. Conclusion The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community

  16. Effect of a Multi-Level Education Intervention Model on Knowledge and Attitudes of Accidental Injuries in Rural Children in Zunyi, Southwest China

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    Bo-Ling Cao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of a school-family-individual (SFI multi-level education intervention model on knowledge and attitudes about accidental injuries among school-aged children to improve injury prevention strategies and reduce the incidence of pediatric injuries. Methods: The random sample of rural school-aged children were recruited by using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling method in Zunyi, Southwest China from 2012 to 2014, and 2342 children were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Then children answered a baseline survey to collect knowledge and attitude scores (KAS of accidental injuries. In the intervention group, children, their parents/guardians and the school received a SFI multi-level education intervention, which included a children’s injury-prevention poster at schools, an open letter about security instruction for parents/guardians and multiple-media health education (Microsoft PowerPoint lectures, videos, handbooks, etc. to children. Children in the control group were given only handbook education. After 16 months, children answered a follow-up survey to collect data on accidental injury types and accidental injury-related KAS for comparing the intervention and control groups and baseline and follow-up data. Results: The distribution of gender was not significantly different while age was different between the baseline and follow-up survey. At baseline, the mean KAS was lower for the intervention than control group (15.37 ± 3.40 and 18.35 ± 5.01; p < 0.001. At follow-up, the mean KAS was higher for the intervention than control group (21.16 ± 3.05 and 20.02 ± 3.40; p < 0.001. The increase in KAS in the intervention and control groups was significant (p < 0.001; KAS: 5.79 vs. 1.67 and suggested that children’s injury-related KAS improved in the intervention group. Moreover, the KAS between the groups differed for most subtypes of incidental injuries (based on International

  17. Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria

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    Adekunle Ibrahim Musa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% to 8.8%, 14-15 years (1.3% to 9.9%, and 16-17 years (1.4% to 5.5%. But the said differences become much higher (16.2% to 42.4% when the same were compared between the children of 12 years and 17 years. Therefore, it can be said that the design of furniture for the children of 12 years will not match the children of 17 years. If single furniture is designed by considering dimensions of the children from 12 years to 17years, it will also not suit the children of all age groups. Therefore, in the present investigation, all the students have been divided into three combined age groups, e.g., 12-13 years, 14-15 years, and 16-17 years, and the percentile values (5th, 50th and 95th of anthropometric measures, which will be helpful for designing of the classroom furniture.

  18. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and their Association with Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban Pre-School Children in Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyoalumun, Kpurkpur; Abubakar, Sani; Christopher, Nongu

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, contributing to high incidence of malnutrition and morbidity. This study aimed to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of children in Benue State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study conducted from January-June 2016, among 418 school children under-5 years of age. Anthropometric data, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Among the intestinal parasitic infections detected, the prevalence of E. histolytica was higher (51.0% and 29.0%) than all other parasites encountered in rural and urban pupils (Prural and urban pupils were 43.8% and 32.9%; 64.4% and 39.0% rural and urban pupils were underweight (WAZ<-2), while 30.3% and 24.3% were wasted (WHZ<-2). Infected children had significantly (P<0.05) higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Benue State is among the Nigerian states with the highest burden of tropical diseases with a current plan of elimination implemented through mass drug administration. This study identify/evaluate some essential information that will support the planning and implementation of the State's ongoing efforts.

  19. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria, 1994–2015 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Abdulkadir

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... Introduction: The Global significance of schistosomiasis started waning ... prevalence of schistosomiasis in Nigeria, and its six geo-political zones. ...... schistosomiasis in a rural community in Edo state, Nigeria: eosinophil-.

  20. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among elderly and middle-aged rural community-dwellers in South-Western Nigeria

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    Olowe OA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OA Olowe,1 OB Makanjuola,1 KO Olabiyi,1 PO Akinwusi,2 CO Alebiosu,2 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,4 WO Adebimpe,4 TA Adewole5 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Community Medicine, 5Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Abstract: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly individuals has been well described in institutionalized settings, but to a lesser extent in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathogens responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly and middle-aged individuals in Alajue-Ede, South-Western Nigeria, and to identify any associated factors. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from apparently healthy elderly and middle-aged volunteers who were participating in community health screening. Samples were processed and bacterial isolates were identified following standard procedures. In total, 128 volunteers (48 men, 76 women participated in the study. Twenty-eight (22.6% urinary pathogens were isolated, comprising Klebsiella species in five (17.9%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in one (3.6%, Escherichia coli in 19 (67.9%, and Proteus species in three (10.7% cases. Women were identified as being at higher risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and the prevalence also increased with increasing age in men. The elderly in this community have a high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and screening for comorbid medical conditions may be of benefit. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary pathogens, elderly, urinary tract infection

  1. Enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care in a rural primary care setting in Nigeria: perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers

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    Aina O. Odusola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective: We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care, in the context of a community-based health insurance programme in rural Nigeria. Design: Qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews with primary care staff (n = 11 and health insurance managers (n=4. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. Results: Both stakeholder groups perceived health insurance as an important facilitator for implementing high-quality hypertension care because it covered costs of care for patients and provided essential resources and incentives to clinics: guidelines, staff training, medications, and diagnostic equipment. Perceived inhibitors included the following: high staff workload; administrative challenges at facilities; discordance between healthcare provider and insurer on how health insurance and provider payment methods work; and insufficient fit between some guideline recommendations and tools for patient education and characteristics/needs of the local patient population. Perceived strategies to address inhibitors included the following: task-shifting; adequate provider payment benchmarking; good provider–insurer relationships; automated administration systems; and tailoring guidelines/patient education. Conclusions: By providing insights into perspectives of primary care providers and health insurance managers, this study offers information on potential strategies for implementing high-quality hypertension care for insured patients in SSA.

  2. Effect of health education on knowledge, attitude and practices of personal hygiene among secondary school students in rural Sokoto, North West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, A O; Nwogu, E E; Ibrahim, M T O; Hassan, R

    2012-01-01

    Personal hygiene related diseases are serious public health problems in developing countries. To assess the effect of health education on knowledge, attitude, and practices of personal hygiene among rural secondary school students in Sokoto state, north western Nigeria. A quasi-experimental controlled study with pretest and post-test design was carried out. A total 120 subjects per group were selected by multistage sampling technique. Two pre-tested instruments, structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and observer's checklist for personal hygiene practices were used for data collection. Health education intervention was carried out one week after baseline data collection and repeated after four weeks for the intervention group only. Postintervention data collection was carried out in both intervention and control groups three months after the 2nd intervention. However, for ethical consideration, the control group was also provided with the health education intervention similar to that provided to the intervention group. A total of 120 and 116 subjects in the intervention and control groups respectively participated in all phases of the study. The mean knowledge score (%) of the study subjects was high and similar (73.18 +/- 25.82; 77.06 +/- 21.79; p = 0.21) in both the intervention and control groups at baseline, but differed very significantly (91.16 +/- 11.03; 81.74 +/- 21.78; p Personal hygiene health education is therefore recommended to be taught in secondary schools.

  3. Enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care in a rural primary care setting in Nigeria: perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odusola, Aina O; Stronks, Karien; Hendriks, Marleen E; Schultsz, Constance; Akande, Tanimola; Osibogun, Akin; van Weert, Henk; Haafkens, Joke A

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and barriers for implementing high-quality hypertension care, in the context of a community-based health insurance programme in rural Nigeria. Qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews with primary care staff (n = 11) and health insurance managers (n=4). Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. Both stakeholder groups perceived health insurance as an important facilitator for implementing high-quality hypertension care because it covered costs of care for patients and provided essential resources and incentives to clinics: guidelines, staff training, medications, and diagnostic equipment. Perceived inhibitors included the following: high staff workload; administrative challenges at facilities; discordance between healthcare provider and insurer on how health insurance and provider payment methods work; and insufficient fit between some guideline recommendations and tools for patient education and characteristics/needs of the local patient population. Perceived strategies to address inhibitors included the following: task-shifting; adequate provider payment benchmarking; good provider-insurer relationships; automated administration systems; and tailoring guidelines/patient education. By providing insights into perspectives of primary care providers and health insurance managers, this study offers information on potential strategies for implementing high-quality hypertension care for insured patients in SSA.

  4. Heavy Metal Contents of Municipal and Rural Dumpsite Soils and Rate of Accumulation by Carica papaya and Talinum triangulare in Uyo, Nigeria

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    G. A. Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumpsites in Uyo and most cities in Nigeria are used nutrients rich soils for cultivating fruits and vegetables without regards to the risk of toxic metal pollution by the wastes. This development necessitated the research on the assessment of the impact of municipal and rural dumpsites on the metal levels of the underlying soils, the relationship between the dumpsite- soil metal content and the rate of bio-accumulation by plants, the effect of plant specie and plant part on the rate of metal uptake. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for the analysis of the samples and results obtained from municipal dumpsite soil indicated the following mean concentrations: Fe, 1711.20 μg/g; Pb, 43.28 ug/g; Zn, 88.34 ug/g; Ni, 12.18 ug/g; Cd, 14.10 ug/g and Cu, 56.33 ug/g. These concentrations were relatively higher than the following concentrations: Fe, 1016.98 ug/g; Pb, 18.57 ug/g; Zn, 57.90 ug/g; Ni, 7.98 ug/g; Cd, 9.25 ug/g and Cu, 33.70 ug/g recorded for the rural dumpsite soil. Consequently, plants grown on municipal dumpsites soil accumulated higher concentrations of the metals than those on rural dumpsites. Results obtained from this study also revealed that plants grown on dumpsite soils bio-accumulated higher metal concentrations than their counterparts obtained from normal agricultural soils. The ability of plants to bioaccumulate these metals were also observed as being different from one plant to the other and from one plant parts to the other. And apart from Fe and Zn which recorded higher concentrations in the leaves of the plants studied, other metals recorded higher concentrations in the roots. The general results obtained revealed that the levels of Cd in dumpsite-soil were above the standard while the levels of Cd and Pb in plants were also above the recommended levels in plants. The implications of these high concentrations of these metals in soil and plants have been discussed. Some useful recommendations on the proper

  5. Institutional provisions for administration of rural development programmes: experience from Fadama 111 development programme in Taraba state, Nigeria

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    M.U. Dimelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined institutional provisions in the implementation of Fadama 111 Development Project in Taraba State, Nigeria during 2008-2013. All the staff of the project (57 from eight out of 16 local government areas participated in the programme was used in the study. Data were collected with questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics. The results showed strong linkages of the state Fadama coordinating office with government parastaltals and organizations at different levels of the project implementation. There were strong adherence to rules and regulations guiding staff recruitment, financial management, preparation of local development plan, environmental compliance and friendliness, and group formation. The project was constrained by several institutional factors namely delay in the payment of counterpart fund by the government (M=3.39, lack of transport and other logistic supports (M=3.06, lack of payment of counterpart fund by the government (M=3.04 and others. The study recommends that policy makers and development planner should ensure functional mechanisms that could foster and enhance linkages, and support adherence to rules and regulations prescribed for implementation of development programmes.

  6. Southwest Asia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, T

    1984-06-01

    Southwest Asia, which support 1/3 of the world's population, is acutely aware of the consequences of rapid and excessive population growth. No other region has consciously devoted so much of its resources to stemming excessive population growth. India, with a population of 684 million, formulated a policy of population limitation in the 1950s. The 1980 government rededicated itself to voluntary family planning and rebuilt the broad coalition of an excellent infrastructure of government institutions, voluntary organizations, and international agencies. Government support for family planning clinics began in Bangladesh in the 1960s. A strong institutional structure has been established under the supervision of the National Population Council. Innovative approaches to family planning service delivery have been initiated by an admirable array of institutions. Pakistan's Population Welfare Plan provides substantial funds and an administrative structure to make maternal/child helath care and family planning services available in rural areas. Another welfare program encourages smaller families through projects to enhance the status of women by improving literacy, establishing rural industries, and advocating late marriage. Nepal has had to struggle with a poor administrative structure, grossly insufficient medical services, and an inadequate database for policy formulation. Family planning services are now a component of the overall health program. The family planning services of the pioneer Afghan Family Guidance Association, established in 1968, have been incorported into the national maternal/child health program. The present government of Iran views foreign assistance as an unacceptable form of persuasion and has phased out all international funded family planning programs. Sri Lanka is the only country in the region to have made the demographic transition to fertility decline. An impressive health infrastructure delivers family planning services at every level using

  7. Urogenital Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren and the Associated Risk Factors in Selected Rural Communities of Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Babamale Olarewaju Abdulkareem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease that causes severe morbidity among schoolchildren in many poor-resource communities in Nigeria. We investigated the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of the infection in three communities of Kwara State to ascertain the current status of the disease. Of the 724 urine samples screened, using filtration method, 332 (45.6% school-aged children were infected with average intensity and mean population eggs load of 127.9 eggs/10 ml of urine and 0.794, respectively. Prevalence and intensity of infection varied with communities: high in Ajase-Ipo (57.1%; X = 100.7 ± 23.01 eggs/10 ml and low in Shonga (37.5%; X = 91.4 ± 78.0. Infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in males (50.8% than the females (42.4%. Similarly, infection significantly (P<0.05 increased with increasing age. Multivariate logistic analysis of risk factors revealed that lack of portable drinking water (adjusted odd ratio (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 2.64–5.98, unemployment (aOR = 2.23; 1.87–2.294, lack of knowledge of infection (aOR = 2.16; 0.59–3.83, and frequent contact with contaminated water bodies (aOR = 2.01; 1.45–2.70 were important predictors of urinary schistosomiasis. Therefore, continuous evaluation of the intervention strategies that address risk factors must compliment Mass Drug Administration to curtail the transmission and debilitating health consequences of infection in endemic settings.

  8. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using χ2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (χ2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits. PMID:24971212

  9. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. (2011-2015): Individual-level & Placed-based Disparities Source: Southwest Rural Health Research Center Online Library » Resource and Referral Service Need help finding information? RHIhub can provide free assistance customized to your ...

  10. Evaluating Farmers Access To Productive Resources Through Cooperative Societies And Its Effects On Their Performance In Rural Communities Of Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The poverty of Nigerian farmers and their inability to increase their output and income above the subsistence level have been identified as one of the factors militating against food production in Nigeria. Yet agricultural cooperative create the ability for the supply of required agricultural inputs so that production of commodities is done timely to enhance productivity. They also provide an assured market for commodities produced by isolated small farmers in the rural areas. This paper was determined to evaluate the effects of cooperative societies on members output. The researchers administered a total of one hundred and twenty-six 126 questionnaires to the respondents with the assistance of the divisional cooperative officers. The hypotheses were analyzed through the use of t-test statistic and regression analysis. Results showed that the various Services rendered by farmers cooperative to their members include agric credit improved seedlings fertilizer and market access. They however disagreed that they received extension services the cooperative farmers agreed that they have access to the following agricultural services after joining cooperatives Access to Agric credit Access to Improved Seedlings and Access to Fertilizer. They disagree that they have Access to emerging markets and Access to Extension services. Hence the need to adopt cooperative as a platform for improving farmers productivity and output in Awka South L.G.A of Anambra state. As such the researchers therefore recommends that the Anambra State government should encourage research development and provision of adequate extension services to cooperative farmers through the Ministry in charge of cooperative in the state. Through the extension education the farmers will have knowledge of emerging markets and cooperative farmers should also be encouraged to join cooperative to enable them have access to agricultural credit among others.

  11. The Effectiveness Of National Root Crop Research Institute Nrcri Selected Technologies In Poverty Alleviation Among Rural Households In Abia State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKRINGBO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of National Root Crop Research Institute NRCRI selected technologies in poverty alleviation among rural households in Abia state Nigeria. Purposive and multi-stage sampling techniques were used in selection of Umuahia agricultural zone which is the host zone to NRCRI and sixty 60 rural farmers from the study area were selected. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics poverty gap analysis and one sample Z-test and ANOVA. The result shows that farmers identified yam of mini sett 2.07 as an improved yam technology provision of improved technology of cocoyam 4.23 provision of improved technology of sweet potatoes 6.52 advisory services on other improved technologies 8.32 agro-processing improvement services 10.77 and advisory service on stem cutting and planting pattern 0.62 were the various technologies provided by NRCRI. NRCRI technologies were effective in reducing the cost of purchasing root and tuber crops 3.2 producing disease resistance early maturing and large yield root and tuber crops 3.4 were effective means to alleviate poverty by NRCRI. The study further shows that improved cassava varieties TMS 2.7 and NR 2.6 were adopted by farmers and improved varieties yam Dioscorea rotundata 3.0 was adopted. The results of the one sample z-test showed that there were significant difference between the mean scores response of the respondents on the various questions raised on the NRCRI technologies effectiveness in alleviating poverty were significant at 1 respectively . The result showed that the mean score on the level of adoption of improved variety TMS in the study were 1.00.000b and 1.30.070b was at the same level of adoption while mean scores NR were 1.15.154a 2.11.048a and 3.00.000a respectively and the Duncan multiple range test used as mean separation technique show that there is a significant difference F-ratio 3.295 among the level of adoption. The

  12. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradeon SB

    2016-03-01

    postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support structures. Innovative communication body tools and the rote learning Rapid Imitation Practice training methodology enabled low-literate volunteers to saturate their communities with informed group discussions transferring communication capacity and ownership to the discussion participants. CCER is especially efficient because virtually every timely, community referral for emergency maternal care results in a saved life, whereas on average, only one in every eight births delivered by an SBA (12% is expected to be a delivery-associated complication requiring lifesaving care. Keywords: Community Communication, rural maternal mortality equity gap, public health evidence, theory of change, three-delay model, emergency referral, delivery-associated complication, Nigeria

  13. Correlates of facility delivery for rural HIV-positive pregnant women enrolled in the MoMent Nigeria prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Isah, Christopher; Fan-Osuala, Chinenye; Erekaha, Salome; Ramadhani, Habib O; Anaba, Udochisom; Adeyemi, Olusegun A; Manji-Obadiah, Grace; Lee, Daniel; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Charurat, Manhattan

    2017-07-14

    Low rates of maternal healthcare service utilization, including facility delivery, may impede progress in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and in reducing maternal and infant mortality. The MoMent (Mother Mentor) study investigated the impact of structured peer support on early infant diagnosis presentation and postpartum maternal retention in PMTCT care in rural Nigeria. This paper describes baseline characteristics and correlates of facility delivery among MoMent study participants. HIV-positive pregnant women were recruited at 20 rural Primary Healthcare Centers matched by antenatal care clinic volume, client HIV prevalence, and PMTCT service staffing. Baseline and delivery data were collected by participant interviews and medical record abstraction. Multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equation analysis was used to evaluate for correlates of facility delivery including exposure to structured (closely supervised Mentor Mother, intervention) vs unstructured (routine, control) peer support. Of 497 women enrolled, 352 (71%) were between 21 and 30 years old, 319 (64%) were Christian, 245 (49%) had received secondary or higher education, 402 (81%) were multigravidae and 299 (60%) newly HIV-diagnosed. Delivery data was available for 445 (90%) participants, and 276 (62%) of these women delivered at a health facility. Facility delivery did not differ by type of peer support; however, it was positively associated with secondary or greater education (aOR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.2) and Christian affiliation (OR 1.4, CI 1.0-2.0) and negatively associated with primigravidity (OR 0.5; 0.3-0.9) and new HIV diagnosis (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.9). Primary-level or lesser-educated HIV-infected pregnant women and those newly-diagnosed and primigravid should be prioritized for interventions to improve facility delivery rates and ultimately, healthy outcomes. Incremental gains in facility delivery from structured peer support appear limited

  14. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest Nigeria and their ... the soil in agriculture and engineering (Imasuen et al. 1989b). Clay mineral ..... Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The. University of Western ...

  15. in River Oluwa, Ondo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The natural foods of Ctenopoma pethereci from River Oluwa in Ondo State, South-west Nigeria, were ... constituted 0.83% of the body weight while food in the intestine formed 1.54%, thus, giving ... South East Asian countries, where the group.

  16. Inculcating home economics based life skills in rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inculcating home economics based life skills in rural women in Anambra state ... Poverty among rural women in Nigeria hinders the economic and social ... could be inculcated among the rural women using a range of networking approaches.

  17. Iron deficiency anaemia associated with helminths and asymptomatic malaria infections among rural school children in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olufemi Akanni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the relative contribution of causes of anaemia in the rural communities and evaluate the association between parasitic infections and anaemia. Methods: A total of 292 blood and stool samples of aged 1-15 years school children were collected and analyzed using direct smear saline preparation and concentration methods for examination of ova of parasites in the stool samples with thick and thin blood films stained using Giemsa and Leishman stains as described by World Health Organization. Serum was estimated using ELISA test kit by Syntron Bioresearch, Inc., USA. Results: The overall prevalence rate of parasitic infection was 66.4% with four species of intestinal helminth identified. Ascaris lubricoides (50.0% was the most common followed by hookworm (8.9%, Trichuris trichiura (6.2% and Schistosoma mansoni (1.4%. The mean haemoglobin level of plasmodium positive school children without intestinal helminth infection (10.8 g/dL was slightly higher than those with intestinal helminth (10.0 g/dL. The mean serum ferritin of plasmodium positive without intestinal helminth (23.7 g/L was also higher than those with helminth (22.5 g/ L and the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05. Age and gender also made no significant differences in the distribution of the infections. However, there was a significant effect on weight and height by intestinal helminth infections (P<0.05. Conclusions: It is recommended that the public be adequately health educated on the epidemiology of intestinal helminth infection. A periodic mass treatment of school children with iron supplementation is advocated.

  18. The Financial Burden of Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Rural Nigeria: Wealth and Gender Heterogeneity in Health Care Utilization and Health Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Wendy; Goedecke, Jann; de Bree, Godelieve J; Aderibigbe, Sunday A; Akande, Tanimola M; Mesnard, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Better insights into health care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD) are needed to develop accessible health care and limit the increasing financial burden of NCCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. A household survey was conducted in rural Kwara State, Nigeria, among 5,761 individuals. Data were obtained using biomedical and socio-economic questionnaires. Health care utilization, NCCD-related health expenditures and distances to health care providers were compared by sex and by wealth quintile, and a Heckman regression model was used to estimate health expenditures taking selection bias in health care utilization into account. The prevalence of NCCDs in our sample was 6.2%. NCCD-affected individuals from the wealthiest quintile utilized formal health care nearly twice as often as those from the lowest quintile (87.8% vs 46.2%, p = 0.002). Women reported foregone formal care more often than men (43.5% vs. 27.0%, p = 0.058). Health expenditures relative to annual consumption of the poorest quintile exceeded those of the highest quintile 2.2-fold, and the poorest quintile exhibited a higher rate of catastrophic health spending (10.8% among NCCD-affected households) than the three upper quintiles (4.2% to 6.7%). Long travel distances to the nearest provider, highest for the poorest quintile, were a significant deterrent to seeking care. Using distance to the nearest facility as instrument to account for selection into health care utilization, we estimated out-of-pocket health care expenditures for NCCDs to be significantly higher in the lowest wealth quintile compared to the three upper quintiles. Facing potentially high health care costs and poor accessibility of health care facilities, many individuals suffering from NCCDs-particularly women and the poor-forego formal care, thereby increasing the risk of more severe illness in the future. When seeking care, the poor spend less on treatment than the rich, suggestive of lower

  19. "You still need to give her a token of appreciation": the meaning of the exchange of money in the sexual relationships of out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This article challenges the pervasive assumption that exchanging gifts and money in adolescent sexual relationships is transactional. Data were derived from a multi-method, qualitative sexual health needs assessment of 31 out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda. Grounded theory analysis allows contextual meanings of exchange to emerge. Adolescents have developed gendered courting and exchange models that parallel marital relationships in this cultural context. Whereas exchange is considered transactional and immoral in some types of relationships, in adolescent relationships, it is not. Young women are not ashamed of, or stigmatized by, the exchange; they are proud of it. The exchange signifies several things: self-respect and a partner's willingness to wait for the relationships to become sexual and, therefore, that they are valued and respected by their partners. This demonstrates commitment from a partner, whose role is as a provider. To expect no gift or to have sex for pleasure are the hallmarks of the worst kind of woman-a malaya. "Need" is the only acceptable rationale for extramartial sex for any woman in this sexual value system. Interventions promoting longer courting and sustained support for one partner would encourage a delay in debut for young women and encourage greater monogamy in young men.

  20. Promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting implementation of sustainable development goals in rural Nigeria: II food security issues and their determinants among cassava-based farming households in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria.

  1. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  2. Spatial and temporal variation of surface ozone, NO and NO₂ at urban, suburban, rural and industrial sites in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-López, D; Adame, J A; Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Vaca, F; De la Morena, B A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-01

    Surface ozone is one of the most important photochemical pollutants in the low atmosphere, causing damage to human health, vegetation, materials and climate. The weather (high temperatures and high solar radiation), orography (presence of the Guadalquivir valley) and anthropogenic (the cities of Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva and Seville and two important industrial complexes) characteristics of the southwestern Iberian Peninsula make this region ideal for the formation and accumulation of ozone. To increase the knowledge of ozone behaviour in this area, the monthly, daily and weekly variations of ozone and its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2), were analysed over a 4-year period (2003 to 2006). Using the k-means cluster technique, 12 representative stations of five different areas with different ozone behaviour were selected from a total of 29 monitoring sites. This is the first time that the analysis of these atmospheric pollutants has been carried out for the whole area, allowing therefore a complete understanding of the dynamics and the relationships of these compounds in this region. The results showed an opposite behaviour among ozone and NO and NO2 concentrations in urban and suburban zones, marked by maximums of ozone (minimums NO(x)) in spring and summer and minimums (maximums) in autumn and winter. A seasonal behaviour, with lower amplitude, was also observed in rural and industrial areas for ozone concentrations, with the NO and NO2 concentrations remaining at low and similar values during the year in rural zones due to the absence of emission sources in their surroundings. The daily cycles of ozone in urban, suburban and industrial sites registered a maximum value in the early afternoon (14:00-17:00 UTC) while for NOx two peaks were observed, at 7:00-10:00 UTC and 20:00-22:00. In the case of rural stations, no hourly peak of ozone or NO(x) was registered. The weekend effect was studied by using a statistical contrast tests (Student's t

  3. An Assessment of Transport, Rural Development and Pro-poor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rural areas supply food to the cities and the rural areas have the capacity to support domestic tourism. The paper had therefore appraised the National Transport Policy (NTP) in relation to tourism in Nigeria with emphasis on how it enhances tourism attractions in Nigeria's rural areas – the unique wildlife, tracts of ...

  4. Fostering Rural Social Organizations: A Bottom-Up Paradigm In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural and agricultural transformation has remained one of the main policy thrusts of successive governments in Nigeria for over the last three decades. Among the organizations and agencies serving as anchors to this drive, rural social organizations occupy the driver's seat in rural and agricultural transformation in Nigeria.

  5. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  6. Assessment of water quality of rivers that serve as water sources for drinking and domestic functions in rural and pre-urban communities in Edo North, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshiru, Abeni; Okareh, Oladapo T; Chigor, Vincent N; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2018-06-09

    Surface waters are important to humans because they are a significant water supply source. They are, however, under serious environmental stress and are being threatened as a consequence of developmental activities. The present study describes the physicochemical properties and water quality indices of five different rivers used for drinking and other domestic activities in rural and pre-urban communities in Edo North, Nigeria. The physicochemical variable ranges include pH [wet season (6.47 ± 0.30-6.89 ± 0.11), dry season (6.61 ± 0.14-7.84 ± 0.24)], electrical conductivity (EC) [wet season (3.33 ± 0.57-12.33 ± 2.51 μS/cm), dry season (5.33 ± 0.57-21.33 ± 2.08 μS/cm)], water temperature [wet season (24.23 ± 0.98-25.40 ± 1.15 °C), dry season (26.20 ± 0.55-27.10 ± 0.75 °C)], TDS [wet season (417.00 ± 15.87-433.33 ± 18.50 mg/L), dry season (319.33 ± 16.50-372.66 ± 22.30 mg/L)], turbidity [wet season (1.01 ± 0.11-2.08 ± 0.99 NTU), dry season (3.11 ± 0.01-5.41 ± 0.24 NTU)], and DO [wet season (2.65 ± 0.37-3.99 ± 0.01 mg/L), dry season (2.12 ± 0.11-2.44 ± 0.01 mg/L)]. For the wet and dry seasons, the water quality indices were 120.225 and 585.015 for River Osolo, 119.849 and 445.751 for River Foreign, 200.474 and 587.833 for Ijoh River, 105.261 and 512.498 for Ole River, and 150.114 and 489.992 for Ole Extension River, respectively. The pH was negatively correlated with DO (r = -0.648), and EC was negatively correlated with DO (r = -0.635). Most of the evaluated parameters were within recommended water safety guidelines. However, the water quality index shows that the water quality was very poor and/or unsuitable for drinking and other domestic uses, especially during the dry season. It is suggested that river water be treated prior to its use for drinking and other domestic purposes.

  7. Development and evaluation of a patient-centered cardiovascular health education program among insured primary care patients with hypertension in rural Nigeria: The QUICK-II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odusola, A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasingly common in Nigeria and sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Poverty is rampant and quality of primary care substandard. Moreover adherence capacity for prescribed anti-hypertensive treatment is limited and blood pressure (BP) control consequently poor.

  8. Aflatoxin status of some commercial dry dog foods in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in commercial dry dog foods in the city of Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria, was investigated. Dry dog food samples from 6 producers were purchased on five different occasions from retail outlets in Ibadan, Nigeria. High performance liquid chromatography was used for separation ...

  9. The role of rural libraries in the attainment of rural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the role that rural libraries could play in the attainment of rural development with a view to accelerate growth in all areas of human endeavors in rural areas of Nigeria. The study took cognizance of inherent problems that undermine the establishment of rural libraries such as funding, illiteracy, clientele ...

  10. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  11. Evaluation of Exchange Rate Policy on Agricultural Trade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... this study was to evaluate the effect of exchange rate policy on agricultural trade in Nigeria. ... Government support to farmers in the form of credit and input subsidies is a veritable ...

  12. Financial Intermediation In Agriculture In Nigeria: Emerging Role Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) - an NGO, with the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) - a public sector finance agency in agricultural financing with a view to determining the emerging roles of NGOs in Nigeria's agricultural landscape ...

  13. Increasing Women's Access to Skilled Pregnancy Care in Nigeria ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... Less than one-third of Nigerian women receive skilled care during delivery. ... the supply and demand factors that influence improved access to maternal health care services in Nigeria, particularly for rural women.

  14. Sistemas Silvipastoris como Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Rural para a Região Sudoeste do Rio Grande do Sul Silvopastoral Systems as a Support for Rural Development in the Southwest Region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aparecida Guetten Ribaski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi realizada a análise da viabilidade econômica de diferentes sistemas de produção de madeira de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden em duas propriedades rurais, no Município de Alegrete, RS. A análise econômica considerou a comparação entre um sistema tradicional de pecuária da região e dois sistemas alternativos de conversão da área de pecuária para plantios homogêneos de eucalipto em duas densidades com 2.222 e 1.111 árvores.ha-1 e dois sistemas silvipastoris: com 1.000 e 500 árvores.ha-1. A análise dos resultados foi realizada a partir da determinação da Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR e da sua comparação com a Taxa Mínima de Atratividade (TMA. As alternativas com e sem o valor da terra foram avaliadas considerando uma variação do preço (aumento e diminuição de 5% e do volume da madeira (aumento e diminuição de 10%. Considerando o valor da terra, todas as alternativas analisadas apresentaram TIR inferior a TMA (3,72%. A análise de sensibilidade mostrou que, havendo aumento do preço e do volume de madeira, a maioria das alternativas com desbaste apresentou TIR superior a TMA, exceto a alternativa do sistema silvipastoril com 500 árvores.ha-1. Dessa forma, a implantação do componente florestal na propriedade rural, quando não se considerou o valor da terra, apresentou-se economicamente viável para o produtor rural.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.27

    An economic viability analysis was performed for different eucalypt wood production systems (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden in two rural properties located in Alegrete County, RS. The traditional pasture system was compared with two other alternative systems, one of them represented by a pasture land converted to homogeneous eucalypt plantation by using two plant densities (2,222 and 1,111 trees.ha-1 and the other represented by a silvopastoral system containing 1,000 and 500 trees.ha-1. The results were analyzed by determining the

  15. Towards Improving Local Government Administration on the Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Improving Local Government Administration on the Rural Poor in Nigeria: The Role of ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Using a threshold population of less than 20,000 rural areas in the region were identified and ten ...

  16. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin, Nigeria. ... that rural-urban migration results in shortage of manpower for agricultural activities. ... to support education, health care, sanitation and safe drinking water supply.

  17. Attitude of Rural Youths towards Family Farming in Dass, Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude of Rural Youths towards Family Farming in Dass, Bauchi State, Nigeria and the ... Majority were males (88 %), single (51 %), literate (99 %) and had rural ... most of them (78 %) said was learned through parents (non-formal sources).

  18. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  19. Culturally-adapted and audio-technology assisted HIV/AIDS awareness and education program in rural Nigeria: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennox Jeffrey L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-awareness programs tailored toward the needs of rural communities are needed. We sought to quantify change in HIV knowledge in three rural Nigerian villages following an integrated culturally adapted and technology assisted educational intervention. Methods A prospective 14-week cohort study was designed to compare short-term changes in HIV knowledge between seminar-based education program and a novel program, which capitalized on the rural culture of small-group oral learning and was delivered by portable digital-audio technology. Results Participants were mostly Moslem (99%, male (53.5%, with no formal education (55%. Baseline HIV knowledge was low ( Conclusions Baseline HIV-awareness was low. Culturally adapted, technology-assisted HIV education program is a feasible cost-effective method of raising HIV awareness among low-literacy rural communities.

  20. South and Southwest HSRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest is a competitively awarded, peer-reviewed research consortium led by Louisiana State University with the...

  1. Ground magnetic study of Ilesa east, Southwestern Nigeria | Kayode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground magnetic survey of eastern part of Ilesa town in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria was performed. Total field magnetic data was recorded using high resolution proton precision geometric magnetometer which implores total components of the ground magnetic anomaly data running through fifteen traverses.

  2. A review of stroke admissions at a tertiary hospital in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... The disease is expected to increase in low- and middle-income countries like Nigeria. ... and examine the rural-urban variation of stroke hospitalization in Nigeria. ..... Strasser T. Cerebrovascular disease in the community:.

  3. Uyo, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Centre for Research and Information on Substance Abuse (CRISA), Uyo, Nigeria;. 2Public Works Department ... youth HIV/AIDS risk behavior was confirmed {X2 (4) = 39.91, p < 0.05}. Results also .... versities and colleges being primary victims. (Abiodun, 1991 ... psychological, physiological or physical dis- tress when he ...

  4. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D

    1986-12-01

    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.

  5. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation, content validation, and reliability of the Nigerian Composite Lifestyle CVD Risk Factors Questionnaire for adolescents among Yoruba rural adolescents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunaiya, Nse A; Louw, Quinette A; Grimmer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of lifestyle risk factors must be culturally- and contextually relevant and available in local languages. This paper reports on a study which aimed to cross culturally adapt a composite lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors questionnaire into an African language (Yoruba) and testing some of its psychometric properties such as content validity and test retest reliability in comparison to the original English version. This study utilized a cross sectional design. Translation of the English version of the questionnaire into Yoruba was undertaken using the guideline by Beaton et al. The translated instrument was presented to 21 rural adolescents to assess comprehensibility and clarity using a sample of convenience. A test retest reliability was conducted among 150 rural adolescents using a purposive sampling. Data was analyzed using intraclass correlation (ICC ) model 3, Cohen kappa statistics and prevalence rates. ICC ranged between 0.4-0.8. The Yoruba version was completed 15-20 minutes and was reported to be culturally appropriate and acceptable for rural Nigerian adolescents. The Yoruba translation of the Nigerian composite lifestyle risk factors questionnaire performs at least as well as the original English version in terms of content validity and reliability. It took a shorter time to complete therefore may be more relevant to rural adolescents.

  7. The Financial Burden of Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Rural Nigeria: Wealth and Gender Heterogeneity in Health Care Utilization and Health Expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy; Goedecke, Jann; de Bree, Godelieve J.; Aderibigbe, Sunday A.; Akande, Tanimola M.; Mesnard, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Better insights into health care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD) are needed to develop accessible health care and limit the increasing financial burden of NCCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. A household survey was conducted in rural Kwara State,

  8. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  9. Constraints to Gender Participation in Rural Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    who reside in the rural areas as family units (Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria ... cooperatives, individuals through private initiatives, corporate bodies as well as ..... from similar cultural background have many things in common.

  10. Phytomass in southwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    2000-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for southwest Alaska. The methods used to estimate plant weight and occurrence in the river basin are described and discussed. Average weight is shown for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 19 forest and 48 nonforest vegetation types. Species frequency of occurrence and species constancy within the type...

  11. Cognitive stimulation therapy as a low-resource intervention for dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (CST-SSA): Adaptation for rural Tanzania and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkenda, Sarah; Olakehinde, Olaide; Mbowe, Godfrey; Siwoku, Akeem; Kisoli, Aloyce; Paddick, Stella-Maria; Adediran, Babatunde; Gray, William K; Dotchin, Catherine L; Adebiyi, Akinpelumi; Walker, Richard W; Mushi, Declare; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2016-06-21

    Cognitive stimulation therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention for people with dementia. Its use has been associated with substantial improvements in cognition and quality of life in studies from high-income countries, equivalent to those achieved by pharmacological treatments. Cognitive stimulation therapy may be particularly suited to low resource settings, such as sub-Saharan Africa, because it requires little specialist equipment and can be delivered by non-specialist health workers. The aim of this study was to adapt cognitive stimulation therapy for use in sub-Saharan Africa taking into account socio-cultural differences and resource implications. Cognitive stimulation therapy is a structured programme, originally developed in the United Kingdom. Substantial adaptations were required for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The formative method for adapting psychotherapy was used as a framework for the adaption process. The feasibility of using the adapted cognitive stimulation therapy programme to manage dementia was assessed in Tanzania and Nigeria in November 2013. Further adaptations were made following critical appraisal of feasibility. The adapted cognitive stimulation therapy intervention appeared feasible and acceptable to participants and carers. Key adaptations included identification of suitable treatment settings, task adaptation to accommodate illiteracy and uncorrected sensory impairment, awareness of cultural differences and usage of locally available materials and equipment to ensure sustainability. Cognitive stimulation therapy was successfully adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. Future work will focus on a trial of cognitive stimulation therapy in each setting. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sediments of surface - water dams in southwest Nigeria - a baseline survey; Concentrations des activites des radionucleides primordiaux dans les sediments des retenues des eaux de ruissellement dans le sud-ouest du Nigeria. Etude de reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, M.O. [University of Ado-Ekiti, Dept. of Physics (Nigeria); Farai, I.P. [Ibadan Univ., Dept. of Physics (Nigeria)

    2008-10-15

    The radionuclide contents of sediment samples collected from 20 surface-water dams in southwestern Nigeria have been determined by low-level gamma-spectroscopy. The average concentration of {sup 40}K in each of the dams varied between 110.9{+-}11.9 Bq kg-1 and 1025.9{+-}36.8 Bq kg{sup -1} with an overall mean ({+-}SD) of 549.3 {+-} 247.6 Bq kg{sup -1} while that of {sup 238}U varied from 17.1{+-}3.6 to 51.9{+-}8.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with an overall mean ({+-}SD) of 27.6{+-}8.5 Bq kg{sup -1} and that of {sup 232}Th varied from 26.2 {+-}3.6 Bq kg{sup -1} to 130.1{+-}23.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with overall mean ({+-}SD) of 62.0{+-}26.1 Bq kg{sup -1}. The variability of the values shows the wide disparity in the measured activity concentrations. The mean radium equivalent of 158.9 Bq kg{sup -1} was calculated for the sediments in the dams. No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. (authors)

  13. ASSESSMENT OF E-COMMERCE USAGE FOR EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY IN NIGERIA BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Soneye Gbolade Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of e-commerce usage for effective service delivery in Nigeria banking sector. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study covered 64 microfinance banks in Oyo State, South-West, Nigeria. The population was made up of 1275 staffs from the 64 microfinance banks. The sample size consisted of 28 microfinance banks of which 280 staffs were purposively selected. A 28-item st...

  14. Widowhood Practices among the Yorubas of South-West Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. The prevalence of adult obesity in Ogbomoso, southwest Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In many developing countries obesity and obesity-related morbidities are now becoming a major health challenges. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of obesity among adults using the measure of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional ...

  16. Geochemistry of Fluvial Sediments from Geregu, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiotomre Emmanuel E.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical analysis of fluvial sediments on the banks of River Ero using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry illustrates their maturity, provenance and tectonic setting. The analysed sediment samples show low SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 2.92-2.99 (units FL_A, FL_B and FL_E and high SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 4.064-4.852 (units FL_C, FL_D, FL_F and FL_G. Sediments were geochemically classified as shales (units FL_A, FL_B and FL_E and greywackes (units FL_C, FL_D, FL_F and FL_G. Variability in sediment maturity (FL_F > FL_G >FL_C >FL_D >FL_A > FL_B > FL_E parallels a decreasing order in the ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3, as well as the proportion of quartz grains and matrix components. Evidence from Al2O3/TiO2, K2O, Rb, La/Co, Th/Co, Cr/ Th, Th/Cr, La/Th-Hf, Th-Hf-Co and rare earth element contents of sediment samples suggest felsic protoliths of upper continental crust in a passive margin tectonic setting. An insignificant contribution of mafic components from the source is, however, inferred based on the Ni and Cr contents of the sediment samples. Combined Eu anomalies <0.85 and (Gd/Ybn ratios <2.0 (1.53- 1.82, average 1.65 suggest post-Archean protoliths.

  17. Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the impact of industrial diversification on employment and rural poverty reduction in China and Nigeria. The fact that both countries ... better success. Key Words: Agro-Allied Industry, Industrial Diversification, Rural Development, Poverty Reduction, Employment, Non-Farm Enterprise, Nigerian Economy.

  18. Nigeria: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    ... a significant degree of national pride and belief in Nigeria as a state. After 16 years of military rule, Nigeria made a transition to civilian governance in 1999, when Olusegun Obasanjo, a former general, was elected president...

  19. IDRC in Nigeria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    including Nigeria, have access to essen - tial medical ... Nigerian Institute of Social and. Economic ... firm specializing in digital technologies ... the University of Southern Maine, US. Nigeria has ... the authorities, the media, and the population.

  20. The battle against rural poverty and other challenges of development: Empirical analysis of women empowerment programme of Justice, Development and Peace Movement (JDPM in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Faborode

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The vital role played by women in agriculture and non-farm activities for achieving food security and economic growth led to the recognition of women as a vital instrument by both government and non-governmental organizations in the ‘battle’ against rural poverty and other challenges of development process. Hence, this article analysed the women empowerment programme of Justice, Development and Peace Movement (JDPM of Osogbo Catholic Diocese in Osun State with a view to enhancing its effectiveness. The impact of the programme on the beneficiaries was assessed on four randomly selected communities from each of the three administrative zones of Osogbo, Ila and Ilesa. Twenty-five percent of the participants were proportionately sampled from each community selected, making 104 respondents. Structured interview schedule was performed for each data collection from programme beneficiaries while seven key informants were interviewed among the workers of the Diocese. Descriptive statistics (frequency counts, mean, percentages and standard deviation and Pearson correlation was used to make inferences. Some of the results revealed that members of all religions practiced in the area benefitted from the programme. Results also revealed that age (r= -0.514, group size (r= -0.448, years of schooling (r=0.407 were significantly related to achievement of programme objectives at 0.01 level of significance while number of community associations (r=0.201, size of enterprise (r=0.448, and income (r=0.205 had significant relationship at 0.05 level of significance. The study also revealed that the programme had made the beneficiaries self reliant through skill acquisition but faced with financial constraint to start or expand the businesses learnt. It was recommended that the beneficiaries should be linked with financial institutions or banks where they could access loan with ease.

  1. Rural development in Nigera: Problems and remedies | Eteng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural development in Nigeria constitutes a fundamental problem. Over the years, rural development has been neglected. Rural areas are regarded as abodes of diseases, superstition, poverty, lethargy, low income and low productivity. This problem, which is primarily due to government non sustainable policy action ...

  2. Cultural categorization of febrile illnesses in correlation with herbal remedies used for treatment in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Oladepo, O; Fawole, O I; Bolaji, O M; Akinboye, D O; Ogundahunsi, O A T; Falade, C O; Gbotosho, G O; Itiola, O A; Happi, T C; Ebong, O O; Ononiwu, I M; Osowole, O S; Oduola, O O; Ashidi, J S; Oduola, A M J

    2003-04-01

    The ethnographic study was conducted in two communities in Oyo State in Southwestern Nigeria. The study sites consisted of a rural and an urban local government area located in the tropical rain forest zone of Nigeria. The study was designed to obtain information on febrile illnesses and herbal remedies for treatment with the aim of identifying potential antimalarial drugs. The study revealed that fever is a general term for describing illnesses associated with elevated body temperature. The indigenous Yoruba ethnic population has categorized fever based on symptoms and causes. The present communication is the result of focus group discussion and semi-structured questionnaire administered to traditional healers, herb sellers, elders and mothers. This was on types of fevers, symptoms and causes of febrile illnesses. The investigation also included use of traditional herbs in the prevention and treatment of the illnesses in the two communities.A total of 514 respondents were interviewed. This was made up of 266 (51.8%) from Atiba local government area (LGA), an urban centre while 248 (48.2%) respondents were interviewed from Itesiwaju LGA, a rural community. The LGAs are located in Oyo State of Nigeria. The respondents proffered 12 types of febrile illnesses in a multiple response answering system in Yoruba language. The most common ones (direct translation into English) were: yellow fever (39.1%), typhoid (34.8%), ordinary (28.8%), rainy season (20.8%) and headache (10.5%) fevers, respectively. Perceived causes of each of the febrile illnesses included stress, mosquito bites, unclean water, rains and over exposure to the sun. Methods of fever prevention were mainly with the use of herbal decoctions, powdered herbs, orthodox medications and maintenance of proper hygiene. Of a total of 112 different herbal remedies used in the treatment of the febrile illnesses compiled from the study, 25 recipes are presented. Recipes consisted of 2-7 ingredients. Oral decoctions (84

  3. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  4. The Roles Of Selected Ngos In Economic Empowerment Of Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the roles of NGOs (Farmers Development Union; FADU and Community Women and Development- Nigeria; COWAD) in economic empowerment of rural women in Ibadanland, Nigeria. It determined the factors militating against women economic empowerment, assessed the strategies used by the ...

  5. Determinants of Full Vaccination Status in a Rural Community with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    Department of Community Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... Low vaccination coverage in rural areas in Nigeria is associated with ... the requested information in addition to playing ... More than one-third, 109 .... Perceived benefits of vaccination and risks of vaccine-.

  6. original article antimalarial use and the associated factors in rural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study was set out to find out the pattern of antimalarial drug use in a Nigerian rural community following the aggressive price subsidy ... facilities in South-East Nigeria also showed that only .... descriptive statistics in the analysis command,.

  7. Use of Modern Birth Control Methods Among Rural Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of ...

  8. Youth Involvement In Rural Development Activities In Ogba District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This is because they are major stakeholders in the development process. This study investigates youth involvement in rural development activities in Ogba district of Rivers state, Nigeria. Data was collected from 120 randomly selected youths ...

  9. Food Insecurity, Malnutrition and Crude Oil Spillage in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , external control group study design, with a semi-structured questionnaire and anthropometry as the study tools. The study ... Keywords: Pipeline oil spill, household food security, malnutrition, rural community, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of ...

  10. Influence of Library Environments, Instructional Programs, and User-Librarian Collaborations on Library Use by Undergraduate Students in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amusa Oyintola Isiaka; Iyoro Abiodun Olaide

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a survey method to investigate the influence of library environments, user education, and user-librarian collaborations on the use of academic libraries by undergraduate students in Nigeria. 2,676 students from six universities in the South-West Nigeria responded to the questionnaire. The findings revealed that the academic libraries are less used because of the availability of alternative information systems (such as the Internet, reading-rooms in residence halls and apar...

  11. Quality of gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gari is creamy-white, partially gelatinized roasted free flowing granular flour made from cassava roots. It is a major staple consumed in both urban and rural areas due to its convenience. Quality of Gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos, Nigeria was investigated. Gari samples were collected at random from different ...

  12. nigeria : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... des gouvernements étrangers ont eu des effets économiques positifs tout comme ... L'accès à Internet est devenu une priorité pour les pays en développement. ... les régions rurales mal desservies du Nigeria grâce à la recherche visant la ...

  13. A blueprint for agricultural development in Nigeria | Adeola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors observed that in spite of the enormous prospects for agricultural development and food security in Nigeria, these intervention programmes have recorded little or no success considering the current rate of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and poor rural livelihood. With vast land area of about 98.3 million ha out of ...

  14. The Dilemma of Local Government at Work in Nigeria | Tonwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the citizenry at large, especially the illiterate and rural communities that form the bulk of the population of the local governments in many cases, there is a great deal of frustration arising from the poor performance of local governments in the country over the years. This situation is not peculiar to Nigeria alone. Similar ...

  15. Consumption Dynamics in Bayelsa State, Nigeria: The Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural dweller in the State should also be discouraged from increasing their consumption arbitrarily so that they can channel these excess consumption funds into savings that will yield returns. To realize this, the State government should partner with the Central Bank Nigeria to persuade commercial banks in the country to ...

  16. Empowering Women Through Skill Acquisition In Nigeria: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic status of both rural and urban families could be enhanced through the empowerment of the womenfolk, whose activities spread across almost all sectors of the economy. Skill acquisition for women in Nigeria appears to be one of the potent options in this empowerment drive. This paper therefore ...

  17. Federal government financing of grassroots decay in Nigeria: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... self-reproduction project typical of patron-client politics. In this context, it is assumed that phenomenal growth in statutory and allied revenues accruing to rural locales has not produced the desired development, but undesired decay. Key Words: Nigeria – Federal financing, Edo State, public administration, political science ...

  18. Eye Health Issues Among Commercial Motorcyclists In Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of motorcycles by a large number of individuals as a means of commercial transportation in both urban and the rural settings and the attendant risky riding habits of the riders in Nigeria is well documented. The purpose of this study is to determine eye health practices and ocular status of commercial motorcyclist in ...

  19. Leveraging Agriculture to Break Nigeria’s Oil Curse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    686 Cushing Road Newport, RI 02841-1207 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...analysis of the Nigerian economy reveals a textbook case of the oil curse, primarily manifested through “Dutch Disease ” which has decimated Nigerian...infrastructure. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nigeria, oil curse, Dutch Disease , agriculture, smallholder farms, productivity, fertilizer, rural infrastructure

  20. Small HydroPower (SHP) development in Nigeria: Issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria as of today generates less than 4000MW of electricity but has the capability of increasing her generation through small hydropower (SHP) considering unharnessed potentials in the country. In other to increase the percentage contribution of hydroelectricity to the total energy mix and to extend electricity to rural and ...

  1. Non-Timber Forest Products Marketing Systems and Market Players in Southwest Virginia: A Case Study of Craft, Medicinal and Herbal, Specialty Wood, and Edible Forest Products

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Sarah Marsden

    1998-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household sustenance and supplemental income. The trade in NTFPs from this region is centuries old and now helps supply growing worldwide demands. Although marketing is a vital part of optimizing the value of these products, it has been ignored in rural natural resource development. This research analyzes marketing systems for selected NTFPs in southwest Virginia by describing marketing chains, inter...

  2. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  3. rural libraries and community development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-09-30

    Sep 30, 2012 ... countries) nations to access and use information to create advances in society". .... could be employed to help translate some of the existing literature in .... centers and schools often discourage people from accepting jobs in.

  4. Changes in the number of nesting pairs and breeding success of theWhite Stork Ciconia ciconia in a large city and a neighbouring rural area in South-West Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1994–2009, the number of White Stork pairs breeding in the city of Wrocław (293 km2 fluctuated between 5 pairs in 1999 and 19 pairs 2004. Most nests were clumped in two sites in the Odra river valley. Two nests were located only cca. 1 km from the city hall. The fluctuations in numbers can be linked to the availability of feeding grounds and weather. In years when grass was mowed in the Odra valley, the number of White Storks was higher than in years when the grass was left unattended. Overall, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair during the years 1995–2009 was slightly higher in the rural than in the urban area. Contrary to expectation, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair was the highest in the year of highest population density. In two rural counties adjacent to Wrocław, the number of breeding pairs was similar to that in the city in 1994/95 (15 vs. 13 pairs. However, in 2004 the number of breeding pairs in the city almost doubled compared to that in the neighboring counties (10 vs. 19 pairs. After a sharp decline between 2004 and 2008, populations in both areas were similar in 2009 (5 vs. 4 pairs, but much lower than in 1994–1995. Wrocław is probably the only large city (>100,000 people in Poland, where the White Stork has developed a sizeable, although fluctuating, breeding population. One of the most powerful role the city-nesting White Storks may play is their ability to engage directly citizens with nature and facilitate in that way environmental education and awareness.

  5. Cryptosporidium Zoonosis in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Cryptosporidium Zoonosis in Nigeria. Ayinmode, A. B. and Fagbemi B. O. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology,. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium is a coocidian parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including man.

  6. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 221 ... The journal publishes contributions of research, clinical, counselling and theoretical interest. ... of the Medical and Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria (MDCAN) ... and related disciplines in Nigeria, Africa and internationally. ... perforation after surgical intervention in a tertiary health institution ...

  7. (SMEs) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Nigeria, project financing can be secured in Central bank of Nigeria, state ... governments also finance projects for different sectors of the economy ... International Monetary Fund (I.M.F) is a similar body of World Bank that is.

  8. Socioeconomic differences in prevalence, awareness, control and self-management of hypertension among four minority ethnic groups, Na Xi, Li Shu, Dai and Jing Po, in rural southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Dong, J; Cui, W L; You, D Y; Golden, A R

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates socioeconomic differences in prevalence, awareness, control and self-management of hypertension in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among four ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province: Na Xi, Li Shu, Dai and Jing Po. Approximately 5532 consenting individuals aged ⩾35 years (48.4% of whom were male) were selected to participate in the study using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. Information about participants' demographic characteristics and hypertension awareness, treatment, control and self-management practices was obtained using a standard questionnaire. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 33.6%. In hypertensive subjects, the overall levels of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 42.1%, 28.5% and 6.7%, respectively. Approximately 58.7% of hypertensive patients regularly self-monitored blood pressure (BP), 64.7% adhered to their physician-prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs, and 88.0% took at least one measure to control BP. Hypertensive patients of Jing Po ethnicity had the lowest rates of awareness, treatment, control and self-management of hypertension among the four ethnic minority groups studied. Individuals with lower levels of education were more likely to be hypertensive. Further, individuals with lower levels of education had a lower probability of awareness of their hypertensive status and of treatment with antihypertensive medication. Access to medical services was positively associated with awareness of suffering from hypertension, being treated with antihypertensive medication, and compliance with antihypertensive drug treatment. This study suggests that effective strategies to enhance awareness, treatment and management of hypertension should focus on individuals with low levels of education and poor access to medical services.

  9. Youthful Lust and Violation of Mobile Phone Rule in a Private Christian Mission University, South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omonijo Dare; Ugochukwu, Nnedum Obiajulu Anthony; Obinna, Ezeokana Jude

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at discovering the difference in the perceived lack of privacy in communication and violation of mobile phone rule among students in a Private Christian Mission University, South-West Nigeria. It equally tries to discover if there is a difference in the perceived students' desire to express love to the opposite sex and violation of…

  10. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  11. Effect of social capital on food security among rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...

  12. Determinants Of Rural Agricultural Financing By The United Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the determinants of rural agricultural financing by the United Bank for Africa (UBA) and the need for extension services in Imo State, Nigeria. Eighty (80) rural farmer loan beneficiaries from the UBA were sampled and administered with structured questionnaire. Results showed that the major significant ...

  13. Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Y Aliyu, E Camble ... findings of the study showed that rural people in the Soye district have identifiable information needs mainly in the areas of agriculture, health, government programmes and small scale industries.

  14. Poverty induced characteristics and their effects on the rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on poverty induced characteristics and their effect on the rural development was conducted in 45 rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 90 randomly selected community leaders and analyzed with frequency distribution and percentages. The- most ...

  15. Impact of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) on Rural Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence, depth and severity of poverty of rural people and influencing rural poverty were investigated in the Southwestern Nigeria. Multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure was used to collect data from 200 clients and 200 non-clients of NGOs in the study area. Linear multiple regression was used to ...

  16. Assessment of Newspaper Advocacy for Rural Development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Newspaper Advocacy for Rural Development and Environmental Education in Nigeria. ... Journal of Agricultural Extension ... It analyzed five leading national newspapers for a period of twelve months to ascertain their level of coverage and reportage of environmental and rural development information and ...

  17. Youths Attitude To Rural Development Projects In Ogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... encourage youths to participate more in rural development projects. Also, training in the form of participatory seminars and workshops would help the youths to be more proactive. Keywords: Youths attitude, rural development projects, Ogba communities, Rivers State, Nigeria Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol.

  18. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  19. Rural Women's Attitude Towards Adoption Of Improved Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Women's Attitude Towards Adoption Of Improved Crop Production Practices In Aguata Agricultural Zone, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Rural women agreed that improved crops normally lose their taste after harvest (mean = 3.02).

  20. Constraints to livelihood diversification among rural households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low farm productivity due to environmental degradation had made rural dwellers in Nigeria to diversify into other business besides agricultural production so as to liberate them from poverty. However, there are various challenges to livelihood diversification among the rural dwellers. This study therefore, identifies ...

  1. The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of non-governmental organizations in rural transformation in Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. The activities they have engaged in and what result they achieved and how this impacted on rural livelihoods and development. A sample ...

  2. Cultural Arts in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kate

    1998-01-01

    Presents a pottery project for eighth-grade students based on a study of ancient and modern forms of Pueblo Indian pottery of the Southwest United States. Details the process for creating either carved, red clay, or painted white clay pottery typical of these cultural groups. Relates student reactions to the project. (DSK)

  3. Special Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  4. practice in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Musa

    current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients." This paper ... Services, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Following this .... isolated and powerless if they fail to integrate .... services and safe guarding high.

  5. Rural Development And Agricultural Extension Administration In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed the wide range of policies and approaches formulated and implemented to effect agricultural and rural development in Nigeria. The paper reveals that the common feature of all the strategies is the use of institutionalized agricultural extension service, devoted principally to augment smallholder ...

  6. Urban-Rural estimation of hepatitis c virus infection sero-prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been partially described for at risk groups in urban communities in Nigeria. On the other hand, literature on the possible spread of the virus in rural Nigeria remains extremely scanty. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ...

  7. Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural community in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, no previous vision screening study among primary schools children ...

  8. Determinants of pre-lacteal feeding practices in urban and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... ... place of residence. Keywords: Pre-lacteal feeds, mothers, infants, urban, rural, Nigeria. ... The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Unit- ed Nations .... Factors considered for the multivariable model were based from ...

  9. Common geriatric emergencies in a rural hospital in South‑Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common geriatric emergencies in a rural hospital in South‑Eastern Nigeria. ... by emergency health conditions that predispose them to higher risk of disability and ... The geriatric patients seen within the study period who met the selection ...

  10. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0.

  11. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Immunization and appropriate health-seeking behavior are effective strategies to reduce child ..... be cured in the hospital which the TBA can cure like 'iru inu'. ... with a rural nurse) Rural Indian mothers were also.

  12. Evidence from epidemic appraisals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoteyin O. Ezirim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although HIV prevalence has increased in most-at-risk populations (MARPs across Nigeria, effective programming was difficult because Nigeria lacked information for prevention programmes to target interventions that maximise coverage and cost effectiveness. Epidemic appraisals (EA were conducted in eight states to provide evidence for the planning, implementation and co-ordination of prevention interventions. Component 1: Mapping determined the size, typology and locations of MARPs. Component 2: Venue profiling identified and profiled venues where general populations engaged in high-risk behaviours. Component 3: Rural appraisals provided insights into risk behaviours and sexual networking in villages. States used mapping results to prioritise areas with a MARP coverage of 70% – 80% and then scale up interventions for non-brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs instead of focusing on brothel-based FSWs. The eight states prioritisedf unding for the high-coverage areas to ensure a minimum coverage level of 70% – 80% of MARPs was reached. The refocused resources led to cost efficiencies. Applying venue profiling results, six states implemented interventions at bars and night clubs – previously not covered. States also maximised intervention coverage for high-risk general populations; this led to the use of resources for general population interventions in a focused way rather than across an entire state. States focused on condom programmes in rural areas. EA results provided the evidence for focusing interventions for high MARP coverage as well as forhigh-risk general populations. The states applied the results and rapidly refocused their interventions, increasing the likelihood of having an impact on HIV transmission in those states. Nigeria is now implementing EAs in the remaining 29 states to effect national-level impact.

  13. Uranium development in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karniliyus, J.; Egieya, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria uranium exploration started in 1973. Uranium was found in seven states of the country; Cross River, Adamawa, Taraba, Plateau, Bauchi, Kogi and Kano. Three government agencies were involved. At the end of the various exploration campaigns in 2001, the uranium reserve was estimated at about 200 t U. The Grade ranges from 0.63% - 0-9% at a vertical depth between 130 – 200 m. Currently, the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission activated in 2006 is charged with the responsibility among others to prospect for and mine radioactive minerals. The main aim of this poster presentation is to review the development of uranium in Nigeria with a view to encourage local and international investors to develop and exploit these deposits. Nigeria is located on latitude 100 N and longitude 80 E surrounded in the north by Niger and Chad, in the east by Cameroun and in the west by the Benin Republic. Available data indicated the viability of mineral investment in the Nigerian uranium resources. With the current economic reforms and investment incentives in Nigeria, interested investors are highly welcome to take advantage of developing these mineral resources. (author)

  14. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  15. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v18i1.10 Private Sponsorship of Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    Private Sponsorship of Rural Development Broadcasts on Radio in Southwest ... The study explored the private sponsorship prospects of rural ... within and beyond the traditional public rural development agencies where sponsorship ... The instrument was administered on the corporate affairs/advertisement managers of.

  16. Ethnic Tourism and the Big Song: Public Pedagogies and the Ambiguity of Environmental Discourse in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinting

    2017-01-01

    The article examines two forms of public pedagogies in a rural region of Southwest China-tourism and ethnic songs-to illustrate their contested roles in transforming local relations with natural and built environment. While tourism development daily alters the village landscape by spatial intervention, demolition, and construction, the…

  17. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  18. Efficacy of Dual Enrollment in Rural Southwest Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Karen Glass

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this dissertation was to determine if enrollment into a career and technical education dual enrollment program encouraged students to continue their education into postsecondary education and if workplace readiness skills were increased. This study completed a factorial analysis of student demographic and factorial data as associated…

  19. What is wrong in Nigeria?; Security Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodland, Arild

    2009-07-01

    Despite massive government efforts at putting an end to crime and militancy targeting its petroleum industry, Nigeria's oil production is still falling. Daily crude output now hovers around the 1.7 million barrels per day mark, perhaps even lower, as MEND - a network of militant groups saying they are fighting for the rights of the Niger Delta's people - has picked up hatchet. Again. The government's declared ambition of pumping 4 million barrels by next year is not only a distant dream, it is a delirious illusion. (Author)

  20. canned beverages in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    5.0 mg/l set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The selenium levels ... eyes, and bones (ATSDR, 1990). Selenium is a metal ... 3.30. Seoul, South Korea. Three Crown Milk. 3.21. Lagos, Nigeria. Luna Milk. 2.95. Jedda ..... and acute effects of copper in drinking water and beverages.Rev. Environ ...

  1. (UBE) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    the effective management of Universal Basic Education in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The hypotheses formulated ... administrators' literacy in financial management has no effect on the effective management of UBE. ... through free basic education schemes was held in Paris (Obanya, 2001,. 2002). Also, in April, 2002 in ...

  2. State financed PV technology projects in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoh, L.; Gyoh, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the progress made by the democratic government of Nigeria to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. It would not be financially viable to extend the national electricity grid to each electoral ward, in remote locations in the country. The use of photovoltaic technology now brings electricity to many rural areas as part of the provision of basic needs by the Nigerian authorities. The Nasarawa State Government has embarked on the provision of all it electoral wards with solar powered water supply systems to carter for a mostly rural population of 3.4 million people. The Benue, Taraba, Bauchi and Jigawa State governments have embarked on similar schemes in Rural Water Supply, Health and the Educational sectors of the economy. Ambitious PV programmes, of this nature, inevitably face challenges in developing countries. The preliminary recommendations, of this ongoing study, have been made to address some of the potential challenges in some of the key areas. This paper reviews the implementation progress and suggests some of the lessons that might be learnt. (authors)

  3. Teachers' Teaching Experience and Students' Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…

  4. Socio-economic activities of fisher folk in Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic activities and potentials of rural fisher folk in Niger Delta, Nigeria. One thousand and two hundred (1,200) structured questionnaires were administered to fisher folks in one hundred (100) fishing communities, and only one thousand (1000) were retrieved. The questionnaires dealt ...

  5. Occurrence and Characterization of Salmonella Hiduddify from Chickens and Poultry Meat in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Ameh, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella serovars and the antimicrobial susceptibility in chickens and poultry meat products in rural areas in Nigeria. The study was an observational cross-sectional investigation in which the target population included exotic...

  6. Marketing of plantain in Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the marketing of plantain in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to determine the rural- urban price ratio (farmers share) of plantain marketing in the study area. Data were collected from 60 traders from four markets in Owerri area namely: Eke Ukwu Owerri, ...

  7. Tradition and Art Appreciation: A Boost to Cultural Tourism in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper recommends that there is need for individual citizens to develop profound interest in Nigeria s cultural heritage for development of tourism industry via cultural assets, so as to generate substantial foreign exchange earnings, accelerate rural urban development, generate employment and promote local cultural ...

  8. Demand for Health Care Services and Child Health Status in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has experienced significant increase in economic growth in the last decade yet the health indicators are very poor particularly in the rural sector where ... In addition, improving education among women will enhance the demand for health inputs and improve the health of their children particularly for the poor and ...

  9. The Network for Astronomy in Education in Southwest New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, B.

    1998-12-01

    The Network for Astronomy in Education was organized to use astronomy as a motivational tool to teach science methods and principles in the public schools. NFO is a small private research observatory, associated with the local University, Western New Mexico. We started our program in 1996 with an IDEA grant by introducing local teachers to the Internet, funding a portable planetarium (Starlab) for the students, and upgrading our local radio linked computer network. Grant County is a rural mining and ranching county in Southwest New Mexico. It is ethnically diverse and has a large portion of the population below the poverty line. It's dryness and 6000' foot elevation, along with dark skies, suite it to the appreciation of astronomy. We now have 8 local schools involved in astronomy at some level. Our main programs are the Starlab and Project Astro, and we will soon install a Sidewalk Solar System in the center of Silver City.

  10. ¡Salud! Southwest Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mae Mae Souers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During this summer of 2009, 12 American medical students from the Escuela Latinoamericana de Medicina (ELAM – Latin American School of Medicine in Havana, Cuba will board a Recreational Vehicle (RV to travel across the Southwest region of the United States visiting a number of tribal settlements of American Indian Nations, community colleges and universities. While at the various sites the students will share their personal experiences of what it’s like to study at ELAM while promoting the availability of full scholarships for students, volunteer their services while learning about some of the more significant health concerns affecting American Indian populations and to build personal and professional relationships with health care practitioners and members of Native American communities.

  11. Self-help initiatives and rural development in Ibesikpo community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of self-help initiatives on rural development in Ibesikpo community of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Self help initiatives were defined in terms of provision of employment, education and health-care. A sample size of 369 rural dwellers was drawn and data were analyzed using simple regression ...

  12. Evaluation of blood pressure and indices of obesity in a typical rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: With increasing urbanization of lifestyle, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been on the increase in Africans. Studies on cardiovascular risk factors in rural communities in South East Nigeria are scarce. This study focused on hypertension and obesity in adult Nigerians dwelling in a rural setting in Eastern ...

  13. Anterior abdominal wall hernias in a rural practice in Rivers State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abdominal wall hernias constitute the most common of all surgical problems and can be fatal when complicated. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation of anterior abdominal wall hernias in a rural community in Rivers State of Nigeria. Methods: The study was conducted in Bethesda Clinic, a rural clinic in ...

  14. Analysis of Public Private Interplay Frameworks in the Development of Rural Telecommunications Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    was the development of PPI models that can facilitate the facilitation of rural Broadband internet infrastructure in rural areas globally and in the specific potential deployment cases - Ghana and Nigeria. This report is relevant to National policy makers, International Donor Agencies, Telecom Network operators...

  15. Helping women traders. Organizing for change: Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, E

    1995-01-01

    In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors.

  16. Sustainable Energy Development: The Key to a Stable Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalu Uduma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of sustainable energy systems based on solar and biomass technologies to provide solutions to utility challenges in Nigeria and acute water shortage both in rural and urban areas of that country. The paper highlights the paradoxes of oil-rich Nigeria and the stark reality of social infrastructure deprivations in that country. Perennial power outages over many years have translated to the absence of or poorly-developed basic social infrastructures in Nigeria. The consequences of this lack have been an increase in abject poverty in rural and urban communities as well as the erosion of social order and threats to citizen and their property. This paper proposes the adaptation of two emerging technologies for building sustainable energy systems and the development of decentralized and sustainable energy sources as catalyst for much-needed social infrastructure development through the creation of Renewable Energy Business Incubators, creative lending strategies, NGO partnerships and shifting energy-distribution responsibilities. These changes will stimulate grassroots economies in the country, develop large quantities of much needed clean water, maintain acceptable standards of sanitation and improve the health and wellbeing of Nigerian communities. The proposed strategies are specific to the Nigerian context; however, the authors suggest that the same or similar strategies may provide energy and social infrastructure development solutions to other developing countries as well.

  17. An Evaluation of Risk Factors and Preventive Techniques for Decubitus Ulcers in Selected Nigeria Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onigbinde A. Teslim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if in-patients in some selected Nigeria hospitals are at risk of developing pressure sore and to determine the preventive techniques adopted by Health Care Professionals. METHOD: A questionnaire was used for this study and it was divided into two parts. The part A is a structured questionnaire that took care of socio-demographic data and preventive techniques while part B is the Braden Scale which was used to assess the risk of developing pressure ulcer. Three hundred and eighteen (318 In-patients in five Nigeria purposively selected hospitals in southwest Nigeria volunteered to participate in this study. The statistical method that was employed was descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The result of the study showed that In-patients in the selected hospitals are “at risk” of developing pressure ulcers. Also, General Practitioners (50.47% and nursing staff (49.52% mostly prescribed at least one of the preventive techniques while few (31.23% reported that physiotherapists prescribed at least one of the preventive techniques. However, a considerable number of the patients (35.02% were never informed by any of the health staff on preventive measures. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that In-patients in Nigeria hospitals are “at risk” of developing pressure ulcers and that health care providers in Nigeria are not prescribing adequate preventive techniques to prevent pressure ulcers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 415-420

  18. Rural Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  19. Global economic meltdown and its effects on human capital development in Nigeria: Lessons and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Oladele Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global economies around the world have experienced the most traumatic moments in the last one-decade. The crisis has been described by scholars, as perhaps been the worst financial crisis since the great economic depression of the 1930s. This paper lucidly examines the effects of global economic recession on the development of human capital with reference to Nigeria nation. The objectives of the paper among others are (i To establish the level of the impact of global economic recession on development of skills of human capital in Nigeria (ii To examine if there is any significant relationship between global economic recession and the motivation of human capital development in Nigeria among others. The paper uses survey method with two research hypotheses. Questionnaires were administered among academic staff of two Nigerian universities in the southwest part of Nigeria. Findings showed that the global economic recession has great impact on the development of skills of human capital in Nigeria. Findings also revealed that there exists a positive relationship between global economic recession and training and development of human capital in Nigeria. The paper offers useful policy recommendations, which include the need for government and appropriate agencies to put in place policies such as enabling environment that will lead to the growth and development of human capital in Nigeria. Government needs to put forward policies that minimize cost at all levels, maximize efficiency of output, training and retraining of goods hands; and that there is need to encourage better motivation of workers at every sector of the economy amongst others.

  20. in kano state, nigeria 41

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    3Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria ... Government Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, the highest prevalence rate of 64.0% was observed in ... A GIS is a combination of hardware (computers ..... clear vision of the area that requires active and rapid ... Principles of Medicine in Africa 3rd. edition.

  1. Day case surgery in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practice in Nigeria and how it conforms to ideal practice elsewhere. ... has been an established practice of the pediatric surgery unit of a teaching hospital in South Western Nigeria, for at least two .... and safe anesthetic conditions for surgical procedures, with ..... compete for time and ward space with more major elective.

  2. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  3. Timber resource statistics for southwest Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978 timber-resource inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  4. Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Howard [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States); Meyers, Jim [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2018-01-29

    SWEEP worked with Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs to foster greater energy efficiency throughout the Southwest. SWEEP accomplished this through a combination of analysis and support; preparation and distribution of materials on best practice technologies, policies and programs; and technical assistance and information dissemination to states and municipalities in the southwest supporting BTO, AMO, OWIP for advancement of efficiency in products and practices. These efforts were accomplished during the period 2012 through 2017.

  5. Respiratory effects of biomass fuel combustion on rural fish smokers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among them is the peak expiratory flow rate(PEFR) which is preferred by general ... of substitutes such as kerosene and liquid petroleum gas. In Oyorokoto fishing ..... seeking behaviour of rural dwellers in Nigeria: a case study of Ekpoma in ...

  6. Improving Maternal and Child Health in Underserved Rural Areas of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Maternal and child health is a priority for Nigeria, but there are significant challenges and opportunities at state levels that influence efforts to reduce deaths. This project will contribute to government efforts in Delta State to improve delivery and use of maternal and child healthcare services in three marginalized rural ...

  7. Irrigation and Rural Welfare: Implications of Schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the socio-economic health of irrigation farmers in the rural districts of Kazaure Area, Northern Nigeria. It first reviews some general consideration of irrigation environment and schistosomiasis, its major associated health problem.

  8. Anaesthesia for Surgical Outreach in a Rural Nigerian Hospital | Ilori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical outreach to rural areas is aimed at improving access to surgical treatment to a deprived community. The study reports the experience of a team consisting of specialist surgical and anaesthetic manpower during a five day surgical outreach at Ogoja General Hospital, Nigeria in 2010. This was on the ...

  9. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Rural Adults in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, several cancers and numerous other Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs).The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in North Central Nigeria. Methods: A ...

  10. Perception of Sheep and Goat Milk Consumption among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 respondents were purposively selected to study the perception of sheep and goat milk consumption among rural dwellers in South-Western Nigeria. The study showed that most of the respondents (72.5%) are not aware of the consumption of such milk and as such only few (10, 8%) claimed that they have ...

  11. Food security status and coping strategies of rural households with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Food insecurity is a growing public health concern in Nigeria especially where all efforts towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty by 2015 is yet to be realized. This cross sectional study was designed to assess food security status of rural ...

  12. Analysis of food security and poverty status of rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the relationship between poverty and food security among rural faming households in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred and eighty households who were randomly selected from three different Local ...

  13. Determinants of rural bank loan repayment capacity among farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the determinants of the Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) repayment by farmers in Yewa division of Ogun State. Primary data collected through scheduled interview with the help of a structured questionnaire as well as secondary data were used for this purpose.

  14. Appraising the combustion of biogas for sustainable rural energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows the combustion of biogas in rural households' appliances. Biogas has been known since 1800s as an odourless and colourless gas with high combustion rate. Its use is beginning to gain ground in most developing countries like Nigeria due to its availability, ease of generation and environmental ...

  15. Perinatal mortality in a rural community | Ewah | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the peri-natal mortality rate (PMR), still birth rate (SBR) and early neonatal death rate (ENDR) in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo State. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Igueben LGA is a rural governmental unit in mid-western Nigeria. Subjects: All women of ...

  16. Gender Differences and Mathematics Achievement of Rural Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the mathematics achievement of rural male and female students in Cross River State, Nigeria; ...

  17. Tungiasis in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors to tungiasis amongst 1,030 randomly selected individuals in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Hands, feet, elbows and other parts of the body were examined for the presence of clinical signs of ...

  18. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers case of women pastoralist was carried out in Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 100 women. The women are purposively sampled such that their husbands were pastoralists or that they are involved in pastoral farming.

  19. Climate Change Information Needs of Rural Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the information needs of rural farmers on climate change issues in Enugu State, Nigeria. Using the multistage sampling procedure, 152 respondents were selected and data were collected through the use of a structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multiple linear ...

  20. Delivery and utilisation of injectable contraceptives services in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Trained ... Besides selling injectable contraceptives, 14.9% of the PMVs reported administering injectables and 43.9% reported referring clients to a formal health facility for this contraceptive. Slightly over ...

  1. Transportation constraints to rural health accessibility in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transportation constraints to rural health accessibility in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State Nigeria. ... Of the 200 questionnaires administered, 182 questionnaires were received for analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Secondary data was also sourced to serve as ...

  2. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-29

    Dec 29, 2011 ... integration of theory and practice peculiar to our communities in .... (ii) UNICEF Assisted State Water and Sanitation Projects. (1981 to 2010); ... communities to take greater responsibility in the financial outlay for the ... for managing the project; ... public/private institutions in the rural areas of Nigeria. This is in ...

  3. Evaluation of groundwater resource potential in rural part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine groundwater potential in the rural area of Northcentral Nigeria using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES). The VES data was generated from twenty (20) locations in the study area and was later processed and analyzed using IPI2 WIN software. The underlying geo-electric sections ...

  4. Class Conflict and Rural Development: An Ethnographic Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Class Conflict and Rural Development: An Ethnographic Analysis of Traditional Title Dispute in Southern Nigeria. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Based on an empirical investigation, this paper focuses on class struggle in a ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  5. Food preservation and security at household level in rural Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, food insecurity at the household level can partly be attributed to poor preservation of post-harvest surpluses. This study sought to demonstrate a relationship (if any) between preservation of post harvest surpluses and food security at rural household level. Eha-Alumona and Opi-Uno, in Nsukka, Enugu State were ...

  6. Human ecotoparasitoses among some rural dwellers in Edo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on clinical and epidemiological aspects of human ectoparasites among some rural dwellers in Edo State Nigeria were carried out between September 2002 and August 2003. A total of 910 subjects who had complained of having been infested by arthropod parasites were enrolled for this study. The study ...

  7. An Assessment of the Incidence of Poverty Among Rural Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the incidence and spatial distribution of poverty among rural active population in Mangu Local Government of Plateau State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the respondents; the incidence and spatial distribution of poverty ...

  8. Challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in Enugu State Nigeria. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample size of 52 extension workers. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean statistic, chart and factor analysis. Results revealed that training and visit ...

  9. Gender, Location and Rural-Urban Differences in the Goal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to identify critical factors necessary to improve the mandate attainment of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Scheme informed this study on gender, location and rural-urban differences in the goal attainment of NYSC in South West Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 120 outgoing youth corps ...

  10. Rural Women\\'s Preference For Selected Programmes Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the rural women's preference for selected programmes of the National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS) in Imo State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of structured interview from 150 randomly selected women in the study area. Results from the study showed that respondents ...

  11. Willingness to Pay for Rural Telephone Services: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... This study assessed Willingness to Pay (WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications for agricultural technology transfer in Southeast Nigeria. ... The sample was made up of 240 agro-based entrepreneurs and 60 extension staff.

  12. Splenectomy in a rural surgical practice | Alufohai | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We reviewed the clinical presentation and indications for splenectomy in a rural community in Southern Nigeria from January 1988 – December, 2000, a period of 12 years. A total of 17 cases were seen. Twelve (70.6%) were for big spleens due to sickle-cell anaemia , tropical splenomegaly syndrome, malignancy and 5 ...

  13. Effective information provision to rural dwellers in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural dwellers in Nigeria make up the larger proportion of the people whose information needs are not sufficiently met even though they contribute meaningfully to national development. The failure of the Nigerian public libraries to effectively perform its roles as a local gate way to knowledge and the layman's university has ...

  14. Comparative study of household water treatment in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research presents the household treatment of drinking water samples in a rural community in Nigeria by boiling and water guard. The physicochemical parameters of the raw water samples with exception of chloride, BOD and dissolved oxygen were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) ...

  15. Management of appendix mass in a Nigerian rural district | Umunna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional management of an appendix mass is conservative, followed by interval appendicectomy. Interval appendicectomy is now controversial. Aim: To present an experience with the management of appendix mass among a rural people in Nigeria. Methods: Patients presenting with appendix masses ...

  16. Strengthening Rural-Urban Interactions as a Contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    finance through remittances as well as the flow of goods and services between rural and urban ... of the South-West Region of Cameroon as a case study. ..... major areas of interest within the Kumba urban area were the urban market, cash ... This study makes use of two main concepts – the Growth Pole and Growth.

  17. Southwest ballot measures affecting healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Modern Healthcare (1 has published an article summarizing ballot measures affecting healthcare. Those from the Southwest are listed below: States: Arizona: 1. Recreational marijuana. Proposition 205: Legalizes recreational marijuana use for people 21 and older. Opponents of the measure include the Arizona Health and Hospital Association and Insys Therapeutics, a company that makes a cannabis-based pain medication. California : 1. Medi-Cal hospital fee program. Proposition 52: Requires the legislature to get voter approval to use fee revenue for purposes other than generating federal matching funds and funding enhanced Medicaid payments and grants for hospitals. The initiative, which was written by the California Hospital Association and is supported by most state lawmakers, would also make the program permanent, requiring a supermajority in the legislature to end it. 2. Tobacco tax. Proposition 56: Increases the state's cigarette tax by $2 a pack and impose an "equivalent increase on other tobacco products and ...

  18. Nigeria using more condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" full text

  19. Expanding Access to Pro-Poor Energy Services in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleri, Ewah Otu; Ugwu, Okechukwu; Onuvae, Precious

    2012-10-15

    Nigeria experiences a remarkable paradox -- the abundance of energy resources and widespread energy poverty. Only about 40% of the population has access to the country’s grid electricity. About 72% of the population depends on traditional fuelwood for cooking. Despite this, government financing of energy services that benefits majority of Nigeria’s population has been grossly inadequate. Private sector investments and donor support have not fared better. This paper examines the current level of energy poverty in Nigeria. It analyses the level of government, private sector and donor funding for energy services that benefit the poor. It further reviews international best practices in expanding access for pro poor energy services. The paper finds a significant decline in political interest for expanding electricity services to rural areas. Even though ambitious policy reforms have commenced, agreed programmes are not implemented effectively. Not only are investments in rural electrification in decline, there is no history of annual budgeting for cooking energy programmes. The paper recommends a number of action points for expanding access to energy services that benefit the poor. These include the development and launching of a new national rural electrification strategy; establishment of a national cooking energy programme; and the development of clear policy incentives to support private sector investment in energy services for the poor. It calls on the Nigerian Central Bank of Nigeria to set aside 10% of the existing power intervention fund for pro poor energy financing; and the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission to establish a clear framework for the utilization of the Consumer Assistance Fund. Other recommendations include the use of a proportion of the Ecological Fund to finance cooking energy; establishment of a donor’s platform on pro poor energy; and the mobilization of civil society in providing community-level energy services.

  20. Non-timber forest products marketing systems and market players in southwest Virginia: crafts, medicinal and herbal, and specialty wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Greene; A.L. Hammett; S. Kant

    2000-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household income. Marketing system of crafts, medicinal and herbal, and specialty wood products are studied using exploratory and qualitative research methods. Fifty market players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to get the information on elements of...

  1. arinta waterfall, ekiti state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    waterfall still possesses some potential for conservation purposes. Logging ... The supervising ministry on tourism and forestry in Ekiti State, Nigeria in charge of this site should take ..... participate in the conservation education program so as to ...

  2. ETHNICITY AND NIGERIA'S UNDERDEVELOPMENT Cletus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Ogirisi: a new journal of African studies vol 9 2012. 217 prediction of CIA that ... by M. Pakaluk, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1991, p.86. 6 Roosens, E., “Interest .... unfriendly and unstable business environment. Nigeria has a.

  3. Sahel, North-West Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    impact depending on location, adaptation capacity and other socioeconomic factors. The Sudano-Sahel Nigeria is one of the vulnerable regions to climate ..... takes place, whereas, little or no cloud development or precipitation occur to the.

  4. Agricultural Engineering Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboaba, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    Agricultural engineering, an important new branch of engineering in Nigeria, is discussed in relation to available training programs, diploma and certificate courses, and evaluation of training programs. (Author/PG)

  5. Nigeria Journal of Business Administration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigeria Journal of Business Administration has as its principal goal the promotion ... Determinants of financial intermediation returns in Nigerian retail banks ... Impact of accounting on human behaviour: implications for organizations and ...

  6. Nigeria: a federation gone wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its size, large population, oil-based economy and geographical location in West Africa. Nigeria is regarded as an important state in Africa. The country is also one of the longest surviving federal states on the continent and therefore represents an ongoing experiment in federalism in the Third World. Since its independence in 1960, however, Nigeria has been devastated by chronic political instability. This article tries to address the issue why this is the case and to identify ethnic-religious diversity and successive military regimes as the most important sources for the mentioned political unrest. The course and nature of political instability in Nigeria is pul in historical context - a context which also include the secession attempt by Riafra as one of the tragic highlights in the past of Nigeria. In conclusion, the author speculates on ways and options as to how secession attempts can be prevented and a larger amount of national political stability be achieved.

  7. Solar energy implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing sola...

  8. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  9. Geospatial Analysis of Extreme Weather Events in Nigeria (1985–2015 Using Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeoluwa Akande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of data in the information age has provided an opportunity to explore the possibility of characterizing the climate patterns using data mining techniques. Nigeria has a unique tropical climate with two precipitation regimes: low precipitation in the north leading to aridity and desertification and high precipitation in parts of the southwest and southeast leading to large scale flooding. In this research, four indices have been used to characterize the intensity, frequency, and amount of rainfall over Nigeria. A type of Artificial Neural Network called the self-organizing map has been used to reduce the multiplicity of dimensions and produce four unique zones characterizing extreme precipitation conditions in Nigeria. This approach allowed for the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns in extreme precipitation in the last three decades. Precipitation properties in each cluster are discussed. The cluster closest to the Atlantic has high values of precipitation intensity, frequency, and duration, whereas the cluster closest to the Sahara Desert has low values. A significant increasing trend has been observed in the frequency of rainy days at the center of the northern region of Nigeria.

  10. Audit of availability and distribution of paediatric cardiology services and facilities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekure, Ekanem N; Sadoh, Wilson E; Bode-Thomas, Fidelia; Orogade, Adeola A; Animasahun, Adeola B; Ogunkunle, Oluwatoyin O; Babaniyi, Iretiola; Anah, Maxwell U; Otaigbe, Barbara E; Olowu, Adebiyi; Okpokowuruk, Frances; Omokhodion, Samuel I; Maduka, Ogechi C; Onakpoya, Uvie U; Adiele, Daberechi K; Sani, Usman M; Asani, Mustapha; Yilgwan, Christopher S; Daniels, Queennette; Uzodimma, Chinyere C; Duru, Chika O; Abdulkadir, Mohammad B; Afolabi, Joseph K; Okeniyi, John A

    Paediatric cardiac services in Nigeria have been perceived to be inadequate but no formal documentation of availability and distribution of facilities and services has been done. To evaluate and document the currently available paediatric cardiac services in Nigeria. In this questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study, an audit was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2014, of the personnel and infrastructure, with their distributions according to geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Forty-eight centres participated in the study, with 33 paediatric cardiologists and 31 cardiac surgeons. Echocardiography, electrocardiography and pulse oximetry were available in 45 (93.8%) centres while paediatric intensive care units were in 23 (47.9%). Open-heart surgery was performed in six (12.5%) centres. South-West zone had the majority of centres (20; 41.7%). Available paediatric cardiac services in Nigeria are grossly inadequate and poorly distributed. Efforts should be intensified to upgrade existing facilities, establish new and functional centres, and train personnel.

  11. LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES FOR NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gloria C. Njoku

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This paper adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socioemotional intelligence and will therefore discuss leadership for Nigeria from these perspectives.

  12. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  13. Southwest Direct Express Bus Demonstration in Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    In August 1983, the Orange-Seminole-Osceola Transit Authority (OSOTA) initiated six express bus routes in the southwest corridor of Orlando (known collectively as the Southwest Direct) as an UMTA-funded demonstration project. While one objective of t...

  14. 2005 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Manatee District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  15. Socio-economic determinants of cooperative societies’ access to the services of the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank Déterminants socioéconomiques de l’accès des sociétés coopératives aux services de la Banque du Nigéria pour les coopératives agricoles et le développement rural Determinantes socioeconómicos para el acceso de las cooperativas a los servicios del Banco de Cooperativas Agrícolas y Desarrollo Rural de Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus Agbo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the extent to which cooperative societies had access to the special intervention fund administered by the  Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank (NACRDB Ltd. The study was carried out between March and September, 2005, on six randomly selected states, one from each of the six geopolitical zones into which Nigeria has been divided. States sampled included Enugu (South-East. Rivers (South-South, Ondo (South West, Benue (North Central, Bauchi (North East and Kano (North West. Sixty cooperative societies were also randomly selected for the study from each state covered; thirty of them with access and thirty without access to the intervention fund, on the whole 360 cooperative societies were studied. Statistical tools used for data analysis included percentage, means and range. Levene’s test for equality of means was used to determine if the means of the two categories of cooperatives (those with access and those without were statistically different. Likert scale rating was used to determine cooperative societies’ perception of the effects of agency operational guidelines on access. The Levene’s test for equality of means showed that the difference between the means of the two categories of cooperative societies were statistically significant at 5% probability level. Likert scale rating confirmed that the operational guidelines of NACRDB such as minimum credit requirement, type of crop grown, approved loan size, and insurance cover affected access to the intervention fund. It was recommended that promoters of cooperative societies should pay adequate attention to the socioeconomic characteristics of the cooperative societies so promoted and the credit guidelines of the NACRDB Ltd.Cet article évalue l’étendue de l’accès des sociétés coopératives au fonds spécial d’intervention administré par la NACRDB Ltd (Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank. Une étude a

  16. Urban-Rural Temperature Differences in Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent N. Ojeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hourly air temperature differences between City hall (urban and Okoafo (rural in Lagos, Nigeria, were calculated using one year of meteorological observations, from June 2014 to May 2015. The two sites considered for this work were carefully selected to represent their climate zones. The city core, City hall, is within the Local Climate Zone (LCZ 2 (Compact midrise while the rural location, Okoafo, falls within LCZ B (Scattered Trees in the south-western part on the outskirt of the city. This study is one of very few to investigate urban temperature conditions in Lagos, the largest city in Africa and one of the most rapidly urbanizing megacities in the world; findings show that maximum nocturnal UHI magnitudes in Lagos can exceed 7 °C during the dry season, and during the rainy season, wet soils in the rural environment supersede regional wind speed as the dominant control over UHI magnitude.

  17. BOKO HARAM AND JIHAD IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theo

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... aimed at churches, mosques, banks and police stations. ..... exported to the United States, which makes Nigeria the fourth largest oil supplier to .... state structure of Nigeria and the provinces within the federal states.

  18. Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing domestic violence. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines the issue of domestic violence in Nigeria to determine the ...

  19. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS.

  20. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

  1. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugliotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society. [it

  2. Mexican-Americans in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Ernesto; And Others

    With findings as presented in this 1969 book, a 2-year field study conducted by a 3-member team analyzed the economic, cultural, political, and educational conditions of Mexican Americans in the Southwest (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas) with some reference to braceros and the situation in Mexico. An overview of 8 geographic…

  3. Southwest Energy Innovation Forum: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Arizona State University (ASU), and U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) co-convened a conference on Energy Innovation in the Southwest region of the United States that included participation by entrepreneurs, state government officials, representatives of academia,…

  4. Rancher and farmer quality of life in the midst of energy development in southwest Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leslie; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie; Soileau, Suzanna; Schuster, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is usually defined as a person’s general well-being, and may include individual perceptions of a variety of factors such family, work, finances, local community services, community relationships, surrounding environment, and other important aspects of their life, ultimately leading to life satisfaction. Energy development can have an effect on QOL components for rural residents. Southwest Wyoming is a rural area with a history of ranching and farming which continues today. This area has also seen a “boom” of increasing wind, solar, oil and gas energy developments over the past decade. Wyoming Department of Agriculture, as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), sponsored research to examine the effect of energy development on ranchers’ and farmers’ quality of life.

  5. Progresses and challenges of utilizing traditional birth attendants in maternal and child health in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka; Rodriguez, Monica; Opara, Ijeoma; Gardner, Michelle; Assan, Maame Araba; Hammond, Rodney; Plata, Jesus; Pierre, Kimberly; Farag, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in modern healthcare, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) have continued to be heavily utilized in rural communities in Nigeria. Major disparities in maternal health care in Nigeria remain present despite the goal of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal to reduce maternal mortality by 2015. The objective of this study is to review the contribution of TBAs in the birthing process in Nigeria, and to examine barriers and opportunities for utilizing TBAs in improving maternal and child health outcomes in Nigeria. A literature review of two major electronic databases was conducted using the PRISMA framework to identify English language studies conducted between 2006 and 2016. Inclusion criteria included articles that examined the role of traditional birth attendants as a factor influencing maternal health in Nigeria. The value of TBAs has not been fully examined as few studies have aimed to examine its potential role in reducing maternal mortality with proper training. Eight manuscripts that were examined highlighted the role of TBAs in maternal health including outcomes of utilizing trained versus non-trained TBAs. Specific areas of training for TBAs that were identified and recommended in review including: recognizing delivery complications, community support for TBA practices through policy, evaluation of TBA training programs and increasing collaboration between healthcare facilities and TBAs. Policies focused on improving access to health services and importantly, formal health education training to TBAs, are required to improve maternal health outcomes and underserved communities.

  6. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  7. Impacts of Catfish Effluents on Water Quality Parameters of Majidun Stream, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great concern about the level of safety of surface waters, especially in developing countries where there is an exponential increase in water pollution and water-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of catfish pond effluents on water quality of stream water where five catfish farms were located. Water samples were taken on monthly basis, 20 cm of below water surface from the streams that receive effluents from neighboring fishponds. Water quality indicators like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate, nitrite, water temperature, ammonia and Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH were examined in the sampled waters in accordance with the American Public Health Association standards. The average values of water quality indicators examined at effluents and non-effluents discharged sites of the stream indicated that water (24.6 ± 0.2, 24.2 ±0.1, (7.29±0.30, 7.30±0.10, (6.90±0.4, 7.07±0.1 mg/l, (0.40±0.04, 0.27±0.01, (3.77±0.26, 2.34±0.16 mg/l, (3.59±0.11, 2.80±0.02 mg/l and (3.51±0.24, 2.46±0.21 mg/l at (p≥0.05 respectively for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and BODs. They were significant differences (P 0.05 excepts temperature and pH, between values obtained at effluents discharged and non-effluents discharged sites, indicating that improper discharges of catfish pond effluents could resulted into environmental contamination

  8. Evaluations of groundwater contamination by leachates around Olusosun open dumpsite in Lagos metropolis, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboyeji, Olatunji Sunday; Eigbokhan, Stephen Femi

    2016-12-01

    A major cause of groundwater pollution in urban areas is contamination by leachates emanating from municipal solid waste dumpsites. The study evaluated the quality of water of selected boreholes and wells around Olusosun open solid waste dumpsite in Lagos metropolis, using water quality index (WQI) rating and geospatial techniques. Water samples were randomly collected from fifteen boreholes and five wells downslopes of the dumpsite. The samples were analysed for the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals. Factor Analysis was employed to analyse the information content of the water quality indicators to determine their appropriateness for indexing. The spatial distribution of the WQIs determined using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation procedure. Results showed that the waters were generally acidic with 85% of pH values below the range suggested by WHO for drinking water. All samples contained concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in quantities higher than the recommended limit of 2.0 mg/l (average = 4.97 mg/l), while 40% of the samples contained concentration of K above the recommended limit. The concentration of heavy metals was generally low. The major cations (Mg, Na, and K) were highly positively correlated, and were positively correlated with pH, TA, TAL, TH and Cl. Negative correlations were observed between TDS, NO3(-) and PO4(3-); NO3(-) and Ag; and DO with the heavy metals. Eighteen parameters consisting of pH, EC, TDS, TA, TAL, TH, Cl, NO3(-), PO4(3-), Mg, Na, K, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, Ag and Pb were found to be the main indicators of groundwater pollution caused by landfill leachate percolation. Evaluation of the WQIs indicated that 35% of the water samples were unsuitable for consumption, while 15%, 15% and 35% were in the good, very good and excellent categorises, respectively. The degree of suitability of the borehole and well waters was closely related to proximity to the dumpsite. It is imperative that appropriate remediation strategies are adopted to forestall further contamination of the groundwater by leachates in the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive Impairment among the Aging Population in a Community in Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, Akindele O.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Adediran, Babatunde A.; Olakehinde, Olaide O.; Siwoku, Akeem A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vascular risk models can be quite informative in assisting the clinician to make a prediction of an individual's risk of cognitive impairment. Thus, a simple marker is a priority for low-capacity settings. This study examines the association of selected simple to deploy vascular markers with cognitive impairment in an elderly…

  10. Decision-making and motivation to participate in biomedical research in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Pauline E; Kass, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    Motivations and decision-making styles that influence participation in biomedical research vary across study types, cultures, and countries. While there is a small amount of literature on informed consent in non-western cultures, few studies have examined how participants make the decision to join research. This study was designed to identify the factors motivating people to participate in biomedical research in a traditional Nigerian community, assess the degree to which participants involve others in the decision-making process, and examine issues of autonomy in decision-making for research. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 adults (50 men, 50 women) in an urban Nigerian community who had participated in a biomedical research study. Subjects were interviewed using a survey instrument. Two-thirds of the respondents reported participating in the biomedical study to learn more about their illness, while 30% hoped to get some medical care. Over three-quarters (78%) of participants discussed the enrollment decision with someone else and 39% reported obtaining permission from a spouse or family member to participate in the study. Women were more than twice as likely as men to report obtaining permission from someone else before participating. More specifically, half of the female participants reported seeking permission from a spouse before enrolling. The findings suggest that informed consent in this community is understood and practised as a relational activity that involves others in the decision making process. Further studies are needed in non-Western countries concerning autonomy, decision-making, and motivation to participate in research studies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Fluoroquinolone residues in raw meat from open markets in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunbi Bridget Omotoso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Misuse of fluoroquinolones in livestock production may lead to the presence of their residues in tissues of meat animals after slaughter, constituting health hazards to consumers. The present study was designed to screen for residues of three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in raw meat. Microbiological assay, followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used to screen three hundred and twenty samples of beef, chicken, pork and chevon purchased from open markets. Initial screening by microbiological assay revealed that 50%, 55%, 40% and 40% of beef, chicken, pork and chevon, respectively were positive for residues of antibiotics. Further analysis by HPLC with UV detection revealed the presence of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin at varying concentrations in the meat samples. Ofloxacin was the least in frequency and abundance in all meat types. Results obtained in this study have implications for public health and will lead to steps that will further enhance the safety of animal foods in order to protect consumers and the animal production industry

  12. Experience with Sonogram-guided hydrostatic reduction of Intussusception in Children in South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundoyin, Oo; Lawal, Ta; Olulana, DI; Atalabi, Om

    2013-04-01

    Intussusception is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in young children. The diagnosis and treatment of intussusception has evolved over the years with ultrasound being the first choice imaging technique and a major player in the non-operative reduction of intussusception owing to its advantage of reduced morbidity and non-exposure to ionizing radiation when compared to other modalities of treatment. Aim & Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction in the management of intussusception in children and assess the predictors of reducibility. A prospective study of all infants and children who presented with uncomplicated intussusception was conducted between January, 2005 and September, 2013. The diagnosis of intussusception was made clinically and this was confirmed by an abdominal ultrasonography. Ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction of intussusception was performed on the selected patients after they were adequately resuscitated. Failed reduction was abandoned in favour of operative reduction in some patients. Data collected included the age of the patients, duration of symptoms and the outcomes of the procedure and these were analyzed. Eighty-four patients with intussusception were treated over this period, 36(42.9%) patients were found suitable for hydrostatic reduction of intussusception. Twenty-four(66.7%) patients presented within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Twenty-one(58.3%) patients had successful hydrostatic reduction of intussusception while 15(41.7%) patients had failed reduction. The procedure was successful in majority (58%) of the patients under the age of 1 year and one of the three (33%) patients older than one year. Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception was successful in 14 out of 24 patients (58.3%) who presented within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception under ultrasound guidance is an effective and useful conservative method of management in carefully selected children with intussusception. Overall, this modality of treatment is cost effective and could readily be used for patients in resource poor environment. It also monitors the reduction process and visualizes the components of the intussusception including the lead points.

  13. Orosun Festival in Idanre, South-west Nigeria: An historical Survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper concerns itself with the Orosun festival in Idanre. The objective is to examine the people's micro history through a study of the festival. The study deals with the cultural and social history of the people of Idanre. Idanre town is one of the oldest towns in Yorubaland but, little is known about her history. Orosun ...

  14. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    %, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...

  15. Ultrasound evaluation of obstructive uropathy and its hemodynamic responses in southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Apoku

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To determine the renal arterial hemodynamic changes induced by obstructive uropathy using Doppler ultrasonography.Materials and Methods:60 adult subjects with suspected obstructive uropathy and 60 asymptomatic apparently healthy controls with normal renal ultrasound features were evaluated.B-mode sonography of the kidneys and spectral Doppler examination of the renal interlobar arteries of all the participants were performed. The mean resistive indices (mRI of both interlobar arteries were obtained and compared to that of the controls. The mRI of bilaterally obstructed kidneys were also compared with the mRI of unilaterally obstructed kidneys.Results:The mRI of the right and left kidneys of subjects were 0.72±0.04 and 0.69±0.06 while those of the controls were 0.64±0.04 and 0.63±0.03 respectively. The mRI for the grades of caliectasis increased from grade I (0.72±0.03 to grade II (0.73±0.03 and grade III (0.73±0.02 but fell within the most severe levels of obstruction (0.69±0.07. There was no statistically significant relationship between the grades of caliectasis and unilateral or bilateral obstruction for both kidneys. The results show a sensitivity and specificity of 86.7% and 90% respectively when mRI≥0.7 was used to determine presence of obstruction.Conclusion:Renal duplex sonography is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis of obstructive uropathy. Increased resistive index of the obstructed kidney may be a useful diagnostic tool in situations where intravenous urography cannot be done or is contraindicated.

  16. Factors affecting utilization of university health services in a tertiary institution in South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiechina, G O; Ekenedo, G O

    2013-01-01

    Most university health services have extensive health infrastructures, for the provision of effective and efficient health services to the students. In this study, we have tried to determine student's perception of factors affecting their utilization. To determine students' perception of health care services provided in a tertiary institution and assess students' attitude towards utilization. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 540 respondents, comprising of 390 males and 150 females. A structured and self-administered questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data for the study, while data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentage. High cost of drugs (72.0%), non availability of essential drugs (54.8%), time spent waiting for treatment (67.2%), inadequate referral services (81.7%), and satisfaction with services (60.6%) were considered by the respondents as factors affecting the utilization of university health services. Students-medical staff relationship and accessibility to health facility (77.6% and 74.3% respectively) were, however, not considered as factors that affect utilization of university health services. It is recommended that to improve utilization and cost of care, government should make necessary efforts to incorporate tertiary institution into National Health Insurance scheme so that students above the age of 18 years can benefit from free treatment.

  17. Extent of Microbial Contamination of Refined and Unrefined Vegetable oils sold in South-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Flora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oils constitute a major source of plant-based protein. A major limitation to optimal oil consumption in sub-tropical region is fungal infestation and consequent mycotoxin contamination. Ten refined and eight unrefined vegetable oils were randomly purchase from open markets and screened for microbial contamination using standard microbial procedures. Twenty six fungi isolates were obtained from the vegetable oil samples, the isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus (43.0%, Mucor (17.9%, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7%, Aspergillus niger (7.1%, Aspergillus flavus (7.1%, Penicillium spp (7.1%, Aspergillus oryzae (3.6%, Mucor (17.9% and Rhizopus spp (3.6%. Five out of the ten refined vegetable oil samples had no fungal contamination. A. flavus and A. oryzae were absent in all the refined oil samples while A. niger was absent in all the unrefined oil samples. Isolation of mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus spp. is of vital importance in the food industry. Education and training of processors and consumers is recommended.

  18. Evaluating Nigeria Cashless Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kket Eko Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Central Bank of Nigeria introduced cashless policy initiative to accomplish two main macro-socio-economic policy objectives of increased convenience and greater financial inclusion in Nigeria. This study evaluates Nigeria cashless policy implementation using a four point Likert scale questionnaire administered to six hundred respondents. The results of the study show that the twin policy objectives investigated were partially achieved. Also the study reveals that social infrastructures in power and telecommunications need improvement and expansion and the need to create more awareness to encourage the unbanked to embrace banking culture. This study recommends vigorous investments on cyber security, strengthening of internet protocol and controls in the banks and enactment of relevant legislative laws to curb cybercrimes.

  19. Exploring caregiver burden experienced by family caregivers of patients with End-Stage Renal Disease in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemisi Okikiade Oyegbile

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregivers in many African countries bear the burden of caregiving alone, with the paucity of research, especially for caregivers of End-Stage Renal Disease patients, having concealed their needs. Aim: To explore the caregiver burden of family caregivers of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD patients in South-West Nigeria. Design: Following a complementary mixed method data collection strategy, the quantitative data was collected using the Zarit Burden Interview questionnaire to measure the burden of caregiving. Qualitative data was thereafter obtained through in-depth, individual interviews and was analysed using content analysis. Settings: The three research settings consisted of two state hospitals and one private hospital that provide renal care in South-West Nigeria. Result: The mean burden of caregiving for the sample was 50.18 thus indicating that family caregivers experienced moderate to severe burden, which is high compared to the other studies. The participants’ experiences of caregiving revealed the following categories: total dependence, acceptance of caregiving role, competing responsibilities, financial sacrifice and “not making mistakes”. Conclusion: Understanding the extent of caregiver burden, what constitutes burden to family caregivers in low/middle-income countries, and the difficulties associated with caregiving for care-recipients with ESRD, allows appropriate strategies and interventions to be developed. Keywords: End Stage Renal Disease, Family caregivers, Caregiver burden, Complementary mixed methods, Nigeria

  20. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners